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Sample records for stromal tumour presenting

  1. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H

    2012-08-01

    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  2. Gastric tuberculosis with concomitant stromal tumour of stomach (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Asghar, R.G.; Mirza, M.; Khan, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    Gastric tuberculosis is an extremely rare condition because of unfavorable circumstances in stomach due to low pH, high motility and lack of lymphoid tissue. All these discourage the development of tuberculosis lesion. Similarly, simultaneous stromal tumour of stomach is also a rare entity. We present a rare case of tuberculosis of stomach with no evidence of pulmonary involvement and a conceomitant stromal tumour of the stomach. This unique case illustrates the need for a high index of suspicion in order to diagnose this rare condition, as this can present in patients with no particular risk factors or minimal symptoms. (author)

  3. Synchronous Epithelioid Stromal Tumour and Lipoma in the Stomach

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    Nabeel Al-Brahim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A polypoid lesion of the distal stomach with focal ulceration was seen at endoscopy. This was treated by a partial gastrectomy. The resected stomach contained two separate tumours near the pylorus: a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST and an adjacent lipoma. The literature includes case reports of synchronously occurring GIST and adenocarcinoma, GIST and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and GIST and carcinoid tumour. Herein is the first case report of two distinct mesenchymal tumors coexisting in the stomach.

  4. Imaging of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, S. E-mail: laushunhk@yahoo.com.hk; Tam, K.F.; Kam, C.K.; Lui, C.Y.; Siu, C.W.; Lam, H.S.; Mak, K.L

    2004-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) represents the most common kind of mesenchymal tumour that arises from the alimentary tract. GIST is currently defined as a gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells (or less commonly epithelioid cells or rarely both) and showing CD117 (c-kit protein) positivity. Targeted molecular therapy of non-resectable GIST using imatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, represents a real milestone in the management of solid malignancy. Imaging studies, both anatomical and functional, are playing an increasingly important role in management of patients with GIST. This review illustrates the radiological appearance of GISTs and the site-specific roles of each imaging tool. Clinical features and radiological differential diagnosis of GIST are also discussed.

  5. Exophytic benign mixed epithelial stromal tumour of the kidney: case report of a rare tumour entity

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    Küster Jens

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST represents a recently described benign composite neoplasm of the kidney, which predominantly affects perimenopausal females. Most tumours are benign, although rare malignant cases have been observed. Case report A 47-year-old postmenopausal female presented to the urologist with flank pain. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 30-mm-in-diameter uniform mass adjacent to the pelvis of the left kidney. Surgical exploration showed a tumour arising from the lower anterior hilus of the left kidney. The tumour could be excised by preserving the kidney. By intraoperative frozen section the tumour showed characteristic features of MEST with epithelial-covered cysts embedded in an "ovarian-like" stroma. Additional immunohistochemistry investigations showed expression for hormone receptors by the stromal component of the tumour. Discussion MEST typically presents in perimenopausal women as a primarily cystic mass. Commonly, the tumour arises from the renal parenchyma or pelvis. The tumour is composed of an admixture of cystic and sometimes more solid areas. The stromal cells typically demonstrate an ovarian-type stroma showing expression for the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Conclusion MEST represents a distinctive benign tumour entity of the kidney, which affects perimenopausal woman. The tumour should be distinguished from other cystic renal neoplasms. By imaging studies it is difficult to distinguish between a benign or malignant nature of the tumour. Thus, intraoperative frozen section is necessary for conservative surgery, since the overall prognosis is favourable and renal function can be preserved in most cases.

  6. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) is a rare benign stromal cell tumour of the testis accounting for approximately 1% of all paediatric testicular tumours. Presenting primarily as a painless testicular mass, the tumour may be associated with undescended testis, hydrocele or testicular torsion. Abnormal karyotype has also ...

  7. Laparoscopic resection of large gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours

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    Sebastian Smolarek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs are a rare class of neoplasms that are seen most commonly in the stomach. Due to their malignant potential, surgical resection is the recommended method for management of these tumours. Many reports have described the ability to excise small and medium sized GISTs laparoscopically, but laparoscopic resection of GISTs greater than 5 cm is still a matter of debate. Aim: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of laparoscopic surgical techniques for management of large gastric GISTs greater than 4 cm and to detail characteristics of this type of tumour. Material and methods: The study cohort consisted of 11 patients with suspected gastric GISTs who were treated from 2011 to April 2014 in a single institution. All patients underwent laparoscopic resection of a gastric GIST. Results : Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic resection of a suspected gastric GIST between April 2011 and April 2014. The cohort consisted of 6 males and 5 females. Mean age was 67 years (range: 43–92 years. Sixty-four percent of these patients presented with symptomatic tumours. Four (36.4% patients underwent laparoscopic transgastric resection (LTR, 3 (27.3% laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, 3 (27.3% laparoscopic wedge resection (LWR and 1 (9% laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG. The mean operative time was 215 min. The mean tumour size was 6 cm (range: 4–9 cm. The mean tumour size for LTR was 5.5 cm (range: 4–6.3 cm, for LWR 5.3 cm (range: 4.5–7 cm, for LSG 6.5 cm (range: 4–9 cm and for LDG 9 cm. We experienced only minor postoperative complications. Conclusions : Laparoscopic procedures can be successfully performed during management of large gastric GISTs, bigger than 4 cm, and should be considered for all non-metastatic cases. The appropriate approach can be determined by assessing the anatomical location of each tumour.

  8. Double gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Gołąbek-Dropiewska, Katarzyna; Kardel-Reszkewicz, Ewelina; Hać, Stanisław; Pawłowska, Anna; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), within its definition, is a gastrointestinal (GI) mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells and showing CD 117 immunopositivity. The incidence of GISTs is estimated at 10–20/million. GISTs occur typically in people over 50 years of age. Over 95% of primary GISTs are solitary. Rarely, GISTs are multifocal and occur in young adults and children. A case of a 60-year-old women with double GIST of the stomach is reported here. The patient approached her ge...

  9. Ovarian sex-cord stromal tumours and small cell tumours: Pathological, genetic and management aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussios, Stergios; Moschetta, Michele; Zarkavelis, George; Papadaki, Alexandra; Kefas, Aristides; Tatsi, Konstantina

    2017-12-01

    Non-epithelial ovarian cancers (NEOC) constitute a group of uncommon malignancies and their treatment is still a challenging task. Collectively, these tumours account for about 10% of all ovarian cancers and occur in all age groups from childhood to old-age. They include malignancies of germ cell origin, sex cord-stromal cell origin, and a variety of extremely rare ovarian cancers, such as small-cell carcinomas and sarcomas. Each of these classifications encompasses multiple histologic subtypes. It is imperative that these rare tumours are managed with accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment, to optimise the outcome. The aetiology and molecular origins of each sub-group of NEOC remain largely unresolved, and international cooperation to promote high quality translational research is crucial. Much effort has been made into researching the molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial ovarian cancers, but far less is known about the genetic changes in NEOC. In this article, it is provided an overview of the current knowledge on the incidence, clinical presentation, pathology, genetics, therapeutic interventions, survival and prognostic factors of adult and juvenile granulosa cell tumours (GrCT), Sertoli-Leydig Cell tumours (SLCT) and small cell carcinoma of the ovary. We also consider future potential therapeutic targets in these rare cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Double gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołąbek-Dropiewska, Katarzyna; Kardel-Reszkewicz, Ewelina; Hać, Stanisław; Pawłowska, Anna; Sledziński, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), within its definition, is a gastrointestinal (GI) mesenchymal tumour containing spindle cells and showing CD 117 immunopositivity. The incidence of GISTs is estimated at 10-20/million. GISTs occur typically in people over 50 years of age. Over 95% of primary GISTs are solitary. Rarely, GISTs are multifocal and occur in young adults and children. A case of a 60-year-old women with double GIST of the stomach is reported here. The patient approached her general practitioner because of stomach ache, chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. Ultrasonography showed an abdominal tumour. During gastroscopy a submucosal tumour in the antral part of the stomach was found. Computed tomography revealed a pathological lesion between the stomach and the liver and an intramural tumour of the stomach. Two stomach tumours were found, and a Bilroth I gastrectomy was performed. Histopathological examination showed GIST in both tumours. This case shows that multifocal GISTs of the stomach can arise in older patients.

  11. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumour often mistaken clinically, radiologically and histopathologically for a gastrointestinal stromal tumour – a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, JML

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumours that arise from the nerve plexus of the gut wall. They present with non-specific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Pre-operative investigation is not pathognomonic and many are therefore diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Operative resection is usually curative as they are almost always benign, underpinning the importance of differentiating them from GISTs. METHODS Three cases of gastric schwannomas were identified over a seven-year period. The clinical details and management were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS There were two women and one man with a mean age of 62 years (range: 51–69 years). Two patients presented with bleeding and one with abdominal pain. The mean tumour size was 5.2cm (range: 2–10cm) and the tumours were resected completely following total or wedge gastrectomies. Histology in all cases showed spindle cells with a cuff of lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed positive S100 staining and negative CD117 and DOG-1 staining in all cases. CONCLUSIONS We report our experience with these unusual primary stromal tumours of the gut and their presentations, preoperative investigations, operative findings and pathological findings are discussed. Operative resection in all cases has been considered curative, which is supported by previous series confirming the excellent prognosis of gastric schwannomas. PMID:22613302

  12. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumour often mistaken clinically, radiologically and histopathologically for a gastrointestinal stromal tumour--a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J M L; Wadley, M S; Shepherd, N A; Dwerryhouse, S

    2012-05-01

    Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumours that arise from the nerve plexus of the gut wall. They present with non-specific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Pre-operative investigation is not pathognomonic and many are therefore diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Operative resection is usually curative as they are almost always benign, underpinning the importance of differentiating them from GISTs. Three cases of gastric schwannomas were identified over a seven-year period. The clinical details and management were reviewed retrospectively. There were two women and one man with a mean age of 62 years (range: 51-69 years). Two patients presented with bleeding and one with abdominal pain. The mean tumour size was 5.2 cm (range: 2-10 cm) and the tumours were resected completely following total or wedge gastrectomies. Histology in all cases showed spindle cells with a cuff of lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemistry confirmed positive S100 staining and negative CD117 and DOG-1 staining in all cases. We report our experience with these unusual primary stromal tumours of the gut and their presentations, pre-operative investigations, operative findings and pathological findings are discussed. Operative resection in all cases has been considered curative, which is supported by previous series confirming the excellent prognosis of gastric schwannomas.

  13. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour: From the clinic to the molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapkova I

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available GastroIntestional stromal tumours (GISTs, the most frequent sarcoma in the gastro-intestinal (GI tract, are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These tumours have activating mutations in two closely related genes, KIT (75-80% or/and PDGFRA (5-10%. Targeting these mutated activated proteins with imatinib mesylate has proven efficient in the treatment of GISTs. The median survival after diagnosis of GIST increased from 1.5 to 4.8 years with imatinib treatment. However, resistance to imatinib eventually develops and new-targeted therapies are needed. This paper reviews the medical, clinical and pathological aspects of GISTs based on latest research in human cell lines and animal models.

  14. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumour of rare sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype: Case study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Korcz, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Emilia; Guzel, Tomasz; Radoch, Marcin; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, but they represent less than 3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. This is a detailed case study of a 52-year-old male patient treated for very uncommon histological subtype of gastric GIST with atypical clinical presentation, asymptomatic progress and late diagnosis. The resected tumour, giant in diameters, was confirmed to represent the most rare histopathologic subtype of GISTs - sarcomatoid epithelioid GIST. We report this case and review the literature with a special focus on pathomorphological evaluation, biological aggressiveness and prognostic factors. To our knowledge this is the first report of giant GIST of very uncommon sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype. It is concluded that clinicians should pay attention to the fact that initial diagnosis may be delayed due to mildly asymptomatic and non-specific clinical presentation. Asymptomatic tumours diagnosed at a late stage, which is often the case, can be large on presentation. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with GIST depend on tumour size, mitotic rate, histopathologic subtype and tumour location. That is why early diagnosis and R0 resection, which is usually feasible and safe even in giant gastric sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype of GISTs, are the key factors for further treatment and good prognosis. PMID:25805949

  15. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

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    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  16. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  17. Fatal haemorrhage and neoplastic thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo) with metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Viera, Omar Antonio; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica María; Fernandes, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo; Guerra, Juliana Mariotti; Ressio, Rodrigo Albergaria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-10-13

    The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses. Encapsulated haemorrhage was present in the retroperitoneum around the kidneys. Neoplastic thrombosis was found at the renal veins opening into the caudal vena cava. Metastases were observed in the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Histology revealed a poorly differentiated pleomorphic neoplasm comprised of round to polygonal cells and scattered spindle cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. An immunohistochemistry panel of inhibin-α, Ki-67, human placental alkaline phosphatase, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cKit, vimentin and S100 was conducted. Positive cytoplasmic immunolabeling was obtained for vimentin and S100. The gross, microscopic and immunohistochemical findings of the neoplasm were compatible with a poorly differentiated pleomorphic sex cord-stromal tumour. Cause of death was hypovolemic shock from extensive retroperitoneal haemorrhage and neoplastic thrombosis may have contributed to the fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sex cord-stromal tumour in non-domestic felids.

  18. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the duodenum in a 7-year-old boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Jacqueline Ann; Reidy, John [Guy' s Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Jane Valmai [Epsom and St Helier' s Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Carshalton (United Kingdom); Said, Ahmid; Towu, Emmanuel [University Hospital Lewisham NHS Trust, Department of Paediatric Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Chong, Sonny K. [Epsom and St Helier' s Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Gastrointestinal Medicine, Queen Mary' s Hospital for Children, Carshalton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy presenting with an acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) haemorrhage subsequently diagnosed to have a very rare duodenal gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). Endoscopy, pertechnetate and red cell scans were negative. Abdominal US detected a 17-mm mass lesion of the third part of the duodenum. This was confirmed on CT and shown to be hypervascular on selective angiography. At laparotomy, a 20-mm submucosal duodenal lesion was found associated with mucosal ulceration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed it to be positive for CD117 (c-KIT protein) consistent with a GIST. We emphasize the importance of a thorough abdominal US examination in children with GI haemorrhage and the consideration of GIST in the diagnosis after the common causes have been excluded. (orig.)

  19. Optimal Duration of Imatinib Mesylate Therapy in Metastatic Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours

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    Ruth Gauden

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While current literature provides evidence that imatinib mesylate has significant activity in patients with advanced and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST, and highlights the potential for the development of anticancer drugs based on specific molecular abnormalities present in cancers, specific recommendations concerning the optimal duration of therapy remain controversial. This case presents the favourable outcome of a patient who originally presented almost 9 years ago with widespread, bulky, metastatic GIST involving the abdomen and pelvis. A sustained, complete response was achieved with imatinib and prompted an interruption in treatment 7 years after initial presentation. The disease reoccurred extensively within 9 months of treatment interruption, but once again rapidly completely responded to the recommencement of imatinib, with that response being now maintained for over 9 months. This report suggests that dramatic and durable responses to imatinib can be achieved in individual cases despite the lack of specific guidelines in the literature with respect to defining how long treatment with imatinib should be continued in the absence of evidence of tumour progression.

  20. Unusual Presentation of Mediastinal Neurogenic Tumours

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    Giampiero Negri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinal neurogenic tumours generally arise as single benign lesions and their typical location is the costovertebral sulcus. In about 10% of cases mediastinal neurogenic tumours may extend to the spinal canal; occasionally they may extend to the cervical region and, more rarely, may be multiple or associated with other synchronous mediastinal lesions. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. This report describes three cases of unusual presentation of mediastinal benign schwannomas successfully treated at our Hospital. In the first case multiple simultaneous paravertebral lesions were resected through a posterior approach. In the second case a tumour of the posterior mediastinum extending to the cervical region was excised through a one-stage combined supraclavicular incision followed by left mini-invasive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical techniques. The third case describes a patient with a posterior neurogenic mediastinal tumour with a synchronous parathyroid adenoma of the anterior mediastinum, which were both successfully resected by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

  1. Regorafenib: A Review of Its Use in Patients with Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt; Keating, Gillian M

    2015-06-01

    Regorafenib (Stivarga(®)) is an orally administered small molecule inhibitor of multiple protein kinases, including kinases involved in oncogenesis and tumour angiogenesis. It was initially approved for use in patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal cancer. Based on the findings of the phase III GRID clinical trial, approval for regorafenib has been expanded to include the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) following the failure of imatinib and sunitinib. In the GRID trial, regorafenib significantly improved progression-free survival and was associated with a significantly higher disease control rate than placebo. No significant between-group difference was observed in overall survival (OS) in the trial; however, the high proportion of patients who crossed over from placebo to regorafenib likely impacted the OS analysis. Regorafenib has an acceptable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being manageable with dose modification and/or supportive measures. The most commonly reported drug-related adverse events among patients receiving regorafenib in the GRID trial were hand-foot skin reaction, hypertension, diarrhoea and fatigue. In conclusion, regorafenib presents a valuable new tool in the treatment of patients with advanced GISTs following the failure of imatinib and sunitinib.

  2. Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Complicated by Metastatic Malignant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour

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    Hok-Yin Alwin Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Periprosthetic malignancy causing failure of total hip arthroplasty is a rare entity. Metastasis of malignant tumour to the proximity of orthopaedic implants is even more uncommon. We present a case of a 74-year-old female with an infected Austin Moore prosthesis, requiring a two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty. Within 2 years postoperatively, erosion of the lesser trochanter was noted. Further revision surgery was performed with the insertion of a cement spacer. Despite the expectation of an infected prosthesis, intraoperative frozen section showed sarcoma and the final pathology was metastasis of a recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST. Metastatic GIST to total hip prosthesis had not been reported previously and this case illustrates how intraoperative frozen section can aid diagnosis and management. We also highlighted some diagnostic clues, differentiating this rare diagnosis from septic loosening and osteolysis. Malignant infiltration should be considered as a differential diagnosis in failed total hip arthroplasty, especially in patients with a previous history of malignancy.

  3. Leaky vessels as a potential source of stromal acidification in tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Martin, Natasha K.

    2010-12-01

    Malignant tumours are characterised by higher rates of acid production and a lower extracellular pH than normal tissues. Previous mathematical modelling has indicated that the tumour-derived production of acid leads to a gradient of low pH in the interior of the tumour extending to a normal pH in the peritumoural tissue. This paper uses mathematical modelling to examine the potential of leaky vessels as an additional source of stromal acidification in tumours. We explore whether and to what extent increasing vascular permeability in vessels can lead to the breakdown of the acid gradient from the core of the tumour to the normal tissue, and a progressive acidification of the peritumoural stroma. We compare our mathematical simulations to experimental results found in vivo with a tumour implanted in the mammary fat pad of a mouse in a window chamber construct. We find that leaky vasculature can cause a net acidification of the normal tissue away from the tumour boundary, though not a progressive acidification over time as seen in the experiments. Only through progressively increasing the leakiness can the model qualitatively reproduce the experimental results. Furthermore, the extent of the acidification predicted by the mathematical model is less than as seen in the window chamber, indicating that although vessel leakiness might be acting as a source of acid, it is not the only factor contributing to this phenomenon. Nevertheless, tumour destruction of vasculature could result in enhanced stromal acidification and invasion, hence current therapies aimed at buffering tumour pH should also examine the possibility of preventing vessel disruption.

  4. Extra gonadal sclerosing stromal tumour in the transverse mesocolon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... munoreactivity for only Vimentin (Figure 3). Figure 3 Tumour cells immunoreactive to vimentin. Other markers such as CD 45(lymphocyte common An- tigen), AE1/AE2 (pan cytokeratin), CD 117, Calretinin,. AFP, Inhibin, S 100, SMA, myogenin were negative. CA 125 assay was within normal limits - 23.1U/ ...

  5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the duodenum in childhood: a rare case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarugi, Massimo; Galatioto, Christian; Lippolis, Piero; Zocco, Giuseppe; Seccia, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are uncommon primary mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract mostly observed in the adults. Duodenal GISTs are relatively rare in adults and it should be regarded as exceptional in childhood. In young patients duodenal GISTs may be a source of potentially lethal haemorrhage and this adds diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas to the concern about the long-term outcome. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital with severe anaemia due to recurrent episodes of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Endoscopy, small bowel series, scintigraphy and video capsule endoscopy previously done elsewhere were negative. Shortly after the admission, the patient underwent emergency surgery for severe recurrence of the bleeding. At surgery, a 4 cm solid mass arising from the wall of the fourth portion of the duodenum was identified. The invasion and the erosion of the duodenal mucosa was confirmed by intra-operative pushed duodenoscopy. The mass was resected by a full-thickness duodenal wall excision with adequate grossly free margins. Immunohistochemical analysis of the specimen revealed to be positive for CD117 (c-KIT protein) consistent with a diagnosis of GIST. The number of mitoses was < 5/50 HPF. Mutational analysis for c-KIT/PDGFRA tyrosine kinase receptor genes resulted in a wildtype pattern. The patient had an uneventful course and he has remained disease-free during two years of follow-up. Duodenal GISTs in children are very rare and may present with massive bleeding. Cure can be achieved by complete surgical resection, but even in the low-aggressive tumours the long-term outcome may be unpredictable

  6. Tumour microembolism presenting as "primary pulmonary hypertension"

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbert, M.; Braude, S.

    1997-01-01

    Pulmonary tumour microembolism is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. A case of rapidly progressive pulmonary hypertension in a patient with a past history of breast carcinoma is presented. Despite active consideration and investigation for malignancy as a cause, correct diagnosis was only made at necropsy. 




  7. Maxillary brown tumour: unusual presentation of parathyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of a maxillary brown tumour caused by primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) secondary to parathyroid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a large swelling in the right maxilla, which caused right-sided nasal obstruction, intermittent bleeding and diplopia. A computed tomography scan demonstrated ...

  8. Expression pattern of clinically relevant markers in paediatric germ cell- and sex-cord stromal tumours is similar to adult testicular tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Christiane Hammershaimb; Svingen, Terje; Nielsen, John Erik

    2014-01-01

    , elaborate on clinical-pathological associations and better understand their developmental divergence. The tumours were screened for expression of stemness-related factors (OCT4, AP-2γ, SOX2), classical yolk sac tumours (YSTs; AFP, SALL4), GCTs (HCG, PLAP, PDPN/D2-40), as well as markers for sex-cord stromal...

  9. Functional features of gene expression profiles differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumours according to KIT mutations and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Dobosz, Anna Jerzak Vel; Jarosz, Dorota; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Polkowski, Marcin; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goryca, Krzysztof; Rubel, Tymon; Kokoszyñska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours of mesenchymal origin characterized by gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Although mutations in either receptor are thought to drive an early oncogenic event through similar pathways, two previous studies reported the mutation-specific gene expression profiles. However, their further conclusions were rather discordant. To clarify the molecular characteristics of differentially expressed genes according to GIST receptor mutations, we combined microarray-based analysis with detailed functional annotations. Total RNA was isolated from 29 frozen gastric GISTs and processed for hybridization on GENECHIP ® HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). KIT and PDGFRA were analyzed by sequencing, while related mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen and eleven tumours possessed mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, respectively; no mutation was found in three tumours. Gene expression analysis identified no discriminative profiles associated with clinical or pathological parameters, even though expression of hundreds of genes differentiated tumour receptor mutation and expression status. Functional features of genes differentially expressed between the two groups of GISTs suggested alterations in angiogenesis and G-protein-related and calcium signalling. Our study has identified novel molecular elements likely to be involved in receptor-dependent GIST development and allowed confirmation of previously published results. These elements may be potential therapeutic targets and novel markers of KIT mutation status

  10. Gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) – the Pretoria experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The organ most commonly affected was the stomach, and abdominal pain and weight loss were the most common presenting symptoms. Seventy-six per cent of the patients were treated surgically, and 24% received imatinib. Conclusion. GISTs often present late with nonspecific symptoms, and are frequently discovered ...

  11. Bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the stomach complicated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inferior vena cava filter insertion was not possible due to non-availability. Coexistence of DVT needing anticoagulation and bleeding gastric GIST requiring urgent resection presented a management dilemna. Despite the risk, the patient was taken for an emergency tumor resection primarily to stop the bleeding and facilitate ...

  12. Neoodjuvant imatinib mesylate for advanced primary and metastactic/recurrent gastro-intestinal stromal tumour (GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Diptimay; Ganguly, Subir; Deb, Asit Ranjan; Aich, Ranen Kanti

    2013-01-01

    Therapy of gastro-intestinal stromal tumour (GIST) has changed significantly with the use of imatinib mesylate. Disease progression remains a complicated clinical issue, suggesting the need for multimodality management. This is a prospective clinical study evaluating the neoadjuvant use of Imatinib mesylate in primary GIST. There is pre-operative use of imatinib in 10 patients with operable advanced and metastatic GIST. The follow-up continued postoperatively for maximum period of two years and postoperative imatinib was given for two years. Ten patients were accrued in the study. Following imatinib mesylate therapy, the median reduction of tumour volume was 45% (range 20-60%). Six of the ten patients underwent complete resection of the tumour following neoadjuvant imatinib for a median period of three months, and are disease-free for a median follow-up of eleven months (range 6-24 months). Three patients in whom the tumours were deemed to be operable after downsizing and who refused surgery are also continuing imatinib. Imatinib did not produce serious toxicity in any patient.

  13. Stromal myofibroblasts in breast cancer: relations between their occurrence, tumor grade and expression of some tumour markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Zabel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that tumour stromal myofibroblasts exert an unfavourable effect on the biology of breast cancer. We are aware of only a single study which examined relationships between manifestation of myofibroblasts in the stroma of breast cancer and clinicopathological data of the patients. The present study was aimed at estimation of the effect exerted by myofibroblasts present in the tumour stroma on principal pathological parameters and on expression of Ki67, P53 and HER-2 proteins in the group of the most frequent breast cancers, the ductal cancers. In paraffin sections of 60 ductal breast cancers (20 cases in G1, 20 in G2 and 20 in G3, immunohistochemical reactions were performed to detect expression of smooth muscle actin (SMA in order to visualize myofibroblasts, Ki67, P53 and HER-2. The studies demonstrated that the most numerous myofibroblasts were present in G3 cases and they were the least frequent in G1 cases (P = 0.02. Positive correlations were observed between the presence of myofibroblasts in tumour stroma and expression of Ki67 and HER-2 in breast cancer cells in the entire group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively, in G2 cases (P = 0.003 and P = 0.03 and in G3 cases (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03. Considering that the higher grade, Ki67 and HER-2 are thought to represent unfavourable prognostic factors, the elevated content of myofibroblasts in tumour stroma is probably typical for cases with worse prognosis.

  14. Abundant Fas expression by gastrointestinal stromal tumours may serve as a therapeutic target for MegaFasL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikhof, B.; van der Graaf, W. T. A.; Meijer, C.; Le, P. T. K.; Meersma, G. J.; de Jong, S.; Fletcher, J. A.; Suurmeijer, A. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib has been shown to be an active agent in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours ( GIST), complete remissions are almost never seen and most patients finally experience disease progression during their course of treatment. An alternative

  15. Patterns of recurrence of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) following complete resection: Implications for follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumb, A.A.; Kochhar, R.; Leahy, M.; Taylor, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the frequency, time course and sites of recurrence following surgical resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) and to evaluate the performance of a risk-based surveillance protocol in detection of recurrence. Methods: Eighty-one patients on surveillance following complete resection of GIST were included. Patients were stratified into risk groups according to accepted histopathological criteria. Computed tomography (CT) examinations were retrospectively reviewed to determine rates, sites and imaging characteristics of recurrence and to assess compliance with the local follow-up protocol. Results: The median time of follow-up was 41 months. Nineteen patients suffered recurrence, all of whom were in the high-risk group. Fifty-eight percent of relapses occurred within 1 year and 84% within 3 years. Even within the high-risk group, patients with relapse had significantly larger (mean 15 versus 10.4 cm, p < 0.05) and more mitotically active primary tumours (mean 33.7 versus 5.6 mitoses per 50 high-power fields; p < 0.05) than those with no relapse. Relapse was to the liver in 12 cases (63%) and to the omentum and mesentery in nine cases (47%), and was asymptomatic in three-quarters of patients. Conclusions: The high incidence of GIST recurrence in the high-risk group in the first 3 years after surgery supports the use of intensive imaging surveillance in this period. Relapse is often asymptomatic and commonly occurs to the liver, omentum and mesentery. Stratification by tumour factors may enable improved tailoring of surveillance protocols within the high-risk group in the future

  16. Superior vena cava syndrome as tumour presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Filipe Pires

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS is characterised by gradual and insidious compression/obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC. Upper chest and neck ingurgitation, plethoric face and oedema are the common symptoms/signs. It generally means the presence of neoplasm, namely lung cancer. Aim: Retrospective analysis of the patients admitted to S. João Hospital, Porto, Portugal, January 1995-December 2006 with SVCS without previous diagnosis. Patients, tumour characteristics and prognostic factors were studied. Material and methods: Data was collected by consulting the clinical files of 60 SVCS patients without previous diagnosis. Data was gathered on the patients’ demographic characteristics (age, gender, smoking habits, performance status, histology, staging, treatment and overall survival. Results: Lung cancer was observed in 87% of the patients. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC was the most frequent histological type; 41% of the patients. It is noticeable that 10% were diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In terms of prognostic factors analysed, the absence of metastasis, the lymphoma's histological diagnosis, good performance status and non-smoker status were positively correlated with the survival rate. On the contrary SCLC was significantly correlated with a worse survival. Conclusions: In our analysis we concluded that SCLC, smokers and a poorer performance status as well as metastatic disease were unfavourable prognostic factors to SVCS as tumour presentation. Resumo: A síndroma da veia cava superior (SVCS é causada por uma obstrução/compressão gradual e insidiosa da veia cava superior, caracterizando-se por fácies pletórica, edema e ingurgitamento vascular do pescoço e parte superior do tronco. É geralmente tradutora de neoplasia, sendo o cancro do pulmão a sua causa mais comum. Objectivo: Estudo retrospectivo dos internamentos no Hospital de S. João entre Janeiro de 1995 e Dezembro de 2006 por

  17. Immune stromal keratitis: a rare ocular presentation of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Deepali; Maharana, Prafulla Kumar; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2018-04-05

    An 11-year-old female patient presented with diminution of vision in both the eyes for the last 4 days. She had redness, watering and photophobia for the past 11 days. Slit lamp examination revealed multiple disc-shaped corneal stromal infiltrates with an overlying epithelial defect and hypopyon in both the eyes. A provisional diagnosis of infective keratitis was made. The patient was started on empirical antimicrobial therapy. However, no improvement was noted over the next 72 hours. Microbiological examination of the corneal scraping from both the eyes was negative. Considering the above, provisional diagnosis was changed to immune stromal keratouveitis and the patient was started on topical steroids. Further evaluation revealed a positive Mantoux test (30×20 mm) and contrast enhanced CT chest showing pulmonary nodules, suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient was subsequently started on antitubercular treatment. The infiltrates along with the ulcer and anterior uveitis responded dramatically to the revised treatment and resolved completely within 7 days of therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Use of Balloon Enteroscopy in Preoperative Diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis-Associated Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours of the Small Bowel: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Takakura

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1 is one of the most common inheritable disorders and is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs. However, the predominant location of these lesions in the small bowel makes them difficult to diagnose. We report the successful use of balloon enteroscopy in conjunction with conventional methods for clinical diagnosis of jejunal GISTs in a 70-year-old man with NF1 who presented with melaena. The importance of screening NF1 patients for GISTs and the complementary role of balloon enteroscopy with capsule endoscopy in such diagnoses is discussed.

  19. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H

    2014-08-06

    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression.

  20. MRI of intraspinal nerve sheath tumours presenting with sciatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Chan, C.S. [United Christian Hospital (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Ma, H.T.G. [St Teresa`s Hospital, Kowloon (Hong Kong). MRI and CT scanning Dept.; Ward, S.C.; Metreweli, C. [Prince of wales Hospital, New Territories (Hong Kong). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1995-08-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of 14 intraspinal nerve sheath tumours (NST) presenting with sciatica were reviewed. The group comprised seven schwannomas, six neurofibromas and one perineuroma. The tumours were either iso- or hypointense with respect to spinal cord on T1-weighted (T1W) images; almost all tumours were hyperintense compared with spinal cord on T2-weighted (T2W) images. The tumours were all detectable on unenhanced T1 W images. Nine NST were scanned following Gadolinium-Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA) injection and all showed intense enhancement. This aids differentiation from sequestrated disc fragments. Tumours were more likely to show homogeneous enhancement unless they were recurrent tumours. Rim enhancement occurs more commonly in schwannomas and this can be used to differentiate these from neurofibromas. It is estimated that on unenhanced images, schwannomas cannot be distinguished from neurofibromas. Four tumours occurred at T1 1-T12. There was poor correlation of the site of the lesion with the clinical findings. It is recommended that the MRI studies in patients with sciatica should include the lower thoracic region especially if no protruded disc was found in the lumbar region. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Persistent stromal fibroblast activation is present in chronic tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Stephanie G; Buckley, Christopher D; Al-Mossawi, Mohammad Hussein; Hedley, Robert; Martinez, Fernando O; Wheway, Kim; Watkins, Bridget; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-01-25

    Growing evidence supports a key role for inflammation in the onset and progression of tendinopathy. However, the effect of the inflammatory infiltrate on tendon cells is poorly understood. We investigated stromal fibroblast activation signatures in tissues and cells from patients with tendinopathy. Diseased tendons were collected from well-phenotyped patient cohorts with supraspinatus tendinopathy before and after sub-acromial decompression treatment. Healthy tendons were collected from patients undergoing shoulder stabilisation or anterior cruciate ligament repair. Stromal fibroblast activation markers including podoplanin (PDPN), CD106 (VCAM-1) and CD248 were investigated by immunostaining, flow cytometry and RT-qPCR. PDPN, CD248 and CD106 were increased in diseased compared to healthy tendon tissues. This stromal fibroblast activation signature persisted in tendon biopsies in patients at 2-4 years post treatment. PDPN, CD248 and CD106 were increased in diseased compared to healthy tendon cells. IL-1β treatment induced PDPN and CD106 but not CD248. IL-1β treatment induced NF-κB target genes in healthy cells, which gradually declined following replacement with cytokine-free medium, whilst PDPN and CD106 remained above pre-stimulated levels. IL-1β-treated diseased cells had more profound induction of PDPN and CD106 and sustained expression of IL6 and IL8 mRNA compared to IL-1β-treated healthy cells. We conclude that stromal fibroblast activation markers are increased and persist in diseased compared to healthy tendon tissues and cells. Diseased tendon cells have distinct stromal fibroblast populations. IL-1β treatment induced persistent stromal fibroblast activation which was more profound in diseased cells. Persistent stromal fibroblast activation may be implicated in the development of chronic inflammation and recurrent tendinopathy. Targeting this stromal fibroblast activation signature is a potential therapeutic strategy.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoschus, David; Draexler, Katja; Chang, Jane; Ngai, Christopher; Madin-Warburton, Matthew; Pitcher, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    No study has compared the cost-effectiveness of active treatment options for unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours in patients who progressed on or are intolerant to prior treatment with imatinib and sunitinib. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib compared to imatinib rechallenge in this setting in Germany. Hazard ratios for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with regorafenib versus imatinib rechallenge were estimated by indirect comparison. A state distribution model was used to simulate progression, mortality and treatment costs over a lifetime horizon. Drug acquisition costs and utilities were derived from clinical trial data and published literature; non-drug costs were not included. The outcomes measured were treatment costs, life-years (LYs) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The indirect comparison suggested that median PFS and OS were longer with regorafenib compared to imatinib but results were not statistically significant. Regorafenib versus imatinib rechallenge was estimated to have hazard ratios of 0.58 (95% CI 0.31-1.11) for PFS and 0.77 (95% CI 0.34-1.77) for OS, with substantial uncertainty due to the rarity of the disease and small number of patients within the trials. Regorafenib treatment per patient over a lifetime horizon provided an additional 0.61 LYs and 0.42 QALYs over imatinib rechallenge, with additional direct drug costs of €8,773. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €21,127 per QALY gained. At a cost-effectiveness threshold of €50,000 per QALY, regorafenib had a 67% probability of being cost-effective. Based on the currently available clinical data, this analysis suggests that regorafenib is cost-effective compared with imatinib rechallenge in Germany.

  3. microRNA expression signatures of gastrointestinal stromal tumours: associations with imatinib resistance and patient outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakaya, P; Caramuta, S; Åhlen, J; Ghaderi, M; Berglund, E; Östman, A; Bränström, R; Larsson, C; Lui, W-O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is mainly initialised by receptor tyrosine kinase gene mutations. Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate considerably improved the outcome of patients, imatinib resistance still remains a major therapeutic challenge in GIST therapy. Herein we evaluated the clinical impact of microRNAs in imatinib-treated GISTs. Methods: The expression levels of microRNAs were quantified using microarray and RT–qPCR in GIST specimens from patients treated with neoadjuvant imatinib. The functional roles of miR-125a-5p and PTPN18 were evaluated in GIST cells. PTPN18 expression was quantified by western blotting in GIST samples. Results: We showed that overexpression levels of miR-125a-5p and miR-107 were associated with imatinib resistance in GIST specimens. Functionally, miR-125a-5p expression modulated imatinib sensitivity in GIST882 cells with a homozygous KIT mutation but not in GIST48 cells with double KIT mutations. Overexpression of miR-125a-5p suppressed PTPN18 expression, and silencing of PTPN18 expression increased cell viability in GIST882 cells upon imatinib treatment. PTPN18 protein levels were significantly lower in the imatinib-resistant GISTs and inversely correlated with miR-125a-5p. Furthermore, several microRNAs were significantly associated with metastasis, KIT mutational status and survival. Conclusions: Our findings highlight a novel functional role of miR-125a-5p on imatinib response through PTPN18 regulation in GIST. PMID:25349971

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours of stomach: Robot-assisted excision with the da Vinci Surgical System regardless of size and location site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbetta, Niccolo; Palmeri, Matteo; Guadagni, Simone; Di Franco, Gregorio; Gianardi, Desirée; Latteri, Saverio; Marciano, Emanuele; Moglia, Andrea; Cuschieri, Alfred; Di Candio, Giulio; Mosca, Franco; Morelli, Luca

    2018-03-23

    The role of minimally invasive surgery of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) of the stomach remains uncertain especially for large and/or difficult located tumours. We are hereby presenting a single-centre series of robot-assisted resections using the da Vinci Surgical System (Si or Xi). Data of patients undergoing robot-assisted treatment of gastric GIST were retrieved from the prospectively collected institutional database and a retrospective analysis was performed. Patients were stratified according to size and location of the tumour. Difficult cases (DCs) were considered for size if tumour was> 50 mm and/or for location if the tumour was Type II, III or IV sec. Privette/Al-Thani classification. Between May 2010 and February 2017, 12 consecutive patients underwent robot-assisted treatment of GIST at our institution. DCs were 10/12 cases (83.3%), of which 6/10 (50%) for location, 2/10 (25%) for size and 2/10 (25%) for both. The da Vinci Si was used in 8 patients, of which 6 (75%) were DC, and the da Vinci Xi in 4, all of which (100%) were DC. In all patients, excision was by wedge resection. All lesions had microscopically negative resection margins. There was no conversion to open surgery, no tumour ruptures or spillage and no intraoperative complications. Our experience suggests a positive role of the robot da Vinci in getting gastric GIST removal with a conservative approach, regardless of size and location site. Comparative studies with a greater number of patients are necessary for a more robust assessment.

  5. Extramedullary Myeloid Cell Tumour Presenting As Leukaemia Cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thappa Devinder Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We herewith report a case of extramedullary myeloid cell tumour presenting as leukaemia cutis for its rarity. It occurred in a 50 year old male patient who presented to us with a 40 days history of painless raised solid skin swellings over the trunk. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy and bone marrow biopsy showed features suggestive of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Immunophenotyping on skin biopsy specimens and bone marrow biopsy found tumour cells expressing CD43 and Tdt but were negative for CD3 and CD20. These features were consistent with extramedullary myeloid cell tumour involving skin and subcutis (cutaneous manifestation of acute myeloid leukaemia.

  6. Osteosarcoma presentation stages at a tumour unit in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteosarcoma presentation stages at a tumour unit in South Africa. N Ferreira, LC Marais ... Between July 2009 and October 2011, 25 consecutive patients were diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed osteosarcoma. Their records were reviewed and information extracted regarding clinical presentation, histological subtype and ...

  7. Primary hyperparathyroidism with rare presentation as multiple brown tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Doshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary hyperparathyroidism with an uncommon presentation as multiple brown tumours, which may easily be mistaken for a primary bone neoplasm. A brief literature review and its clinical and surgical management are also discussed here.

  8. Mucinous ovarian tumour presenting as a ruptured incisional hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D

    2012-10-01

    We describe an ovarian borderline tumour that presented as an acute deterioration in an incisional hernia secondary to intraperitoneal mucin accumulation. The differential diagnosis associated with hernial sac contents and options for opportunistic diagnosis are discussed. This case raises awareness of potential serious diagnoses that may be overlooked during emergent hernia repair.

  9. Prognostic value of KIT/PDGFRA mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST): Polish Clinical GIST Registry experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A; Rutkowski, P; Piskorz, A; Ciwoniuk, M; Osuch, C; Bylina, E; Sygut, J; Chosia, M; Rys, J; Urbanczyk, K; Kruszewski, W; Sowa, P; Siedlecki, J; Debiec-Rychter, M; Limon, J

    2012-02-01

    Majority of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are characterised by KIT-immunopositivity and the presence of KIT/platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. Spectrum and frequency of KIT and PDGFRA mutations were investigated in 427 GISTs. Univariate and multivariate analysis of relapse-free survival (RFS) was conducted in relation to tumours' clinicopathologic features and genotype. Mutations were found in 351 (82.2%) cases, including 296 (69.3%) KIT and 55 (12.9%) PDGFRA isoforms. Univariate analysis revealed higher 5-year RFS rate in women (37.9%; P = 0.028) and in patients with gastric tumours (46.3%; P < 0.001). In addition a better 5-year RFS correlated with smaller tumour size ≤ 5 cm (62.7%; P < 0.001), tumours with mitotic index ≤ 5/50 high-power fields (60%; P < 0.001), and characterised by (very) low/moderate risk (70.2%; P = 0.006). Patients with GISTs bearing deletions encompassing KIT codons 557/558 had worse 5-year RFS rate (23.8%) than those with any other KIT exon 11 mutations (41.8%; P < 0.001) or deletions not involving codons 557/558 (33.3%; P = 0.007). Better 5-year RFS characterised patients with KIT exon 11 point mutations (50.7%) or duplications (40%). By multivariate analysis, tumours with PDGFRA mutations and KIT exon 11 point mutations/other than 557/558 deletions had lower risk of progression than with KIT exon 11 557/558 deletions (both Ps = 0.001). KIT/PDGFRA mutational status has prognostic significance for patients' outcome and may help in management of patients with GISTs.

