WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong alkaline microcavities

  1. Density matrix of strongly coupled quantum dot - microcavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hop

    2009-01-01

    Any two-level quantum system can be used as a quantum bit (qubit) - the basic element of all devices and systems for quantum information and quantum computation. Recently it was proposed to study the strongly coupled system consisting of a two-level quantum dot and a monoenergetic photon gas in a microcavity-the strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity (QD-MC) system for short, with the Jaynes-Cumming total Hamiltonian, for the application in the quantum information processing. Different approximations were applied in the theoretical study of this system. In this work, on the basis of the exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for this system without dissipation we derive the exact formulae for its density matrix. The realization of a qubit in this system is discussed. The solution of the system of rate equation for the strongly coupled QD-MC system in the presence of the interaction with the environment was also established in the first order approximation with respect to this interaction.

  2. Strong Exciton-photon Coupling in Semiconductor Microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Borri, Paola; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    The basic building block of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and high efficiency diodes, is a quantum well embedded in a semiconductor microcavity. The high finesse that may be achieved in such a cavity is utilised to get a low threshold current in the VCSELs and a high directiona......The basic building block of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and high efficiency diodes, is a quantum well embedded in a semiconductor microcavity. The high finesse that may be achieved in such a cavity is utilised to get a low threshold current in the VCSELs and a high......-optical switches based on semiconductor microcavities....

  3. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  4. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yanagi, Hisao; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2016-08-01

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ˜100 meV even in the "half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing" microcavity structure.

  5. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yanagi, Hisao; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  6. Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, J.-G., E-mail: j-g.rousset@fuw.edu.pl; Piętka, B.; Król, M.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Szczytko, J.; Borysiuk, J.; Suffczyński, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Smoleński, T.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-16

    We report on properties of an optical microcavity based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te layers and embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells. The key point of the structure design is the lattice matching of the whole structure to MgTe, which eliminates the internal strain and allows one to embed an arbitrary number of unstrained quantum wells in the microcavity. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime already for the structure containing a single quantum well. Embedding four unstrained quantum wells results in further enhancement of the exciton-photon coupling and the polariton lasing in the strong coupling regime.

  7. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan; Heo, Junseok; Bayraktaroglu, Adrian; Guo, Wei; Ng, Tien Khee; Phillips, Jamie; Ooi, Boon S.; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2012-01-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non

  8. Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity

    KAUST Repository

    Das, Ayan

    2012-05-01

    Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non-linearity in the polariton emission characteristics is observed at room temperature with a low threshold of 1.63 ?J/cm2, which corresponds to a polariton density an order of magnitude smaller than that for the Mott transition. The momentum distribution of the lower polaritons shows evidence of dynamic condensation and the absence of a relaxation bottleneck. The polariton relaxation dynamics were investigated by timeresolved measurements, which showed a progressive decrease in the polariton relaxation time with increase in polariton density. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  9. Near-infrared exciton-polaritons in strongly coupled single-walled carbon nanotube microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Arko; Tropf, Laura; Zakharko, Yuriy; Zaumseil, Jana; Gather, Malte C.

    2016-10-01

    Exciton-polaritons form upon strong coupling between electronic excitations of a material and photonic states of a surrounding microcavity. In organic semiconductors the special nature of excited states leads to particularly strong coupling and facilitates condensation of exciton-polaritons at room temperature, which may lead to electrically pumped organic polariton lasers. However, charge carrier mobility and photo-stability in currently used materials is limited and exciton-polariton emission so far has been restricted to visible wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in the near infrared using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in a polymer matrix and a planar metal-clad cavity. By exploiting the exceptional oscillator strength and sharp excitonic transition of (6,5) SWCNTs, we achieve large Rabi splitting (>110 meV), efficient polariton relaxation and narrow band emission (<15 meV). Given their high charge carrier mobility and excellent photostability, SWCNTs represent a promising new avenue towards practical exciton-polariton devices operating at telecommunication wavelengths.

  10. Polarization-dependent solitons in the strong coupling regime of semiconductor microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.; Zhang, W.L.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of polarization on formation of vectorial polariton soliton in semiconductor microcavities through numerical simulations. It is found that the polariton solution greatly depends on the polarization of both the pump and exciting fields. By properly choosing the pump and exciting field polarization, bright–bright or bright–dark vectorial polariton solitons can be formed. Especially, when the input conditions of pump or exciting field of the two opposite polarizations are slightly asymmetric, an interesting phenomenon that the dark solitons transform into bright solitons occurs in the branch of soliton solutions.

  11. Coherent response of a semiconductor microcavity in the strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassabois, G.; Triques, A. L. C.; Ferreira, R.; Delalande, C.; Roussignol, Ph; Bogani, F.

    2000-05-01

    We have studied the coherent dynamics of a semiconductor microcavity by means of interferometric correlation measurements with subpicosecond time resolution in a backscattering geometry. Evidence is brought of the resolution of a homogeneous polariton line in an inhomogeneously broadened exciton system. Surprisingly, photon-like polaritons exhibit an inhomogeneous dephasing. Moreover, we observe an unexpected stationary coherence up to 8 ps for the lower polariton branch close to resonance. All these experimental results are well reproduced within the framework of a linear dispersion theory assuming a coherent superposition of the reflectivity and resonant Rayleigh scattering signals with a well-defined relative phase.

  12. Realization and optical characterisation of micro-cavities in strong coupling regime using self-assembled multi-quantum wells structure of 2D perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanty, Gaetan

    2011-01-01

    The research work which is reported in this manuscript focuses on 2D perovskites and their use to obtain micro-cavities working in the strong coupling regime. Perovskite structure forms a multi-quantum wells in which the excitonic states have a high oscillator strength and a large binding energy (a few 100 MeV) due to quantum and dielectric confinement effects. A first axis of this work was to collect information on the excitonic properties of these materials. On a particular perovskite (PEPI), we performed photoluminescence and pump-probe measurements, which seem to suggest the existence, under high excitation density, a process of Auger recombination of excitons. A second research axis was to put in cavity thin layers of some perovskites. With PEPI and PEPC perovskites, we have shown that the realization of micro-cavities with a quality factor of the order of ten is sufficient to obtain at room temperature, the strong coupling regime in absorption and emission with Rabi splitting up to 220 MeV. A bottleneck effect has been clearly demonstrated for the PEPI microcavity. We have also shown that perovskites could be associated with inorganic semiconductors in 'hybrid' micro-cavities. According Agranovich et al., these micro-cavities could present polariton lasing with lower quality factors. To this end, the ZnO/MFMPB association seems particularly promising. (author)

  13. A study of the cavity polariton under strong excitation:dynamics and nonlinearities in II-VI micro-cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Markus

    2000-01-01

    This work contains an experimental study of the photoluminescence dynamics of cavity polaritons in strong coupling micro-cavities based on II-VI semiconductor compounds. The small exciton size and the strong exciton binding energy in these materials allowed us to study the strong coupling regime between photon and exciton up to high excitation densities, exploring the linear and non-linear emission regimes. Our main experimental techniques are picosecond time-resolved and angular photoluminescence spectroscopy. In the linear regime and for a negative photon-exciton detuning, we observe a suppression of the polariton relaxation by the emission of acoustic phonons leading to a non-equilibrium polariton distribution on the lower branch. This 'bottleneck' effect, which has already been described for polaritons in bulk semiconductors, results from the pronounced photon like character of the polaritons near k(parallel) = 0 in this configuration. At high excitation densities, non-linear relaxation processes, namely final state stimulation of the relaxation and polariton-polariton scattering, bypass this bottleneck giving rise to a very rapid relaxation down to the bottom of the band. We show that this dramatic change in the relaxation dynamics is finally responsible of the super-linear increase of the polariton emission from these states. (author) [fr

  14. All silicon waveguide spherical microcavity coupler device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xifré-Pérez, E; Domenech, J D; Fenollosa, R; Muñoz, P; Capmany, J; Meseguer, F

    2011-02-14

    A coupler based on silicon spherical microcavities coupled to silicon waveguides for telecom wavelengths is presented. The light scattered by the microcavity is detected and analyzed as a function of the wavelength. The transmittance signal through the waveguide is strongly attenuated (up to 25 dB) at wavelengths corresponding to the Mie resonances of the microcavity. The coupling between the microcavity and the waveguide is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically modeled with the help of FDTD calculations.

  15. Characterization of Strong Light-Matter Coupling in Semiconductor Quantum-Dot Microcavities via Photon-Statistics Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, L.; Kira, M.; Koch, S. W.

    2008-08-01

    It is shown that spectrally resolved photon-statistics measurements of the resonance fluorescence from realistic semiconductor quantum-dot systems allow for high contrast identification of the two-photon strong-coupling states. Using a microscopic theory, the second-rung resonance of Jaynes-Cummings ladder is analyzed and optimum excitation conditions are determined. The computed photon-statistics spectrum displays gigantic, experimentally robust resonances at the energetic positions of the second-rung emission.

  16. Micelle formation during extraction of alkali elements from strongly alkaline mediums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apanasenko, V.V.; Reznik, A.M.; Bukin, V.I.; Brodskaya, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction of potassium, rubidium and cesium by phenol reagents in hydrocarbon solvents from strongly alkakine solutions was considered. Tendency of prepared alkali metal phenolates to form micelles in aqueous and organic phases was revealed. Phenolates tendency to form micelles is dictated mainly by the size and position of hydrocarbon substituent in molecule. It is shown that when micelles form in organic phase, alkali elements can be extracted both according to cation-exchange mechanism and according to micellar one. It is noted that alkai element extraction from strongly alkaline media requires the correct choice of extractant: alkali metal phenolate shouldn't form micelles in aqueous solution. n-Alkyl- and arylphenoldisulfides and polysulfides are most preferable for solvent extraction among considered phenol derivatives

  17. Single Nanoparticle Detection Using Optical Microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yanyan; Yu, Xiao-Chong; Gong, Qihuang; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Detection of nanoscale objects is highly desirable in various fields such as early-stage disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring and homeland security. Optical microcavity sensors are renowned for ultrahigh sensitivities due to strongly enhanced light-matter interaction. This review focuses on single nanoparticle detection using optical whispering gallery microcavities and photonic crystal microcavities, both of which have been developing rapidly over the past few years. The reactive and dissipative sensing methods, characterized by light-analyte interactions, are explained explicitly. The sensitivity and the detection limit are essentially determined by the cavity properties, and are limited by the various noise sources in the measurements. On the one hand, recent advances include significant sensitivity enhancement using techniques to construct novel microcavity structures with reduced mode volumes, to localize the mode field, or to introduce optical gain. On the other hand, researchers attempt to lower the detection limit by improving the spectral resolution, which can be implemented by suppressing the experimental noises. We also review the methods of achieving a better temporal resolution by employing mode locking techniques or cavity ring up spectroscopy. In conclusion, outlooks on the possible ways to implement microcavity-based sensing devices and potential applications are provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Stimulated secondary emission from semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Mizeikis, V.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2001-01-01

    We find strong influence of final-state stimulation on the time-resolved light emission dynamics from semiconductor microcavities after pulsed excitation allowing angle-resonant polariton-polariton scattering on the lower-polariton branch. The polariton dynamics can be controlled by injection...

  19. Quantum Logic Using Excitonic Quantum Dots in External Optical Microcavities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raymer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to develop means to achieve quantum optical strong coupling between a single GaAs quantum dot and the optical mode of a microcavity for the purpose of quantum...

  20. Biexcitons in semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, P.; Langbein, W.; Woggon, U.

    2003-01-01

    in the microcavity, even if the vacuum Rabi splitting exceeds the biexciton binding energy. However, the presence of a longitudinal built-in electric field that results in a Stark effect slightly reducing the binding energy compared to the value measured on a reference bare quantum well is experimentally pointed out...

  1. Polariton-acoustic-phonon interaction in a semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassabois, G.; Triques, A. L. C.; Bogani, F.; Delalande, C.; Roussignol, Ph.; Piermarocchi, C.

    2000-01-01

    The broadening of polariton lines by acoustic phonons is investigated in a semiconductor microcavity by means of interferometric correlation measurements with subpicosecond resolution. A decrease of the polariton-acoustic phonon coupling is clearly observed for the lower polariton branch as one approaches the resonance between exciton and photon states. This behavior cannot be explained in terms of a semiclassical linear dispersion theory but requires a full quantum description of the microcavity in the strong-coupling regime.

  2. Strong alkalinization in the anterior midgut of larval yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti): involvement of luminal Na+/K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Horst; Patel, Malay; Javoroncov, Margarita; Izeirovski, Sejmir; Moffett, Stacia B; Moffett, David F

    2009-03-01

    Recently, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been detected in the luminal membrane of the anterior midgut of larval yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) with immunohistochemical techniques. In this study, the possible involvement of this ATPase in strong alkalinization was investigated on the level of whole larvae, isolated and perfused midgut preparations and on the molecular level of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein. Ouabain (5 mM) did not inhibit the capability of intact larval mosquitoes to alkalinize their anterior midgut. Also in isolated and perfused midgut preparations the perfusion of the lumen with ouabain (5 mM) did not result in a significant change of the transepithelial voltage or the capacity of luminal alkalinization. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was completely abolished when KCl was substituted with choline chloride, suggesting that the enzyme cannot act as an ATP-driven Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger. Altogether the results of the present investigation indicate that apical Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is not of direct importance for strong luminal alkalinization in the anterior midgut of larval yellow fever mosquitoes.

  3. Optical Microcavity: Sensing down to Single Molecules and Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Su

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses fundamentals of dielectric, low-loss, optical micro-resonator sensing, including figures of merit and a variety of microcavity designs, and future perspectives in microcavity-based optical sensing. Resonance frequency and quality (Q factor are altered as a means of detecting a small system perturbation, resulting in realization of optical sensing of a small amount of sample materials, down to even single molecules. Sensitivity, Q factor, minimum detectable index change, noises (in sensor system components and microcavity system including environments, microcavity size, and mode volume are essential parameters to be considered for optical sensing applications. Whispering gallery mode, photonic crystal, and slot-type microcavities typically provide compact, high-quality optical resonance modes for optical sensing applications. Surface Bloch modes induced on photonic crystals are shown to be a promising candidate thanks to large field overlap with a sample and ultra-high-Q resonances. Quantum optics effects based on microcavity quantum electrodynamics (QED would provide novel single-photo-level detection of even single atoms and molecules via detection of doublet vacuum Rabi splitting peaks in strong coupling.

  4. Optical trapping of metal-dielectric nanoparticle clusters near photonic crystal microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Camilo A; Huang, Ningfeng; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-09-01

    We predict the formation of optically trapped, metal-dielectric nanoparticle clusters above photonic crystal microcavities. We determine the conditions on particle size and position for a gold particle to be trapped above the microcavity. We then show that strong field redistribution and enhancement near the trapped gold nanoparticle results in secondary trapping sites for a pair of dielectric nanoparticles.

  5. Growth of self-assembled (Ga)InAs/GaAs quantum dots and realization of high quality microcavities for experiments in the field of strong exciton photon coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    At the beginning, we improved the three dimensional optical confinement of the micropillars. The quality factor of the pillars could be increased by the use of higher reflectivity mirrors and a matched V/III ratio for the different epitaxial layers. Hence, a record quality factor of about 90000 was achieved for an active micropillar with 26 (30) mirror pairs in the top (bottom) DBR and a diameter of 4 μm. In parallel to this, we made studies on the growth of self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Here, the nucleation of three dimensional islands as well as their optical properties were object of the investigation. The morphological properties of the dots were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and the optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements. The optical and particularly the morphological properties of the self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots were essentially improved. Due to a low strain nucleation layer with an indium content of 30 %, the dot density could be reduced to 6-9 x 10 9 cm -2 and their geometric dimensions were increased to typical lengths between 50 and 100 nm and widths of about 30 nm. The lattice mismatch between the quantum dots and the surrounding matrix is decreased due to the reduced indium content. The minimized strain during the dot growth leads to an enhanced migration length of the deposited atoms on the surface. Finally, the obtained findings of the MBE growth of microcavities, their fabrication and the self-assembled island growth of GaInAs on GaAs were used for the realization of further samples. Low strain GaInAs quantum dots were embedded into the microresonators. These structures allowed for the first time the observation of strong coupling between light and matter in a semiconductor. In case of the low strain quantum dots with enlarged dimensions in the strong coupling regime, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of about 140 μeV between the cavity mode and

  6. Wavelength tuning of porous silicon microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, J.; Reece, P.; Zheng, W.H.; Lerondel, G.; Sun, B.; Gal, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade much attention has been given to porous silicon (PS) for optoelectronic applications, which include efficient room temperature light emission as well as microcavity formation. Due to the large specific surface area, the use of porous silicon microcavities (PSMs) has been proposed for chemical sensing. Large wavelength shifts have indicated that the optical properties of PSMs are indeed strongly dependent on the environment. In this paper, we report the shifting of the resonance frequency of high quality PSMs, with the aim of tuning a future PS device to a certain required wavelength. The PSM samples were prepared by anodically etching p + -doped (5mΩcm) bulk silicon wafer in a solution (25%) of aqueous HF and ethanol. The device structure consisted of a PS layer sandwiched between 2 stacks of thin PS layers with alternating high and low effective refractive indices (RI), i.e. distributed Bragg mirrors (DBM). The layer thickness depends on the etch time while the porosity and hence refractive index is determined by the current density as the Si is etched. The position and the width of the stop-band can be fully controlled by the design of the DBMs, with the microcavity resonance mode sitting within the stop-band. We achieved tuning of the microcavity resonance by a number of methods, including temperature dependent tuning. The temperature induced wavelength shift was found to be of the order of 10 -15 nm. Computer modeling of these changes in the reflectivity spectra allowed us to quantify the changes of the effective refractive index and the respective layer thicknesses

  7. Cavity QED with a single QD inside an optical microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, E.; Bloch, J.; Lemaitre, A.; Hours, J.; Patriarche, G.; Cavanna, A.; Laurent, S.; Robert-Philip, I.; Senellart, P.; Martrou, D.; Gerard, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    To demonstrate strong coupling regime for a single quantum dot inside an optical microcavity, large oscillator strength quantum dots are needed. We show that quantum dots formed by the interface fluctuations of a thin GaAs quantum well are ideal systems for this purpose since they can present an oscillator strength larger than 100. By inserting a GaAs QD inside a state of the art microdisk microcavity, we demonstrate the strong coupling regime with a Rabi splitting of 400 μeV. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rifat, Ahmmed A. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2}) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170–180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  9. Separating nano graphene oxide from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method with alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing, E-mail: xuebinghu2010@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: By adding an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution, the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide undergoes fast aggregation from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method and forms the stable floccules when the pH value of the filtrate is about 1.7. The acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers plays a role in the aggregation of the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide. - Highlights: • The novel and high-efficient method for separating graphene oxide was showed. • Graphene oxide undergoes aggregation and forms the floccules when pH value is ∼1.7. • The acid–base interaction plays a role in the aggregation of graphene oxide. - Abstract: In the modified Hummers method for preparing graphene oxide, the yellow slurry can be obtained. After filtering through a quantitative filter paper, the strong-acid filtrate containing the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide was gained. The corresponding filtrate was added gradually with an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution at room temperature. The unprecipitated nano graphene oxide could undergo fast aggregation when the pH value of the filtrate was about 1.7 and formed the stable floccules. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the dominant peak of the floccules is about 11°, which accords to the peak of graphene oxide. Spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the presence in the floccules of an abundance of oxygen functional groups and the purified graphene oxide floccules can be obtained. Atomic force microscopy measurement shows the graphene oxide floccules consists of sheet-like objects, mostly containing only a few layers (about 5 layers). Zeta potential analysis demonstrates the surface charge of the graphene oxide is pH-sensitive and its isoelectric point is ∼1.7. The flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide ascribes to the acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers.

  10. Effect of Strongly Alkaline Electrolyzed Water on Silk Degumming and the Physical Properties of the Fibroin Fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Cao

    Full Text Available Strongly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAEW was prepared by electrolysis of tap water in a laboratory-made water electrolyzer. The pH of stored SAEW was stable for more than one month. The hardness of the electrolyzed water was 30% lower and the Na(+ concentration was 18% higher than those of the tap water. Silkworm cocoon shells were boiled in pH 11.50 SAEW at a ratio of 1∶40∼80 (W/V for 20 min and the sericin layers around the silk fibroin fibers were removed completely. The tensile properties and thermal decomposition temperature of a single filament of silk fibroin obtained by the SAEW method were almost the same as those for the fiber obtained by the neutral soap, and much higher than those for the fiber obtained by Na2CO3 degumming. The results demonstrate that SAEW is an environmentally friendly and pollution-free silk degumming agent that allows highly efficient, low cost recovery of sericin.

  11. Interference effect in the resonant emission of a semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassabois, G.; Bogani, F.; Triques, A. L.; Delalande, C.; Roussignol, Ph.

    2001-07-01

    We present a phenomenological description of the coherent emission from a semiconductor microcavity in the strong-coupling regime. We consider two main contributions which are calculated in the framework of the semiclassical approach of the linear dispersion theory: reflectivity corresponds to the response of a uniform microcavity while resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) arises from disorder. Our simulations are compared to experimental results obtained at normal incidence in a backscattering geometry by means of cw spectroscopy and interferometric correlation with subpicosecond resolution. In this geometry, a fair agreement is reached assuming interferences between the two aforementioned contributions. This interference effect gives evidence of the drastic modification of the RRS emission pattern of the embedded quantum well induced by the Fabry-Pérot cavity.

  12. Multimode laser emission from free-standing cylindrical microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Jaison, E-mail: jaisonpeter@cusat.ac.in; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Kailasnath, M.

    2014-05-01

    We report a well resolved whispering gallery mode (WGM) laser emission from a free-standing microring cavity based on a dye doped hollow polymer optical fiber (DDHPOF), which is transversely pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The microring laser is characterized by a well-defined, low threshold pump power at which the emission spectral intensity dramatically increases and collapses into several dominant microcavity laser modes with reduced mode spacing and high Q-value. Resonant modes are excited inside the gain medium which is strongly confined along the radial direction so that the spacing of lasing modes is controlled by the diameter of the cylindrical microcavity. A variation in the free spectral range of WGM spectra from 0.23 to 0.09 nm coupled with a red-shift is observed with an increase in the diameter of DDHPOFs. - Highlights: • Different diameter free-standing cylindrical microcavity lasers have been fabricated and their performances have been evaluated. • The microring laser is characterized by a well-defined, low threshold pump power, with reduced mode spacing and high Q-value. • When the diameter of DDHPOF increases, the number of lasing peaks increases along with the decrease of the FSR as observed from our studies. • It is also found that whispering gallery lasing envelope is shifted from 559 to 571 nm (Stokes shift) with the diameter.

  13. Detection and light enhancement of glucose oxidase adsorbed on porous silicon microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestino, Gabriela [GES-UMR 5650, CNRS-Universite Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Martin, Marta; Legros, Rene; Cloitre, Thierry; Gergely, Csilla [GES-UMR 5650, CNRS-Universite Montpellier II, Montpellier (France); Agarwal, Vivechana [CIICAP, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Zimanyi, Laszlo [EA4203, Faculte d' Odontologie, Universite Montpellier I, Montpellier (France); Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    Porous silicon (PSi) structure is used as support material to detect protein infiltration and to induce fluorescence and second harmonic light enhancement from glucose oxidase (GOX). Functionalization and protein infiltration is monitored by specular reflectometry. Optical response enhancement of PSi microcavity structures compared to PSi single layers or Bragg mirrors is observed, when GOX is impregnated. Penetration of organic molecules along the PSi microcavity structure is demonstrated by energy dispersive X-ray profile. Enhanced fluorescence emission of GOX when adsorbed on PSi microcavity is evidenced by multi-photon microscopy (MPM). Second harmonic light generation is observed at some particular pores of PSi and subsequent resonance enhancement of the signal arising from the GOX adsorbed within the pores is detected. Our work evidences an improved device functionality of GOX-PSi microcavities due to strongly confined and localized light emission within these structures. This opens the way towards the application of PSi microcavity structures as amended biosensors based on their locally enhanced optical response. The second main achievement lies in the novelty of the used techniques. In contrast to the specular reflectometry used to monitor the macroscopic optical response of PSi structures, MPM presents a valuable alternative microscopic technique probing individual pores. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assmann, M.; Veit, F.; Bayer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum mechanically indistinguishable particles such as photons may show collective behavior. Therefore, an appropriate description of a light field must consider the properties of an assembly of photons instead of independent particles. We have studied multiphoton correlations up to fourth order...... in the single-mode emission of a semiconductor microcavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. The counting statistics of single photons were recorded with picosecond time resolution, allowing quantitative measurement of the few-photon bunching inside light pulses. Our results show bunching behavior...

  15. Finite-momentum condensation in a pumped microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brierley, R. T.; Eastham, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the absorption spectra of a semiconductor microcavity into which a nonequilibrium exciton population has been pumped. We predict strong peaks in the spectrum corresponding to collective modes analogous to the Cooper modes in superconductors and fermionic atomic gases. These modes can become unstable, leading to the formation of off-equilibrium quantum condensates. We calculate a phase diagram for condensation and show that the dominant instabilities can be at a finite momentum. Thus we predict the formation of inhomogeneous condensates, similar to Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states.

  16. Ultra-fast polariton dynamics in an organic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polli D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We study an organic semiconductor microcavity operating in the strong-coupling regime using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. By probing the photo-induced absorption bands, we characterize the time-dependent population densities of states in the two polariton branches. We found evidence of a scattering process from the upper-branch cavity polaritons to the exciton reservoir having a rate of (150 fs-1. A slower process similarly populates lower-branch polaritons with a rate of around (3ps-1

  17. Dynamics in terahertz semiconductor microcavity: quantum noise spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, H.; Eleuch, H.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the physics of an optical semiconductor microcavity containing a coupled double quantum well interacting with cavity photons. The photon statistics of the transmitted light by the cavity is explored. We show that the nonlinear interactions in the direct and indirect excitonic modes generate an important squeezing despite the weak nonlinearities. When the strong coupling regime is achieved, the noise spectra of the system is dominated by the indirect exciton distribution. At the opposite, in the weak regime, direct excitons contribute much larger in the noise spectra.

  18. Cavity-polariton interaction mediated by coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, Mauricio; Hey, Rudolf; Santos, Paul

    The strong coupling between excitons in a quantum well (QW) and photons in a semiconductor microcavity leads to the formation of quasi-particles known as cavity-polaritons. In this contribution, we investigate their interaction with coherent acoustic phonons in the form of surface acoustic waves...

  19. Growth of self-assembled (Ga)InAs/GaAs quantum dots and realization of high quality microcavities for experiments in the field of strong exciton photon coupling; Selbstorganisiertes Wachstum von (Ga)InAs/GaAs-Quantenpunkten und Entwicklung von Mikroresonatoren hoechster Guete fuer Experimente zur starken Exziton-Photon-Kopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Andreas

    2008-11-05

    At the beginning, we improved the three dimensional optical confinement of the micropillars. The quality factor of the pillars could be increased by the use of higher reflectivity mirrors and a matched V/III ratio for the different epitaxial layers. Hence, a record quality factor of about 90000 was achieved for an active micropillar with 26 (30) mirror pairs in the top (bottom) DBR and a diameter of 4 {mu}m. In parallel to this, we made studies on the growth of self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Here, the nucleation of three dimensional islands as well as their optical properties were object of the investigation. The morphological properties of the dots were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and the optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements. The optical and particularly the morphological properties of the self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots were essentially improved. Due to a low strain nucleation layer with an indium content of 30 %, the dot density could be reduced to 6-9 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} and their geometric dimensions were increased to typical lengths between 50 and 100 nm and widths of about 30 nm. The lattice mismatch between the quantum dots and the surrounding matrix is decreased due to the reduced indium content. The minimized strain during the dot growth leads to an enhanced migration length of the deposited atoms on the surface. Finally, the obtained findings of the MBE growth of microcavities, their fabrication and the self-assembled island growth of GaInAs on GaAs were used for the realization of further samples. Low strain GaInAs quantum dots were embedded into the microresonators. These structures allowed for the first time the observation of strong coupling between light and matter in a semiconductor. In case of the low strain quantum dots with enlarged dimensions in the strong coupling regime, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of about 140 {mu}eV between the

  20. Biexcitons or bipolaritons in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Woggon, U

    2000-01-01

    A well-resolved nonlinear optical transition associated with biexcitons is observed in a high-quality microcavity with a Rabi splitting exceeding the binding energy of biexcitons in the embedded quantum well. This transition is identified as an induced absorption from the lower polariton to the b......A well-resolved nonlinear optical transition associated with biexcitons is observed in a high-quality microcavity with a Rabi splitting exceeding the binding energy of biexcitons in the embedded quantum well. This transition is identified as an induced absorption from the lower polariton...

  1. Ultranarrow polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We have achieved a record high ratio (19) of the Rabi splitting (3.6 meV) to the polariton linewidth (190 mu eV), in a semiconductor lambda microcavity with a single 25 nm GaAs quantum well at the antinode. The narrow polariton lines are obtained with a special cavity design which reduces...

  2. Directional Secondary Emission of a Semiconductor Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the time-resolved secondary emission of a homogeneously broadened microcavity after resonant excitation. The sample consists of a 25nm GaAs single quantum well (QW) in the center of a wedged ¥ë cavity with AlAs/AlGaAs Bragg reflectors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At zero detun...

  3. Rayleigh scattering in coupled microcavities: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Zoltán; Weihs, Gregor

    2014-12-03

    In this paper we theoretically study how structural disorder in coupled semiconductor heterostructures influences single-particle scattering events that would otherwise be forbidden by symmetry. We extend the model of Savona (2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 295208) to describe Rayleigh scattering in coupled planar microcavity structures, and find that effective filter theories can be ruled out.

  4. Weak Localization of Light in a Disordered Microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, M.; Bogani, F.; Cavigli, L.; Gibbs, H.; Khitrova, G.; Wiersma, D. S.

    2005-05-01

    We report the observation of weak localization of light in a semiconductor microcavity. The intrinsic disorder in a microcavity leads to multiple scattering and hence to static speckle. We show that averaging over realizations of the disorder reveals a coherent backscattering cone that has a coherent enhancement factor ≥2, as required by reciprocity. The coherent backscattering cone is observed along a ring-shaped pattern due to confinement by the microcavity.

  5. Room temperature current injection polariton light emitting diode with a hybrid microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tien-Chang; Chen, Jun-Rong; Lin, Shiang-Chi; Huang, Si-Wei; Wang, Shing-Chung; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2011-07-13

    The strong light-matter interaction within a semiconductor high-Q microcavity has been used to produce half-matter/half-light quasiparticles, exciton-polaritons. The exciton-polaritons have very small effective mass and controllable energy-momentum dispersion relation. These unique properties of polaritons provide the possibility to investigate the fundamental physics including solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, and dynamical Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Thus far the polariton BEC has been demonstrated using optical excitation. However, from a practical viewpoint, the current injection polariton devices operating at room temperature would be most desirable. Here we report the first realization of a current injection microcavity GaN exciton-polariton light emitting diode (LED) operating under room temperature. The exciton-polariton emission from the LED at photon energy 3.02 eV under strong coupling condition is confirmed through temperature-dependent and angle-resolved electroluminescence spectra.

  6. Anomalous normal mode oscillations in semiconductor microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Semiconductor microcavities as a composite exciton-cavity system can be characterized by two normal modes. Under an impulsive excitation by a short laser pulse, optical polarizations associated with the two normal modes have a {pi} phase difference. The total induced optical polarization is then expected to exhibit a sin{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like oscillation where 2{Omega} is the normal mode splitting, reflecting a coherent energy exchange between the exciton and cavity. In this paper the authors present experimental studies of normal mode oscillations using three-pulse transient four wave mixing (FWM). The result reveals surprisingly that when the cavity is tuned far below the exciton resonance, normal mode oscillation in the polarization is cos{sup 2}({Omega}t)-like, in contrast to what is expected form the simple normal mode model. This anomalous normal mode oscillation reflects the important role of virtual excitation of electronic states in semiconductor microcavities.

  7. Analysis of high-quality modes in open chaotic microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, W.; Yamilov, A.; Cao, H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the high-quality modes in two-dimensional dielectric stadium microcavities. Although the classical ray mechanics is fully chaotic in a stadium billiard, all of the high-quality modes show a 'strong scar' around unstable periodic orbits. When the deformation (ratio of the length of the straight segments over the diameter of the half circles) is small, the high-quality modes correspond to whispering-gallery-type trajectories and their quality factors decrease monotonically with increasing deformation. At large deformation, each high-quality mode is associated with multiple unstable periodic orbits. Its quality factor changes nonmonotonically with the deformation, and there exists an optimal deformation for each mode at which its quality factor reaches a local maximum. This unusual behavior is attributed to the interference of waves propagating along different constituent orbits that could minimize light leakage out of the cavity

  8. Bistability and self-oscillations effects in a polariton-laser semiconductor microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, E A; Matinaga, F M

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental observation of polaritonic optical bistability of the laser emission in a planar semiconductor microcavity with a 100 0 A GaAs single quantum well in the strong-coupling regime. The bistability curves show crossings that indicate a competition between a Kerr-like effect induced by the polariton population and thermal effects. Associated with the bistability, laser-like emission occurs at the bare cavity mode

  9. Synthetic holography based on scanning microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Donato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic optical holography (SOH is an imaging technique, introduced in scanning microscopy to record amplitude and phase of a scattered field from a sample. In this paper, it is described a novel implementation of SOH through a lens-free low-coherence system, based on a scanning optical microcavity. This technique combines the low-coherence properties of the source with the mutual interference of scattered waves and the resonant behavior of a micro-cavity, in order to realize a high sensitive imaging system. Micro-cavity is compact and realized by approaching a cleaved optical fiber to the sample. The scanning system works in an open-loop configuration without the need for a reference wave, usually required in interferometric systems. Measurements were performed over calibration samples and a lateral resolution of about 1 μm is achieved by means of an optical fiber with a Numerical Aperture (NA equal to 0.1 and a Mode Field Diameter (MDF of 5.6 μm.

  10. Scalable photonic quantum computing assisted by quantum-dot spin in double-sided optical microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-07-29

    We investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing by the giant optical circular birefringence induced by a quantum-dot spin in a double-sided optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We construct a deterministic controlled-not gate on two photonic qubits by two single-photon input-output processes and the readout on an electron-medium spin confined in an optical resonant microcavity. This idea could be applied to multi-qubit gates on photonic qubits and we give the quantum circuit for a three-photon Toffoli gate. High fidelities and high efficiencies could be achieved when the side leakage to the cavity loss rate is low. It is worth pointing out that our devices work in both the strong and the weak coupling regimes.

  11. Dye Giant Absorption and Light Confinement Effects in Porous Bragg Microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva-Ramírez, Manuel; Gil-Rostra, Jorge; Simonsen, Adam C.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a simple experimental procedure to probe light confinement effects in photonic structures. Two types of porous 1D Bragg microcavities with two resonant peaks in the reflection gap were prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angle configurations and then infiltrated...... with dye solutions of increasing concentrations. The unusual position shift and intensity drop of the transmitted resonant peak observed when it was scanned through the dye absorption band have been accounted for by the effect of the light trapped at their optical defect layer. An experimentally observed...... giant absorption of the dye molecules and a strong anomalous dispersion in the refractive index of the solution are claimed as the reasons for the observed variations in the Bragg microcavity resonant feature. Determining the giant absorption of infiltrated dye solutions is proposed as a general...

  12. Micro-Cavity Fluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Bjarne; Kristensen, Anders; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2003-01-01

    We have successfully designed, fabricated and characterized a micro-cavity fluidic dye laser with metallic mirrors, which can be integrated with polymer based lab-on-a-chip microsystems without further processing steps. A simple rate-equation model is used to predict the average pumping power...... threshold for lasing as function of cavity-mirror reflectance, laser dye concentration and cavity length. The laser device is characterized using the laser dye Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol. Lasing is observed, and the influence of dye concentration is investigated....

  13. Optical micro-cavities on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Daoxin; Liu, Erhu; Tan, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Silicon-based optical microcavities are very popular for many applications because of the ultra-compact footprint, easy scalability, and functional versatility. In this paper we give a discussion about the challenges of the optical microcavities on silicon and also give a review of our recent work, including the following parts. First, a near-"perfect" high-order MRR optical filter with a box-like filtering response is realized by introducing bent directional couplers to have sufficient coupling between the access waveguide and the microrings. Second, an efficient thermally-tunable MRR-based optical filter with graphene transparent nano-heater is realized by introducing transparent graphene nanoheaters. Thirdly, a polarization-selective microring-based optical filter is realized to work with resonances for only one of TE and TM polarizations for the first time. Finally, a on-chip reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer for hybrid mode- /wavelength-division-multiplexing systems is realized for the first time by monolithically integrating a mode demultiplexer, four MRR optical switches, and a mode multiplexer.

  14. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  15. Influence of Experimental Parameters Using the Dip-Coating Method on the Barrier Performance of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings in Strong Alkaline Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier properties in alkaline environments are scarce. The aim of this experimental research was to study the influence of experimental parameters using the dip-coating method on the barrier performance of an OIH sol-gel coating in contact with simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS. The influence of residence time (Rt, a curing step between each dip step and the number of layers of sol-gel OIH films deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel to prevent corrosion in highly alkaline environments was studied. The barrier performance of these OIH sol-gel coatings, named U(400, was assessed in the first instants of contact with SCPS, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic methods. The durability and stability of the OIH coatings in SCPS was monitored during eight days by macrocell current density. The morphological characterization of the surface was performed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy before and after exposure to SCPS. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to investigate the thickness of the U(400 sol-gel coatings as a function of the number of layers deposited with and without Rt in the coatings thickness.

  16. Reciprocal-Space Engineering of Quasi-Bound States in the Continuum in Photonic Crystal Slabs for High-Q Microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Taghizadeh, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    The bound states in the continuum (BICs) in photonic crystal (PhC) slabs presume infinite periodicity in the inplane direction. Thus, a large number of unit cells are typically required to implement the BICs with a high quality (Q) factor. Here, we report on a method to engineer the reciprocal......-space properties of BICs, which enables to keep the effect of the BIC phenomenon strong even for a microcavity of a few unit cells. For example, based on this method, a 3D microcavity of 4 unit cells can attain a Q factor of 18k. This allows for various BIC studies in a very compact platform, as well as novel...

  17. Seeding of Polariton Stimulation in a Homogeneously Broadened Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    In time-resolved light emission from a high-quality semiconductor microcavity after pulsed excitation suitable for angle-resonant polariton-polariton scattering on the lower-polariton branch, we find strong evidence for final-state stimulation of this process. The self-stimulated emission...... and the intensity of this emission can be controlled. The time-resolved data and the density dependences are in agreement with a rate equation model neglecting polarization mixing effects. This model gives a coupling coefficient of b(LP,k)=0 = 2.4 x 10(-9) cm(4) s(-1) for the stimulated angle-resonant polariton......, following single-pulse excitation, appears on a fast time scale of only a few lens of ps with a maximum at 15 ps. This is in striking contrast to the photoluminescence decay time of 110 ps observed in the low-density limit. By injection of polaritons into the final state by a seeding pulse, the dynamics...

  18. Experimental study of disorder in a semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, M.; Bogani, F.; Wiersma, D. S.; Roussignol, Ph.; Cassabois, G.; Khitrova, G.; Gibbs, H.

    2001-10-01

    A detailed study of the structural disorder in wedge semiconductor microcavities (MC's) is presented. We demonstrate that images of the coherent emission from the MC surface can be used for a careful characterization of both intrinsic and extrinsic optical properties of semiconductor MC's. The polariton broadening can be measured directly, avoiding the well-known problem of inhomogeneous broadening due to the MC wedge. A statistical analysis of the spatial line shape of the images of the MC surface shows the presence of static disorder associated with dielectric fluctuations in the Bragg reflector. Moreover, the presence of local fluctuations of the effective cavity length can be detected with subnanometer resolution. The analysis of the resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) gives additional information on the origin of the disorder. We find that the RRS is dominated by the scattering of the photonic component of the MC polariton by disorder in the Bragg reflector. Also the RRS is strongly enhanced along the [110] and [11¯0] directions. This peculiar scattering pattern is attributed to misfit dislocations induced by the large thickness of the mismatched AlGaAs alloy in the Bragg mirrors.

  19. Universal quantum gates on electron-spin qubits with quantum dots inside single-side optical microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-01-13

    We present some compact quantum circuits for a deterministic quantum computing on electron-spin qubits assisted by quantum dots inside single-side optical microcavities, including the CNOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates. They are constructed by exploiting the giant optical Faraday rotation induced by a single-electron spin in a quantum dot inside a single-side optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Our universal quantum gates have some advantages. First, all the gates are accomplished with a success probability of 100% in principle. Second, our schemes require no additional electron-spin qubits and they are achieved by some input-output processes of a single photon. Third, our circuits for these gates are simple and economic. Moreover, our devices for these gates work in both the weak coupling and the strong coupling regimes, and they are feasible in experiment.

  20. Modal analysis of spontaneous emission in a planar microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigneault, H.; Monneret, S.

    1996-01-01

    A complete set of cavity modes in planar dielectric microcavities is presented which naturally includes guided modes. We show that most of these orthonormal fields can be derived from a coherent superposition of plane waves incoming on the stack from the air and from the substrate. Spontaneous emission of a dipole located inside the microcavity is analyzed, in terms of cavity modes. Derivation of the radiation pattern in the air and in the substrate is presented. The power emitted into the guided modes is also determined. Finally, a numerical analysis of the radiative properties of an erbium atom located in a Fabry-Pacute erot multilayer dielectric microcavity is investigated. We show that a large amount of light is emitted into the guided modes of the structure, in spite of the Fabry-Pacute erot resonance, which increases the spontaneous emission rate in a normal direction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Spin noise amplification and giant noise in optical microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S. [Spin-Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kavokin, A. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin-Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lagoudakis, P. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-14

    When studying the spin-noise-induced fluctuations of Kerr rotation in a quantum-well microcavity, we have found a dramatic increase of the noise signal (by more than two orders of magnitude) in the vicinity of anti-crossing of the polariton branches. The effect is explained by nonlinear optical instability of the microcavity giving rise to the light-power-controlled amplification of the polarization noise signal. In the framework of the developed model of built-in amplifier, we also interpret the nontrivial spectral and intensity-related properties of the observed noise signal below the region of anti-crossing of polariton branches. The discovered effect of optically controllable amplification of broadband polarization signals in microcavities in the regime of optical instability may be of interest for detecting weak oscillations of optical anisotropy in fundamental research and for other applications in optical information processing.

  2. Ultraviolet lasing behavior in ZnO optical microcavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Dong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO optical microcavity modulated UV lasers have been attracting a wide range of research interests. As one of the most important materials in developing high quality microcavity and efficient UV–visible optoelectronic devices due to its wide band gap (3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy (∼60 meV. In this review, we summarized the latest development of ZnO optical cavity based microlasers, mainly including Fabry-Perot mode lasers and whispering gallery mode lasers. The synthesis and optical studies of ZnO optical microcavities with different morphologies were discussed in detail. Finally, we also consider that the research focus in the near future would include new nanotechnology and physical effects, such as nano/micro fabrication, surface plasmon enhancement, and quantum dot coupling, which may result in new and interesting physical phenomena.

  3. Microcavity single virus detection and sizing with molecular sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantham, V. R.; Holler, S.; Kolchenko, V.; Wan, Z.; Arnold, S.

    2013-02-01

    We report the label-free detection and sizing of the smallest individual RNA virus, MS2 by a spherical microcavity. Mass of this virus is ~6 ag and produces a theoretical resonance shift ~0.25 fm upon adsorbing an individual virus at the equator of the bare microcavity, which is well below the r.m.s background noise of 2 fm. However, detection was accomplished with ease (S/N = 8, Q = 4x105) using a single dipole stimulated plasmonic-nanoshell as a microcavity wavelength shift enhancer. Analytical expressions based on the "reactive sensing principle" are developed to extract the radius of the virus from the measured signals. Estimated limit of detection for these experiments was ~0.4 ag or 240 kDa below the size of all known viruses, largest globular and elongated proteins [Phosphofructokinase (345 kDa) and Fibrinogen (390 kDa), respectively].

  4. A versatile tunable microcavity for investigation of light-matter interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalov, Konstantin E.; Vaskan, Ivan S.; Dovzhenko, Dmitriy S.; Rakovich, Yury P.; Nabiev, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Light-matter interaction between a molecular ensemble and a confined electromagnetic field is a promising area of research, as it allows light-control of the properties of coupled matter. The common way to achieve coupling is to place an ensemble of molecules or quantum emitters into a cavity. In this approach, light-matter coupling is evidenced by modification of the spectral response of the emitter, which depends on the strength of interaction between emitter and cavity modes. However, there is not yet a user-friendly approach that allows the study of a large number of different and replaceable samples in a wide optical range using the same resonator. Here, we present the design of such a device that can speed up and facilitate investigation of light-matter interaction ranging from weak to strong coupling regimes in ultraviolet-visible and infrared (IR) spectral regions. The device is based on a tunable unstable λ/2 Fabry-Pérot microcavity consisting of plane and convex mirrors that satisfy the plane-parallelism condition at least at one point of the curved mirror and minimize the mode volume. Fine tuning of the microcavity length is provided by a Z-piezopositioner in a range up to 10 μm with a step of several nm. This design makes a device a versatile instrument that ensures easy finding of optimal conditions for light-matter interaction for almost any sample in both visible and IR areas, enabling observation of both electronic and vibrational couplings with microcavity modes thus paving the way to investigation of various coupling effects including Raman scattering enhancement, modification of chemical reactivity rate, lasing, and long-distance nonradiative energy transfer.

  5. Acoustic trapping in bubble-bounded micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahoney, P.; McDougall, C.; Glynne-Jones, P.; MacDonald, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a method for controllably producing longitudinal acoustic trapping sites inside microfluidic channels. Air bubbles are injected into a micro-capillary to create bubble-bounded `micro-cavities'. A cavity mode is formed that shows controlled longitudinal acoustic trapping between the two air/water interfaces along with the levitation to the centre of the channel that one would expect from a lower order lateral mode. 7 μm and 10 μm microspheres are trapped at the discrete acoustic trapping sites in these micro-cavities.We show this for several lengths of micro-cavity.

  6. High-Q submicron-diameter quantum-dot microcavity pillars for cavity QED experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Lermer, Matthias; Dunzer, Florian

    As/AlAs micropillar design where Bloch-wave engineering is employed to significally enhance the cavity mode confinement in the submicron diameter regime. We demonstrate a record-high vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 µeV of the strong coupling for pillars incorporating quantum dots with modest oscillator strength f ≈ 10....... It is well-known that light-matter interaction depends on the photonic environment, and thus proper engineering of the optical mode in microcavity systems is central to obtaining the desired functionality. In the strong coupling regime, the visibility of the Rabi splitting is described by the light...... coupling in micropillars relied on quantum dots with high oscillator strengths f > 50, our advanced design allows for the observation of strong coupling for submicron diameter quantum dot-pillars with standard f ≈ 10 oscillator strength. A quality factor of 13600 and a vacuum Rabi splitting of 85 µe...

  7. Polariton condensation phase diagram in wide-band-gap planar microcavities: GaN versus ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadi, O.; Réveret, F.; Mallet, E.; Disseix, P.; Médard, F.; Mihailovic, M.; Solnyshkov, D.; Malpuech, G.; Leymarie, J.; Lafosse, X.; Bouchoule, S.; Li, F.; Leroux, M.; Semond, F.; Zuniga-Perez, J.

    2016-03-01

    The polariton condensation phase diagram is compared in GaN and ZnO microcavities grown on mesa-patterned silicon substrate. Owing to a common platform, these microcavities share similar photonic properties with large quality factors and low photonic disorder, which makes it possible to determine the optimal spot diameter and to realize a thorough phase diagram study. Both systems have been investigated under the same experimental conditions. The experimental results and the subsequent analysis reveal clearly that longitudinal optical phonons have no influence in the thermodynamic region of the condensation phase diagram, while they allow a strong (slight) decrease of the polariton lasing threshold in the trade-off zone (kinetic region). Phase diagrams are compared with numerical simulations using Boltzmann equations, and are in satisfactory agreement. A lower polariton lasing threshold has been measured at low temperature in the ZnO microcavity, as is expected due to a larger Rabi splitting. This study highlights polariton relaxation mechanisms and their importance in polariton lasing.

  8. Femtosecond coherent emission from GaAs bulk microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Massimo; Bogani, Franco; Ceccherini, Simone; Colocci, Marcello; Beltram, Fabio; Sorba, Lucia

    1999-02-01

    The emission from a λ/2 GaAs bulk microcavity resonantly excited by femtosecond pulses has been characterized by using an interferometric correlation technique. It is found that the emission is dominated by the coherent signal due to light elastically scattered by disorder, and that scattering is predominantly originated from the lower polariton branch.

  9. A new microcavity design for single molecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Schleifenbaum, F.; Stupperich, C.; Failla, A.V.; Hartschuh, A.; Meixner, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new microcavity design which allows for efficient detection of single molecules by measuring the molecular fluorescence emission coupled into a resonant cavity mode. The Fabry-Perot-type microresonator consists of two silver mirrors separated by a thin polymer film doped with dye molecules in ultralow concenctration. By slightly tilting one of the mirrors different cavity lengths can be selected within the same sample. Locally, on a μm scale, the microcavity still acts as a planar Fabry-Perot resonator. Using scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy, single emitters on resonance with a single mode of the microresonator can be spatially addressed. Our microcavity is demonstrated to be well-suited for investigating the coupling mechanism between single quantum emitters and single modes of the electromagnetic field. The microcavity layout could be integrated in a lab-on-a-microchip design for ultrasensitive microfluidic analytics and can be considered as an important improvement for single photon sources based on single molecules operating at room temperature

  10. Coupling of a single NV center to a fiber-based microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoph Becher

    2014-01-01

    The read-out of the spin state of a NV center in diamond or the transfer of quantum information between its spin and a photon would profit enormously from coupling the NV center's optical transitions to a microcavity with a highly directional output. We here report on such a coupling of a single NV center in a nanodiamond to a fiber-based, tunable microcavity at room temperature. Making use of the NV center's strongly broadened emission we operate in the regime of phonon-assisted cavity seeding and realize a widely tunable, narrow-band single photon source. A master equation model well reproduces our experimental results and predicts a transition into a Purcell-enhanced emission regime at low temperatures where up to 65% of the NV emission would be channeled into the cavity mode for our given experimental parameters. Further reducing scattering losses from the nanodiamonds could enable schemes for cavity-enhanced spin measurements or creation of entangled states. (author)

  11. Optimization of three-dimensional micropost microcavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuckovic, Jelena; Pelton, Matthew; Scherer, Axel; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis, based on the first-principles finite-difference time-domain method, of the resonant frequency, quality factor (Q), mode volume (V), and radiation pattern of the fundamental (HE 11 ) mode in a three-dimensional distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) micropost microcavity. By treating this structure as a one-dimensional cylindrical photonic crystal containing a single defect, we are able to push the limits of Q/V beyond those achievable by standard micropost designs, based on the simple rules established for planar DBR microcavities. We show that some of the rules that work well for designing large-diameter microposts (e.g., high-refractive-index contrast) fail to provide high-quality cavities with small diameters. By tuning the thicknesses of mirror layers and the spacer, the number of mirror pairs, the refractive indices of high- and low-refractive index regions, and the cavity diameter, we are able to achieve Q as high as 10 4 , together with a mode volume of 1.6 cubic wavelengths of light in the high-refractive-index material. The combination of high Q and small V makes these structures promising candidates for the observation of such cavity-quantum-electrodynamics phenomena as strong coupling between a quantum dot and the cavity field, and single-quantum-dot lasing

  12. Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Nicole A.

    Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab

  13. Optical properties of semiconductors quantum microcavity structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, A.M.

    1996-12-01

    The principal phenomenon investigated in this thesis is vacuum Rabi coupling in semiconductor microcavity structures. In these structures quantum well excitons are embedded in a Fabry - Perot like cavity, defined by two semiconductor dielectric mirrors. In such a system the coupled exciton and cavity photon mode form a mixed - mode polariton, where on - resonance there are two branches, each having 50% exciton and 50% photon character. The separation between the upper and lower branches is a measure of the coupling strength where the strength is dependent on the exciton oscillator strength. This interaction is known as vacuum Rabi coupling, and clear anticrossing is seen when the exciton is tuned through the cavity. In our reflectivity experiments we demonstrate control of the coupling between the cavity mode and the exciton by varying temperature, applied electric or magnetic field. Modelling of the reflectivity spectra and the tuning was done using a Transfer Matrix Reflectivity (TMR) model or a linear dispersion model, where in both cases the excitons are treated as Lorentz oscillators. Temperature tuning is achieved because exciton energy decreases with temperature at a much faster rate than the cavity mode. We have demonstrated vacuum Rabi coupling of the cavity mode with both the heavy - hole and light - hole excitons. Electric field tuning is achieved via the quantum confined Stark effect which decreases the exciton energy with increasing field, whilst at the same time the cavity mode energy remains constant. A study of how the electric field reduction of exciton oscillator strength reduces the vacuum Rabi coupling strength is performed. We report the first observation in a semiconductor structure of motional narrowing, seen in both electric field and in temperature tuning experiments at high magnetic field. In magnetic field studies we show how magnetic field induced increase in exciton oscillator strength affects the vacuum Rabi coupling. We also show by

  14. Full color organic light-emitting devices with microcavity structure and color filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hongyu; Sun, Runguang

    2009-05-11

    This letter demonstrated the fabrication of the full color passive matrix organic light-emitting devices based on the combination of the microcavity structure, color filter and a common white polymeric OLED. In the microcavity structure, patterned ITO terraces with different thickness were used as the anode as well as cavity spacer. The primary color emitting peaks were originally generated by the microcavity and then the second resonance peak was absorbed by the color filter.

  15. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  16. Seeding Dynamics of Nonlinear Polariton Emission from a Microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. The dynamics of polaritons in microcavity samples is presently under intense debate, in particular whether or not the so-called Boser action is possible. In this work, we investigate a λ cavity with a homogeneously broadened 25 nm GaAs quantum well at the antinode...... at a temperature of 10 K. We can thus inject well-defined polariton populations in k-space revealing how different initial and final state populations may influence the dynamics....

  17. Optical responses in single-crystalline organic microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Takeda, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Kurisu, H.

    2008-01-01

    The anisotropic response of cavity polaritons is investigated in an organic microcavity composed of a single-crystalline anthracene film sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. Upper and lower cavity polariton modes are observed as sharp spectral peaks in the transmission spectra. Dispersion relation for cavity polaritons is obtained as a function of thickness of the thin film. Using this relation, the vacuum Rabi splitting energy for this system is estimated to be 340 meV

  18. Optical responses in single-crystalline organic microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, H. [Department of Physics, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kondo@phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp; Yamamoto, Y.; Takeda, A. [Department of Physics, Ehime University, Matsuyama, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Yamamoto, S.; Kurisu, H. [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    The anisotropic response of cavity polaritons is investigated in an organic microcavity composed of a single-crystalline anthracene film sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. Upper and lower cavity polariton modes are observed as sharp spectral peaks in the transmission spectra. Dispersion relation for cavity polaritons is obtained as a function of thickness of the thin film. Using this relation, the vacuum Rabi splitting energy for this system is estimated to be 340 meV.

  19. Quantum condensation from a tailored exciton population in a microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, P. R.; Phillips, R. T.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment is proposed on the coherent quantum dynamics of a semiconductor microcavity containing quantum dots. Modeling the experiment using a generalized Dicke model, we show that a tailored excitation pulse can create an energy-dependent population of excitons, which subsequently evolves to a quantum condensate of excitons and photons. The population is created by a generalization of adiabatic rapid passage and then condenses due to a dynamical analog of the BCS instability.

  20. Microcavity polariton linewidths in the weak-disorder regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borri, Paola; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Woggon, U.

    2000-01-01

    Polariton linewidths have been measured in a series of high-quality microcavities with different excitonic inhomogeneous broadening in the weak-disorder regime. We show experimentally that the influence of the disorder on the polariton linewidths is canceled when the polariton energies are far in...... in the tail of the excitonic absorption. The measured linewidths are quantitatively compared with an estimation using the measured excitonic absorption spectrum of the bare quantum wells, and good agreement is found....

  1. Exceptional points enhance sensing in an optical microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijian; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Zhao, Guangming; Wiersig, Jan; Yang, Lan

    2017-08-01

    Sensors play an important part in many aspects of daily life such as infrared sensors in home security systems, particle sensors for environmental monitoring and motion sensors in mobile phones. High-quality optical microcavities are prime candidates for sensing applications because of their ability to enhance light-matter interactions in a very confined volume. Examples of such devices include mechanical transducers, magnetometers, single-particle absorption spectrometers, and microcavity sensors for sizing single particles and detecting nanometre-scale objects such as single nanoparticles and atomic ions. Traditionally, a very small perturbation near an optical microcavity introduces either a change in the linewidth or a frequency shift or splitting of a resonance that is proportional to the strength of the perturbation. Here we demonstrate an alternative sensing scheme, by which the sensitivity of microcavities can be enhanced when operated at non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies known as exceptional points. In our experiments, we use two nanoscale scatterers to tune a whispering-gallery-mode micro-toroid cavity, in which light propagates along a concave surface by continuous total internal reflection, in a precise and controlled manner to exceptional points. A target nanoscale object that subsequently enters the evanescent field of the cavity perturbs the system from its exceptional point, leading to frequency splitting. Owing to the complex-square-root topology near an exceptional point, this frequency splitting scales as the square root of the perturbation strength and is therefore larger (for sufficiently small perturbations) than the splitting observed in traditional non-exceptional-point sensing schemes. Our demonstration of exceptional-point-enhanced sensitivity paves the way for sensors with unprecedented sensitivity.

  2. Novel emission phenomena in organic microcavities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLED) are today a mature techology and have reached high efficiency both in monochrome and white devices. One of the main research areas for further improvement is still the optical design which enables many new approaches to enhance efficiency and realize special emission properties. In this talk, I will review our recent work on OLED outcoupling, in particular for devices encapsulated in microcavities and patterned structures.

  3. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeo, M., E-mail: marco.mazzeo@unisalento.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Genco, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gambino, S. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy); Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D. [NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d' Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Gigli, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); NNL, Istituto Nanoscienze - CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); CBN, Istituto Italiano Tecnologia, Via Barsanti 1, 73010 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  4. Local Intensity Enhancements in Spherical Microcavities: Implications for Photonic Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kirk A.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we summarize recent findings regarding the use spherical microcavities in the amplification of light that is inelastically scattered by either fluorescent or Raman-active molecules. This discussion will focus on Raman scattering, with the understanding that analogous processes apply to fluorescence. Raman spectra can be generated through the use of a very strong light source that stimulates inelastic light scattering by molecules, with the scattering occurring at wavelengths shifted from that of the source and being most prominent at shifts associated with the molecules natural vibrational frequencies. The Raman signal can be greatly enhanced by exposing a molecule to the intense electric fields that arise near surfaces (typically of gold or silver) exhibiting nanoscale roughness. This is known as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). SERS typically produces gain factors of 103 - 106, but under special conditions, factors of 1010 - 1014 have been achieved.

  5. Anisotropic exchange interaction induced by a single photon in semiconductor microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, G.; Fernández-Rossier, J.; Louis, E.; Anda, E. V.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate coupling of localized spins in a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a microcavity. The lowest cavity mode and the quantum dot exciton are coupled and close in energy, forming a polariton. The fermions forming the exciton interact with localized spins via exchange. Exact diagonalization of a Hamiltonian in which photons, spins, and excitons are treated quantum mechanically shows that a single polariton induces a sizable indirect anisotropic exchange interaction between spins. At sufficiently low temperatures strong ferromagnetic correlations show up without an appreciable increase in exciton population. In the case of a (Cd,Mn)Te quantum dot, Mn-Mn ferromagnetic coupling is still significant at 1 K : spin-spin correlation around 3 for exciton occupation smaller than 0.3. We find that the interaction mediated by photon-polaritons is 10 times stronger than the one induced by a classical field for equal Rabi splitting.

  6. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai; Cao, Runan; Xu, Fei; Da, Peimei; Zheng, Gengfeng; Lu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources

  7. Bragg polaritons in a ZnSe-based unfolded microcavity at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebald, K.; Rahman, SK. S.; Cornelius, M.; Kaya, T.; Gutowski, J. [Semiconductor Optics, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28334 Bremen (Germany); Klein, T.; Gust, A.; Hommel, D. [Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28334 Bremen (Germany); Klembt, S. [Institut Néel, Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-03-21

    In this contribution, we present strong coupling of ZnSe quantum well excitons to Bragg modes resulting in the formation of Bragg polariton eigenstates, characterized by a small effective mass in comparison to a conventional microcavity. We observe an anticrossing of the excitonic and the photonic component in our sample being a clear signature for the strong-coupling regime. The anticrossing is investigated by changing the detuning between the excitonic components and the Bragg mode. We find anticrossings between the first Bragg mode and the heavy- as well as light-hole exciton, respectively, resulting in three polariton branches. The observed Bragg-polariton branches are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The strong indication for the existence of strong coupling is traceable up to a temperature of 200 K, with a Rabi-splitting energy of 24 meV and 13 meV for the Bragg mode with the heavy- and light-hole exciton, respectively. These findings demonstrate the advantages of this sample configuration for ZnSe-based devices for the strong coupling regime.

  8. Pump-Power-Driven Mode Switching in a Microcavity Device and Its Relation to Bose-Einstein Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. M. Leymann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the switching of the coherent emission mode of a bimodal microcavity device, occurring when the pump power is varied. We compare experimental data to theoretical results and identify the underlying mechanism based on the competition between the effective gain, on the one hand, and the intermode kinetics, on the other. When the pumping is ramped up, above a threshold, the mode with the largest effective gain starts to emit coherent light, corresponding to lasing. In contrast, in the limit of strong pumping, it is the intermode kinetics that determines which mode acquires a large occupation and shows coherent emission. We point out that this latter mechanism is akin to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of massive bosons. Thus, the mode switching in our microcavity device can be viewed as a minimal instance of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. Moreover, we show that the switching from one cavity mode to the other always occurs via an intermediate phase where both modes are emitting coherent light and that it is associated with both superthermal intensity fluctuations and strong anticorrelations between both modes.

  9. Scarred resonances and steady probability distribution in a chaotic microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Young; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kwon, Tae-Yoon

    2005-01-01

    We investigate scarred resonances of a stadium-shaped chaotic microcavity. It is shown that two components with different chirality of the scarring pattern are slightly rotated in opposite ways from the underlying unstable periodic orbit, when the incident angles of the scarring pattern are close to the critical angle for total internal reflection. In addition, the correspondence of emission pattern with the scarring pattern disappears when the incident angles are much larger than the critical angle. The steady probability distribution gives a consistent explanation about these interesting phenomena and makes it possible to expect the emission pattern in the latter case

  10. Multi-Valued Spin Switch in a Semiconductor Microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraïso, T. K.; Wouters, M.; Léger, Y.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Deveaudhyphen; Plédran, B.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we report on the first realization of multi-valued spin switching in the solid-state. We investigate the physics of spinor bistability with microcavity polaritons in a trap. Spinor interactions lead to special bistability regimes with decoupled thresholds for spin-up and spin-down polaritons. This allows us to establish state-of-the-art spin switching operations. We evidence polarization hysteresis and determine appropriate conditions to achieve spin multistability. For a given excitation condition, three stable spin states coexist for the system. These results open new pathways for the development of innovative spin-based logic gates and memory devices.

  11. Enhancing the Robustness of the Microcavity Coupling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ying-Zhan; Zhang Wen-Dong; Xiong Ji-Jun; Ji Zhe; Yan Shu-Bin; Liu Jun; Xue Chen-Yang

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to enhance the robustness of the microcavity coupling system (MCS) is presented by encapsulating and solidifying the MCS with a low refractive index (RI) curable UV polymer. The encapsulating process is illustrated in detail for a typical microsphere with a radius of R about 240μm. Three differences of the resonant characteristics before and after the package are observed and analyzed. The first two differences refer to the enhancement of the coupling strength and the shift of the resonant spectrum to the longer wavelength, which are both mainly because of the microsphere surrounding RI variation. Another difference is the quality factor (Q-factor) which decreases from 7.8×10 7 to 8.7×10 6 after the package due to the polymer absorption. Moreover, rotation testing experiments have been carried out to verify the robustness of the package MCS. Experimental results demonstrate that the packaged MCR has much better robust performance than the un-package sample. The enhancement of the robustness greatly promotes the microcavity research from fundamental investigations to application fields. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  12. Composite modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic microstructures by electric-field and microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chenyun; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Composite modulation of Fano resonance by using electric-field and microcavity simultaneously is realized in a plasmonic microstructure, which consists of a gold nanowire grating inserted into a Fabry-Perot microcavity composited of a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between two indium tin oxide layers. The Fano resonance wavelength varies with the applied voltage and the microcavity resonance. A large shift of 48 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is achieved when the applied voltage is 20 V. This may provide a new way for the study of multi-functional integrated photonic circuits and chips based on plasmonic microstructures

  13. Composite modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic microstructures by electric-field and microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chenyun; Yang, Hong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-03

    Composite modulation of Fano resonance by using electric-field and microcavity simultaneously is realized in a plasmonic microstructure, which consists of a gold nanowire grating inserted into a Fabry-Perot microcavity composited of a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between two indium tin oxide layers. The Fano resonance wavelength varies with the applied voltage and the microcavity resonance. A large shift of 48 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is achieved when the applied voltage is 20 V. This may provide a new way for the study of multi-functional integrated photonic circuits and chips based on plasmonic microstructures.

  14. Manipulating the optical properties of CdSe/ZnSSe quantum dot based monolithic pillar microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, Moritz; Kalden, Joachim; Lohmeyer, Henning; Sebald, Kathrin; Gutowski, Juergen [Semiconductor Optics, Institute of Solid state Physics, University of Bremen (Germany); Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef, E-mail: Seyfried@ifp.uni-bremen.d [Semiconductor Epitaxy, Institute of Solid state Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2010-02-01

    A customization of the optical properties of pillar microcavities on the desired applications is essential for their future use as quantum-optical devices. Therefore, all-epitaxial cavities with CdSe quantum dot embedded in pillar structures with different geometries have been realized by focused-ion-beam etching. The quality factors of circularly shaped pillar microcavities have been measured and their dependence on the excitation power is discussed. As a possibility to achieve polarized light emission, asymmetrically shaped microcavities are presented. Examples of an elliptically shaped pillar as well as of photonic molecules are investigated with respect to their photoluminescence characteristics and polarization.

  15. Sample preparation in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, Joaquim A.; Santos, Mirian C.; Sousa, Rafael A. de; Cadore, Solange; Barnes, Ramon M.; Tatro, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, tertiary amines and strongly alkaline reagents for sample treatment involving extraction and digestion procedures is discussed in this review. The preparation of slurries is also discussed. Based on literature data, alkaline media offer a good alternative for sample preparation involving an appreciable group of analytes in different types of samples. These reagents are also successfully employed in tailored speciation procedures wherein there is a critical dependence on maintenance of chemical forms. The effects of these reagents on measurements performed using spectroanalytical techniques are discussed. Several undesirable effects on transport and atomization processes necessitate use of the method of standard additions to obtain accurate results. It is also evident that alkaline media can improve the performance of techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and accessories, such as autosamplers coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers

  16. Sensitive detection of individual neutral atoms in a strong coupling cavity QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Yuchi; Li Gang; Du Jinjin; Zhang Yanfeng; Guo Yanqiang; Wang Junmin; Zhang Tiancai; Li Weidong

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate real-time detection of individual cesium atoms by using a high-finesse optical micro-cavity in a strong coupling regime. A cloud of cesium atoms is trapped in a magneto-optical trap positioned at 5 mm above the micro-cavity center. The atoms fall down freely in gravitation after shutting off the magneto-optical trap and pass through the cavity. The cavity transmission is strongly affected by the atoms in the cavity, which enables the micro-cavity to sense the atoms individually. We detect the single atom transits either in the resonance or various detunings. The single atom vacuum-Rabi splitting is directly measured to be Ω = 2π × 23.9 MHz. The average duration of atom-cavity coupling of about 110 μs is obtained according to the probability distribution of the atom transits. (authors)

  17. Raman scattering enhancement in photon-plasmon resonance mediated metal-dielectric microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Narayana Rao, D.; Dwivedi, Vindesh K.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the photon-plasmon interaction scheme and enhanced field strengths resulted into the amplification of phonon in a novel microcavity. A metal-dielectric microcavity, with unified cavity photonic mode and localized surface plasmon resonances, is visualized by impregnating the gold nanoparticles into the deep see-through nano-sized pores of porous silicon microcavity. The intense optical field strengths resulting from the photon-plasmon interactions are probed by both resonant and non-resonant Raman scattering experiments. Due to photon-plasmon-phonon interaction mechanism, several orders of enhancement in the intensity of scattered Raman Stokes photon (at 500 cm −1 ) are observed. Our metal nanoparticle-microcavity hybrid system shows the potential to improve the sensing figure of merit as well as the applications of plasmonics for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and related technologies

  18. Whispering gallery mode emission from a composite system of J-aggregates and photonic microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikau, Dzmitry; Savateeva, Diana [Centro de Física de Materiales (MPC, CSIC-UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Po Manuel de Lardizabal 5, Donostia, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); Rusakov, Konstantin I. [Department of Physics, Brest State Technical University, Brest 224017 (Belarus); Rakovich, Yury P., E-mail: Yury.Rakovich@ehu.es [Centro de Física de Materiales (MPC, CSIC-UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Po Manuel de Lardizabal 5, Donostia, San Sebastian 20018 (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    We report on development and characterization of Whispering Gallery Modes spherical microcavities integrated with organic dye molecules in a J-aggregate state. The microcavities are studied using micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence lifetime imaging confocal microscopy. Directional emission of light from the microcavity is also experimentally demonstrated and attributed to the photonic jets generated in the microsphere. -- Highlights: • Report on the development and characterization of hybrid system consisting of thin shell of J-aggregates and spherical Whispering Gallery Mode microcavity. • An investigation of spontaneous emission rate in the shell of J-aggregates integrated with a Whispering Gallery Mode cavity. • Demonstration of directional emission from Whispering Gallery Mode cavity with J-aggregates which is highly desirable functionality for both micro- and nano-scale cavities.

  19. Electrically Injected Polariton Lasing from a GaAs-Based Microcavity under Magnetic Field

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Das, Ayan; Jankowski, Marc; Bhowmick, Sishir; Lee, Chi-Sen; Jahangir, Shafat

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of relaxation bottleneck and subsequent polariton lasing is observed in a GaAs-based microcavity under the application of a magnetic field. The threshold injection current density is 0.32 A/cm2 at 7 Tesla.

  20. Enhanced photoconductivity and fine response tuning in nanostructured porous silicon microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga, R; MarIn, O; Acquaroli, L N; Schmidt, J A; Koropecki, R R [INTEC-UNL-CONICET, Guemes 3450 - 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Comedi, D, E-mail: rkoro@intec.ceride.gov.a [CONICET y LAFISO, Departamento de Fisica, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We used light confinement in optical microcavities to achieve a strong enhancement and a precise wavelength tunability of the electrical photoconductance of nanostructured porous silicon (PS). The devices consist of a periodic array of alternating PS layers, electrochemically etched to have high and low porosities - and therefore distinct dielectric functions. A central layer having a doubled thickness breaks up the symmetry of the one-dimensional photonic structure, producing a resonance in the photonic band gap that is clearly observed in the reflectance spectrum. The devices were transferred to a glass coated with a transparent SnO{sub 2} electrode, while an Al contact was evaporated on its back side. The electrical conductance was measured as a function of the photon energy. A strong enhancement of the conductance is obtained in a narrow (17nm FWHM) band peaking at the resonance. We present experimental results of the angular dependence of this photoconductance peak energy, and propose an explanation of the conductivity behaviour supported by calculations of the internal electromagnetic field. These devices are promising candidates for finely tuned photoresistors with potential application as chemical sensors and biosensors.