  10. Microscopic Pulmonary Tumour Embolism: An Unusual Presentation of Thymic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brita L Sperling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes the first reported case of microscopic pulmonary tumour embolism (MPTE from thymic carcinoma. The carcinoma was discovered during an autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had undergone surgery for a pilonidal sinus two weeks before presentation. Pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. This case was unusual because MPTE has never before been associated with thymic carcinoma, MPTE was the first clinical indication of an occult malignancy, and the clinical presentation was that of sudden onset of dyspnea associated with acute cor pulmonale. The cause of death was determined to be hypoxia secondary to extrinsic compression of the right pulmonary artery and extensive tumour emboli in the small arteries, arterioles and venules of the pulmonary parenchyma. A review of the clinical presentation and diagnosis of MPTE is included.

  11. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Correlation of modified NIH risk stratification with diffusion-weighted MR imaging as an imaging biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Seong Hyun; Jang, Kyung Mi; Choi, Dongil; Ha, Sang Yun; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Min Ji

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Except size and necrosis, conventional MR findings of GISTs were not significantly different according to the modified NIH criteria. • The ADC values of GISTs were negatively correlated with the modified NIH criteria. • The ADC value can be helpful for the determination of intermediate or high-risk GISTs. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of risk grade of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) based on modified National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria with conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging. Methods: We included 22 patients with histopathologically proven GISTs in the stomach or small bowel who underwent pre-operative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and DW imaging. We retrospectively assessed correlations between morphologic findings, qualitative (signal intensity, consensus from two observers) and quantitative (degree of dynamic enhancement using signal intensity of tumour/muscle ratio and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) values, and the modified NIH criteria for risk stratification. Spearman partial correlation analysis was used to control for tumour size as a confounding factor. The optimal cut-off level of ADC values for intermediate or high risk GISTs was analyzed using a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Except tumour size and necrosis, conventional MR imaging findings, including the degree of dynamic enhancement, were not significantly different according to the modified NIH criteria (p > 0.05). Tumour ADC values were negatively correlated with the modified NIH criteria, before and after adjustment of tumour size (ρ = −0.754; p < 0.001 and ρ = −0.513; p = 0.017, respectively). The optimal cut-off value for the determination of intermediate or high-risk GISTs was 1.279 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (100% sensitivity, 69.2% specificity, 81.8% accuracy). Conclusion: Except tumour size and necrosis, conventional MR imaging findings did not correlate with

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal canal: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhanda Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common site is stomach, followed by small intestine, colon, and esophagus. However, GIST from the anal canal is an extremely rare tumor. Here, we report an extremely rare case of GIST of the anal canal in a 40-year-old female with a history of irregular bowel habits mixed with blood and constipation for 4 months. Diagnosis was made on the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical examination.

  13. A lactate shuttle system between tumour and stromal cells is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pértega-Gomes, Nelma; Vizcaíno, José R; Attig, Jan; Jurmeister, Sarah; Lopes, Carlos; Baltazar, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    In a malignant tumour, cancer cells are embedded in stromal cells, namely cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). These CAFs are now accepted as important players in cancer dynamics, being involved in tumour growth and progression. Although there are various reports on the interaction between tumour and stromal cells, the clinico-pathological significance of this cross-talk is still largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to characterise the expression of key metabolic proteins involved in glucose transport, pyruvate/lactate shuttle system, glycolytic metabolism and fatty acid oxidation in CAFs and tumour cells in different stages of malignant transformation. We further aimed to contextualise the clinico-pathological significance of these protein expression profiles with reference to known prognostic indicators, including biochemical recurrence in pT stage. Prostate tissues were obtained from 480 patients with a median age of 64 years following radical prostatectomy with no previous hormonal therapy. Tissues were analysed for the expression of several key metabolism-related proteins in glands and surrounding fibroblasts by immunohistochemistry. Reliable markers of prognosis such as pT stage and biochemical recurrence were assessed for each case. We observed that prostate cancer cells did not rely mainly on glycolytic metabolism, while there was a high expression of MCT4 and CAIX - in CAFs. This corroborates the hypothesis of the “Reverse Warburg effect” in prostate cancer, in which fibroblasts are under oxidative stress and express CAIX, an established hypoxia marker. We found that alterations in the expression of metabolism-related proteins were already evident in the early stages of malignant transformation, suggesting the continuing alteration of CAFs from an early stage. Additionally, and for the first time, we show that cases showing high MCT4 expression in CAFs with concomitant strong MCT1 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) cells are associated with poor

  14. Follow-up of gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GIST) during treatment with imatinib mesylate by abdominal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroszczynski, Christian; Jost, Dominik; Chmelik, Petra; Gaffke, Gunnar; Felix, Roland [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Reichardt, Peter; Kretzschmar, Albrecht [Klinik fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und Tumorimmunologie CCB Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Berlin (Germany); Schneider, Ulrike [Institut fuer Pathologie CCB, Berlin (Germany); Hohenberger, Peter [Klinik fuer Chirurgie und Chirurgische Onkologie CCB Robert-Roessle-Klinik, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Typical MRI findings for gastro-intestinal stromal tumours (GIST) under treatment with imatinib were evaluated. MRI was performed in 45 patients (25 responders, 20 non-responders) with metastatic or locally advanced, unresectable GIST. Target lesions were selected and re-evaluated after 2, 4, and 6 months of therapy with imatinib. The target tumour response (TTR) was classified according to RECIST criteria. TTR, signal intensity in the centre and border of the lesion and the presence and the extension of a hypervascular rim were analysed. The mean diameter of the marker lesions decreased significantly (P<0.001) from 7.1{+-}2.6 cm to 5.9{+-}2.3 cm after 6 months. Accuracy of RECIST criteria was 51%, 69% and 73% on MRI 2, 4 and 6 months for response assessment. In addition, responders had higher signal-to-noise ratios on T2-w images after 2 months (P<0.05) and a decrease of vascularised areas in the lesion 4 and 6 months after treatment (each P<0.01), when compared with non-responders. Beyond the size measurement for response assessment, MRI provides additional information of tumour response using SI of T2-w images and quantification of vascularised areas of GIST manifestations. (orig.)

  15. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crundwell, N. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); O' Donnell, P. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: asif.saifuddin@rnoh.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed.

  16. Non-neoplastic conditions presenting as soft-tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crundwell, N.; O'Donnell, P.; Saifuddin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Review of referrals to our unit over the last 7 years showed that of approximately 750 cases referred as soft-tissue tumours, 132 were subsequently diagnosed as non-neoplastic lesions. The imaging characteristics of these lesions are presented to differentiate them from neoplasms. The most common diagnoses were myositis ossificans, ganglion cyst, abscess/infection, bursitis and synovitis. The imaging features of other rarer conditions will also be discussed

  17. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib (GRID): an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetri, G.D.; Reichardt, P.; Kang, Y.K.; Blay, J.Y.; Rutkowski, P.; Gelderblom, H.; Hohenberger, P.; Leahy, M.; Mehren, M. von; Joensuu, H.; Badalamenti, G.; Blackstein, M.; Cesne, A. le; Schoffski, P.; Maki, R.G.; Bauer, S.; Nguyen, B.B.; Xu, J.; Nishida, T.; Chung, J.; Kappeler, C.; Kuss, I.; Laurent, D.; Casali, P.G.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Until now, only imatinib and sunitinib have proven clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST), but almost all metastatic GIST eventually develop resistance to these agents, resulting in fatal disease progression. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of

  18. Stromal tumor presents as a large extragastrointestinal mass in the abdominal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Chung-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Yang; Chan, Che-Chang; Li, Anna; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are nonepithelial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and have been increasingly recognized in recent years. In contrast, stromal tumor outside the gastrointestinal tract is not frequently found. Here, we present a 57-year-old male patient who had abdominal fullness for several months. It was caused by a 23-cm heterogeneous tumor mass that was successfully removed from the left upper abdominal cavity. The tumor adhered tightly to adjacent organs but postope...

  19. Extragastrointestinal stromal tumour of the lesser omentum: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Katsoulis

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: EGISTs are very rare mesenchymal tumours which originate from cells outside the gastrointestinal tract and tend to have a more aggressive biological behaviour than their GI counterparts. Complete surgical resection is the most effective treatment associated with the use of imatinib in the presence of adverse prognostic factors. In any case a strict follow-up is necessary due to high recurrence rates.

  20. Imatinib for the treatment of patients with unresectable and/or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J; Connock, M; Song, F; Yao, G; Fry-Smith, A; Raftery, J; Peake, D

    2005-07-01

    To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of imatinib in the treatment of unresectable and/or metastatic, KIT-positive, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), relative to current standard treatments. Electronic databases. As there were no randomised trials that have directly compared imatinib with the current standard treatment in patients with advanced GIST, this review included non-randomised controlled studies, cohort studies, and case series that reported effectiveness results of treatment with imatinib and/or other interventions in patients with advanced GIST. The effectiveness assessment was based on the comparison of results from imatinib trials and results from studies of historical control patients. Economic evaluation was mainly based on an assessment and modification (when judged necessary) of a model submitted by Novartis. Evidence from published uncontrolled trials involving 187 patients, and from abstracts reporting similar uncontrolled trials involving 1700 patients, indicates that approximately 50% of imatinib-treated individuals with advanced GIST experience a dramatic clinical response in terms of at least a 50% reduction in tumour mass. At present, although useful data are accumulating, it is not possible to predict which patients may respond in this way. Fifteen studies where possible GIST patients had been treated with therapies other than imatinib or best supportive care were also identified. All imatinib-treated patients experienced adverse effects, although they were relatively mild. Overall, imatinib was reported to be well tolerated. The most common serious events included unspecified haemorrhage and neutropenia. Skin rash, oedema and periorbital oedema were the common adverse events observed. Patients on the highest dose regimen (1000 mg per day in one trial) may experience dose-limiting drug toxicity. A structured assessment was carried out of the Novartis economic evaluation of imatinib for unresectable and/or metastatic GIST

  1. Giant Cell Tumour of the Distal Ulna: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Jaya Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Giant-cell tumour (GCT of bone, a primary yet locally aggressive benign tumour, commonly affects patients between the ages of 20 and 40 years, with the peak incidence occurring in the third decade. Women are affected slightly more than men. The distal end of the ulna is an extremely uncommon site for primary bone tumours in general and giant cell tumours in particular. Wide resection of the distal ulna is the recommended treatment for GCT in such locations. Radio-ulna convergence and dorsal displacement of the ulna stump are known complications following ulna resection proximal to the insertion of the pronator quadratus. This leads to reduction in grip power and forearm rotatory motion. Stabilization of the ulna stump with extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU tendon after wide resection of the tumour has been described in the literature. We report a case of GCT of distal end of ulna treated with wide resection and stabilization with ECU tendon.

  2. Gastrointestinal Stromal Cell Tumor (GIST) Presenting as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In second case an 53-year-old, postmenopausal, woman presented with abdominal fullness and constipation for the preceding 3-4 days. Physical examination and imaging studies revealed a huge pelvic mass, suggestive of a cystic degenerated myoma. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large tumor originating from ...

  3. Parametric images via dynamic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic data acquisition in predicting midterm outcome of liver metastases secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolopoulos, Dimitris J. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Patras Medical School, University of Patras, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Patras, Rion, Patras (Greece); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Roumia, Safwan; Strauss, Ludwig G. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Hohenberger, Peter [University of Heidelberg, Division of Surgical Oncology and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) may underestimate viable tumour tissue in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) treated with molecular targeted agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of parametric images generated after dynamic data acquisition for the detection of active liver metastases. The analysis included 65 dynamic FDG PET studies in 34 patients with liver metastases from GIST who were treated with imatinib or sunitinib. Parametric images of intercept and slope were calculated by dedicated software using a voxel-based linear regression of time-activity data. Intercept images represent the tracer's distribution volume and the slope its overall metabolic turnover. All images were assessed visually and semi-quantitatively. Liver disease status was established 12 months after each PET study. Dichotomous variables of visual interpretation and various quantitative parameters were entered in a statistical model of linear discriminant analysis. Visual analysis of slope images was more sensitive than the standard 1-h FDG uptake evaluation (70.6 vs 51.0%, p = 0.016) in detecting cases with liver disease progression (n = 51). Specificity did not differ. Combination of all variables in the discriminant analysis model correctly classified 87.7% of cases as progressive or non-progressive disease. Sensitivity was raised to 88.2%. Parametric images of intercept and slope add a new dimension to the interpretation of FDG PET studies, by isolating visually and quantifying the perfusion and phosphorylation-dependent part of tracer uptake. In treated GIST patients, integration of this information with the 1-h uptake data achieves better characterization of hepatic lesions with respect to disease activity. (orig.)

  4. Computed tomography features and predictive findings of ruptured gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Sil; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the CT features of ruptured GISTs and factors that might be predictive of rupture through comparison with CTs taken prior to rupture and CTs of non-ruptured GIST. Forty-nine patients with ruptured GIST and forty-nine patients with non-ruptured GIST matched by age, gender and location were included. Clinical data including pharmacotherapy were reviewed. The imaging features were analyzed. Prior CT obtained before rupture were evaluated. The most common location of ruptured GIST was small bowel with mean size of 12.1 cm. Ruptured GIST commonly showed wall defects, >40 % eccentric necrosis, lobulated shaped, air density in mass, pneumoperitoneum, peritonitis, hemoperitoneum and ascites (p < 0.001-0.030). Twenty-seven of 30 patients with follow up imaging received targeted therapy. During follow-up, thickness of the tumour wall decreased. Increase in size and progression of necrosis were common during targeted therapy (p = 0.017). Newly developed ascites, peritonitis and hemoperitoneum was more common (p < 0.001-0.036). Ruptured GISTs commonly demonstrate large size, >40 % eccentric necrosis, wall defects and lobulated shape. The progression of necrosis with increase in size and decreased wall thickness during targeted therapy may increase the risk of rupture. Rupture should be considered when newly developed peritonitis, hemoperitoneum, or ascites are noted during the follow-up. (orig.)

  5. Presentation of a salivary tumour si mil primitive lung with metastases of carcinoid tumour of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, S.; Ximenez; Carzoglio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Colon carcinoid tumors are primary tumors in the colon, a rare histology. The lung tumour Si mil - Amyloid is within primary lung tumours, infrequent histology and often behaves like a benign tumour. In this paper we present the case of a patient with a history of having undergone colon surgery for a malignant carcinoid. Two years after developing a lung salivary tumour simile initially presented as metastasis Colonic carcinoid lung tumour. Clinical case: It is about a female patient of 64 years, who in September 2008 he makes a right hemicolectomy extended by an occlusive syndrome sub. Anatomic Pathology (A P) accounted for Carcinoid Tumor Malignant one that committed the entire wall and 50 lymph nodes are resected, all free metastasis. The patient does not receive complementary treatments and an imaging over in December 2009 is evident in a tomographic study a bulky upper lobe pulmonary parenchymal process right. The fiberoptic bronchoscopy (Fob) showed complete obstruction of the right upper lobe bronchus by a vegetating process whose biopsy reported a malignant lung tumor commitment carcinoid support primitive colonic confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The March 23, 2010 takes place the right upper lobectomy with lymphadenectomy. The A P and IHC study confirmed adenosquamous carcinoma with stroma simile amiloide low degree of malignancy. This injury can be approved to a salivary tumour early lung simile. Bronchial compromised by tumor margin and 22 negative lymph nodes. The patient is referred for additional radiation treatment. Discussion: Tumours of salivary gland type of primitive lung is a very rare condition and diagnosis is a r arity . Usually they originate in the bronchial epithelium submucosal gland. Endo luminal lesions usually occur as infrequently and develop in outlying areas. The development of lung tumours unrelated bronchial structure has been explained by a possible origin from a primitive stem cell that can differentiate a

  6. Abdominal wall tumour: An unusual presentation of endometriosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between endometriosis and abdominal wall lesion is rare. Since its first description by Brew in 1954 only a few sporadic cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of extensive painfall abdominal wall tumours that occur possibly as a consequence of a previous caesarian section.

  7. Common tumour, uncommon presentation: massive lipoma in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b. Retroperitoneal masses are notoriously malignant. Although they are seen commonly in adults, they have ... gastrointestinal symptoms. A detailed examination re- vealed an ill-defined mass in the abdomen, involving the ... that occurs in adolescents and young adults [7]. As these tumours have variable proportions of fat ...

  8. An unusual presentation of a catecholamine producing tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was noted that the hypertension followed a sinus wave pattern. Thus, ... A MRI scan was performed which confirmed an extra-adrenal mass localised in the left .... MRI is superior to CT imaging in the assessment of the relationship between the tumour and the surrounding vessels.4,18 Both CT and MRI have poor specificity ...

  9. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  10. Fourteen-year-old girl with endobronchial carcinoid tumour presenting with asthma and lobar emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie Bjerglund; Mortensen, Jann; Damgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoid tumours seldom occur in children, and represent a rare cause of pulmonary obstruction. Because of low clinical suspicion and the variable ways of presentation, diagnosis may be delayed.......Bronchial carcinoid tumours seldom occur in children, and represent a rare cause of pulmonary obstruction. Because of low clinical suspicion and the variable ways of presentation, diagnosis may be delayed....

  11. Breast cancer presenting as parotid tumour — first reported case in literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Rakesh S.; Manjunath, Suraj; Ustad, Tanveer Hussain; Pais, Saira; Shivakumar, K.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer presenting as parotid tumour is very rare. This is the first reported case in which parotid tumour was the presenting complaint of the patient. Since the patient was estrogen and progesterone receptor positive — was put on hormone therapy and responded well.

  12. Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumour: What do we know in 2017? A systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surennaidoo Naiken

    2018-01-01

    Ethics and dissemination: The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York acknowledged that this systematic review is within the register scope. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented at various national and international conferences.

  13. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor masquerading as a lung neoplasm. A case presentation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannopoulos K

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Their incidence in the esophagus is 1%–3%. Never has a GIST been documented to directly invade the lung. We report a primary esophageal GIST with direct invasion into the lung parenchyma, presenting predominantly with respiratory symptoms. We include a retrospective literature review. Although the principle 'common things are common' usually guides our everyday clinical practice, this case emphasizes that rare entities can mimic common pathologies and underlines the importance of having a clearly defined differential diagnostic list which should be meticulously scrutinized.

  14. A colonic splenic flexure tumour presenting as an empyema thoracis: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, K

    2009-01-01

    The case report describes the rare presentation of a 79-year-old patient with a locally perforated splenic flexure tumour of the colon presenting with an apparent empyema thoracis in the absence of abdominal signs or symptoms.

  15. Fourteen-year-old girl with endobronchial carcinoid tumour presenting with asthma and lobar emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie Bjerglund; Mortensen, Jann; Damgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoid tumours seldom occur in children, and represent a rare cause of pulmonary obstruction. Because of low clinical suspicion and the variable ways of presentation, diagnosis may be delayed....

  16. Specificity of DOG1 (K9 clone) and protein kinase C theta (clone 27) as immunohistochemical markers of gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Newton A C S; Shelley-Fraser, Golda

    2010-08-01

    DOG1 and protein kinase C (PKC) theta are both sensitive immunohistochemical markers of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). However, there are conflicting data regarding the specificity of the most commonly used PKC theta antibody (clone 27), and there are no existing data regarding the specificity of the only known commercially available DOG1 antibody (K9 clone) at the time of writing. This study's aim was to characterize the immunoreactivity patterns of both monoclonal antibodies amongst a wide range of neoplasm types including, in particular, histological mimics of GIST. Immunohistochemistry for DOG1 and PKC theta was performed on whole tissue sections from 23 different neoplasm types (total of 125 cases). Ten of these neoplasm types showed CD117 immunopositivity. Only three (Ewing's sarcoma, glomus tumour and synovial sarcoma) of the 23 neoplasm types showed DOG1 immunopositivity, and such positivity was often focal and weak in intensity. In contrast, all but four (ganglioneuromas, leiomyomas, desmoplastic small round cell tumours and PEComa/angiomyolipomas) of the 23 neoplasm types showed PKC theta immunopositivity. Compared with CD117, DOG1 (using the K9 antibody) is a more specific marker, whereas PKC theta (using the clone 27 antibody) is a considerably less specific immunohistochemical marker for GIST.

  17. Extragastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting as a scrotal mass: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok-Ho; Kim, Myung-Joon; Park, Min-Gu; Park, Hong-Seok; Moon, Du-Geon; Sung, Deuk-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Chae, Yang-Seok; Cheon, Jun; Kim, Je-Jong

    2007-03-01

    We describe an unusual case of extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) presenting as a scrotal mass. A 71-year-old man presented with a gradually enlarging scrotal mass with a 20-year duration. Physical examination revealed a huge (as large as volleyball), round, nontender mass occupying the whole scrotum, which was resected completely. Clinical and radiological findings did not comply with any other primary site disease. Under histological examination, the tumor showed a spindle cell pattern with low cellularity, absence of necrotic and mitotic features. immunohistochemical analysis revealed the tumor reactive for CD117 and CD34, while negative for smooth muscle actin, desmin and S-100 protein. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an EGIST involving the scrotum.

  18. [Hydrocephalus as initial presentation of a spinal cord tumour in a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L.M.; Nysom, K.; Lavard, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously healthy two-year-old girl who initially presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure of vomiting, lethargy and unstable gait. She had communicating hydrocephalus and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed. Two years later the girl developed signs of myelopathy...... and was diagnosed with a spinal cord tumour between Th3 and Th9. We suggest that spinal cord tumour should be considered in patients with increased intracranial pressure or hydrocephalus of unknown origin Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/15...

  19. Intrinsic properties of tumour cells have a key impact on the bystander effect mediated by genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matusková, M.; Baranovicová, L.; Kozovská, Z.; Duriniková, E.; Pastoráková, A.; Hunaková, L.; Waczulíková, I.; Nencka, Radim; Kučerová, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2012), s. 776-787 ISSN 1099-498X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bystander effect * cancer gene therapy * mesenchymal stromal cells Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.163, year: 2012

  20. A Case of True Hermaphroditism Presenting as a Testicular Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ceci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available True hermaphroditism represents only 5% cases of all of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD and usually present in early childhood with ambiguous genitalia. Occasionally, cases might present later on in adolescence with problems of sexual maturation. Our case report presents a true hermaphrodite with normal male phenotype that presented as a left testicular mass, two years after being diagnosed with Sertoli cell only syndrome in the contralateral testis. Histological examination of the left testis showed ovarian, fallopian tube, myometrial, endometrial, and epididymal tissue. This combination of findings is found in approximately one-third of true hermaphrodites, but it is very rare to present clinically as an inguinoscrotal mass.

  1. Hypoxia and loss of PHD2 inactivate stromal fibroblasts to decrease tumour stiffness and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Chris D; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge; Venning, Freja A

    2015-01-01

    , which can be prevented by simultaneous depletion of HIF-1α. Treatment with the PHD inhibitor DMOG in an orthotopic breast cancer model significantly decreases spontaneous metastases to the lungs and liver, associated with decreased tumour stiffness and fibroblast activation. PHD2 depletion in CAFs co......-injected with tumour cells similarly prevents CAF-induced metastasis to lungs and liver. Our data argue that reversion of CAFs towards a less active state is possible and could have important clinical implications....

  2. Translationally Controlled Tumour Protein (TCTP is present in human cornea and increases in herpetic keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batisti Cinzia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translationally Controlled Tumour protein is a multifunctional calcium binding protein which has an important role in apoptosis, calcium levels balance and immunological response. The aim of this study was to evaluated the presence and distribution of TCTP in healthy human corneas and to identify and characterize the presence and distribution of this protein in human normal cornea. Since recent studies suggest that apoptosis, calcium levels and immunological mechanisms play a role in the pathogenesis of herpetic stromal keratitis, we studied TCTP expression in this disease. Methods We evaluated the expression of TCTP at both RNA messanger and protein level by using reverse transcriptase analysis, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry in 10 healthy samples cornea: four obtained after penetrating keratoplasty and six from eyes enucleated for other pathologies. Finally, we analysed by immunohistochemistry ten paraffin-embedded samples of Herpes simplex virus keratitis collected at Siena Department of Human Pathology and Oncology: 5 had clinically quiescent disease and 5 had active corneal inflammation. Results Reverse transcriptase and immunoblotting demonstrated TCTP expression in cornea as a 22,000 Da molecular weight band corresponding to the molecular weight of this protein. Immunohistochemically, all the layers of normal corneal epithelium showed TCTP cytoplasmic expression. TCTP was, also, observed in keratocytes and in the endothelium. In Herpes simplex virus keratitis samples, strong expression of TCTP was evident in stromal cells, in the inflammatory infiltrate and in neo-vessels. Conclusions In this preliminary study we demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of TCTP in human cornea, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of herpes virus keratitis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3306813447428149

  3. A rare benign renal tumour presenting as polycythaemia in a teenage girl.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geoghegan, S

    2010-04-01

    We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with polycythemia. CT abdomen revealed an enhancing mass in the upper pole of her left kidney with features suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. She underwent a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Histology demonstrated a well circumscribed, focally encapsulated, round blue cell tumour showing areas of microcalcifications and numerous psammoma bodies. Imunostaining showed diffuse positive staining for CD 57. This was consistent with a diagnosis of metanephric adenoma a rare benign epithelial renal tumour.

  4. Diffusion weighted imaging reflects variable cellularity and stromal density present in breast fibroadenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsian, Sana; Giannakopoulos, Nadia V.; Rahbar, Habib; Rendi, Mara H.; Chai, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the underlying histopathologic features influencing apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of breast fibroadenomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS Biopsy proven fibroadenomas (n=26) initially identified as suspicious on breast MRI were retrospectively evaluated. Histopathological assessments of lesion cellularity and stromal type were compared with ADC measures on diffusion-weighted MRI. RESULTS Presence of epithelial hyperplasia (increased cellularity) and dense collagenous stroma were both significantly associated with lower lesion ADC values (p=0.02 and 0.004, respectively. CONCLUSION Variations in epithelial cellularity and stromal type influence breast lesion ADC values and may explain the wide range of ADC measures observed in benign fibroadenomas. PMID:27379441

  5. Prostatic stromal tumor with fatal outcome in a young man: histopathological and immunohistochemical case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Roncalli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stromal tumors of the prostate are rare and only a few cases have been described in the literature, including exceptional cases of stromal tumors with unknown malignant potential (STUMP and a fatal outcome in young patients. Morphologically distinguishing a STUMP from a stromal sarcoma of the prostate (PSS is still a challenge. We describe the histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a 34-year-old man with a malignant specialized cell stromal tumor of the prostate that was diagnosed initially as STUMP, and he developed lung metastases within a few months. The patient attended our hospital because of lower urinary tract symptoms, after having excreted tissue through the urethra a few months before. Ultrasonography and urethrocystoscopy examinations showed a mass arising from the verumontanum, and a transurethral resection (TUR revealed a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma reminiscent of a phyllode tumor of the breast. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, progesterone receptor and, focally, CD34. The preliminary histo­logical findings were subsequently confirmed after radical prostatectomy. The patient developed bilateral lung metastases and died 25 months after the initial diagnosis. Although rare in young patients, the challenging differential diagnosis of STUMP and PSS means that a prostate STUMP diagnosis made on the basis of biopsy or TUR specimens also requires urethrocystoscopic monitoring for the early detection of any progression to PSS. Radical prostatectomy should also be carefully considered.

  6. The value of PET, CT and in-line PET/CT in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours: long-term outcome of treatment with imatinib mesylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G.W.; Hany, T.F.; Schulthess, G.K. von [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Stupp, R.; Luthi, F.; Leyvraz, S. [University of Lausanne Medical Centre, Multidisciplinary Oncology Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland); Barghouth, G.; Schnyder, P. [University of Lausanne Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Pestalozzi, B. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Dizendorf, E. [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); International Tomography Center, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract that are unresponsive to standard sarcoma chemotherapy. Imaging of GIST patients is done with structural and functional methods such as contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography (ceCT) and positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic power of PET and ceCT and to evaluate the clinical role of PET/CT imaging. All patients with GIST undergoing PET or PET/CT examinations were prospectively included in this study, and the median overall survival, time to progression and treatment duration were documented. The prognostic significance of PET and ceCT criteria of treatment response was assessed and PET/CT was compared with PET and ceCT imaging. Data for 34 patients (19 male, 15 female, 21-76 years) undergoing PET or PET/CT for staging or restaging were analysed. In 28 patients, PET/CT and ceCT were available after introduction of treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland). Patients without FDG uptake after the start of treatment had a better prognosis than patients with residual activity. In contrast, ceCT criteria provided insufficient prognostic power. However, more lesions were found on ceCT images than on PET images, and FDG uptake was sometimes very variable. PET/CT delineated active lesions better than did the combination of PET and ceCT imaging. Both PET and PET/CT provide important prognostic information and have an impact on clinical decision-making in GIST patients. PET/CT precisely delineates lesions and thus allows for the correct planning of surgical interventions. (orig.)

  7. Extra-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Presenting as an Anterior Chest Wall Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghyeon Lim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old man was referred for an anterior chest wall mass. Chest computed tomography (CT and positron emission tomography-CT suggested a malignant tumor. Surgical biopsy through a vertical subxiphoid incision revealed an extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST. En bloc resection of the tumor, including partial resection of the sternum, costal cartilage, pericardium, diaphragm, and peritoneum, was performed. Pathologic evaluation revealed a negative resection margin and confirmed the tumor as an EGIST. On postoperative day 17, the patient was discharged without any complications. At the 2-week follow-up, the patient was doing well and was asymptomatic.

  8. [Neuroendocrine tumours of the alimentary tract--history and at present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandys, V

    2009-07-01

    Histological classification of the neuroendocrine tumours ("carcinoids") of the alimentary tract, as well as the opinion on biological behaviour of these tumours, changed rapidly within the last decade. Advances in knowledge of cellular biology of the diffuse endocrine system and in clinical diagnostics and treatment of tumours lead to the creation of a new histological classification of neuroendocrine tumours. This classification, apart from essential histological picture and immunohistological characterisation of the markers of neuroendocrine differentiation, also includes definition of biological properties of tumours based on their site of origin, mitotic and proliferative activity of the tumour cells and clinicopathological correlation, including the size of the tumour and its progression. Exact classification of an individual tumour into a corresponding category is an essential condition to select adequate following diagnostic procedures and optimal therapeutic strategy.

  9. Gastric stromal tumor presenting as a right upper quadrant abdominal mass. Importance of a correct radiological differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudela, X.; Garcia-Vila, J. H.; Jornet, J.

    2001-01-01

    Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract encompass a group of neoplasms representing 1% to 3% of all digestive system tumors. When located in the stomach, their tendency to exhibit and exophytic growth pattern makes it necessary to establish the differential diagnosis with respect to other gastric tumors (lymphoma, exophytic adenocarcinoma) and nongastrointestinal masses. We present a case that illustrated the difficulties associated with the imaging diagnosis of these lesions and the importance of modern radiological techniques (helical computed tomography and magnetic resonance) and the correct interpretation on the part of radiologists to orient pathologists and clinicians toward the diagnosis and proper treatment. (Author) 10 refs

  10. AA , Ovarian tumour, a common neoplasm in women, can present as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    definite screening program for ovarian tumours as obtained in cervical cancer. The cause of ... common benign primary ovarian tumour constituting. 54.7% of cases of benign tumours followed by serous cystadenoma comprising 19.6%. Mature cystic teratoma is ... Maiduguri, Nigeria where mature cystic teratoma was found ...

  11. POTT’S SPINE PRESENTING AS SPINAL TUMOUR SYNDROME: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Borthakur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pott's spine may be associated with neurological deficit due to presence of inflammatory oedema, extradural abscess or sequestra. However, there may be unusual rare presentation of Pott’s spine as extradural granuloma without involvement of bone which may present as spinal tumour syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a case of paraparesis of two weeks’ duration in a 13-year-old female. MRI showed extensive extradural SOL from C7 to D5 with mass effect over the cord with no abnormality of vertebrae. Excisional biopsy was done after D2 to D4 laminectomy, thereby relieving cord compression. Challenges in the case being skeletal immaturity, lesion being extensive, extent of laminectomy and the role of posterior fusion. RESULT Histopathology report diagnosed it to be tuberculous granuloma. ATT under DOTs, category 1, was started. Excellent functional recovery was noted. CONCLUSION In endemic country, granuloma must be kept as a possibility in case of spinal tumour syndrome. Though granuloma improves with ATT, decompression should be considered in case of neurological involvement.

  12. Elderly patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) receive less treatment irrespective of performance score or comorbidity - A retrospective multicentre study in a large cohort of GIST patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Sheima; van Coevorden, Frits; Sneekes, Esther; Grunhagen, Dirk J; Reyners, Anna K L; Boonstra, Pieter A; van der Graaf, Winette T; Gelderblom, Hans J; Steeghs, Neeltje

    2017-11-01

    Although gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) predominantly occur in older patients, data on treatment patterns in elderly GIST patients are scarce. Patients registered in the Dutch GIST Registry (DGR) from January 2009 until December 2016 were included. Differences in treatment patterns between elderly (≥75 years) and younger patients were compared. Multivariate analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Data of 145 elderly and 665 non-elderly patients were registered (median age 78 and 60 years respectively). In elderly patients, performance score (WHO-PS) and age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) were significantly higher (p elderly and 503 (75.6%) non-elderly patients had only localised disease. Surgery was performed in 57% of elderly versus 84% of non-elderly patients (p = 0.003, OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.63). No differences in surgery outcome or complications were found. Thirty-eight percent of elderly with an indication for adjuvant treatment did receive imatinib versus 68% of non-elderly (p = 0.04, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-0.95). Thirty-six elderly and 162 non-elderly patients had metastatic disease. Palliative imatinib was equally given (mean dose 400 mg) and adverse events were mostly minor (p = 0.71). In elderly, drug-related toxicity was in 32.7% reason to discontinue imatinib versus 5.1% in non-elderly (p = 0.001, OR 13.5, 95% CI: 2.8-65.0). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 24 months in elderly and 33 months in non-elderly (p = 0.10). Median overall survival (OS) was 34 months and 59 months respectively (p = 0.01). Elderly GIST patients with localised disease receive less surgery and adjuvant treatment, irrespective of comorbidity and performance score. Drug-related toxicity results more often in treatment discontinuation. This possibly results in poor outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy and safety of regorafenib for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours after failure of imatinib and sunitinib: an international, multicentre, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial (GRID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetri, George D; Reichardt, Peter; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Blay, Jean-Yves; Rutkowski, Piotr; Gelderblom, Hans; Hohenberger, Peter; Leahy, Michael; von Mehren, Margaret; Joensuu, Heikki; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Blackstein, Martin; Cesne, Axel Le; Schöffski, Patrick; Maki, Robert G; Bauer, Sebastian; Nguyen, Binh Bui; Xu, Jianming; Nishida, Toshirou; Chung, John; Kappeler, Christian; Kuss, Iris; Laurent, Dirk; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background To date, only two agents, imatinib and sunitinib, have shown clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), but almost all metastatic GISTs eventually develop resistance to these agents, resulting in fatal disease progression. This phase 3 trial assessed efficacy and safety of regorafenib in patients with metastatic and/or unresectable GIST progressing after failure of at least imatinib and sunitinib. Methods Patients were randomised 2:1 to receive either regorafenib 160 mg orally daily or placebo, plus best supportive care in both arms, for the first 3 weeks of each 4-week cycle. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Upon disease progression, patients on placebo could cross over to regorafenib. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate, disease control rate (DCR: rate of durable stable disease lasting for ≥12 weeks plus complete or partial responses), and safety. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01271712). Results From January to August 2011, 240 patients were screened at 57 centres in 17 countries, and 199 patients were randomised to receive regorafenib (n=133) or matching placebo (n=66). Median PFS per independent blinded central review was 4·8 months and 0·9 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR] 0·27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0·19–0·39; pregorafenib, resulting in no significant difference in OS between study arms (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·42–1·41; p=0·199). A best response of partial response or stable disease was observed in 101/133 patients (75·9%) on regorafenib and 23/66 patients (34·8%) on placebo. DCR was 52·6% (70/133 patients) and 9·1% (6/66 patients), respectively. Drug-related adverse events were reported in 130 (98·5%) of 132 regorafenib patients and 45 (68·2%) of 66 placebo patients. The most common grade ≥3 regorafenib-related adverse events were hypertension (31/132, 23·5%), hand–foot skin reaction (26

  14. Ovarian dysgerminoma with normal serum tumour markers presenting in a child with precocious puberty

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    Naglaa M Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old female child was presented to the emergency room with acute abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. Her assessment revealed a firm large lower abdominal mass with evidence of precocious puberty with bilaterally symmetrically enlarged breast (Tanner stage B4-P1-A1. Abdominal imaging showed a well-defined soft midline pelvi-abdominal single mass measuring 7.0 × 12.6 × 11.7 cms with no ascites. Serum tumour markers including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG and luteinizing hormone/follicular stimulating hormone (LH/FSH were all normal. At operation, there was a huge abdominal tumour weighing 558 grams, localized to the right ovary sparing the left ovary, uterus, lymph nodes and other abdominal organs. Unilateral right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination revealed ovarian dysgerminoma with intact capsule; FIGO Ia. Immunohistochemical stainings were positive for placental alkaline phosphatase (PALP, CD 117(c-kit and calretinin focally but was negative for cancer antigen-125 (CA-125, B-hCG, S-100, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA. Being fitting in the low risk classification, the wait and see protocol was selected with strict follow-up with pediatric oncologist and pediatric surgeon. Along the duration of 2 years follow up, there was no more vaginal bleeding with dramatic reduction of the breast size and no recurrence.

  15. Laryngeal giant cell tumour presenting as a tongue base lesion causing severe dysphagia

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    Mohd Razi M. Saud, MBBS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available الملخص: أورام الخلايا العملاقة هي آفات حميدة وغير مألوفة تظهر في الحنجرة. قد يصاب المريض بصعوبة في البلع، وبحة في الصوت وتورم في الجهة الأمامية من الرقبة. أورام الخلايا العملاقة هي نادرة للغاية، وهناك حالات قليلة في الأدبيات المنشورة. نعرض لحالة إمرأة مسنة قدمت بصعوبة شديدة في البلع، وورم في قاعدة اللسان. أظهرت نتيجة الورم بأنه ورم الخلايا العملاقة في الحنجرة وتم علاجه بنجاح باستخدام المعالجة الكيميائية. Abstract: Giant cell tumours are benign lesions that are uncommonly found in the larynx. Patients with these tumours may present with dysphagia, hoarseness and anterior neck swelling. Giant cell tumours are extremely rare and only a few cases have been reported. We present a case of an elderly woman who presented with severe dysphagia and a mass at the base of her tongue. The mass was found to be a laryngeal giant cell tumour and was successfully treated with chemotherapy. الكلمات المفتاحية: أورام الخلايا العملاقة, الحنجرة, صعوبة البلع, دينوسوماب, المعالجة الكيميائية, Keywords: Chemotherapy, Denosumab, Dysphagia, Giant cell tumour, Larynx

  16. Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor presenting with hemoperitoneum in puerperium: report of a case with review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilakaki Thivi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are mesenchymal tumors that develop in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and their diagnosis during pregnancy or puerperium is extremely rare. Case A 28-year old patient presented with acute abdomen due to hemoperitoneum from a large mass arising of the small intestine with distended vessels on its top and a ruptured superficial vessel bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. The patient was at the tenth postpartum day of her first pregnancy. The preoperative diagnosis was a possible ovarian or uterine mass. After an emergency exploratory laparotomy a segmental bowel resection was performed, removing the tumor with a part of 3-cm of the small intestine. Histology revealed GIST with maximum diameter of 13 cm and mitotic rates more than 5 mitoses per 50 high power fields with some atypical forms, indicating a high risk malignancy. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor tissue demonstrated strongly positive reactivity to CD 117 (c-kit and CD34 in almost all the tumor cells. The patient was treated with oral imatinib mesylate (Gleevec 400 mg daily for one year. Three years after surgery, the patient was alive without evidence of metastases or local recurrence. Conclusion Considering that only few patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors have been reported in the obstetrical and gynecological literature, the awareness of such an entity by the obstetricians-gynecologists is necessary in order to facilitate coordinated approach with the general surgeons and oncologists for the optimal care of the patients.

  17. MRI of rectal stromal tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Claus; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2012-01-01

    to be aware of for the rectal multidisciplinary team. On suspicion of GIST, patients should be referred to a sarcoma centre. The diagnosis of rectal GIST can be suggested on MRI by the presence of a well-defined heterogeneously large mass with a necrotic center associated with a prominent extra...

  18. Atypical presentation of myoepithelial hamartoma in the antrum of the stomach, mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Junaid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A myoepithelial hamartoma is a very uncommon submucosal tumor of the stomach. In an atypical presentation in our case, it mimicked the clinical presentation of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of a hamartoma of the stomach reported from Bangladesh and one of few cases described in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 35-year-old Bengali man with recurrent epigastric pain and occasional vomiting with radiographic findings of a gut mass. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a healed duodenal ulcer, deformed ‘D’ bulb and a submucosal swelling in his antrum. Ultrasonography and a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a well-defined, oval gut mass in his upper abdomen, compressing his duodenum. The mass had a mixed density and was considered to probably be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology was inconclusive. After resection at laparotomy, a histopathological examination revealed a myoepithelial hamartoma. These tumors are characterized by hypertrophic smooth muscle bands surrounding varied epithelial elements, which may be arranged in diverse patterns such as simple glandular structure, Brunner’s gland, pancreatic ducts and sometimes pancreatic acini. This case report is complemented by a literature review relating to the atypical presentation. Conclusion Gut masses need to be investigated thoroughly and the possibility of rare tumors should not be excluded. Although the recommended treatment for such lesions is limited resection, radical procedures such as a pancreaticoduodenectomy are often performed when the lesion occurs in the periampullary area because of preoperative misdiagnosis as a carcinoma. Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to maintain current knowledge of the lesion to avoid inaccurate diagnosis and prevent unnecessary surgery.