  1. A parametric study on the PD pulses activity within micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjovi, Alireza A.

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional kinetic model has been used to parametric investigation of the spark-type partial discharge pulses inside the micro-cavities. The model is based on particle-in-cell methods with Monte Carlo Collision techniques for modeling of collisions. Secondary processes like photo-emission and cathode-emission are considered. The micro-cavity may be sandwiched between two metallic conductors or two dielectrics. The discharge within the micro-cavity is studied in conjunction with the external circuit. The model is used to successfully simulate the evolution of the discharge and yield useful information about the build-up of space charge within the micro-cavity and the consequent modification of the applied electric field. The phase-space scatter plots for electrons, positive, and negative ions are obtained in order to understand the manner in which discharge progresses over time. The rise-time and the magnitude of the discharge current pulse are obtained and are seen to be affected by micro-cavity dimensions, gas pressure within the micro-cavity, and the permittivity of surrounding dielectrics. The results have been compared with existing experimental, theoretical, and computational results, wherever possible. An attempt has been made to understand the nature of the variations in terms of the physical processes involved.

  2. Numerical study on discharge process of microcavity plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Guangqing; Xue Weihua; Wang Dongxue; Zhu Guoqiang; Zhu Yu

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of plasma parameters during high pressure discharge in the microcavity with a hollow anode was numerically studied, with a two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The simulations were performed with argon at 13.3 kPa. The numerical results show that during the discharge the electric field around the cathode transforms from an axial field to a radial field, the plasma density gets the maximum value on the central line of the cavity and the location of the maximum density moves from the region near anode at the initial stage to the cathode vicinity at the stable stage, and the maximum electron temperature occurs in the ring sheath of cathode. (authors)

  3. A porous silicon optical microcavity for sensitive bacteria detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sha; Huang Jianfeng; Cai Lintao

    2011-01-01

    A porous silicon microcavity (PSM) is highly sensitive to subtle interface changes due to its high surface area, capillary condensation ability and a narrow resonance peak (∼10 nm). Based on the well-defined optical properties of a PSM, we successfully fabricated a bacteria detection chip for molecular or subcellular analysis by surface modification using undecylenic acid (UA), and the specific recognition binding of vancomycin to the D-alanyl-D-alanine of bacteria. The red shift of the PSM resonance peak showed a good linear relationship with bacteria concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 bacteria ml -1 at the level of relative standard deviation of 0.994 and detection limit of 20 bacteria ml -1 . The resulting PSM sensors demonstrated high sensitivity, good reproducibility, fast response and low cost for biosensing.

  4. A porous silicon optical microcavity for sensitive bacteria detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Huang, Jianfeng; Cai, Lintao

    2011-10-01

    A porous silicon microcavity (PSM) is highly sensitive to subtle interface changes due to its high surface area, capillary condensation ability and a narrow resonance peak (~10 nm). Based on the well-defined optical properties of a PSM, we successfully fabricated a bacteria detection chip for molecular or subcellular analysis by surface modification using undecylenic acid (UA), and the specific recognition binding of vancomycin to the D-alanyl-D-alanine of bacteria. The red shift of the PSM resonance peak showed a good linear relationship with bacteria concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 bacteria ml - 1 at the level of relative standard deviation of 0.994 and detection limit of 20 bacteria ml - 1. The resulting PSM sensors demonstrated high sensitivity, good reproducibility, fast response and low cost for biosensing.

  5. A porous silicon optical microcavity for sensitive bacteria detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sha; Huang Jianfeng; Cai Lintao, E-mail: lt.cai@siat.ac.cn [CAS Key Lab of Health Informatics, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Cancer Nanotechnology, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2011-10-21

    A porous silicon microcavity (PSM) is highly sensitive to subtle interface changes due to its high surface area, capillary condensation ability and a narrow resonance peak ({approx}10 nm). Based on the well-defined optical properties of a PSM, we successfully fabricated a bacteria detection chip for molecular or subcellular analysis by surface modification using undecylenic acid (UA), and the specific recognition binding of vancomycin to the D-alanyl-D-alanine of bacteria. The red shift of the PSM resonance peak showed a good linear relationship with bacteria concentration ranging from 100 to 1000 bacteria ml{sup -1} at the level of relative standard deviation of 0.994 and detection limit of 20 bacteria ml{sup -1}. The resulting PSM sensors demonstrated high sensitivity, good reproducibility, fast response and low cost for biosensing.

  6. BCS-BEC crossover in a system of microcavity polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, Jonathan; Eastham, P.R.; Szymanska, M.H.; Littlewood, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics and signatures of a polariton condensate over a range of densities, using a model of microcavity polaritons with internal structure. We determine a phase diagram for this system including fluctuation corrections to the mean-field theory. At low densities the condensation temperature T c behaves like that for point bosons. At higher densities, when T c approaches the Rabi splitting, T c deviates from the form for point bosons, and instead approaches the result of a BCS-like mean-field theory. This crossover occurs at densities much less than the Mott density. We show that current experiments are in a density range where the phase boundary is described by the BCS-like mean-field boundary. We investigate the influence of inhomogeneous broadening and detuning of excitons on the phase diagram

  7. Advances of Optofluidic Microcavities for Microlasers and Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidic microcavities with high Q factor have made rapid progress in recent years by using various micro-structures. On one hand, they are applied to microfluidic lasers with low excitation thresholds. On the other hand, they inspire the innovation of new biosensing devices with excellent performance. In this article, the recent advances in the microlaser research and the biochemical sensing field will be reviewed. The former will be categorized based on the structures of optical resonant cavities such as the Fabry–Pérot cavity and whispering gallery mode, and the latter will be classified based on the working principles into active sensors and passive sensors. Moreover, the difficulty of single-chip integration and recent endeavors will be briefly discussed.

  8. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...... doubled, pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Lasing in the wavelength region from 560 to 570 nm is observed from a laser with a side-length of 50 µm. In this proof of concept, the lasers are multimode with a mode wavelength separation of approximately 1.6 nm, as determined by the waveguide propagation constant......We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...

  9. Optical characterization of porous silicon microcavities for glucose oxidase biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palestino, G.; Agarwal, V.; Garcia, D. B.; Legros, R.; Pérez, E.; Gergely, C.

    2008-04-01

    PSi microcavity (PSiMc) is characterized by a narrow resonance peak in the optical spectrum that is very sensitive to small changes in the refractive index. We report that the resonant optical cavities of PSi structures can be used to enhance the detection of labeled fluorescent biomolecules. Various PSi configurations were tested in order to compare the optical response of the PSi devices to the capture of organic molecules. Morphological and topographical analyses were performed on PSiMc using Atomic Force (AFM) and Scanning Electron (SEM) microscopies. The heterogeneity in pores lengths resulting from etching process assures a better penetration of larger molecules into the pores and sensor sensitivity depends on the pore size. Molecular detection is monitored by the successive red shifts in the reflectance spectra after the stabilization of PSiMc with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The glucose oxidase was cross linked into the PSiMc structures following a silane-glutaraldehyde (GTA) chemistry.

  10. Dynamics of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities near instability thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Peng-Bin

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented on the dynamics of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities near parametric instability thresholds. With upward or downward ramp of optical pump, different instability modes emerge in parameter space defined by damping and detuning. According to these modes, stationary short-wave, stationary periodic, oscillatory periodic, and oscillatory uniform parametric instabilities are distinguished. By multiple scale expansion, the dynamics near threshold can be described by a critical mode with a slowly varying amplitude for the last three instabilities. Furthermore, it is found that the evolutions of their amplitudes are governed by real or complex Ginzburg–Landau equations. -- Highlights: ► Phase diagrams for different instability in extended parameter space. ► Different instability modes near thresholds. ► Different envelop equations near thresholds obtained by multi-scale expansion.

  11. Numerical modeling of exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate in a microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronych, Oksana; Buraczewski, Adam; Matuszewski, Michał; Stobińska, Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    A novel, optimized numerical method of modeling of an exciton-polariton superfluid in a semiconductor microcavity was proposed. Exciton-polaritons are spin-carrying quasiparticles formed from photons strongly coupled to excitons. They possess unique properties, interesting from the point of view of fundamental research as well as numerous potential applications. However, their numerical modeling is challenging due to the structure of nonlinear differential equations describing their evolution. In this paper, we propose to solve the equations with a modified Runge-Kutta method of 4th order, further optimized for efficient computations. The algorithms were implemented in form of C++ programs fitted for parallel environments and utilizing vector instructions. The programs form the EPCGP suite which has been used for theoretical investigation of exciton-polaritons. Catalogue identifier: AFBQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFBQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD-3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2157 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 498994 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ with OpenMP extensions (main numerical program), Python (helper scripts). Computer: Modern PC (tested on AMD and Intel processors), HP BL2x220. Operating system: Unix/Linux and Windows. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes (OpenMP) RAM: 200 MB for single run Classification: 7, 7.7. Nature of problem: An exciton-polariton superfluid is a novel, interesting physical system allowing investigation of high temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton-polaritons-quasiparticles carrying spin. They have brought a lot of attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in polariton-based optoelectronic integrated circuits. This is an out-of-equilibrium quantum system confined

  12. Development of L-lactate dehydrogenase biosensor based on porous silicon resonant microcavities as fluorescence enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, S N Aisyiyah; Prieto-Simon, Beatriz; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-12-15

    The up-regulation of L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an intracellular enzyme present in most of all body tissues, is indicative of several pathological conditions and cellular death. Herein, we demonstrate LDH detection using porous silicon (pSi) microcavities as a luminescence-enhancing optical biosensing platform. Non-fluorescent resazurin was covalently attached onto the pSi surface via thermal hydrocarbonisation, thermal hydrosylilation and acylation. Each surface modification step was confirmed by means of FTIR and the optical shifts of the resonance wavelength of the microcavity. Thermal hydrocarbonisation also afforded excellent surface stability, ensuring that the resazurin was not reduced on the pSi surface. Using a pSi microcavity biosensor, the fluorescence signal upon detection of LDH was amplified by 10 and 5-fold compared to that of a single layer and a detuned microcavity, respectively, giving a limit of detection of 0.08 U/ml. The biosensor showed a linear response between 0.16 and 6.5 U/ml, covering the concentration range of LDH in normal as well as damaged tissues. The biosensor was selective for LDH and did not produce a signal upon incubation with another NAD-dependant enzyme L-glutamic dehydrogenase. The use of the pSi microcavity as a sensing platform reduced reagent usage by 30% and analysis time threefold compared to the standard LDH assay in solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Substantial enhancement of red emission intensity by embedding Eu-doped GaN into a microcavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inaba, T.; Lee, D.-G.; Wakamatsu, R.; Kojima, T.; Mitchell, B.; Capretti, A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate resonantly excited photoluminescence from a Eu,O-codoped GaN layer embedded into a microcavity, consisting of an AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector and a Ag reflecting mirror. The microcavity is responsible for a 18.6-fold increase of the Eu emission intensity at ∼10K, and a

  14. Research on the Band Gap Characteristics of Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals Microcavity with Local Resonant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-dimensional locally resonant phononic crystal with microcavity structure is proposed. The acoustic wave band gap characteristics of this new structure are studied using finite element method. At the same time, the corresponding displacement eigenmodes of the band edges of the lowest band gap and the transmission spectrum are calculated. The results proved that phononic crystals with microcavity structure exhibited complete band gaps in low-frequency range. The eigenfrequency of the lower edge of the first gap is lower than no microcavity structure. However, for no microcavity structure type of quadrilateral phononic crystal plate, the second band gap disappeared and the frequency range of the first band gap is relatively narrow. The main reason for appearing low-frequency band gaps is that the proposed phononic crystal introduced the local resonant microcavity structure. This study provides a good support for engineering application such as low-frequency vibration attenuation and noise control.

  15. Self-Cleaning Microcavity Array for Photovoltaic Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vüllers, Felix; Fritz, Benjamin; Roslizar, Aiman; Striegel, Andreas; Guttmann, Markus; Richards, Bryce S; Hölscher, Hendrik; Gomard, Guillaume; Klampaftis, Efthymios; Kavalenka, Maryna N

    2018-01-24

    Development of self-cleaning coatings is of great interest for the photovoltaic (PV) industry, as soiling of the modules can significantly reduce their electrical output and increase operational costs. We fabricated flexible polymeric films with novel disordered microcavity array (MCA) topography from fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) by hot embossing. Because of their superhydrophobicity with water contact angles above 150° and roll-off angles below 5°, the films possess self-cleaning properties over a wide range of tilt angles, starting at 10°, and contaminant sizes (30-900 μm). Droplets that impact the FEP MCA surface with velocities of the same order of magnitude as that of rain bounce off the surface without impairing its wetting properties. Additionally, the disordered MCA topography of the films enhances the performance of PV devices by improving light incoupling. Optical coupling of the FEP MCA films to a glass-encapsulated multicrystalline silicon solar cell results in 4.6% enhancement of the electrical output compared to that of an uncoated device.

  16. First results with a microcavity plasma panel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R. [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ben-Moshe, M.; Benhammou, Y.; Bensimon, R. [Tel Aviv University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Chapman, J.W. [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Davies, M.; Etzion, E. [Tel Aviv University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ferretti, C., E-mail: claudiof@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Friedman, P.S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC, Ottawa Hills, OH 43606 (United States); Levin, D.S. [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Silver, Y. [Tel Aviv University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Varner, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN 737831 (United States); Weaverdyck, C.; Zhou, B. [University of Michigan, Department of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A new type of gaseous micropattern particle detector based on a closed-cell microcavity plasma panel sensor is reported. The first device was fabricated with 1×1×2 mm cells. It has shown very clean signals of 0.6–2.5 V amplitude, fast rise time of approximately 2 ns and FWHM of about 2 ns with very uniform signal shapes across all pixels. From initial measurements with β particles from a radioactive source, a maximum pixel efficiency greater than 95% is calculated, for operation of the detector over a 100 V wide span of high voltages (HV). Over this same HV range, the background rate per pixel was measured to be 3–4 orders of magnitude lower than the rate with which the cell was illuminated by the β source. Pixel-to-pixel count rate uniformity is within 3% and stable within 3% for many days. The time resolution is 2.4 ns, and a very low cell-to-cell crosstalk has been measured between cells separated by 2 mm.

  17. Effective slip over partially filled microcavities and its possible failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhouyang; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Brandt, Luca; Kreiss, Gunilla

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the emerging applications of liquid-infused surfaces (LIS), we study the drag reduction and robustness of transverse flows over two-dimensional microcavities partially filled with an oily lubricant. Using separate simulations at different scales, characteristic contact line velocities at the fluid-solid intersection are first extracted from nanoscale phase field simulations and then applied to micronscale two-phase flows, thus introducing a multiscale numerical framework to model the interface displacement and deformation within the cavities. As we explore the various effects of the lubricant-to-outer-fluid viscosity ratio μ˜2/μ˜1 , the capillary number Ca, the static contact angle θs, and the filling fraction of the cavity δ , we find that the effective slip is most sensitive to the parameter δ . The effects of μ˜2/μ˜1 and θs are generally intertwined but weakened if δ 1 ), however, are immune to such failure due to their generally larger contact line velocity.

  18. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Hai; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Wang, Zheng; Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, Donglei

    2015-01-01

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed

  19. High quality factor GaAs microcavity with buried bullseye defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, K.; Gregersen, N.; Häyrynen, T.; Bradel, B.; Schade, A.; Emmerling, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Schneider, C.

    2018-05-01

    The development of high quality factor solid-state microcavities with low mode volumes has paved the way towards on-chip cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and the development of high-performance nanophotonic devices. Here, we report on the implementation of a new kind of solid-state vertical microcavity, which allows for confinement of the electromagnetic field in the lateral direction without deep etching. The confinement originates from a local elongation of the cavity layer imprinted in a shallow etch and epitaxial overgrowth technique. We show that it is possible to improve the quality factor of such microcavities by a specific in-plane bullseye geometry consisting of a set of concentric rings with subwavelength dimensions. This design results in a smooth effective lateral photonic potential and therefore in a reduction of lateral scattering losses, which makes it highly appealing for experiments in the framework of exciton-polariton physics demanding tight spatial confinement.

  20. Silicon on-chip bandpass filters for the multiplexing of high sensitivity photonic crystal microcavity biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hai, E-mail: hai.yan@utexas.edu; Zou, Yi; Yang, Chun-Ju [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Wang, Zheng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Naimei; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Fan, Donglei [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-03-23

    A method for the dense integration of high sensitivity photonic crystal (PC) waveguide based biosensors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated on a silicon platform. By connecting an additional PC waveguide filter to a PC microcavity sensor in series, a transmission passband is created, containing the resonances of the PC microcavity for sensing purpose. With proper engineering of the passband, multiple high sensitivity PC microcavity sensors can be integrated into microarrays and be interrogated simultaneously between a single input and a single output port. The concept was demonstrated with a 2-channel L55 PC biosensor array containing PC waveguide filters. The experiment showed that the sensors on both channels can be monitored simultaneously from a single output spectrum. Less than 3 dB extra loss for the additional PC waveguide filter is observed.

  1. Optimisation of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a ring microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuprina, I. N.; An, P. P.; Zubkova, E. G.; Kovalyuk, V. V.; Kalachev, A. A.; Gol'tsman, G. N.

    2017-11-01

    A theory of spontaneous four-wave mixing in a ring microcavity is developed. The rate of emission of biphotons for pulsed and monochromatic pumping with allowance for the dispersion of group velocities is analytically calculated. In the first case, pulses in the form of an increasing exponential are considered, which are optimal for excitation of an individual resonator mode. The behaviour of the group velocity dispersion as a function of the width and height of the waveguide is studied for a specific case of a ring microcavity made of silicon nitride. The results of the numerical calculation are in good agreement with the experimental data. The ring microcavity is made of two types of waveguides: completely etched and half etched. It is found that the latter allow for better control over the parameters in the manufacturing process, making them more predictable. Presented at the Russian - British Symposium on Quantum Technologies (Moscow, 20 - 23 March 2017)

  2. Black phosphorus-based one-dimensional photonic crystals and microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Toffanin, Stefano; Scotognella, Francesco

    2016-11-10

    The latest achievements in the fabrication of thin layers of black phosphorus (BP), toward the technological breakthrough of a phosphorene atomically thin layer, are paving the way for their use in electronics, optics, and optoelectronics. In this work, we have simulated the optical properties of one-dimensional photonic structures, i.e., photonic crystals and microcavities, in which few-layer BP is one of the components. The insertion of the 5-nm black phosphorous layers leads to a photonic band gap in the photonic crystals and a cavity mode in the microcavity that is interesting for light manipulation and emission enhancement.

  3. Weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diodes with improved light out-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Hwan; Song, Young-Woo; Lee, Joon-gu; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Ha, Jaeheung; Oh, Jong-Suk; Lee, So Young; Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Kyu Hwan; Zang, Dong-Sik; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2008-08-18

    We propose and demonstrate weak-microcavity organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with improved light-extraction and viewing-angle characteristics. A single pair of low- and high-index layers is inserted between indium tin oxide (ITO) and a glass substrate. The electroluminescent (EL) efficiencies of discrete red, green, and blue weak-microcavity OLEDs are enhanced by 56%, 107%, and 26%, respectively, with improved color purity. Moreover, full-color passive-matrix bottom-emitting OLED displays are fabricated by employing low-index layers of two thicknesses. As a display, the EL efficiency of white color was 27% higher than that of a conventional OLED display.

  4. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  5. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  6. High quality factor GaAs microcavity with buried bullseye defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K.; Gregersen, Niels; Hayrynen, T.

    2018-01-01

    The development of high quality factor solid-state microcavities with low mode volumes has paved the way towards on-chip cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and the development of high-performance nanophotonic devices. Here, we report on the implementation of a new kind of solid...

  7. The combination of high Q factor and chirality in twin cavities and microcavity chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghai; Zhang, Nan; Zhai, Huilin; Liu, Shuai; Gu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Kaiyang; Sun, Shang; Chen, Zhiwei; Li, Meng; Xiao, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    Chirality in microcavities has recently shown its bright future in optical sensing and microsized coherent light sources. The key parameters for such applications are the high quality (Q) factor and large chirality. However, the previous reported chiral resonances are either low Q modes or require very special cavity designs. Here we demonstrate a novel, robust, and general mechanism to obtain the chirality in circular cavity. By placing a circular cavity and a spiral cavity in proximity, we show that ultra-high Q factor, large chirality, and unidirectional output can be obtained simultaneously. The highest Q factors of the non-orthogonal mode pairs are almost the same as the ones in circular cavity. And the co-propagating directions of the non-orthogonal mode pairs can be reversed by tuning the mode coupling. This new mechanism for the combination of high Q factor and large chirality is found to be very robust to cavity size, refractive index, and the shape deformation, showing very nice fabrication tolerance. And it can be further extended to microcavity chain and microcavity plane. We believe that our research will shed light on the practical applications of chirality and microcavities. PMID:25262881

  8. Photoluminescence eigenmodes in the ZnO semiconductor microcavity on the Ag/Si substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luo, X.; Wang, J.; Mao, H.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Král, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2013), s. 821-825 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ZnO * photoluminescence * microcavity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.694, year: 2013

  9. Progress Toward Single-Photon-Level Nonlinear Optics in Crystalline Microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowligy, Abijith S.

    Over the last two decades, the emergence of quantum information science has uncovered many practical applications in areas such as communications, imaging, and sensing where harnessing quantum features of Nature provides tremendous benefits over existing methods exploiting classical physical phenomena. In this effort, one of the frontiers of research has been to identify and utilize quantum phenomena that are not susceptible to environmental and parasitic noise processes. Quantum photonics has been at the forefront of these studies because it allows room-temperature access to its inherently quantum-mechanical features, and allows leveraging the mature telecommunication industry. Accompanying the weak environmental influence, however, are also weak optical nonlinearities. Efficient nonlinear optical interactions are indispensible for many of the existing protocols for quantum optical computation and communication, e.g. high-fidelity entangling quantum logic gates rely on large nonlinear responses at the one- or few-photon-level. While this has been addressed to a great extent by interfacing photons with single quantum emitters and cold atomic gases, scalability has remained elusive. In this work, we identify the macroscopic second-order nonlinear polarization as a robust platform to address this challenge, and utilize the recent advances in the burgeoning field of optical microcavities to enhance this nonlinear response. In particular, we show theoretically that by using the quantum Zeno effect, low-noise, single-photon-level optical nonlinearities can be realized in lithium niobate whispering-gallery-mode microcavities, and present experimental progress toward this goal. Using the measured strength of the second-order nonlinear response in lithium niobate, we modeled the nonlinear system in the strong coupling regime using the Schrodinger picture framework and theoretically demonstrated that the single-photon-level operation can be observed for cavity lifetimes in

  10. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  11. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Stefania; Salvi, Paolo; Nelli, Paolo; Pesenti, Rachele; Villa, Marco; Berrettoni, Mario; Zangari, Giovanni; Kiros, Yohannes

    2012-01-01

    A short review on the fundamental and technological issues relevant to water electrolysis in alkaline and proton exchange membrane (PEM) devices is given. Due to price and limited availability of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts they currently employ, PEM electrolyzers have scant possibilities of being employed in large-scale hydrogen production. The importance and recent advancements in the development of catalysts without PGMs are poised to benefit more the field of alkaline electrolysis rather than that of PEM devices. This paper presents our original data which demonstrate that an advanced alkaline electrolyzer with performances rivaling those of PEM electrolyzers can be made without PGM and with catalysts of high stability and durability. Studies on the advantages/limitations of electrolyzers with different architectures do show how a judicious application of pressure differentials in a recirculating electrolyte scheme helps reduce mass transport limitations, increasing efficiency and power density.

  12. The role of group index engineering in series-connected photonic crystal microcavities for high density sensor microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Yi; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T.; Chakravarty, Swapnajit

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time

  13. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor is gr...... is gradually enhanced and the resonant frequency converges to that of the corresponding surface mode in the photonic crystals. These structures have potential applications such as sensing.......Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor...

  14. The role of group index engineering in series-connected photonic crystal microcavities for high density sensor microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yi, E-mail: yzou@utexas.edu; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com [Omega Optics, Inc., 8500 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient and robust method for series connection of photonic crystal microcavities that are coupled to photonic crystal waveguides in the slow light transmission regime. We demonstrate that group index taper engineering provides excellent optical impedance matching between the input and output strip waveguides and the photonic crystal waveguide, a nearly flat transmission over the entire guided mode spectrum and clear multi-resonance peaks corresponding to individual microcavities that are connected in series. Series connected photonic crystal microcavities are further multiplexed in parallel using cascaded multimode interference power splitters to generate a high density silicon nanophotonic microarray comprising 64 photonic crystal microcavity sensors, all of which are interrogated simultaneously at the same instant of time.

  15. Enhanced photoresponse of monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based on microcavity structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanan; Yang, Guofeng; Wang, Fuxue; Lu, Naiyan

    2018-05-01

    There is an increasing interest in using monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) for optoelectronic devices because of its inherent direct band gap characteristics. However, the weak absorption of monolayer MoS2 restricts its applications, novel concepts need to be developed to address the weakness. In this work, monolayer MoS2 monolithically integrates with plane microcavity structure, which is formed by the top and bottom chirped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), is demonstrated to improve the absorption of MoS2. The optical absorption is 17-fold enhanced, reaching values over 70% at work wavelength. Moreover, the monolayer MoS2-based photodetector device with microcavity presents a significantly increased photoresponse, demonstrating its promising prospects in MoS2-based optoelectronic devices.

  16. Effect of interface disorder on quantum well excitons and microcavity polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savona, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    The theory of the linear optical response of excitons in quantum wells and polaritons in planar semiconductor microcavities is reviewed, in the light of the existing experiments. For quantum well excitons, it is shown that disorder mainly affects the exciton centre-of-mass motion and is modelled by an effective Schroedinger equation in two dimensions. For polaritons, a unified model accounting for quantum well roughness and fluctuations of the microcavity thickness is developed. Numerical results confirm that polaritons are mostly affected by disorder acting on the photon component, thus confirming existing studies on the influence of exciton disorder. The polariton localization length is estimated to be in the few-micrometres range, depending on the amplitude of disorder, in agreement with recent experimental findings

  17. Microcavity-coupled fiber Bragg grating with tunable reflection spectra and speed of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Ya; Liu, Qian; Liu, Yan-Ge; Zhang, Weigang; Chou, Keng C

    2018-04-15

    After a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is fabricated, the reflection spectrum of the FBG is generally not tunable without mechanical deformation or temperature adjustment. Here we present a microcavity-coupled FBG with both a tunable reflection lineshape and dispersion using electromagnetically induced transparency. The Fano interference of light in the FBG and the microcavity allows for dramatic modification of the reflection spectrum. The phase of the reflected spectrum is continuously tunable between 0 and 2π to produce various Fano lineshapes. The dispersion of the output light is adjustable from normal dispersion to abnormal dispersion, consequently providing an adjustable speed of light. Additionally, it allows the FBG to switch from a notch filter to a bandpass filter at the resonant wavelength, which is not possible in a conventional uniform FBG.

  18. Voltage-controlled colour-tunable microcavity OLEDs with enhanced colour purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Wallace C H; Niu, J H; Li, W L; Chui, P C

    2008-01-01

    The emission spectrum of single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) has been theoretically and experimentally studied. Our results show that by introducing the microcavity structure, the colour purity of not only the destination colour but also the colour-tunable route can be enhanced, while colour purity is still an issue in typical single-unit voltage-controlled colour-tunable OLEDs. With the consideration of the periodical cycling of resonant wavelength and absorption loss of the metal electrodes, the appropriate change in the thickness of the microcavity structure has been utilized to achieve voltage-controlled red-to-green and red-to-blue colour-tunable OLEDs without adding dyes or other organic materials to the OLEDs

  19. Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Zengling; Liu, Shan; Liu, Qin; Huang, Ya; Bao, Haihong; Wang, Yanjun; Luo, Shucheng; Yang, Huiqin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2014-08-07

    Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  20. Stable integrated hyper-parametric oscillator based on coupled optical microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Andrea; Feron, Patrice; Dumeige, Yannick

    2015-12-01

    We propose a flexible scheme based on three coupled optical microcavities that permits us to achieve stable oscillations in the microwave range, the frequency of which depends only on the cavity coupling rates. We find that the different dynamical regimes (soft and hard excitation) affect the oscillation intensity, but not their periods. This configuration may permit us to implement compact hyper-parametric sources on an integrated optical circuit with interesting applications in communications, sensing, and metrology.

  1. Polariton solitons and nonlinear localized states in a one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Szu-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents numerical studies of cavity polariton solitons (CPSs) in a resonantly pumped semiconductor microcavity with an imbedded spatial defect. In the bistable regime of the well-known homogeneous polariton condensate, with proper incident wave vector and pump strength, bright and/or dark cavity solitons can be found in the presence of a spatially confined potential. The minimum pump strength required to observe the CPSs or nonlinear localized states in this parametric pump scheme is therefore reported.

  2. Photoluminescence from a Tb-doped photonic crystal microcavity for white light generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yigang; Almeida, Rui M

    2010-01-01

    Terbium-doped one-dimensional triple microcavities have been prepared by sol-gel processing. The photoluminescence (PL) of Tb 3+ ions outside a microcavity structure, when excited by blue laser light at 488 nm, consisted of three distinct peaks at 542, 587 and 619 nm. When embedded in the microcavities, the three Tb 3+ PL peaks were enhanced, balanced and broadened by the photonic crystal structure and combined into a continuous broad band. An analysis in the CIE colour space showed that white light can be obtained by mixing the modified Tb 3+ PL with the blue exciting light, while this is impossible with the original PL profile. This novel technique may improve white light generation by enhancing and modifying the spontaneous emission of current phosphors. It may also lead to the development of new rare-earth phosphor materials based on 4f-4f transitions, able to generate white light more efficiently, via simpler and cheaper alternatives to the current phosphor compositions. A novel configuration to combine this kind of structure with a white light-emitting-diode (LED) is also proposed.

  3. Monitoring of benzene-induced hematotoxicity in mice by serial leukocyte counting using a microcavity array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Masahito; Asami, Marie; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Nakasono, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2013-02-15

    Monitoring of hematotoxicity, which requires serial blood collection, is difficult to carry out in small animals due to a lack of non-invasive, individual animal-appropriate techniques that enable enumeration of leukocyte subsets from limited amounts of whole blood. In this study, a microfluidic device equipped with a microcavity array that enables highly efficient separation of leukocytes from submicroliters of whole blood was applied for hematotoxicity monitoring in mice. The microcavity array can specifically separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size and deformability between leukocytes and other blood cells. Mouse leukocytes recovered on aligned microcavities were continuously processed for image-based immunophenotypic analysis. Our device successfully recovered almost 100% of mouse leukocytes in 0.1 μL of whole blood without the effect of serial blood collection such as changes in body weight and total leukocyte count. We assessed benzene-associated hematotoxicity in mice using this system. Mice were administered with benzene once daily and the depression of leukocyte numbers induced in individual mice was successfully monitored from tail vein blood collected every other day for 2 weeks. Serial monitoring of the leukocyte number in individual mice will contribute to the understanding of hematotoxicity and reduction of the number of animal experiment trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alkaline Activator Impact on the Geopolymer Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyński, Tomasz Z.; Król, Maciej R.

    2017-10-01

    Concrete structures are constantly moving in the direction of improving the durability. Durability depends on many factors, which are the composition of concrete mix, the usage of additives and admixtures and the place, where material will work and carry the load. The introduction of new geopolymer binders for geopolymer structures adds a new aspect that is type of used activator. This substance with strongly alkaline reaction is divided because of the physical state, the alkaline degree and above all the chemical composition. Taking into account, that at present the geopolymer binders are made essentially from waste materials or by-products from the combustion of coal or iron ore smelting, unambiguous determination of the effect of the activator on the properties of the geopolymer material requires a number of trials, researches and observation. This paper shows the influence of the most alkaline activators on the basic parameters of the durability of geopolymer binders. In this study there were used highly alkaline hydroxides, water glasses and granules, which are waste materials in a variety of processes taking place in chemical plants. As the substrate of geopolymer binders there were used fly ash which came from coal and high calcareous ash from the burning of lignite.

  5. Cost-effective optical fiber pressure sensor based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, M. Fátima; Rodriguez, Camilo A.; Martins, Joana; Tavares, Cátia; Marques, Carlos; Alberto, Nélia; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a cost-effective procedure to manufacture optical fiber pressure sensors is presented. This has a high relevance for integration in robotic exoskeletons or for gait plantar pressure monitoring within the physical rehabilitation scenarios, among other applications. The sensing elements are based on Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) micro-cavities, created from the recycling of optical fibers previously destroyed by the catastrophic fuse effect. To produce the pressure sensors, the fiber containing the FPI micro-cavities was embedded in an epoxy resin cylinder used as pressure transducer and responsible to transfer the pressure applied on its surface to the optical fiber containing the FPI micro-cavity. Before the embedding process, some FPI sensors were also characterized to strain variations. After that, the effect of the encapsulation of the FPI structure into the resin was assessed, from which a slight decrease on the FPI interferogram fringes visibility was verified, indicating a small increase in the micro-cavity length. Up on the sensors characterization, a linear dependence of the wavelength shift with the induced pressure was obtained, which leads to a maximum sensitivity of 59.39 ± 1.7 pm/kPa. Moreover, direct dependence of the pressure sensitivity with the micro-cavity volume and length was found.

  6. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  7. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  8. Efficient analysis of mode profiles in elliptical microcavity using dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium FDTD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, E H; Ahmed, I; Goh, R S M; Lee, K H; Hung, T G G; Li, E P

    2013-03-11

    The dynamic-thermal electron-quantum medium finite-difference time-domain (DTEQM-FDTD) method is used for efficient analysis of mode profile in elliptical microcavity. The resonance peak of the elliptical microcavity is studied by varying the length ratio. It is observed that at some length ratios, cavity mode is excited instead of whispering gallery mode. This depicts that mode profiles are length ratio dependent. Through the implementation of the DTEQM-FDTD on graphic processing unit (GPU), the simulation time is reduced by 300 times as compared to the CPU. This leads to an efficient optimization approach to design microcavity lasers for wide range of applications in photonic integrated circuits.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase sensing via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Marta; Gergely, Csilla [GES-UMR 5650, CNRS, Universite Montpellier 2, Pl. Eugene Bataillon 34095, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Taleb Bendiab, Chakib; Massif, Laurent; Cuisinier, Frederic [EA4203, Faculte d' Odontologie, Universite Montpellier 1, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Palestino, Gabriela [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Salvador Nava 6, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Agarwal, Vivechana [CIICAP, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    Porous silicon microcavity (PSiMc) structures were used as support material for specific sensing of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). For lower concentrations of MMP-8, the structures were tested with two types of functionalization methods. Silanization of the oxidized porous silicon structures, followed by glutaraldehyde chemistry was found to give very inconsistent results. The use of biotinilated bovine serum albumin linked to the naked PSiMc was found to be an alternative method to attach the anti MMP-8 human antibody, previously modified with streptavidin, which was further used to sense MMP-8 (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Christof P., E-mail: cpd3@st-andrews.ac.uk; Höfling, Sven; Gather, Malte C., E-mail: mcg6@st-andrews.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-08

    We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ≅ 25 nm)

  11. Exciton-polariton dynamics in a GaAs bulk microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccherini, S.; Gurioli, M.; Bogani, F.; Colocci, M.; Tredicucci, A.; Bassani, F.; Beltram, F.; Sorba, L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a full analysis of exciton dynamics in a GaAs λ/2 bulk microcavity following excitation by ultrafast laser pulses. Coherent dynamics was probed by means of an interferometric technique; beating and dephasing times were studied for various excitation intensities. At high incident power, population effects begin to show up reducing exciton oscillator strength and suppressing Rabi splitting. This feature produces marked non-linearities in the input-output characteristic of the optical functions, which were studied in view of reaching bistable operation. Theoretical calculations performed within the transfer-matrix framework show good agreement with experimental results.