  19. Antigen Presenting Cells and Stromal Cells Trigger Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes to Autoreactivity: Evidence for the Involvement of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCR and NKG2D

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    Alessandro Poggi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human natural killer (NK lymphocytes should not damage autologous cells due to the engagement of inhibitory receptor superfamily (IRS members by HLA-I. Nevertheless, NK cells kill self cells expressing low levels or lacking HLA-I, as it may occur during viral infections (missing-self hypothesis. Herein, we show that human NK cells can be activated upon binding with self antigen presenting cells or stromal cells despite the expression of HLA-I. Indeed, NK cells can kill and produce pro-inflammatory and regulating cytokines as IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL10 during interaction with autologous dendritic cells or bone marrow stromal cells or skin fibroblasts. The killing of antigen presenting and stromal cells is dependent on LFA1/ICAM1 interaction. Further, the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR NKp30 and NKp46 are responsible for the delivery of lethal hit to DC, whereas NKG2D activating receptor, the ligand of the MHC-related molecule MIC-A and the UL16 binding protein, is involved in stromal cell killing. These findings indicate that different activating receptors are involved in cell to self cell interaction. Finally, NK cells can revert the veto effect of stromal cells on mixed lymphocyte reaction further supporting the idea that NK cells may alter the interaction between T lymphocytes and microenvironment leading to autoreactivity.

  20. Conjunctival myxoma - atypical presentation of a rare tumour: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neharika; O'Hagan, Stephen; Phillips, Gael

    2016-05-13

    Conjunctival myxomas are rare, benign, connective tissue tumours that classically present as slow-growing, painless, well-circumscribed masses (Arch Ophthalmol 124:735-8, 2006; Case Rep Ophthalmol 3:145-50, 2012). There have been 29 cases reported in the literature (Arch Ophthalmol 124:735-8, 2006; Malays J Med Sci 20(1):92-4, 2013; Case Rep Ophthalmol 3:145-50, 2012; Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 19(3):353-3, 2012). We present a case with atypical features, and emphasize the importance of excisional biopsies for diagnosing indeterminate conjunctival lesions. A 32 year old Korean woman presented with a 5 mm × 7 mm × 3 mm pedunculated firm cystic lesion on the inferior palpebral conjunctiva of her right lower eyelid. The lesion had rapidly enlarged over the course of a week. She gave a history of uncomplicated bilateral epiblepharon correction performed in Korea three months prior. There were no systemic features, or family history of genetic conditions. The lesion was excised under local anaesthesia and reported to be a conjunctival myxoma. The clinical and histopathological features of this lesion were consistent with previous reports on conjunctival myxoma (Arch Ophthalmol 124:735-8, 2006; Arch Ophthalmol 101:1416-20, 1983; Case Rep Ophthalmol 3:145-50, 2012; Am J Ophthalmol 102(1):80-84, 1986). The unusual features of this case were, the rapid growth of the lesion - with the previously documented mean time before presentation being 34 months (range 3 months - 24 years) (Arch Ophthalmol 124:735-8, 2006; Case Rep Ophthalmol 3:145-50, 2012); the location of the lesion in the inferior palpebral conjunctiva - 93 % of previously reported cases had occurred in the bulbar conjunctiva (Arch Ophthalmol 124:735-8, 2006; Case Rep Ophthalmol 3:145-50, 2012); and its occurrence in association with recent eyelid surgery - which has never been reported. This case of conjunctival myxoma adds to the small number of documented cases, by demonstrating an atypical

  1. Ectomesenchymal Chondromyxoid Tumour of the Dorsal Tongue Presenting with Impaired Speech

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    Laura A. Schep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumours (ECTs are rare mesenchymal soft tissue neoplasms that typically present as a slow-growing asymptomatic mass on the anterior dorsum of the tongue. Our patient presented with impaired speech articulation and pain associated with upper respiratory tract infections when the lesion on his dorsal tongue would swell, and he would accidentally bite down on it. Microscopically, ECTs appear as unencapsulated, well-circumscribed proliferations of uniform round to fusiform cells embedded within chondromyxoid matrices. Most cases of ECT have been detected in the third to the sixth decades of life, with no sex preference. ECT may cause a range of symptoms that negatively impact patients’ quality of life, including pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, bleeding, and, in the case of our patient, impairment of speech. We provide a unique preoperative clinical photograph and case description that should help readers in recognizing this neoplasm. Considering the rarity of ECT presenting clinically as well as in the literature, we believe this report will add to our growing understanding of ECT and its management. We report a case of ECT presenting on the anterior dorsal tongue that was successfully surgically resected under local anesthesia with clear margins, accompanied by a review of the pertinent literature.

  2. The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Hosaka, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Signalling molecules and pathways that mediate crosstalk between various tumour cellular compartments in cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. We report a mechanism of the interaction between perivascular cells and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting metastasis through the IL-33...

  3. Hepatic Actinomycosis Presenting as a Liver Tumour: Case Report and Literature Review

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    Alex T. Lai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic actinomycosis poses a difficult problem in both diagnosis and management. We report the management of a patient with isolated hepatic actinomycosis, and review the clinical features and management of patients with hepatic actinomycosis mimicking liver tumour.

  4. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufliarsky, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the digestive tract. Better understanding of the molecular characteristics of GISTs led to the clinical development of imatinib for treating patients with this disease. New immuno markers and mechanisms of primary and secondary resistance were discovered. Adjuvant imatinib in intermediate or high risk GIST has improved the recurrence-free survival. Sunitinib in patients with intolerance or progression on imatinib demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival versus placebo. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sorafenib, dasatinib, and nilotinib, have shown activity in patients with imatinib- and sunitinib-resistant GIST. (author)

  5. A Rare Clinical Presentation of Giant Bilateral Labial Fibroepithelial Stromal Polyps in Patient with Psoriasis Disease

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    Ayse Filiz Avsar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs are rarely seen lesions of the lower female genital tract with polypoid proliferations of stroma. These tumors usually present in the vulvovaginal region of the reproductive aged women. In this presentation, we report a case of a psoriatic woman who developed unusual multiple polypoid lesions approximately 15 cm in size arising from both left and right labia minora and unique connection of FEPs with psoriasis disease.

  6. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  7. Development and characterisation of a brain tumour mimicking protoporphyrin IX fluorescence phantom (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Tisca, Cristiana; Peveler, William; Noimark, Sacha; Desjardins, Adrien E.; Parkin, Ivan P.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Vercauteren, Tom

    2017-02-01

    5-ALA-PpIX fluorescence-guided brain tumour resection can increase the accuracy at which cancerous tissue is removed and thereby improve patient outcomes, as compared with standard white light imaging. Novel optical devices that aim to increase the specificity and sensitivity of PpIX detection are typically assessed by measurements in tissue-mimicking optical phantoms of which all optical properties are defined. Current existing optical phantoms specified for PpIX lack consistency in their optical properties, and stability with respect to photobleaching, thus yielding an unstable correspondence between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence intensity. In this study, we developed a set of aqueous-based phantoms with different compositions, using deionised water or PBS buffer as background medium, intralipid as scattering material, bovine haemoglobin as background absorber, and either PpIX dissolved in DMSO or a novel nanoparticle with similar absorption and emission spectrum to PpIX as the fluorophore. We investigated the phantom stability in terms of aggregation and photobleaching by comparing with different background medium and fluorophores, respectively. We characterised the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescent nanoparticle in different concentration of intralipid and haemoglobin and its time-dependent stability, as compared to the PpIX-induced fluorescence. We corroborated that the background medium was essential to prepare a stable aqueous phantom. The novel fluorescent nanoparticle used as surrogate fluorophore of PpIX presented an improved temporal stability and a reliable correspondence between concentration and emission intensity. We proposed an optimised phantom composition and recipe to produce reliable and repeatable phantom for validation of imaging device.

  8. The PDGF-BB-SOX7 axis-modulated IL-33 in pericytes and stromal cells promotes metastasis through tumour-associated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunlong; Andersson, Patrik; Hosaka, Kayoko; Zhang, Yin; Cao, Renhai; Iwamoto, Hideki; Yang, Xiaojuan; Nakamura, Masaki; Wang, Jian; Zhuang, Rujie; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Xue, Yuan; Braun, Harald; Beyaert, Rudi; Samani, Nilesh; Nakae, Susumu; Hams, Emily; Dissing, Steen; Fallon, Padraic G.; Langer, Robert; Cao, Yihai

    2016-01-01

    Signalling molecules and pathways that mediate crosstalk between various tumour cellular compartments in cancer metastasis remain largely unknown. We report a mechanism of the interaction between perivascular cells and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in promoting metastasis through the IL-33–ST2-dependent pathway in xenograft mouse models of cancer. IL-33 is the highest upregulated gene through activation of SOX7 transcription factor in PDGF-BB-stimulated pericytes. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments validate that IL-33 promotes metastasis through recruitment of TAMs. Pharmacological inhibition of the IL-33–ST2 signalling by a soluble ST2 significantly inhibits TAMs and metastasis. Genetic deletion of host IL-33 in mice also blocks PDGF-BB-induced TAM recruitment and metastasis. These findings shed light on the role of tumour stroma in promoting metastasis and have therapeutic implications for cancer therapy. PMID:27150562

  9. Defining an optimal stromal derived factor-1 presentation for effective recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Maria; Ventre, Maurizio; Pagano, Gemma; Giannoni, Paolo; Quarto, Rodolfo; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2014-11-01

    In "situ" tissue engineering is a promising approach in regenerative medicine, envisaging to potentiate the physiological tissue repair processes by recruiting the host's own cellular progenitors at the lesion site by means of bioactive materials. Despite numerous works focused the attention in characterizing novel chemoattractant molecules, only few studied the optimal way to present signal in the microenvironment, in order to recruit cells more effectively. In this work, we have analyzed the effects of gradients of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on the migratory behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have characterized the expression of the chemokine-associated receptor, CXCR4, using cytofluorimetric and real-time PCR analyses. Gradients of SDF-1 were created in 3D collagen gels in a chemotaxis chamber. Migration parameters were evaluated using different chemoattractant concentrations. Our results show that cell motion is strongly affected by the spatio-temporal features of SDF-1 gradients. In particular, we demonstrated that the presence of SDF-1 not only influences cell motility but alters the cell state in terms of SDF-1 receptor expression and productions, thus modifying the way cells perceive the signal itself. Our observations highlight the importance of a correct stimulation of MSCs by means of SDF-1 in order to implement on effective cell recruitment. Our results could be useful for the creation of a "cell instructive material" that is capable to communicate with the cells and control and direct tissue regeneration. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 2303-2316. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A retrospective study of ovarian tumours and tumour-like lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, S.; Majid, S.; Hussain, M.; Chughtai, O.; Mhaboob, J.; Chughtai, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ovaries are common site of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. They can present from the neonatal period to post menopause. Most are functional in nature and resolve with minimal treatment. Objective of the study was to determine the nature of various ovarian lesions and to ascertain the frequency and distribution of the various non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Methods: The study was a retrospective review of all cases of ovarian cancer, benign ovarian neoplasm and functional ovarian cysts received during Jan-Dec 2008 at Chughtai's Lahore Laboratory. The clinical data of the patients was obtained from their respective files. Results: A total of 498 different non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions were seen during one calendar year 2008. Non-neoplastic cysts were more common (343, 68.87%) than neoplastic tumours (155, 31.12%). The commonest non-neoplastic cyst was luteal cyst followed by follicular cyst. Among the neoplastic tumours 78.70% were benign and 21.29% were malignant. Benign serous cysts were the commonest benign tumour followed by mature cystic teratoma and mucinous cyst. Serous cyst adenocarcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour followed closely by endometrioid carcinoma and granulosa cell tumour. Krukenberg tumour, tumour metastatic to ovaries and non-Hodgkins lymphoma was also diagnosed during this period. Malignant germ cell tumours were seen in much younger age group followed by sex cord stromal tumours. Epithelial tumours were seen in much older age group. Conclusion: The morphologic diversity of ovarian masses poses many challenges. A specific diagnosis can usually be made by evaluating routinely stained slides but sometimes immunohistochemistry is required in difficult cases. Gross features also provide useful diagnostic clues. (author)

  11. An Unusual Presentation of Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumour of the Abdomen: Morphological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural, and Molecular Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethika Angunawela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT is an aggressive and a rare neoplasm. We report on a 34-year-old male who had abdominal discomfort with a large intraperitoneal mass. Histological examination of the tumour biopsy revealed sheets of small round cells. The cells were positive with vimentin and desmin (with occasional dot positivity and negative for WT1 and CD 99 with immunohistochemistry. Cytogenetics showed a translocation disrupting the EWSR 1 gene on 22 q 12 consistent with DSRCT. Electron microscopic examination showed sparse cytoplasmic organelles. The patient succumbed 34 months from disease presentation after multiple chemotherapies and thereafter radiotherapy. In summary, our case exemplifies that it is crucial to combine clinical, histological, and molecular aspects in diagnosing DSRCT especially when characteristic dot positivity with desmin is weak along with deficient marking of WT1 and CD99 by immunohistochemistry. Histology was also less clear than published examples of this entity with a poor desmoplastic response. A multidisciplinary approach including early referral to specialised centres is recommended in these cases as tertiary referral centres will be required to substantiate the diagnosis.

  12. Mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MEST) simulating an upper tract TCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sountoulides, Petros; Koptsis, Michail; Metaxa, Linda; Theodosiou, Alexandros; Kikidakis, Dimitrios; Filintatzi, Chrysa; Paschalidis, Konstantinos

    2012-02-01

    We present a rare and interesting case of a mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST) of the kidney. The case is unique as it involves a male patient with no history of hormonal therapy presenting with a filling defect in the renal collecting system and positive urine cytology. The patient was diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and subjected to nephroureterectomy, which revealed a solid tumour arising from the lower calyces and extending into the renal pelvis and upper ureter. Pathology revealed a MEST. The patient was disease-free at the 6-month follow-up.

  13. Impact of imatinib rechallenge on health-related quality of life in patients with TKI-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Sub-analysis of the placebo-controlled, randomised phase III trial (RIGHT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Changhoon; Ryu, Min-Hee; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Demetri, George D; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2016-01-01

    The RIGHT trial demonstrated that resumption of imatinib significantly improves progression-free survival in patients with tyrosine-kinase inhibitor-refractory gastrointestinal stromal tumours. The impact of imatinib on health-related quality of life (QoL) was assessed in a preplanned sub-analysis. QoL was assessed at baseline and every 4 weeks using European Organization for Research and Treatment Quality of Life Questionnaire C30, version 3.0. QoL data were collected only during the double-blind treatment period. The evolution of QoL parameters over time was assessed by analysis of variance with repeated measures, and comparisons between the two arms at each treatment cycle were performed by analysis of covariance after adjusting for baseline values. At baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment, 35 (88% of enrolled patients), 32 (82%), and 21 (95%) patients in the placebo arm and 37 (90%), 33 (85%), and 25 (83%) patients in the imatinib arm, respectively, were evaluable for QoL analysis. In the longitudinal comparison, no differences in global health status/QoL, functioning and other symptom scales were observed between the two groups, although insomnia was significantly worse in the placebo group (p = 0.02). Cross-sectionally, at 8 weeks, pain was better (p = 0.04) and nausea/vomiting, appetite loss, and diarrhoea were worse (p = 0.002, p = 0.01, and p = 0.04, respectively) in the imatinib group than in the placebo group, with no differences in global health status/QoL and functional scales. Despite the toxicity of imatinib, QoL was not impaired in this fragile patient population. The benefits of imatinib rechallenge outweigh its toxicities, supporting its clinical relevance for patients without active treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solitary phalangeal brown tumour in primary hyperparathyroidism: Report of a rare presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, Chandana; Oommen, Regi; Jacob, Paul M; Irodi, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid adenoma is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Severe cases of primary hyperparathyroidism manifest as osteitis fibrosa cystica generalisata, characterized by generalized bone loss with increased bone resorption, including both subperiosteal and endosteal surfaces. The most common sites for formation of fibrotic cystic lesions (brown tumors) are in the long bones and jaw which present as swelling, pathological fracture, and/or bone pain, usually involving multiple sites. Here, we describe an unusual presentation of a solitary brown tumor in a young male who initially presented to the hand surgeon with a history of right thumb swelling following trivial trauma. Further detailed clinical, biochemical, scintigraphic (Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy and Tc 99m Sestamibi scintigraphy), and radiological investigations aided definitive diagnosis and treatment. The causative parathyroid adenoma was excised curing hyperparathyroidism and the lesion regressed substantially

  15. Bilateral orbital tumour as the presentation of mammographically occult breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Bautz, W.A. [Institute of Radiology, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91504, Erlangen (Germany); Hafner, A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91504, Erlangen (Germany); Magener, A. [Institute of Pathology, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91504, Erlangen (Germany); Tomandl, B.F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Maximiliansplatz 1, 91504, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    We report a rare case of bilateral orbital metastases as the presentation in a 63-year-old woman. Biopsy of a diffusely infiltrated medial rectus muscle suggested metastatic adenocarcinoma. Investigation revealed a palpable mass of the right breast not shown on mammography or sonography. Invasive lobular carcinoma was found at core-needle biopsy with histological features identical to those of the orbital lesion. Metastases to the extraocular muscles are uncommon, particularly as the initial abnormality in the absence of disseminated disease. (orig.)

  16. Conus medullaris dermoid tumour. Uncommon presentation of conus medullaris dermoid as an exophytic mass lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an extremely uncommon case dorsally exophytic conus dermoid in a three-years old boy, who underwent meningocele repair locate at lumbosacral region at an age of one month. The boy presented with low backache and difficulty in passing urine. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of spine revealed presence of a large exophytic mass located dorsally in the conus and the features suggestive of dermoid. He underwent surgical intervention during surgery lesion was dorsally exophytic containing cheesy material with hairs, excision of dermoid along capsule was carried our successfully. Pertinent literature and management of exophytic conus dermoid is discussed briefly.

  17. Presentation of GIST as jejuno-jejunal intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs are rare tumour. It comprises 0.2% of gastrointestinal tumours and only 0.04% of small intestinal tumours. Usually this tumour is found in people in their 60s.These tumours can be found anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract but most commonly found in the stomach (40–60%. Patients with GISTs usually have vague and nonspecific symptoms. We present a 17year-old with complain of abdominal pain, distension, and few episodes of vomiting. All laboratory investigations were normal. The ultrasonography (USG and computed tomography (CT were suggestive of jejuno-jejunal intussusception. The patient had emergency exploratory laparotomy with resection of the segment with five cm healthy margin, and end to end anastomosis. Patient was discharged after 4 days and remains well. This case report highlights the rarity of GISTs in the concern of age (17 year old, site (Jejunum as well as presentation (intussusception.

  18. Low tumour cell content in a lung tumour bank: implications for molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Felicia; Duhig, Edwina E; Clarke, Belinda E; McCaul, Elizabeth; Passmore, Linda; Courtney, Deborah; Windsor, Morgan; Naidoo, Rishendren; Franz, Louise; Parsonson, Kylie; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer encompasses multiple malignant epithelial tumour types, each with specific targetable, potentially actionable mutations, such that precision management mandates accurate tumour typing. Molecular characterisation studies require high tumour cell content and low necrosis content, yet lung cancers are frequently a heterogeneous mixture of tumour and stromal cells. We hypothesised that there may be systematic differences in tumour cell content according to histological subtype, and that this may have implications for tumour banks as a resource for comprehensive molecular characterisation studies in lung cancer. To investigate this, we estimated tumour cell and necrosis content of 4267 samples resected from 752 primary lung tumour specimens contributed to a lung tissue bank. We found that banked lung cancer samples had low tumour cell content (33%) generally, although it was higher in carcinoids (77.5%) than other lung cancer subtypes. Tumour cells comprise a variable and often small component of banked resected tumour samples, and are accompanied by stromal reaction, inflammation, fibrosis, and normal structures. This has implications for the adequacy of unselected tumour bank samples for diagnostic and molecular investigations, and further research is needed to determine whether tumour cell content has a significant impact on analytical results in studies using tissue from tumour bank resources. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Rare Case of Mesenteric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are rare tumours arising from mesenchyme of gastrointestinal tract and overexpress C-kit protein. Mainly seen in stomach and small bowel. Mesenteric GIST are rarely reported as they constitute less than 1% of total GIST. We here report such a rare case of GIST arising from ...

  20. Maintaining Tumour Heterogeneity in Patient-Derived Tumour Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, John W; Caldas, Carlos; Bruna, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Pre-clinical models often fail to capture the diverse heterogeneity of human malignancies and as such lack clinical predictive power. Patient-derived tumour xenografts (PDXs) have emerged as a powerful technology: capable of retaining the molecular heterogeneity of their originating sample. However, heterogeneity within a tumour is governed by both cell-autonomous (e.g. genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity) and non-cell-autonomous (e.g. stromal heterogeneity) drivers. Whilst PDXs can largely recapitulate the polygenomic architecture of human tumours, they do not fully account for heterogeneity in the tumour microenvironment. Hence, these models have substantial utility in basic and translational research in cancer biology; but study of stromal or immune drivers of malignant progression may be limited. Similarly, PDX models offer the ability to conduct patient specific in vivo and ex vivo drug screens, but stromal contributions to treatment responses may be under-represented. This review discusses the sources and consequences of intratumour heterogeneity and how these are recapitulated in the PDX model. Limitations of the current generation of PDXs are discussed and strategies to improve several aspects of the model with respect to preserving heterogeneity are proposed. PMID:26180079

  1. Concurrent development of testicular seminoma and choriocarcinoma of the superior mediastinum, presented as cervical mass: a case report and implications about pathogenesis of germ-cell tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamias Aristotelis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synchronous presentation of more than one germ cell tumours of different histology in the same patient is considered to be very rare. In these cases of multiple germ cell tumours, strong theoretical and clinical data suggest an underlying common pathogenetic mechanism concerning genetic instability or abnormalities during the pluripotent embryonic differentiation and maturation of the germ cell. Case presentation A 25 year-old young man presented with an enlarging, slightly painful left cervical mass. Despite the initial disorientation of the diagnosis to a possible thyroid disorder, the patient underwent complete surgical resection of the mass revealing mediastinal choriocarcinoma. Subsequent ultrasound of the scrotum indicated the presence of a small lobular node in the upper pole of the left testicle and the patient underwent radical left inguinal orchiectomy disclosing a typical seminoma. Based on these results, the patient received 4 cycles of Bleomycin, Etoposide and Platinum chemotherapy experiencing only mild toxicity and resulting in complete ongoing clinical and biochemical remission. Conclusion The pathogenesis of concurrent germ cell tumours in the same patient remains an area of controversy. Although the genetic instability of the pluripotent germ cell offers an adequate explanation, the possibility of metastasis from the primary, less differentiated tumour to a distant location as a more mature subtype cannot be excluded. Possible development of a metastatic site of different histology and thus biological behaviour (e.g choriocarcinoma should be anticipated. Furthermore, urologists, pathologists and medical oncologists should be meticulous in the original pathological diagnosis in these patients, since there is a significant frequency of germ cell tumours with mixed or overlapping histological elements with diverse potential of evolution and differentiation.

  2. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach with Narrow Stalk-Like Based, Uneven Protruding Appearance Presenting with Severe Acute Anemia despite Small Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who had a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST of the stomach. She was admitted to our hospital for epigastric pain, nausea, and severe acute anemia (hemoglobin level 4.3 g/dl. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a narrow stalk-like based, hemorrhagic and uneven protruding lesion in the lesser curvature of the gastric upper corpus. Although the tumor was less than 2 cm in diameter and was probably a benign GIST according to histology, laparoscopy-assisted local resection was needed because the patient had continuous severe anemia and epigastric pain. Histological assessment showed that the elongated spindle-like tumor cells originated from the intrinsic muscle layer, and was shown with growth to the mucosal side, cropping out to the surface in most areas of the protruding lesion. Only a small part of the tumor was within nontumoral gastric mucosa. Most of the tumor cells demonstrated immunoreactivity for KIT and CD34 in the cytoplasm but not for αSMA, S100, and desmin. Mitotic activity (0/50 high power field and the labeling index for MIB-1 (about 1% were low. The GIST of the stomach described in this report was a rare case with a narrow stalk-like based, uneven protruding mass presenting with severe acute anemia despite small size.

  3. Prognostic factors and survival according to tumour subtype in women presenting with breast cancer brain metastases at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, José Pablo; Leone, Julieta; Zwenger, Ariel Osvaldo; Iturbe, Julián; Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro

    2017-03-01

    The presence of brain metastases at the time of initial breast cancer diagnosis (BMIBCD) is uncommon. Hence, the prognostic assessment and management of these patients is very challenging. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of tumour subtype compared with other prognostic factors in the survival of patients with BMIBCD. We evaluated women with BMIBCD, reported to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2013. Patients with other primary malignancy were excluded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the effects of each variable on overall survival (OS). We included 740 patients. Median OS for the whole population was 10 months, and 20.7% of patients were alive at 36 months. Tumour subtype distribution was: 46.6% hormone receptor (HR)+/HER2-, 17% HR+/HER2+, 14.1% HR-/HER2+ and 22.3% triple-negative. Univariate analysis showed that the presence of liver metastases, lung metastases and triple-negative patients (median OS 6 months) had worse prognosis. The HR+/HER2+ subtype had the longest OS with a median of 22 months. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio 1.8), lobular histology (hazard ratio 2.08), triple-negative subtype (hazard ratio 2.25), liver metastases (hazard ratio 1.6) and unmarried patients (hazard ratio 1.39) had significantly shorter OS. Although the prognosis of patients with BMIBCD is generally poor, 20.7% were still alive 3 years after the diagnosis. There were substantial differences in OS according to tumour subtype. In addition to tumour subtype, other independent predictors of OS are age at diagnosis, marital status, histology and liver metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytological Criteria to Distinguish Phyllodes Tumour of the Breast from Fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Robert M; Michelow, Pamela M

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there are significant differences between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours with regard to selected cytomorphological features. A 10-year retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent excision of a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumour and in whom a preoperative fine-needle aspiration was performed. The following cytological criteria were assessed: number of stromal and epithelial fragments, stromal-to-epithelial ratio, stromal cellularity, stromal borders, stromal atypia, and proportion of background wavy spindled cells. Patient age, tumour laterality, and tumour size were recorded. Fifty fibroadenomas and 17 phyllodes tumours were included. Compared to phyllodes tumours, fibroadenomas had a larger number of epithelial fragments, a smaller number of stromal fragments, and a lower stromal-to-epithelial ratio. The stroma tended to be less cellular and less atypical compared to phyllodes tumours and the background cellular population contained fewer spindled cells. Fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours differ with regard to various cytological features, aiding in their distinction on fine-needle aspiration biopsy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Platelet lysate as a substitute for animal serum for the ex-vivo expansion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astori, Giuseppe; Amati, Eliana; Bambi, Franco; Bernardi, Martina; Chieregato, Katia; Schäfer, Richard; Sella, Sabrina; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2016-07-13

    The use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a cell culture supplement is discouraged by regulatory authorities to limit the risk of zoonoses and xenogeneic immune reactions in the transplanted host. Additionally, FBS production came under scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Platelet derivatives have been proposed as FBS substitutes for the ex-vivo expansion of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) since platelet-derived growth factors can promote MSC ex-vivo expansion. Platelet-derived growth factors are present in platelet lysate (PL) obtained after repeated freezing-thawing cycles of the platelet-rich plasma or by applying physiological stimuli such as thrombin or CaCl2.PL-expanded MSCs have been used already in the clinic, taking advantage of their faster proliferation compared with FBS-expanded preparations. Should PL be applied to other biopharmaceutical products, its demand is likely to increase dramatically. The use of fresh platelet units for the production of PL raises concerns due to limited availability of platelet donors. Expired units might represent an alternative, but further data are needed to define safety, including pathogen reduction, and functionality of the obtained PL. In addition, relevant questions concerning the definition of PL release criteria, including concentration ranges of specific growth factors in PL batches for various clinical indications, also need to be addressed. We are still far from a common definition of PL and standardized PL manufacture due to our limited knowledge of the mechanisms that mediate PL-promoting cell growth. Here, we concisely discuss aspects of PL as MSC culture supplement as a preliminary step towards an agreed definition of the required characteristics of PL for the requirements of manufacturers and users.

  6. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  7. Identifying and quantifying the stromal fibrosis in muscularis propria of colorectal carcinoma by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijia; Yang, Yinghong; Jiang, Weizhong; Feng, Changyin; Chen, Zhifen; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-10-01

    The examination of stromal fibrosis within colorectal cancer is overlooked, not only because the routine pathological examinations seem to focus more on tumour staging and precise surgical margins, but also because of the lack of efficient diagnostic methods. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to study the muscularis stroma of normal and colorectal carcinoma tissue at the molecular level. In this work, we attempt to show the feasibility of MPM for discerning the microstructure of the normal human rectal muscle layer and fibrosis colorectal carcinoma tissue practicably. Three types of muscularis propria stromal fibrosis beneath the colorectal cancer infiltration were first observed through the MPM imaging system by providing intercellular microstructural details in fresh, unstained tissue samples. Our approach also presents the capability of quantifying the extent of stromal fibrosis from both amount and orientation of collagen, which may further characterize the severity of fibrosis. By comparing with the pathology analysis, these results show that the MPM has potential advantages in becoming a histological tool for detecting the stromal fibrosis and collecting prognosis evidence, which may guide subsequent therapy procedures for patients into good prognosis.

  8. Small Intestinal Tumours: An Overview on Classification, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Notaristefano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The small intestinal neoplasia group includes different types of lesions and are a relatively rare event, accounting for only 3-6% of all gastrointestinal (GI neoplasms and 1-3% of all GI malignancies. These lesions can be classified as epithelial and mesenchymal, either benign or malignant. Mesenchymal tumours include stromal tumours (GIST and other neoplasms that might arise from soft tissue throughout the rest of the body (lipomas, leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, fibromas, desmoid tumours, and schwannomas. Other lesions occurring in the small bowel are carcinoids, lymphomas, and melanomas. To date, carcinoids and GIST are reported as the most frequent malignant lesions occurring in the small bowel. Factors that predispose to the development of malignant lesions are different, and they may be hereditary (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, neuroendocrine neoplasia Type 1, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and neurofibromatosis Type 1, acquired (sporadic colorectal cancer and small intestine adenomas, coeliac disease, Crohn’s disease, or environmental (diet, tobacco, and obesity. Small bowel tumours present with different and sometimes nonspecific symptoms, and a prompt diagnosis is not always so easily performed. Diagnostic tools, that may be both radiological and endoscopic, possess specificity and sensitivity, as well as different roles depending on the type of lesion. Treatment of these lesions may be different and, in recent years, new therapies have enabled an improvement in life expectancy.

  9. Distribution and prognostic value of histopathologic data and immunohistochemical markers in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs): an analysis of the EORTC phase III trial of treatment of metastatic GISTs with imatinib mesylate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciot, R.; biec-Rychter, M.; Daugaard, S.

    2008-01-01

    histological/immunohistochemical parameters correlate with clinical response to imatinib. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pre-treatment samples of GISTs from 546 patients enroled in phase III study were analysed for immunohistochemical characteristics, correlations with clinicopathological data, with survival......RATIONALE: The 62005 EORTC phase III trial, comparing two doses of imatinib in patients with advanced GIST, reported a median progression-free survival of 25 months with a trend towards dose dependency for progression-free survival. The current analysis of that study aimed to assess whether...... and with tumours' genotype. RESULTS: There was no correlation between immunomorphological or clinical characteristics and response to treatment, PFS or OS. No correlations between immunophenotype of the tumour and PFS or OS in the two dose arms were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the heterogeneity...

  10. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palankezhe Sashidharan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment.

  11. Proteasomal targeting and minigene repetition improve cell-surface presentation of a transfected, modified melanoma tumour antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, A B; Zocca, M-B; Bonefeld, C M

    2004-01-01

    on the density of specific major histocompatibility complex-peptide complexes on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell. In this study, we explored the cell-surface presentation of a substituted MART-1 peptide encoded by transfected minigenes. We investigated the potential of proteasomal targeting compared...

  12. Parapharyngeal Tumours - Surgical Expertise

    OpenAIRE

    Kinjal Shankar Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We present our experience in the management of parapharyngeal tumours. A conservative trans-cervical approach was found to be feasible and effective in majority of the cases over radical ones, which may be required in malignancies and skull-base involvement.   Methods Fifteen patients with parapharyngeal tumours treated surgically in the Department of ENT, Nilratan Sircar Medical College in last 3 years were included in the study. 80% of the cases were benign, mos...

  13. Presentation for the first research co-ordination meeting on development of kits for radioimmunometric assays for tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavilondo, J.

    1997-01-01

    Regarding to PSA CIGB- IAEA project the center will be generating a panel of monoclonal antibodies against prostatic specific antigen (PSA) free and complexed to α1 antichymotrysin, and tissue polypeptide specific (TPS) antigen as potentially useful markers for the diagnosis of prostate and breast cancer using IRMA or RIA. The panel of monoclonal antibodies would be distributed in Cuba and another countries for the development of diagnostic Kits. The detailed objectives of the contract are: 1. To obtain a panel of monoclonal antibodies against prostatic specific antigen (PSA) complexed antichymotrysin. 2. To obtain a panel of monoclonal antibodies against free PSA. 3. To study the potential use for detect free or complexed PSA in the serum of patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostatic neoplasia. 4. To obtain a panel of monoclonal antibodies against TPS. 5. To develop and validate IRMA or RIA assays using the panel of monoclonal antibodies. The objectives are designed according to the present knowledge on the field of monoclonal antibodies and diagnostic kits. Basic techniques for developing monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been used in our division for more than 10 years. The possibility to acquire commercial PSA antigen could reduced the overall time to obtain the Mabs, according with our experience. All these aspects support the idea that the proposing Cuban institutes are able to develop this research project and that its benefits will be applicable in the country and in the region

  14. Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthers, O D; Cameron, F J; Scheimberg, I; Honour, J W; Hindmarsh, P C; Savage, M O; Stanhope, R G; Brook, C G

    1999-01-01

    Androgen secreting adrenocortical tumours are rare in children and the determination of their malignant potential can be difficult. To assess the presentation, histology, and clinical behaviour of these tumours. Two tertiary referral centres. Retrospective analysis of children diagnosed with an androgen secreting adrenocortical tumour between 1976 and 1996. Twenty three girls and seven boys aged 0-14 years. Pubic hair was observed in all children, clitoromegaly or growth of the phallus in 23 children, acceleration of linear growth in 22 children, and advanced bone age (> 1.5 years) in 18 children. Hypersecretion of androgens was detected by assessment of serum androgen concentrations alone in four patients and by 24 hour urine steroid excretion profiles in 22 patients. All 16 tumours measuring 10 cm were malignant. Histological slides were available for reassessment in 25 children. Although mitoses and necrosis were more characteristic of tumours with malignant behaviour, no exclusive histological features of malignancy were seen. Histological criteria for malignancy are not reliable, whereas tumour size is important in assessing malignant potential.

  15. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  16. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient correlation with oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Okazumi, Shinichi; Hayano, Kohichi; Satoh, Asami; Saitoh, Hiroshige; Shimada, Hideaki; Nabeya, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kazama, Toshiki

    2012-01-01

    Because diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can predict the prognosis of patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we hypothesised that apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values might be correlated with the collagen content and tumour angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between ADC values of ESCC before treatment and oesophageal tumour stroma and angiogenesis. Seventeen patients with ESCC were enrolled. The ADC values were calculated from the DWI score. Seventeen patients who had undergone oesophagectomy were analysed for tumour stroma, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34. Tissue collagen was stained with azocarmine and aniline blue to quantitatively analyse the extracellular matrix in cancer stroma. Tissues were stained with VEGF and CD34 to analyse the angiogenesis. The ADC values decreased with stromal collagen growth. We found a negative correlation between the tumour ADC and the amount of stromal collagen (r = -0.729, P = 0.001), i.e. the ADC values decreased with growth of VEGF. We also found a negative correlation between the ADC of the tumours and the amount of VEGF (r = 0.538, P = 0.026). Our results indicated that the ADC value may be a novel prognostic factor and contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. circle Magnetic resonance apparent diffusion coefficient values inversely indicate tumour stromal collagen circle There is also negative correlation between ADCs and vascular endothelial growth factor circle ADC values may contribute to the treatment of oesophageal cancer. (orig.)

  18. The Role of CD10 Immunohistochemistry in the Grading of Phyllodes Tumour of The Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huzlinda Hussin,Jayalakshmi Pailoor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between the degree of CD10 expression in the stromal cells of phyllodes tumour and tumour grading. Methods: A total of 61 cases of mammary phyllodes tumours over the past 11 years were searched from histopathology files, University Malaya Medical Centre. The paraffin blocks were retrieved and 4 μm thick slides were prepared and stained using an antibody against CD10 with the envision method. Fibroadenoma case was used as a control slide and breast myoepithelium as the internal control. Each stained slides was independantly and semiquantitatively analysed for the intensity and percentage of the stromal cells stained. The staining intensity was graded as negative (no staining, mild, moderate and strong if the staining was much weaker, slightly weaker and same intensity as that of the myoepithelium, respectively. The tumour was considered positive for CD10 if the staining intensity is moderate to strong in 20% or more of the stromal cells. Results: 21 (44.7% of 47 benign phyllodes tumour, 5 (83.3% of 6 borderline phyllodes tumour and all 8 cases (100% of malignant phyllodes tumour showed positive expression for CD10 immunostain. Conclusions: There was a significant increase in CD10 expression in the stromal cells as the lesions progressed from benign to borderline and malignant phyllodes tumour. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 195-203

  19. Sclerosing Stromal Tumor of Ovary: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menka Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST is an extremely rare and distinctive sex cord stromal tumor which occurs predominantly in the second and third decades of life. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who developed a sclerosing stromal tumor of ovary and presented with irregular menstruation and pelvic pain. Her hormonal status was normal but CA-125 was raised. She was suspected to have a malignant tumor on computed tomography and underwent bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy. It is therefore necessary to keep in mind the possibility of sclerosing stromal tumor in a young woman.

  20. An Improved Tumour Temperature Measurement and Control Method for Superficial Tumour Ultrasound Hyperthermia Therapeutic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, G F; Chen, Y Z; Ren, G X [Biomedical Instrument Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In tumour hyperthermia therapy, the research on measurement and control of tumour temperature is very important. Based on the hardware platform of superficial tumour ultrasound hyperthermia therapeutic system, an improved tumour temperature measurement and control method is presented in this paper. The experiment process, data and results are discussed in detail. The improved method will greatly reduce the pain and dread of the patients during the therapy period on the tumour temperature measurement and control by using the pinhead sensor.

  1. Human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Hørding, U; Nielsen, H W

    1994-01-01

    Epidemiological features suggest that the risk of testicular cancer may be related to exposure to unknown infectious agents, including viruses. Therefore a series of twenty specimens of testicular germ cell tumours, including preinvasive carcinoma in-situ, were tested for the presence of DNA...... sequences of two viruses with known transforming abilities, human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used. In none of the 19 successfully amplified samples were DNA sequences of HPV type 16 or type 18 detected. In six cases a faint trace...... that a significant direct involvement of HPV and EBV in human testicular germ cell carcinogenesis is unlikely. However, a putative growth-stimulating role of EBV-transformed lymphocytes, which are frequently present in the stromal tissues of testicular tumours, cannot be excluded....

  2. Carcinoid Tumour of the Ovary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case of bilateral carcinoid tumour of the ovary, with benign cystic teratoma in one ovary, in a 38 year old woman is presented. She had total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy and appendectomy. There was no macroscopic tumour in the vermiform appendix and the ...

  3. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Parapharyngeal Tumours - Surgical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal Shankar Majumdar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We present our experience in the management of parapharyngeal tumours. A conservative trans-cervical approach was found to be feasible and effective in majority of the cases over radical ones, which may be required in malignancies and skull-base involvement.   Methods Fifteen patients with parapharyngeal tumours treated surgically in the Department of ENT, Nilratan Sircar Medical College in last 3 years were included in the study. 80% of the cases were benign, most common being Schwannoma. Most important investigation was found to be MRI.   Conclusion The study gives an overview regarding the surgical approach, based upon the extent and histology of the tumour. Trans-cervical approachwas found to be the most effective.

  5. The effect of baseline morphology and its change during treatment on the accuracy of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours in assessment of liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiavon, G.; Ruggiero, A.; Bekers, D.J.; Barry, P.A.; Sleijfer, S.; Kloth, J.; Krestin, G.P.; Schöffski, P.; Verweij, J.; Mathijssen, R.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:Tumour response assessment to therapy is crucial in oncology. We analysed the morphology of liver metastases (LM) in gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) patients to determine whether uni-dimensional measurement of lesions by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST),

  6. Síndroma da veia cava superior como apresentação de neoplasia Superior vena cava syndrome as tumour presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Filipe Pires

    2010-01-01

    generally means the presence of neoplasm, namely lung cancer. Aim: Retrospective analysis of the patients admitted to S. João Hospital, Porto, Portugal, January 1995-December 2006 with SVCS without previous diagnosis. Patients, tumour characteristics and prognostic factors were studied. Material and methods: Data was collected by consulting the clinical files of 60 SVCS patients without previous diagnosis. Data was gathered on the patients’ demographic characteristics (age, gender, smoking habits, performance status, histology, staging, treatment and overall survival. Results: Lung cancer was observed in 87% of the patients. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC was the most frequent histological type; 41% of the patients. It is noticeable that 10% were diagnosed with non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In terms of prognostic factors analysed, the absence of metastasis, the lymphoma’s histological diagnosis, good performance status and non-smoker status were positively correlated with the survival rate. On the contrary SCLC was significantly correlated with a worse survival. Conclusions: In our analysis we concluded that SCLC, smokers and a poorer performance status as well as metastatic disease were unfavourable prognostic factors to SVCS as tumour presentation.

  7. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall recurrcnce rate of 4.48%. Conclusion: Minor salivaiy gland tumours are rare. Follow-up in this environment is. 13001'. There is a need to educate the patients about the importance of early presentation and recall visits. Key worclsz Salivary glands, minor, tumour, treatment liitroduction. U f-;;i|i\\ar§, land tumours are ...