  12. Microcavity quantum-dot systems for non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, I M; Ediger, M; Wilson, A M; Wu, Y; Phillips, R T; Eastham, P R; Hugues, M; Hopkinson, M

    2010-01-01

    We review the practical conditions required to achieve a non-equilibrium BEC driven by quantum dynamics in a system comprising a microcavity field mode and a distribution of localised two-level systems driven to a step-like population inversion profile. A candidate system based on eight 3.8nm layers of In 0.23 Ga 0.77 As in GaAs shows promising characteristics with regard to the total dipole strength which can be coupled to the field mode.

  13. Microcavity quantum-dot systems for non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, I M; Ediger, M; Wilson, A M; Wu, Y; Phillips, R T [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Eastham, P R [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Hugues, M; Hopkinson, M, E-mail: imp24@cam.ac.u [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-01

    We review the practical conditions required to achieve a non-equilibrium BEC driven by quantum dynamics in a system comprising a microcavity field mode and a distribution of localised two-level systems driven to a step-like population inversion profile. A candidate system based on eight 3.8nm layers of In{sub 0.23}Ga{sub 0.77}As in GaAs shows promising characteristics with regard to the total dipole strength which can be coupled to the field mode.

  14. Influence of multi-exciton correlations on nonlinear polariton dynamics in semiconductor microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, P; Nelson, Keith A; Christmann, G; Baumberg, J J

    2013-01-01

    Using two-dimensional spectroscopy, we resolve multi-polariton coherences in quantum wells embedded inside a semiconductor microcavity and elucidate how multi-exciton correlations mediate polariton nonlinear dynamics. We find that polariton correlation strengths depend on spectral overlap with the biexciton resonance and that up to at least four polaritons can be correlated, a higher-order correlation than observed to date among excitons in bare quantum wells. The high-order correlations can be attributed to coupling through the cavity mode, although the role of high-order Coulomb correlations cannot be excluded. (paper)

  15. Method of cleaning alkaline metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yukio; Naito, Kesahiro; Iizawa, Katsuyuki; Nakasuji, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent scattering of used sodium and aqueous alkaline solution when cleaning used sodium and metallic sodium adhering to equipment with an aqueous alkaline solution. Method: A sodium treating container is filled with an aqueous alkaline solution, and stainless steel gauze is sunk in the container. Equipment to be cleaned such as equipment with sodium adhering to it are retained under the gauze and are thus cleaned. On the other hand, the surface of the aqueous alkaline solution is covered with a fluid paraffin liquid covering material. Thus, the hydrogen produced by the reaction of the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution will float up, pass through the liquid covering material and be discharged. The sodium will pass through the gauze and float upwardly while reacting with the aqueous alkaline solution in a partic ulate state to the boundary between the aqueous alkaline solution and up to the covering material, and thus the theratment reaction will continue. Thus, the cover material prevents the sodium and the aqueous alkaline solution from scattering. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  17. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  18. Laser-Machined Microcavities for Simultaneous Measurement of High-Temperature and High-Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengling Ran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser-machined microcavities for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and high-pressure are demonstrated. These two cascaded microcavities are an air cavity and a composite cavity including a section of fiber and an air cavity. They are both placed into a pressure chamber inside a furnace to perform simultaneous pressure and high-temperature tests. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the short air cavity are ~0.0779 nm/°C and ~1.14 nm/MPa, respectively. The thermal and pressure coefficients of the composite cavity are ~32.3 nm/°C and ~24.4 nm/MPa, respectively. The sensor could be used to separate temperature and pressure due to their different thermal and pressure coefficients. The excellent feature of such a sensor head is that it can withstand high temperatures of up to 400 °C and achieve precise measurement of high-pressure under high temperature conditions.

  19. Dynamical Fano-Like Interference between Rabi Oscillations and Coherent Phonons in a Semiconductor Microcavity System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, S; Oohata, G; Mizoguchi, K

    2015-10-09

    We report on dynamical interference between short-lived Rabi oscillations and long-lived coherent phonons in CuCl semiconductor microcavities resulting from the coupling between the two oscillations. The Fourier-transformed spectra of the time-domain signals obtained from semiconductor microcavities by using a pump-probe technique show that the intensity of the coherent longitudinal optical phonon of CuCl is enhanced by increasing that of the Rabi oscillation, which indicates that the coherent phonon is driven by the Rabi oscillation through the Fröhlich interaction. Moreover, as the Rabi oscillation frequency decreases upon crossing the phonon frequency, the spectral profile of the coherent phonon changes from a peak to a dip with an asymmetric structure. The continuous wavelet transformation reveals that these peak and dip structures originate from constructive and destructive interference between Rabi oscillations and coherent phonons, respectively. We demonstrate that the asymmetric spectral structures in relation to the frequency detuning are well reproduced by using a classical coupled oscillator model on the basis of dynamical Fano-like interference.

  20. SERS-active ZnO/Ag hybrid WGM microcavity for ultrasensitive dopamine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junfeng; Xu, Chunxiang; Nan, Haiyan; Zhu, Qiuxiang; Qin, Feifei; Manohari, A. Gowri; Wei, Ming; Zhu, Zhu; Shi, Zengliang; Ni, Zhenhua

    2016-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a potential neuro modulator in the brain which influences a variety of motivated behaviors and plays a key role in life science. A hybrid ZnO/Ag microcavity based on Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) effect has been developed for ultrasensitive detection of dopamine. Utilizing this effect of structural cavity mode, a Raman signal of R6G (5 × 10-3 M) detected by this designed surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-active substrate was enhanced more than 10-fold compared with that of ZnO film/Ag substrate. Also, this hybrid microcavity substrate manifests high SERS sensitivity to rhodamine 6 G and detection limit as low as 10-12 M to DA. The Localized Surface Plasmons of Ag nanoparticles and WGM-enhanced light-matter interaction mainly contribute to the high SERS sensitivity and help to achieve a lower detection limit. This designed SERS-active substrate based on the WGM effect has the potential for detecting neurotransmitters in life science.

  1. All-optical temporal fractional order differentiator using an in-fiber ellipsoidal air-microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihong; Sun, Shuqian; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ninghua

    2017-12-01

    An all-optical temporal fractional order differentiator with ultrabroad bandwidth (~1.6 THz) and extremely simple fabrication is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on an in-fiber ellipsoidal air-microcavity. The ellipsoidal air-microcavity is fabricated by splicing a single mode fiber (SMF) and a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) together using a simple arc-discharging technology. By changing the arc-discharging times, the propagation loss can be adjusted and then the differentiation order is tuned. A nearly Gaussian-like optical pulse with 3 dB bandwidth of 8 nm is launched into the differentiator and a 0.65 order differentiation of the input pulse is achieved with a processing error of 2.55%. Project supported by the the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61522509, 61377002, 61535012), the National High-Tech Research & Development Program of China (No. SS2015AA011002), and the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152052). Ming Li was supported in part by the Thousand Young Talent Program.

  2. Modelling Laser Milling of Microcavities for the Manufacturing of DES with Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of designed experiments, involving the use of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser system milling 316L Stainless Steel, serve to study the laser-milling process of microcavities in the manufacture of drug-eluting stents (DES. Diameter, depth, and volume error are considered to be optimized as functions of the process parameters, which include laser intensity, pulse frequency, and scanning speed. Two different DES shapes are studied that combine semispheres and cylinders. Process inputs and outputs are defined by considering the process parameters that can be changed under industrial conditions and the industrial requirements of this manufacturing process. In total, 162 different conditions are tested in a process that is modeled with the following state-of-the-art data-mining regression techniques: Support Vector Regression, Ensembles, Artificial Neural Networks, Linear Regression, and Nearest Neighbor Regression. Ensemble regression emerged as the most suitable technique for studying this industrial problem. Specifically, Iterated Bagging ensembles with unpruned model trees outperformed the other methods in the tests. This method can predict the geometrical dimensions of the machined microcavities with relative errors related to the main average value in the range of 3 to 23%, which are considered very accurate predictions, in view of the characteristics of this innovative industrial task.

  3. The Detection of Helicobacter hepaticus Using Whispering-Gallery Mode Microcavity Optical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Anderson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current bacterial detection techniques are relatively slow, require bulky instrumentation, and usually require some form of specialized training. The gold standard for bacterial detection is culture testing, which can take several days to receive a viable result. Therefore, simpler detection techniques that are both fast and sensitive could greatly improve bacterial detection and identification. Here, we present a new method for the detection of the bacteria Helicobacter hepaticus using whispering-gallery mode (WGM optical microcavity-based sensors. Due to minimal reflection losses and low material adsorption, WGM-based sensors have ultra-high quality factors, resulting in high-sensitivity sensor devices. In this study, we have shown that bacteria can be non-specifically detected using WGM optical microcavity-based sensors. The minimum detection for the device was 1 × 104 cells/mL, and the minimum time of detection was found to be 750 s. Given that a cell density as low as 1 × 103 cells/mL for Helicobacter hepaticus can cause infection, the limit of detection shown here would be useful for most levels where Helicobacter hepaticus is biologically relevant. This study suggests a new approach for H. hepaticus detection using label-free optical sensors that is faster than, and potentially as sensitive as, standard techniques.

  4. Magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanyi; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the magnetic-field induced bistability in a quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor microcavity. A critical magnetic field is obtained, and the bistability appears if a magnetic field is greater than the critical value. For a positive energy detuning of the pump from the bare exciton polaritons, one bistability loop first emerges, then it divides into two loops, and finally one of them vanishes with the increasing magnetic field. This phenomenon originates from the magnetic-field modulated interactions for opposite spins. In the variational process, there are two important effects: one is a logic gate with a small variation of the excitation laser, and the other is a spin texture like skyrmion and this texture is periodic if the energy detuning varies periodically in real space, which is useful for designing the spin-dependent optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • We study the bistability induced by a magnetic field in a microcavity. • One bistability loop can divide into two, and then the two loops return to one. • A spin texture like skyrmion and logic gate arise in the variation of bistability loop

  5. Tapered optical fiber tip probes based on focused ion beam-milled Fabry-Perot microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ricardo M.; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Focused ion beam technology is combined with dynamic chemical etching to create microcavities in tapered optical fiber tips, resulting in fiber probes for temperature and refractive index sensing. Dynamic chemical etching uses hydrofluoric acid and a syringe pump to etch standard optical fibers into cone structures called tapered fiber tips where the length, shape, and cone angle can be precisely controlled. On these tips, focused ion beam is used to mill several different types of Fabry-Perot microcavities. Two main cavity types are initially compared and then combined to form a third, complex cavity structure. In the first case, a gap is milled on the tapered fiber tip which allows the external medium to penetrate the light guiding region and thus presents sensitivity to external refractive index changes. In the second, two slots that function as mirrors are milled on the tip creating a silica cavity that is only sensitive to temperature changes. Finally, both cavities are combined on a single tapered fiber tip, resulting in a multi-cavity structure capable of discriminating between temperature and refractive index variations. This dual characterization is performed with the aid of a fast Fourier transform method to separate the contributions of each cavity and thus of temperature and refractive index. Ultimately, a tapered optical fiber tip probe with sub-standard dimensions containing a multi-cavity structure is projected, fabricated, characterized and applied as a sensing element for simultaneous temperature and refractive index discrimination.

  6. Ultrastrong exciton-photon coupling in single and coupled organic microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Bramante, Rosemary; Valle, Brent; Singer, Kenneth; Khattab, Tawfik; Williams, Jarrod; Twieg, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated ultrastrong light-matter coupling in organic planar microcavities composed of a neat glassy organic dye film between two metallic (aluminum) mirrors in a half-cavity configuration. Such cavities are characterized by Q factors around 10. Tuning the thickness of the organic layer enables the observation of the ultrastrong coupling regime. Via reflectivity measurements, we observe a very large Rabi splitting around 1.227 eV between upper and lower polariton branches at room temperature, and we detect polariton emission from the lower polariton branch via photoluminescence measurements. The large splitting is due to the large oscillator strength of the neat dye glass, and to the match of the low-Q cavity spectral width to the broad absorption width of the dye film material. We also study the interaction between excitonic states of neat glassy organic dye and cavity modes within coupled microcavity structures. The high-reflectivity mirrors are formed from distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR), which are multilayer films fabricated using the coextrusion process, containing alternating layers of high (SAN25, n =1.57) and low (Dyneon THV 220G, n =1.37) refractive index dielectric polymers. Nonlinear optical measurements will be discussed. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation Center for Layered Polymer Systems (CLiPS) under Grant Number DMR-0423914.

  7. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasi-resonantly pumped coupledquantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing thesample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning and, on spectral resonance...

  8. Two-photon interference from a quantum dot-microcavity: Persistent pure-dephasing and suppression of time-jitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, M.

    We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasiresonantly pumped coupled quantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing the sample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning, and on spectral...

  9. Ultra-compact and wide-spectrum-range thermo-optic switch based on silicon coupled photonic crystal microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Chung, Chi-Jui; Pan, Zeyu; Yan, Hai; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.

    2015-01-01

    We design, fabricate, and experimentally demonstrate a compact thermo-optic gate switch comprising a 3.78 μm-long coupled L0-type photonic crystal microcavities on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A nanohole is inserted in the center of each individual L0 photonic crystal microcavity. Coupling between identical microcavities gives rise to bonding and anti-bonding states of the coupled photonic molecules. The coupled photonic crystal microcavities are numerically simulated and experimentally verified with a 6 nm-wide flat-bottom resonance in its transmission spectrum, which enables wider operational spectrum range than microring resonators. An integrated micro-heater is in direct contact with the silicon core to efficiently drive the device. The thermo-optic switch is measured with an optical extinction ratio of 20 dB, an on-off switching power of 18.2 mW, a thermo-optic tuning efficiency of 0.63 nm/mW, a rise time of 14.8 μs, and a fall time of 18.5 μs. The measured on-chip loss on the transmission band is as low as 1 dB

  10. Advances in optoplasmonic sensors – combining optical nano/microcavities and photonic crystals with plasmonic nanostructures and nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Jolly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanophotonic device building blocks, such as optical nano/microcavities and plasmonic nanostructures, lie at the forefront of sensing and spectrometry of trace biological and chemical substances. A new class of nanophotonic architecture has emerged by combining optically resonant dielectric nano/microcavities with plasmonically resonant metal nanostructures to enable detection at the nanoscale with extraordinary sensitivity. Initial demonstrations include single-molecule detection and even single-ion sensing. The coupled photonic-plasmonic resonator system promises a leap forward in the nanoscale analysis of physical, chemical, and biological entities. These optoplasmonic sensor structures could be the centrepiece of miniaturised analytical laboratories, on a chip, with detection capabilities that are beyond the current state of the art. In this paper, we review this burgeoning field of optoplasmonic biosensors. We first focus on the state of the art in nanoplasmonic sensor structures, high quality factor optical microcavities, and photonic crystals separately before proceeding to an outline of the most recent advances in hybrid sensor systems. We discuss the physics of this modality in brief and each of its underlying parts, then the prospects as well as challenges when integrating dielectric nano/microcavities with metal nanostructures. In Section 5, we hint to possible future applications of optoplasmonic sensing platforms which offer many degrees of freedom towards biomedical diagnostics at the level of single molecules.

  11. Submicron Positioning of Single Atoms in a Microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussmann, Stefan; Hijlkema, Markus; Weber, Bernhard; Rohde, Felix; Rempe, Gerhard; Kuhn, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of individual atoms to a high-finesse optical cavity is precisely controlled and adjusted using a standing-wave dipole-force trap, a challenge for strong atom-cavity coupling. Ultracold Rubidium atoms are first loaded into potential minima of the dipole trap in the center of the cavity. Then we use the trap as a conveyor belt that we set into motion perpendicular to the cavity axis. This allows us to repetitively move atoms out of and back into the cavity mode with a repositioning precision of 135 nm. This makes it possible to either selectively address one atom of a string of atoms by the cavity, or to simultaneously couple two precisely separated atoms to a higher mode of the cavity

  12. Absorptive lasing mode suppression in ZnO nano- and microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wille, M.; Michalsky, T.; Krüger, E.; Grundmann, M.; Schmidt-Grund, R. [Universität Leipzig, Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstraße 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-08-08

    We conclusively explain the different lasing mode energies in ZnO nano- and microcavities observed by us and reported in literature. The limited penetration depth of usually used excitation lasers results in an inhomogeneous spatial gain region depending on the structure size and geometry. Hence, weakly or even nonexcited areas remain present after excitation, where modes are instantaneously suppressed by excitonic absorption. We compare the effects for ZnO microwires, nanowires, and tetrapod-like structures at room temperature and demonstrate that the corresponding mode selective effect is most pronounced for whispering-gallery modes in microwires with a hexagonal cross section. Furthermore, the absorptive lasing mode suppression will be demonstrated by correlating the spot size of the excitation laser and the lasing mode characteristic of a single ZnO nanowire.

  13. On-Chip High-Finesse Fabry-Perot Microcavities for Optical Sensing and Quantum Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Bitarafan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities—with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors—offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  14. Hybrid quantum gates between flying photon and diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers assisted by optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Lu Long, Gui

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid quantum gates hold great promise for quantum information processing since they preserve the advantages of different quantum systems. Here we present compact quantum circuits to deterministically implement controlled-NOT, Toffoli, and Fredkin gates between a flying photon qubit and diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers assisted by microcavities. The target qubits of these universal quantum gates are encoded on the spins of the electrons associated with the diamond NV centers and they have long coherence time for storing information, and the control qubit is encoded on the polarizations of the flying photon and can be easily manipulated. Our quantum circuits are compact, economic, and simple. Moreover, they do not require additional qubits. The complexity of our schemes for universal three-qubit gates is much reduced, compared to the synthesis with two-qubit entangling gates. These schemes have high fidelities and efficiencies, and they are feasible in experiment. PMID:26271899

  15. Entropic Lattice Boltzmann study of hydrodynamics in a microcavity - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlin, I. V.; Ansumali, S.; Frouzakis, Ch. E.; Boulouchos, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Labor fuer Aerothermochemie und Verbrennungssysteme ETHZ, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This yearly report for 2004 presents a review of work being done on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) at the Laboratory for Aero-thermochemistry and Combustion Systems at the Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland, on the development of a new approximation method for use in micrometer-scale flow calculations. The method, based on recently-developed so-called minimal entropy-kinetic models of the Boltzmann-kinetic equation, is discussed. Two detailed studies of micro-flows in specific geometries are discussed. The potential of the new method as a replacement for costly microscopic simulation methods is examined. The development and testing of a new thermal model - the so-called Thermal D2Q9 model - is discussed. A second study examined flows in a micro-cavity. A detailed parametric study of the quantitative and qualitative properties of the flows for a comprehensive range of dilution is mentioned.

  16. Mass and Momentum Transport in Microcavities for Diffusion-Dominant Cell Culture Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Pinero, Daniel; Hsieh, Adam H.; Atencia, Javier

    2012-01-01

    For the informed design of microfluidic devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena at the microscale. This letter outlines an analytically-driven approach to the design of rectangular microcavities extending perpendicular to a perfusion microchannel for microfluidic cell culture devices. We present equations to estimate the spatial transition from advection- to diffusion-dominant transport inside cavities as a function of the geometry and flow conditions. We also estimate the time required for molecules, such as nutrients or drugs to travel from the microchannel to a given depth into the cavity. These analytical predictions can facilitate the rational design of microfluidic devices to optimize and maintain long-term, physiologically-based culture conditions with low fluid shear stress.

  17. Metal Nanoparticles/Porous Silicon Microcavity Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Fluorescence for the Detection of DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A porous silicon microcavity (PSiMC with resonant peak wavelength of 635 nm was fabricated by electrochemical etching. Metal nanoparticles (NPs/PSiMC enhanced fluorescence substrates were prepared by the electrostatic adherence of Au NPs that were distributed in PSiMC. The Au NPs/PSiMC device was used to characterize the target DNA immobilization and hybridization with its complementary DNA sequences marked with Rhodamine red (RRA. Fluorescence enhancement was observed on the Au NPs/PSiMC device substrate; and the minimum detection concentration of DNA ran up to 10 pM. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR of the MC substrate; which is so well-positioned to improve fluorescence enhancement rather the fluorescence enhancement of the high reflection band of the Bragg reflector; would welcome such a highly sensitive in biosensor.

  18. Metal Nanoparticles/Porous Silicon Microcavity Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Fluorescence for the Detection of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajia; Jia, Zhenhong

    2018-02-23

    A porous silicon microcavity (PSiMC) with resonant peak wavelength of 635 nm was fabricated by electrochemical etching. Metal nanoparticles (NPs)/PSiMC enhanced fluorescence substrates were prepared by the electrostatic adherence of Au NPs that were distributed in PSiMC. The Au NPs/PSiMC device was used to characterize the target DNA immobilization and hybridization with its complementary DNA sequences marked with Rhodamine red (RRA). Fluorescence enhancement was observed on the Au NPs/PSiMC device substrate; and the minimum detection concentration of DNA ran up to 10 pM. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the MC substrate; which is so well-positioned to improve fluorescence enhancement rather the fluorescence enhancement of the high reflection band of the Bragg reflector; would welcome such a highly sensitive in biosensor.

  19. On-Chip High-Finesse Fabry-Perot Microcavities for Optical Sensing and Quantum Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitarafan, Mohammad H; DeCorby, Ray G

    2017-07-31

    For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities-with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors-offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  20. Spoked-ring microcavities: enabling seamless integration of nanophotonics in unmodified advanced CMOS microelectronics chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark T.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Ram, Rajeev J.; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Popovic, Milos A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the spoked-ring microcavity, a nanophotonic building block enabling energy-efficient, active photonics in unmodified, advanced CMOS microelectronics processes. The cavity is realized in the IBM 45nm SOI CMOS process - the same process used to make many commercially available microprocessors including the IBM Power7 and Sony Playstation 3 processors. In advanced SOI CMOS processes, no partial etch steps and no vertical junctions are available, which limits the types of optical cavities that can be used for active nanophotonics. To enable efficient active devices with no process modifications, we designed a novel spoked-ring microcavity which is fully compatible with the constraints of the process. As a modulator, the device leverages the sub-100nm lithography resolution of the process to create radially extending p-n junctions, providing high optical fill factor depletion-mode modulation and thereby eliminating the need for a vertical junction. The device is made entirely in the transistor active layer, low-loss crystalline silicon, which eliminates the need for a partial etch commonly used to create ridge cavities. In this work, we present the full optical and electrical design of the cavity including rigorous mode solver and FDTD simulations to design the Qlimiting electrical contacts and the coupling/excitation. We address the layout of active photonics within the mask set of a standard advanced CMOS process and show that high-performance photonic devices can be seamlessly monolithically integrated alongside electronics on the same chip. The present designs enable monolithically integrated optoelectronic transceivers on a single advanced CMOS chip, without requiring any process changes, enabling the penetration of photonics into the microprocessor.

  1. Microcavity structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.; Grudzien, D.; Feinerman, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of building mm-wave cavities using deep x-ray lithography techniques is being investigated. These cavities could be considered for linac accelerating structures, undulators, free electron lasers, or mm-wave amplifiers. The construction process includes making precision x-ray masks, x-ray exposure of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA), removal of PMMA, and electroplating a metal. Highly precise two-dimensional features can be machined onto wafers by this technique. The challenge is to fabricate the wafers onto three-dimensional rf structures. Rectangular cavity geometry is best suited to this fabrication technique. Status of wafer manufacture, fabrication and alignment techniques using capillaries bonded in precision grooves, 2π/3 120-GHz linac structures, heat extraction analysis, and beam dynamics in a 5-meter-long 50-MeV linac will be discussed. Measurements made on 10X larger scale models that were built with conventional techniques will also be discussed

  2. Broad-spectrum enhanced absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells in metal-mirror microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Tao, Liu; Yun-Kai, Cao; Hong, Tong; Dai-Qiang, Wang; Zhen-Hua, Wu

    2018-04-01

    The optical absorption of graphene-molybdenum disulfide photovoltaic cells (GM-PVc) in wedge-shaped metal-mirror microcavities (w-MMCs) combined with a spectrum-splitting structure was studied. Results showed that the combination of spectrum-splitting structure and w-MMC can enable the light absorption of GM-PVcs to reach about 65% in the broad spectrum. The influence of processing errors on the absorption of GM-PVcs in w-MMCs was 3-14 times lower than that of GM-PVcs in wedge photonic crystal microcavities. The light absorption of GM-PVcs reached 60% in the broad spectrum, even with the processing errors. The proposed structure is easy to implement and may have potentially important applications in the development of ultra-thin and high-efficiency solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Substantial enhancement of red emission intensity by embedding Eu-doped GaN into a microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Inaba

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate resonantly excited photoluminescence from a Eu,O-codoped GaN layer embedded into a microcavity, consisting of an AlGaN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector and a Ag reflecting mirror. The microcavity is responsible for a 18.6-fold increase of the Eu emission intensity at ∼10K, and a 21-fold increase at room temperature. We systematically investigate the origin of this enhancement, and we conclude that it is due to the combination of several effects including, the lifetime shortening of the Eu emission, the strain-induced piezoelectric effect, and the increased extraction and excitation field efficiencies. This study paves the way for an alternative method to enhance the photoluminescence intensity in rare-earth doped semiconductor structures.

  4. Real-Time and In-Flow Sensing Using a High Sensitivity Porous Silicon Microcavity-Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Caroselli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon seems to be an appropriate material platform for the development of high-sensitivity and low-cost optical sensors, as their porous nature increases the interaction with the target substances, and their fabrication process is very simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we present the experimental development of a porous silicon microcavity sensor and its use for real-time in-flow sensing application. A high-sensitivity configuration was designed and then fabricated, by electrochemically etching a silicon wafer. Refractive index sensing experiments were realized by flowing several dilutions with decreasing refractive indices, and measuring the spectral shift in real-time. The porous silicon microcavity sensor showed a very linear response over a wide refractive index range, with a sensitivity around 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU, which allowed us to directly detect refractive index variations in the 10−7 RIU range.

  5. Real-Time and In-Flow Sensing Using a High Sensitivity Porous Silicon Microcavity-Based Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroselli, Raffaele; Martín Sánchez, David; Ponce Alcántara, Salvador; Prats Quilez, Francisco; Torrijos Morán, Luis; García-Rupérez, Jaime

    2017-12-05

    Porous silicon seems to be an appropriate material platform for the development of high-sensitivity and low-cost optical sensors, as their porous nature increases the interaction with the target substances, and their fabrication process is very simple and inexpensive. In this paper, we present the experimental development of a porous silicon microcavity sensor and its use for real-time in-flow sensing application. A high-sensitivity configuration was designed and then fabricated, by electrochemically etching a silicon wafer. Refractive index sensing experiments were realized by flowing several dilutions with decreasing refractive indices, and measuring the spectral shift in real-time. The porous silicon microcavity sensor showed a very linear response over a wide refractive index range, with a sensitivity around 1000 nm/refractive index unit (RIU), which allowed us to directly detect refractive index variations in the 10 -7 RIU range.

  6. High-fidelity quantum gates on quantum-dot-confined electron spins in low-Q optical microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Gao, Jian-Cun; Deng, Fu-Guo; Long, Gui-Lu

    2018-04-01

    We propose some high-fidelity quantum circuits for quantum computing on electron spins of quantum dots (QD) embedded in low-Q optical microcavities, including the two-qubit controlled-NOT gate and the multiple-target-qubit controlled-NOT gate. The fidelities of both quantum gates can, in principle, be robust to imperfections involved in a practical input-output process of a single photon by converting the infidelity into a heralded error. Furthermore, the influence of two different decay channels is detailed. By decreasing the quality factor of the present microcavity, we can largely increase the efficiencies of these quantum gates while their high fidelities remain unaffected. This proposal also has another advantage regarding its experimental feasibility, in that both quantum gates can work faithfully even when the QD-cavity systems are non-identical, which is of particular importance in current semiconductor QD technology.

  7. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ALKALINE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    There was no clear decrease in the yield seen in the bands and the loss of enzyme was not observed with the gel analysis. It may ... The native gel results show clear distinct bands for the 3 alkaline phosphotase isoenzymes ..... British Medical.

  8. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Despite durability in several environments, ceramics and refractories can not endure alkaline environments at high temperature. An example of such an environment is when burning biofuel in modern heat and power plants in which the demand for increasing efficiency results in higher combustion temperatures and content of alkaline substances in the flue gas. Some experiences of these environments has been gained from such vastly different equipment as regenerator chambers in the glass industry and MHD-generators. The grains of a ceramic material are usually bonded together by a glassy phase which despite it frequently being a minor constituent render the materials properties and limits its use at elevated temperature. The damage is usually caused by alkaline containing low-melting phases and the decrease of the viscosity of the bonding glass phase which is caused by the alkaline. The surfaces which are exposed to the flue gas in a modern power plant are not only exposed to the high temperature but also a corroding and eroding, particle containing, gas flow of high velocity. The use of conventional refractory products is limited to 1300-1350 deg C. Higher strength and fracture toughness as well as durability against gases, slag and melts at temperatures exceeding 1700 deg C are expected of the materials of the future. Continuous transport of corrosive compounds to the surface and corrosion products from the surface as well as a suitable environment for the corrosion to occur in are prerequisites for extensive corrosion to come about. The highest corrosion rate is therefore found in a temperature interval between the dew point and the melting point of the alkaline-constituent containing compound. It is therefore important that the corrosion resistance is sufficient in the environment in which alkaline containing melts or slag may appear. In environments such as these, even under normal circumstances durable ceramics, such as alumina and silicon carbide, are attacked

  9. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter ... Alkaline earth oxides improve glass forming capability while heavy metal ... reports on optical properties of MO-B2O3 glasses containing alkaline earth oxides.

  10. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  11. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

  12. Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczur-Uermoessy, G. [DAUG Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft, Esslingen (Germany)

    1998-03-30

    Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g. nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries. (orig.)

  13. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  14. High-power microcavity lasers based on highly erbium-doped sol-gel aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc Chung; Chu Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen Thu Trang; Pham Thu Nga; Pham Van Hoi; Bui Van Thien

    2006-01-01

    High-power whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) lasing from highly erbium-doped sol-gel aluminosilicate microsphere cavity coupled to a half-tapered optical fiber is presented. The lasing output power as high as 0.45 mW (-3.5 dBm) was obtained from sol-gel glass microsphere cavity with diameters in the range of 40-150 μm. The sol-gel method for making highly concentration Er-doped aluminosilicate glasses with Er-ion concentrations from 0.125 to 0.65 mol% of Er 3+ is described. Controlling collected lasing wavelength at each WGM is possible by adjusting the distance between the half-taper fiber and the microcavity and by diameter of the waist of half-taper fiber. Using the analytic formulas we calculated the TE and TM lasing modes and it is shown that the experimental results are in good agreement with the calculation prediction

  15. Cooperative spontaneous emission of nano-emitters with inter-emitter coupling in a leaky microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog Woo; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2015-01-01

    We study the spontaneous emission from a few two-level nano-emitters placed in a leaky microcavity with Lorentzian spectral density near a critically damped regime. Collective features of the spontaneous emission are investigated by numerical analysis of the excitation dynamics when initially one nano-emitter is totally excited but we do not know which one. The results show that there are three decay rates in the excitation dynamics, two for simple exponential decays and one for damped oscillatory decay. The excitation dynamics is found to critically depend on the regime of the system. It is shown that the spontaneous emission is enhanced or suppressed depending on whether the system is in the underdamped or overdamped regime, respectively. On the other hand, the cooperative spontaneous emission is suppressed in the underdamped while it is enhanced in the overdamped regime. Furthermore, the effect of the direct inter-emitter coupling on the breaking of the cooperativeness of the spontaneous emission is shown as well. (paper)

  16. Liquid sensing capability of rolled-up tubular optical microcavities: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangyuan; Zhan, Tianrong; Huang, Gaoshan; Mei, Yongfeng; Hu, Xinhua

    2012-10-07

    Rolled-up tubular optical microcavities are a novel type of optical sensor for identifying different liquids and monitoring single cells. Based on a Mie scattering method, we systematically study the optical resonances and liquid sensing capability of microtubes. Analytical formulas are presented to calculate the resonant wavelengths λ(r), Q factors, sensitivities S and figures of merit QS. Both ideal and rolled-up microtubes are considered for different optical materials in tube walls (refractive indices ranging from 1.5 to 2.5) and for three setups: tube-in-liquid, hollow-tube-in-liquid and liquid-in-tube. It is found that for rolled-up microtubes, the highest QS can be achieved by using the liquid-in-tube setup and very thin wall thicknesses. A maximal sensitivity is found in the case of the liquid cylinder. Our theory well explains a recent experiment under the setup of tube-in-liquid. It is also found that, although it describes the case of tube-in-liquid well, the waveguide approximation approach is not suitable for the case of liquid-in-tube. The results could be useful to design better optofluidic devices based on rolled-up microtubes.

  17. Spectrum study of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices with micro-cavity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Wei Fuxiang; Liu Hui

    2009-01-01

    Blue and white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices OLEDs with cavity effect have been fabricated. TBADN:3%DSAPh and Alq 3 :DCJTB/TBADN:TBPe/Alq 3 :C545 were used as emitting materials of microcavity OLEDs. On a patterned glass substrate, silver was deposited as reflective anode, and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) layer as HIL and 4'-bis[N-(1-Naphthyl)- N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (NPB) layer as HTL were made. Al/Ag thin films were made as semi-transparent cathode with a transmittance of about 30%. By changing the thickness of indium tin oxide ITO, deep blue with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates (CIEx, y) of (0.141, 0.049) was obtained on TBADN:3%DSAPh devices, and different color (red, blue and green) was obtained on Alq 3 :DCJTB/TBADN:TBPe/Alq 3 :C545 devices, full width at half maxima (FWHM) was only 17 nm. The spectral intensity and FWHM of emission in cavity devices have also been studied.

  18. Simulations of emission from microcavity tandem organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Rana; Xu, Chun; Zhao, Weijun; Liu, Rui; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Microcavity tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are simulated and compared to experimental results. The simulations are based on two complementary techniques: rigorous finite element solutions of Maxwell's equations and Fourier space scattering matrix solutions. A narrowing and blue shift of the emission spectrum relative to the noncavity single unit OLED is obtained both theoretically and experimentally. In the simulations, a distribution of emitting sources is placed near the interface of the electron transport layer tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Al (Alq 3 ) and the hole transport layer (N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine) (α-NPB). Far-field electric field intensities are simulated. The simulated widths of the emission peaks also agree with the experimental results. The simulations of the 2-unit tandem OLEDs shifted the emission to shorter wavelength, in agreement with experimental measurements. The emission spectra's dependence on individual layer thicknesses also agreed well with measurements. Approaches to simulate and improve the light emission intensity from these OLEDs, in particular for white OLEDs, are discussed.