  8. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  9. Central precocious puberty following the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric cancer and central nervous system tumours: presentation and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitilly, Wassim; Merchant, Thomas E; Li, Zhenghong; Barnes, Nicole; Armstrong, Gregory T; Ness, Kirsten K; Pui, Ching-Hon; Kun, Larry E; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Sklar, Charles A; Gajjar, Amar

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of central precocious puberty (CPP) after treatment for tumours and malignancies involving the central nervous system (CNS) and examine repercussions on growth and pubertal outcomes. Retrospective study of patients with tumours near and/or exposed to radiotherapy to the hypothalamus/pituitary axis (HPA). Patients with CPP were evaluated at puberty onset, completion of GnRH agonist treatment (GnRHa) and last follow-up. Multivariable analysis was used to test associations between tumour location, sex, age at CPP, GnRHa duration and a diagnosis of CPP with final height <-2SD score (SDS), gonadotropin deficiency (LH/FSHD) and obesity, respectively. Eighty patients (47 females) had CPP and were followed for 11·4 ± 5·0 years (mean ± SD). The prevalence of CPP was 15·2% overall, 29·2% following HPA tumours and 6·6% after radiotherapy for non-HPA tumours. Height <-2SDS was more common at the last follow-up than at the puberty onset (21·4% vs 2·4%, P = 0·005). Obesity was more prevalent at the last follow-up than at the completion of GnRHa or the puberty onset (37·7%, 22·6% and 20·8%, respectively, P = 0·03). Longer duration of GnRHa was associated with increased odds of final height <-2SDS (OR = 2·1, 95% CI 1·0-4·3) and longer follow-up with obesity (OR = 1·3, 95% CI 1·1-1·6). LH/FSHD was diagnosed in 32·6%. There was no independent association between CPP and final height <-2SDS, and LH/FSHD and obesity in the subset of patients with HPA low-grade gliomas. Patients with organic CPP experience an incomplete recovery of growth and a high prevalence of LH/FSHD and obesity. Early diagnosis and treatment of CPP may limit further deterioration of final height prospects. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Soevik, Aste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Oeyvind S; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO 2 -related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO 2 -related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO 2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO 2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure

  11. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  12. Expression of syndecan-4 and correlation with metastatic potential in testicular germ cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labropoulou, Vassiliki T; Skandalis, Spyros S; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Perimenis, Petros; Karamanos, Nikos K; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Theocharis, Achilleas D

    2013-01-01

    Although syndecan-4 is implicated in cancer progression, there is no information for its role in testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). Thus, we examined the expression of syndecan-4 in patients with TGCTs and its correlation with the clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemical staining in 71 tissue specimens and mRNA analysis revealed significant overexpression of syndecan-4 in TGCTs. In seminomas, high percentage of tumour cells exhibited membranous and/or cytoplasmic staining for syndecan-4 in all cases. Stromal staining for syndecan-4 was found in seminomas and it was associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.04), vascular/lymphatic invasion (P = 0.01), and disease stage (P = 0.04). Reduced tumour cell associated staining for syndecan-4 was observed in nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs) compared to seminomas. This loss of syndecan-4 was associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.01), vascular/lymphatic invasion (P = 0.01), and disease stage (P = 0.01). Stromal staining for syndecan-4 in NSGCTs did not correlate with any of the clinicopathological variables. The stromal expression of syndecan-4 in TGCTs was correlated with microvessel density (P = 0.03). Our results indicate that syndecan-4 is differentially expressed in seminomas and NSGCTs and might be a useful marker. Stromal staining in seminomas and reduced levels of syndecan-4 in tumour cells in NSGCTs are related to metastatic potential, whereas stromal staining in TGCTs is associated with neovascularization.

  13. Expression of Syndecan-4 and Correlation with Metastatic Potential in Testicular Germ Cell Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki T. Labropoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although syndecan-4 is implicated in cancer progression, there is no information for its role in testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs. Thus, we examined the expression of syndecan-4 in patients with TGCTs and its correlation with the clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemical staining in 71 tissue specimens and mRNA analysis revealed significant overexpression of syndecan-4 in TGCTs. In seminomas, high percentage of tumour cells exhibited membranous and/or cytoplasmic staining for syndecan-4 in all cases. Stromal staining for syndecan-4 was found in seminomas and it was associated with nodal metastasis (, vascular/lymphatic invasion (, and disease stage (. Reduced tumour cell associated staining for syndecan-4 was observed in nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs compared to seminomas. This loss of syndecan-4 was associated with nodal metastasis (, vascular/lymphatic invasion (, and disease stage (. Stromal staining for syndecan-4 in NSGCTs did not correlate with any of the clinicopathological variables. The stromal expression of syndecan-4 in TGCTs was correlated with microvessel density (. Our results indicate that syndecan-4 is differentially expressed in seminomas and NSGCTs and might be a useful marker. Stromal staining in seminomas and reduced levels of syndecan-4 in tumour cells in NSGCTs are related to metastatic potential, whereas stromal staining in TGCTs is associated with neovascularization.

  14. Targeting ALCAM in the cryo-treated tumour microenvironment successfully induces systemic anti-tumour immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo-Saito, Chie; Fuwa, Takafumi; Kawakami, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Cryoablative treatment has been widely used for treating cancer. However, the therapeutic efficacies are still controversial. The molecular mechanisms of the cryo-induced immune responses, particularly underlying the ineffectiveness, remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we identified a new molecular mechanism involved in the cryo failure. We used cryo-ineffective metastatic tumour models that murine melanoma B16-F10 cells were subcutaneously and intravenously implanted into C57BL/6 mice. When the subcutaneous tumours were treated cryoablation on day 7 after tumour implantation, cells expressing activated leucocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) were significantly expanded not only locally in the treated tumours but also systemically in spleen and bone marrow of the mice. The cryo-induced ALCAM(+) cells including CD45(-) mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells significantly suppressed interferon γ production and cytotoxicity of tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells via ALCAM expressed in these cells. This suggests that systemic expansion of the ALCAM(+) cells negatively switches host-immune directivity to the tumour-supportive mode. Intratumoural injection with anti-ALCAM blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) following the cryo treatment systemically induced tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells with higher cytotoxic activities, resulting in suppression of tumour growth and metastasis in the cryo-resistant tumour models. These suggest that expansion of ALCAM(+) cells is a determinant of limiting the cryo efficacy. Further combination with an immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-CTLA4 mAb optimized the anti-tumour efficacy of the dual-combination therapy. Targeting ALCAM may be a promising strategy for overcoming the cryo ineffectiveness leading to the better practical use of cryoablation in clinical treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Epigenetic regulations in the IFNγ signalling pathway: IFNγ-mediated MHC class I upregulation on tumour cells is associated with DNA demethylation of antigen-presenting machinery genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlková, Veronika; Štěpánek, Ivan; Hrušková, Veronika; Šenigl, Filip; Mayerová, Veronika; Šrámek, Martin; Šímová, Jana; Bieblová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Hejhal, Tomáš; Dérian, N.; Klatzmann, D.; Six, A.; Reiniš, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2014), s. 6923-35 ISSN 1949-2553 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/2174; GA MZd NT14461 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:French state funds within the Investissements d’Avenir program(FR) ANR-11-IDEX-0004-02 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : IFNγ signalling pathway * DNA demethylation * tumour Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.359, year: 2014

  16. Teratoid Wilms tumour with chemotherapy resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Gahine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Teratoid Wilms tumour (a rare histologic variant in a 4 year old male who presented with an abdominal lump. Wilms Tumour with paracaval lymphadenopathy and tumour thrombi in right renal vein and inferior vena cava was made radiologically. FNAC report was suggestive of Wilms tumour and patient was subjected to 6 cycles of chemotherapy with not much reduction in size. Post nephrectomy histological diagnosis of Teratoid Wilms tumour was established. Resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is thought to be due to presence of well differentiated histologic appearance. Teratoid Wilms tumour is usually not an aggressive neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively neoplasm and prognosis is comparatively good if the tumour is excised completely thus surgery being the best treatment.

  17. Granular cell tumour of the larynx - A case report | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Granular cell tumour of the larynx - A case report. P Appiah-Thompson, KK Baidoo. Abstract. Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are benign tumours rarely found in the larynx even though they are common in the head and neck region. The laryngeal tumour may be asymptomatic but typically patients present with hoarseness of ...

  18. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; de Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A.; Tuveson, David A.; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; de Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of

  19. A database survey of equine tumours in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Tremaine, W H; Pearson, G R; Mair, T S

    2016-05-01

    Survey data on equine tumours are sparse compared with other species and may have changed over time. To describe the most frequently diagnosed equine tumours recorded by a diagnostic pathology laboratory over 29 years, to identify background factors associated with tumour type, and to identify any changes in the tumours diagnosed or the background of cases submitted during the study period. Observational; cross-sectional analysis of records of a diagnostic pathology laboratory. The records of all neoplastic equine histology submissions to the University of Bristol (January 1982-December 2010) were accessed from a database, and a list of diagnoses compiled. The 6 most commonly diagnosed tumour types were analysed using logistic regression to identify background factors associated with tumour type. The overall population of equine tumour submissions and the relative frequency of diagnosis of the most common tumour types were compared between decades. There were 964 cases included. The most frequently diagnosed tumours were: sarcoid (24% cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19%), lymphoma (14%), melanoma (6%), gonadal stromal tumour (6%) and mast cell tumour (MCT) (4%). With sarcoid, Thoroughbred/Thoroughbred cross and gelding as reference categories: increasing age was significantly associated with the odds of each of the other tumour types, mares were at reduced risk of SCC, Arab/Arab cross had a higher risk of MCT, Cob/Cob cross had an increased risk of SCC and MCT, and ponies had an increased risk of melanoma. The mean age of submissions increased in each successive decade and the breed composition became broader. Sarcoids and lymphoma formed a smaller proportion of diagnoses in later decades. The types of tumours submitted to this laboratory have changed over the last 3 decades. Current data inform clinicians and researchers and further studies are warranted to follow trends. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  20. rare occurrence of mix stromal tumours: a case report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    obscuring the left cardiac border and meniscal sign, however, no areas of calcification were observed. There was hyponatremia of. 115mmol/L, other laboratory profiles and haemogram were normal. Lack of facility hindered us from doing computed tomography. (CT) of the abdomen. A diagnosis of hyponatremia in a child ...

  1. Equine corneal stromal abscesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M. D. L.; Andersen, P. H.; Plummer, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen many changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of equine corneal stromal abscesses (SAs). Stromal abscesses were previously considered an eye problem related to corneal bacterial infection, equine recurrent uveitis, corneal microtrauma and corneal...... foreign bodies in horses. They were more commonly diagnosed in horses living in subtropical climatic areas of the world. Therapeutic recommendations to treat equine SAs were historically nearly always a medical approach directed at bacteria and the often associated severe iridocyclitis. Today...... the pathogenesis of most equine SAs appears to be more often related to fungal inoculation of the anterior corneal stroma followed by posterior migration of the fungi deeper into the corneal stroma. There is also now an increased incidence of diagnosis of corneal SAs in horses living in more temperate climates...

  2. Clinic histological pattern of ovarian tumours in peshawar region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, S.; Yasmin, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian tumours are one of the major health problems confronting the general practitioners in general and gynaecologists in particular. Ovarian tumours may either be asymptomatic, found on the routine ultrasound examination or symptoms may be vague till the patient has an acute emergency like torsion or rupture of a benign cyst. The worst is late presentation of a malignant ovarian tumour. There is marked variation in the presentation of the tumour as well as in histological types. This study was undertaken to analyse modes of presentation and various histopathological patterns of ovarian tumours. This study was conducted from 1st January, 2002 to 31st December, 2002, in Gynaecology 'A' Unit, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) Peshawar. After admitting patients with ovarian tumours a detailed case history was taken followed by thorough clinical examination. All the relevant details were recorded using the questionnaire. Patients were investigated after performing various surgical procedures; the specimens of ovarian tumours were subjected to Histopathological examination in the histopathology section, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Amongst the total numbers of 5732 gynaecological admissions during study period the total numbers of ovarian tumours were sixty-eight. Out of which benign ovarian tumours were 61 (89.71%) and malignant ovarian tumours were 7 (10.29%) There were no tumours with borderline malignancy. The commonest histological pattern observed in the study was epithelial tumours (76.5%) including both benign and malignant tumours. The commonest benign tumour was serous cyst adenoma (24%) followed by mature cystic teratoma (18%). Common malignant ovarian tumours were granulosa cell tumours and Endometriod carcinoma (each 28.5%). Epithelial tumours are the commonest variety of ovarian tumours followed by Germ cell tumours. The histological type of ovarian tumour correlates with the prognosis of the tumour. (author)

  3. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  5. Primary pleuro-pulmonary malignant germ cell tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideeswar P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lungs and pleura are rare sites for malignant germ-cell tumours. Two cases, pure yolk-sac tumour and yolk sac-sac tumour/embryonal carcinoma are described in young males who presented with rapid progression of respiratory symptoms. The malignant mixed germ cell tumour occurred in the right lung, while the yolk-sac tumour had a pseudomesotheliomatous growth pattern suggesting a pleural origin. Alpha-foetoprotein was immunohistochemically demonstrated in both.

  6. Tumours of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohndorf, K.

    1983-01-01

    The radiological diagnosis of tumours of the foot is difficult, especially, since these tumours are rare and the bones of the foot are small. The latter leads to a more uniform radiographic manifestation of the tumours. We differentiate tumours of the foot arising in the foot primarily and soft tissue tumours, affecting the bones secondarily. Cystic lesions of the calcaneus are discussed in further detail. (orig.) [de

  7. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  8. Wilms tumour in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuidris, Dafalla O; Elimam, Mohammed E; Nugud, Faisal M; Elgaili, Elgaili M; Ahmed, Mohamed E; Arora, Ramandeep S

    2008-06-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the commonest childhood solid tumours which has an excellent outlook in the developed world with 5-year overall survival exceeding 90%. There is little information from Sudan regarding Wilms tumour. Records of patients with Wilms tumour diagnosed and treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology and Oncology (INMO) in the University of Gezira from May 1999 to June 2007 were reviewed. Thirty-seven children presented at a mean age of 4.1 years (range 2 months-13 years). The male to female ratio was 0.9-1. Abdominal swelling or mass was the commonest symptom. There was 1 child with Stage I (2.7%), 7 with stage II (18.9%), 25 with Stage III (67.6%) and 4 with Stage IV (10.8%). Following diagnosis 27% of children did not receive further treatment (5.4% died prior to treatment, 5.4% were not able to finance treatment and for the rest 16.2% no cause was identified). More than half of the children did not have a nephrectomy and only 4 (11%) completed treatment. The poor outlook is related to several factors. Delayed presentation, poor awareness of treatment options, lack of finances, no provision of food, lodging and transport, absence of paediatric trained staff are the obstacles to better outcomes. Empowering parents with information, giving chemotherapy prior to nephrectomy, training staff and establishing links with a tertiary cancer centre in the developed world are some of the options to improve survival. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  10. Corneal stromal dystrophies: a clinical pathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Barbosa Abreu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Corneal dystrophy is defined as bilateral and symmetric primary corneal disease, without previous associated ocular inflammation. Corneal dystrophies are classified according to the involved corneal layer in superficial, stromal, and posterior dystrophy. Incidence of each dystrophy varies according to the geographic region studied. PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of stromal corneal dystrophies among corneal buttons specimens obtained by penetrating keratoplasty (PK in an ocular pathology laboratory and to correlate the diagnosis with patient age and gender. METHODS: Corneal button cases of penetrating keratoplasty from January-1996 to May-2009 were retrieved from the archives of The Henry C. Witelson Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory and Registry, Montreal, Canada. The cases with histopathological diagnosis of stromal corneal dystrophies were stained with special stains (Peroxid acid Schiff, Masson trichrome, Congo red analyzed under polarized light, and alcian blue for classification and correlated with epidemiological information (age at time of PK and gender from patients' file. RESULTS: 1,300 corneal buttons cases with clinical diagnose of corneal dystrophy were retrieved. Stromal corneal dystrophy was found in 40 (3.1% cases. Lattice corneal dystrophy was the most prevalent with 26 cases (65%. Nineteen were female (73.07% and the PK was performed at average age of 59.3 years old. Combined corneal dystrophy was found in 8 (20% cases, 5 (62.5% of them were female and the average age of the penetrating keratoplasty was 54.8 years old. Granular corneal dystrophy was represented by 5 (12.5% cases, and 2 (40% of them were female. Penetrating keratoplasty was performed at average age of 39.5 years old in granular corneal dystrophy cases. Macular corneal dystrophy was present in only 1 (2.5% case, in a 36 years old female. CONCLUSION: Systematic histopathological approach and evaluation, including special stains in all stromal

  11. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, M.A.; Yusuf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  12. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Vingiani, Andrea; Peccatori, Fedro; Viale, Giuseppe; Loi, Sherene; Pruneri, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is one of the most exciting breast cancer biomarkers, yet no data is available on its prevalence in tumours diagnosed during pregnancy. We evaluated the prevalence of TILs (stromal and intratumoural) in pregnant and non-pregnant young breast cancer patients. 11/116 (9.6%) of the non-pregnant and 2/86 (2.3%) pregnant patients had TILs ≥ 50% (p pregnancy. The low prevalence could reflect the state of low host immunity associated with pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  14. Identification of prognostic factors in canine mammary malignant tumours: a multivariable survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Andreia A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several histopathological and clinical features of canine mammary gland tumours have been widely studied from a prognostic standpoint, considerable variations in tumour individual biologic behaviour difficult the definition of accurate prognostic factors. It has been suggested that the malignant behaviour of tumours is the end result of several alterations in cellular physiology that culminate in tumour growth and spread. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine, using a multivariable model, the independent prognostic value of several immunohistochemically detected tumour-associated molecules, such as MMP-9 and uPA in stromal cells and Ki-67, TIMP-2 and VEGF in cancer cells. Results Eighty-five female dogs affected by spontaneous malignant mammary neoplasias were followed up for a 2-year post-operative period. In univariate analysis, tumour characteristics such as size, mode of growth, regional lymph node metastases, tumour cell MIB-1 LI and MMP-9 and uPA expressions in tumour-adjacent fibroblasts, were associated with both survival and disease-free intervals. Histological type and grade were related with overall survival while VEGF and TIMP-2 were not significantly associated with none of the outcome parameters. In multivariable analysis, only a MIB-1 labelling index higher than 40% and a stromal expression of MMP-9 higher than 50% retained significant relationships with poor overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that MMP-9 and Ki-67 are independent prognostic markers of canine malignant mammary tumours. Furthermore, the high stromal expressions of uPA and MMP-9 in aggressive tumours suggest that these molecules are potential therapeutic targets in the post-operative treatment of canine mammary cancer.

  15. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersjes, W.; Harder, T.; Haeffner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.) [de

  16. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  17. Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wilms' tumour or nephroblastoma is a cancer of the kidney that typically occurs in children and very rarely in adults. The common name is an eponym, referring to Dr Max Wilms, the German surgeon who first described this type of tumour in 1899. Wilms' tumour is the most common form of kidney cancer in children.

  18. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein /tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs

  19. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumours: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Pereira Rosana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood adrenocortical tumour (ACT is not a common disease, but in southern Brazil the prevalence is 15 times higher than in other parts of the world. One hundred and thirty-seven patients have been identified and followed by our group over the past four decades. Affected children are predominantly girls, with a female-to-male ratio of 3.5:1 in patients below 4 years of age. Virilization alone (51.6% or mixed with Cushing's syndrome (42.0% was the predominant clinical picture observed in these patients. Tumours are unilateral, affecting both glands equally. TP53 R337H germline mutations underlie most childhood ACTs in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data from our casuistic studies revealed that this mutation has ~10% penetrance for ACT. Surgery is the definitive treatment, and a complete resection should always be attempted. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has shown some encouraging results, its influence on overall outcome is small. The survival rate is directly correlated to tumour size; patients with small, completely excised tumours have survival rates close to 90%, whereas in those patients with inoperable tumours and/or metastatic disease it is less than 10%. In the group of patients with large, excisable tumours, half of them have an intermediate outcome. Recent molecular biology techniques and genomic approaches may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of ACT, the risk of developing a tumour when TP53 R337H is present, and to predict its outcome. An ongoing pilot study consisting of close monitoring of healthy carriers of the TP53 R337H mutation - siblings and first-degree relatives of known affected cases - aims at the early detection of ACTs and an improvement of the cure rate.

  20. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  1. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  2. Stromal laminin chain distribution in normal, hyperplastic and malignant oral mucosa: relation to myofibroblast occurrence and vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcus; Wolheim, Anke; Richter, Petra; Umbreit, Claudia; Dahse, Regine; Driemel, Oliver; Hyckel, Peter; Virtanen, Ismo; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Berndt, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of stromal laminin chain expression to malignant potential, tumour stroma reorganization and vessel formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the expression of the laminin chains alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 in the stromal compartment/vascular structures in OSCC was analysed. Frozen tissue of OSCC (9x G1, 24x G2, 8x G3) and normal (2x)/hyperplastic (11x) oral mucosa was subjected to laminin chain and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated to tumour grade. The relation of laminin chain positive vessels to total vessel number was assessed by immunofluorescence double labelling with CD31. Stromal laminin alpha2 chain significantly decreases and alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 chains and also ASMA significantly increase with rising grade. The amount of stromal alpha3, alpha4 and gamma2 chains significantly increased with rising ASMA positivity. There is a significant decrease in alpha3 chain positive vessels with neoplastic transformation. Mediated by myofibroblasts, OSCC development is associated with a stromal up-regulation of laminin isoforms possibly contributing to a migration promoting microenvironment. A vascular basement membrane reorganization concerning alpha3 and gamma2 chain laminins during tumour angioneogenesis is suggested.

  3. Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma: A Rare Entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Anwar, S.; Fatima, N.

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma (ESS) is a hormone sensitive tumor. It is a rare gynecological tumor and is considered to occur more often in pre-menopausal women. A proper pre-operative diagnosis is difficult and confirmed in most cases after hysterectomy for a presumed benign disease. Endometrial sampling, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging can provide diagnostic clues. For early disease complete surgical cure is possible, however, adjuvant therapy is available for recurrence. This case of Low Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma (LGESS) in a 21 years old woman was presented as irregular vaginal bleeding. Clinical diagnosis of fibroid was made but analysis of endometrium showed ESS confirmed on hysterectomy specimen. One should consider it in any case with rapid fibroid enlargement. (author)

  4. Synchronous Acromegaly and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsniye Başer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the manifestations of sustained hypersecretion of growth hormone and concomitant elevations in circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1. It has been reported that patients with acromegaly are at the increased risk of developing malignant tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. An association between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and insulin-like growth factor system has been reported. Here, we report a patient diagnosed with synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 59-year-old man with iron deficiency anemia presented with enlarged hands, coarse facial feature and several skin tags. Thyroid function tests were within normal range. Growth hormone was 5.14 ng/mL, insulin-like growth factor-1 was 820 ng/mL, and no growth hormone suppression was observed on 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed microadenoma, and the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy revealed an ulcerovegetan mass in the duodenum and the results of the histopathologcal analysis was consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The association of synchronous and asynchronous gastrointestinal stromal tumors with other malignancies have been reported. The most common accompanying neoplasms are colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas, as well as pancreatic tumors. However, in the literature, the number of reported cases of synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor are limited, and there are no sufficient data on this association. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 52-55

  5. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocri...

  6. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland represent a large spectrum of lesions with similarities in clinical signs and symptoms but with different biological behaviour and prognosis. They are rare, but with aggressive malignant potential. Tumours of the lacrimal gland may present with swelling of...

  7. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  8. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, Herve J.; Smets, Anne M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour, particularly between the United States and Europe, has consequences for the choice of imaging modality at diagnosis. In Europe, the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) treatment protocol is based on chemotherapy followed by surgery. Imaging (US, CT and MRI), clinical history and examination will help predict whether the findings are consistent with Wilms tumour. Furthermore, in the UK preoperative image-guided biopsy is advised to help identify the small group of patients who, despite typical imaging features of Wilms tumour, have other types of neoplasia that require alternative management. In the United States, the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) advises surgery prior to chemo- and radiotherapy. Hence imaging must provide detailed anatomical information for surgical planning. This article discusses the role of imaging at diagnosis and the relative strengths and weaknesses of the available radiological techniques. We also focus on imaging the lung for metastatic disease and the consequences (to the patient's ultimate outcome) of CT-diagnosed small pulmonary nodules and discuss the radiological diagnosis and consequences of tumour rupture present at diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Stromal cell derived factor-1: its influence on invasiveness and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro, and its association with prognosis and survival in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hua; Watkins, Gareth; Parr, Christian; Douglas-Jones, Anthony; Mansel, Robert E; Jiang, Wen G

    2005-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 (CXC chemokine ligand-12) is a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, which, through its cognate receptor (CXC chemokine receptor [CXCR]4), plays an important role in chemotaxis of cancer cells and in tumour metastasis. We conducted the present study to evaluate the effect of SDF-1 on the invasiveness and migration of breast cancer cells, and we analyzed the expression of SDF-1 and its relation to clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes in human breast cancer. Expression of SDF-1 mRNA in breast cancer, endothelial (HECV) and fibroblast (MRC5) cell lines and in human breast tissues were studied using RT-PCR. MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with a SDF-1 expression vector, and their invasiveness and migration was tested in vitro. In addition, the expression of SDF-1 was investigated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR in samples of normal human mammary tissue (n = 32) and mammary tumour (n = 120). SDF-1 expression was identified in MRC5, MDA-MB-435s and MDA-MB-436 cell lines, but CXCR4 expression was detected in all cell lines and breast tissues. An autocrine loop was created following transfection of MDA-MB-231 (which was CXCR4 positive and SDF-1 negative) with a mammalian expression cassette encoding SDF-1 (MDA-MB-231SDF1 +/+ ) or with control plasmid pcDNA4/GFP (MDA-MB-231 +/- ). MDA-MB-231SDF1 +/+ cells exhibited significantly greater invasion and migration potential (in transfected cells versus in wild type and empty MDA-MB-231 +/- ; P < 0.01). In mammary tissues SDF-1 staining was primarily seen in stromal cells and weakly in mammary epithelial cells. Significantly higher levels of SDF-1 were seen in node-positive than in node-negative tumours (P = 0.05), in tumours that metastasized (P = 0.05), and tumours from patients who died (P = 0.03) than in tumours from patients who were disease free. It was most notable that levels of SDF-1 correlated significantly with overall survival (P = 0.001) and

  10. Pancreatic stellate cells support tumour metabolism through autophagic alanine secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cristovão M; Biancur, Douglas E; Wang, Xiaoxu; Halbrook, Christopher J; Sherman, Mara H; Zhang, Li; Kremer, Daniel; Hwang, Rosa F; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Ying, Haoqiang; Asara, John M; Evans, Ronald M; Cantley, Lewis C; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Kimmelman, Alec C

    2016-08-25

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease characterized by an intense fibrotic stromal response and deregulated metabolism. The role of the stroma in PDAC biology is complex and it has been shown to play critical roles that differ depending on the biological context. The stromal reaction also impairs the vasculature, leading to a highly hypoxic, nutrient-poor environment. As such, these tumours must alter how they capture and use nutrients to support their metabolic needs. Here we show that stroma-associated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are critical for PDAC metabolism through the secretion of non-essential amino acids (NEAA). Specifically, we uncover a previously undescribed role for alanine, which outcompetes glucose and glutamine-derived carbon in PDAC to fuel the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus NEAA and lipid biosynthesis. This shift in fuel source decreases the tumour’s dependence on glucose and serum-derived nutrients, which are limited in the pancreatic tumour microenvironment. Moreover, we demonstrate that alanine secretion by PSCs is dependent on PSC autophagy, a process that is stimulated by cancer cells. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel metabolic interaction between PSCs and cancer cells, in which PSC-derived alanine acts as an alternative carbon source. This finding highlights a previously unappreciated metabolic network within pancreatic tumours in which diverse fuel sources are used to promote growth in an austere tumour microenvironment.

  11. Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary: a comprehensive review and update for radiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are infrequent and represent approximately 7% of all primary ovarian tumors. This histopathologic ovarian tumor group differs considerably from the more prevalent epithelial ovarian tumors. Although sex cord-stromal tumors present in a broad age group, the majority tend to present as a low-grade disease that usually follows a nonaggressive clinical course in younger patients. Furthermore, because the constituent cells of these tumors are engaged in ovarian steroid hormone production (e.g., androgens, estrogens, and corticoids), sex cord-stromal tumors are commonly associated with various hormone-mediated syndromes and exhibit a wide spectrum of clinical features ranging from hyperandrogenic virilizing states to hyperestrogenic manifestations. The World Health Organization sex cord-stromal tumor classification has recently been revised, and currently these tumors have been regrouped into the following clinicopathologic entities: pure stromal tumors, pure sex cord tumors, and mixed sex cord-stromal tumors. Moreover, some entities considered in the former classification (e.g., stromal luteoma, stromal tumor with minor sex cord elements, and gynandroblastoma) are no longer considered separate tumors in the current classification. Herein, we discuss and revise the ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the different histopathologic types and clinicopathologic features of sex cord-stromal tumors to allow radiologists to narrow the differential diagnosis when facing ovarian tumors. PMID:26054417

  12. GRANULAR CELL TUMOUR OF THE LARYNX – A CASE REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... SUMMARY. Granular cell tumours (GCTs) are benign tumours rarely found in the larynx even though they are common in the head and neck region. The laryngeal tumour may be asymptomatic but typically patients present with hoarseness of voice, stridor, haemoptysis and dysphagia. The lesion can mimic ...

  13. Malignant Renal Tumours in Adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/ incidence ratio. OBJECTIVE: To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital. METHOD: A 7 year retrospective review of all our renal tumour folders in ...

  14. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl | Govindarajan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal ...

  15. Malignant Giant Cell Tumour of Bone with Axillary Metastasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-06

    Jun 6, 2002 ... SUMMARY. Giant Cell Tumour of bone is a typically benign and solitary tumour. However, multiple lesions have been described and 5-10% of lesions may be malignant. We present a case of a malignant giant cell tumour of the distal radius with metastasis to the ipsilateral axilla (an uncommon location).

  16. MRI EVALUATION OF SPINAL CORD TUMOURS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Srikar Chowdhary

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal cord tumours are relatively rare tumours and can present with a wide variety of symptoms. If they are not diagnosed early and treated immediately, they can lead to neurological deficits and disability. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary, which will help in directing the therapy. Nowadays, MRI is the most commonly used modality for spinal cord tumour diagnosis unless there is a contraindication. The aim of this study was to study the demographic profile of patients with spinal cord tumours to assess the distribution, features, localisation and extent of spinal cord tumours by MRI and correlate the tissue characterisation by MRI with that of histopathological examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted in the Departments of Radiodiagnosis, Neurosurgery and Pathology at SCBMCH, Cuttack, from October 2010 to October 2012. 52 patients diagnosed as having spinal cord tumours by clinical examination and MRI were followed till post-surgery discharge. RESULTS Out of the 52 patients with spinal cord tumours, 28 patients (54% were males and females made up around 46% (24 patients. Around 6% of the patients were in the paediatric age group. Our study showed that intradural extramedullary tumours 36/52 (69% were the commonest followed by intramedullary tumours 10/52 (19% and extradural tumours 6/52 (12%. Overall, schwannoma was the commonest spinal cord tumour accounting for 46.1% of the tumours. Out of 52 cases, MRI diagnosed 46 cases (88.46% correctly and misdiagnosed 6 cases. MRI was able to correctly diagnose 91.67% of the intradural extramedullary tumours, 90% of the intramedullary tumours and 66.67% of the extradural tumours. CONCLUSION MRI is the preoperative investigation of choice in the evaluation of spinal cord tumours. MRI can accurately diagnose spinal tumours and guide surgical resection.

  17. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Floor A M; Hopman, Saskia M J; Aalfs, Cora M; Berger, Lieke P V; Bleeker, Fonnet E; Dommering, Charlotte J; Jongmans, Marjolijn C J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314344349; Letteboer, Tom G W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815837; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C; Merks, Johannes H M

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a

  18. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Floor A. M.; Hopman, Saskia M. J.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Berger, Lieke P. V.; Bleeker, Fonnet E.; Dommering, Charlotte J.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C. J.; Letteboer, Tom G. W.; Olderode-Berends, Maran J. W.; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Merks, Johannes H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a child for genetic

  19. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Floor A. M.; Hopman, Saskia M. J.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Berger, Lieke P. V.; Bleeker, Fonnet E.; Dommering, Charlotte J.; Jongmans, Marjolijn C. J.; Letteboer, Tom G. W.; Olderode - Berends, Maran J.W.; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Merks, Johannes H. M.

    Introduction: Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a

  20. Neurofibromatosis type 1: brain stem tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Molloy, P.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Phillips, P.C.; Vaughan, S.N.; Liu, G.T.; Sutton, L.N.; Needle, M.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the clinical and imaging findings of brain stem tumours in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The NF1 patients imaged between January 1984 and January 1996 were reviewed and 25 patients were identified with a brain stem tumour. Clinical, radiographical and pathological results were obtained by review of records and images. Brain stem tumour identification occurred much later than the clinical diagnosis of NF1. Medullary enlargement was most frequent (68 %), followed by pontine (52 %) and midbrain enlargement (44 %). Patients were further subdivided into those with diffuse (12 patients) and those with focal (13 patients) tumours. Treatment for hydrocephalus was required in 67 % of the first group and only 15 % of the second group. Surgery was performed in four patients and revealed fibrillary astrocytomas, one of which progressed to an anaplastic astrocytoma. In 40 % of patients both brain stem and optic pathway tumours were present. The biological behaviour of brain stem tumours in NF1 is unknown. Diffuse tumours in the patients with NF1 appear to have a much more favourable prognosis than patients with similar tumours without neurofibromatosis type 1. (orig.). With 7 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Deficient repair regulatory response to injury in keratoconic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Isabella My; McGhee, Charles Nj; Sherwin, Trevor

    2014-05-01

    Keratoconus manifests as a conical protrusion of the cornea and is characterised by stromal thinning. This causes debilitating visual impairment, which may necessitate corneal transplantation. Hypothetically, many of the pathological features in keratoconus may be manifestations of defects in wound healing; however, as the pathobiology remains unclear, therapeutic targets related to disease mechanisms are currently lacking. This study investigated the protein expression of cytokines which may control stromal wound healing and the effect of an induced secondary injury (SI) on stromal cells from ex vivo human keratoconus and control corneas. Total protein was extracted from stromal cells from human keratoconic and non-keratoconic central corneas (n = 12) with (+SI) and without (-SI) an ex vivo corneal incision wound. The levels of interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), nerve growth factor beta (β-NGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were quantified using chemiluminescence-based immunoarrays. In stromal cells from -SI keratoconic corneas (compared with -SI normal corneas), the levels of IL-1α, IGF-1, TNF-α and TGF-β1 were increased and the levels of HGF and β-NGF were reduced. These alterations were also observed in +SI non-keratoconic corneas (compared with -SI non-keratoconic corneas). In stromal cells from +SI keratoconic corneas (compared with -SI keratoconic corneas), the quantities of IL-1α, FGF-2, TNF-a, EGF, TGF-a1 and PDGF were decreased. The repair-modulating milieu in keratoconic corneas appears comparable to that in wounded normal corneas. Moreover, wounded keratoconic corneas may be less capable of orchestrating a normal reparative response. These novel findings may improve our understanding of the pathobiology and may facilitate

  2. Mammary fibroadenoma with pleomorphic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Najla; Kallel, Rim; Ellouze, Sameh; Mellouli, Manel; Gouiaa, Naourez; Mnif, Héla; Boudawara, Tahia

    2015-01-01

    The presence of enlarged and pleomorphic nuclei is usually regarded as a feature of malignancy, but it may on occasion be seen in benign lesions such as mammary fibroadenomas. We present such a case of fibroadenoma occurring in a 37-year-old woman presenting with a self-palpable right breast mass. Histological examination of the tumor revealed the presence of multi and mononucleated giant cells with pleomorphic nuclei. The recognition of the benign nature of these cells is necessary for differential diagnosis from malignant lesions of the breast. fibroadenoma - pleomorphic stromal cells - atypia - breast.

  3. Radiosensitivity of malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partskhaladze, N.N.

    1980-01-01

    Tumour tissue has been transplanted to 5 groups of rats to study the effect of general pre-transplantation X-ray irradiation of the recipient on the effect of transplantation of the irradiated tumour tissue. In the first group - the suspension of native timour tissue has been transplanted to intact rats; in the second group - the suspension of native tumour tissue has been transplanted to rats that have formerly been subjected to a single immunization with subcutaneously irradiated timour material; in the third group - the suspension of native tumour tissue has been transplanted to totally irradiated animals; in the fourth group - the syspension of irradiated tumour tissue has been transplanted to intact rats; in the fifts group - the suspension of irradiated timour tissue has been transplanted to totally irradiated rats. The reseach has shown that there exists a weak antitumoral immunity that manifests itself only at the time of gratting tumour tissue in a small amount. In this case one can observe the decrease in the tumour development in rats formerly subjected to the effect of lethally irradiated tumour cells and the increase of cell transplantation in totally irradiated mice. Transplanted irradiated 0.77 Coul/kg timour tissue in the irradiated organism develops better than in the organism of intact animals

  4. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for chronic myocardial ischemia (MyStromalCell Trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue represents an abundant, accessible source of multipotent adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs). Animal studies have suggested that ADSCs have the potential to differentiate in vivo into endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. This makes ADSCs a promising new cell source....... In addition, we give an introduction to the first-in-man clinical trial, MyStromalCell Trial, which is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using culture-expanded ADSCs obtained from adipose-derived cells from abdominal adipose tissue and stimulated with VEGF-A(165) the week...... for regenerative therapy to replace injured tissue by creating new blood vessels and cardiomyocytes in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease. The aim of this special report is to review the present preclinical data leading to clinical stem cell therapy using ADSCs in patients with ischemic heart disease...

  5. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment.

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals as probes to characterize tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Israt S.; Arshad, Mubarik A.; Nguyen, Quang-De; Aboagye, Eric O. [Imperial College London, Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Tumour cells exhibit several properties that allow them to grow and divide. A number of these properties are detectable by nuclear imaging methods. We discuss crucial tumour properties that can be described by current radioprobe technologies, further discuss areas of emerging radioprobe development, and finally articulate need areas that our field should aspire to develop. The review focuses largely on positron emission tomography and draws upon the seminal 'Hallmarks of Cancer' review article by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011 placing into context the present and future roles of radiotracer imaging in characterizing tumours. (orig.)

  7. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  8. [Eye manifestation of extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prívarová, E; Griščíková, L; Lokaj, M; Vokurková, J; Mazánek, P; Autrata, R

    2014-04-01

    Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour (EMRT) is very rare and aggresive childhood neoplasm with a rapid progression. The prognosis is still very poor with 80 % mortality rate. We report a case of a newborn baby with extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour of an upper eyelid. An EMRT was diagnosed based on the histological examination. This case report highlights the clinical presentation, radiological features and difficulty in diagnosis. The purpose is to underline the importance of its inclusion in the differential diagnosis of any aggresive lesion in a child. Key words: malignant rhabdoid tumour, childhood, diagnostic process.

  9. Stromal cell regulation of homeostatic and inflammatory lymphoid organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Matthew J W; Owens, Benjamin M J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Secondary lymphoid organs function to increase the efficiency of interactions between rare, antigen-specific lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells, concentrating antigen and lymphocytes in a supportive environment that facilitates the initiation of an adaptive immune response. Homeostatic lymphoid tissue organogenesis proceeds via exquisitely controlled spatiotemporal interactions between haematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer populations and multiple subsets of non-haematopoietic stromal cells. However, it is becoming clear that in a range of inflammatory contexts, ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues can develop inappropriately under pathological stress. Here we summarize the role of stromal cells in the development of homeostatic lymphoid tissue, and assess emerging evidence that suggests a critical role for stromal involvement in the tertiary lymphoid tissue development associated with chronic infections and inflammation. PMID:23621403

  10. Electrochemotherapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersa, G.; Cemazar, M.; Rudolf, Z.; Miklavcic, D.

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumour to increase drug delivery into cells. Drug uptake can be increased by electroporation for only those drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, only bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical trials. In vitro studies demonstrated several fold increase of their cytotoxicity after electroporation of cells. In vivo, electroporation of tumours after local or systemic administration of either of the drugs, i.e. electrochemotherapy, proved to be an effective antitumour treatment. In preclinical studies on several tumour models, electrochemotherapy either with bleomycin or cisplatin was elaborated and parameters for effective local tumour control were determined. In veterinary medicine, electrochemotherapy also proved to be effective in the treatment of primary tumours in cats, dogs and horses. In human clinical studies, electrochemotherapy was performed on the patients with progressive disease and accessible tumour nodules of different malignancies. All clinical studies demonstrated that electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment for local tumour control in cancer patients. (author)

  11. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnostic Complexity and Management Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos G. Markakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the esophagus are rare. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 50-year-old male patient who was referred to our department complaining of atypical chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a submucosal esophageal tumor measuring 5 cm in its largest diameter. Suspecting a leiomyoma, we performed enucleation via right thoracotomy. The pathology report yielded a diagnosis of an esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence one year postoperatively. Conclusions. This report illustrates the complexity and dilemmas inherent in diagnosing and treating esophageal GISTs.

  13. Tumour nuclear oestrogen receptor beta 1 correlates inversely with parathyroid tumour weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Felix; Rosin, Gustaf; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Juhlin, C Christofer; Pernow, Ylva; Norenstedt, Sophie; Dinets, Andrii; Larsson, Catharina; Hartman, Johan; Höög, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrinopathy, frequently caused by a parathyroid adenoma, rarely by a parathyroid carcinoma that lacks effective oncological treatment. As the majority of cases are present in postmenopausal women, oestrogen signalling has been implicated in the tumourigenesis. Oestrogen receptor beta 1 (ERB1) and ERB2 have been recently identified in parathyroid adenomas, the former inducing genes coupled to tumour apoptosis. We applied immunohistochemistry and slide digitalisation to quantify nuclear ERB1 and ERB2 in 172 parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas and carcinomas, and ten normal parathyroid glands. All the normal parathyroid glands expressed ERB1 and ERB2. The majority of tumours expressed ERB1 (70.6%) at varying intensities, and ERB2 (96.5%) at strong intensities. Parathyroid carcinomas expressed ERB1 in three out of six cases and ERB2 in five out of six cases. The intensity of tumour nuclear ERB1 staining significantly correlated inversely with tumour weight (P=0.011), and patients whose tumours were classified as ERB1-negative had significantly greater tumour weight as well as higher serum calcium (P=0.002) and parathyroid hormone levels (P=0.003). Additionally, tumour nuclear ERB1 was not expressed differentially with respect to sex or age of the patient. Levels of tumour nuclear ERB2 did not correlate with clinical characteristics. In conclusion, decreased ERB1 immunoreactivity is associated with increased tumour weight in parathyroid adenomas. Given the previously reported correlation with tumour-suppressive signalling, selective oestrogen receptor modulation (SERMs) may play a role in the treatment of parathyroid carcinomas. Future studies of SERMs and oestrogen treatment in PHPT should consider tumour weight as a potential factor in pharmacological responsiveness. © 2015 The authors.