  19. Development of the automated circulating tumor cell recovery system with microcavity array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Ryo; Hosokawa, Masahito; Nakamura, Seita; Kanbara, Hisashige; Kanetomo, Masafumi; Kikuhara, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Yoshino, Tomoko

    2015-05-15

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are well recognized as useful biomarker for cancer diagnosis and potential target of drug discovery for metastatic cancer. Efficient and precise recovery of extremely low concentrations of CTCs from blood has been required to increase the detection sensitivity. Here, an automated system equipped with a microcavity array (MCA) was demonstrated for highly efficient and reproducible CTC recovery. The use of MCA allows selective recovery of cancer cells from whole blood on the basis of differences in size between tumor and blood cells. Intra- and inter-assays revealed that the automated system achieved high efficiency and reproducibility equal to the assay manually performed by well-trained operator. Under optimized assay workflow, the automated system allows efficient and precise cell recovery for non-small cell lung cancer cells spiked in whole blood. The automated CTC recovery system will contribute to high-throughput analysis in the further clinical studies on large cohort of cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Limulus amoebocyte lysate test via an open-microcavity optical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Jonathan; Ye, Jing Yong

    2018-02-01

    Almost since its discovery, Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) testing has been an important part of the pharmaceutical quality control toolkit. It allows for in vitro endotoxin testing, which has replaced tests using animals, such as using rabbits' thermal response to judge pyrogenicity of test samples, thus leading to a less expensive and faster test of parenteral pharmaceuticals and medical devices that contact blood or cerebrospinal fluid. However, limited by the detection mechanisms of the LAL assays currently used in industry, further improvement in their performance is challenging. To address the growing demand on optimizing LAL assays for increased test sensitivity and reduced assay time, we have developed an LAL assay approach based on a detection mechanism that is different from those being used in industry, namely, gel-clot, turbidimetric, and chromogenic detection. Using a unique open-microcavity photonic-crystal biosensor to monitor the change in the refractive index due to the reaction between LAL regents and endotoxins, we have demonstrated that this approach has improved the LAL assay sensitivity by 200 times compared with the commercial standard methods, reduced the time needed for the assay by more than half, and eliminated the necessity to incubate the test samples. This study opens up the possibility of using the significantly improved LAL assays for a wide range of applications.

  1. Methods for polarized light emission from CdSe quantum dot based monolithic pillar microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, Moritz; Kalden, Joachim; Sebald, Kathrin; Gutowski, Juergen; Kruse, Carsten; Hommel, Detlef [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A lifting of the polarization degeneracy of the fundamental cavity mode in pillar microcavities (MCs) would allow for controlling the polarization state of the emitted photons. Therefore, monolithic VCSEL structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy containing either one CdSe/ZnSSe quantum dot layer or three quantum well layers as active material. By using focused-ion-beam etching, MC pillars with different geometries were prepared out of the planar samples. Among these are circularly shaped pillar MCs with diameters in the range from 500 nm up to 4 {mu}m and quality factors of up to 7860, elliptically shaped MCs, and so-called photonic molecules consisting of circular pillar MCs which are connected by small bars. Polarization dependent photoluminescence investigations of the fundamental cavity mode reveal a lifting of the polarization degeneracy for all three types of MCs. The energy splitting of up to 0.42 meV in the circularly shaped pillar MCs is probably caused by anisotropic strain conditions within the sample and directly dependent on the pillar diameter, whereas the larger energy splitting of up to 0.72 meV for the photonic molecules or even 4.5 meV for the elliptically shaped MC is based on their asymmetric cross sections.

  2. Analysis of longitudinal variations in North Pacific alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Tyrrell, T.; Achterberg, E. P.

    2016-02-01

    Carbon measurements in the ocean lack the coverage of physical measurements, so approximate alkalinity is predicted where data is unavailable. Surface alkalinity in the North Pacific is poorly characterised by predictive algorithms. Understanding the processes affecting alkalinity in this area can improve the equations. We investigated the causes of regional variations in alkalinity using GLODAPv2. We tested different hypotheses for the causes of three longitudinal phenomena in surface ocean values of Alk*, a tracer of calcium carbonate cycling. These phenomena are: (a) an increase in Alk* from east to west at 50°N, (b) an increase in Alk* from west to east at 30°N, and (c) a lack of a strong increase in Alk* from west to east in the equatorial upwelling area. We found that the most likely cause of higher Alk* on the western side of the subpolar North Pacific (at 50°N) is that denser isopycnals with higher Alk* lie at shallower depths on the western side than the eastern side. At 30°N, the main cause of higher Alk* on the eastern side of the basin is upwelling along the continental shelf of southwestern North America. Along the equator, our analyses suggest that the absence of a strong east-west trend is because the more intense upwelling on the eastern side of the basin does not, under normal conditions, lead to strong elevation of Alk*. However, surface Alk* is more strongly elevated in the eastern Equatorial Pacific during negative phases of the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation, probably because the upwelled water comes from greater depth at these times.

  3. High figure of merit ultra-compact 3-channel parallel-connected photonic crystal mini-hexagonal-H1 defect microcavity sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Sun, Fujun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Ding, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiawen; Tian, Huiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic crystal (PhC) butt-coupled mini-hexagonal-H1 defect (MHHD) microcavity sensor is proposed. The MHHD microcavity is designed by introducing six mini-holes into the initial H1 defect region. Further, based on a well-designed 1 ×3 PhC Beam Splitter and three optimal MHHD microcavity sensors with different lattice constants (a), a 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is proposed. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations method is performed to demonstrate the high performance of our structures. As statistics show, the quality factor (Q) of our optimal MHHD microcavity attains higher than 7×104, while the sensitivity (S) reaches up to 233 nm/RIU(RIU = refractive index unit). Thus, the figure of merit (FOM) >104 of the sensor is obtained, which is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the previous butt-coupled sensors [1-4]. As for the 3-channel parallel-connected PhC MHHD microcavity sensor array, the FOMs of three independent MHHD microcavity sensors are 8071, 8250 and 8250, respectively. In addition, the total footprint of the proposed 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array is ultra-compactness of 12.5 μm ×31 μm (width × length). Therefore, the proposed high FOM sensor array is an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact highly parallel refractive index (RI) sensing.

  4. When can ocean acidification impacts be detected from decadal alkalinity measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. R.; Frölicher, T. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Rodgers, K. B.; Slater, R. D.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We use a large initial condition suite of simulations (30 runs) with an Earth system model to assess the detectability of biogeochemical impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the marine alkalinity distribution from decadally repeated hydrographic measurements such as those produced by the Global Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP). Detection of these impacts is complicated by alkalinity changes from variability and long-term trends in freshwater and organic matter cycling and ocean circulation. In our ensemble simulation, variability in freshwater cycling generates large changes in alkalinity that obscure the changes of interest and prevent the attribution of observed alkalinity redistribution to OA. These complications from freshwater cycling can be mostly avoided through salinity normalization of alkalinity. With the salinity-normalized alkalinity, modeled OA impacts are broadly detectable in the surface of the subtropical gyres by 2030. Discrepancies between this finding and the finding of an earlier analysis suggest that these estimates are strongly sensitive to the patterns of calcium carbonate export simulated by the model. OA impacts are detectable later in the subpolar and equatorial regions due to slower responses of alkalinity to OA in these regions and greater seasonal equatorial alkalinity variability. OA impacts are detectable later at depth despite lower variability due to smaller rates of change and consistent measurement uncertainty.

  5. Detection of protein kinases P38 based on reflectance spectroscopy with n-type porous silicon microcavities for diagnosing hydatidosis hydatid disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoyi; Lv, Guodong; Jia, Zhenhong; Wang, Jiajia; Mo, Jiaqing

    2014-11-01

    Detection of protein kinases P38 of Echinococcus granulosus and its homologous antibody have great value for early diagnosis and treatment of hydatidosis hydatid disease. In this experiment, n-type mesoporous silicon microcavities have been successfully fabricated without KOH etching or oxidants treatment that reported in other literature. We observed the changes of the reflectivity spectrum before and after the antigen-antibody reaction by n-type mesoporous silicon microcavities. The binding of protein kinases P38 and its homologous antibody causes red shifts in the reflection spectrum of the sensor, and the red shift was proportional to the protein kinases P38 concentration with linear relationship.

  6. Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Zhang Yong; Jin Guangsheng

    2011-01-01

    We present an entanglement purification protocol and an entanglement concentration protocol for electron-spin entangled states, resorting to quantum-dot spin and optical-microcavity-coupled systems. The parity-check gates (PCGs) constructed by the cavity-spin-coupling system provide a different method for the entanglement purification of electron-spin entangled states. This protocol can efficiently purify an electron ensemble in a mixed entangled state. The PCGs can also concentrate electron-spin pairs in less-entangled pure states efficiently. The proposed methods are more flexible as only single-photon detection and single-electron detection are needed.

  7. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  8. Electrical investigations of hybrid OLED microcavity structures with novel encapsulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Stefan; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    An electrical driven organic solid state laser is a very challenging goal which is so far well beyond reach. As a step towards realization, we monolithically implemented an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) into a dielectric, high quality microcavity (MC) consisting of two Distributed Bragg Reectors (DBR). In order to account for an optimal optical operation, the OLED structure has to be adapted. Furthermore, we aim to excite the device not only electrically but optically as well. Different OLED structures with an emission layer consisting of Alq3:DCM (2 wt%) were investigated. The External Quantum Efficiencies (EQE) of this hybrid structures are in the range of 1-2 %, as expected for this material combination. Including metal layers into a MC is complicated and has a huge impact on the device performance. Using Transfer-Matrix-Algorithm (TMA) simulations, the best positions for the metal electrodes are determined. First, the electroluminescence (EL) of the adjusted OLED structure on top of a DBR is measured under nitrogen atmosphere. The modes showed quality factors of Q = 60. After the deposition of the top DBR, the EL is measured again and the quality factors increased up to Q = 600. Considering the two 25-nm-thick-silver contacts a Q-factor of 600 is very high. The realization of a suitable encapsulation method is important. Two approaches were successfully tested. The first method is based on the substitution of a DBR layer with a layer produced via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The second method uses a 0.15-mm-thick cover glass glued on top of the DBR with a 0.23-μm-thick single-component glue layer. Due to the working encapsulation, it is possible to investigate the sample under ambient conditions.

  9. Utilizing an open-microcavity optoacoustic sensor for spectroscopic determination of methemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ralph W.; Kadugodinandareddy, Kavya; Karunakaran, Vinitha; Whitney, Casey; Ling, Jian; Ye, Jing Yong

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple, non-destructive photoacoustic spectroscopy method utilizing a unique open-microcavity optoacoustic sensor to measure the concentration ratio of Methemoglobin (MetHb) in an optically scattering medium. Elevated levels of MetHb, present for example in the blood disorder Methemeglobinemia, cannot be detected by conventional pulse oximetry, and may result in inaccurate arterial oxygen saturation measurements. Samples with different ratios of Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2), Deoxygenated Hemoglobin (HHb), and MetHb were obtained and mixed with nanoscale latex beads to present an optical scattering effect. Polymer encapsulated hemoglobin (PEH) samples were also studied. A sample chamber containing 20 μL of each sample was positioned directly underneath our patented optoacoustic sensor. Unlike a piezoelectric transducer, our optoacoustic sensor allows an excitation laser beam from an OPO laser to pass through and be absorbed by the sample to produce a photoacoustic signal. The cavity layer of the optoacoustic sensor is exposed directly to the resulting ultrasound signal, which causes an intensity modulation of a HeNe laser that is used to monitor the resonance condition of the sensor. A probe laser beam is total internally reflected off of the sensor and detected with a fiber-coupled APD detector. Three wavelengths are chosen for our excitation laser based on the absorption peaks and isobestic points of HHb, HbO2, and MetHb. Using established values of the molar extinction coefficients of HbO2, HHb, and MetHb a set of three simultaneous equations can be solved to accurately determine the concentration ratio of MetHb.

  10. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of ∼ pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu 2 O/Cu(OH) 2 couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu 2 O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool ( 2 available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O 2 will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl 2 - and of the reduction of O 2 . The development of anoxic conditions and an increase in pore-water sulphide concentration will

  11. Corrosion of copper in alkaline chloride environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd., Calgary (Canada)

    2002-08-01

    The available literature information on the corrosion and electrochemical behaviour of copper in alkaline environments has been reviewed. The purpose of the review was to assess the impact of an alkaline plume from cementitious material on the corrosion behaviour of a copper canister in an SKB-3 type repository. The effect of the evolution of the environmental conditions within the repository have been considered, including the effects of temperature, redox conditions, pore-water salinity and pH. If the pore-water pH increases prior to the establishment of anoxic conditions, the canister surface will passivate as the pore-water pH exceeds a value of {approx} pH 9. Passivation will result from the formation of a duplex Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} film. The corrosion potential will be determined by the equilibrium potential for the Cu{sub 2}O/Cu(OH){sub 2} couple under oxic conditions, or by the Cu/Cu{sub 2}O redox couple under anoxic conditions (in the absence of sulphide). Pitting corrosion is only likely to occur early in the evolution of the repository environment, whilst the canister is still relatively cool (<40 deg C), whilst there is still O{sub 2} available to support localised corrosion, and prior to the increase in pore-water pH and salinity. The subsequent increase in canister surface temperature, pore-water pH and salinity, and decrease in O{sub 2} will make pit initiation less likely, although the canister will remain passive provided the pore-water pH is maintained above pH 9. The higher the pore-water pH, the more strongly the canister is passivated and the less likely the surface is to undergo localised attack. If the pore-water salinity increases prior to the increase in pH, there could be a period of active canister corrosion before passivation occurs.Under these circumstances, the corrosion potential will be a true mixed potential, determine by the relative kinetics of Cu dissolution as CuCl{sub 2} - and of the reduction of O{sub 2}. The development

  12. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  13. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahna, S K; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit [Cytogenetics and Mycology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Government College, Ajmer (India)

    1990-07-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10{sup -6}, 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3}M) of sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) for 4 hours at 28{+-} 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M{sub 2}.

  14. Alkaline azide mutagenicity in cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahna, S.K.; Bhargava, Anubha; Mohan, Lalit

    1990-01-01

    Sodium azide is known as a potent mutagen in cereals and legumes. It is very effective in acidic medium in barley. Here an attempt is made to measure the effectiveness of sodium azide in alkaline medium (pH 7.4) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., variety FS-68). Seeds pre-soaked in distilled water for 5 hours were treated with different concentrations (10 -6 , 10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M) of sodium azide (NaN 3 ) for 4 hours at 28± 2 deg. C. Bottles were intermittently shaken, then the seeds were thoroughly washed in running tap water and subsequently planted in pots. The treatment caused significant biological damage such as reduction in seed germination, length of root and shoot, number of nodules and pods per plant and morphological leaf variations. Morphological, as well as chlorophyll mutants, were detected in M 2

  15. catalysed oxidation of atenolol by alkaline permanganate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Kinetics of ruthenium (III) catalyzed oxidation of atenolol by permanganate in alkaline medium at constant ionic strength of 0⋅30 mol dm3 has been studied spectrophotometrically using a rapid kinetic accessory. Reaction between permanganate and atenolol in alkaline medium exhibits 1 : 8 stoichiometry.

  16. Increased liver alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of daily, oral administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis stem bark (2mg/kg body weight) for 18days on the alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities of rat liver and serum were investigated. Compared with the control, the activities of liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ...

  17. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rb-Sr age of the Sivamalai alkaline complex, Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Rao, T.V.; Narayana, B.L.; Gopalan, K.

    1994-01-01

    The Sivamalai alkaline complex comprises ferro-, pyroxene- hornblende-and nepheline-syenites. Field relations show that the nepheline syenites followed the emplacement of non-feldspathoidal syenites. Mineralogical data on the syenite suite have been reviewed. The Sivamalai alkaline rocks are not strongly enriched in rare-earth elements like most miaskites. Rb-Sr isotopic analyses of a suite of six samples from the various members of the complex define an isochron corresponding to an age of 623 ± 21 Ma (2σ) and initial Sr ratio of 0.70376 ± 14 (2σ). This is consistent with a model of fractional crystallization of a parent magma derived from an upper mantle source with apparently no isotopic evidence for more than one magma source for the complex. The Sivamalai alkaline complex represents a Pan-African alkaline magmatic event in the southern granulite terrane of peninsular India. (author). 26 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: model results compared with summer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pätsch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For the sediments of the central and southern North Sea different sources of alkalinity generation are quantified by a regional modelling system for the period 2000–2014. For this purpose a formerly global ocean sediment model coupled with a pelagic ecosystem model is adapted to shelf sea dynamics, where much larger turnover rates than in the open and deep ocean occur. To track alkalinity changes due to different nitrogen-related processes, the open ocean sediment model was extended by the state variables particulate organic nitrogen (PON and ammonium. Directly measured alkalinity fluxes and those derived from Ra isotope flux observation from the sediment into the pelagic are reproduced by the model system, but calcite building and calcite dissolution are underestimated. Both fluxes cancel out in terms of alkalinity generation and consumption. Other simulated processes altering alkalinity in the sediment, like net sulfate reduction, denitrification, nitrification, and aerobic degradation, are quantified and compare well with corresponding fluxes derived from observations. Most of these fluxes exhibit a strong positive gradient from the open North Sea to the coast, where large rivers drain nutrients and organic matter. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition also shows a positive gradient from the open sea towards land and supports alkalinity generation in the sediments. An additional source of spatial variability is introduced by the use of a 3-D heterogenous porosity field. Due to realistic porosity variations (0.3–0.5 the alkalinity fluxes vary by about 4 %. The strongest impact on interannual variations of alkalinity fluxes is exhibited by the temporal varying nitrogen inputs from large rivers directly governing the nitrate concentrations in the coastal bottom water, thus providing nitrate necessary for benthic denitrification. Over the time investigated the alkalinity effluxes decrease due to the decrease in the nitrogen supply by the rivers.

  20. Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline pretreatment of Mexican pine residues for bioethanol production. ... Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentable sugars, fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(31), pp.

  1. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  2. Alkaline rocks and the occurrence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Toens, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Many alkaline complexes contain uranium and other minerals in low concentrations and are regarded as constituting valuable potential reserves. Certain complex metallurgical problems, however, remain to be solved. Alkaline rocks occur in a number of forms and environments and it is noted that they are generated during periods of geological quiescence emplaced mainly in stable aseismic areas. Many occur along the extensions of oceanic transform faults beneath the continental crust and the application of this concept to areas not currently known to host alkaline complexes may prove useful in identifying potential target areas for prospecting operations [af

  3. Homoepitaxial nonpolar (10-10) ZnO/ZnMgO monolithic microcavities: Towards reduced photonic disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Perez, J.; Kappei, L.; Deparis, C.; Chenot, S.; Leroux, M.; Reveret, F.; Jamadi, O.; Leymarie, J.; Grundmann, M.; Prado, E. de

    2016-01-01

    Nonpolar ZnO/ZnMgO-based optical microcavities have been grown on (10-10) m-plane ZnO substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Reflectivity measurements indicate an exponential increase of the cavity quality factor with the number of layers in the distributed Bragg reflectors. Most importantly, microreflectivity spectra recorded with a spot size in the order of 2 μm show a negligible photonic disorder (well below 1 meV), leading to local quality factors equivalent to those obtained by macroreflectivity. The anisotropic character of the nonpolar heterostructures manifests itself both in the surface features, elongated parallel to the in-plane c direction, and in the optical spectra, with two cavity modes being observed at different energies for orthogonal polarizations.

  4. Homoepitaxial nonpolar (10-10) ZnO/ZnMgO monolithic microcavities: Towards reduced photonic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Perez, J., E-mail: jzp@crhea.cnrs.fr; Kappei, L.; Deparis, C.; Chenot, S.; Leroux, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Reveret, F.; Jamadi, O.; Leymarie, J. [Clermont Université, Institut Pascal (IP), BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6602, IP, F-63171 Aubière (France); Grundmann, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Prado, E. de [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain)

    2016-06-20

    Nonpolar ZnO/ZnMgO-based optical microcavities have been grown on (10-10) m-plane ZnO substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Reflectivity measurements indicate an exponential increase of the cavity quality factor with the number of layers in the distributed Bragg reflectors. Most importantly, microreflectivity spectra recorded with a spot size in the order of 2 μm show a negligible photonic disorder (well below 1 meV), leading to local quality factors equivalent to those obtained by macroreflectivity. The anisotropic character of the nonpolar heterostructures manifests itself both in the surface features, elongated parallel to the in-plane c direction, and in the optical spectra, with two cavity modes being observed at different energies for orthogonal polarizations.

  5. Scalable quantum computing based on stationary spin qubits in coupled quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-12-18

    Quantum logic gates are the key elements in quantum computing. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving a scalable and compact quantum computing based on stationary electron-spin qubits, by using the giant optical circular birefringence induced by quantum-dot spins in double-sided optical microcavities as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We design the compact quantum circuits for implementing universal and deterministic quantum gates for electron-spin systems, including the two-qubit CNOT gate and the three-qubit Toffoli gate. They are compact and economic, and they do not require additional electron-spin qubits. Moreover, our devices have good scalability and are attractive as they both are based on solid-state quantum systems and the qubits are stationary. They are feasible with the current experimental technology, and both high fidelity and high efficiency can be achieved when the ratio of the side leakage to the cavity decay is low.

  6. Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit, E-mail: swapnajit.chakravarty@omegaoptics.com; Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan [Omega Optics, Inc., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Chen, Ray T., E-mail: raychen@uts.cc.utexas.edu [Omega Optics, Inc., Austin, Texas 78757 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    We analyze the contributions of quality factor, fill fraction, and group index of chip-integrated resonance microcavity devices, to the detection limit for bulk chemical sensing and the minimum detectable biomolecule concentration in biosensing. We analyze the contributions from analyte absorbance, as well as from temperature and spectral noise. Slow light in two-dimensional photonic crystals provide opportunities for significant reduction of the detection limit below 1 × 10{sup −7} RIU (refractive index unit) which can enable highly sensitive sensors in diverse application areas. We demonstrate experimentally detected concentration of 1 fM (67 fg/ml) for the binding between biotin and avidin, the lowest reported till date.

  7. Fabrication and characterization of microcavity lasers in rhodamine B doped SU8 using high energy proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal Rao, S.; Bettiol, A. A.; Vishnubhatla, K. C.; Bhaktha, S. N. B.; Narayana Rao, D.; Watt, F.

    2007-03-01

    The authors present their results on the characterization of individual dye-doped microcavity polymer lasers fabricated using a high energy proton beam. The lasers were fabricated in rhodamine B doped SU8 resist with a single exposure step followed by chemical processing. The resulting trapezoidal shaped cavities had dimensions of ˜250×250μm2. Physical characterization of these structures was performed using a scanning electron microscope while the optical characterization was carried out by recording the emission subsequent to pumping the lasers with 532nm, 6 nanosecond pulses. The authors observed intense, narrow emission near 624nm with the best emission linewidth full width at half maximum of ˜9nm and a threshold ˜150μJ/mm2.

  8. Highly efficient phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes with moderate microcavity and light-recycling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Hwan; Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Hoo Keun; Kim, Hyoung Kun; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Gab; Do, Young Rag

    2010-01-18

    We demonstrate the combined effects of a microcavity structure and light-recycling filters (LRFs) on the forward electrical efficiency of phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes (pc-WOLEDs). The introduction of a single pair of low- and high-index layers (SiO(2)/TiO(2)) improves the blue emission from blue OLED and the insertion of blue-passing and yellow-reflecting LRFs enhances the forward yellow emission from the YAG:Ce(3+) phosphors layers. The enhancement of the luminous efficacy of the forward white emission is 1.92 times that of a conventional pc-WOLED with color coordinates of (0.34, 0.34) and a correlated color temperature of about 4800 K.

  9. Analysis of ultra-high sensitivity configuration in chip-integrated photonic crystal microcavity bio-sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Hosseini, Amir; Xu, Xiaochuan; Zhu, Liang; Zou, Yi; Chen, Ray T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the contributions of quality factor, fill fraction, and group index of chip-integrated resonance microcavity devices, to the detection limit for bulk chemical sensing and the minimum detectable biomolecule concentration in biosensing. We analyze the contributions from analyte absorbance, as well as from temperature and spectral noise. Slow light in two-dimensional photonic crystals provide opportunities for significant reduction of the detection limit below 1 × 10 −7 RIU (refractive index unit) which can enable highly sensitive sensors in diverse application areas. We demonstrate experimentally detected concentration of 1 fM (67 fg/ml) for the binding between biotin and avidin, the lowest reported till date

  10. Geochemical features of the Cretaceous alkaline volcanics in the area of Morado hill, Jachal town, San Juan, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about the alkaline volcanic rocks that crop out at the Morado hill located in the southern end of the Mogna ranges, which are part of the Eastern border of the pre mountain in the San Juan province, Argentina.The petrography and geochemistry study of the alkaline volcanics has allowed to classify them as tephrite basanite or basanite nephelinite, with strong alkaline chemical affinity, showing a characteristic composition of within plate geochemistry environment. The radimetric analysis, K-Ar data, has shown an average 90 ∓ 8 m.y. age for this rocks, (Cingolani et al. 1984) pointing out the Upper Cretaceous (lower section) stratigraphical position for the suite. The discussion of the results makes conspicuous the relationships of these alkaline rocks with others of the central and northwestern regions of the country that allowed to establish an alkaline petrographic province

  11. Alkalinity in oil field waters - what alkalinity is and how it is measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaasa, B.; Oestvold, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alkalinity is an important parameter in the description of pH-behaviour, buffer capacity and scaling potentials in oil field waters. Although the alkalinity is widely used, it seems to be considerable confusion in connection with the concept. It is often used incorrectly and different authors define the concept in different ways. Several different methods for the determination of alkalinity can be found in the literature. This paper discusses the definition of alkalinity and how to use alkalinity in oil field waters to obtain data of importance for scale and pH predictions. There is also shown how a simple titration of oil field waters can give both the alkalinity and the content of organic acids in these waters. It is obvious from these findings that most of the methods used to day may give considerable errors when applied to oil field waters with high contents of organic acids. 8 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The alkaline earth borate glasses containing heavy metal oxides show good solubility of rare-earth ions. Glasses containing PbO exhibit low glass transition temperature (Tg) and high ..... These oxygen ions carry a partial negative charge and.

  13. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  14. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  15. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    conditions and the degradation mechanism was examined. One of the strong visions for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser concept has been to develop a modular system with several standardized components. The following modules have been designed: 1) Electrolyser module; 2) Deoxer Module; 3) Dryer Module; 4) Water Treatment Module; 5) Power supply and Control unit; 6) Rack mount. The developed 2{sup nd} generation rack-mounted alkaline electrolyser system has been installed and demonstrated for 18 month in a college (H2College) with 66 apartments. A number of measurements were performed on the system installed in H2College. No measurements on the overall system efficiency were conducted. However measurement on the stack showed a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C at the hydrogen outlet. The system is estimated to have run roughly 2000h during the demonstration period. The demonstration of the 2{sup nd} generation alkaline electrolyser is considered a success for several reasons. While not all technical goals were reached, the research and development in the project have resulted in some very good solutions for most of the challenges in high pressure alkaline electrolysis. The concept of a rack mounted electrolyser was proven viable, and all critical aspects of the modularisation have been covered. (LN)

  16. Improved electrodes and gas impurity investigations on alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reissner, R.; Schiller, G.; Knoeri, T.

    Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved.......Alkaline water electrolysis for hydrogenproduction is a well-established techniquebut some technological issues regarding thecoupling of alkaline water electrolysis andRenewable Energy Sources (RES) remain tobe improved....

  17. Microcavity Plasma Devices and Arrays Fabricated in Semiconductor, Ceramic, or Metal/polymer Structures: A New Realm of Plasma Physics and Photonics Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eden, J. G.

    2005-01-01

    Micro discharge, or microcavity plasma, is the broad term that has come to be associated with an emerging class of glow discharge devices in which the characteristic spatial dimension of the plasma is nominally ) dia. Si wafers and operated in the rare gases and Ar/N2 gas mixtures. Also, photodetection in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared with microplasma devices has been observed by interfacing a low temperature plasma with a semiconductor. Carbon nanotubes grown directly within the microcavity of microplasma devices improve all key performance parameters of the device, and nanoporous Al2O3 grown onto Al by wet chemical processing yields microplasma devices of exceptional stability and lifetime. The opportunities such structures offer for accessing new avenues in plasma physics and photonics will be discussed. (Author)

  18. High Sensitivity Detection of CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled DNA Based on N-type Porous Silicon Microcavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Changwu; Jia, Zhenhong; Lv, Jie; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Yanyu

    2017-01-01

    N-type macroporous silicon microcavity structures were prepared using electrochemical etching in an HF solution in the absence of light and oxidants. The CdSe/ZnS water-soluble quantum dot-labeled DNA target molecules were detected by monitoring the microcavity reflectance spectrum, which was characterized by the reflectance spectrum defect state position shift resulting from changes to the structures' refractive index. Quantum dots with a high refractive index and DNA coupling can improve the detection sensitivity by amplifying the optical response signals of the target DNA. The experimental results show that DNA combined with a quantum dot can improve the sensitivity of DNA detection by more than five times.

  19. Pseudomonas syringae evades host immunity by degrading flagellin monomers with alkaline protease AprA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, Michiel J C; van Dijken, Anja J H; Bardoel, Bart W; Seidl, Michael F; van der Ent, Sjoerd; van Strijp, Jos A G; Pieterse, Corné M J

    Bacterial flagellin molecules are strong inducers of innate immune responses in both mammals and plants. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes an alkaline protease called AprA that degrades flagellin monomers. Here, we show that AprA is widespread among a wide variety of

  20. Pseudomonas syringae evades host Immunity by degrading flagellin monomers with alkaline protease AprA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, M.J.C.; Van Dijken, A.J.H.; Bardoel, B.W.; Seidl, M.F; Van der Ent, S.; Van Strijp, J.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin molecules are strong inducers of innate immune responses in both mammals and plants. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes an alkaline protease called AprA that degrades flagellin monomers. Here, we show that AprA is widespread among a wide variety of

  1. Measurement of pH, alkalinity and acidity in ultra-soft waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... A blend composed of the raw water, sodium chloride (to increase conductivity), and standard bicarbonate (to increase buffering capacity) was titrated with standard strong acid in two pH regions: 6.3 pH < 4.0. In both methods, total alkalinity was determined using the latter set of points, ...

  2. Silica-poor, mafic alkaline lavas from ocean islands and continents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strongly silica-poor (ne-normative), mafic alkaline lavas generally represented by olivine nephelinites, nephelinites, melilitites, and olivine melilitites have erupted at various locations during Earth's history. On the basis of bulk-rock Mg#, high concentrations of Na2O, TiO2, and K2O, and trace element geochemistry, it has ...

  3. Transition between bulk and surface refractive index sensitivity of micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer induced by thin film deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Janik, Monika; Koba, Marcin; Bock, Wojtek J

    2017-10-16

    In this work we discuss the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of a micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the form of a cylindrical hole (40-50 μm in diameter) fabricated in a standard single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The surface of the micro-cavity was coated with up to 400 nm aluminum oxide thin film using the atomic layer deposition method. Next, the film was progressively chemically etched and the influence on changes in the RI of liquid in the micro-cavity was determined at different stages of the experiment, i.e., at different thicknesses of the film. An effect of transition between sensitivity to the film thickness (surface) and the RI of liquid in the cavity (bulk) is demonstrated for the first time. We have found that depending on the interferometer working conditions determined by thin film properties, the device can be used for investigation of phenomena taking place at the surface, such as in case of specific label-free biosensing applications, or for small-volume RI analysis as required in analytical chemistry.

  4. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  5. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  6. The stability of polyaniline in strongly alkaline and acidic aqueous media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožová, Libuše; Holler, Petr; Kovářová, Jana; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 3 (2008), s. 592-600 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA2/098; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * stability * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2008

  7. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon

    2017-09-01

    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  8. Posttranslational heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase in metabolic bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, M R; Delanghe, J R; Kaufman, J M; De Buyzere, M L; Van Hoecke, M J; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1994-09-01

    Bone alkaline phosphatase is a marker of osteoblast activity. In order to study the posttranscriptional modification (glycosylation) of bone alkaline phosphatase in bone disease, we investigated the relationship between mass and catalytic activity of bone alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis and hyperthyroidism. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase activity was measured after lectin precipitation using the Iso-ALP test kit. Mass concentration of bone alkaline phosphatase was determined with an immunoradiometric assay (Tandem-R Ostase). In general, serum bone alkaline phosphatase mass and activity concentration correlated well. The activity : mass ratio of bone alkaline phosphatase was low in hyperthyroidism. Activation energy of the reaction catalysed by bone alkaline phosphatase was high in osteoporosis and in hyperthyroidism. Experiments with neuraminidase digestion further demonstrated that the thermodynamic heterogeneity of bone alkaline phosphatase can be explained by a different glycosylation of the enzyme.

  9. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale, but in order to become commercially attractive and compete against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. This may occur by increasing the opera......Alkaline electrolyzers have proven to operate reliable for decades on a large scale, but in order to become commercially attractive and compete against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. This may occur by increasing...

  10. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  11. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  12. Mineralogical, petrological and geochemical aspects of alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite associations from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Beccaluva, L.; Brotzu, P.; Conte, A. M.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

    1995-12-01

    A general description of Mesozoic and Tertiary (Fortaleza) Brazilian alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite districts is presented with reference to mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology. It mainly refers to scientific results obtained during the last decade by an Italo-Brazilian research team. Alkaline occurrences are distributed across Brazilian territory from the southern (Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul State) to the northeastern (Fortaleza, Ceará State) regions and are mainly concentrated along the borders of the Paraná Basin generally coinciding with important tectonic lineaments. The most noteworthy characteristics of these alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite suites are: (i) prevalence of intrusive forms; (ii) abundance of cumulate assemblages (minor dunites, frequent clinopyroxenites and members of the ijolite series) and (iii) abundance of evolved rock-types. Many data demonstrate that crystal fractionation was the main process responsible for magma evolution of all Brazilian alkaline rocks. A hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of carbonatite liquids by immiscibility processes. The incidence of REE and trace elements for different major groups of lithotypes, belonging both to carbonatite-bearing and carbonatite-free districts, are documented. Sr and preliminary Nd isotopic data are indicative of a mantle origin for the least evolved magmas of all the studied occurrences. Mantle source material and melting models for the generation of the Brazilian alkaline magma types are also discussed.

  13. Eichrom's ABEC trademark resins: Alkaline radioactive waste treatment, radiopharmaceutical, and potential hydrometallurgical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.H.; Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Rogers, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Eichrom's ABEC trademark resins selectivity extract certain anions from high ionic strength acidic, neutral, or strongly alkaline media, and solute stripping can be accomplished by eluting with water. ABEC resins are stable to pH extreme and radiolysis and operate in high ionic strength and/or alkaline solutions where anion-exchange is often ineffective. Potential applications of the ABEC materials include heavy metal and ReO 4 - separations in hydrometallurgy and purification of perrhenate iodide, and iodate in radiopharmaceutical production. Separation of 99m TcO 4 - from its 99 MoO 4 2- parent and stripping with water or physiological saline solution have been demonstrated for radiopharmaceutical applications. Removal of 99 TcO 4 - and 129 I - from alkaline tank wastes has also been successfully demonstrated. The authors will discuss the scale-up studies, process-scale testing, and market development of this new extraction material

  14. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eSalminen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs. Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC. The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  15. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes, or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70% molar yield toward citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide. PMID:24790972

  16. Determination of Acidity and Alkalinity of Food Materials

    OpenAIRE

    三浦,芳助; 福永,祐子; 瀧川,裕里子; 津田,真美; 渡辺,陽子; 瀨山,一正

    2006-01-01

    The acidity and alkalinity of food materials in various menus was determined to clarify the influence of food on physiological functions. Menus mainly containing alkaline food materials (alkaline menu) and acid ones (acid menu) were compared. Determination of acidity and alkalinity was performed for each food material in the alkaline menu and acid menu, and acidity and alkalinity of one meal and a day's one were estimated. 1. Most of food materials in acid menu were assessed to be...

  17. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  18. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  19. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  20. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry K. Schwalfenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  1. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline ph Diet Benefits Health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalfenberg, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pub med was searched looking for articles on ph, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine

  2. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY USING LOCAL ALKALINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the discovery of new oil producing fields and the ever increasing ... followed by water flooding is between 35 to 50% of the ... involved and lack of scale up and is considered among ... carbonate alkaline chemical reacts with certain types of ... reservoirs because of the profusion of calcium and the ... damage the formation.

  3. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the.

  4. Alkaline fuel cell technology in the lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) was the first fuel cell successfully put into practice, a century after William Grove patented his 'hydrogen battery' in 1839. The space program provided the necessary momentum, and alkaline fuel cells became the power source for both the U.S. and Russian manned space flight. Astris Energi's mission has been to bring this technology down to earth as inexpensive, rugged fuel cells for everyday applications. The early cells, LABCELL 50 and LABCELL 200 were aimed at deployment in research labs, colleges and universities. They served well in technology demonstration projects such as the 1998 Mini Jeep, 2001 Golf Car and a series of portable and stationary fuel cell generators. The present third generation POWERSTACK MC250 poised for commercialization is being offered to AFC system integrators as a building block of fuel cell systems in numerous portable, stationary and transportation applications. It is also used in Astris' own E7 and E8 alkaline fuel cell generators. Astris alkaline technology leads the way toward economical, plentiful fuel cells. The paper highlights the progress achieved at Astris, improvements of performance, durability and simplicity of use, as well as the current and future thrust in technology development and commercialization. (author)

  5. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  6. A SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-PROBE DETECTION LABEL-FREE OPTICAL-RESOLUTION PHOTOACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUE BASED ON MICROCAVITY TRANSDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YONGBO WU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous multi-probe detection for an optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM system. OR-PAM has elicited the attention of biomedical imaging researchers because of its optical absorption contrast and high spatial resolution with great imaging depth. OR-PAM allows label-free and noninvasive imaging by maximizing the optical absorption of endogenous biomolecules. However, given the inadequate absorption of some biomolecules, detection sensitivity at the same incident intensity requires improvement. In this study, a modulated continuous wave with power density less than 3 mW/cm2 (1/4 of the ANSI safety limit excited the weak photoacoustic (PA signals of biological cells. A microcavity transducer is developed based on the bulk modulus of gas five orders of magnitude lower than that of solid; air pressure variation is inversely proportional to cavity volume at the same temperature increase. Considering that a PA wave expands in various directions, detecting PA signals from different positions and adding them together can increase detection sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, we employ four detectors to acquire tiny PA signals simultaneously. Experimental results show that the developed OR-PAM system allows the label-free imaging of cells with weak optical absorption.

  7. The quantum dynamics of two qubits inside two distant microcavities connected via a single-mode optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, Bich Ha; Duong, Hai Trieu

    2010-01-01

    For application to studying the transmission of quantum information, also called quantum communication, between two identical qubits placed inside two identical single-mode microcavities connected via a single-mode optical fiber, the time evolution of this system is investigated. In the Markovian approximation, the von Neumann equation for its reduced density matrix contains a completely positive linear operator called the Liouvillian operator describing the decoherence of this system due to its interaction with the environment. By using the Linblad formula for the Liouvillian operator, a system of rate equations can be derived. In the special case of resonance between the energy difference of two states in each qubit and the energy of the fiber mode, the rate equations for the system excited up to the first level are solved in first order approximation with respect to the decoherence constants. It is shown that when there is no decoherence, the perfect quantum state transmission between two qubits can take place if the physical parameters of the system satisfy definite conditions. A possible extension to studying the system excited to high energy states is also discussed

  8. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... Key words: Production, alkaline protease, Bacillus subtilis, animal wastes, enzyme activity. ... Generally, alkaline proteases are produced using submerged fermentation .... biopolymer concentrations were reported to have an influence ... adding nitrogenous compounds stimulate microorganism growth and ...

  9. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  10. Chemical degradation of fluoroelastomer in an alkaline environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, S.; Ghanbari-Siahkali, A.; Kingshott, P.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the time-dependent chemical degradation of a fluoroelastomer, FKM (Viton((R)) A), in an alkaline environment (10% NaOH, 80 degreesC). Optical microscopy and SEM analysis reveal that degradation starts with surface roughness right from the earliest stage of exposure (e.g., 1...... week) and finally results in cracks on the surface after prolonged exposure. Initially the extent of degradation is mainly confined to the surface regions (a few nanometers) but with longer exposure (e.g., 12 weeks) it extends to below the subsurface region of the fluoroelastomer. The extent...... of this surface degradation is found to be strong enough to affect the bulk mechanical properties. The molecular mechanisms of the surface chemical degradation were determined using surface analysis (XPS and ATR-FTIR) where the initial degradation was found to proceed via dehydrofluorination. This leads to double...

  11. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  12. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  13. Extended coherence lifetimes in microcavities under angle-resonant pumping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Birkedal, Dan; Mizeikis, V.

    2001-01-01

    processes by the final-state polariton population. Strong enhancements of the scattering processes have been observed as a result of up to several 100 polaritons per final k-state under angle-resonant pumping conditions (Erland et al, 2000; Stevenson et al, 2000). Energy and wave vector are conserved...

  14. On performance capabilities of alkaline anolyte in wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimkevich, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A concept for electric converting a saline wastewater into basic solution (pH > 7) with a positive RedOx potential (alkaline anolyte) is considered. Such the medium can be obtained in situ at flowing wastewater via a special electrochemical cell with strongly polarized cathode (generating hydroxide anions) and quasi-equilibrium anode which intensively discharges hydroxide ions to hydroxyl radicals into the wastewater. The radicals will oxidize anions of strong acid and convert them into weak-acid micro precipitates in the flowing basic solution. These renewable nano-sorbents will uninterruptedly co-precipitate radioactive contamination from wastewater and be agglomerated as corrosion by-products in the felt-like anode. The consideration of liquid water as a chemical compound with a wide band gap shows that the anolyte (as a hyper-stoichiometric water, H 2 O 1+|x| ) is a simple and effective tool for varying physical and chemical properties of the aqueous solution due to forced changing its RedOx potential as one needs. This potential as Fermi level in the band gap of liquid water is the most convenient parameter for monitoring and managing the electrochemical potential of the aqueous medium. Its hyper-stoichiometric state is realized when Fermi level is shifted to the top of a valence band. This electro-oxidized state as the alkaline anolyte is characterized by an acceptor level, OH/OH - , partially occupied by electrons. Then, the hydroxyl radical (OH • ) as the strongest oxidizer will oxidize intensively the metal anode and renew its surface for great removal of radio-nuclides from the wastewater due to their large specific area of renewable surface of hydroxide absorber on the felt-like anode. (author)

  15. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  16. Study of niobium corrosion in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, S.H. de.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of niobium electrochemical behaviour in NaOH and KOH solution, with concentrations between 0,5 and 6,1M is presented. The studies were done through electrochemicals assays, consisting in the corrosion potential and anodic and cathodic polarization curves, complemented by loss of mass experiments. The niobium anodic behaviour in alkaline medium is characterized by passivation occurrence, with a stable film formation. The Na oH solution in alkaline medium are more corrosible to niobium than the KOH solution. The loss of mass assays showed that the corrosion velocit is more dependente of hydroxide concentration in KOH medium than the NaOH medium. (C.G.C.) [pt

  17. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  18. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  19. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2017-03-21

    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  20. Carbon nitride nanotube as a sensor for alkali and alkaline earth cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beheshtian, Javad [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, P.O. Box: 16875-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baei, Mohammad T. [Department of Chemistry, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Golestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Zargham [Physics Group, Science Department, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, P.O. Box: 33135-369, Islamshahr, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi, E-mail: ahmadi.iau@gmail.com [Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of alkali and alkaline earth cations on a CN nanotube studied by DFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alkaline cation adsorption may raise potential barrier of the electron emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tube may act as a sensor in the presence of alkali and alkaline cations. - Abstract: Adsorption of several alkali (Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, and K{sup +}) and alkaline earth (Be{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 2+}) cations on the surface of a zigzag (9, 0) carbon nitride nanotube has been investigated using density functional theory. It has been found that almost all of the cations prefer to be strongly chemisorbed at the center of porous site of the tube surface. The adsorption of alkaline cations much more influences the electronic properties of the tube, in comparison with the alkali ones, so that it is transformed from an intrinsic semiconductor with HOMO/LUMO energy gap of 4.02 eV to extrinsic p-type one with the gap of 0.54-1.94 eV. The alkaline cation adsorption may significantly raise potential barrier of the electron emission from the tube surface, hence impeding the field emission. It has been also concluded that the electrical sensitivity of the tube toward the cations may be in the order: Be{sup 2+} Much-Greater-Than Mg{sup 2+} Much-Greater-Than Ca{sup 2+} Much-Greater-Than Li{sup +} {approx} Na{sup +} {approx} K{sup +}.

  1. Heavy water production by alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, Sachin; Sandeep, K.C.; Bhanja, Kalyan; Mohan, Sadhana; Sugilal, G.

    2014-01-01

    Several heavy water isotope production processes are reported in literature. Water electrolysis in combination with catalytic exchange CECE process is considered as a futuristic process to increase the throughput and reduce the cryogenic distillation load but the application is limited due to the high cost of electricity. Any improvement in the efficiency of electrolyzers would make this process more attractive. The efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis is governed by various phenomena such as activation polarization, ohmic polarization and concentration polarization in the cell. A systematic study on the effect of these factors can lead to methods for improving the efficiency of the electrolyzer. A bipolar and compact type arrangement of the alkaline water electrolyzer leads to increased efficiency and reduced inventory in comparison to uni-polar tank type electrolyzers. The bipolar type arrangement is formed when a number of single cells are stacked together. Although a few experimental studies have been reported in the open literature, CFD simulation of a bipolar compact alkaline water electrolyzer with porous electrodes is not readily available.The principal aim of this study is to simulate the characteristics of a single cell compact electrolyzer unit. The simulation can be used to predict the Voltage-Current Density (V-I) characteristics, which is a measure of the efficiency of the process.The model equations were solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The simulated V-I characteristic is compared with the experimental data

  2. Optical microcavities and enhanced electroluminescence from electroformed Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickmott, T. W. [Department of Physics, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Electroluminescence (EL) and electron emission into vacuum (EM) occur when a non-destructive dielectric breakdown of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes, electroforming, results in the development of a filamentary region in which current-voltage (I-V) characteristics exhibit voltage-controlled negative resistance. The temperature dependence of I-V curves, EM, and, particularly, EL of Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Ag diodes with anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses between 12 nm and 30 nm, has been studied. Two filters, a long-pass (LP) filter with transmission of photons with energies less than 3.0 eV and a short-pass (SP) filter with photon transmission between 3.0 and 4.0 eV, have been used to characterize EL. The voltage threshold for EL with the LP filter, V{sub LP}, is ∼1.5 V. V{sub LP} is nearly independent of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness and of temperature and is 0.3–0.6 V less than the threshold voltage for EL for the SP filter, V{sub SP}. EL intensity is primarily between 1.8 and 3.0 eV when the bias voltage, V{sub S} ≲ 7 V. EL in the thinnest diodes is enhanced compared to EL in thicker diodes. For increasing V{sub S}, for diodes with the smallest Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses, there is a maximum EL intensity, L{sub MX}, at a voltage, V{sub LMX}, followed by a decrease to a plateau. L{sub MX} and EL intensity at 4.0 V in the plateau region depend exponentially on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness. The ratio of L{sub MX} at 295 K for a diode with 12 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to L{sub MX} for a diode with 25 nm of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is ∼140. The ratio of EL intensity with the LP filter to EL intensity with the SP filter, LP/SP, varies between ∼3 and ∼35; it depends on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness and V{sub S}. Enhanced EL is attributed to the increase of the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole in a non-resonant optical microcavity. EL photons interact with the Ag and Al films to create surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal-Al{sub 2}O

  3. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  4. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C., E-mail: ruiz.cs@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Skibsted, J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  5. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  6. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  7. Spectrally tunable mollow triplet emission from a coherently excited quantum dot in a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Sven M.; Ates, Serkan; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Resonance fluorescence of excitonic s-shell emission from a coherently pumped single InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot inside a micropillar cavity has been investigated in dependence on optical pump power and laser detuning, respectively. For strong purely resonant excitation, Mollow triplet spectra with l...... with large Rabi splittings of j~­j » 60¹eV have been observed. Laser detuning-dependent series revealed the pronounced asymmetry of the emission triplet as predicted by theory. From our data, an electrical dipole moment of ¹ » 17:8§0:5 Debye could be derived for the excitonic state....

  8. Modeling of optical fields in laser microcavities using a modal method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    mechanism limiting the Q factor is the poor modal overlap between the cavity Bloch mode and the mirror Bloch mode. Also, the strong connement will generally lead to highly divergent far field patterns and thus low collection efficiency. In this scenario, Bloch-wave engineering [1] and the introduction...... of adiabatic transitions emerge as powerful design tools to control the optical mode. In the modal method, the eld is expanded on the eigenmodes of z-invariant layers and on the Bloch modes of periodic sections. Using mode matching at the interfaces, the method gives direct access to re ection and transmission...

  9. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  10. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  11. Proposal for efficient mode converter based on cavity quantum electrodynamics dark mode in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to a bimodal microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiahua [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Rong, E-mail: yurong321@126.com [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Ma, Jinyong; Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@163.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-10-28

    The ability to engineer and convert photons between different modes in a solid-state approach has extensive technological implications not only for classical communication systems but also for future quantum networks. In this paper, we put forward a scheme for coherent mode conversion of optical photons by utilizing the intermediate coupling between a single quantum dot and a bimodal photonic crystal microcavity via a waveguide. Here, one mode of the photonic crystal microcavity is coherently driven by an external single-frequency continuous-wave laser field and the two cavity modes are not coupled to each other due to their orthogonal polarizations. The undriven cavity mode is thus not directly coupled to the input driving laser and the only way it can get light is via the quantum dot. The influences of the system parameters on the photon-conversion efficiency are analyzed in detail in the limit of weak probe field and it is found that high photon-conversion efficiency can be achieved under appropriate conditions. It is shown that the cavity dark mode, which is a superposition of the two optical modes and is decoupled from the quantum dot, can appear in such a hybrid optical system. We discuss the properties of the dark mode and indicate that the formation of the dark mode enables the efficient transfer of optical fields between the two cavity modes.

  12. Scheme for implementing N-qubit controlled phase gate of photons assisted by quantum-dot-microcavity coupled system: optimal probability of success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Wen-Xue; Hu, Shi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2015-01-01

    The direct implementation of multiqubit controlled phase gate of photons is appealing and important for reducing the complexity of the physical realization of linear-optics-based practical quantum computer and quantum algorithms. In this letter we propose a nondestructive scheme for implementing an N-qubit controlled phase gate of photons with a high success probability. The gate can be directly implemented with the self-designed quantum encoder circuits, which are probabilistic optical quantum entangler devices and can be achieved using linear optical elements, single-photon superposition state, and quantum dot coupled to optical microcavity. The calculated results indicate that both the success probabilities of the quantum encoder circuit and the N-qubit controlled phase gate in our scheme are higher than those in the previous schemes. We also consider the effects of the side leakage and cavity loss on the success probability and the fidelity of the quantum encoder circuit for a realistic quantum-dot-microcavity coupled system. (letter)

  13. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  14. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  15. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part 2. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Bromides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Databases of alkaline and alkaline earth bromide solubilities in water at various temperatures were created using experimental data from publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluation of the created databases was produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluation. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed bromide minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions.

  16. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions

  17. RES Hydrogen: efficient pressurised alkaline electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Jacob R.; Bentzen, Janet Jonna; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    The RESelyser project addresses issues associated with coupling alkaline electrolysis to renewable energy sources such as electrode stability and gas purity by implementing improved electrodes and a new separator membrane concept. The project aims to improve performance, operation pressure...... and reduce system cost. The project supports DTU Energy's activities on electrodes within the larger FCH-JU project. The overall project demonstrated: improved electrode efficiency also during cyclic operation, safe gas purity at a system pressure of 30 bar, 10 kW stack operation and estimated system costs...

  18. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  19. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  20. Alkaline erosion of CR 39 polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiman, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of erosion of CR 39 polymer in alkaline environments. We observed the kinetics of absorption of water and methanol into both unirradiated and γ-irradiated samples. We use a capillary model to interpret our results. We etched our samples in both KOH solutions, and KOH solutions doped with methanol. Etch rate was desensitizing to γ-irradiation when KOH concentration approached saturation, but KOH solutions doped with methanol were not desensitizing, unlike with nuclear tracks. We account for this difference

  1. Electrochemistry of Some New Alkaline Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    1NýT;7 ~~ AFAPI 4TR- 75)aI Electrochemistry of Somwý New Alkaline V CI RG, 0OTNME Dr/ David F., ’Pickett, IM Wayue ’,Hisb’q Mr. R ic ha rd A I Mid...adding ZnO to the electi-olyte (saturated) and usi .j the interc:ell conrec;tor d isr:ussed earlier ,itLh el4cc.roploated zinc ag inst. the silver fo

  2. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  3. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  4. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  5. Fermi-edge exciton-polaritons in doped semiconductor microcavities with finite hole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenov, Dimitri; von Delft, Jan; Glazman, Leonid; Goldstein, Moshe

    2017-10-01

    The coupling between a 2D semiconductor quantum well and an optical cavity gives rise to combined light-matter excitations, the exciton-polaritons. These were usually measured when the conduction band is empty, making the single polariton physics a simple single-body problem. The situation is dramatically different in the presence of a finite conduction-band population, where the creation or annihilation of a single exciton involves a many-body shakeup of the Fermi sea. Recent experiments in this regime revealed a strong modification of the exciton-polariton spectrum. Previous theoretical studies concerned with nonzero Fermi energy mostly relied on the approximation of an immobile valence-band hole with infinite mass, which is appropriate for low-mobility samples only; for high-mobility samples, one needs to consider a mobile hole with large but finite mass. To bridge this gap, we present an analytical diagrammatic approach and tackle a model with short-ranged (screened) electron-hole interaction, studying it in two complementary regimes. We find that the finite hole mass has opposite effects on the exciton-polariton spectra in the two regimes: in the first, where the Fermi energy is much smaller than the exciton binding energy, excitonic features are enhanced by the finite mass. In the second regime, where the Fermi energy is much larger than the exciton binding energy, finite mass effects cut off the excitonic features in the polariton spectra, in qualitative agreement with recent experiments.

  6. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes

  7. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  8. Isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillina, L.P.; Belinskaya, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Present article is devoted to isotherms of ion exchange on titanates of alkaline metals. Therefore, finely dispersed hydrated titanates of alkaline metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) with ion exchange properties are obtained by means of alkaline hydrolysis of titanium chloride at high ph rates. Sorption of cations from salts solution of Li 2 SO 4 , NaNO 3 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , AgNO 3 by titanates is studied.

  9. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  10. Spectroscopic characterization of alkaline earth uranyl carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amayri, Samer; Reich, Tobias; Arnold, Thuro; Geipel, Gerhard; Bernhard, Gert

    2005-01-01

    A series of alkaline uranyl carbonates, M[UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].nH 2 O (M=Mg 2 , Ca 2 , Sr 2 , Ba 2 , Na 2 Ca, and CaMg) was synthesized and characterized by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after nitric acid digestion, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The molecular structure of these compounds was characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Crystalline Ba 2 [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ].6H 2 O was obtained for the first time. The EXAFS analysis showed that this compound consists of (UO 2 )(CO 3 ) 3 clusters similar to the other alkaline earth uranyl carbonates. The average U-Ba distance is 3.90+/-0.02A.Fluorescence wavelengths and life times were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The U-O bond distances determined by EXAFS, TRLFS, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy agree within the experimental uncertainties. The spectroscopic signatures observed could be useful for identifying uranyl carbonate species adsorbed on mineral surfaces

  11. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  12. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  13. Petrological and geochemical studies of alkaline rocks from continental Brazil. 8. The syenitic intrusion of Morro Redondo, RJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotzu, P.; Melluso, L.; Beccaluva, L.

    1989-01-01

    The alkaline complex of Morro Redondo is mainly composed of syenites, alkali syenites and nepheline syenites. The age of the intrusion, utilizing eleven newly available K/Ar data, is about 73 Ma. Petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemistry strongly support cogeneticity among the various lithotypes, linked by fractional crystallisation of the observed phases and crystal accumulation, preferentially of alkali feldspar. Initial Sr isotopic ratios indicate a mantle parental magma, probably generated in the subcontinental lithosphere, like other Brazilian alkaline complexes (e.g. Fortaleza, Juquia, Piratini, Tunas). (author) [pt

  14. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  15. Alkaline lixiviation of uranium in granitic pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor, S.

    1980-06-01

    The work described herein concerns the determination of the experimental optimum conditions for the alkaline lixiviation of uranium based on the following parameters: time, pH, temperature, density and grane size. The samples were obtained from the Supamo complex, near the Currupia river in the Piar District of the Bolivar State in Venezuela. They have a granitic composition and graphitic texture. The uranium was found in them as a secondary oxidized mineral of green-yellow colour localized in fractures fissures, intergranular spaces and also in the mica as. Secondary uranitite. The lixiviation process was carried out using Na 2 CO 3 /NaHCO 3 buffer solution and for 100 gr. samples the best values for an efficient process were found by using 170 mesh grane size and 500 ml of pH buffer at 70 0 C for a 24 hour time period. (author)

  16. Ethylenediaminetetraacetates of neodymium and alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.V.; Pechurova, L.I.; Martynenko, K.I.; Popov, K.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities have been studied of the formation of polynuclear complexonates of alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba) based on neodymium derivatives EDTA of the composition NdA - . By pH-metry, electron spectroscopy, and derivatography it has been shown that the structure of complexes M 2 (NdA) 2 (where M- Ca, Sr, or Ba; A- EDTA) in the solution is not polynuclear. Hydroxopolynuclear complexes do not form under conditions studied. The data obtained agree with an assumption about polynuclear structure of the solid complex Ca(NdA) 2 x17 H 2 O and gradual weakening of the polynuclear nature upon substitution of Ca 2+ with Sr 2+ and Ba 2+

  17. Retention of alkaline earth elements in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.

    1990-06-01

    The data on human metabolism and long-term retention of alkaline earth elements ( 133 Ba injected into six healthy male volunteers at age 25-81 y and 45 Ca and 85 Sr received by one healthy male volunteer) are presented. Excreta were collected for 2-3 weeks after injection of the tracer into an antecubital vein. Activity in urine, ashed faeces and early samples of blood plasma was determined by gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry. Whole body retention has been assessed through serial measurements of body radioactivity. The injected 133 Ba apparently became mainly skeletal within several days, much earlier than predicted by the ICRP model. The whole-body retention at 32 d ranged from 5 to 14%, the rate of loss correlating with the excretory plasma clearance rate. No age-related trends were identified in the metabolism of Ca and Sr. 2 refs, 2 figs

  18. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salkind, A.J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve-type silver-zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO/sub 2/ - and several nickel electrodes for nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities detected by XPS and SAM. After the first discharge AgNiO/sub 2/ can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic-bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)/sub 2/ largely eliminate this

  19. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  20. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pretreated Coconut Coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbarningrum Fatmawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of concentration and temperature on the cellulose and lignin content, and the reducing sugars produced in the enzymatic hydrolysis of coconut coir. In this research, the coconut coir is pretreated using 3%, 7%, and 11% NaOH solution at 60oC, 80oC, and 100oC. The pretreated coir were assayed by measuring the amount of cellulose and lignin and then hydrolysed using Celluclast and Novozyme 188 under various temperature (30oC, 40oC, 50oC and pH (3, 4, 5. The hydrolysis results were assayed for the reducing sugar content. The results showed that the alkaline delignification was effective to reduce lignin and to increase the cellulose content of the coir. The best delignification condition was observed at 11% NaOH solution and 100oC which removed 14,53% of lignin and increased the cellulose content up to 50,23%. The best condition of the enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained at 50oC and pH 4 which produced 7,57 gr/L reducing sugar. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 2nd October 2012; Revised: 31st January 2013; Accepted: 6th February 2013[How to Cite: Fatmawati, A., Agustriyanto, R., Liasari, Y. (2013. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alkaline Pre-treated Coconut Coir. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 34-39 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39[Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4048.34-39] | View in  |

  1. Increased ethanol accumulation from glucose via reduction of ATP level in a recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2014-05-15

    The production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation represents the largest scale application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial biotechnology. Increased worldwide demand for fuel bioethanol is anticipated over the next decade and will exceed 200 billion liters from further expansions. Our working hypothesis was that the drop in ATP level in S. cerevisiae cells during alcoholic fermentation should lead to an increase in ethanol production (yield and productivity) with a greater amount of the utilized glucose converted to ethanol. Our approach to achieve this goal is to decrease the intracellular ATP level via increasing the unspecific alkaline phosphatase activity. Intact and truncated versions of the S. cerevisiae PHO8 gene coding for vacuolar or cytosolic forms of alkaline phosphatase were fused with the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) promoter. The constructed expression cassettes used for transformation vectors also contained the dominant selective marker kanMX4 and S. cerevisiae δ-sequence to facilitate multicopy integration to the genome. Laboratory and industrial ethanol producing strains BY4742 and AS400 overexpressing vacuolar form of alkaline phosphatase were characterized by a slightly lowered intracellular ATP level and biomass accumulation and by an increase in ethanol productivity (13% and 7%) when compared to the parental strains. The strains expressing truncated cytosolic form of alkaline phosphatase showed a prolonged lag-phase, reduced biomass accumulation and a strong defect in ethanol production. Overexpression of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase leads to an increased ethanol yield in S. cerevisiae.

  2. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  3. Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... After 72 h incubation in a shaker incubator ... different incubation times (0 to 72 h) were investigated. Alkaline .... of alkaline protease (75%) and 24% of total protein is precipitated. ... starches and wheat flour as carbon source on protease production .... JP 395, method of making and detergent composition.

  4. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  5. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  6. Increasing the alkaline protease activity of Bacillus cereus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... cereus and Bacillus polymyxa simultaneously with the start of sporulation phase as a ... microbial forms to inactivation by chemical or physical agents. .... alkaline pH, 9, 10 and 11 and the pH of the culture media was optimized with .... incubation temperature for alkaline protease production by Bacillus ...

  7. Production of alkaline protease by Teredinobacter turnirae cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conditions for immobilizing the new alkaline protease-producing bacteria strain Teredinobacter turnirae by entrapment in calcium alginate gel were investigated. The influence of alginate concentration (20, 25 and 30 g/l) and initial cell loading (ICL) on enzyme production were studied. The production of alkaline ...

  8. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... A new strain of Bacillus sp. was isolated from alkaline soil, which was able to produce extracellular alkaline ... rice and dates (Khosravi-Darani et al., 2008), protein by- products from lather ..... Pigeon pea waste as a novel ...

  9. Comparative Detection of Alkaline Protease Production in Exiguobacterium acetylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, O.M.; EI Shafey, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline protease is one of the most important enzymes in industry, medicine, and research. In the present work, a comparative detection for alkaline protease activity was established for instant detection of enzyme activity. Eight different alkalophilic bacterial isolates were compared based on the clear zone they produced on skim milk agar. One strain gave an absolute clear zone in 16 hours and was used for alkaline protease detection. The result of Phenotypic identification using Biology Microlog 3 identified the isolate as Exiguobacterium acetylicum. The isolate under study showed slightly different characteristics from a known Exiguobacterium acetylicum strain. The isolate tolerated alkaline conditions up to ph 11, while good growth was evident at ph 7, the maximum alkaline protease activity was observed at ph 9 which reached up to 109.01 U/ml. The alkaline activity assay using alkaline protease enzyme assay were coordinating with those obtained by conductivity; there was a relevant decrease in conductivity at the maximum increase in enzyme activity, which proved the cell membrane conductivity has a close relation to alkaline protease production. This isolate has tolerated gamma radiation, the increase in dose (up to 4 Gy) gave wider clear zones in terms of diameter and this was relevant to the conductivity measurements

  10. Partial purification and characterization of alkaline proteases from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline proteases from the digestive tract of anchovy were partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration. The purification fold and yield were 6.23 and 4.49%, respectively. The optimum activities of partially purified alkaline proteases were observed at 60°C and at pH 11.0.

  11. Deterministic photonic spatial-polarization hyper-controlled-not gate assisted by a quantum dot inside a one-side optical microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-01-01

    To date, all work concerning the construction of quantum logic gates, an essential part of quantum computing, has focused on operating in one degree of freedom (DOF) for quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing based on two DOFs for quantum systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating in both the spatial mode and polarization DOFs for a photon pair simultaneously, using the giant optical Faraday rotation induced by a single-electron spin in a quantum dot inside a one-side optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With this hyper-CNOT gate and linear optical elements, two-photon four-qubit cluster entangled states can be prepared and analyzed, which give an application to manipulate more information with less resources. We analyze the experimental feasibility of this hyper-CNOT gate and show that it can be implemented with current technology. (letter)

  12. InGaN multiple-quantum-well epifilms on GaN-sillicon substrates for microcavities and surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Key; Cho, Hoon; Kim, Bok Hee; Park, Si Hyun; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian; Dawson, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We report the processing of InGaN/GaN epifilms on GaN-silicon substrates. High-quality InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) were grown on GaN-silicon substrates, and their membranes were successfully fabricated using a selective wet etching of silicon followed by a dry etching of the AlGaN buffer layer. With atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we investigated the physical and the optical properties of the InGaN/GaN MQWs membranes. On the InGaN/GaN MQW membranes, dielectric distributed Bragg reflector (DBRs) were successfully deposited, which give, new possibilities for use in GaN microcavity and surface-emitting laser fabrication.

  13. Microcavity-Free Broadband Light Outcoupling Enhancement in Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Nanostructured Transparent Metal-Dielectric Composite Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu-Hai; Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Xin-Dong; Xiang, Heng-Yang; Chen, Jing-De; Zhou, Lei; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-26

    Flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) hold great promise for future bendable display and curved lighting applications. One key challenge of high-performance flexible OLEDs is to develop new flexible transparent conductive electrodes with superior mechanical, electrical, and optical properties. Herein, an effective nanostructured metal/dielectric composite electrode on a plastic substrate is reported by combining a quasi-random outcoupling structure for broadband and angle-independent light outcoupling of white emission with an ultrathin metal alloy film for optimum optical transparency, electrical conduction, and mechanical flexibility. The microcavity effect and surface plasmonic loss can be remarkably reduced in white flexible OLEDs, resulting in a substantial increase in the external quantum efficiency and power efficiency to 47.2% and 112.4 lm W(-1).

  14. Ethanol production from bamboo using mild alkaline pre-extraction followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhaoyang; Wen, Yangbing; Kapu, Nuwan Sella

    2018-01-01

    A sequential two-stage pretreatment process comprising alkaline pre-extraction and alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHP) was investigated to convert bamboo carbohydrates into bioethanol. The results showed that mild alkaline pre-extraction using 8% (w/w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 100°C for 180min followed by AHP pretreatment with 4% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was sufficient to generate a substrate that could be efficiently digested with low enzyme loadings. Moreover, alkali pre-extraction enabled the use of lower H 2 O 2 charges in AHP treatment. Two-stage pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with only 9FPU/g cellulose led to the recovery of 87% of the original sugars in the raw feedstock. The use of the pentose-hexose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae SR8u strain enabled the utilization of 95.7% sugars in the hydrolysate to reach 4.6%w/v ethanol titer. The overall process also enabled the recovery of 62.9% lignin and 93.8% silica at high levels of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Micrococcus sp. isolated from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Enling; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhaohui; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2017-04-01

    Protease is wildly used in various fields, such as food, medicine, washing, leather, cosmetics and other industrial fields. In this study, an alkaline protease secreted by Micrococcus NH54PC02 isolated from the South China Sea was purified and characterized. The growth curve and enzyme activity curve indicated that the cell reached a maximum concentration at the 30th hour and the enzyme activity reached the maximum value at the 36th hour. The protease was purified with 3 steps involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic chromatography with 8.22-fold increase in specific activity and 23.68% increase in the recovery. The molecular mass of the protease was estimated to be 25 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. The optimum temperature and pH for the protease activity were 50°C and pH 10.0, respectively. The protease showed a strong stability in a wide range of pH values ranging from 6.0-11.0, and maintained 90% enzyme activity in strong alkaline environment with pH 11.0. Inhibitor trials indicated that the protease might be serine protease. But it also possessed the characteristic of metalloprotease as it could be strongly inhibited by EDTA and strongly stimulated by Mn2+. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS) showed that the protease might belong to the peptidase S8 family.

  16. Geochemical modeling of the influence of silicate mineral alteration on alkalinity production and carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Gerhard; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Gier, Susanne; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    High CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in deep rock reservoirs causes acidification of the porefluid. Such conditions occur during injection and subsurface storage of CO2 (to prevent the release of greenhouse gas) but also naturally in zones of strong methanogenic microbial activity in organic matter-rich ocean margin sediments. The acidic fluids are corrosive to carbonates and bear the risk of leakage of CO2 gas to the surface. Porefluid acidification may be moderated by processes that increase the alkalinity, i.e. that produce weak acid anions capable of buffering the acidification imposed by the CO2. Often, alkalinity increases as a result of anaerobic microbial activity, such as anaerobic oxidation of methane. However, on a long term the alteration of silicates, in particular, clay minerals, may be a more efficient mechanism of alkalinity production. Under altered temperature, pressure and porefluid composition at depth, clay minerals may change to thermodynamically more stable states, thereby increasing the alkalinity of the porefluid by partial leaching of Mg-(OH)2 and Ca-(OH)2 (e.g. Wallmann et al., 2008; Mavromatis et al., 2014). This alteration may even be enhanced by a high pCO2. Thus, silicate alteration can be essential for a long-term stabilization of volatile CO2 in the form of bicarbonate or may even induce precipitation of carbonate minerals, but these processes are not fully understood yet. The goal of this study is to simulate the alkalinity effect of silicate alteration under diagenetic conditions and high pCO2 by geochemical modeling. We are using the program PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 2013) to generate high rock/fluid ratio characteristics for deep subsurface rock reservoirs. Since we are interested in the long-term evolution of diagenetic processes, over millions of years, we do not consider kinetics but calculate the theoretically possible equilibrium conditions. In a first step we are calculating the saturation state of different clay minerals

  17. The effect of irrigated rice cropping on the alkalinity of two alkaline rice soils in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, van P.J.A.; Zelfde, van 't J.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Hammecker, C.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated rice cropping is practiced to reclaim alkaline-sodic soils in many parts of the world. This practice is in apparent contrast with earlier studies in the Sahel, which suggests that irrigated rice cropping may lead to the formation of alkaline-sodic soils. Soil column experiments were done

  18. Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2011-04-01

    Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled.

  19. Handbook of optical microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Anthony H W

    2014-01-01

    An optical cavity confines light within its structure and constitutes an integral part of a laser device. Unlike traditional gas lasers, semiconductor lasers are invariably much smaller in dimensions, making optical confinement more critical than ever. In this book, modern methods that control and manipulate light at the micrometer and nanometer scales by using a variety of cavity geometries and demonstrate optical resonance from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) bands across multiple material platforms are explored. The book has a comprehensive collection of chapters that cover a wide range

  20. High-Strength / High Alkaline Resistant Fe-Phosphate Glass Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano Velez

    2008-03-31

    Calcium-iron-phosphate glasses were developed whose chemical durabilities in alkaline solutions (pH 13) were comparable or superior to those of commercial alkaline-resistant (AR) silica-based glasses. However, the tensile strength of Ca-Fe-phosphate fibers, after being exposed to alkaline environments, including wet Portland cement pastes, is lower than that of current AR silicate fibers. Another series of Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses were developed with excellent chemical durability in strong acidic solutions (H2SO4, HF), indicating potential applications where silica-based fibers degrade very quickly, including E-glass. The new Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses can be melted and processed 300 to 500°C lower than silica-based glasses. This offers the possibility of manufacturing glass fibers with lower energy costs by 40-60% and the potential to reduce manufacturing waste and lower gas emissions. It was found that Ca-Fe-phosphate melts can be continuously pulled into fibers depending on the slope of the viscosity-temperature curve and with viscosity ~100 poise, using multi-hole Pt/Rh bushings.