  14. Antenatally detected solid tumour of kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Mandelia, Ankur; Gupta, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Congenital renal tumours are rare and usually benign. Polyhydramnios is the most common mode of presentation. Although most cases have been diagnosed postnatally, with advances in imaging technology, an increasing number of cases are being detected on antenatal scans. We describe a case of solid tumour of kidney detected in the second trimester of pregnancy and managed by surgery in the postnatal period. PMID:24526198

  15. Targeting radiation to tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Greater Glasgow Health Board, Glasgow

    1994-01-01

    Biologically targeted radiotherapy entails the preferential delivery of radiation to solid tumours or individual tumour cells by means of tumour-seeking delivery vehicles to which radionuclides can be conjugated. Monoclonal antibodies have attracted attention for some years as potentially selective targeting agents, but advances in tumour and molecular biology are now providing a much wider choice of molecular species. General radiobiological principles may be derived which are applicable to most forms of targeted radiotherapy. These principles provide guidelines for the appropriate choice of radionuclide in specific treatment situations and its optimal combination with other treatment modalities. In future, the availability of gene targeting agents will focus attention on the use of Auger electron emitters whose high potency and short range selectivity makes them attractive choices for specific killing of cancer cells whose genetic peculiarities are known. (author)

  16. DIAGNOSTIC ABILITY OF MRI IN CHARACTERISATION OF SUPRATENTORIAL BRAIN TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Sri Sailaja Rednam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain tumours arise from the normal constituents of brain and its coverings; 80% of all the intracranial tumours are supratentorial. Imaging plays a crucial function in the management of patients with brain tumours. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI has earned recognition as the optimal screening technique for the detection of most intracranial tumours. MRI using conventional Spin-Echo sequences like axial T1, T2 and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR, coronal T2, sagittal T1, post contrast SE T1 axial, sagittal and coronal sequences were taken which provides inherently illustrious contrast resolution between structural abnormalities and adjacent brain parenchyma and has proved to be more sensitive in identification of focal lesions of the brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in 50 patients who all were clinically suspected of supratentorial brain tumour cases and underwent MRI in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Foundation, Amalapuram, during the period of 18 months from July 2015 to December 2016. RESULTS The MRI features of 50 supratentorial tumours were reviewed, out of which 72% were found to be extra-axial tumours and 28% intra-axial tumours. About 48% were found to be glial tumours and 52% were found to be non-glial tumours. CONCLUSION MRI proves to be a valuable modality of imaging in evaluating the characteristics, distribution, location and assessing the extent of various intra- and extra-axial tumours in the supratentorial region.

  17. Some aspects of the endocrine tumours of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassolas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine tumours of digestive tract (GEP) synthesize many hormonal products which are responsible for clinical expression in relation with their nature, amount and biological activity, some of these tumours being non-functioning or silent. Moreover these tumours have some characteristics related to neuroendocrine differentiation, which provide tumour markers in addition to hormonal markers, such as chromogranin. A which is of special interest in non-functioning tumours. Pancreatic tumours are the most frequently recognized tumours in systematic screening procedures performed in MEN 1 patients. They are multi-secreting and multifocal, and they exhibit a loss of heterozygosity in the 11q13 locus. Growth factors such as IGF-1 and PDGF and their specific receptors are expressed in GEP tumours but their role in tumour growth remains to be determined. Somatostatin receptors are present on most endocrine digestive tumours, conditioning the therapeutic effects of somatostatin analogues that reduce hormonal tumoral production and alleviate the related symptoms. In addition, in vivo visualization of somatostatin receptor positive tumours by scintigraphy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is of clinical interest. (author)

  18. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the anal wall in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documented reports of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are relatively few in the sub-Saharan continent. The body of evidence points towards anal wall involvement being a rarity indeed. In this article we document a 61 year old Nigerian man who presented with bleeding per rectum and in whom the histological ...

  19. A Rare Case of Mesenteric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We here report such a rare case of GIST arising from mesentery of small bowel and presenting as acute abdomen. Good surgical clearance ensures good survival whereas incomplete resection results in a high incidence of recurrences with distant metastasis. Keywords: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, imatinib, mesenteric ...

  20. A diagnostic dilemma in breast pathology – benign fibroadenoma with multinucleated stromal giant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobbia Igdam

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroadenomas are common benign breast tumours that display a characteristic pathological morphology, although several epithelial and stromal variations exist. A very rare histological finding is the presence of multinucleated giant cells throughout the stroma of a benign fibroadenoma. Cells of this type, which are more commonly found incidentally within the interlobular stroma of breast tissue, are benign and should not be mistaken for malignant cells on microscopic examination. Unfortunately a lack of awareness of this pathological entity can lead to diagnostic confusion amongst pathologists resulting in the multinucleate giant cells being mistaken for highly mitotic cells and consequently the fibroadenoma being mistaken for a malignant lesion. This may have serious implications for the subsequent management of the patient. The presence of this unusual cell type in the stroma does not alter the prognosis of otherwise benign lesion. We encountered two such cases at our institution in a six month period recently. We present their histories along with relevant radiological, microscopic and immunohistochemical features, followed by a discussion of this unusual pathological entity.

  1. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  2. Antigen processing and immune regulation in the response to tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Emma; James, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The MHC class I and II antigen processing and presentation pathways display peptides to circulating CD8 + cytotoxic and CD4 + helper T cells respectively to enable pathogens and transformed cells to be identified. Once detected, T cells become activated and either directly kill the infected / transformed cells (CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes) or orchestrate the activation of the adaptive immune response (CD4 + T cells). The immune surveillance of transformed/tumour cells drives alteration of the antigen processing and presentation pathways to evade detection and hence the immune response. Evasion of the immune response is a significant event tumour development and considered one of the hallmarks of cancer. To avoid immune recognition, tumours employ a multitude of strategies with most resulting in a down-regulation of the MHC class I expression at the cell surface, significantly impairing the ability of CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes to recognize the tumour. Alteration of the expression of key players in antigen processing not only affects MHC class I expression but also significantly alters the repertoire of peptides being presented. These modified peptide repertoires may serve to further reduce the presentation of tumour-specific/associated antigenic epitopes to aid immune evasion and tumour progression. Here we review the modifications to the antigen processing and presentation pathway in tumours and how it affects the anti-tumour immune response, considering the role of tumour-infiltrating cell populations and highlighting possible future therapeutic targets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [18F]FDG PET monitoring of tumour response to chemotherapy: does [18F]FDG uptake correlate with the viable tumour cell fraction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaepen, Karoline; Stroobants, Sigrid; Dupont, Patrick; Bormans, Guy; Mortelmans, Luc; Balzarini, Jan; Verhoef, Gregor; Vandenberghe, Peter; De Wolf-Peeters, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Because metabolic changes induced by chemotherapy precede the morphological changes, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([ 18 F]FDG PET) is thought to predict response to therapy earlier and more accurately than other modalities. To be a reliable predictor of response, changes in tumour [ 18 F]FDG uptake should reflect changes in viable cell fraction, but little is known about the contribution of apoptotic and necrotic cancer cells and inflammatory tissue to the [ 18 F]FDG signal. In a tumour mouse model we investigated the relation between chemotherapy-induced changes in various tumoral components and tumour uptake and size. SCID mice were subcutaneously inoculated in the right thigh with 5 x 10 6 Daudi cells. When the tumour measured 15-20 mm, Endoxan was given intravenously. At different time points [1-15 days (d1-d15) after the injection of Endoxan], ex vivo autoradiography and histopathology were performed in two mice and [ 18 F]FDG uptake in the tumour and tumour size were correlated with the different cell fractions measured with flow cytometry in five mice. At d1/d3, similar reductions in [ 18 F]FDG uptake and viable tumoral cell fraction were observed and these reductions preceded changes in tumour size. By d8/d10, [ 18 F]FDG uptake had stabilised despite a further reduction in viable tumoral cell fraction. At these time points a major inflammatory response was observed. At d15, an increase in viable tumour cells was again observed and this was accurately predicted by an increase in [ 18 F]FDG uptake, while the tumour volume remained unchanged. In contrast with variations in tumour volume, [ 18 F]FDG is a good marker for chemotherapy response monitoring. However, optimal timing seems crucial since a transient increase in stromal reaction may result in overestimation of the fraction of viable cells. (orig.)

  4. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleed from a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Jejunal Diverticulum: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sadaf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of small bowel diverticulum with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. This GIST in the diverticulum was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and was of low-grade malignant potential.

  5. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004-2009) - Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Michala de Linde; Andersen, Pia H.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2014-01-01

    To study the equine deep stromal abscesses (DSA) with focus on the duration of the corneal disease, medical treatment, season of presentation, clinical appearance, and the degree of corneal vascularization....

  6. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 downregulated by von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor pVHL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staller, Peter; Sulitkova, Jitka; Lisztwan, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    regulates CXCR4 expression owing to its capacity to target hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for degradation under normoxic conditions. This process is suppressed under hypoxic conditions, resulting in HIF-dependent CXCR4 activation. An analysis of clear cell renal carcinoma that manifests mutation of the VHL...... of the CXCR4-specific ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (ref. 1). It is still uncertain how an evolving tumour cell is reprogrammed to express CXCR4, thus implementing the tendency to metastasize to specific organs. Here we show that the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein pVHL negatively...

  7. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.

    2012-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  8. Pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors in patients with neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlenterie, Myrella; Flucke, Uta; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Timmers, Henri J L M; Gastmeier, Joerg; Aust, Daniela E; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Wesseling, Pieter; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lenders, Jacques W M

    2013-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis I may rarely predispose to pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A 59-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis I presented with pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland. During surgery, 3 gastrointestinal stromal tumors adjacent to the stomach and small intestine were removed. Despite appropriate thrombosis prophylaxis, the patient died of a pulmonary embolus 2 days postoperatively. The second patient, a 55-year-old man with neurofibromatosis I and bilateral pheochromocytomas, had several small gastrointestinal stromal tumors adjacent to the jejunum during surgery. A review of the literature was conducted to identify patients with neurofibromatosis I with concurrence of pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors and to define the specific clinical features of these patients. In addition to our 2 patients, 12 other cases of neurofibromatosis I with concomitant occurrence of pheochromocytomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have been reported. Pheochromocytomas had adrenal locations in all patients. Two of the 14 patients had a mixed pheochromocytoma/ganglioneuroma. In 4 of the 14 patients, gastrointestinal stromal tumors were located along the stomach. The gastrointestinal stromal tumors in our 2 patients showed no somatic mutations in KIT and PDGFRA genes. A pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 4 patients. The simultaneous occurrence of pheochromocytoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor should be considered in all patients with neurofibromatosis I presenting with an abdominal mass with symptoms suggestive of pheochromocytoma. Therefore, a pheochromocytoma should be excluded before a patient with neurofibromatosis I undergoes surgery for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor because an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma carries a high risk of life-threatening cardiovascular complications during surgery. Finally, this combination may be associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic events, but more studies are necessary to

  9. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the rectum with scapular metastasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcukbiricik Fatih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors. They commonly metastasize within the abdominal cavity, particularly to the liver. Less commonly, metastases can be found in the bone. Case presentation We here present a case of metastasis to the scapula in a 54-year-old Caucasian male patient with an advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor, which was subsequently successfully treated with resection and sunitinib. Conclusion The present study is, to the best of our knowledge, the second to describe scapular metastasis of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our patient was treated by scapulectomy. The overwhelming majority of scapular tumors are metastases that arise from soft tissue, hepatocellular and thyroid tumors. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastasis occurs rarely. Scapular surgery can successfully provide local control of the disease. After the surgery, patients should continue with medical treatment.

  10. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour in a supratentorial location

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour of the central nervous system is a rare, highly aggressive childhood malignancy. The age of presentation usually <2 years, but this tumour may occur in other age groups. The typical location is the posterior fossa, with supratentorial origin less common. We present two cases of atypical ...

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cells ameliorate acute allergic rhinitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlei; Fu, Yanxia; Wang, Yinyin; Kong, Yanhua; Li, Mengdi; Ma, Danhui; Zhai, Wanli; Wang, Hao; Lin, Yuting; Liu, Sihan; Ren, Fangli; Li, Jun; Wang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated as a potential antiinflammatory treatment in many inflammatory-related diseases; however, it remains unclear whether MSCs could be used to treat acute allergic rhinitis. A rat model of allergic rhinitis was treated with MSCs. The effect of MSCs on the inflammation of allergic rhinitis was evaluated by sneezing, nose rubbing, the pathology of the nasal mucosa, and the expression of interleukin 4, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and immunoglobulin E in the serum of rats. Also, the population of MSCs isolated from umbilical cords of humans was evaluated to determine if they could inhibit the symptoms and inflammation of acute allergic rhinitis in a rat model. We observed that this population of cells inhibited sneezing, nose rubbing, and changes in the pathology of the nasal mucosa. Intriguingly, we observed that MSCs reduced the expression of interleukin 4, tumour necrosis factor alpha, and immunoglobulin E in the serum. Furthermore, MSCs reduced the expression of histamine and the recruitment of macrophages in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis rats. We reasoned that the effect of MSCs on allergic rhinitis might be through its regulation of the secretion of related cytokines from macrophages during the process of acute allergic rhinitis. This work suggested that MSCs from the umbilical cords of humans could be used as a positive clinical therapy for the human disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Cell Biochemistry & Function Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Soraya I; Andrade, Luciana N S; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro B S; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-05-13

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC) on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170). These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT) and B16F10 melanoma. Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained the cells from inside the tumour, but not the

  13. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Soraya I de; Andrade, Luciana NS; Onuchic, Ana C; Nonogaki, Sueli; Fernandes, Patrícia D; Pinheiro, Mônica C; Rohde, Ciro BS; Chammas, Roger; Jancar, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R)-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC) on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170). These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT) and B16F10 melanoma. Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO) by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained the cells from inside the tumour, but not the

  14. melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (progonoma) treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-01

    Jun 1, 2009 ... tumour recurrence. Key words: Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy, melanotic progonoma, radical maxillary sur- gery. INTRODUCTION. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI), also known as melanotic progonoma, melano- ameloblastoma or retinal anlage tumour is a rare lo-.

  15. Use of radiotherapy in tumour of jugular glomus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Martin, V.; Algora Lopez, M.; Fontane Ventura, J.; Foro Arnalot, P.; Valls Fontanals, A.

    1994-01-01

    Tumours of the jugular glomus are an infrequent proliferative process originating in the chemoreceptor bodies, located in the temporal region. These tumours are histologically bening, rarely extend to distant sites, but they have a local aggressive growing. The clinical presentation is secondary to local progression, with paralysis of the craneal nerves and otic symptoms. Tumours of this origin are able to produce symptoms secondary to catecholamine release into the blood stream as cyclic hypertension. We report a 63 years old woman, with a jugulare glomus tumour, treated repeteady with incomplete surgey, and finally treated with radiotherapy. (Author) 14 refs

  16. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  17. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7 ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  18. of brain tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hallucinations other than the typical auditory hallucinations that we so often see in patients with schizophrenia and may include visual ... memory, may show reduced ability for new learning and may also have problems with visuo-spatial memory, particularly if the tumour is in the non-dominant hemisphere.11. The parietal ...

  19. Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Harris, Anne K; Schneider, Dominik T; Young, Robert H; Brown, Jubilee; Gershenson, David M; Dehner, Louis P; Hill, D Ashley; Messinger, Yoav H; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2016-10-01

    Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are clinically significant heterogeneous tumors that include several pathologic types. These tumors are often found in adolescents and young adults and can present with hormonal manifestations as well as signs and symptoms of a pelvic mass. Serum tumor markers may assist in preoperative diagnosis and surveillance. Several subtypes are associated with genetic predisposition, including those observed in patients with Peutz-Jegher syndrome. Recent studies have elucidated the relationship between Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors and DICER1 mutations. When classified as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ia, most subtypes may be treated with surgery alone. Higher stage or recurrent tumors have variable prognoses that range from a usually rapid course in poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor to an often prolonged course in adult granulosa cell tumors. New understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors may pave the way for novel therapeutics.

  20. Differential diagnosis of pancreatic cancer from other solid tumours arising from the periampullary area on MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Suk Ki [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Departments of Radiology, Daejin Medical Center, Seognam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hoon; Joo, Ijin; Jeon, Ju Hyun; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyung Sook [Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 266 Munhwa-ro, Jung-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To investigate CT features and differential diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared to other solid tumours arising in the periampullary area. One hundred and ninety-five patients with pathologically proven, solid periampullary tumours, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 98), neuroendocrine tumours (n = 52), gastrointestinal stromal tumours (n = 31), and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (n = 14), underwent preoperative CT. Two radiologists reviewed CT features and rated the possibility of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Statistically common findings for pancreatic adenocarcinoma included: patient age >50 years; ill-defined margin; completely solid mass; homogeneous enhancement; hypoenhancement on arterial and venous phases; atrophy; and duct dilatation. Statistically common findings for GIST included: heterogeneous enhancement; hyperenhancement on arterial and venous phases; rim enhancement; and prominent feeding arteries. The hyperenhancement on arterial and venous phases is statistically common in NET, and heterogeneous enhancement, hypoenhancement on the arterial and venous phases are statistically common in SPN. Diagnostic performance of CT for differentiating pancreatic adenocarcinomas from other solid periampullary tumours was 0.962 and 0.977 with excellent interobserver agreement (κ = 0.824). CT is useful not only for differentiating pancreatic adenocarcinoma form other solid tumours but also for differentiating between other solid tumours, including NET, SPN, and GIST, arising in the periampullary area. (orig.)

  1. Orbital tumours and tumour-like lesions: exploring the armamentarium of multiparametric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bela S; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Ailianou, Angeliki; Merlini, Laura; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Delattre, Bénédicte M; Rager, Olivier; Burkhardt, Karim; Becker, Minerva

    2016-02-01

    Although the orbit is a small anatomical space, the wide range of structures present within it are often the site of origin of various tumours and tumour-like conditions, both in adults and children. Cross-sectional imaging is mandatory for the detection, characterization, and mapping of these lesions. This review focuses on multiparametric imaging of orbital tumours. Each tumour is reviewed in relation to its clinical presentation, compartmental location, imaging characteristics, and its histological features. We herein describe orbital tumours as lesions of the globe (retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma), optic nerve sheath complex (meningioma, optic nerve glioma), conal-intraconal compartment (hemangioma), extraconal compartment (dermoid/epidermoid, lacrimal gland tumours, lymphoma, rhabdomysarcoma), and bone and sinus compartment (fibrous dysplasia). Lesions without any typical compartmental localization and those with multi-compartment involvement (veno-lymphatic malformation, plexiform neurofibroma, idiopathic orbital pseudotumour, IgG4 related disease, metastases) are also reviewed. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, such as MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography CT (FDG-PET CT), and positron emission tomography MRI (MRI PET) as problem-solving tools in the evaluation of those orbital masses that present with non-specific morphologic imaging findings. Main messages/Teaching points • A compartment-based approach is essential for the diagnosis of orbital tumours. • CT and MRI play a key role in the work-up of orbital tumours. • DWI, PET CT, and MRI PET are complementary tools to solve diagnostic dilemmas. • Awareness of salient imaging pearls and diagnostic pitfalls avoids interpretation errors.

  2. Tumour resistance to cisplatin: a modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, L; Bezak, E; Olver, I; Doorn, T van

    2005-01-01

    Although chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of haematological tumours, in many common solid tumours the success has been limited. Some of the reasons for the limitations are: the timing of drug delivery, resistance to the drug, repopulation between cycles of chemotherapy and the lack of complete understanding of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a specific agent. Cisplatin is among the most effective cytotoxic agents used in head and neck cancer treatments. When modelling cisplatin as a single agent, the properties of cisplatin only have to be taken into account, reducing the number of assumptions that are considered in the generalized chemotherapy models. The aim of the present paper is to model the biological effect of cisplatin and to simulate the consequence of cisplatin resistance on tumour control. The 'treated' tumour is a squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, previously grown by computer-based Monte Carlo techniques. The model maintained the biological constitution of a tumour through the generation of stem cells, proliferating cells and non-proliferating cells. Cell kinetic parameters (mean cell cycle time, cell loss factor, thymidine labelling index) were also consistent with the literature. A sensitivity study on the contribution of various mechanisms leading to drug resistance is undertaken. To quantify the extent of drug resistance, the cisplatin resistance factor (CRF) is defined as the ratio between the number of surviving cells of the resistant population and the number of surviving cells of the sensitive population, determined after the same treatment time. It is shown that there is a supra-linear dependence of CRF on the percentage of cisplatin-DNA adducts formed, and a sigmoid-like dependence between CRF and the percentage of cells killed in resistant tumours. Drug resistance is shown to be a cumulative process which eventually can overcome tumour regression leading to treatment failure

  3. Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.; Herter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of benign intrahepatic tumours can be very difficult despite numerous non-invasive diagnostic approaches, as is evident from two case reports presented here. The problem appears particularly intricate if two or more masses or space-occupying growths are present at the same time, the diagnostic aspects being different. In the first case, echinococcus alveolaris occurred simultaneously with a cavernous haemangioma and a focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). In the second case, FNH as a pendulating tumour was combined with a second focus in the superior part of the liver. These two examples are used as basis for discussing various diagnostic approaches, such as sonography, computed tomography and scintiscanning.

  4. Coexistence of herpes simplex virus infection in microsporidial stromal keratitis associated with granulomatous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ruchi; Balne, Praveen K; Sahu, Srikant; Das, Sujata; Sharma, Savitri

    2017-04-01

    Microsporidial stromal keratitis poses several diagnostic challenges. Patients may present with corneal ulceration, marked stromal thinning, or even as a quite corneal scar. The presentation of microsporidial stromal keratitis commonly mimics viral keratitis. Microbiology scrapings are usually helpful; however, scraping and culture-negative cases pose a significant diagnostic dilemma. Histopathological examination is diagnostic but shows varying degree of inflammation, predominantly composed of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Granulomatous inflammation, in microsporidial stromal keratitis, is never well described, and the authors in this article aim to describe the presence of granulomatous inflammation in microsporidial stromal keratitis, in patients with associated herpes simplex virus (HSV) keratitis. This was a retrospective and observational study conducted at a tertiary eye care center. Of 263 patients who underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for infectious keratitis, during 2011-2013, seven patients were diagnosed as microsporidial stromal keratitis. Microsporidial spores could be demonstrated on microbiological scrapings in 5/7 (71%) of cases, but identified on histopathological examination and also confirmed on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for microsporidium in 100% of cases. There was evidence of diffuse stromal necrosis with markedly severe degree of polymorphonuclear leukocytic infiltrates, with granulomatous inflammation in 42% of cases. Interestingly, these were positive for HSV-1 DNA on PCR. Review of medical records revealed much severe clinical presentations in patients with granulomatous inflammation, in comparison to cases without granulomatous inflammation. The authors hereby recommend that severe clinical presentation in patients with microsporidial stromal keratitis, markedly dense polymorphonuclear leukocytic infiltrates or the presence of granulomatous inflammation on the histopathological examination, should be investigated

  5. Small bowel Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors can physiologically alter gut motility before causing mechanical obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Manish S; Kosmoliaptsis, Vasilis; Meyrick-Thomas, John

    2005-01-01

    Background Gastro Intestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are rare stromal neoplasms that represent the most common mesenchymal tumor of the G.I. tract, accounting for 5% of all sarcomas [1,2]. Originating from interstitial cells of Cajal, which are regulators of gut peristalsis, they are preferentially located in the stomach and the small intestine [3] and clinical presentation is variable, ranging from vague complaints to major G.I. bleeding. Surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment for pa...

  6. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  7. EVALUATION OF BRAIN TUMOURS USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vinod Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The brain is basically formed by the neurons and the supporting cells. Tumours arising of neurons are almost impossible because the neurons never divide. Tumours arising from the supporting cells are almost frequently seen. The tumour characteristics depend upon the cell of origin. The brain is covered by meninges and the vascular tissue supplies the essential nutrients to all these components of the brain. Unfortunately, the brain is placed in a rigid box called as neurocranium. According to Monro–Kellie principle, if any of the one component increases in a rigid box, the other components will be compensated. So in a limited space if any of the catastrophes occur i.e. space occupying lesions, then the other components will be compensated and as a result the effects will be seen in a very small amount of time. A sincere effort has been put in this study to understand and evaluate the Brain Tumours using a CT scan. This study is intended to be useful to the diagnosing radiologists, internal medicine practitioners and general practitioners and surgeons. METHODS The aim of the study is to evaluate the brain tumours using CT and to confirm the diagnosis by sending to the Histopathology Department. The study is a cross-sectional study and is done in the Department of Radiology, Fathima Medical College, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh. The study was done from December 2014 to May 2016. The study was done using thirty cases who were believed to have brain tumour and were studied in the Department of Radiology after initial clinical evaluation. First, the plain CT was done and was checked for the location, size, characteristics of the lesion and the surrounding characteristics were observed. RESULT In the present study, the most common of all tumours were those of the neuroepithelial groups. Next in frequency were the tumours of meninges of all intracranial tumours. This was followed by tumours of cranial nerves, metastatic tumour, one lymphoma case

  8. Bilateral Krukenberg Tumours Diagnosed Primarily by Transabdominal Sonography- A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padala, Krishna Prasanthi; Mahesh; Gowda, Gautham; Pailoor, Aruna

    2015-01-01

    Krukenberg tumour, also known as carcinoma mucocellulare, is a metastatic adenocarcinoma of ovaries from different primary tumour sites. Gastric carcinoma is most common primary tumour responsible for approximately 50% of Krukenberg tumours. Discrimination between primary ovarian cancer and metastatic tumours in the ovary is important, because their management is different. Here we present a case of female suffering from gastric carcinoma with bilateral Krukenberg tumours, diagnosed primarily by transabdominal sonography. The patient was referred to higher centre for further treatment and followed up. PMID:26816967

  9. SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION DUE TO TUMOURS AT KENYATTA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-07-07

    Jul 7, 2000 ... SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION DUE TO TUMOURS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL,. NAIROBI. N.J.M. MWANG'OMBE and M.B. OUMA. ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the frequency of different types of tumours associated with cord compression, their mode of presentation and treatment ...

  10. The neuropsychiatry of brain tumours | Oosthuizen | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every psychiatrist who has worked in the clinical field for some time will be able to relate a story of a patient who presented with psychiatric symptoms but eventually turned out to have a brain tumour. We all fear that someday we will misdiagnose a brain tumour and therefore fail to save a patient's life. The purpose of this ...

  11. Surgical Considerations in the Management of Tumours of the Nose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Tumours of the nose and paranasal sinuses in sub-Saharan Africa are generally characterised by late presentation posing management challenges to the otorhinolaryngologists in the sub-region. OBJECTIVES: To appraise surgical considerations in the management of tumours of the nose and paranasal ...

  12. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF TUMOUR MARKERS: A REvIEw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... for use in treatment monitoring of colorectal, hepatocellular, prostatic, ovarian and pancreatic carcinomas ... for cancer in the clinical setting (1,3-6). Primary ... presentation is one of the determinants of prognosis in cancer. If a tumour marker concentration is related to the tumour size then it may be useful for.

  13. Orbital exenteration for invasive skin tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyers, A G

    2006-10-01

    Orbital exenteration aims at local control of disease invading the orbit that is potentially fatal or relentlessly progressive. Of all exenterations presenting to ophthalmologists, 40-50% are required for tumours in the eyelid or periocular skin. 99% of these are basal cell carcinomas and 4-6% each are squamous cell carcinomas or sebaceous gland carcinomas. Orbital invasion results in progressive fixation of the tumour to bone and reduced ocular motility. Perineural invasion of branches of the trigeminal nerve leads to numbness or pain, and that the facial nerve, to weakness. Biopsy identifies the cell type and the presence of perineural invasion. CT and MRI scanning help in the assessment of tumour spread within the orbit. Management should be in collaboration with an oncologist. Exenteration may be total-the removal of all orbital contents-or lid-sparing if the tumour is placed posteriorly. The socket may be allowed to heal by granulation or lined with a split skin graft or local flap. Complications may be seen following 20-25% of exenterations and include fistulae, tissue necrosis, exposed bone, and infection. Incomplete clearance of tumours occurs in about 38% of total exenterations and 17% of subtotal. The overall 5-year survival is 55-65%, but significantly worse if there was perineural spread. Facial prostheses may be mounted on glasses or secured with tissue glue or osseointegrated implants. Excellent cosmetic results can be achieved but many patients prefer to wear a patch.

  14. Neuroendoscopic management of pineal region tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Santamarta, D; Garcia-Fructuoso, G; Caral, L; Rumià, J

    1997-01-01

    The management of pineal tumours remains controversial. During 1994 we treated four consecutive adults (16-44 yrs) harbouring a pineal tumour with a neuroendoscopic procedure. All of them presented with hydrocephalus. Pre-operative workup included cranial computerized tomography (CT), craniospinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and serum levels of biological tumour markers. The endoscopic procedure consisted of a third ventriculostomy followed by biopsy with a flexible, steerable neuroendoscope. Histological diagnosis was achieved in three patients who no longer required a shunt device. Recorded complications were: bleeding during ventriculostomy that prevented us from obtaining a good sample for biopsy, short-term memory loss that cleared over a two-week period, and transient increase of pre-operative hemiparesis. Complications and morbidity are emphasized so as to be avoided with further technical experience. Neuroendoscopy affords a minimally invasive way of reaching three objectives by one-step surgery in the management of pineal region lesions: 1) CSF sample for analysis of tumour markers. 2) Treatment of hydrocephalus by third ventriculostomy. 3) Several biopsy specimens can be obtained identifying tumours which will require further open surgery or adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy.

  15. Immunosenescence, suppression and tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, G; Koch, S; Griesemann, H; Rehbein, A; Hähnel, K; Gouttefangeas, C

    2006-08-01

    There are good arguments for suggesting that two seminal papers published 50 years ago can be taken as the beginning of modern tumour immunology. These papers by R. Baldwin, "Immunity to transplanted tumour: the effect of tumour extracts on the growth of homologous tumours in rats" and "Immunity to methylcholanthrene-induced tumours in inbred rats following atrophy and regression of the implanted tumours" (Br J Cancer 9:646-51 and 652-657, 1955) showed that once tumours are established, they and their products can be recognised by the adaptive immune system and rejected. However, the tumour normally co-evolves with immunity, like a parasite, rather than being suddenly introduced as in these, and many other, experimental models. Dynamics of this co-evolution are illustrated by findings that inflammation enhances tumorigenicity, yet is important to enable T cells to respond properly to tumour antigen and exert anti-tumour effects. The important thing is to maintain the balance between effective anti-tumour immunity and tumour escape and/or stimulatory mechanisms. Tumours almost always co-exist with immune defence systems over extended periods and interact chronically with T cells. The effect of this is potentially similar to other situations of chronic antigenic stress, particularly lifelong persistent virus infection, most strikingly, CMV infection. The questions briefly explored in this symposium paper are what happens when T lymphocyte clones are chronically stimulated by antigen which is not or cannot be eliminated? What are the similarities and differences between chronic antigenic stimulation by tumour antigen versus CMV antigen? What can we learn in one system which may illuminate the other?

  16. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  17. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail: borgesalexandra@clix.pt

    2008-06-15

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  18. Tumour markers in germ cell tumours and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, K.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with germ cell tumours of gonadal and extragonadal origin both markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) are madatory for diagnosis and control of treatment. In seminoma, we found preoperatively elevated levels of hCG(+hCG-β) in 42/349 patients (12%) up to 1200 mlU/ml using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay (1. IRP hCG standard 75/537). Lactatedehydrogenase can be useful in marker negative patients. Serum levels reflect tumour burden even if not highly specific. Presently, placental alkaline phosphatase is under discussion for seminoma. However, commercial kits are not available. As a relatively high secretion of hCG/β/hCG was found in gestational trophoblastic diseases, this parameters may be useful for differential diagnosis in pregnancy. In the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma the determination of thyroglobulin (Tg) in combination with ultrasound of the thyroid and X-ray of the chest is sufficient. For Tg-determination thyroid hormone replacement therapy must be discontinued only in rare single cases with borderline levels, which need radioiodtesting additionally. Calcitonin is the most important marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin as screening test is necessary, if multiple endocrine adenomatosis or the familial forms are suspected. In single cases benefit came from new scintigraphic methods such as 131 I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine or 201 thallium-chloride. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Tumour markers in germ cell tumours and thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K.

    1988-02-01

    In patients with germ cell tumours of gonadal and extragonadal origin both markers, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) are madatory for diagnosis and control of treatment. In seminoma, we found preoperatively elevated levels of hCG(+hCG-..beta..) in 42/349 patients (12%) up to 1200 mlU/ml using a polyclonal radioimmunoassay (1. IRP hCG standard 75/537). Lactatedehydrogenase can be useful in marker negative patients. Serum levels reflect tumour burden even if not highly specific. Presently, placental alkaline phosphatase is under discussion for seminoma. However, commercial kits are not available. As a relatively high secretion of hCG/..beta../hCG was found in gestational trophoblastic diseases, this parameters may be useful for differential diagnosis in pregnancy. In the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma the determination of thyroglobulin (Tg) in combination with ultrasound of the thyroid and X-ray of the chest is sufficient. For Tg-determination thyroid hormone replacement therapy must be discontinued only in rare single cases with borderline levels, which need radioiodtesting additionally. Calcitonin is the most important marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma. Pentagastrin stimulated calcitonin as screening test is necessary, if multiple endocrine adenomatosis or the familial forms are suspected. In single cases benefit came from new scintigraphic methods such as /sup 131/I-metaiodo-benzylguanidine or /sup 201/thallium-chloride.

  20. IFN type I and II induce BAFF secretion from human decidual stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Lundqvist, Christina; Telemo, Esbjörn; Nava, Silvia; Kaipe, Helen; Rudin, Anna

    2017-01-06

    B cell activating factor (BAFF) is a critical cytokine for maturation of immature B cells. In murine lymph nodes, BAFF is mainly produced by podoplanin-expressing stromal cells. We have previously shown that circulating BAFF levels are maximal at birth, and that farmers' children exhibit higher BAFF levels in cord blood than non-farmers' children. Here, we sought to investigate whether maternal-derived decidual stromal cells from placenta secrete BAFF and examine what factors could stimulate this production. We found that podoplanin is expressed in decidua basalis and in the underlying villous tissue as well as on isolated maternal-derived decidual stromal cells. Decidual stromal cells produced BAFF when stimulated with IFN-γ and IFN-α, and NK cells and NK-T-like cells competent of IFN-γ production were isolated from the decidua. Finally, B cells at different maturational stages are present in decidua and all expressed BAFF-R, while stromal cells did not. These findings suggest that decidual stromal cells are a cellular source of BAFF for B cells present in decidua during pregnancy.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid-derived circulating tumour DNA better represents the genomic alterations of brain tumours than plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Mayor, Regina; Ng, Charlotte K. Y.; Weigelt, Britta; Martínez-Ricarte, Francisco; Torrejon, Davis; Oliveira, Mafalda; Arias, Alexandra; Raventos, Carolina; Tang, Jiabin; Guerini-Rocco, Elena; Martínez-Sáez, Elena; Lois, Sergio; Marín, Oscar; de la Cruz, Xavier; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Towers, Russel; Vivancos, Ana; Peg, Vicente; Cajal, Santiago Ramon y; Carles, Joan; Rodon, Jordi; González-Cao, María; Tabernero, Josep; Felip, Enriqueta; Sahuquillo, Joan; Berger, Michael F.; Cortes, Javier; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Seoane, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma has been shown to be informative of the genomic alterations present in tumours and has been used to monitor tumour progression and response to treatments. However, patients with brain tumours do not present with or present with low amounts of ctDNA in plasma precluding the genomic characterization of brain cancer through plasma ctDNA. Here we show that ctDNA derived from central nervous system tumours is more abundantly present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than in plasma. Massively parallel sequencing of CSF ctDNA more comprehensively characterizes the genomic alterations of brain tumours than plasma, allowing the identification of actionable brain tumour somatic mutations. We show that CSF ctDNA levels longitudinally fluctuate in time and follow the changes in brain tumour burden providing biomarkers to monitor brain malignancies. Moreover, CSF ctDNA is shown to facilitate and complement the diagnosis of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. PMID:26554728

  2. Treating tumours with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the uses of radiopharmaceuticals in radiotherapy. After a discussion on the suitability of various isotopes for therapeutic use, some well-established examples of radiotherapy are described. These include the treatment of thyroid diseases with I-131, of polycythemia vera with P-32 and of neural crest tumours with 131 I-MIBG. New trends in therapy of bone diseases and in radioimmunotherapy are also considered

  3. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with improved survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongxian; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Haixing; Song, Qi; Sujie, Akesu; Huang, Jie; Xu, Yifan; Zeng, Haiying; Tan, Lijie; Hou, Yingyong; Xu, Chen

    2017-03-21

    We undertook a study of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a large and relatively homogeneous group of patients with completely resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of 235 ESCC tumours were evaluated for density of TILs in intratumoural (iTIL) and stromal compartments (sTIL). Foxp3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in tumoural and stromal areas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Of the 235 tumours, high sTIL (>10%), and iTIL (>10%) were observed in 101 (43.0%) and 98 (41.7%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.0 months (95% CI 29.929-42.071). Univariate analysis revealed that sTIL (>10%), iTIL (>20%), vessels involvement, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were significantly associated with postoperative outcome. In multivariate analysis, high sTIL (HR: 0.664, P = 0.019 for Disease free survival; HR: 0.608, P = 0.005 for Overall survival) was identified as independent better prognostic factor. Further analysis, sTIL was identified as independently prognostic factor in Stage III-IVa disease, which was not found in Stage I-II disease. Our study demonstrated that sTIL was associated with better ESCC patients' survival, especially in Stage III-IVa disease. Assessment of sTIL could be useful to discriminate biological behavior for ESCC patients.

  4. Periductal stromal sarcoma of the breast with coexistent tuberculous mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bembem Khuraijam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Periductal stromal sarcoma is a rare low-grade biphasic malignancy arising from periductal breast stroma. This tumor is distinct from phyllodes as it lacks the characteristic leaf-like architecture. Tuberculous mastitis is an uncommon infection seen rarely in the breast parenchyma. We present a rare association between the two diseases, which to the best of our knowledge is the first case reported so far.

  5. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment

  6. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Makarla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs. Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination.

  7. A Large Extragnathic Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavle, Radhika M.; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Narasimhamurthy, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) are developmental cysts which occur typically in the jawbones. They present more commonly in the posterior mandible of young adults than the maxilla. OKCs have been reclassified under odontogenic tumours in 2005 by the WHO and have since been termed as keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs). Here we report a case of a recurrent buccal lesion in a 62-year-old man which was provisionally diagnosed as a space infection (buccal abscess) but surprisingly turned out to be a soft tissue KCOT in an unusual location on histopathologic examination. PMID:26770859

  8. Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

    2009-11-01

    A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of tenascin in melanocytic tumours of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastre, B; van Ederen, A M; Terlou, M; Gruys, E; Nederbragt, H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tenascin-C (TN) immunolabelling and labelling for endothelium by von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in melanocytic tumours of dogs as compared with normal tissues, to evaluate the TN distribution in these types of tumours and to investigate whether a relation could be established between TN and angiogenesis in different types of tumour. Samples of normal dog skin (n=8), benign skin melanocytomas (n=10), malignant oral melanomas (n=9) and malignant toe melanomas (n=5) were studied. The percentages of TN and vWF immunolabelling per total microscopical area were analysed by morphometric methods. In normal skin, TN was found at dermo-epidermal junctions, around hair follicles, in the smooth muscles of hair follicles, and in the walls of blood vessels. TN immunolabelling (distribution and intensity) in melanocytomas was comparable with that found in normal skin. In melanomas, TN expression was considerably increased, its intensity in toe melanomas being twice that observed in oral melanomas. The degree of TN immunolabelling was not related to the histological malignancy of the melanomas. In melanomas, TN was found in the connective tissue surrounding the tumour cell nests and in narrow stromal strands inside the tumour. Regions infiltrated with lymphocytes were devoid of TN. The presence of TN around capillaries in melanocytomas and melanomas was investigated by double-immunolabelling (for TN and vWF). The intensity of vWF and TN immunolabelling was higher in melanomas than in melanocytomas, and higher in toe melanomas than in oral melanomas; however, no clear relation between TN expression and immunolabelling for vWF was found.

  10. Primary liver tumour of intermediate (hepatocyte-bile duct cell) phenotype: a progenitor cell tumour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robrechts, C; De Vos, R; Van den Heuvel, M; Van Cutsem, E; Van Damme, B; Desmet, V; Roskams, T

    1998-08-01

    A 57-year-old female patient presented with painless obstructive jaundice and mild mesogastric pain; she was in good general condition on admission. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed diffuse tumoral invasion of the liver, suggesting diffuse metastases. A liver biopsy showed a tumour with a trabecular growth pattern, composed of uniform relatively small cells, very suggestive of an endocrine carcinoma. Additional immunohistochemical stains, however, did not show any endocrine differentiation, but showed positivity for both hepatocyte-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 8 and 18) and bile duct-type cytokeratins (cytokeratin 7 and 19). In addition, parathyroid hormone-related peptide, shown to be a good marker for cholangiocarcinoma, was immunoreactive. Electron microscopy revealed tumour cells with an intermediate phenotype: the cells clearly showed hepatocyte features on one hand and bile duct cell features on the other hand. Nine days after admission, the patient died due to liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy. Autopsy excluded another primary tumour site. Overall, this tumour was a primary liver tumour with an intermediate phenotype and with a very rapid clinical course. The intermediate (between hepatocyte and bile duct cell) phenotype suggests an immature progenitor cell origin, which is concordant with a rapid clinical course. This type of tumour has not been described previously and provides additional evidence for the existence of progenitor cells in human liver.