  1. Ultrastable α phase nickel hydroxide as energy storage materials for alkaline secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haili; Guo, Yinjian; Cheng, Yuanhui

    2018-03-01

    α Phase nickel hydroxide (α-Ni(OH)2) has higher theoretical capacity than that of commercial β phase Ni(OH)2. But the low stability inhibits its wide application in alkaline rechargeable batteries. Here, we propose a totally new idea to stabilize α phase Ni(OH)2 by introducing large organic molecule into the interlayer spacing together with doping multivalent cobalt into the layered Ni(OH)2 host. Ethylene glycol is served as neutral stabilizer in the interlayer spacing. Nickel is substituted by cobalt to increase the electrostatic attraction between layered Ni(OH)2 host and anion ions in the interlayer spacing. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) is utilized to design a three-dimensional network structure. This prepared α-Ni(OH)2-20 exhibits specific capacity as high as 334 mAh g-1and good structural stability even after immersing into strong alkaline zincate solution for 20 days. Ni(OH)2 electrode with a specific capacity of 35 mAh cm-2 is fabricated and used as positive electrode in zinc-nickel single flow batteries, which also shows good cycling stability. This result can provide an important guideline for the rational design and preparation of highly active and stable α phase Ni(OH)2 for alkaline secondary battery.

  2. Application of Resin in Pulp Technique for Ion Exchange Separation of Uranium from Alkaline Leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Resin-in-pulp technique was applied for purification and enrichment of uranium values from a finely ground uranium ore leach slurry of alkaline nature using strong base anion exchange resin (size 500 - 675μm). • The chemical composition of the solution phase of the alkaline leach slurry (pH 9.5) was consisting of about 40 g/L of total dissolved solutes (TDS) predominantly with Na_2CO_3 and NaHCO_3 and minor levels of Na_2SO_4. The uranium content was only 730 mg/L and d50 of solids was 34μm. • Amongst the various commercially available resins studied PFA 4740 and 4783 having quaternary ammonium ion on polystyrene crosslink with divibyl benzez (DVB) gave best performance. The maximum loading capacity achieved in the RIP studies was about 60-65 g of U_3O_8/L of wet settled resin amounting to 98% of loading. This has necessitated 4 stages of counter-current extraction with overall contact time of 100 minutes at a resin to leach slurry volume ratio of about 1:50. Practically the entire uranium values loaded on the resin were eluted using NaCl. • The RIP process was found quite efficient for uranium bearing alkaline leach slurries.

  3. Urbanization accelerates long-term salinization and alkalinization of fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Duan, S.; Doody, T.; Haq, S.; Smith, R. M.; Newcomer Johnson, T. A.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Gorman, J. K.; Bowman, N.; Mayer, P. M.; Wood, K. L.; Belt, K.; Stack, W.

    2017-12-01

    Human dominated land-use increases transport a major ions in streams due to anthropogenic salts and accelerated weathering. We show long-term trends in calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, and hardness over 50 years in the Baltimore metropolitan region and elsewhere. We also examine how major ion concentrations have increased significantly with impervious surface cover in watersheds across land use. Base cations show strong relationships with acid anions, which illustrates the coupling of major biogeochemical cycles in urban watersheds over time. Longitudinal patterns in major ions can also show increasing trends from headwaters to coastal waters, which suggests coupled biogeochemical cycles over space. We present new results from manipulative experiments and long-term monitoring across different urban regions regarding patterns and processes of salinization and alkalinization. Overall, our work demonstrates that urbanization dramatically increases major ions, ionic strength, and pH over decades from headwaters to coastal waters, which impacts the integrity of aquatic life, infrastructure, drinking water, and coastal ocean alkalinization.

  4. Engineering light emission of two-dimensional materials in both the weak and strong coupling regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, Mauro; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.; Ballesteros, Guillem C.; Gerardot, Brian D.; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F.

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have promising applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and quantum technologies. However, their intrinsically low light absorption limits their performance, and potential devices must be accurately engineered for optimal operation. Here, we apply a transfer matrix-based source-term method to optimize light absorption and emission in 2D materials and related devices in weak and strong coupling regimes. The implemented analytical model accurately accounts for experimental results reported for representative 2D materials such as graphene and MoS2. The model has been extended to propose structures to optimize light emission by exciton recombination in MoS2 single layers, light extraction from arbitrarily oriented dipole monolayers, and single-photon emission in 2D materials. Also, it has been successfully applied to retrieve exciton-cavity interaction parameters from MoS2 microcavity experiments. The present model appears as a powerful and versatile tool for the design of new optoelectronic devices based on 2D semiconductors such as quantum light sources and polariton lasers.

  5. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  6. Reduction of proteinuria through podocyte alkalinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Mehmet M; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Wei, Changli; Möller, Clemens C; Flesche, Jan; Li, Jing; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Gödel, Markus; Huber, Tobias B; Preston, Richard A; Jiang, Jean X; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Sever, Sanja; Reiser, Jochen

    2014-06-20

    Podocytes are highly differentiated cells and critical elements for the filtration barrier of the kidney. Loss of their foot process (FP) architecture (FP effacement) results in urinary protein loss. Here we show a novel role for the neutral amino acid glutamine in structural and functional regulation of the kidney filtration barrier. Metabolic flux analysis of cultured podocytes using genetic, toxic, and immunologic injury models identified increased glutamine utilization pathways. We show that glutamine uptake is increased in diseased podocytes to couple nutrient support to increased demand during the disease state of FP effacement. This feature can be utilized to transport increased amounts of glutamine into damaged podocytes. The availability of glutamine determines the regulation of podocyte intracellular pH (pHi). Podocyte alkalinization reduces cytosolic cathepsin L protease activity and protects the podocyte cytoskeleton. Podocyte glutamine supplementation reduces proteinuria in LPS-treated mice, whereas acidification increases glomerular injury. In summary, our data provide a metabolic opportunity to combat urinary protein loss through modulation of podocyte amino acid utilization and pHi. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Alkaline phosphatase activity of rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Costerton, J W

    1977-11-01

    Of the 54 strains of rumen bacteria examined for alkaline phosphatase (APase) production, 9 of 33 gram-negative strains and none of 21 gram-positive strains produced the enzyme. The APase of the cells of the three strains of Bacteroides ruminicola that produced significant amounts of the enzyme was located in the periplasmic area of the cell envelope, whereas the enzyme was located in the strains of Selenomonas ruminantium and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens was associated with the outer membrane. The localization of APase production in the cells of natural populations of rumen bacteria from hay-fed sheep was accomplished by reaction product deposition, and both the proportion of APase-producing bacteria and the location of the enzyme in the cell envelope of the producing cells could be determined. We suggest that this procedure is useful in detecting shifts in the bacterial population and the release of cell-bound APase that accompany feedlot bloat and other sequelae of dietary manipulation in ruminants.

  8. Identification of human pulmonary alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, A; Cerutti, C G; Lusuardi, M; Donner, C F

    1997-04-01

    An increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients affected by pulmonary fibrosis in chronic interstitial lung disorders. To characterize the ALP isoenzymes in such cases, we used gel filtration, agarose gel electrophoresis, heat and amino acid inhibition assays, wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) precipitation, and an immunoassay specific for the bone-isoform of ALP. Only one anodic band representing a high-molecular-weight isoform of ALP (Mr approximately 2,000 kDa) was observed on electrophoresis of BALF. The inhibition assay results were consistent for a tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme sensitive to a temperature of 56 degrees C (71.9 +/- 2.5% inhibition) and to homoarginine (65.7 +/- 1.9%), and resistant to L-phenylalanine and L-leucine. Less than 13% of ALP activity was heat-stable. After incubation of BALF specimens with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase D plus Nonidet P-40, or with phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C alone, an electrophoretic cathodic band (Mr approximately 220 kDa) appeared near the bone band of a standard serum. With the WGA assay, 84.4 +/- 3.3% of ALP precipitated and the band disappeared. After immunoassay for the bone isoform, a mean of less than 5% enzyme activity was measured. We conclude that the ALP found in BALF is a pulmonary isoform of a tissue nonspecific isoenzyme.

  9. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  10. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model

  11. Alkaline Materials and Regenerative Endodontics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kahler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periapical health is the primary goal of endodontic treatment in mature and immature teeth. In addition, the goals of treatment of immature teeth with arrested root development include root growth to length and maturation of the apex, as well as thickening of the canal wall. These goals are valid for immature teeth that have been subjected to trauma and dental caries or that are the result of developmental anomalies that expose the tooth to the risk of pulp necrosis and consequently result in the cessation of root maturation. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs have been described as a “paradigm shift” in the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis and underdeveloped roots, as there is the potential for further root maturation and return of vitality. Treatment with REPs is advocated as the treatment of choice for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. REP protocols involve the use of alkaline biomaterials, primarily sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates and Biodentine, and are the essential components of a successful treatment regimen.

  12. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Rader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs, revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP and intestinal AP (IAP. This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  13. The aluminum chemistry and corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsuo; Klasky, Marc; Letellier, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-alkaline solution systems are very common in engineering applications including nuclear engineering. Consequently, a thorough knowledge of the chemistry of aluminum and susceptibility to corrosion in alkaline solutions is reviewed. The aluminum corrosion mechanism and corrosion rate are examined based on current experimental data. A review of the phase transitions with aging time and change of environment is also performed. Particular attention is given to effect of organic and inorganic ions. As an example, the effect of boron is examined in detail because of the application in nuclear reactor power systems. Methods on how to reduce the corrosion rate of aluminum in alkaline solutions are also highlighted

  14. Pseudomonas syringae evades host Immunity by degrading flagellin monomers with alkaline protease AprA

    OpenAIRE

    Pel, M.J.C.; Van Dijken, A.J.H.; Bardoel, B.W.; Seidl, M.F; Van der Ent, S.; Van Strijp, J.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin molecules are strong inducers of innate immune responses in both mammals and plants. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes an alkaline protease called AprA that degrades flagellin monomers. Here, we show that AprA is widespread among a wide variety of bacterial species. In addition, we investigated the role of AprA in virulence of the bacterial plant athogen P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The AprA-deficient DC3000 ΔaprA knockout mutant was significantl...

  15. Distribution of radioactive anomalies at Morro do Ferro hill in Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Complex, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, K.

    1980-10-01

    Sistematic radiation intensity measurements were alone at Morro do Ferro hill in the Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Complex, using portable Scintrex spectrometer for U, Th, K and total counting (TC). Complementary geochemical analyses were alone on selected 26 samples. It was observed that there are many radiation focii in that place and they are oriented in the E-W direction. The geochemical analyses show that Uranium has participated also in the inicial mineralization of radioactive elements. The contribution of 238 U series daugher elements is relatively strong although Uranium was 'washed' by leaching. (Author) [pt

  16. Changes in contaminant composition at landfill sites. (9). ; Application of soil covering to treatment of alkaline seepage water. Umetate ni okeru odaku seibun no doko. (9). ; Alkali sei shinsutsueki no gaido shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Y; Sugai, T; Masuda, T; Watanabe, Y; Kobayashi, S [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)

    1990-10-29

    Recently, alkaline seepage water has been found in many landfill sites. Strong alkaline seepage water results from the use of alkaline agents, such as quicklime and slaked lime, for water removal from waste. In the present report, the neutralizing ability of different types of soil is studied to provide a method to neutralize seepage water by using soil covering at landfill sites. Results show that clay contained in soil is playing a major role in neutralizing alkaline seepage penetrating the soil. Clay generally has negative electric charges, suggesting that positive ions in alkaline water is neutralized after being replaced by hydrogen ions. Another major factor is the carbonate ion and carbon dioxide existing in soil, which precipitate and solidify calcium hydroxide as calcium carbonate to achieve neutralization. Investigations indicate that top soil comprising volcanic ash is useful as material for soil covering. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  18. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  19. Microbial alkaline proteases: Optimization of production parameters and their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanupriya Miglani Sharma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are hydrolytic enzymes capable of degrading proteins into small peptides and amino acids. They account for nearly 60% of the total industrial enzyme market. Proteases are extensively exploited commercially, in food, pharmaceutical, leather and detergent industry. Given their potential use, there has been renewed interest in the discovery of proteases with novel properties and a constant thrust to optimize the enzyme production. This review summarizes a fraction of the enormous reports available on various aspects of alkaline proteases. Diverse sources for isolation of alkaline protease producing microorganisms are reported. The various nutritional and environmental parameters affecting the production of alkaline proteases in submerged and solid state fermentation are described. The enzymatic and physicochemical properties of alkaline proteases from several microorganisms are discussed which can help to identify enzymes with high activity and stability over extreme pH and temperature, so that they can be developed for industrial applications.

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The shapes of spectra are also changed with varying alkaline earth ions content. ... of manganese ion and electrical properties of glass contain- ing mobile ions like .... octahedral crystal field are located above the ground 6S state. Figure 2.

  1. Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of alkaline protease production and its fibrinolytic activity from the ... nitrogen sources and sodium chloride concentration for protease production by the ... exploited to assist in protein degradation in various industrial processes.

  2. Guest–host interactions in the alkaline bleaching of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    cyclodextrin on the bleaching rates of triphenylmethane dyes crystal violet (CV), malachite green (MG) and rosaniline. (RA) have been investigated in alkaline medium with a view to understand the guest–host interaction in these system. 2.

  3. The Estimation Formation Alkaline In The Proses Desalination MSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiffah, Siti Nurul

    2000-01-01

    Already to go on estimation phenomena formation alkaline scale of a seawater. In desalination system seawater on MSF to go on scale by a thermal decomposition HCO sub.3- ion and hydrolysis carbonate ion with water on the temperature operation. The varieties alkaline scale in attached on tube surface, while reduced efficiency heat transfer and to raise corrosion attack to structure material is caused all this high cost. Estimation to take please which a sum step by step decomposition ion bicarbonate from then information scale which carbonate and hydroxyl ion. The various scale maximal is alkaline form is a calcium carbonate = 116,5 gram per meter cubic the various sedimentation is alkaline and magnesium hydroxide = 67,57 gram per meter cubic

  4. Certain laws governing the influence of high molecular polymer additives on specific electrical conductivity and viscosity of zincate alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrenko, V.Ye.; Toropetsera, T.N.; Zubov, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of polymer additives of different nature: polyelectrolyte, copolymer of ethylene with maleic anhydride, polymethacrylic acid and nonpolyectrolyte copolymer of vinyl alcohol with vinyleneglycol and polyvinyleneglycol on specific electrical conductance and viscosity of the zincate alkaline solution. It is indicated that with an increase in the content of additives, the specific conductance of the solution diminishes according to a linear law, while the viscosity rises. The additives of polyelectrolyte nature reduce more strongly the specific conductance and increase the viscosity than the nonpolyelectrolyte additives. From a comparison of the data on specific conductance and viscosity the following conclusion is drawn: the more the polymer ''structures'' the zincate alkaline solution, the more strongly it reduces its specific electrical conductance.

  5. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  6. Basic study of alkaline water electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, A.; Kashiwase, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayashida, T.; Kato, A.; Hirao, K.; Shimomura, I.; Nagashima, I.

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize future hydrogen society, hydrogen production systems must meet the large demand of hydrogen usage. Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) would be one of the candidate technologies to produce hydrogen on a large scale from renewable energy. We have conducted basic research into AWE, trying to reveal technical issues under zero gap system in new cell technology. The zero gap system contributes lower cell voltage without causing any major operating problems compared with conventional finite gap cell. However, it was observed that Ni base electrodes showed corrosion phenomena in a number of test trials including steady operating conditions and several shut-downs. Activated Raney Ni alloy coating for anode material had an advantage for oxygen overvoltage. It showed a saving of around 100 mV at 40 A/dm 2 (0.4 A/cm 2 ) against Ni bare anodes. In the Chlor–Alkali (C/A) industry, thermal decomposition coating of mixed noble metal on Ni substrate is commonly used for advanced activated cathodes. It showed very low hydrogen over-potential of around 100 mV in AWE. To achieve better cell performance, separator selection is very important. We evaluated several separators including ion exchange membrane (IEM) to understand the basic function in AWE. IEM for C/A electrolysis showed high cell voltage (over 2.2 V) but low O 2 impurity in H 2 gas. Hydrogen purity was over 99.95%. Porous separators made of polypropylene showed 1.76 V at 40 A/dm 2 (0.4 A/cm 2 ), 80 °C. But there was a weakness on the durability for continuous operation. Proper selection of separator is important in an actual plant for effective and safe cell operation. The concept of safety operation is referred to by diffusion coefficient of hydrogen

  7. Photovoltaic hydrogen production with commercial alkaline electrolysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursua, A.; Lopez, J.; Gubia, E.; Marroyo, L.; Sanchis, P. [Public Univ. of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Dept. of Electric and Electronic Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources and Electrolysis generate the so-called green Hydrogen, a zero-emission and potentially fossil fuel independent energy source. However, the inherent variability of the renewable energy sources implies a mode of operation for which most current electrolysers have not been designed. This paper analyses the operation of a water electrolyser fed with photovoltaic (PV) generator electric profile. The system, Integrated by a 1 Nm{sup 3}/h Hydrogenics alkaline electrolyser and a 5100 W PV generator with 60 BP585 modules, is installed at the Public University of Navarra (Spain). The PV generator profile fed to the electrolyser is emulated by a custom-made apparatus designed and built by the authors of this paper. The profile is designed according to real irradiance data measured by a calibration cell. The irradiance data are converted to the electric power profile that the PV generator would have delivered in case of having been connected to the electrolyser by means of a DC/DC converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Finally, from previously measured power-current electrolyser characteristic curves, the current profile to be delivered to the electrolyser is obtained and programmed to the electronic device. The electrolyser was tested for two types of days. During the first day, the irradiance was very stable, whereas during the second day, the irradiance was very variable. The experimental results show an average power consumption rate and an efficiency of 4908 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 72.1%, on the first day, and 4842 Wh/Nm{sup 3} and 73.3% on the second day. The electrolyser performance was particularly good in spite of the high variability of the electric supply of the second day. (orig.)

  8. Alkaline Peroxide Delignification of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Ashutosh [Biosciences; Katahira, Rui [National; Donohoe, Bryon S. [Biosciences; Black, Brenna A. [National; Pattathil, Sivakumar [Complex; Stringer, Jack M. [National; Beckham, Gregg T. [National

    2017-05-30

    Selective biomass fractionation into carbohydrates and lignin is a key challenge in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. In the present study, alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was investigated to fractionate lignin from polysaccharides in corn stover (CS), with a particular emphasis on the fate of the lignin for subsequent valorization. The influence of peroxide loading on delignification during AHP pretreatment was examined over the range of 30-500 mg H2O2/g dry CS at 50 degrees C for 3 h. Mass balances were conducted on the solid and liquid fractions generated after pretreatment for each of the three primary components, lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose. AHP pretreatment at 250 mg H2O2/g dry CS resulted in the pretreated solids with more than 80% delignification consequently enriching the carbohydrate fraction to >90%. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) spectroscopy of the AHP pretreated residue shows that, under high peroxide loadings (>250 mg H2O2/g dry CS), most of the side chain structures were oxidized and the aryl-ether bonds in lignin were partially cleaved, resulting in significant delignification of the pretreated residues. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis shows that AHP pretreatment effectively depolymerizes CS lignin into low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fragments in the aqueous fraction. Imaging of AHP pretreated residues shows a more granular texture and a clear lamellar pattern in secondary walls, indicative of layers of varying lignin removal or relocalization. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this pretreated residue at 20 mg/g of glucan resulted in 90% and 80% yields of glucose and xylose, respectively, after 120 h. Overall, AHP pretreatment is able to selectively remove more than 80% of the lignin from biomass in a form that has potential for downstream valorization processes and enriches the solid pulp into a highly digestible material.

  9. Economic Analysis of Improved Alkaline Water Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm, E-mail: w.kuckshinrichs@fz-juelich.de; Ketelaer, Thomas; Koj, Jan Christian [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Juelich (Germany)

    2017-02-20

    Alkaline water electrolysis (AWE) is a mature hydrogen production technology and there exists a range of economic assessments for available technologies. For advanced AWEs, which may be based on novel polymer-based membrane concepts, it is of prime importance that development comes along with new configurations and technical and economic key process parameters for AWE that might be of interest for further economic assessments. This paper presents an advanced AWE technology referring to three different sites in Europe (Germany, Austria, and Spain). The focus is on financial metrics, the projection of key performance parameters of advanced AWEs, and further financial and tax parameters. For financial analysis from an investor’s (business) perspective, a comprehensive assessment of a technology not only comprises cost analysis but also further financial analysis quantifying attractiveness and supply/market flexibility. Therefore, based on cash flow (CF) analysis, a comprehensible set of metrics may comprise levelised cost of energy or, respectively, levelized cost of hydrogen (LCH) for cost assessment, net present value (NPV) for attractiveness analysis, and variable cost (VC) for analysis of market flexibility. The German AWE site turns out to perform best in all three financial metrics (LCH, NPV, and VC). Though there are slight differences in investment cost and operation and maintenance cost projections for the three sites, the major cost impact is due to the electricity cost. Although investment cost is slightly lower and labor cost is significantly lower in Spain, the difference can not outweigh the higher electricity cost compared to Germany. Given the assumption that the electrolysis operators are customers directly and actively participating in power markets, and based on the regulatory framework in the three countries, in this special case electricity cost in Germany is lowest. However, as electricity cost is profoundly influenced by political decisions as

  10. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO 2 , and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined 'CO 2 -acidity' is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO 2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass-action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mgL -1 as CaCO 3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved Fe II , Fe III , Mn, and Al in mgL -1 ):acidity calculated =50{1000(10 -pH )+[2(Fe II )+3(Fe III )]/56+2(Mn) /55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO 4 - and H + , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe 3+ and Al 3+ . However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that 'net alkalinity' is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the

  11. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  12. Processes determining the marine alkalinity and carbonate saturation distributions

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Carter; J. R. Toggweiler; R. M. Key; J. L. Sarmiento

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a composite tracer, Alk*, that has a global distribution primarily determined by CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Alk* also highlights riverine alkalinity plumes that are due to dissolved calcium carbonate from land. We estimate the Arctic receives approximately twice the riverine alkalinity per unit area as the Atlantic, and 8 times that of the other oceans. Riverine inputs broadly elevate Alk* in the Arctic surface and particularly near ri...

  13. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    temperature fuel cells including proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) and alkaline fuel cell (AFC) with operation temperature usually lower than 120...advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) resulting in the popularity of AFCs in the US space program.[8-11] The primary benefit AFC...offered over PEMFC is better electrochemical kinetics on the anode and cathode under the alkaline environment, which results in the ability to use

  14. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  15. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  16. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-03

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  19. Acidity and alkalinity in mine drainage: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Carl S.; Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidities (mineral, CO2, and total). Theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined “CO2- acidity” is closely related to most standard titration methods used for mine drainage with an endpoint pH of 8.3, but it presents numerous interpretation problems, and it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/massaction approach and employing graphs for visualization, we explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to solution species, including aqueous complexes, commonly found in mine drainage. We define a comprehensive theoretical definition of acidity in mine drainage on the basis of aqueous speciation at the sample pH and the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. This definition indicates the computed acidity in milligrams per liter (mg L-1 ) as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeIII , FeII , Mn, and Al in mg L-1 ): Aciditycomputed = 50. (10(3-pH) + 3.CFeIII/55.8 + 2.CFeII/55.8 + 2.CMn/54.9 + 3.CAl/27.0) underestimates contributions from HSO4 - and H+ , but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+. These errors tend to approximately cancel each other. We demonstrate that “net alkalinity” is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. We demonstrate that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a

  20. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter

  2. A single pH fluorescent probe for biosensing and imaging of extreme acidity and extreme alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Bin; Wang, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Li, Zhi-Qing; Liu, Yu-Hong; Huo, Fang-Jun; Yin, Cai-Xia; Shi, Ya-Wei; Wang, Juan-Juan

    2017-07-04

    A simple tailor-made pH fluorescent probe 2-benzothiazole (N-ethylcarbazole-3-yl) hydrazone (Probe) is facilely synthesized by the condensation reaction of 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole with N-ethylcarbazole-3-formaldehyde, which is a useful fluorescent probe for monitoring extremely acidic and alkaline pH, quantitatively. The pH titrations indicate that Probe displays a remarkable emission enhancement with a pK a of 2.73 and responds linearly to minor pH fluctuations within the extremely acidic range of 2.21-3.30. Interestingly, Probe also exhibits strong pH-dependent characteristics with pK a 11.28 and linear response to extreme-alkalinity range of 10.41-12.43. In addition, Probe shows a large Stokes shift of 84 nm under extremely acidic and alkaline conditions, high selectivity, excellent sensitivity, good water-solubility and fine stability, all of which are favorable for intracellular pH imaging. The probe is further successfully applied to image extremely acidic and alkaline pH values fluctuations in E. coli cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fundamental Mechanistic Understanding of Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction on Pt and Non-Pt Surfaces: Acid versus Alkaline Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagappan Ramaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex electrochemical reactions such as Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR involving multi-electron transfer is an electrocatalytic inner-sphere electron transfer process that exhibit strong dependence on the nature of the electrode surface. This criterion (along with required stability in acidic electrolytes has largely limited ORR catalysts to the platinum-based surfaces. New evidence in alkaline media, discussed here, throws light on the involvement of surface-independent outer-sphere electron transfer component in the overall electrocatalytic process. This surface non-specificity gives rise to the possibility of using a wide-range of non-noble metal surfaces as electrode materials for ORR in alkaline media. However, this outer-sphere process predominantly leads only to peroxide intermediate as the final product. The importance of promoting the electrocatalytic inner-sphere electron transfer by facilitation of direct adsorption of molecular oxygen on the active site is emphasized by using pyrolyzed metal porphyrins as electrocatalysts. A comparison of ORR reaction mechanisms between acidic and alkaline conditions is elucidated here. The primary advantage of performing ORR in alkaline media is found to be the enhanced activation of the peroxide intermediate on the active site that enables the complete four-electron transfer. ORR reaction schemes involving both outer- and inner-sphere electron transfer mechanisms are proposed.

  4. Oxidative Stress as Estimated by Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Levels Amplifies the Alkaline Phosphatase-Dependent Risk for Mortality in ESKD Patients on Dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Torino (Claudia); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); J.L.C.M. van Saase (Jan); M. Postorino (Maurizio); G.L. Tripepi (Giovanni); F. Mallamaci (Francesca); C. Zoccali (Carmine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAlkaline phosphatase (Alk-Phos) is a powerful predictor of death in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and oxidative stress is a strong inducer of Alk-Phos in various tissues. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress, as estimated by a robust marker of systemic oxidative

  5. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK_a_2 of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO_2"−) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK_a_2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10"−"4 mM"1"−"("a "+ "b") h"−"1) × [NB]"a "= "1"."3"5 "± "0"."1"0[AA]"b "= "0"."8"9 "± "0"."0"1. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  6. Serum alkaline phosphatase screening for vitamin D deficiency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, S.; Barrakzai, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether serum vitamin D levels are correlated with serum levels of alkaline phosphatase or not. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Multi-centre study, conducted at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, National Medical Centre and Medicare Hospital, Karachi, from January to October 2009. Methodology: Patients attending the Orthopaedic OPDs with complaints of pain in different body regions and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels of greater or equal to 30 ng/ml were included in the study. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were further categorized into mild deficiency or insufficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 20-29 ng/ml), moderate deficiency (vit. D/sub 3/ = 5 - 19 ng/ml) and severe deficiency forms (vit. D/sub 3/ < 5 ng/ml). Pearson correlation was applied to test the correlation of serum alkaline phosphatase levels with serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Out of 110 samples, 26 had mild (23%), 61 had moderate (55%) and 21 had severe (19.1%) vitamin D deficiencies. All of the patients in the three groups had alkaline phosphatase with in normal limits and the total mean value of the enzyme was 135.97 +- 68.14I U/L. The inter group comparison showed highest values of alkaline phosphatase in the moderate vitamin D deficiency group. The correlation coefficient of alkaline phosphatase and serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels was r =0.05 (p =0.593). Conclusion: Serum vitamin D/sub 3/ levels may not be correlated with increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels. Therefore, alkaline phosphatase may not be used as a screening test to rule out vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  7. Evaluation of some bean lines tolerance to alkaline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In less arid climates, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. The development and identification of salt-tolerant crop cultivars or lines would complement salt management programs to improve the productivity and yields of salt stressed plants.Materials and methods: This work was to study the evaluation of alkalinity tolerance of some bean lines grown under different levels of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to select the most alkalinity tolerant lines versus the most-sensitive ones out of 6 lines of the test plants.Results: The symptoms induced by alkalinity included reduction in root, shoot growth, and leaf area which were more severe in some bean lines. Potassium leakage was severely affected by alkalinity in some lines at all tested levels, while in some others a moderate damage was manifested only at the higher levels. The increase in Na2CO3 level was associated with a gradual fall in chlorophyll a and b biosynthesis of all the test bean lines. However, alkalinity at low and moderate levels had a favorable effect on the biosynthesis of carotenoids in all the test bean lines. The increase in Na2CO3 supply had a considerable stimulatory effect on sodium accumulation, while potassium accumulation fluctuated in organs of bean lines.Conclusion: Assiut 1104 out of all the different lines investigated was found to display the lowest sensitivity to alkalinity stress, while Assiut 12/104 was the most sensitive one.

  8. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian F. Robey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular pH (pHe of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs. We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (. Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs. To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (. Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX. The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  9. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  10. Elevated Serum Level of Human Alkaline Phosphatase in Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Awan, F. R.; Najam, S. S.; Islam, M.; Siddique, T.; Zain, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a correlation between serum alkaline phosphatase level and body mass index in human subjects. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was carried out at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan, from April 2012 to June 2013. Blood serum alkaline phosphatase levels were estimated and the subjects were divided into three sub-groups on the basis of their body mass index: normal weight (<25kg/m2), overweight (25-27kg/m2) and obese (>27kg/m2) subjects. The serum samples were used for the estimation of clinically important biochemical parameters, using commercial kits on clinical chemistry analyser. Results: Of the 197 subjects, 97(49 percent) were obese and 100(51 percent) were non-obese. The serum alkaline phosphatase level increased in obese (214±6.4 IU/L) compared to the non-obese subjects (184.5±5 IU/L). Furthermore, a significant linear relationship (r=0.3;p-0.0001) was found between serum alkaline phosphatase and body mass index. Other biochemical variables were not correlated to the body mass index. Conclusion: Over activity and higher amounts of alkaline phosphatase were linked to the development of obesity. (author)

  11. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  12. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  14. Petrogenesis of Karamaili alkaline A-type granites from East Junggar, Xinjiang (NW China) and their relationship with tin mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuping; Tang Hongfeng; Liu Congqiang; Hou Guangshun; Cong Feng; Sylvester, Paul J.; Qu Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    Several types of granites including alkaline granites and alkali feldspar granites are distributed in the Karamaili tectonic belt of East Junggar, Xinjiang, China. Some medium-small tin deposits are located within or near the contact zones of the granitic intrusions. The alkaline granites share all the features commonly observed in peralkaline A-type granites. They contain alkalic mafic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine; have high contents of SiO 2 , alkalis, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf, REE (except Eu), and high ratios of FeO/MgO and Ga/Al; and show strong depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu in the spidergrams. Laser ablation-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates a crystallization age of ca. 305 Ma for the granites; TIMS analyses of the granites found high ε Nd (T) values of +5.9 to +6.5. Considering their geochemical features, alkaline granites most likely formed by fractional crystallization of graodioritic magmas, which were probably produced by partial melting of lower crustal basaltic to andesitic rocks formed from oceanic crustal materials that were deeply buried during late Palezoic subduction and accretion. Six molybdenite samples from the Sareshike tin deposit in East Junggar yielded an isochron age of 307±11 Ma (2σ) and a weighted mean model age of 306.5±3.4 Ma, consistent with zircon U-Pb ages of the alkaline granites. Low Re contents (0.323-0.961 ppm) in the molybdenite suggest that they originated from crustal sources related to the alkaline granites. Considering their identical ages, close spatial distribution, and similar sources, we argue that the A-type granites have a genetic relationship with the tin mineralization, and that the same association may be important elsewhere. (author)

  15. Increasing Alkalinity Export from Large Russian Arctic Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, T.; Zhulidov, A. V.; Gurtovaya, T. Y.; Spencer, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Riverine carbonate alkalinity (HCO3- and CO32-) sourced from chemical weathering of minerals on land represents a significant sink for atmospheric CO2 over geologic timescales. The flux of alkalinity from rivers in the Arctic depends on precipitation, permafrost extent and thaw, groundwater flow paths, and surface vegetation, all of which are changing under a warming climate. Here we show that over the past four decades, the export of alkalinity from the Ob' and Yenisei Rivers has more than doubled. The increase is likely due to a combination of increasing precipitation and permafrost thaw in the watersheds, which lengthens hydrologic flow paths and increases residence time in soils. These trends have broad implications for the rate of carbon sequestration on land and the delivery of buffering capacity to the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Decadal Variability of Total Alkalinity in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Carter, B. R.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Dickson, A. G.; Feely, R. A.; Mathis, J. T.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mecking, S.; Talley, L. D.

    2016-02-01

    Recent observations of acidification-driven shoaling of the calcium carbonate saturation horizon in the North Pacific have prompted new interest in carbonate cycling in this region, particularly related to impacts on biogenic calcification at the surface layer. Some estimates project that the impacts of OA on alkalinity cycling are beginning to emerge. Here, we present total alkalinity concentrations along a meridional transect of the North Pacific (WOCE, CLIVAR, and US GO-SHIP line P16N; 152 °W) over a period of three decades. The largest source of variability in alkalinity concentrations is related to North Pacific circulation, particularly in the surface mixed layer. Precise normalization of these data reveal some small spatial and temporal variability in the background. We explore these decadal trends in the context of decadal oscillations, ocean biogeochemical cycles, and global change processes such as ocean acidification.