  11. Metastatic Tumours to the Oral Cavity: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna G. Kalaitsidou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metastatic tumours to the oral cavity from distant organs are uncommon and represent approximately 1 - 3% of all oral malignancies. Such metastases can occur to the bone or to the oral soft tissues. Almost any malignancy from any site is capable of metastasis to the oral cavity and a wide variety of tumours have been reported to spread to the mouth. Methods: Careful examination of the oral cavity and a high degree of clinical suspicion as well as a multidisciplinary approach are suggested. Results: In this article we present three patients, a female and two males with metastatic tumours to the oral cavity, who were referred to our Department. The primary tumours were invasive lobular breast carcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma respectively. Conclusions: Metastases to the oral cavity are quite uncommon among population. They usually present with symptoms similar to odontogenic infections and benign tumours, causing a delayed diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Total hip arthroplasty for giant cell tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A 32 month follow up of an uncommon case of a Giant Cell Tumour affecting the proximal end of femur is presented. Following a wide excision, the hip was reconstructed using Charnley type of low friction total hip arthroplasty. At a 32 month review, there was no recurrence and the function was good.

  13. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  14. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the bladder associated with neurofibromatosis I.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Julie

    2008-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis is a hamartomatous disorder of autonomic peripheral nerve sheaths associated with peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Most tumours are neurofibromas; however, the genitourinary system is rarely involved. We present a rare case of a nerve sheath tumour of the bladder in a young patient, which was discovered to be malignant.

  15. A retroperitoneal extra-renal Wilms' tumour: A case report | Wabada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 2-year-old boy presented with an asymptomatic abdominal swelling for 3 months. Abdominal ultrasound and CT scans revealed an extra-renal mass. Intravenous urogram (IVU) showed prompt excretion bilaterally. Post excision histology of the tumour confirmed a Wilms' tumour. Keywords: Extra-renal, Wilms' tumour, ...

  16. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities.

  17. Drugs Approved for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postema, Floor A M; Hopman, Saskia M J; Aalfs, Cora M; Berger, Lieke P V; Bleeker, Fonnet E; Dommering, Charlotte J; Jongmans, Marjolijn C J; Letteboer, Tom G W; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C; Merks, Johannes H M

    2017-07-01

    Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a child for genetic consultation. We performed a PubMed search to review the incidence of TPSs in children for 85 tumour types listed in the International Classification of Childhood Cancer third edition (ICCC-3). The results were discussed during a national consensus meeting with representative clinical geneticists from all six academic paediatric oncology centres in The Netherlands. A TPS incidence of 5% or more was considered a high probability and therefore in itself a reason for referral to a clinical geneticist. The literature search resulted in data on the incidence of a TPS in 26 tumours. For 23/26 tumour types, a TPS incidence of 5% or higher was reported. In addition, during the consensus meeting the experts agreed that children with any carcinoma should always be referred for clinical genetic consultation as well, as it may point to a TPS. We present an overview of 23 paediatric tumours with a high probability of a TPS; this will facilitate paediatric oncologists to decide which patients should be referred for genetic consultation merely based on type of tumour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong; Hui, Sze Ki; Ling, Siu Cheung

    2010-01-01

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  20. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Hui, Sze Ki [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hong Kong (China); Ling, Siu Cheung [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-09-15

    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  1. Role of tumour associated macrophages in tumour angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eKzhyshkowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumour angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumour cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumour cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumour endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM into tumor sites. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAM sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumours, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC and macrophages. In some tumours, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include bFGF, thymidine phosphorylase (TP, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, and adrenomedullin. The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis (like VEGF-A and MMP9 support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumour lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39 and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumour models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumour angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumour angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be

  2. Clinicopathological features of liver tumours: a ten-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, S.T.; Aalipour, E.

    2015-01-01

    Various diseases affect the liver, among them, malignant and benign tumours with hepatic nodules are the most important. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological findings related to hepatic tumours and nodules. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out during November 2014 to August 2015 by reviewing the hospital medical records of 164 registered patients with liver biopsies referred to Shahid Sadoughi educational General Hospital, Yazd, Iran, between 2004 and 2014. The samples were selected through the census method. Age, gender, clinical symptoms, initial clinical diagnosis, pathology reports and ultrasound results were considered as variables. Data were analysed by using SPSS-17. Results: There were 87 (53%) men and 77 (47%) women. The mean ages of presentation for malignant and benign tumours were 57.9 ±17.2 and 44.9±19.4 years, respectively. Seventy benign tumours and 147 malignant tumours were recorded. The most frequent chief complaint was abdominal pain (54.9%) in both malignant (56.50%) and benign tumours (41.20%). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hemangioma were the most prevalent malignant and benign hepatic tumours, respectively. In our study, correlation between pathology reports and primary diagnoses was 40.9%, and a significant relationship was found between sonography and pathological findings (p=0.038). Conclusions: We found that only when primary clinical diagnosis and sonography were in favour of malignancy, they were correlated with pathology results. Clinicopathological assessments can help physicians in their diagnosis in order to facilitate the management of hepatic tumours. (author)

  3. Specificity of paediatric jawbone lesions: tumours and pseudotumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlub, Natacha; Kreindel, Tamara; Belle Mbou, Valère; Coudert, Amélie; Ansari, Edward; Descroix, Vianney; Ruhin-Poncet, Blandine; Coulomb L'hermine, Aurore; Berdal, Ariane; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Ducou Lepointe, Hubert; Picard, Arnaud

    2014-03-01

    Characteristics and epidemiology of jaw tumours have been described mostly in adults. Compared with their adult counterparts, childhood jaw tumours show considerable differences. The aim of this study was to describe the different jaw tumours in children, define diagnostic tools to determine their specificity and describe optimal treatment. All children patients with jaw lesions, excluding cysts, apical granuloma and osteitis were included in our study between 1999 and 2009. The medical records were analyzed for clinical, radiological, and pathological findings, treatments and recurrences. Mean patient age was 10.9 years old, ranging from 2 months to 18 years old. Of the 63 lesions, 18 were odontogenic and 45 non-odontogenic lesions. 6% of all cases were malignant tumours; the mean age of presentation was 7.25 years old, [ranging from 0.2 to 18 years old]. Approximately 80% of the tumours developed after 6 years of age. Odontogenic tumours occurred more often after the age of 6. Compared with their adult counterpart, childhood jaw tumours show considerable differences in their clinical behaviour and radiological and pathological characteristics. Clinical features of some tumours can be specific to children. Tumourigenesis is related to dental development and facial growth. Conservative treatment should be considered. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does fixity affect prognosis in colorectal tumours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, N A; Peck, M A; Sawyer, C N; Blaxland, J W; Luck, R J

    1983-07-01

    In a retrospective series of 301 colorectal tumours, tumour fixity was assessed, and was found to be of prognostic significance in relation to 5-year survival. Fixity of the tumour was associated with low curative resection rate and advanced tumour state. Fixation did not correlate significantly with the site or differentiation of the tumour nor with operative mortality.

  5. Askin Tumour: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Carolina; Ramirez, Sandra Milena; Quesada, Diana Constanza; Unigarro Luz Adriana

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report a case of a 19 year-old woman with a final diagnosis of an extra skeletal Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing sarcoma of the chest, also known as Askin tumour. The histologic features and the immunohistochemical profile were consistent with this aggressive malignancy of the chest wall that affects young people. Because the low incidence of this entity, as well as the clear radiological findings, we considered it interesting to describe this documented case and undertake a review of the literature.

  6. The Inside Mystery of Jejunal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dhull, A. K.; Kaushal, V.; Dhankhar, R.; Atri, R.; Singh, H.; Marwah, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are malignant and rare form of soft tissue sarcoma of the digestive tract. The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors is very low Kramer et al. 2005 Jejunal GISTs are extremely rare. Here we present a rare case of jejunal GIST with unusually large size at presentation. The patient presented with severe abdomen pain, exophytic growth, and dimorphic anemia. Surgical resection of the tumor was carried out, and operative findings revealed a 15 × 10 cm...

  7. Engineering epithelial-stromal interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, David G; Abbott, Barbara D

    2017-05-01

    Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue homeostasis. Epithelial-stromal interactions (ESIs) have historically been examined using mammalian models and ex vivo tissue recombination. Although these approaches have elucidated signaling mechanisms underlying embryonic morphogenesis processes and adult mammalian epithelial tissue function, they are limited by the availability of tissue, low throughput, and human developmental or physiological relevance. In this review, we describe how bioengineered ESIs, using either human stem cells or co-cultures of human primary epithelial and stromal cells, have enabled the development of human in vitro epithelial tissue models that recapitulate the architecture, phenotype, and function of adult human epithelial tissues. We discuss how the strategies used to engineer mature epithelial tissue models in vitro could be extrapolated to instruct the design of organotypic culture models that can recapitulate the structure of embryonic ectodermal tissues and enable the in vitro assessment of events critical to organ/tissue morphogenesis. Given the importance of ESIs towards normal epithelial tissue development and function, such models present a unique opportunity for toxicological screening assays to incorporate ESIs to assess the impact of chemicals on mature and developing epidermal tissues. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Terrien's marginal degeneration accompanied by latticed stromal opacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of Terrien's marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen.

  9. Terrien’s Marginal Degeneration Accompanied by Latticed Stromal Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Jia, Hui

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We report a case of Terrien’s marginal degeneration (TMD) with a unilaterally typical narrow band of peripheral corneal stroma thinning, accompanied by the presence of an unusual network of opacities diffusing throughout the anterior stroma layers. Case Report A 43-year-old woman presented with superior nasal peripheral corneal thinning and an unusual network of polygonal stromal opacities in the anterior corneal stroma of the right eye. Latticed corneal changes were unusually extensive and distributed diffusely in the stroma. No abnormalities were found in the corneal epithelium and in the basal epithelial cells. No noticeable changes were found in the left eye. Because of a progressively worse ocular irritation of the right eye, a diagnosis of TMD was made for this patient. Conclusions This case of TMD accompanied by keratopathy was unusual. The branching stromal lattice pattern of the corneal opacities was difficult to distinguish from lattice corneal dystrophy. In this case, the polygonal stromal opacities were located in the anterior corneal stroma and therefore were distinguished from a similar manifestation in posterior crocodile shagreen. PMID:24681833

  10. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.; Reznikov, Boris; Lee, Edward Y.; Grant, Ronald M.; Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Babyn, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) constitute a family of neoplasms of presumed neuroectodermal origin that predominantly present as bone or soft-tissue masses in adolescents and young adults. PNET arising in the kidney is rare. To describe the radiological features in three patients with primary renal PNET. The radiological features of primary renal PNET in three adolescent patients (age 10, 14 and 16 years) are described. Tumour thrombus extending into the renal vein and inferior vena cava was noted in all three patients. In addition, further tumour extension into the atrium was seen in two patients with extension into a pulmonary artery in one patient. Neural foraminal and intraspinal extension close to the origin of the tumour was identified in two patients. Liver, bone and lung metastases were identified. While rare, one should consider the diagnosis of PNET when encountering a renal mass with aggressive features such as inferior vena cava tumour thrombus, direct intraspinal invasion and distant metastasis. (orig.)

  11. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-07-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences.

  12. Radiotherapy in ocular tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Ocular tumours at the Tata Memorial Hospital, Bombay, form about 0.14% of all the proved cancer cases. In case of unilateral retinoblastoma with the other eye being not non-seeing for any reason, enucleation is advised, as the diagnosis may sometimes be in doubt. If after enucleation, optic nerve and/or peribulbar tissues are found to be involved, post-operative irradiation is given to the whole orbit. In bilateral retinoblastoma the more affected eye is enucleated and an attempt is made to preserve vision in the other eye. A tumour dose of 3500 to 4000 rad in about 4 weeks is given with a cobalt beam using a direct anterior field. A cataract that may develop has to be taken care of. Lateral and/or medial fields are used with deep X-rays. In certain cases, an implant of cobalt-60 or gold-198 grain is done. For carcinoma of conjuctiva, small lesions or early lesions are excised and a beta radiation dose of 2000 rad weekly for about 4 to 5 weeks is given; larger lesions require enucleation or exenteration followed by irradiation with super-voltage radiation. Post-irradiation sarcomas may develop many years later. Irradiation is repeated for recurrences. (M.G.B.)

  13. Horse adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells constitutively produce membrane vesicles: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, L; Dall'Aglio, C; Bazzucchi, C; Mercati, F; Mancini, M G; Pessina, A; Alessandri, G; Giammarioli, M; Dante, S; Brunati, G; Ceccarelli, P

    2015-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent somatic cells that can differentiate into a variety of mature cell types. Over recent years, their biological in vitro and in vivo properties have elicited great expectations in the field of regenerative medicine, immunotherapy and tumour treatment. An increasing number of experimental observations suggest that their biological effects are probably related to a paracrine mechanism via the release of trophic factors and cytokines as well as through the production of membrane vesicles (MVs). These are nanometric membrane-bound structures, comprising shedding vesicles (SV) and exosomes (Ex), that enclose and transfer signalling molecules to target cells. We hypothesized that MVs may be implicated in the biological effects of MSCs from horse adipose tissue (E-AdMSCs), a type of MSC that has been extensively studied in recent years for its remarkable efficacy in tissue regeneration. By means of electron microscopy, we ascertained, for the first time, that equine adipose-derived MSCs constitutively produce MVs (E-Ad-MSCs). The analysis of MVs separated by ultracentrifugation allowed us to describe their general morphological features. Through the examination of cell monolayers by TEM, additionally, we distinguished the different pathways of SV and Ex formation, demonstrating that both fractions are produced by E-AdMSC. The accurate description of MV heterogeneous morphological characteristics led us to emphasize the possible implications of the relationship between different morphologies versus different functions. The data presented in this paper has an additional value, as they can be noteworthy for horses as well as for other mammalian species, including humans.

  14. Putting tumours in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek

    2001-10-01

    The interactions between cancer cells and their micro- and macroenvironment create a context that promotes tumor growth and protects it from immune attack. The functional association of cancer cells with their surrounding tissues forms a new 'organ' that changes as malignancy progresses. Investigation of this process might provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and could also lead to new therapeutic targets. Under normal conditions, ORGANS are made up of TISSUES that exchange information with other cell types via cell-cell contact, cytokines and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM). The ECM, which is produced by collaboration between STROMAL fibroblasts and EPITHELIAL cells, provides structural scaffolding for cells, as well as contextual information. The endothelial vasculature provides nutrients and oxygen, and cells of the immune system combat pathogens and remove apoptotic cells. Epithelial cells associate into intact, polarized sheets. These tissues communicate through a complex network of interactions: physically, through direct contact or through the intervening ECM, and biochemically, through both soluble and insoluble signalling molecules. In combination, these interactions provide the information that is necessary to maintain cellular differentiation and to create complex tissue structures. Occasionally, the intercellular signals that define the normal context become disrupted. Alterations in epithelial tissues can lead to movement of epithelial sheets and proliferation - for example, after activation of mesenchymal fibroblasts due to wounding.Normally, these conditions are temporary and reversible, but when inflammation is sustained, an escalating feedback loop ensues.Under persistent inflammatory conditions, continual upregulation of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by stromal fibroblasts can disrupt the ECM, and invading immune cells can overproduce factors that promote abnormal proliferation. As this process

  15. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  16. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisse, Hervé J.; Smets, Anne M.; Kaste, Sue C.; Owens, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is one of the most common malignancies in children, with an excellent prognosis after therapy. There is a very diverse approach to treatment according to geographical location. This variation in therapeutic attitude toward Wilms tumour, particularly between the United States and Europe,

  17. Are tumours angiogenesis-dependent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, H. M. W.; Voest, E. E.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2004-01-01

    The final proof of principle that cancer patients can be effectively treated with angiogenesis inhibitors is eagerly awaited. Various preclinical in vivo experiments have proven that most tumours need new vessel formation in order to grow and to form metastases. First of all, tumours do not grow in

  18. Chemical Meningitis with Intracranial Tumours | De Klerk | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients with intracranial epidermoid tumours who had a chemical meningitis as part of their clinical course, are described. The importance of recognising this as a presenting complaint is stressed. The pathogenesis and treatment are discussed.

  19. Orbito-Ocular Tumours In Nigerian Children | Onwasigwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haemangioma, rhabdom- yosarcoma, pseudotumour, dermoid cyst, Burkitt's lymphoma, liposarcoma, lipoma and onchocercal nodule. About 70% of the patients presented at five years and below. Patients with intraocular tumours were 38.0% of total, ...

  20. Clonal nature of odontogenic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Oliveira, Carla da Silveira; Castro, Wagner Henriques; de Lacerda, Júlio César Tanos; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2009-04-01

    Although clonal origin is an essential step in the comprehension of neoplasias, there have been no studies to examine whether odontogenic tumours are derived from a single somatic progenitor cell. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clonal origin of odontogenic tumours. Fresh samples of seven ameloblastomas, two odontogenic mixomas, two adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, one calcifying odontogenic cyst, one calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) and six odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) of female patients were included in this study. After DNA extraction, the HUMARA gene polymorphism assay was performed. Most of the informative odontogenic lesions studied (12 out of 16) showed a monoclonal pattern. Among the polyclonal cases, two were OKC, one CEOT and one odontogenic mixoma. Our results suggest that most odontogenic tumours are monoclonal.

  1. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  2. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Natalie; Walach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial observations by Warburg in 1924, it has become clear in recent years that tumour cells require a high level of glucose to proliferate. Therefore, a ketogenic diet that provides the body with energy mainly through fat and proteins, but contains a reduced amount of carbohydrates, has become a dietary option for supporting tumour treatment and has exhibited promising results. In the present study, the first case series of such a treatment in general practice is presented, in which 78 patients with tumours were treated within a time window of 10 months. The patients were monitored regarding their levels of transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), a novel tumour marker associated with aerobic glycolysis of tumour cells, and the patients' degree of adherence to a ketogenic diet. Tumour progression was documented according to oncologists' reports. Tumour status was correlated with TKTL1 expression (Kruskal-Wallis test, Pketogenic diet, with one patient experiencing a stagnation in tumour progression and others an improvement in their condition. The adoption of a ketogenic diet was also observed to affect the levels of TKTL1 in those patients. In conclusion, the results from the present case series in general practice suggest that it may be beneficial to advise tumour patients to adopt a ketogenic diet, and that those who adhere to it may have positive results from this type of diet. Thus, the use of a ketogenic diet as a complementary treatment to tumour therapy must be further studied in rigorously controlled trials.

  3. Virally and physically transgenized equine adipose-derived stromal cells as a cargo for paracrine secreted factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavirani Sandro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells have been shown to have multiple lineage differentiation properties and to be suitable for tissues regeneration in many degenerative processes. Their use has been proposed for the therapy of joint diseases and tendon injuries in the horse. In the present report the genetic manipulation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells has been investigated. Results Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells were successfully virally transduced as well as transiently and stably transfected with appropriate parameters, without detrimental effect on their differentiation properties. Moreover, green fluorescent protein alone, fused to neo gene, or co-expressed as bi-cistronic reporter constructs, driven by viral and house-keeping gene promoters, were tested. The better expressed cassette was employed to stably transfect Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for cell therapy purposes. Stably transfected Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells with a heterologous secreted viral antigen were able to immunize horses upon injection into the lateral wall of the neck. Conclusion This study provides the methods to successfully transgenize Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells both by lentiviral vector and by transfection using optimized constructs with suitable promoters and reporter genes. In conclusion these findings provide a working platform for the delivery of potentially therapeutic proteins to the site of cells injection via transgenized Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells.

  4. Utility of Phox2b immunohistochemical stain in neural crest tumours and non-neural crest tumours in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Mikako; Matsuno, Ryosuke; Tran, Henry; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    This study evaluated the utility of Phox2b in paediatric tumours. Previously, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was the most widely utilised sympathoadrenal marker specific for neural crest tumours with neuronal/neuroendocrine differentiation. However, its sensitivity is insufficient. Recently Phox2b has emerged as another specific marker for this entity. Phox2b immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 159 paediatric tumours, including (group 1) 65 neural crest tumours with neuronal differentiation [peripheral neuroblastic tumours (pNT)]: 15 neuroblastoma undifferentiated (NB-UD), 10 NB poorly differentiated (NB-PD), 10 NB differentiating (NB-D), 10 ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (GNBi), 10 GNB nodular (GNBn) and 10 ganglioneuroma (GN); (group 2) 23 neural crest tumours with neuroendocrine differentiation [pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PCC/PG)]; (group 3) 27 other neural crest tumours including one composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma; and (group 4) 44 non-neural crest tumours. TH IHC was performed on groups 1, 2 and 3. Phox2b was expressed diffusely in pNT (n = 65 of 65), strongly in NB-UD and NB-PD and with less intensity in NB-D, GNB and GN. Diffuse TH was seen in all NB-PD, NB-D, GNB and GN, but nine of 15 NB-UD and a nodule in GNBn did not express TH (n = 55 of 65). PCC/PG expressed diffuse Phox2b (n = 23 of 23) and diffuse TH, except for one tumour (n = 22 of 23). In composite rhabdomyosarcoma, TH was expressed only in neuroblastic cells and Phox2b was diffusely positive in neuroblastic cells and focally in rhabdomyosarcoma. All other tumours were negative for Phox2b (n = none of 44). Phox2b was a specific and sensitive marker for pNT and PCC/PG, especially useful for identifying NB-UD often lacking TH. Our study also presented a composite rhabdomyosarcoma/neuroblastoma of neural crest origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Gut Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Messina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, first found in bone marrow (BM, are the structural architects of all organs, participating in most biological functions. MSCs possess tissue-specific signatures that allow their discrimination according to their origin and location. Among their multiple functions, MSCs closely interact with immune cells, orchestrating their activity to maintain overall homeostasis. The phenotype of tissue MSCs residing in the bowel overlaps with myofibroblasts, lining the bottom walls of intestinal crypts (pericryptal or interspersed within intestinal submucosa (intercryptal. In Crohn’s disease, intestinal MSCs are tightly stacked in a chronic inflammatory milieu, which causes their enforced expression of Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC. The absence of Class II MHC is a hallmark for immune-modulator and tolerogenic properties of normal MSCs and, vice versa, the expression of HLA-DR is peculiar to antigen presenting cells, that is, immune-activator cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ is responsible for induction of Class II MHC expression on intestinal MSCs. The reversal of myofibroblasts/MSCs from an immune-modulator to an activator phenotype in Crohn’s disease results in the formation of a fibrotic tube subverting the intestinal structure. Epithelial metaplastic areas in this context can progress to dysplasia and cancer.

  6. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osifo, B.

    1999-02-01

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  7. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Thomas

    2007-08-01

    shorter survival. Stromal TGF-beta receptor 2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for cancer related survival. Conclusion Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of colon cancer is not only influenced by mutational incidents in tumour cells but also affected by interaction of tumour tissue with inflammatory cells like macrophages and associated stroma and TGF-beta signalling is one important part of this crosstalk. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanisms.

  8. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacman, David; Merkel, Susanne; Croner, Roland; Papadopoulos, Thomas; Brueckl, Wolfgang; Dimmler, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4) in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2) vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4)), lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival) using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and shorter survival. Stromal TGF-beta receptor 2

  9. Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aanei, Carmen Mariana, E-mail: caanei@yahoo.com [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Eloae, Florin Zugun [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Tavernier, Emmanuelle [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Carasevici, Eugen [Department of Immunology, Gr. T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 700115, Iasi (Romania); Guyotat, Denis [Service Hematologie Clinique, Institut de Cancerologie de la Loire, 42270, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France); Campos, Lydia [Laboratoire Hematologie, CHU de Saint-Etienne, 42055, Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS UMR 5239, Universite de Lyon, 42023, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2011-11-01

    Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

  10. DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capper, David; Jones, David T.W.; Sill, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Accurate pathological diagnosis is crucial for optimal management of patients with cancer. For the approximately 100 known tumour types of the central nervous system, standardization of the diagnostic process has been shown to be particularly challenging - with substantial inter......-observer variability in the histopathological diagnosis of many tumour types. Here we present a comprehensive approach for the DNA methylation-based classification of central nervous system tumours across all entities and age groups, and demonstrate its application in a routine diagnostic setting. We show...

  11. Intracerebral haemorrhage in primary and metastatic brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Silvani, Antonio; Maderna, Emanuela; Pollo, Bianca

    2008-09-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may both be a presenting manifestation in unrecognised brain tumour or--more frequently--take place in the disease course of known/suspected brain tumour due to diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, including biopsy, locoregional treatments and anti-angiogenic therapies. Apart from the difficulties inherent to accurate neuroradiological diagnosis in selected cases with small tumour volume, the main clinical problem that neurologists face is represented by decision making in prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism in these patients. These points are briefly discussed and available evidence on the last point is commented on.

  12. Neutrophil-induced transmigration of tumour cells treated with tumour-conditioned medium is facilitated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wu, Q D

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different cytokines that are present in tumour-conditioned medium on human neutrophil (PMN)-induced tumour cell transmigration. DESIGN: Laboratory study. SETTING: University hospital, Ireland. MATERIAL: Isolated human PMN and cultured human breast tumour cell line, MDA-MB-231. Interventions: Human PMN treated with either tumour-conditioned medium or different media neutralised with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), and MDA-MB-231 cells were plated on macrovascular and microvascular endothelial monolayers in collagen-coated transwells to assess migration of tumour cells. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cytokines present in tumour-conditioned medium, PMN cytocidal function and receptor expression, and tumour cell transmigration. RESULTS: tumour-conditioned medium contained high concentrations of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but not granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3). Anti-GM-CSF MoAb significantly reduced PMN-induced transmigration of tumour cells treated with tumour-conditioned medium (p < 0.05), whereas anti-VEGF and anti-IL-8 MoAbs did not affect their migration. In addition, anti-GM-CSF MoAb, but not anti-VEGF or anti-IL-8 MoAb, reduced PMN CD11b and CD18 overexpression induced by tumour-conditioned medium (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the GM-CSF that is present in tumour-conditioned medium may be involved, at least in part, in alterations in PMN function mediated by the medium and subsequently PMN-induced transmigration of tumour cells.

  13. Kinetic analysis of thymocyte attachment to thymus stromal cells in culture by using phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRochelle, G.G.; Jones, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    Direct cellular contact between thymocytes and thymus stromal cells within the thymus appears to contribute to the maturation of thymocytes. Thymocyte-stromal cell complexes, formed in vivo, have been isolated by others and postulated to play a role in T-cell differentiation. These previous studies have been hampered, however, by a time-consuming isolation procedure from which only small numbers of these complexes are recovered. We have examined a model to study thymocyte-stromal cell complexes in vitro in which thymocytes are added to primary cultures of thymus stromal cells. In the present study, we found that thymocytes were histotypically selective in their attachment to thymus stromal cells. We also investigated the kinetics of thymocyte attachment to these thymus stromal cells. Cultures were examined at selected time intervals from 5 min through 3 days of incubation. Thymocyte attachment to stromal cells was a biphasic interaction, with maximum surface attachment at 15 min of cocultivation, followed by migration of thymocytes into the cultures. Morphological studies were confirmed by using 3 H-leucine-labeled thymocytes and liquid scintigraphy. With increased time in culture, thymocytes became amoeboid and migrated between the layers of stromal cells where thymocyte mitotic figures were seen at 4 and 8 hr. In some cases it appeared that stromal cells, which often grew two to three cell layers deep, played an active role in enclosing thymocytes within the cultures. Large numbers of viable thymocytes were observed in the cultures at 24 hr. The number of thymocytes then decreased progressively on days 2 and 3, when relatively few were found within the layers of the culture

  14. Tumour response and morphological changes of acoustic neurinomas after radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, V.; Raimondi, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-seven of the 1560 patients treated by radiosurgery during the period 1984-1993 had acoustic neurinomas. Four cases were excluded from this study because they had a follow-up of less than 2 years. There were 24 neurinomas treated in 23 patients as one patient had a bilateral tumour. Seven patients underwent radiosurgery for a recurrent tumour (already operated on once or twice), while it was the first treatment for 16 patients. The tumour volume ranged from 1.99 cm 3 to 18.30 cm 3 , and the patient follow-up was from 2 to 8 years. To determine the target on CT/NMR for linear accelerator stereotactic irradiation, the Greitz-Bergstroem non-invasive head fixation device was used. It was again adopted for subsequent serial imaging, and for repeat radiosurgery when necessary. The total peripheral tumour dose ranged from 12 to 45 Gy. In 9 patients there was a reduction in tumour volume varying from 39 to 100% , while 14 of the neurinomas appeared stable after an average follow-up of 3 years. In one patient there was an increase in size of the tumour. Variable morphological changes were present in 66% of the neurinomas treated. Radiosurgery is indicated as an alternative to microsurgery for inoperab1e patients and for those who refuse surgery, for recurrent tumours, and as a post-operative complementary treatment for partially removed tumours. A gradual approach to radiosurgery, depending on tumour response, allows a greater efficacy with minimal risk. In the present series no complications were observed. Hearing was preserved at almost the same level as that prior to radiosurgery in all patients. (author)

  15. Tumours and tumour-like lesions of the lower face at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana--an eight year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Grace E A; Armah, George; Ampofo, Patrick

    2007-05-07

    The oro-facial region including the jawbones, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla, especially, in West African children. We report results from a retrospective study spanning eight years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of lower face tumours seen in the main referral hospital in Ghana. Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the first author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital with tumours affecting the lower part of the face from January 1996 to December 2003 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. A total of 394 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry out of which 210 had lower face tumour and tumour-like lesions. The complete data set was obtained for 171 patients, comprising 99 (58%) males and 72 (42%) females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%), intra-oral swelling (55%), pain (41%) and ulceration (29%). The tumours were predominantly found in the right (43%), anterior (19%) and left (18%) aspects of the lower face. The remainder making up 20% were found in the floor of the mouth, tongue and lips. Seventy eight (45.6%) of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 54 (62%) were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Sixty-two (36.3%) had benign odontogenic tumours and thirty-one (18.1%) had non-odontogenic tumour-like lesions. Fifty-four (62%) of malignant tumours were squamous cell carcinoma; 58 (93.6%) of the benign odontogenic tumours were classified as ameloblastoma. The mean age at presentation of all lesions was 40

  16. Tumours and tumour-like lesions of the lower face at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana – an eight year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampofo Patrick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oro-facial region including the jawbones, the maxilla and mandible and related tissues can be the site of a multitude of neoplastic conditions. These tumours have a predilection for the entire facial region; however, odontogenic tumours tend to affect the mandible more than the maxilla, especially, in West African children. We report results from a retrospective study spanning eight years on the frequency, clinical presentation, sites and character of lower face tumours seen in the main referral hospital in Ghana. Patients and methods Records of consecutive patients of all age and sex seen by the first author's team at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital with tumours affecting the lower part of the face from January 1996 to December 2003 were retrieved, coded and entered into a database. The data were then analyzed by age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site of lesion, and their histology. Results A total of 394 patients with oro-facial swellings were retrieved from the registry out of which 210 had lower face tumour and tumour-like lesions. The complete data set was obtained for 171 patients, comprising 99 (58% males and 72 (42% females. The most common clinical presenting features were mandibular facial swelling (63%, intra-oral swelling (55%, pain (41% and ulceration (29%. The tumours were predominantly found in the right (43%, anterior (19% and left (18% aspects of the lower face. The remainder making up 20% were found in the floor of the mouth, tongue and lips. Seventy eight (45.6% of the patients presented with lesions that were classified as malignant of which 54 (62% were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Sixty-two (36.3% had benign odontogenic tumours and thirty-one (18.1% had non-odontogenic tumour-like lesions. Fifty-four (62% of malignant tumours were squamous cell carcinoma; 58 (93.6% of the benign odontogenic tumours were classified as ameloblastoma. The

  17. SPECTRUM OF NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS- A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

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    Pasupuleti Prathima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuroendocrine tumours occur at various sites in the human body. They are considered as one of the close differentials for many tumours. Various benign and malignant tumours undergo neuroendocrine differentiation. Its incidence is slightly increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. Although rare, they can be seen in breast, gallbladder and skin. The aim of the study is to study the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumours from various sites, their clinical presentation, histomorphological features with immunohistochemistry and review of literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective study for a period of 3 years (June 2013-June 2016. Surgical resection specimens were included in the study. Out of the total specimens received, 24 cases were of neuroendocrine tumours. Differential diagnosis of small round cell tumours also was considered and a panel of immunohistochemical markers were included to rule out them. Biopsy specimens were excluded from the study. RESULTS Out of the 24 cases, 18 cases were benign lesions. 6 cases were malignant lesions. Female preponderance was noted. Peak incidence was seen in 20-30 years of age group. CONCLUSION Neuroendocrine tumours can occur anywhere in the body and it should be considered in one of the differential diagnosis. Diagnosis must be accurately made.

  18. Giant Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumour: An Enigma of Surgical Consideration

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    Firdaus Hayati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 16-year-old male, who was referred from private centre for dyspnoea, fatigue, and orthopnea. The chest radiograph revealed complete opacification of left chest which was confirmed by computed tomography as a large left mediastinal mass measuring 14 × 15 × 18 cm. The diagnostic needle core biopsy revealed mixed germ cell tumour with possible combination of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac, and teratoma. After 4 cycles of neoadjuvant BEP regime, there was initial response of tumour markers but not tumour bulk. Instead of classic median sternotomy or clamshell incision, posterolateral approach with piecemeal manner was chosen. Histology confirmed mixed germ cell tumour with residual teratomatous component without yolk sac or embryonal carcinoma component. Weighing 3.5 kg, it is one of the largest mediastinal germ cell tumours ever reported. We describe this rare and gigantic intrathoracic tumour and discuss the spectrum of surgical approach and treatment of this exceptional tumour.

  19. Management of a Gastrobronchial Fistula Connected to the Skin in a Giant Extragastric Stromal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors first treatment should be surgical resection, but when metastases are diagnosed or the tumor is unresectable, imatinib must be the first option. This treatment could induce some serious complications difficult to resolve. Case Report. We present a 47-year-old black man with a giant unresectable gastric stromal tumor under imatinib therapy who presented serious complications such as massive gastrointestinal bleeding and a gastrobronchial fistula connected with the skin, successfully treated by surgery and gastroscopy. Discussion. Complications due to imatinib therapy can result in life threatening. They represent a challenge for surgeons and digestologists; creative strategies are needed in order to resolve them.

  20. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  1. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.; Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane; Pavia Univ.; Bordeaux Univ., 33; Rouen Univ., 76

    1984-01-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution. (orig.)

  2. CT appearances of pleural tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahudeen, H.M. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hmdsal@gmail.com; Hoey, E.T.D. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Robertson, R.J.; Darby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging technique of choice for characterizing pleural masses with respect to their location, composition, and extent. CT also provides important information regarding invasion of the chest wall and surrounding structures. A spectrum of tumours can affect the pleura of which metastatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest cause of malignant pleural disease, while malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural tumour. Certain CT features help differentiate benign from malignant processes. This pictorial review highlights the salient CT appearances of a range of tumours that may affect the pleura.

  3. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage...... and regulation of BM adipocyte formation are not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss recent findings pertaining to identification and characterization of adipocyte progenitor cells in BM and the regulation of differentiation into mature adipocytes. We have also emphasized the clinical relevance...

  4. Multiphase modelling of vascular tumour growth in two spatial dimensions

    KAUST Repository

    Hubbard, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a continuum mathematical model of vascular tumour growth which is based on a multiphase framework in which the tissue is decomposed into four distinct phases and the principles of conservation of mass and momentum are applied to the normal/healthy cells, tumour cells, blood vessels and extracellular material. The inclusion of a diffusible nutrient, supplied by the blood vessels, allows the vasculature to have a nonlocal influence on the other phases. Two-dimensional computational simulations are carried out on unstructured, triangular meshes to allow a natural treatment of irregular geometries, and the tumour boundary is captured as a diffuse interface on this mesh, thereby obviating the need to explicitly track the (potentially highly irregular and ill-defined) tumour boundary. A hybrid finite volume/finite element algorithm is used to discretise the continuum model: the application of a conservative, upwind, finite volume scheme to the hyperbolic mass balance equations and a finite element scheme with a stable element pair to the generalised Stokes equations derived from momentum balance, leads to a robust algorithm which does not use any form of artificial stabilisation. The use of a matrix-free Newton iteration with a finite element scheme for the nutrient reaction-diffusion equations allows full nonlinearity in the source terms of the mathematical model.Numerical simulations reveal that this four-phase model reproduces the characteristic pattern of tumour growth in which a necrotic core forms behind an expanding rim of well-vascularised proliferating tumour cells. The simulations consistently predict linear tumour growth rates. The dependence of both the speed with which the tumour grows and the irregularity of the invading tumour front on the model parameters is investigated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.

    2015-12-04

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails. Moreover, MLLT1-mutant tumours show an increase in MYC gene expression and HOX dysregulation. Patients with MLLT1-mutant tumours present at a younger age and have a high prevalence of precursor intralobar nephrogenic rests. These data support a model whereby activating MLLT1 mutations early in renal development result in the development of Wilms tumour.

  6. A typical thymic carcinoid tumour within a thymolipoma: report of a case and review of combined tumours of the thymus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Christina; Steiner, Hans-Joerg; Moser, Katharina; Fiechtl, Heinrich; Moser, Patrizia; Schmid, Thomas; Rieker, Ralf Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Thymolipomas are rare tumours located in the anterior mediastinum. Sometimes these tumours may be combined with thymomas or lymphomas. We present a unique case of a thymic carcinoid arising within a thymolipoma. A 68-year-old patient presented with chronic chest and neck pain, which was initially thought to be caused by coronary artery disease. A chest x-ray, exercise tolerance test and coronary angiography were unremarkable. The following CT scan of the neck and chest showed a small tumour in the anterior mediastinum. A robotic-assisted thymectomy was performed and histological examination revealed a neuroendocrine tumour of the thymus within a thymolipoma. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery in good general condition. PMID:22791779

  7. Alfa-fetoprotein secreting ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are relatively infrequent neoplasms that account for approximately 8% of all primary ovarian tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells derived from gonadal sex cords (granulosa and Sertoli cells, specialized gonadal stroma (theca and Leydig cells, and fibroblasts. They may show androgenic or estrogenic manifestations. We report such a tumor associated with markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in a young female presenting with a mass and defeminising symptoms. Serum AFP levels returned to normal on removal of tumor.

  8. Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Mygind, Naja Dam; Ali Qayyum, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    is very costly for the health care system. Therefore, new treatment options and strategies are being researched intensely. Stem cell therapy to improve myocardial perfusion and stimulate growth of new cardiomyocytes could be a new way to go. Nevertheless, the results from clinical studies have varied...... considerably, probably due to the use of many different cell lines obtained from different tissues and the different patient populations. The present review will focus on treatment with the mesenchymal stromal cell from bone marrow and adipose tissue in animal and patients with acute and chronic IHD (CIHD)....

  9. Giant Rectal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Report of Two Cases

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    C. Dickhoff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs of the rectum are rare and often difficult to remove surgically. At the time metastases are found, GISTs are considered to be incurable and until recently no adequate therapy was of any value for these patients. Recently, imatinib was introduced: a signal transducing inhibitor acting specifically on the KIT-tyrosine kinase, which can be used to downsize giant GIST (neo-adjuvant before surgery or induce stable disease in case of metastases with few minor side-effects. Two patients with giant rectal GIST are presented, one of which was treated before the imatinib era, the other when imatinib was available.

  10. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, L.; Fornara, P.; Fabricius, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.) [de

  11. Management approach and surgical strategies for retrorectal tumours: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, J W T; Morgan, M

    2016-04-01

    The management strategy for retrorectal tumours is complex. Due to their rarity, few surgeons have expertise in management. A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed database. English language publications in the years 2011-2015 that assessed preoperative management, surgical strategies and chemoradiotherapy for presacral tumours were included. Two hundred and fifty-one abstracts were screened of which 88 met the inclusion criteria. After review of the full text, this resulted in a final list of 42 studies eligible for review. In all, 932 patients (63.2% female, 36.8% male; P < 0.01) with a retrorectal tumour were identified. Most were benign (65.9% vs. 33.7%, P < 0.01). Imaging distinguished benign from malignant lesions in 88.1% of cases; preoperative biopsy was superior to imaging in providing an accurate definitive diagnosis (91.3% vs. 61.4%, P < 0.05) with negligible seeding risk. Biopsy should be performed in solid tumours. It is useful in guiding neoadjuvant therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, sarcomas and desmoid type fibromatosis and may alter the management strategy in cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and metastases. Biopsies for cystic lesions are not recommended. The gold standard in imaging is MRI. The posterior Kraske procedure is the most common surgical approach. Overall, the reported recurrence rate was 19.7%. This review evaluated the management strategies for retrorectal tumours. A preoperative biopsy should be performed for solid tumours. MRI is the most useful imaging modality. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. There is limited information on robotic surgery, single-port surgery, transanal endoscopic microsurgery, chemoradiotherapy and reconstruction. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Cryopreservation and revival of mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Kastrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    initiated. As there has been a precedent for the use of bone marrow stem cells in the treatment of hematological malignancies and ischemic heart diseases through randomized clinical safety and efficacy trials, the development of new therapies based on culture-expanded human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs...

  13. A deadly combination of AIDS, TB and cardiac tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Tushar Ramesh

    2013-05-22

    Immunocompromised status in AIDS makes differential diagnosis of any symptom very difficult for a clinician. Sharp clinical judgement and plenty of investigations may be needed to reach the diagnosis, as in this case. We hereby present a case of AIDS and active tuberculosis (TB) under treatment. The patient developed acute onset multifocal neurological symptoms following an episode of fever and diarrhoea. The MRI scan revealed numerous large cerebral infarcts. On investigations to evaluate brain infarcts, we made a diagnosis of left atrial cardiac tumour. Association of cardiac tumours with AIDS has only been rarely reported. It is uncertain if these can be opportunistic tumours in AIDS. The patient successfully came out of this deadly combination of diseases, viz AIDS, TB and large brain infarcts due to atrial tumour; with almost complete recovery.

  14. Giant solitary fibrous tumour of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggermont Alexander MM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that most frequently affects the pleura, although it has been reported with increasing frequency in various other sites such as in the peritoneum, pericardium and in non-serosal sites such as lung parenchyma, upper respiratory tract, orbit, thyroid, parotid gland, or thymus. Liver parenchyma is rarely affected. Clinically, SFTs cause symptoms after having reached a certain size or when vital structures are involved. In recent years, SFTs are more often identified and distinguished from other tumours with a similar appearance due to the availability of characteristic immunohistochemical markers. Case presentation In this manuscript we report the case of a large tumour of the liver, which was histologically diagnosed as a SFT, and showed involvement of a single hepatic segment. Because of the patient's presentation and clinical course, it may represent a radiation-induced lesion. Conclusion When a SFT has been diagnosed, surgery is the treatment of choice. The small number of patients with a SFT of the liver and its unknown natural behaviour creates the need to a careful registration and follow-up of all identified cases

  15. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, W.B. van der.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  16. Radiologic Imaging Findings of Bilateral Infiltrating Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts:A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Hee Sun; Jeh, Su Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a rare benign lesion, shows the proliferation of the breast stromal tissue mimicking the low grade angiosarcoma (1-7). The most common mammographic and ultrasound finding of PASH is a circumscribed mass without calcification and it is difficult to distinguish from the phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma (1-4, 8). Up to our knowledge, PASH presenting as rapid bilateral breast enlargement, as seen in our case, is very rare. In addition, several English medical literature were reported in this kind of manifestation of PASH (3, 4, 8). We described imaging findings of diffuse, infiltrating, and bilateral manifectation of PASH.

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cells for cardiovascular repair: current status and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Kastrup, Jens

    2009-01-01

    of treatments in patients with heart failure, the 1-year mortality is still approximately 20% after the diagnosis has been established. Treatment with stem cells with the potential to regenerate the damaged myocardium is a relatively new approach. Mesenchymal stromal cells are a promising source of stem cells...... studies are promising, but there are still many unanswered questions. In this review, we explore present preclinical and clinical knowledge regarding the use of stem cells in cardiovascular regenerative medicine, with special focus on mesenchymal stromal cells. We take a closer look at sources of stem...

  18. Gastric schwannoma: a benign tumor often misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva S. Shah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma.

  19. Gastric Schwannoma: A Benign Tumor Often Misdiagnosed as Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Apurva S; Rathi, Pravin M; Somani, Vaibhav S; Mulani, Astha M

    2015-09-28

    Gastric schwannomas are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from the nerve plexus of gut wall. They present with nonspecific symptoms and are often detected incidentally. Preoperative investigation is not pathognomic and many are therefore misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We report a rare case of a 37-year old woman who underwent laparotomy for complex bilateral ovarian cyst with resection of gastric-gastrointestinal stromal tumor preoperatively, but confirmed to have a gastric schwannomas postoperatively. This case underscores the differential diagnosis of submucosal, exophytic gastric mass as schwannoma.

  20. Radiologic Imaging Findings of Bilateral Infiltrating Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts:A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Hee Sun; Jeh, Su Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a rare benign lesion, shows the proliferation of the breast stromal tissue mimicking the low grade angiosarcoma (1-7). The most common mammographic and ultrasound finding of PASH is a circumscribed mass without calcification and it is difficult to distinguish from the phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma (1-4, 8). Up to our knowledge, PASH presenting as rapid bilateral breast enlargement, as seen in our case, is very rare. In addition, several English medical literature were reported in this kind of manifestation of PASH (3, 4, 8). We described imaging findings of diffuse, infiltrating, and bilateral manifectation of PASH.

  1. Primary omental Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirahara Nobutsune

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report herein a rare case of primary omental gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. Case presentation A 65 year-old man was referred to our hospital with a huge abdominal mass occupying the entire left upper abdomen as shown by sonography. On computed tomography (CT, this appeared as a heterogeneous low-density mass with faint enhancement. Abdominal angiography revealed that the right gastroepiploic artery supplied the tumor. With such an indication of gastric GIST, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma or mesothelioma laparotomy was performed and revealed that this large mass measured 20 × 17 × 6 cm, arising from the greater omentum. It was completely resected. Histopathologically, it was composed of proliferating spindle and epithelioid cells with an interlacing bundle pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for myeloid stem cell antigen (CD34, weakly positive for c-KIT (CD117 and slightly positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE, but negative for cytokeratin (CK, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA and S-100 protein. A mutation was identified in the platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA juxtamembrane domain (exon 12, codon561 and the tumor was diagnosed as an omental GIST. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is treated by Glevec® and is alive well with no sign of relapse. Conclusion Our case demonstrated a weak immunohistochemical expression of c-kit (CD117 and a point mutation in PDGFRA exon 12 resulting in an Asp for Val561 substitution. Imatinib therapy as an adjuvant to complete resection has been carried out safely. Because of the rarity of primary omental GISTs, it is inevitable to analyze accumulating data from case reports for a better and more detailed understanding of primary omental GISTs.

  2. Primary intramedullary spinal cord tumour in pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Kyoko; Orisaka, Makoto; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nishijima, Koji; Yoshida, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    Primary spinal cord tumours can lead to severe neurological complications and even death. Pregnant women often complain of discomfort of the lower limbs, which is usually caused by sciatica. Here we present the case of a pregnant woman, who was initially considered to have sciatica, but was finally diagnosed with a primary intramedullary spinal cord tumour. A 28-year-old pregnant woman presented to our hospital with inexplicable numbness in her lower limbs. She was initially considered to have sciatica, but acute deterioration of neurological symptoms and plain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggested malignancy. The patient was finally diagnosed with a primary intramedullary spinal cord tumour at the C3-Th5 region. An emergency caesarean section was performed, after which the spinal cord lesion was evaluated using contrast-enhanced MRI, positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-d-glucose integrated with computed tomography, and spinal angiography, and further treatment was initiated. However, while the patient's spinal cord tumour surgery was performed in early postpartum, her paraplegia and bladder and rectal disturbances remained unchanged even 1 year after surgery. Because of the low incidence of spinal cord tumours during pregnancy, no definite reports have been published on the treatment of pregnant patients with spinal cord tumours. Although safe imaging tests during pregnancy are limited, intervention in such patients should be performed as early as possible to avoid irreversible neurological deterioration.

  3. STUDY OF CLINICAL AND ENDOCRINE PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH PITUITARY TUMOURS ATTENDING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Kumar Mohanty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary tumours are relatively common endocrine tumours. They can present with symptoms related to hormone excess or hormone deficiency. They can also present with compressive symptoms like visual problems and headache. OBJECTIVE To study the various clinical presentations and endocrine profile of patients presenting with pituitary tumours to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical data including hormonal status of 33 consecutive patients who presented to our department from March 2014 to February 2016 for evaluation of pituitary tumours. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 40-50 years group (33.34%.The most common type of pituitary tumour in our population was non-functioning pituitary tumours (45.45%. The next common cause was somatotroph adenoma (27.27% followed by prolactinoma (15.15% and corticotroph adenomas (12.13%. There was significant male predominance (60.60% among total cases. Among all patients, headache (54.54% was most common presentation followed by features related to hormone excess (51.51%. CONCLUSIONS Pituitary tumours can present with variety of symptoms. A detailed endocrine workup is essential in each case to reach at correct diagnosis. In our cohort, non-functioning pituitary tumour was the most common tumour subtype.

  4. Giant fibroadenoma presenting like fungating breast cancer in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Giant fibroadenoma of the breast is a rare benign breast tumour which seldom grows to a giant size, it is even rarer for this benign tumour to grow rapidly, ulcerate spontaneously and present like a fungating breast tumour in a way mimicking breast cancer. Case presentation: This is a presentation of a 14 year ...

  5. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, P.; Nicolas, A. I.; Vivas, I.; Damaso Aquerreta, J.; Martinez-Cuesta, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs

  6. Annexin A1 influences in breast cancer: Controversies on contributions to tumour, host and immunoediting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yan; Johnstone, Cameron N; Stewart, Alastair G

    2017-05-01

    Annexin A1 is a multifunctional protein characterised by its actions in modulating the innate and adaptive immune response. Accumulating evidence of altered annexin A1 expression in many human tumours raises interest in its functional role in cancer biology. In breast cancer, altered annexin A1 expression levels suggest a potential influence on tumorigenic and metastatic processes. However, reports of conflicting results reveal a relationship that is much more complex than first conceptualised. In this review, we explore the diverse actions of annexin A1 on breast tumour cells and various host cell types, including stromal immune and structural cells, particularly in the context of cancer immunoediting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Urothelial Tumours of the Urinary Bladder: A Histopathological Study of Cystoscopic Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Vaidya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Bladder tumours constitute one of the most common urological conditions. Urothelial (transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 90% of all primary tumours of the bladder. These tumours are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to present the histopathological patterns of urothelial tumours and to determine the grade and stage of these tumours. Methods: This is a 3 year retrospective study of urothelial tumours carried out in the Department of Pathology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS, Lalitpur, Nepal. Data of all cystoscopic biopsies collected during this period were analyzed. Results: Urothelial (transitional cell tumours accounted for 97.59% (81 cases of all bladder tumours. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common tumour which was present in 67 cases (80.72%. Of these, 32 (47.76% were low grade TCC while 35 (52.24% were high grade TCC. Maximum number of tumours (70.37% were superficial (pTa and pT1 while (29.63% were muscle invasive (pT2. Sixteen percent of low grade and 76.92% of high grade tumours showed muscle invasion. Detrusor muscle was absent in 23.88% cases (16/67. Conclusion: Transitional cell carcinoma was the most common bladder cancer. Most of these tumours were high grade. A large percentage of high grade carcinomas presented with muscle invasion. Pathological grade and muscle invasion are the most valuable prognostic predictors of survival. The importance of including smooth muscle in the biopsy specimens needs to be emphasized Key words: cancer, high grade, low grade, transitional, tumour, urinary bladder.

  8. A FIVE-YEAR HISTOPATHOLOGICAL REVIEW OF CNS TUMOURS IN A TERTIARY CENTRE WITH EMPHASIS ON DIAGNOSTIC ASPECTS OF UNCOMMON TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premalatha Pidakala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tumours of central nervous system (CNS are of varied histogenesis and show divergent lines of differentiation and morphological features. These tumours show specific predilection for age and sex groups, more commonly than of tumours of other systems. Though tumours of glial tissue are more common, other tumours of neural, ependymal and meningeal origin are not uncommon. Metastatic disease is the common encounter in elderly. Tumour diagnosis is not always straight forward as many non-neoplastic lesions and reactive proliferations mimic tumours. Immunohistochemistry may help in problematic cases and thus can be used as an adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of such cases in addition to the routine histopathological staining methods. An accurate histological diagnosis is of extreme importance in these sites as exact diagnosis helps in proper management and favourable clinical outcome. MATERIAL & METHODS This study is on a retrospective and prospective basis in our institution from January 2011 to January, 2016. Our institute is a tertiary care center attached to a medical college catering to the needs of a rural based population. During this period, a total of 717 central nervous system tumour specimens were received and diagnosed based on examination of Haematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded specimens. Immunohistochemical markers (IHC were applied in selective cases for an accurate diagnosis and a number of rare cases were diagnosed based on morphology and IHC marker studies. RESULTS Age and sex incidence and anatomic distribution of various tumours were studied. In adults, meningiomas occurred most frequently in the present study followed by nerve sheath tumours, astrocytomas, metastatic deposits, glioblastomas and pituitary adenomas. Embryonal tumours occurred frequently in children. Other rare tumours identified are amyloidogenic pituitary adenoma, central neurocytoma, glioneuronal tumour with

  9. Giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour of the calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Polson, Alexander; Griffiths, Meryl; Morris, Paul; Malata, Charles; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of giant atypical ossifying fibromyxoid tumour (OFMT) of soft tissue, occurring in the calf, in a 77-year-old woman. The patient presented with a history of bleeding ulcer over a calf lump that had been present for over 4 years. Clinical presentation, radiological features and histopathologic findings are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Dienogest inhibits BrdU uptake with G0/G1 arrest in cultured endometriotic stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Osuga, Yutaka; Morimoto, Chieko; Hirata, Tetsuya; Hirota, Yasushi; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effect of dienogest on the proliferation of endometriotic stromal cells. Comparative and laboratory study. University of Tokyo Hospital. Endometriotic stromal cells were isolated and cultured from ovarian endometriomas of patients undergoing surgery. Dienogest was added to the cultured endometriotic stromal cells. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into DNA of the endometriotic stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Cell cycle analysis of the cultured endometriotic stromal cells was performed by flow cytometry. Dienogest at concentration of 10(-7) M and 10(-6) M significantly inhibited BrdU incorporation into DNA at 24 and 48 hours. Dienogest significantly increased the cells in G0/G1 phase and reduced the cells in S phase and G2/M phase in 24 and 48 hours. The present study indicates that dienogest can inhibit the proliferation of the endometriotic stromal cells with G0/G1 arrest, suggesting a possible direct effect of dienogest in the treatment of endometriosis.

  11. Stimulation of porcine bone marrow stromal cells by hyaluronan, dexamethasone and rhBMP-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Xuenong; Li, Haisheng; Chen, Li

    2004-01-01

    In the interest of optimizing osteogenesis in in vitro, the present study sought to determine how porcine bone marrow stromal cell (BMSc) would respond to different concentrations of hyaluronan (HY) and its different combinations with dexamethasone (Dex) and recombinant human bone morphogenic pro...

  12. Imaging of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors before and after Imatinib Mesylate Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, S.; Dundamadappa, S.K.; Karam, A.R. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)); Stay, R.M. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Sonnenberg, E. van (Radiology Dept., Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    2009-10-15

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. Recent advances in treatment using the molecular targeting agent imatinib mesylate have shown startling response rates and variegated imaging findings. We present the various imaging appearances of GIST on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both before and after treatment.

  13. Incidentally detected gastrointestinal stromal tumor: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Canbak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST are mesenchymal tumors located primarily in the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to present a case report of GIST incidentally detected during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency room due to abdominal pain for one day. The physical examination revealed sensitivity on the right upper quadrant. In the laboratory examinations, white blood cell count 6,490 k/uL, hemoglobin 12 g/dL, hematocrit 35% and other biochemical tests were normal. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hydropic gallbladder, several gallstones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm and pericholecystic fluid collection was present. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was planned due to acute cholecystitis. In exploration, beside the presence of acute cholecystitis, a mass of approximately 5 cm, located 15 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz was detected. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Conversion to open laparotomy was done; small intestine resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with CD117, CD34 and S100 positivity was detected on histopathologic examination.It is thought that GISTs are mesenchymal tumors originating from precursors of Kajal cells. GISTs are usually detected in their 60s. The first option for treatment is surgical resection.

  14. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  15. Infantile fibrosarcoma presenting as shoulder dystocia A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Congenital (infantile) fibrosarcomas are soft-tissue tumours that usually present after birth. In the case described a large tumour of the right arm caused shoulder dystocia and death of the fetus.

  16. Modelling of Anti-Tumour Immune Response: Immunocorrective Effect of Weak Centimetre Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Isaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate the dynamical model for the anti-tumour immune response based on intercellular cytokine-mediated interactions with the interleukin-2 (IL-2 taken into account. The analysis shows that the expression level of tumour antigens on antigen presenting cells has a distinct influence on the tumour dynamics. At low antigen presentation, a progressive tumour growth takes place to the highest possible value. At high antigen presentation, there is a decrease in tumour size to some value when the dynamical equilibrium between the tumour and the immune system is reached. In the case of the medium antigen presentation, both these regimes can be realized depending on the initial tumour size and the condition of the immune system. A pronounced immunomodulating effect (the suppression of tumour growth and the normalization of IL-2 concentration is established by considering the influence of low-intensity electromagnetic microwaves as a parametric perturbation of the dynamical system. This finding is in qualitative agreement with the recent experimental results on immunocorrective effects of centimetre electromagnetic waves in tumour-bearing mice.

  17. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells in pancreatic cancer: New insights into stromal biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Han-Xiang; Zhou, Bin; Cheng, Yu-Gang; Xu, Jian-Wei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Hu, San-Yuan

    2017-04-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Increasing evidence has confirmed the pivotal role of stromal components in the regulation of carcinogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance in PC. Interaction between neoplastic cells and stromal cells builds a specific microenvironment, which further modulates the malignant properties of cancer cells. Instead of being a "passive bystander", stroma may play a role as a "partner in crime" in PC. However, the role of stromal components in PC is complex and requires further investigation. In this article, we review recent advances regarding the regulatory roles and mechanisms of stroma biology, especially the cellular components such as pancreatic stellate cells, macrophages, neutrophils, adipocytes, epithelial cells, pericytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes, in PC. Crosstalk between stromal cells and cancer cells is thoroughly investigated. We also review the prognostic value and molecular therapeutic targets of stroma in PC. This review may help us further understand the molecular mechanisms of stromal biology and its role in PC development and therapeutic resistance. Moreover, targeting stroma components may provide new therapeutic strategies for this stubborn disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Batwing versus Wise pattern mammoplasty for upper pole breast tumours: a detailed comparison of cosmetic outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem, Tarek; Farahat, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to compare the results of batwing mammoplasty and Wise pattern mammoplasty in the surgical management of upper pole breast tumours. Methods This is a retrospective observational study including 126 breast cancer patients who presented between 2009 and 2015 to the National Cancer Institute of Cairo University in Egypt. All patients were candidates for breast conservation, with upper pole tumours, which was defined as tumours between 3 and 9 o?clock. Patients...

  19. Corticomedullary mixed tumour resembling a small adrenal gland-involvement of cancer stem cells: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Lian; Fang, Fang; Fu, Wanlei; Fang, Zhenqiang; Wang, Hui; Yu, Shicang; Tang, Zili; Liu, Zhenqi; Zheng, Hongting

    2017-01-01

    Background Adrenal corticomedullary mixed tumours are very rare. Its mechanism is rarely reported. Here we report the first case of a corticomedullary mixed tumour resembling a ?small adrenal gland? with distinct arrangement of the cortical and medullary layers. We further hypothesize regarding the tumorigenic mechanism of this tumour. Case presentation A 58-year man had been diagnosed with diabetes and hypertension for 3?years. His 24-h urine vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) levels were slightly ...

  20. Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART): average tumour trajectory for lung patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neicu, Toni; Shirato, Hiroki; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Jiang, Steve B

    2003-01-01

    Synchronized moving aperture radiation therapy (SMART) is a new technique for treating mobile tumours under development at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The basic idea of SMART is to synchronize the moving radiation beam aperture formed by a dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) with the tumour motion induced by respiration. SMART is based on the concept of the average tumour trajectory (ATT) exhibited by a tumour during respiration. During the treatment simulation stage, tumour motion is measured and the ATT is derived. Then, the original IMRT MLC leaf sequence is modified using the ATT to compensate for tumour motion. During treatment, the tumour motion is monitored. The treatment starts when leaf motion and tumour motion are synchronized at a specific breathing phase. The treatment will halt when the tumour drifts away from the ATT and will resume when the synchronization between tumour motion and radiation beam is re-established. In this paper, we present a method to derive the ATT from measured tumour trajectory data. We also investigate the validity of the ATT concept for lung tumours during normal breathing. The lung tumour trajectory data were acquired during actual radiotherapy sessions using a real-time tumour-tracking system. SMART treatment is simulated by assuming that the radiation beam follows the derived ATT and the tumour follows the measured trajectory. In simulation, the treatment starts at exhale phase. The duty cycle of SMART delivery was calculated for various treatment times and gating thresholds, as well as for various exhale phases where the treatment begins. The simulation results show that in the case of free breathing, for 4 out of 11 lung datasets with tumour motion greater than 1 cm from peak to peak, the error in tumour tracking can be controlled to within a couple of millimetres while maintaining a reasonable delivery efficiency. That is to say, without any breath coaching/control, the ATT is a valid concept for some lung

  1. Immune senescence: significance of the stromal microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, A. R.; Haynes, L.; Su, D.‐M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The immune system undergoes age‐associated changes known as immunosenescence, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections, cancers and autoimmunity in the aged. The basis of our understanding of immunosenescence has been derived primarily from studies examining intrinsic defects within many of the cells of the immune system. While these studies have provided insight into the mechanisms of immunosenescence, a picture is now emerging that the stromal microenvironment within lymphoid organs also contributes significantly to the age‐associated decline of immune function. These extrinsic defects appear to impact the functional activity of immune cells and may offer a potential target to recover immune activity. Indeed, rejuvenation studies which have targeted the stromal niche have restored immune function in aged successfully, highlighting the impact of the microenvironment towards the aetiology of immunosenescence. PMID:27529161

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cells: misconceptions and evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Donald G; Sensebé, Luc

    2013-02-01

    Nearly half a century has passed since the publication of the first articles describing plastic-adherent cells from bone marrow, referred to initially as colony-forming unit fibroblasts, then marrow stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells and most recently multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). As expected, our understanding of the nature and biologic functions of MSCs has undergone major paradigm shifts over this time. Despite significant advances made in deciphering their complex biology and therapeutic potential in both experimental animal models and human clinical trials, numerous misconceptions regarding the nature and function of MSCs have persisted in the field. Continued propagation of these misconceptions in some cases may significantly impede the advancement of MSC-based therapies in clinical medicine. We have identified six prevalent misconceptions about MSCs that we believe affect the field, and we attempt to rectify them based on current available data. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mathematical modeling of liver metastases tumour growth and control with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Adrienne; Sivakumaran, Thiru; Wong, Eugene; Davidson, Melanie; Lock, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Generating an optimized radiation treatment plan requires understanding the factors affecting tumour control. Mathematical models of tumour dynamics may help in future studies of factors predicting tumour sensitivity to radiotherapy. In this study, a time-dependent differential model, incorporating biological cancer markers, is presented to describe pre-treatment tumour growth, response to radiation, and recurrence. The model uses Gompertzian-Exponential growth to model pre-treatment tumour growth. The effect of radiotherapy is handled by a realistic cell-kill term that includes a volume-dependent change in tumour sensitivity. Post-treatment, a Gompertzian, accelerated, delayed repopulation is employed. As proof of concept, we examined the fit of the model's prediction using various liver enzyme levels as markers of metastatic liver tumour growth in a liver cancer patient. A tumour clonogen population model was formulated. Each enzyme was coupled to the same tumour population, and served as surrogates of the tumour. This dynamical model was solved numerically and compared to the measured enzyme levels. By minimizing the mean-squared error of the model enzyme predictions, we determined the following tumour model parameters: growth rate prior to treatment was 0.52% per day; the fractional radiation cell kill for the prescribed dose (60 Gy in 15 fractions) was 42% per day, and the tumour repopulation rate was 2.9% per day. These preliminary results provided the basis to test the model in a larger series of patients, to apply biological markers for improving the efficacy of radiotherapy by determining the underlying tumour dynamics.

  4. Stromal serine protein kinase activity in spinach chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, N.; Lucero, H.A.; Vallejos, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    At least twelve 32 P-labeled stromal proteins were detected by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions when intact chloroplasts were incubated with 32 Pi, in the light but only three were detected in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or in the dark. Incubation of isolated stroma with [gamma- 32 P]ATP resulted in the preferential phosphorylation of one of them, a 70-kDa polypeptide, in serine residues. Thylakoid membranes in the dark promoted the phosphorylation of two additional stromal polypeptides of 55 and 40 kDa. Illumination during the phosphorylation of stroma in the presence of thylakoids stimulated severalfold the labeling of the 40-kDa polypeptide but not when DCMU was added. The protein kinase activity present in isolated stroma phosphorylated exogenous substrates like histone III, phosvitin, histone II, and casein with specific activities of 3, 1.8, 0.7, and 0.2 pmol X mg-1 X min-1. Histone III polypeptides were phosphorylated differently by stroma and by thylakoids in the dark. Moreover, histone III phosphorylated by thylakoids in the dark yielded a pattern of phosphopeptides after V8 protease treatment that was different from the pattern obtained when histone III was phosphorylated by stroma

  5. Extragenital endometrial stromal sarcoma arising in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, Juan Luis; Guerriero, Stefano; Ajossa, Silvia; Parodo, Giuseppina; Piras, Bruno; Peiretti, Michele; Jurado, Matías; Idoate, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis rate of deep pelvic endometriosis is increasing. Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) is a rare neoplasm. Extragenital ESS is an extremely uncommon event. Very few cases of extragenital ESS have been reported to date. The diagnosis of this entity is very difficult in some instances. Knowledge about its management is also limited. In this paper, we review the current literature on the clinical management, histology, immunohistochemistry, treatment and outcome of ESS arising in pelvic endometriosis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  7. A PROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL-BASED STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN A REFERRAL CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathima Gujjaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain neoplasms occur at all ages and account for around 2-3 percent of all deaths in adults. In children, the frequency increases to more than twenty percent. In children, it forms the second most common type of malignancy. Most of the tumours encountered are not related to any identifiable risk factors except for irradiation and some hereditary syndromes like subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, cerebellar haemangioblastoma, meningioma, Schwannoma of 7 th cranial nerve. Gliomas constitute fifty percent of the brain tumours and sixty percent of all gliomas are glioblastoma multiforme. Meningiomas constitute twenty percent and cerebral metastasis is seen in fifteen percent of the cases. Seventy percent of supratentorial tumours are found in adults and seventy percent of brain tumours in children are infratentorial. The three common tumours of cerebellum are medulloblastoma, haemangioblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain tumours are space occupying lesions and cause compression and destruction of adjacent structures, brain oedema (Peritumoural tissue, infarction and ischaemia of brain by compressing/infiltrating cerebral blood vessels, obstruction of CSF flow causing hydrocephalus, and rise in intracranial pressure with herniations. Tumours can undergo ischaemic necrosis and necrotic tumours tend to bleed. Brain tumours generally do not metastasise. Schwannoma and meningioma are benign tumours. Medulloblastoma of childhood may have drop metastasis via CSF. A sincere effort has been put in this study to identify the incidence of each variety of brain tumour among the fifty confirmed and identified cases of brain tumours. METHODS The age range of the cases in present study was 5-72 years with a mean age of occurrence of 44.11 years and the peak age group affected were in the 3 rd and 4 th decades. Cerebral hemisphere was the commonest site for intracranial tumours. RESULT In the present study, fifty

  8. Assessment of the proliferation status of glioblastoma cell and tumour tissue after nanoplatinum treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutwin, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most frequent primary brain tumours of the central nervous system, with a poor survival time. With inefficient chemotherapy, it is urgent to develop new strategies for tumour therapy. The present approach is based on the inhibition of cell proliferation using platinum...... morphology, the level of DNA synthesis, the migration of cells, protein expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the level of DNA oxidation in glioma tumours were investigated. The results showed that NP-Pt treatment of U87 and U118 glioma cells decreased the level of DNA synthesis...... and the migration of cancer cells but also downregulated the level of PCNA protein expression in tumour tissue. Furthermore, NP-Pt caused oxidative DNA damage in tumour tissue to a higher degree than cisplatin. Consequently, NP-Pt can be considered as an effective inhibitor of glioblastoma tumour cell proliferation...

  9. Malignant mixed mullerian tumours of the body of the uterus: a clinicopathological study of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuphei, M N; Maluleke, H J

    1998-02-01

    To review the clinical and histopathological data on malignant mixed mullerian tumours. A retrospective study of 20 cases of malignant mixed mullerian tumours seen over a period of five and half years. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Anatomical Pathology at Garankuwa Acdemic Hospital. Clinical and histopathological records of patients with malignant mixed mullerian tumours of the body of the uterus. Clinical record and histopathological slides were reviewed. Age, clinical presentation and histological appearances of the cases were noted. The patient age ranged from 16 to 78 years with a median of 63 years (Q1 = 58.5, Q3 = 71.5). Of the 20 cases 14 died within 12 months of diagnosis. Clinical staging and histological staging had no effect on tumour behaviour and outcome of disease. Malignant mixed mullerian tumours are predominantly seen in post menopausal women. These tumours have a very poor prognosis irrespective of clinical stage, histological grade or the type of the stroma.

  10. CANCER Escape from senescence boosts tumour growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Jan Paul

    2018-01-01

    Some chemotherapies block cancer growth by driving tumour cells into a state of cell-division arrest termed senescence. It emerges that such cells have a boosted capacity to drive tumour growth if they exit senescence

  11. Scrotal Involvement with Testicular Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. O’Leary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old male presented with a traumatic injury to the scrotal region necessitating emergency surgery. Evacuation of a haematoma and bilateral orchidectomy were performed. A left sided nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT, predominantly yolk sac, was identified. Microscopic margins were positive for tumour. Initial tumour markers revealed an AFP of 22,854 ng/mL, HCG of <1 mIU/mL, and LDH of 463 IU/L. Eight weeks after surgery, AFP levels remained elevated at 11,646 ng/mL. Computed tomography (CT scanning demonstrated left inguinal adenopathy, 1.5 cm in max dimension. On review, extensive evidence of scrotal involvement was evident. His tumour was staged as stage IIIC, poor risk NSGCT. He was treated with 4 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin over a 12-week period. His tumour markers normalised after 3 cycles. There was a marked improvement noted clinically. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated complete resolution of his tumour. He later underwent further surgery to remove a small amount of remaining spermatic cord. Histology revealed no malignant tissue. The patient suffered many complications including testosterone deficiency, osteopenia, infertility, and psychological distress. Discussion. A small proportion of testicular cancer may present in an atypical manner. The scrotum and testicle have markedly different embryonic origins and therefore a distinct anatomic separation. As a result the scrotum is not a typical site of spread of testicular cancer. Case reports have been described that were managed in a similar manner with good outcomes. Therefore, even with significant scrotal involvement, if timely and appropriate treatment is administered, complete resolution of the tumour may be achieved.

  12. Construction of a human corneal stromal equivalent with non-transfected human corneal stromal cells and acellular porcine corneal stromata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Jin-Mei; Pang, Xin; Qiu, Yue; Miao, Ying; Yu, Miao-Miao; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2015-03-01

    A tissue-engineered human corneal stroma (TE-HCS) has been developed as a promising equivalent to the native corneal stroma for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the TE-HCS equivalent more favorable for clinical applications. At the present study, we constructed a TE-HCS by incubating non-transfected human corneal stromal (HCS) cells in an acellular porcine corneal stromata (aPCS) scaffold in 20% fetal bovine serum supplemented DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium at 37 °C with 5% CO2in vitro. After 3 days of incubation, the constructed TE-HCS had a suitable tensile strength for transplantation, and a transparency that is comparable to native cornea. The TE-HCS had a normal histological structure which contained regularly aligned collagen fibers and differentiated HCS cells with positive expression of marker and functional proteins, mimicking a native HCS. After transplantation into rabbit models, the TE-HCS reconstructed normal corneal stroma in vivo and function well in maintaining corneal clarity and thickness, indicating that the completely biological TE-HCS could be used as a HCS equivalent. The constructed TE-HCS has promising potentials in regenerative medicine and treatment of diseases caused by corneal stromal disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of endoscopy in the management of paranasal sinus tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, M

    1995-01-01

    Only recently management of benign as well as malignant nasal and paranasal sinus tumours by endoscopy, including endoscopic removal, has been introduced. The most important contribution of the endoscope in the management of these tumours is diagnostic, primarily as well as during follow-up. Although, in general, endoscopic sinus surgery has many advantages over classical external surgery, disadvantages are present when tumours are concerned. Some agreement already exists on the role and limitations of endoscopic sinus surgery in benign tumours, but in malignant processes usually more mutilating procedures are needed and only in selected cases might endoscopic removal be used.

  14. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes mediate lysis of autologous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jeppe; Rasmussen, N; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1995-01-01

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and tumours from six patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) were investigated. The six tumours all expressed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens both in vivo and as tumor cell lines grown in vitro. In addition,...... in a MHC-class-I-restricted fashion. Thus, the results of the present study document that carcinomas of the head and neck in some patients are infiltrated by cytotoxic T cell precursors potentially capable of rejecting the autologous tumour....

  15. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adewole, I.F.

    1999-02-01

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  16. Neuropathological diagnosis of brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Bianca

    2011-11-01

    With recent progress in radiological, pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and genetic diagnoses, the characterisation of brain tumours has improved. The last World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System was done in 2007, based on morphological features, growth pattern and molecular profile of neoplastic cells, defined malignancy grade. The neuropathological diagnosis and the grading of each histotype are based on identification of histopathological criteria and immunohistochemical data. Molecular and genetic profiles may identify different tumour subtypes varying in biological and clinical behaviour, indicating prognostic and predictive factors. In order to investigate new therapeutic approaches, it is important to study the molecular pathways responsible for proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and anaplastic transformation. Different prognostic and predictive factors for glioma patients were identified by genetic studies, such as the loss of heterozygosis on chromosome 1p and 19q for oligodendrogliomas, proangiogenic factors such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for glioblastomas and the methylation status of gene promoter of MethylGuanine-MethylTransferase. In conclusion, the prognostic evaluation and the therapeutic strategies for patients depend on the synthesis of histological diagnosis, malignancy grade, gene-molecular profile, radiological images, surgical resection and clinical findings (age, tumour location, and "performance status").

  17. [Primary sub-mandibular gland tumours: experience based on 68 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudidi, A; El-Alami, M N; Boulaich, M; Jazouli, N; Kzadri, M

    2006-01-01

    Sub-mandibulary gland tumours are less common than tumours of the parotid and pose many clinical and therapeutic challengers. We report our experience of sub-mandibular tumours and review the literature. Retrospective studies of sub-mandibular gland tumours presenting to our department between 1986 and 2000. 68 cases were reviewed comprising 37 benign and 31 malignant tumours (15 females and 33 males). Average age of patient was 46 years and all presented with a sub-mandibular swelling. Clinical suspicion of malignancy was associated with symptom of pain, cervical adenopathy, nerve palsy, skin and/or bone invasion. CAT Scans were performedd to assess tumour extent / invasion. Definitive diagnosis was by complete excision and pathological examination. Pleomorphic adenoma (n= 32) were the most frequent benign tumours. For malignant lesions (n= 31) the most frequent were: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (n= 10), epidermoid carcinoma (n= 5), adenocarcinoma (n= 5), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n= 3), malignant non Hodgkinien lymphoma (n= 5). Treatment was by total surgical excision of the submandibular gland for the begnin tumours. For the malignant lesions it was associated acording to their extension with other anatomical region or in case of adenopathy with neck dissection. Radiotherapy was performed in 24 cases and chemotherapy in 10 cases. Malignity in sub-mandibular gland tumours is more frequent than in the parotid gland. Any delay in diagnosis or inappropriate management may result in a poor prognosis for the patient.

  18. Paediatric laryngeal malignant nerve sheath tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucioni, Marco; Marioni, Gino; Della Libera, Duilio; Rizzotto, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Malignant nerve sheath tumours (MNSTs) are more frequently diagnosed in the extremities, the chest wall and the abdominal wall. Laryngeal MNST is an extremely rare occurrence, particularly in children. We treated a laryngeal recurrence of MNST in a 13-year-old boy with chemotherapy followed by horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy extended to left arytenoid and ipsilateral vocal fold and bilateral neck dissection. Four years later, hemithyroidectomy was performed for thyroid MNST recurrence. At present, 6 years after last intervention, the patient shows no evidence of recurrent disease.

  19. Mohs micrographic surgery of rare cutaneous tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohil, S.C.; Lee, C.B. van; Beisenherz, J.; Mureau, M.A.M.; Overbeek, L.I.H.; Nijsten, T.; Bos, R.R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates after Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for rare cutaneous tumours are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recurrence rate after MMS for rare cutaneous tumours at a university centre. METHODS & MATERIALS: Retrospective review of all rare cutaneous tumours treated

  20. A practical approach to parotid tumours

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assessment and management of such tumours, based on South. African data.1. Relevant anatomy of the parotid ... A practical approach to parotid tumours. The correct management of these relatively uncommon tumours is important. ... to obtain definite histological diagnosis. Consequences of surgery. • Scar. The incision ...

  1. Swiss Canine Cancer Registry 1955-2008: Occurrence of the Most Common Tumour Diagnoses and Influence of Age, Breed, Body Size, Sex and Neutering Status on Tumour Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüntzig, K; Graf, R; Boo, G; Guscetti, F; Hässig, M; Axhausen, K W; Fabrikant, S; Welle, M; Meier, D; Folkers, G; Pospischil, A

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the Swiss Canine Cancer Registry, comprising 121,963 diagnostic records of dogs compiled between 1955 and 2008, in which 63,214 (51.83%) animals were diagnosed with tumour lesions through microscopical investigation. Adenoma/adenocarcinoma (n = 12,293, 18.09%) was the most frequent tumour diagnosis. Other common tumour diagnoses were: mast cell tumour (n = 4,415, 6.50%), lymphoma (n = 2,955, 4.35%), melanocytic tumours (n = 2,466, 3.63%), fibroma/fibrosarcoma (n = 2,309, 3.40%), haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma (n = 1,904, 2.80%), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,324, 1.95%) and osteoma/osteosarcoma (n = 842, 1.24%). The relative occurrence over time and the most common body locations of those tumour diagnoses are presented. Analyses of the influence of age, breed, body size, sex and neutering status on tumour development were carried out using multiple logistic regression. In certain breeds/breed categories the odds ratios (ORs) for particular tumours were outstandingly high: the boxer had higher ORs for mast cell tumour and haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, as did the shepherd group for haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma, the schnauzer for squamous cell carcinoma and the rottweiler for osteoma/osteosarcoma. In small dogs, the risk of developing mammary tumours was three times higher than in large dogs. However, small dogs were less likely to be affected by many other tumour types (e.g. tumours of the skeletal system). Examination of the influence of sex and neutering status on tumour prevalence showed that the results depend on the examination method. In all sampling groups the risk for female dogs of developing adenoma/adenocarcinoma was higher than for male dogs. Females had a lower risk of developing haemangioma/haemangiosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma than males. Neutered animals were at higher risk of developing specific tumours outside the genital organs than intact animals. The sample size allows detailed insight into the

  2. Molecular characterisation of stromal populations derived from human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, L.; Twine, N. A.; Abu Dawud, R.

    2015-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal (skeletal) stem cells (BM-hMSC) are being employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration. A limiting factor for their clinical use is the inability to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can provide...... an unlimited source of clinical grade cells for therapy. We have generated MSC-like cells from hESC (called here hESC-stromal) that exhibit surface markers and differentiate to osteoblasts and adipocytes, similar to BM-hMSC. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to compare the molecular phenotype...... of hESC-stromal and immortalised BM-hMSC cells (hMSC-TERT). Of the 7379 genes expressed above baseline, only 9.3% of genes were differentially expressed between undifferentiated hESC-stromal and BM-hMSC. Following ex vivo osteoblast induction, 665 and 695 genes exhibited >. 2-fold change (FC) in h...

  3. Uterine sarcoma Part II—Uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma: The TAG systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Cheng Horng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal tumors are rare uterine tumors (<1%. Four main categories include endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG-ESS, and uterine undifferentiated sarcoma (UUS. This review is a series of articles discussing the uterine sarcomas. LG-ESS, a hormone-dependent tumor harboring chromosomal rearrangement, is an indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, but characterized by late recurrences even in patients with Stage I disease, suggesting the requirement of a long-term follow-up. Patients with HG-ESS, based on the identification of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B (YWHAE-FAM22A/B gene fusion, typically present with advanced stage diseases and frequently have recurrences, usually within a few years after initial surgery. UUS is, a high-grade sarcoma, extremely rare, lacking a specific line of differentiation, which is a diagnosis of exclusion (the wastebasket category, which fails to fulfill the morphological and immunohistochemical criteria of translocation-positive ESS. Surgery is the main strategy in the management of uterine sarcoma. Due to rarity, complex biological characteristics, and unknown etiology and risk factors of uterine sarcomas, the role of adjuvant therapy is not clear. Only LG-ESS might respond to progestins or aromatase inhibitors.

  4. Low Grade Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS is a rare malignant tumor of the endometrium, occurring in the age group of 40–50 years. We report a case of low-grade ESS in a 39-year-old woman, presenting as rapid enlargement of a uterine fibroid polyp associated with irregular and excessive vaginal bleeding. Polypectomy followed by pan hysterectomy was performed. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed LGESS. As the tumor is rarely encountered, management protocols are still questionable. In our case, we tried a different post-surgical protocol and the patient is being closely followed up. Although rare, ESS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all women who present with a rapid enlargement of a uterine leiomyoma.

  5. Failure of intravenous or intracardiac delivery of mesenchymal stromal cells to improve outcomes after focal traumatic brain injury in the female rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Christine Turtzo

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells secrete a variety of anti-inflammatory factors and may provide a regenerative medicine option for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The present study investigates the efficacy of multiple intravenous or intracardiac administrations of rat mesenchymal stromal cells or human mesenchymal stromal cells in female rats after controlled cortical impact by in vivo MRI, neurobehavior, and histopathology evaluation. Neither intravenous nor intracardiac administration of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from either rats or humans improved MRI measures of lesion volume or neurobehavioral outcome compared to saline treatment. Few mesenchymal stromal cells (<0.0005% of injected dose were found within 3 days of last dosage at the site of injury after either delivery route, with no mesenchymal stromal cells being detectable in brain at 30 or 56 days post-injury. These findings suggest that non-autologous mesenchymal stromal cells therapy via intravenous or intracardiac administration is not a promising treatment after focal contusion traumatic brain injury in this female rodent model.

  6. The androgen receptor plays different roles in macrophage-induced proliferation in prostate stromal cells between transitional and peripheral zones of benign prostatic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongliang; Wang, Xingjie; Jiang, Chenyi; Ruan, Yuan; Xia, Shujie; Wang, Xiaohai

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in the process of excessive stromal proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In our previous study, we used a BPH mouse model to elucidate a potential mechanism whereby macrophage infiltration promotes stromal cell proliferation in the prostate via the androgen receptor (AR)/inflammatory cytokine CCL3-dependent pathway. In our present study, we used the co-culture system of human macrophages and various prostatic zone stromal cells to further demonstrate that infiltrating macrophages promote prostatic stromal cell proliferation through stromal AR-dependent pathways, and we show that the stroma of TZ and PZ respond to macrophages differently because of differences in stromal AR signaling; this could possibly be one of the key pathways for stromal expansion during BPH development and progression. We hypothesize that AR and different downstream inflammatory mediators between TZ and PZ could serve as potential targets for the future design of therapeutic agents for BPH and our results provide significant insights into the search for targeted therapeutic approaches to battle BPH.