  17. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David L.; Fedosseev, Alexander M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier

  19. Mineral CO2 sequestration in alkaline solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral carbonation is a promising sequestration route for the permanent and safe storage of carbon dioxide. In addition to calcium- or magnesium-containing primary minerals, suitable alkaline solid residues can be used as feedstock. The use of alkaline residues has several advantages, such as their availability close to CO2 sources and their higher reactivity for carbonation than primary minerals. In addition, the environmental quality of residues can potentially be improved by carbonation. In this study, key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process is examined, and environmental properties of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are investigated. The use of alkaline solid residues forms a potentially attractive alternative for the first mineral sequestration plants

  20. Geology and petrology of Lages Alkaline District, Santa Catarina State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibe, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    A 1:100.000 geological map shows the main outcrops, covering about 50 Km 2 , of the leucocratic alkaline rocks, ultra basic alkaline rocks, carbonatites and volcanic breccias which intruded the Gondwanic sedimentary rocks within a short time interval and characterize the Alkaline District of Lages. Chemical analyses of 33 whole-rock samples confirm the petrographic classification, but the agpaitic indexes, mostly below 1.0, do not reflect the mineralogical variations of the leucocratic alkaline rocks adequately. Partial REE analyses indicate that the light as well as the heavy rare earth contents decrease from the basic to the more evolved rocks, the La/Y ratio remaining approximately constant. Eleven new K/Ar ages from porphyritic nepheline syenites porphyritic phonolites, ultra basic alkaline rocks and pipe-breccias, together with six already available ages, show a major concentration in the range 65 to 75 Ma, with a mode at ca. 70 Ma. But one Rb/Sr whole-rock reference isochron diagram gives an age of 82+-6 Ma for the agpaitic phonolites of the Serra Chapada, which are considered younger than the miaskitic porphyriric nepheline syenites. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of 0.705-0.706 are compatible with a sub continental mantelic origin, devoid of crustal contamination. A petrogenetic model based on subtraction diagrams and taking into consideration the geologic, petrographic, mineralogic and petrochemical characteristics of the alkaline rocks of Lages consists of limited partial melting with CO 2 , contribution of the previously metasomatized upper mantle, in a region submitted to decompression. (author)

  1. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-05

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O 2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO 3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  2. Mineral Element Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Acidic Compared to Alkaline Areas of South Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingegerd Rosborg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study in 1997, on mineral levels in acidic compared to alkaline well waters, and in women’s hair, revealed higher concentrations of a number of mineral elements like Ca, Mo and Se in alkaline waters and hair. Thus, median Ca levels were six times higher in well water and five times higher in hair from the alkaline area compared to the acidic area. This finding raised the probability of similar differences in vegetables from these areas. Thus, in the year 2006, 60 women who had participated in the study in 1997 were asked to cultivate parsley, lettuce, carrot and chive. During the spring of 2006, the women from the water and hair study of 1997, 30 of them from the acidic area and 30 women from the alkaline district cultivated vegetables: carrot (Daucus carota L, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, chive (Allium schoenoprasum and lettuce (Eruca sativa. The vegetables were harvested, and rinsed in tap water from the kitchens of the participating women in August. The concentrations of about 35 elements and ions were determined by ICP OES and ICP-MS predominantly. In addition, soil samples from the different cultivators were also analyzed for a number of elements. Lettuce and parsley showed the highest concentrations of mineral elements per gram dry weight. Only Mo concentrations were significantly higher in all the different vegetables from the alkaline district compared to vegetables from the acidic areas. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ba, Br, Mn, Rb and Zn were higher in all the different vegetables from the acidic area. In the soil, only pH and exchangeable Ca from the alkaline area were higher than from the acidic area, while exchangeable Fe, Mn and Na concentrations were higher in soils from the acidic area. Soil elements like Al, Fe, Li, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, V, Zn and Zr were found in higher concentrations in lettuce and parsley, which were attributed to soil particles being splashed on the plants by the rain and absorbed by the leaves

  3. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  4. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  5. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  6. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  7. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  8. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  9. Genetic diversity and community structure of rhizobia nodulating Sesbania cannabina in saline-alkaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Xiangyue; Liu, Yajing; Wang, En Tao; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Hualing; Wu, Hailong; Jiang, Nan; Li, Yunzhao; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-05-01

    Sesbania cannabina is a plant that grows naturally along the seashores in Rudong County, China (RDC) and it has been introduced into the Yellow River Delta (YRD) as a pioneer plant to improve the saline-alkaline soils. In order to investigate the diversity of S. cannabina rhizobia in these soils, a total of 198 rhizobial isolates were characterized and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on data from multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII, as well as 16S rRNA. Symbiotic features were also studied by establishing the phylogeny of the symbiotic genes nodA and nifH, and by performing nodulation assays. The isolates had highly conserved symbiotic genes and were classified into nine genospecies belonging to the genera Ensifer, Agrobacterium, Neorhizobium and Rhizobium. A unique community structure was detected in the rhizobia associated with S. cannabina in the saline-alkaline soils that was characterized by five novel genospecies and four defined species. In addition, Ensifer sp. I was the predominant rhizobia in YRD, whereas Ensifer meliloti and Neorhizobium huautlense were the dominant species in RDC. Therefore, the study demonstrated for the first time that this plant strongly selected the symbiotic gene background but not the genomic background of its microsymbionts. In addition, biogeographic patterns existed in the rhizobial populations associated with S. cannabina, which were mainly correlated with pH and salinity, as well as the mineral nutrient contents. This study provided novel information concerning the interaction between soil conditions, host plant and rhizobia, in addition to revealing the diversity of S. cannabina rhizobia in saline-alkaline soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  11. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  12. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  13. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  14. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  15. Behavior of oxygem bubbles during alkaline water electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedershoven, H.M.S.; Jonge, de R.M.; Sillen, C.W.M.P.; Stralen, van S.J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Growth rate, departure radius and population of oxygen bubbles at the transparent anode during alkaline water electrolysis have been investigated experimentally. The supersaturation of dissolved oxygen in the electrolyte adjacent to the anode surface has been derived from bubble growth rates.

  16. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese-doped alkaline earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The intensity and frequency variations for the characteristic phosphate group vibrations have been correlated with the changes of the structural units present in these glasses. Depolymerization of the phosphate chains in all the glasses is observed with replacement of alkaline earth content by spectroscopic studies.

  17. Alkaline protease from senesced leaves of invasive weed Lantana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... amongst the most valuable commercial enzyme. Alkaline proteases hold a great potential for application in the detergent and leather industries (Kumar and Takagi,. 1999; Oberoi et al., 2001) due to the increasing trend to develop environmentally friendly technologies. Plants, animals and microbes are the ...

  18. based anion exchange membrane for alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Hydroxyl ion (OH–) conducting anion exchange membranes based on modified poly (phenylene oxide) are fabricated for their application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs). In the present study, chloromethylation of poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) is performed by aryl substitution rather than benzyl.

  19. Mixed alkaline earth effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    While the mixed alkali effect has received significant attention in the glass literature, the mixed alkaline earth effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here, we investigate the latter effect by partial substitution of magnesium for calcium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and NMR...

  20. Positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.P.

    1998-09-01

    This doctoral thesis is subdivided into: 1. Theory of positron collisions with helium and alkaline earth-like atoms, 2. Positron collisions with helium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, 3. Intercomparison of positron scattering by all those elements. The appendix of this work gives details of the numerical calculations and expands on the wavefunctions used

  1. Production of thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An alkaliphilic bacterium producing organic solvent-tolerant and thermostable alkaline protease was isolated from poultry litter site and identified as Bacillus coagulans PSB-07. Protease production under different submerged fermentation conditions were investigated with the aim of optimizing yield of enzyme. B. coagulans ...

  2. Isolation of alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis AKRS3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ashok

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... production proved high protease production than the other tested ... Crude alkaline protease was most active at 55°C, pH 9 with casein as ... 13416 Afr. J. Biotechnol. ... The Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped endospore-.

  3. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  4. Palladium-based nanocatalysts for alcohol electrooxidation in alkaline media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in the electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols in alkaline media compared to platinum catalysts. Recent efforts have focused on the discovery of palladium-based electrocatalysts with little or no platinum for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This chapter is an overview...

  5. Potentiodynamic characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidman, S.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Arvia, A.J.; Lopes Teijelo, M.

    1984-01-01

    The potentiodynamic and ellipsometric characteristics of cadmium and silver in alkaline solutions are studied. The phenomenology of both electrodes shows some common features which are interpreted in termo of a complex hydrated oxide anodic film structure resulting from simultaneous electrochemical and chemical reactions. The kinetics of film growth fits the predictions of nucleation and growth models. (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Kamps, J.AAM; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin

  7. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660 Section 864.7660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660...

  8. Structural variations in layered alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    because of the entrance of the guest molecules between the layers, there will be a change in the interlayer distance (Alberti 1978). Although M(IV) organo-phos- phonates are well documented, the chemistry of M(II) organophosphonates especially the alkaline earth metal organophosphonates has been explored marginally ...

  9. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, A.M.F.; Malkin, S.Y.; Montserrat, F; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete

  10. Alkalinity Analysis. Training Module 5.220.2.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, John L.; Davidson, Arnold C.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with the acid-base titrimetric procedure for determining the hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate alkalinity of a water sample. Included are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. A video tape is also…

  11. A green method of graphene preparation in an alkaline environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Bludská, Jana; Ecorchard, Petra; Kormunda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, MAY (2015), s. 65-71 ISSN 1350-4177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Alkaline environment * Exfoliation * Graphene * Ultrasound Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.556, year: 2015

  12. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists ( Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea ) and fungi ( Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes ). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  13. Modelling the crystallisation of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Agersted, Karsten; Holm, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential use of a thermochemical software package (FactSage 6.2), in the design of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics, experimental and modelled results on four glass ceramics were compared. Initially large discrepancies were found. These are described and related...

  14. Kinetic characteristics of acidic and alkaline ceramidase in human epidermis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, E.; Uchida, Y.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Paepe, K. de; Vanhaecke, T.; Holleran, W.M.; Rogiers, V.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become evident that at least five ceramidase (CDase) isoforms are present in human epidermis, and that specifically acidic CDase (aCDase) and alkaline CDase (alkCDase) activities increase during keratinocyte differentiation, and thus might play a pivotal role(s) in permeability

  15. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    The Great

  16. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p < 0.05) changes in alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  17. High-level expression of alkaline protease using recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... compared with that of wild-type B. licheniformis CICIM B5102. Key word: Alkaline protease, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis. INTRODUCTION. Proteases are one of the most important industrial enzyme groups, accounting for approximately 60% of the total enzyme sales (Beg et al., 2003).

  18. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among various nitrogen sources, yeast extract was found to be the best inducer of alkaline protease. Among metal salts, KNO3 and NH4Cl were found to increase protease production. The maximum enzyme production (3600 U/ml) was observed with pomegranate peels of fermentation medium in the presence of yeast ...

  19. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation and detection of sodium urate in alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical behaviour of copper oxides electrode in the presence of sodium urate was investigated. The correlation between the anodic oxidation and the amperometric detection of sodium urate in the alkaline medium on copper oxides electrode was analysed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical ...

  1. Alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates and their intercalation chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zima, Vítězslav; Pospíšil, M.; Kovář, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 9 (2018), s. 2867-2880 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10639S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : intercalation * layered compounds * alkaline-earth metal phenylphosphonates Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2016

  2. Screening Brazilian Macrophomina phaseolina isolates for alkaline lipases and other extracellular hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Claudia; Germani, José C

    2012-03-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, phylum Ascomycota, is a phytopathogenic fungus distributed worldwide in hot dry areas. There are few studies on its secreted lipases and none on its colony radial growth rate, an indicator of fungal ability to use nutrients for growth, on media other than potato-dextrose agar. In this study, 13 M. phaseolina isolates collected in different Brazilian regions were screened for fast-growth and the production of hydrolases of industrial interest, especially alkaline lipases. Hydrolase detection and growth rate determination were done on citric pectin, gelatin, casein, soluble starch, and olive oil as substrates. Ten isolates were found to be active on all substrates tested. The most commonly detected enzymes were pectinases, amylases, and lipases. The growth rate on pectin was significantly higher (P media identified CMM 2105, CMM 1091, and PEL as the fastest-growing isolates. The lipase activity of four isolates grown on olive oil was followed for 4 days by measuring the activity in the cultivation broth. The specific lipolytic activity of isolate PEL was significantly higher at 96 h (130 mU mg protein(-1)). The broth was active at 37 °C, pH 8, indicating the potential utility of the lipases of this isolate in mild alkaline detergents. There was a strong and positive correlation (0.86) between radial growth rate and specific lipolytic activity.

  3. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chenju, E-mail: cliang@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ya-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 320, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Jia-Wei [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University 250, Kuo-kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Alkaline ascorbic acid (a.k.a. vitamin C) is capable of reductively degrading NB. • The pH above the pK{sub a2} of ascorbic acid increases reductive electron transfer to NB. • The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA is determined. • NSB, AZOXY, and AZO are identified as intermediates and aniline as a final product. • Alkaline pH is essential for AA remediation of NB contaminated soils. - Abstract: Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pK{sub a2} of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r = ((0.89 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −4} mM{sup 1−(a} {sup +} {sup b)} h{sup −1}) × [NB]{sup a} {sup =} {sup 1.35} {sup ±} {sup 0.10}[AA]{sup b} {sup =} {sup 0.89} {sup ±} {sup 0.01}. The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  4. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  5. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  6. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  7. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  8. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  9. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  10. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  11. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  12. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  13. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  14. Electromigration in molten salts and application to isotopic separation of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menes, F.

    1969-01-01

    The separation of the isotopes of the alkaline-earth elements has been studied using counter-current electromigration in molten bromides. The conditions under which the cathode operates as a bromine electrode for the highest possible currents have been examined. For the separation of calcium, it has been necessary to use a stable CaBr 2 - (CaBr 2 + KBr) 'chain'. In the case of barium and strontium, it was possible to employ the pure bromides. Enrichment factors of the order of 10 for 48 Ca and of the order of 1.5 for the rare isotopes of barium and strontium have been obtained. In the case of magnesium the method is slightly more difficult to apply because of material loss due to the relatively high vapour pressure of the salt requiring the use of electrolyte chains, MgBr 2 - CeBr 3 . A study has been made that has led to a larger-scale application of the method. These are essentially the inhibition of reversible operation of the cathode by traces of water, limiting the intensity which can be tolerated; evacuation of the heat produced by the Joule effect, in the absence of which the separation efficiency is reduced by thermal gradients; corrosion of the materials by molten salts at high temperature. Several cells capable of treating a few kilograms of substance have been put into operation; none of these has lasted long enough to produce a satisfactory enrichment. The method is thus limited actually to yields of the order of a few grams. (author) [fr

  15. Isolation of radioactive strontium from natural samples. Separation of strontium from alkaline and alkaline earth elements by means of mixed solvent anion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Z.; Kosutic, K.; Lulic, S.; Kvastek, K.; Eskinja, I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies which led to the procedures for the chromatographic separation of radioactive strontium from alkaline, earth-alkaline and other elements in natural samples, on columns filled with strong base anion exchangers using alcoholic solutions of nitric acid as eluents. It has been shown that potassium, caesium, calcium, barium, yttrium and strontium can be adsorbed on strong base anion exchangers of the Dowex and Amberlite type, which contain the quaternary ammonium group with nitrate as counter-ion, from solutions of nitric acid in alcohol. Adsorption strength increases in the order methanol 3 in methanol, while they are adsorbed from ethanol and propanol. The adsorption strength is influenced by the polarity of alcohol, by the concentration of nitrate and by pH. The strength with which strontium adsorbs on the exchangers increases in the interval from 0 to 0.25M NH 4 NO 3 in methanol, after which it starts to decrease. Strontium adsorbs to the exchangers from the alcoholic solution of ammonium nitrate twice as strongly as from the alcoholic solution of nitric acid, while a fraction of water in pure alcohol exceeding 10% prevents adsorption. In the mixture of alcohol and nitric acid, the adsorption strength for calcium and strontium increases with the increase of the volume fraction of alcohol with a lower dielectric constant. The rate and strength of adsorption of ions on the exchanger also increase in the series 0.25M HNO 3 in methanol 3 in ethanol 3 in 1-propanol for each individual ion, as well as in the Ca 3 in methanol, 0.25M HNO 3 in ethanol and 0.25M HNO 3 in propanol. Separation is also possible from alcohol mixtures. Strontium separation is most difficult from calcium, while the efficiency of separation increases with a decrease of the polarity of the used alcohol or alcohol mixture. The first group elements of the periodic table are not separated from each other in this way, while the elements of the second group are

  16. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  17. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  18. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  19. Uranium(VI) retention by Ca-bentonite under (hyper)alkaline conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Thimo; Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    The sorption behavior of U(VI) on Ca-bentonite was studied in saline, (hyper)alkaline solution via batch experiments. At pH 8.5-9.5 sorption is low in the presence of CO{sub 2} due to the formation of weakly sorbing uranyl carbonate species, which have been observed to dominate speciation up to pH 10 by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). In the pH region 10-12, U(VI) retention is almost complete. The retention can either be attributed to strongly sorbing uranyl hydroxo complexes or to a partial precipitation of uranium due to an altered solubility of U(VI) induced by ions leached out of the bentonite.

  20. Studies of alkaline mediated phosphate migration in synthetic phosphoethanolamine l-glycero-d-manno-heptoside derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.; Martin, A.; Richards, J.C.; Bernlind, C.; Oscarson, S.; Schweda, E.K.H.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-monophosphate derivatives of methyl α-d-mannopyranosides, the 4-, 6- and 7-monophosphate derivatives of methyl l-glycero-α-d-manno-heptopyranosides and the corresponding phosphoethanolamine derivatives and a 6,7-cyclic phosphate analogue of methyl l-glycero-α-d-manno-heptopyranoside were used to study phosphate migration and hydrolysis when subjected to strong alkaline conditions (4 M KOH, 120 C, 18 h). The resulting products were analyzed by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. It was found that phosphate substituents were stable under these conditions and neither migration nor hydrolysis was observed except for the heptose 7-phosphate, which gave a substantial amount of phosphate hydrolysis. In phosphoethanolamine-substituted compounds migration to adjacent positions with concomitant loss of ethanolamine was found together with hydrolysis. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Superexchange-mediated magnetization dynamics with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shaobing; Qian Jun; Wang Yuzhu

    2017-01-01

    Superexchange and inter-orbital spin-exchange interactions are key ingredients for understanding (orbital) quantum magnetism in strongly correlated systems and have been realized in ultracold atomic gases. Here we study the spin dynamics of ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice when the two exchange interactions coexist. In the superexchange interaction dominating regime, we find that the time-resolved spin imbalance shows a remarkable modulated oscillation, which can be attributed to the interplay between local and nonlocal quantum mechanical exchange mechanisms. Moreover, the filling of the long-lived excited atoms affects the collapse and revival of the magnetization dynamics. These observations can be realized in state-dependent optical lattices combined with the state-of-the-art advances in optical lattice clock spectroscopy. (paper)

  2. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  3. IRON REDOX EQUILIBRIUM AND DIFFUSIVITY IN MIXED ALKALI-ALKALINE EARTH-SILICA GLASS MELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KI-DONG KIM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dependence of redox behavior and diffusivity of iron on temperature and composition was studied in mixed alkali-alkaline earth-silica glass melts by means of square wave voltammetry (SWV. The voltammograms showed that irrespective of K2O/(Na2O+K2O the peak potential due to Fe3+/Fe2+ moved toward negative direction with temperature decrease and the peak current showed a strong dependence on frequency at constant temperature. Iron diffusion coefficient versus melt viscosity showed a good linearity. The compositional dependence showed that the peak potential shifted to the positive direction with increase of K2O but a typical mixed alkali effect occurred in iron diffusion either at constant temperature or at constant viscosity.

  4. Local Electrical Response in Alkaline-Doped Electrodeposited CuInSe2/Cu Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Barón-Miranda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The local electrical response in alkaline-doped CuInSe2 films prepared by single-step electrodeposition onto Cu substrates was studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy. The CuInSe2 (CIS films were prepared from single baths containing the dopant ions (Li, Na, K or Cs and were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and photocurrent response. Increased crystallinity and surface texturing as the ion size increased were observed, as well as an enhanced photocurrent response in Cs-doped CIS. Li- and Na-doped films had larger conductivity than the undoped film while the K- and Cs-doped samples displayed shorter currents and the current images indicated strong charge accumulation in the K- and Cs-doped films, forming surface capacitors. Corrected current-sensing AFM IV curves were adjusted with the Shockley equation.

  5. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  6. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  7. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  8. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  9. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  10. Application of alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust for neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elez, Loris; Orescanin, Visnja; Sofilic, Tahir; Mikulic, Nenad; Ruk, Damir

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this work was development of an appropriate procedure for the neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewater (EWW) with alkaline solid residue (ASR) by-product of the alkaline extraction of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Removal efficiency of ASR at optimum purification conditions (pH 8 and mixing time; 20 minutes) for the elements Pb, Cr (VI), Cr (III), Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were 94.92%, 97.58%, 99.59%, 99.48%, 97.25% and 99.97%, respectively. The concentrations of all elements in the purified wastewater were significantly lower in relation to the upper permissible limit for wastewaters suitable for discharge into the environment. The remaining waste mud was regenerated in the strong alkaline medium and successfully applied once again for the neutralization/purification of EWW. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals accomplished with regenerated waste mud were comparable to these achieved by original ASR. Elemental concentrations in the leachates of the waste mud were in accordance with regulated values.

  11. High-Efficiency Artificial Photosynthesis Using a Novel Alkaline Membrane Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri; Haines, Brennan; Blosiu, Julian; Marzwell, Neville

    2009-01-01

    A new cell designed to mimic the photosynthetic processes of plants to convert carbon dioxide into carbonaceous products and oxygen at high efficiency, has an improved configuration using a polymer membrane electrolyte and an alkaline medium. This increases efficiency of the artificial photosynthetic process, achieves high conversion rates, permits the use of inexpensive catalysts, and widens the range of products generated by this type of process. The alkaline membrane electrolyte allows for the continuous generation of sodium formate without the need for any additional separation system. The electrolyte type, pH, electrocatalyst type, and cell voltage were found to have a strong effect on the efficiency of conversion of carbon dioxide to formate. Indium electrodes were found to have higher conversion efficiency compared to lead. Bicarbonate electrolyte offers higher conversion efficiency and higher rates than water solutions saturated with carbon dioxide. pH values between 8 and 9 lead to the maximum values of efficiency. The operating cell voltage of 2.5 V, or higher, ensures conversion of the carbon dioxide to formate, although the hydrogen evolution reaction begins to compete strongly with the formate production reaction at higher cell voltages. Formate is produced at indium and lead electrodes at a conversion efficiency of 48 mg of CO2/kilojoule of energy input. This efficiency is about eight times that of natural photosynthesis in green plants. The electrochemical method of artificial photosynthesis is a promising approach for the conversion, separation and sequestration of carbon dioxide for confined environments as in space habitats, and also for carbon dioxide management in the terrestrial context. The heart of the reactor is a membrane cell fabricated from an alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane and catalyst- coated electrodes. This cell is assembled and held in compression in gold-plated hardware. The cathode side of the cell is supplied with carbon

  12. Alkylation of imidazole under ultrasound irradiation over alkaline carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costarrosa, L.; Calvino-Casilda, V.; Ferrera-Escudero, S.; Duran-Valle, C.J.; Martin-Aranda, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    N-Alkyl-imidazole has been synthesized by sonochemical irradiation of imidazole and 1-bromobutane using alkaline-promoted carbons (exchanged with the binary combinations of Na, K and Cs). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis and N 2 adsorption isotherms. Under the experimental conditions, N-alkyl-imidazoles can be prepared with a high activity and selectivity. It is observed that imidazole conversion increases in parallel with increasing the basicity of the catalyst. The influence of the alkaline promoter, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst on the catalytic activity has been studied. For comparison, the alkylation of imidazole has also been performed in a batch reactor system under thermal activation

  13. Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Kurosaki, Ken; Maekawa, Takuji; Matsuda, Tetsushi; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Uno, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to contribute to safety evaluation of high burnup oxide fuels, we studied the thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites known as oxide inclusions. Polycrystalline samples of alkaline-earth perovskites, BaUO 3 , BaZrO 3 , BaCeO 3 , BaMoO 3 , SrTiO 3 , SrZrO 3 , SrCeO 3 , SrMoO 3 , SrHfO 3 and SrRuO 3 , were prepared and the thermal expansion coefficient, melting temperature, elastic moduli, Debye temperature, microhardness, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity were measured. The relationship between some physical properties was studied

  14. Investigating mechanisms of alkalinization for reducing primary breast tumor invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Ian F; Nesbit, Lance A

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pH (pHe) of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (P cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion.

  15. Radiolysis of actinides and technetium in alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-10

    The {gamma}-radiolysis of aerated alkaline aqueous solutions of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), Tc(IV), Tc(V), and TC(VII) was studied in the absence of additives and in the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, EDTA, formate, and other organic compounds. The radiolytic reduction of Np(V), Np(VI), Pu(VI), and TC(VII) under different experimental conditions was examined in detail. The addition of EDTA, formate, and alcohols was found to considerably increase the radiation-chemical reduction yields. The formation of the Np(V) peroxo complex was observed in the {gamma}-radiolysis of alkaline aqueous solutions of Np (VI) in the presence of nitrate.

  16. Lithuanian Quarry Aggregates Concrete Effects of Alkaline Corrosion Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Rutkauskas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate alkaline corrosion of cement in concrete is going to respond in sodium and potassium hydroxide (lye with active SiO2 found in some aggregates. During this reaction, the concrete has resulted in significant internal stresses which cause deformation of the concrete, cracking and disintegration. The reaction is slow and concrete signs of decomposition appear only after a few months or years. The study used two different aggregates quarries. Studies show that Lithuania gravel contaminated with reactive particles having amorphous silicon dioxide reacting with cement in sodium and potassium hydroxide and the resulting alkaline concrete corrosion. It was found that, according to AAR 2 large aggregates include Group II – potentially reactive because of their expansion after 14 days, higher than 0.1%.

  17. Oxidative degradation of Boltysh shale by alkaline potassium permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pobul, I Ya; Fomina, A S

    1974-01-01

    This reaction proceeded in stages at 47 to 48/sup 0/C with a 3 percent solution of potassium permanganate in a 1 percent alkaline solution. The products were separated into groups and identified by gas-liquid chromatography. Small amounts of monocarboxylic acids were identified, with normal and branched chains, from acetic to lauric acid. Dicarboxylic acids were mainly of normal structure, or methyl substituted, from succinic to hexadecanedicarboxylic acid. No tricarboxylic acids were detected. For products of primary oxidation insoluble in acid media, a high content of C/sub 10/-C/sub 16/ acids was characteristic, and for the final degree of oxidation C/sub 11/-C/sub 18/ acids. The organic portion of shale consists of structural units, differing in mass and in stability to alkaline permanganate.

  18. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  19. Comparison of oxidants in alkaline leaching of uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.C.; Srinivas, K.; Anand Rao, K.; Manmadha Rao, M.; Venkatakrishnan, R.R.; Padmanabhan, N.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The uranium minerals occurring in various ore deposits consists of predominantly uranous ion (U +4 ), necessitating use of an oxidant and other lixiviants for efficient dissolution during leaching. Unlike acid leaching route, where uranium minerals dissolution could be achieved efficiently with cheaper lixiviants, processing of ores by alkaline leaching route involve expensive lixiviants and drastic leaching conditions. Alkaline leaching of uranium ores becomes economical only upon using cheaper and efficient oxidants and conservation of other reagents by their recycle. The present paper gives efficacy of various oxidants - KMnO 4 , NaOCl, Cu - NH 3 , air and oxygen, in the leaching of uranium from a low-grade dolostone hosted uranium ore of India. A comparison based on technical merits and cost of the oxidant chemicals is discussed. (author)

  20. Radium, uranium and metals in acidic or alkaline uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, St.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium mill study sites have been chosen in function of their different characteristics: deposits age, treatment nature (alkaline or acid), mill origin. The realization of specific drilling allowed the simultaneous study of the interstitial water and the solid fraction of samples, cut at determined deep. A radiation imbalance between 230 Th and 226 Ra is observed in the acid treatment residues. The trace elements concentration spectrum is directly bound to the nature of the ore. Diamagnetic evolutions are observed in residues. The uranium concentrations are higher in carbonated waters than in calcic sulfated waters. The selective sequential lixiviation showed that the 226 Ra activity of the interstitial water is controlled by the Gypsum in acid treatment residues. In other hand in the alkaline treatment waters, the carbonates occur. The Ra retention is largely bound to the Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. (A.L.B.)

  1. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  2. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  3. The application of alkaline and acidic electrolyzed water in the sterilization of chicken breasts and beef liver

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, Yuko; Shinke, Momoka; Hiraishi, Miki; Tsuchiya, Yusuke; Masuda, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The sterilization effect of a combination treatment with alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) and strong acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW) on fresh chicken breasts and beef liver was evaluated. Samples (1, 5, and 10?g) were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis NBRC3313, Escherichia coli ATCC 10798, Staphylococcus aureus FDA209P, and S.?aureus C?29 [staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) productive strain] and subjected to a dipping combination treatment (4?C and 25?C for 3?min) with AlEW...

  4. Investigation of aluminum gate CMP in a novel alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Cuiyue; Liu Yuling; Sun Ming; Zhang Wenqian; Zhang Jin; Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Beyond 45 nm, due to the superior CMP performance requirements with the metal gate of aluminum in the advanced CMOS process, a novel alkaline slurry for an aluminum gate CMP with poly-amine alkali slurry is investigated. The aluminum gate CMP under alkaline conditions has two steps: stock polishing and fine polishing. A controllable removal rate, the uniformity of aluminum gate and low corrosion are the key challenges for the alkaline polishing slurry of the aluminum gate CMP. This work utilizes the complexation-soluble function of FA/O II and the preference adsorption mechanism of FA/O I nonionic surfactant to improve the uniformity of the surface chemistry function with the electrochemical corrosion research, such as OCP-TIME curves, Tafel curves and AC impedance. The result is that the stock polishing slurry (with SiO 2 abrasive) contains 1 wt.% H 2 O 2 ,0.5 wt.% FA/O II and 1.0 wt.% FA/O I nonionic surfactant. For a fine polishing process, 1.5 wt.% H 2 O 2 , 0.4 wt.% FA/O II and 2.0 wt.% FA/O I nonionic surfactant are added. The polishing experiments show that the removal rates are 3000 ± 50 Å/min and 1600 ± 60 Å/min, respectively. The surface roughnesses are 2.05 ± 0.128 nm and 1.59 ± 0.081 nm, respectively. A combination of the functions of FA/O II and FA/O I nonionic surfactant obtains a controllable removal rate and a better surface roughness in alkaline solution. (paper)

  5. Paleochemistry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana, Kenya. [Alkalinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerling, T.

    1979-01-01

    The paleochemisry of Plio-Pleistocene Lake Turkana can be estimated by using the chemistry of lakes from the Eastern Rift of Africa as an analogue. Most modern East Africa lakes occupy closed basins; their chemistries follow an evaporation trend defined by the precipitation of certain mineral phases with increasing alkalinity. Estimates of paleoalkalinity can be used to closely estimate the chemical composition of ancient lakes. Three methods are used to estimate paleoalkalinity. Diatoms, molluscs, and fish have certain metabolic requirements that are dependent on pH, alkalinity, or calcium levels; thus fauna and flora can be used as paleoalkalinity indicators. Exchangeable cations on clay minerals can also be used because the relative concentrations of sodium and calcium in lake waters are related to alkalinity. Absence or presence of certain minerals also can serve as a paleoalkalinity indicator. Although the latter two techniques give estimates of paleoalkalinity that are averaged over several hundred or thousand years, their estimates agree with the instantaneous estimates based on biologic considerations. This study shows that the earliest lake phase was very fresh and contained until the end of the Kubi Algi Formation. The Lower Member of the Koobi Fora Formation is shown to have been a fresh- to brackish-water lake. From the beginning of Upper Member time (about 1.8 MY ago) to the present, the lake occupying the Turkana Depression has varied from a brackish lake that overflowed to a closed basin lake that fell below overflow level and whose alkalinity rose to about 200 meq/l.

  6. Management of Purex spent solvents by the alkaline hydrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Manohar, Smitha; Vincent, Tessy; Wattal, P.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1995-01-01

    Various treatment processes were evaluated on a laboratory scale for the management of the spent solvent from the extraction of nuclear materials. Based on the lab scale evaluation it is proposed to adopt the alkaline hydrolysis process as the treatment mode for the spent solvent. The process has advantages over the other processes in terms of simplicity, low cost and ease of disposal of the secondary waste generated. (author)

  7. The causes of alkalinity variations in the global surface ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Fry, Claudia Helen

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have caused the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to increase by 120 ppmv from pre-industrial times to 2014. The ocean takes up approximately a quarter of the anthropogenic CO2, causing ocean acidification (OA). Therefore it is necessary to study the ocean carbonate system, including alkalinity, to quantify the flux of CO2 into the ocean and understand OA. Since the 1970s, carbonate system measurements have been undertaken which can be analyzed to quantify the...

  8. Cationic Polymers Developed for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-20

    into five categories: proton exchange membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), solid oxide fuel...SOFC and PAFC belong to high temperature fuel cell, which can be applied in stationary power generation. PEMFC and AFC belong to low temperature fuel...function of the polymer electrolyte is to serve as electrolyte to transport ions between electrodes. PEMFC uses a polymer as electrolyte and works

  9. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    1   1.1.2   Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ) ......................... 3   1.1.3   Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs...160   xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1:   Schematic diagram of a PEMFC ...according to the type of electrolyte they use. Nowadays, there are six major types of fuel cells: proton-exchange membrane fuel cells ( PEMFCs ), hydroxide

  10. Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Daochen; Zhang, Peipei; Xie, Changxiao; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Jianzhong; Qian, Wei-Jun; Yang, Bin

    2017-02-21

    Background: Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent ability to survive in extreme environments. Results: To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC-MS analyze was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis were carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least 2-fold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system, environmental response factors, protein synthesis and assembly, etc. Conclusions: GC-MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the

  11. Characterization of palm fibers modified with alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipiao, Bryan L.S.; Goulart, Shane A.G.; Mulinari, Daniella R.; Souza Junior, Fernando G. de

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective of to study one inexpensive and effective technique that enables the application of natural fibers from the Australian Royal Palm as reinforcement in polymer composites. The fibers treated with alkaline solution were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and had their data compared with the fiber in nature. Data showed that the treatment made on fibers surface was effective. (author)

  12. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  13. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  14. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  15. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  16. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  17. Alkalinity and trophic state regulate aquatic plant distribution in Danish lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    distinct differences in the distribution of species and growth forms among the lakes. The lakes separated into five groups of characteristic species compositions. Alkalinity was the main factor responsible for the species distribution. Lakes of high alkalinity were dominated by vascular plants...... of the elodeid growth form, lakes of intermediate alkalinity contained a variety of elodeids and vascular plants of the isoetid growth form, while lakes of low alkalinity and low pH had several isoetids and bryophytes, but very few elodeids. Alkalinity is a close descriptor of the bicarbonate concentration...

  18. Porous poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) membranes for alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Hansen, Martin Kalmar; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel

    2015-01-01

    Poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) (PFSA) is one of a few polymer types that combine excellent alkali resistance with extreme hydrophilicity. It is therefore of interest as a base material in separators for alkaline water electrolyzers. In the pristine form it, however, shows high cation selectivity. T...... for the unmodified membrane. The technological feasibility was demonstrated by testing the membranes in an alkaline water electrolysis cell with encouraging performance.......Poly(perfluorosulfonic acid) (PFSA) is one of a few polymer types that combine excellent alkali resistance with extreme hydrophilicity. It is therefore of interest as a base material in separators for alkaline water electrolyzers. In the pristine form it, however, shows high cation selectivity...... and washed out and the obtained porous materials allowed for swelling to reach water contents up to λ=85 [H2O] [−SO3K]−1. After equilibration in 22 wt% aqueous KOH, ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm−1 was recorded for this membrane type at room temperature, which is significantly higher than 0.01 S cm−1...

  19. Alkaline autoclave leaching of refractory uranium-thorium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, S. A.; Sam, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of an innovative method for processing the Oman placer ores by alkaline leaching in ball mill autoclaves, where grinding and leaching of the refractory minerals take place simultaneously. This was followed by the selective separation of thorium and uranium from lanthanides by autoclave leaching of the hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions. The introduced method is based on the fact that thorium and uranium form soluble carbonate complexes with ammonium carbonate, while lanthanides form sparingly soluble double carbonates. It was found that a complete alkaline leaching of Oman placer ores (98.0 P ercent ) was attained at 150 and 175 d egree C within 2.5 and 2h, respectively. Oman placer ores leaching was intensified and accelerated in a ball mill autoclaves as a result of the grinding action of steel balls, removal of the hydroxide layer covering ores grains and the continuous contact of fresh ore grains with alkaline solution. The study of selective carbonate processing of hydroxide cake with ammonium carbonate-bicarbonate solutions on autoclave under pressure revealed that the complete thorium recovery (97.5 P ercent ) with uranium recovery (90.8 P ercent ) and their separation from the lanthanides were attained at 70-80 d egree C during l-2h. The extraction of lanthanides in carbonate solution was low and did not exceed 4.6 P ercent .

  20. Alkaline phosphatase as a screening test for osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Muhammad Amin; Javed, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Alamzeb; Sadruddin, Nooruddin

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency remains common in children and adults in Pakistan despite adequate sunlight exposure. Diagnosis in adults is usually delayed and is made following pathological fractures that result in significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to see whether Serum Alkaline Phosphatase levels could be used as a screening test for osteomalacia. The Study was conducted at Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University, Gadap, Karachi, between July 2002 and June 2005. Serum calcium levels are commonly used to screen patients suspected of osteomalacia, and raised serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) is considered a diagnostic finding. We used SALP to screen patients who presented with back or non-specific aches and pain of more than six months duration. Three hundred thirty-four (334) patients were screened of which 116 (35%) had raised SALP. Osteomalacia was diagnosed in 92 (79.3%) of these 116 either by plain radiographs, bone biopsy or isotope bone scan. Fifty-four (53.4%) of the 101 cases had a normal level of serum calcium. Osteomalacia is likely to be missed if only serum calcium is used to screen patients. Serum Alkaline Phosphate should be used as the preferred method for screening these patients.