  7. A pilot study of the effects of mild systemic heating on human head and neck tumour xenografts: Analysis of tumour perfusion, interstitial fluid pressure, hypoxia and efficacy of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Timothy B; Eranki, Annu; Ullas, Soumya; Singh, Anurag K; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Sen, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment is frequently hypoxic, poorly perfused, and exhibits abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure. These factors can significantly reduce efficacy of chemo and radiation therapies. The present study aims to determine whether mild systemic heating alters these parameters and improves response to radiation in human head and neck tumour xenografts in SCID mice. SCID mice were injected with FaDu cells (a human head and neck carcinoma cell line), or implanted with a resected patient head and neck squamous cell carcinoma grown as a xenograft, followed by mild systemic heating. Body temperature during heating was maintained at 39.5 ± 0.5 °C for 4 h. Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), hypoxia and relative tumour perfusion in the tumours were measured at 2 and 24 h post-heating. Tumour vessel perfusion was measured 24 h post-heating, coinciding with the first dose of fractionated radiotherapy. Heating tumour-bearing mice resulted in significant decrease in intratumoural IFP, increased the number of perfused tumour blood vessels as well as relative tumour perfusion in both tumour models. Intratumoural hypoxia was also reduced in tumours of mice that received heat treatment. Mice bearing FaDu tumours heated 24 h prior to five daily radiation treatments exhibited significantly enhanced tumour response compared to tumours in control mice. Mild systemic heating can significantly alter the tumour microenvironment of human head and neck tumour xenograft models, decreasing IFP and hypoxia while increasing microvascular perfusion. Collectively, these effects could be responsible for the improved response to radiotherapy.

  8. [Clinicopathologic features of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis--a report of 19 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang-Kun; Zhao, Wei; Hao, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yan-Bo; Meng, Nian-Long; Ma, Li; Li, Jing

    2006-07-01

    Macropathologic types of gallbladder cancer are mostly polyp type, intumescent type, and cauliflower form lump. Its histological types include well or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated cancer. This research was to explore the clinicopathologic features of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis. Pathology of 19 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis was observed using a light microscopy and SP immunohistochemistry. Clinicopathologic features of 19 patients were analyzed. Most of the patients had long-term history of cholecystitis gallbladder calculus. B ultrasound showed that the gallbladder wall was irregularly thickened or presented nodosity. Observed with naked eyes, gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis did not form cancer nodule and extrude into the gallbladder lumen, the gallbladder wall showed regional thickening, a few cases showed diffuse irregular thickening. Observed under a light microscope, the adenocarcinoma cells were mostly arranged as single layers, seldom arranged as multiple layers, and formed adenoid structures with different sizes, various shapes, and irregular arrangement; the nuclei were heterogenic with haryomitosis presented in a few cases; inflammatory cells were infiltrated in hyperplastic fibrous connective tissue of some cases. According to immune phenotyping, CK (AE1/AE3), CK (AE1), CK7 (OV-TL12/30), CK8 (C51), CK18 (Dc-10), CK19 (RCK108), and EMA (Mc-5) showed strong expression, CEA (COL-1), CK20 (Ks20. 4), and MUC-5AC (CLH2) showed moderate expression, and MUC-2 (B306. 1) showed weak expression; CK17 (E3) showed focal expression. The clinical manifestation, macropathologic type, histological characteristics of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with stromal fibrosis are different from other types of adenocarcinoma. Its genesis may be related to chronic cholecystitis: long-term inflammation causes regional hyperplasia and

  9. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  10. Sodium hyaluronate enhances colorectal tumour cell metastatic potential in vitro and in vivo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Sodium hyaluronate has been used intraperitoneally to prevent postoperative adhesions. However, the effect of sodium hyaluronate on tumour growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo is still unknown. METHODS: Human colorectal tumour cell lines SW480, SW620 and SW707 were treated with sodium hyaluronate (10-500 microg\\/ml) and carboxymethylcellulose (0.125-1 per cent), and tumour cell proliferation and motility were determined in vitro. For the in vivo experiments male BD IX rats were randomized to a sodium hyaluronate group (n = 11; intraperitoneal administration of 0.5 x 10(6) DHD\\/K12 tumour cells and 5 ml 0.4 per cent sodium hyaluronate) or a phosphate-buffered saline group (n = 11; 0.5 x 10(6) DHD\\/K12 tumour cells and 5 ml phosphate-buffered saline intraperitoneally). Four weeks later the intraperitoneal tumour load was visualized directly. RESULTS: In vitro sodium hyaluronate increased tumour cell proliferation and motility significantly. Sodium hyaluronate-induced tumour cell motility appeared to be CD44 receptor dependent, whereas sodium hyaluronate-induced tumour cell proliferation was CD44 receptor independent. In vivo there was a significantly higher total tumour nodule count in the peritoneal cavity of the sodium hyaluronate-treated group compared with the control (P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Sodium hyaluronate enhances tumour metastatic potential in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that use of sodium hyaluronate to prevent adhesions in colorectal cancer surgery may also potentiate intraperitoneal tumour growth. Presented to the Patey Prize Session of the Surgical Research Society and the annual scientific meeting of the Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, Brighton, UK, 4-7 May 1999

  11. The role of S100a4 (Mts1) in Apc- and Smad4-driven tumour onset and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlasi, Yaser; Noori, Rubina; Marolin, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction S100a4 is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the family of S100-proteins, highly expressed in different stromal cell types. S100A4 has been reported as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer in association with tumour progression and metastasis. Methods In this study, we analysed...... epithelial overexpression in Apc1638N/+/KRASV12G mice increases the dissemination of intestinal tumour cells to the liver, in agreement with its role in tumour metastasis. Moreover, we report a novel role for S100a4 in desmoid formation where S100a4 deficiency results in a significant reduction of the tumour...... burden characteristic of the Apc1638N model. In agreement with these results, S100a4 appears to be co-expressed together with mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers in desmoid tumours from Apc1638N/+ mice, as well as from sporadic and hereditary human desmoids. Conclusion Our data provide the first report...

  12. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-11-15

    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  13. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genelhu, Marisa CLS; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Gobbi, Helenice; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2007-01-01

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  14. Epidermal Langerhans' cell induction of immunity against an ultraviolet-induced skin tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavanagh, L.L.; Sluyter, R.; Henderson, K.G.; Barnetson, R.St.C.; Halliday, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Lanerghans' cells (LC) have been shown experimentally to induce immune response against many antigens; however, their role in the initiation of anti-tumour immunity has received little attention. This study examined the ability of murine epidermal LC to induce immunity to an ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced skin tumour. Freshly prepared epidermal cells (EC) were cultured for 2 or 20 hr with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), pulsed with an extract of the UV-13-1 tumour, then used to immunize naive syngeneic mice. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) was elicited 10 days after immunization by injection of UV-13-1 tumour cells into the ear pinna, and measured 24 hr later. EC cultured with GM-CSF for 2 hr induced anti-tumour DTH, as did EC cultured for 20 hr without GM-CSF. Conversely, EC cultured for 2 hr without GM-CSF, or EC cultured for 20 hr with GM-CSF were unable to induce a DTH. Induction of immunity required active presentation of tumour antigens by Ia + EC and was tumour specific. Thus Ia + epidermal cells are capable of inducing anti-tumour immunity to UV-induced skin tumours, but only when they contact antigen in particular states of maturation. (author)

  15. Oxygen tension in human tumours measured with polarographic needle electrodes and its relationship to vascular density, necrosis and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyng, Heidi; Sundfoer, Kolbein; Rofstad, Einar K.

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The use of polarographic needle electrodes for measurement of oxygen tension (pO 2 ) in tumours requires documentation of the validity of the method. In the present work the pO 2 values measured polarographically with the Eppendorf pO 2 histograph in human tumours were compared with the histological appearance of the tumour tissue, i.e. vascular density, fraction of necrosis and fraction of hypoxic tissue, to investigate whether the measurements reflected the expected pO 2 . Materials and methods: The pO 2 was measured in cervix tumours in patients and in human melanoma xenografted tumours in athymic mice. Vascular density was determined in the cervix tumours by histological analysis of biopsies from the pO 2 measurement tracks. Fraction of necrosis and fraction of hypoxic tissue, i.e. tissue binding the hypoxia marker pimonidazole, were determined in the melanomas by analysis of histological sections from the tumour planes in which the pO 2 measurements were performed. Results: The pO 2 distributions showed large intratumour heterogeneity. In cervix tumours, tumour regions with vascular density (vascular length per unit tissue volume) in the range of 47-77 mm/mm 3 showed higher pO 2 than tumour regions with vascular density in the range of 20-47 mm/mm 3 , which in turn showed higher pO 2 than tumour regions with vascular density in the range of 0-20 mm/mm 3 . In melanomas, tumour regions in which necrosis and hypoxia constituted more than 50% of the tissue showed lower pO 2 than other tumour regions. Conclusions: The pO 2 measured in the tumours was consistent with the histological appearance of the tissue in which the measurements were performed, suggesting that reliable pO 2 distributions of tumours can be obtained with polarographic needle electrodes

  16. Wilms' Tumour in a Child with Horse Shoe Kidney seen at Usmanu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background- Occurrence of Wilms' tumour in patients with horseshoe kidney is an unusual presentation, with incidence being higher than in the general population. Hence, it can lead to diagnostic and management challenges. Objective- To report a case of Wilms' tumour that occurred in a child with horse shoe kidney in ...

  17. Direct sagittal CT scanning in the diagnosis of pituitary fossa tumours and posterior fossa pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlas, H.

    1981-01-01

    Two independent methods are presented for multidirectional CT scanning of the brain using the Philips Tomoscan 300. The advantages in scanning pituitary fossa tumours and pathology of the posterior fossa are discussed. No additional software or modifications are required. Direct sagittal scanning is particularly advantageous for accurate assessment of the size of pituitary tumours and intrasellar lesions requiring surgical intervention or radiation therapy. (Auth.)

  18. Molecular cytogenetics of human germ cell tumours : i(12p) and related chromosomal anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts van Kessel, A; Suijkerbuijk, R F; Sinke, R J; Looijenga, L; Oosterhuis, J W; de Jong, B

    1993-01-01

    Human testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) comprise a heterogeneous group of solid neoplasms. These tumours are characterized by a highly specific chromosomal anomaly, i.e. an isochromosome of the short arm of chromosome 12. At present, this i(12p) chromosome has been observed in about 80% of TGCTs.

  19. Neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumours in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anecdotally, increasing number of patients are seen at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with brain tumour. Neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs may help in timely diagnosis and intervention. Objective: To evaluate the neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumour in patients presenting at a ...

  20. Report of six cases of metastatic jaw tumours in Nigerians | Adebayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These complaints resemble those from odontogenic infections and benign neoplasms. The most common histological type of metastatic tumours in this study was the adenocarcinoma (50%). Conclusion: In view of the similarity in presentation of metastatic lesions to the jaws and other odontogenic tumours and even ...

  1. Primary bone tumours of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Azouz, E.M.; Campbell, J.; Marton, D.; Morris, L.; Padovani, J.; Sprague, P.; Beluffi, G.; Berzero, G.F.; Cherubino, P.; Adelaide Children's Hospital; Hospital for Children, Perth; Montreal Children's Hospital, Quebec; Saint Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Children's Hospital, Denver, CO; Hopital des Enfants, 13 - Marseille; Pavia Univ.; Pavia Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one primary bone tumours of the hand in children from 8 paediatric hospitals are reported. Osteochondromas and enchondromas were not included. Our material consisted of 16 patients with common tumours (3 Ewing's sarcoma, 5 aneurysmal bone cyst, 6 osteoid osteoma and 2 epithelioma) and 5 patients with uncommon tumours (osteoma, simple bone cyst, haemangiopericytoma, capillary angiomatous tumour and benign ossifying fibroma or osteoblastoma). The X-ray diagnosis of the common tumours should have high concordance with histology, whereas that of uncommon tumours in much more difficult and uncertain. The characteristic features of Ewing's sarcoma are stressed as all our children with this tumour had a delayed diagnosis and a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis with other short tubular bone lesions of the hand - specifically osteomyelitis - is discussed and the posibilities of microscopic diagnosis are stressed. (orig.)

  2. MRI of primary meningeal tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H.K.; Na, D.G.; Byun, H.S.; Han, B.K.; Kim, S.S.; Kim, I.O.; Shin, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Childhood meningeal tumours are uncommon and mostly meningiomas. We reviewed the histological and radiological findings in meningeal tumours in six children aged 12 years or less (four benign meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma). Compared to the adult counterpart, childhood meningiomas showed atypical features: cysts, haemorrhage, aggressiveness and unusual location. MRI features varied according to the site of the tumour, histology, haemorrhage, and presence of intra- or peritumoral cysts. Diagnosis of the extra-axial tumour was relatively easy in two patients with meningiomas, one malignant meningioma and one haemangiopericytoma. MRI findings strongly suggested an intra-axial tumour in two patients with benign meningiomas, because of severe adjacent edema. Awareness of the variable findings of childhood meningiomas and similar tumours may help in differentiation from brain tumours. (orig.)

  3. Calcified tumours of the paranasal sinuses in three horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, K L; Kannegieter, N J; Lovell, D K

    2007-11-01

    Three horses, a 10-year-old Thoroughbred mare, a 9-year-old Thoroughbred gelding and a 6-year-old Arab gelding, with calcified tumours of the paranasal sinuses, are described. All horses presented with purulent nasal discharges and facial distortion. Exophthalmos, blepharospasm and ocular discharge were also a feature in individual horses. A presumptive diagnosis of a calcified tumour was made on the basis of clinical signs and radiographic and endoscopic findings. The tumours ranged from 15 to 25 cm in diameter. A large frontonasal bone flap was used to expose the tumours, which were cleaved into several pieces with an osteotome and removed. Histological examination of the masses identified cementomas in two cases and an osteoma in the third. Long term follow up from 18 months to 5 years after surgery indicated that there was no recurrence. This case series demonstrates that, although calcified tumours of the paranasal sinuses are rare in horses, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of purulent nasal discharge, facial swelling and ocular distortion, and are amenable to surgical treatment.

  4. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  5. Proximal fibula resection in the treatment of bone tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Ralf; Gebert, Carsten; Streitbürger, Arne; Henrichs, Marcel-Philipp; Dirksen, Uta; Rödl, Robert; Gosheger, Georg; Hardes, Jendrik

    2011-11-01

    We present a large study of patients with proximal fibula resection. Moreover we describe a new classification system for tumour resection of the proximal fibula independent of the tumour differentiation. In 57 patients the functional and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The follow-up ranged between six months and 22.2 years (median 7.2 years). The indication for surgery was benign tumours in ten cases and malignant tumours in 47 cases. In 13 of 45 patients, where a resection of the lateral ligament complex was done, knee instability occurred. In 32 patients a resection of the peroneal nerve with resulting peroneal palsy was necessary. Patients with peroneal resection had significantly worse functional outcome than patients without peroneal resection. An ankle foot orthosis was tolerated well by these patients. Three of four patients with pathological tibia fracture had local radiation therapy. There was no higher risk of tibia fracture in patients with partial tibial resection. Resection of tumours in the proximal fibula can cause knee instability, peroneal palsy and in cases of local radiation therapy, a higher risk of delayed wound healing and fracture. Despite the risks of proximal fibula resection, good functional results can be achieved.

  6. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  7. a stromal myoid cell line provokes thymic erythropoiesis between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    81 No. 2 February 2004. A STROMAL MYOID CELL LINE PROVOKES THYMIC ERYTHROPOIESIS BETWEEN 16TH TO 20TH WEEKS OF INTRAUTERINE LIFE ... proliferation and differentiation in different stages of development: the stromal myoid cells. Design: ... human myasthenia gravis (MG) has been suggested(3).

  8. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  9. Stromal surface topography-guided custom ablation as a repair tool for corneal irregular astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Gobbe, Marine; Archer, Timothy J; Youssefi, Gerhard; Sutton, Hugo F S

    2015-01-01

    To illustrate the concept of using a stromal surface topography-guided procedure for therapeutic repair after a complication following primary laser refractive surgery. One case example of therapeutic retreatment for short nasal flap after primary LASIK performed in September 2000 is presented. The Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound arc-scanner (Arc-Scan, Inc., Morrison, CO) was used to obtain layered corneal thickness including epithelial thickness profile. Corneal front surface elevation was measured with the Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb, Salt Lake City, UT). Stromal surface height was then calculated by subtracting epithelial thickness data from corneal front surface elevation data and used to calculate the ablation profile applied to the eye. The treatment was performed using the Ultralink system (ArcScan, Inc.), linking the ultrasound corneal thickness data with the Technolas 217c laser (Bausch & Lomb). Postoperative data were available at 30 days and 13 years. One month after treatment, the epithelial thickness map demonstrated that the difference in thickness between the thinnest and thickest points located 2.5-mm nasally was reduced by 26 µm (from 56 to 30 µm). The axial difference map demonstrated an increase in corneal curvature of approximately 4 diopters where the cornea was the flattest nasally, thereby reducing the corneal asymmetry. The anterior elevation map also showed a reduced depression nasally. The patient reported significant improvement of her night vision. This case example of stromal surface topography-guided treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in the irregularity of the stromal surface and an improvement in the topography, and the visual quality. Stromal surface topography-guided ablation might become the tool of the future for therapeutic repairs because it offers advantages over the current alternative of transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of copy number aberrations in microsatellite stable colon cancer in view of stromal component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M Henar; Aussó, Susanna; Lopez-Doriga, Adriana; Cordero, David; Guinó, Elisabet; Solé, Xavier; Barenys, Mercè; de Oca, Javier; Capella, Gabriel; Salazar, Ramón; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; Moreno, Victor

    2017-07-25

    Somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) are common acquired changes in cancer cells having an important role in the progression of colon cancer (colorectal cancer, CRC). This study aimed to perform a characterisation of CNA and their impact in gene expression. Copy number aberrations were inferred from SNP array data in a series of 99 CRC. Copy number aberration events were calculated and used to assess the association between copy number dosage, clinical and molecular characteristics of the tumours, and gene expression changes. All analyses were adjusted for the quantity of stroma in each sample, which was inferred from gene expression data. High heterogeneity among samples was observed; the proportion of altered genome ranged between 0.04 and 26.6%. Recurrent CNA regions with gains were frequent in chromosomes 7p, 8q, 13q, and 20, whereas 8p, 17p, and 18 cumulated losses. A significant positive correlation was observed between the number of somatic mutations and total CNA (Spearman's r=0.42, P=0.006). Approximately 37% of genes located in CNA regions changed their level of expression and the average partial correlation (adjusted for stromal content) with copy number was 0.54 (interquartile range 0.20 to 0.81). Altered genes showed enrichment in pathways relevant for CRC. Tumours classified as CMS2 and CMS4 by the consensus molecular subtyping showed higher frequency of CNA. Losses of one small region in 1p36.33, with gene CDK11B, were associated with poor prognosis. More than 66% of the recurrent CNA were validated in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data when analysed with the same procedure. Furthermore, 79% of the genes with altered expression in our data were validated in the TCGA. Although CNA are frequent events in microsatellite stable CRC, few focal recurrent regions were found. These aberrations have strong effects on gene expression and contribute to deregulate relevant cancer pathways. Owing to the diploid nature of stromal cells, it is important to

  11. Thymoma presenting with infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katherine M; Windsor, Morgan

    2004-06-01

    Thymomas are the most common tumours of the anterior mediastinum with most patients presenting incidentally. We present a case of thymoma presenting with sudden onset severe chest pain and raised plasma aminotransaminases secondarily to spontaneous infarction. We discuss the presence of these aminotransaminases in this highly unusual presentation of thymoma and believe our case demonstrates the inherent limitations of plasma enzymes due to their lack of specificity and sensitivity.

  12. Neonatal testicular tumour presenting as an acute scrotum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    components. When microscopic appearances are equivo- cal, a positive response to inhibin immunohistochemical staining, although remaining negative to staining for α-FP, is a sensitive and now widely used method for accurately diagnosing JGCT [13]. Recent studies have suggested that trisomy 12 may be widespread ...

  13. Common tumour, uncommon presentation: massive lipoma in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Sphenoid sinus carcinoid tumour causing ectopic ACTH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sanjaya; Taha, Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    A thirty-eight year old patient presented with a gradual increase in weight and Cushingoid facies of two years duration. He also had orbital congestion, with puffy eyelids and corkscrew conjunctival vessels, associated with painful eye movements. An endocrine evaluation revealed raised cortisol and ACTH. Head imaging was performed which showed an enhancing tumour arising from the sphenoid sinus, with osseous erosion of the sphenoid sinus, extending to the nasopharynx, sellar and a small amount extending intracranially. He underwent an endoscopic endonasal resection of the tumour and histology revealed a low-grade carcinoid tumour with ACTH staining. The patient also underwent radiotherapy for the intracranial extension. He is currently in his fourth year of follow-up and imaging has showed a small, stable intracranial remnant. His anterior pituitary hormonal profile remains normal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concurrent Male Gynecomastia and Testicular Hydrocele after Imatinib Mesylate Treatment of a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hawk; Chang, Heung-Moon; Ryu, Min-Hee; Kim, Tae-Won; Sohn, Hee-Jung; Kim, So-Eun; Kang, Hye-Jin; Park, Sarah; Lee, Jung-Shin; Kang, Yoon-Koo

    2005-01-01

    We report a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patient with male gynecomastia and testicular hydrocele after treatment with imatinib mesylate. A 42 yr-old male patient presented for management of hepatic masses. Two years earlier, he had undergone a small bowel resection to remove an intraabdominal mass later shown to be a GIST, followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. At presentation, CT scan revealed multiple hepatic masses, which were compatible with metastatic GIST, and he was prescribe...

  16. Primary Carcinoid Tumour of the Kidney: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji O. Omiyale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Primary renal carcinoid tumours are rare. Their pathogenesis is unknown and the clinical presentation is similar to other renal tumours thus posing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary renal carcinoids. Methods. Literature was extensively searched for case reports for primary renal carcinoids. Reports of metastatic carcinoids to the kidneys were excluded. Results. Approximately less than 90 cases of primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney have been reported in the literature. A total of 29 cases of primary renal carcinoids were reviewed. The mean age of presentation was 48 years (range 29–75 with both right kidney (48.3% and left kidney (44.8% being equally affected. 28.6% of the cases reviewed were diagnosed as an incidental finding. The mean followup time was 20 months with 73.1% of patients without evidence of disease after surgical treatment (radical or partial nephrectomy. Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are often well differentiated tumours. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and similar presentation with other renal tumours. Conclusions. Primary carcinoid tumours of the kidney are rare tumours with an indolent course with frequent metastasis. Metastatic work up and followup is required in their management.

  17. Tumour Calcification and Calciphylaxis in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Di

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although soft tissue and vascular calcifications are common in CKD and progress as an independent risk factor of all-cause mortality, tumour calcification and calciphylaxis are uncommon in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Here, we discuss a rare case of a patient with tumour calcification complicated with calciphylaxis developed septic shock from infection. Our patient is a 57-year-old man in his late stage of renal disease who presented with a huge mass at the right hip and necrotic cutaneous ulcers on the lower legs followed by local and systemic infection and death due to septic shock.

  18. Neuromuscular hamartoma: imaging features of a rare paediatric craniofacial tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeppen, Rachel S.; Harden, Stephen P.; Argent, Julie D.

    2003-01-01

    Neuromuscular hamartoma (also referred to as neuromuscular choristoma or benign triton tumour) has not previously been described in the radiological literature. It is a rare benign lesion composed of mature elements of striated muscle and neural tissue. We report a case of neuromuscular hamartoma involving the skull base, nasopharynx, orbit and maxilla in a 2.5-year-old child who presented with facial swelling. The CT and MRI appearances of this unusual soft-tissue tumour are emphasized, together with a discussion of the pathological findings, differential diagnosis and review of the literature. (orig.)

  19. A rare metastasis from a rare brain tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Kristine; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents the story of a patient with an oligodendroglioma metastasizing to the bone marrow and to lymph nodes of the neck. The patient had undergone primary brain surgery 13 years prior to the discovery of metastases and radiotherapy directed at the brain tumour two months prior........ Oligodendroglioma are rare primary brain tumours of which extraneural metastasis is even more rare. The incidence of cases like this may be increasing because of better treatment and thus longer survival of patients with oligodendroglioma....

  20. New MR sequences (diffusion, perfusion, spectroscopy) in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Andrea; Gandolfo, Carlo; Morana, Giovanni; Severino, Mariasavina; Garre, Maria Luisa; Cama, Armando

    2010-01-01

    While MRI has been instrumental in significantly improving care in children harbouring brain tumours, conventional sequences lack information regarding functional parameters including cellularity, haemodynamics and metabolism. Advanced MR imaging modalities, such as diffusion (including diffusion tensor imaging and fibre tractography), perfusion and spectroscopy have significantly improved our understanding of the physiopathology of brain tumours and have provided invaluable additional information for treatment planning and monitoring of treatment results. The contribution of these methods to the characterization of brain neoplasms in children is the focus of the present manuscript. (orig.)

  1. Experimental tumour therapy. 1985 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The 1985 annual report documents - once again - the collaboration between the members of the University's Radiobiological Institute and the Radiobiological Department of GSF in the field of experimental radiotherapy. As in the previous years, key areas were concerned with the examination of clinically relevant radiation-induced injuries in normal tissue, the clarification of their pathogenesis and their fractionation behaviour but also possible methods of their prevention. New areas of interest included the experiments performed on rat stomach which allowed to establish a promising animal model for the radiobiological examination of this organ. Experimental tumours were continued to be studied for factors important for tumour resistance in fractionated irradiation; in this context, the high repopulation capacity of a differentiated squamous-cell carcinoma under quasi-clinical fractionation revealed to be particularly remarkable. A further key area was concerned with investigations into the combined action of cytostatics and irradiation or else hyperthermia which were mostly performed in vitro on cell cultures but also on experimental tumours and some normal tissues. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.

    1999-01-01

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  3. Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for Treatment of Patients with Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (MyStromalCell Trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Mygind, Naja Dam

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of intramyocardial injections of autologous VEGF-A165-stimulated adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in patients with refractory angina. MyStromalCell trial is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study including sixty patients with CCS/NYHA class II...

  4. Radiation response of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter knowledge regarding cellular radiation response and the factors which modify it is related to the volume changes and probability of control of irradiated solid tumors. After a discussion of the different cell populations present within solid tumors the cell population kinetics of the neoplastic cells are considered in more detail. The influence of factors related to the three-dimensional geometry of the tumor, particularly hypoxia, are considered, and also the role of the tumor vasculature in radiation response. Repair of sublethal damage (SLD) and potentially lethal damage (PLD) is dealt with and finally the relationship between the various end-points of tumor radioresponsiveness is discussed

  5. Evaluation of several FDG PET parameters for prediction of soft tissue tumour grade at primary diagnosis and recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang P. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Chalkidis, Rebecca P.; Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Knoesel, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute of Pathology, Munich (Germany); Herrmann, Ken [Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Issels, Rolf D.; Lindner, Lars H. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of SUV-based parameters derived from [{sup 18} F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in order to optimize non-invasive prediction of soft tissue tumour (STT) grade. One hundred and twenty-nine lesions from 123 patients who underwent FDG-PET for primary staging (n = 79) or assessment of recurrence (n = 44) of STT were analyzed retrospectively. Histopathology was the reference standard for tumour grading. Absolute values and tumour-to-liver ratios of several standardized uptake value (SUV) parameters were correlated with tumour grading. At primary diagnosis SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub max}/SUV{sub liver} and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} showed good correlation with tumour grade. SUV{sub peak} (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic, AUC-ROC: 0.82) and SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} (AUC-ROC: 0.82) separated best between low grade (WHO intermediate, grade 1 sarcoma, and low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumours, GISTs) and high grade (grade 2/3 sarcoma and intermediate/high risk GISTs) lesions: optimal threshold for SUV{sub peak}/SUV{sub liver} was 2.4, which resulted in a sensitivity of 79 % and a specificity of 81 %. At disease recurrence, the AUC-ROC was <0.75 for each parameter. A tumour SUV{sub peak} of at least 2.4 fold mean liver uptake predicts high grade histopathology with good diagnostic accuracy at primary staging. At disease recurrence, FDG-PET does not reliably separate high and low grade lesions. (orig.)

  6. A dose-escalating phase I of imatinib mesylate with fixed dose of metronomic cyclophosphamide in targeted olid tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Adenis, A; Ray-Coquard, I; Italiano, A; Chauzit, E; Bui-Nguyen, B; Blay, J-Y; Tresch-Bruneel, E; Fournier, C; Clisant, S; Amela, E Y; Cassier, P A; Molimard, M; Penel, N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preclinical findings suggest that imatinib mesylate (IM) and metronomic cyclophosphamide (MC) combination provides synergistic antiangiogenic activity on both pericytes and endothelial cells. Methods: We have designed a 3+3 dose-escalating phase I trial with a fixed dose of MC (50 mg two times daily) plus IM (400 mg per day; 300 and 400 mg two times daily). Enrolled patients had IM- and sutininib-refractory advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) (n=17), chordoma (n=7) an...

  7. Borderline gastric stromal tumor: diagnosis by ultrasound and computed tomography; Tumor estromal borderline del estomago diagnostico por imagen en ecografia y TC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, R.; Rubio, P. J.; Lopez, J. I.; Borderias, A.; Placeres, A. [Hospita San Jorge. Huesca (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are a type of undifferentiated stromal tumor that is recently being diagnosed more frequently owing to the introduction of new immunohistochemical techniques. Their main feature, indispensable for the definitive diagnosis, is immunohistochemical evidence of the presence of CD34-positive cells. We present a case of GIST of borderline malignancy involving the outer wall of the stomach, describing the ultrasound and computed tomography images and their correlation with the pathological features. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Youngest case of ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a benign phyllodes tumour: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sharat; Muralikrishnan, Vummiti; Brotto, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumour (PT) is a rare tumour of the female breast. The tumour clinically and radiologically mimics the features of a fibroadenoma. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the epithelial component of PT is a very rare finding. We present youngest ever case of a 23-year-old nulliparous woman with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a benign phyllodes tumor. Macroscopically, it is a homogeneous tumour with solid components. Microscopically, it features typical leaf-like pattern with hypercellular stroma with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. To date, eight such rare cases of benign phyllodes tumour with ductal carcinoma in situ have been documented. We report the youngest case known in literature so far. As this is a very rare presentation, it poses several challenges in regard to both management and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in the management of malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Bataini, J.P.; Colin, P.; Jaulerry, C.; Brunin, F.; Pontvert, D.; Durand, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This is an evaluation of definitive conventional megavoltage radiotherapy in a consecutive series of 35 patients presenting malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland. In this series, the 5-year actuarial locoregional control rate was 41% with a 5-year crude survival rate of 36%. The results are analyzed according to tumour presentation and tumour doses. Six of 15 patients with tumours larger than 6 cm have had a lasting locoregional control. During the same period 43 other patients received radiotherapy as a post-operative modality. Results obtained in this group confirm the previously published data. While recent studies tend to demonstrate the specific efficacy of high LET radiation in the management of locally advanced salivary gland tumours, radical conventional radiotherapy can still be employed with a curative intent when neutron facilities are not available. (author). 34 refs.; 1 fig.; 5 tabs

  10. Sacrococcygeal germ-cell tumours - the Red Cross War Memorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients. Twenty-seven patients with sacrococcygeal germ-cell tumours were treated in our hospital from 1980 to 1996. Design. A retrospective review of these patients' records was undertaken. Results. There were 19 female and 8 male patients. Seventeen (63%) presented in the neonatal period, 13 on the first day of life.

  11. Neuroendocrine tumour in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-26

    Jun 26, 2015 ... tumour.2. The differential diagnosis is wide, depending on the patient's presentation. It includes, amongst others, refractory diabetes mellitus and other endocrine conditions, carcinoids and gastro-intestinal malignancies, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, irritable bowel syndrome or.

  12. Two Cases of. Cushing's Syndrome tumour and bilateral hyperplasia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients, one with Cushing's syndrome and one with Cushing's disease, are presented. In the first case the syndrome was caused by a tumour of the right suprarenal gland which was treated by unilateral adrenalectomy, and the second case was diagnosed as hyperplasia of the left suprarenal gland, eventually leading ...

  13. Radiation induced tumours of the pharynx - can they be avoided

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, A.; Campbell, J.B.; Gupta, D.A.R. (Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (UK))

    1990-02-01

    Three patients who developed a post-cricoid carcinoma 5-21 years after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the larynx are presented. These patients received radiotherapy when they were young. It is suggested that alternative forms of treatment, especially partial laryngectomy with the aid of a laser should be considered in the primary management of small tumours of the larynx of young patients. (author).

  14. Spinal cord compression due to tumours at Kenyatta Nationa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of different types of tumours associated with cord compression, their mode of presentation and treatment outcome. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), a teaching and referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, from January 1985 to December 1994.

  15. Pattern of Bone Tumours Seen In A Regional Orthopaedic Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Primary bone tumour is a challenge to Orthopaedic surgeons working in developing countries due to late presentation as a result of ignorance and poverty. This is further compounded by limited number of specialist personnel, diagnostic and therapeutic centres. Consequently, they are associated with high rate ...

  16. Proximal Osteoarticular Fibular Autograft for Giant Cell Tumour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the various reconstructive procedures described, the option of non vascularised proximal fibular autograft has been widely used with satisfactory results. The case of a woman presenting with Campanacci grade 3 giant cell tumour treated by this method with a follow-up of 30 months is reported. Emphasis is placed on ...

  17. Exploring demographics and outcomes for spinal tumours following surgery in combined military hospital, peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaid, M.; Asheen, A.; Rehman, M.U.; Ahmed, M.; Rashid, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    Tumours of the spinal cord, spinal meninges and cauda equina are relatively rare and their spectrum has not been studied extensively in Khyber Pakhtun Khawa province. We describe here the cases of spinal tumours treated in our setup over a period of two years. Methods: This Descriptive Case Series was carried out with of 80 patients operated in our centre from January 2013 to January 2015. The clinical presentation of these tumours as well as demographic findings was analysed. Patients who underwent surgery for their tumours were included in the study. Patients were selected for surgery depending on their radiological and clinical findings. Lesions that were suggestive of metastasis were biopsied and further care was shared between specialized departments depending on the primary source. Results: Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Most of the spinal tumours were secondary tumours while meningiomas were the most common primary tumours. Most commonly patients belonged to young age group A (below 30 years.) 32.5%. Most common presentation was with paraparesis (27.5%) and paralysis (25%). A majority of patients regained good neurological function and did not show signs of recurrence at 1 year follow up. Conclusion: Given the limited experience at our centre, we believe that a wide range of spinal tumours can be successfully treated provided that clinical end points are kept in mind and treatment is individualized. Frankel grading is useful to assess surgical outcome in the patients. (author)

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming

    2017-12-16

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  19. Bilateral disease and new trends in Wilms tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Service de Radiodiagnostic, Paris (France); Begent, Joanna [University College Hospital, Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Smets, Anne M. [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Wilms tumour is a great therapeutic success story within paediatric oncology; its prognosis is excellent. Although mainly sporadic, occurring in otherwise well children, it occurs in a small number of genetically predisposed children. Thus regular surveillance imaging is performed in predisposed children in parts of the USA and Europe. The risks and benefits of surveillance are unclear, as the existing ad-hoc surveillance protocols are lacking in consistency of practice and equity of provision. We present guidelines for Wilms tumour surveillance based on a review of current practice and available evidence, outlined by a multidisciplinary working group in the UK. Wilms tumours are bilateral in 4-13% of affected children. Bilateral synchronous nephroblastomas are observed in 5% of affected children and are usually associated with the presence of nephrogenic rests, congenital malformations and predisposing syndromes. The major challenge in bilateral disease is to achieve a cure and at the same time to preserve sufficient functional renal tissue for normal growth and development. The association among Wilms tumour, nephrogenic rests and nephroblastomatosis makes detection and characterization of renal lesions with imaging extremely important. We discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different modalities used for diagnosis and follow-up in bilateral renal disease. We also discuss newly emerging diagnostic imaging tests such as {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). This technique, when fused with CT (PET-CT), allows accelerated metabolic activity to be accurately anatomically localised and so is potentially useful for staging, assessment of treatment response, and for surgical and radiotherapy planning. In addition, quantitative MRI techniques have been proved to be valuable in intracranial tumours, but no such role has been validated in abdominal disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging with calculation of ADC maps is feasible in

  20. Bilateral disease and new trends in Wilms tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Catherine M.; Olsen, Oeystein E.; Brisse, Herve J.; Begent, Joanna; Smets, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    Wilms tumour is a great therapeutic success story within paediatric oncology; its prognosis is excellent. Although mainly sporadic, occurring in otherwise well children, it occurs in a small number of genetically predisposed children. Thus regular surveillance imaging is performed in predisposed children in parts of the USA and Europe. The risks and benefits of surveillance are unclear, as the existing ad-hoc surveillance protocols are lacking in consistency of practice and equity of provision. We present guidelines for Wilms tumour surveillance based on a review of current practice and available evidence, outlined by a multidisciplinary working group in the UK. Wilms tumours are bilateral in 4-13% of affected children. Bilateral synchronous nephroblastomas are observed in 5% of affected children and are usually associated with the presence of nephrogenic rests, congenital malformations and predisposing syndromes. The major challenge in bilateral disease is to achieve a cure and at the same time to preserve sufficient functional renal tissue for normal growth and development. The association among Wilms tumour, nephrogenic rests and nephroblastomatosis makes detection and characterization of renal lesions with imaging extremely important. We discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different modalities used for diagnosis and follow-up in bilateral renal disease. We also discuss newly emerging diagnostic imaging tests such as 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). This technique, when fused with CT (PET-CT), allows accelerated metabolic activity to be accurately anatomically localised and so is potentially useful for staging, assessment of treatment response, and for surgical and radiotherapy planning. In addition, quantitative MRI techniques have been proved to be valuable in intracranial tumours, but no such role has been validated in abdominal disease. Diffusion-weighted imaging with calculation of ADC maps is feasible in

  1. Modular endoprosthetic replacement for metastatic tumours of the proximal femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Simon R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Endoprosthetic replacements of the proximal femur are commonly required to treat destructive metastases with either impending or actual pathological fractures at this site. Modular prostheses provide an off the shelf availability and can be adapted to most reconstructive situations for proximal femoral replacements. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional outcomes following modular tumour prosthesis reconstruction of the proximal femur in 100 consecutive patients with metastatic tumours and to compare them with the published results of patients with modular and custom made endoprosthetic replacements. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent modular tumour prosthetic reconstruction of the proximal femur for metastases using the METS system from 2001 to 2007 were studied. The patient, tumour and treatment factors in relation to overall survival, local control, implant survival and complications were analysed. Functional scores were obtained from surviving patients. Results and conclusion There were 45 male and 55 female patients. The mean age was 60.2 years. The indications were metastases. Seventy five patients presented with pathological fracture or with failed fixation and 25 patients were at a high risk of developing a fracture. The mean follow up was 15.9 months [range 0–77]. Three patients died within 2 weeks following surgery. 69 patients have died and 31 are alive. Of the 69 patients who were dead 68 did not need revision surgery indicating that the implant provided single definitive treatment which outlived the patient. There were three dislocations (2/5 with THR and 1/95 with unipolar femoral heads. 6 patients had deep infections. The estimated five year implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis was 83.1% with revision as end point. The mean TESS score was 64% (54%–82%. We conclude that METS modular tumour prosthesis for proximal femur provides versatility; low implant related

  2. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  3. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, Anne M.; Kraker, Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  4. Recurrent Giant cell tumour in distal Humerus: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Bhanu Rekha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Giant cell tumour of bone (GCT is a common benign primary bone tumour, seen commonly in the distal Femur, proximal Tibia and distal Radius. Very few cases of GCT are reported in distal humerus. We report an unusual presentation of recurrent Giant cell tumour in a 25 year old male in the medial condyle and epicondyle of left Humerus. Case Report: Patient presented elsewhere with lytic lesion of left elbow three years ago. As it is an uncommon site for tumors, it was misdiagnosed as tuberculous osteomyelitis and was inadequately curetted. Patient presented to us with recurrence of tumor one year after the primary surgery. We did en-bloc resection of the tumour, with judicious removal of partial trochlea. Though reconstruction was planned, it was found to be not necessary as the elbow was stable per-operatively. Patient regained near normal movements of the elbow with no instability. His Mayo Elbow Performance score improved from 30 to 85.There is no recurrence or metastasis of the tumor in the two-year follow-up. Conclusion: Though bone tumors are rare in distal Humerus, biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis of any lytic lesion in this region for proper management. Keywords: Recurrent Giant cell tumor, resection of GCT, GCT distal Humerus.

  5. Caecal tumour masquerading as an appendicular mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nixon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of appendix mass is based on an accurate diagnosis of the underlying pathology. This is a report of a complex patient presenting with an appendix mass, whose surgery was deferred due to severe comorbidities and who later died from severe metastatic disease. A 65-year-old lady presented with right iliac fossa pain and a mass. She was treated for an appendix mass initially and when the mass failed to resolve after four weeks, she was thoroughly investigated for the possibility of a tumour. Severe co-morbities had a significant impact on her management as definitive surgery was delayed. She represented 10 months after the initial admission with small bowel obstruction and died of metastatic caecal cancer. Management of appendix mass must entail a careful approach to investigating and treatment with emphasis on early intervention if the mass does not resolve promptly. This will avoid delayed diagnosis, treatment and a detrimental impact on prognosis.

  6. Metastatic choriocarcinoma presenting as advanced renal cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive tumour arising as a malignant transformation of the gestational trophoblastic disease or rarely from the germ cells in the ovary and from testicular mixed germ cell tumour. Renal involvement due to Choriocarcinoma is rare we report here one of such rare cases. A 26yr old woman presented ...

  7. Small intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a young adult woman: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Sahatciu-Meka, Vjollca; Kerliu, Irma; Juniku-Shkololli, Argjira; Kerliu, Lloreta; Kastrati, Mevlyde; Kotorri, Vesa

    2014-09-28

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a small intestine, initially suspected for leiomyosarcoma given that gastrointestinal stromal tumors in young adult patients are limited due to their rarity. A 30-year-old Caucasian ethnic Albanian woman from Kosovo presented with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Subsequently, the tumor was detected in her small intestine, as an infiltrating mass approximately 10 cm in diameter. The tumor was resected en bloc and duodenojejunal terminal-terminal anastomosis was performed. The tumor was a large, bulky, intramural mass, with fish-flesh to tan-brown appearance, as well as with foci of hemorrhage and necrosis. On histological examination the tumor showed transmural growth, deep infiltrative pattern and malignant feature, with mitotic count >5 per 50 high-power field, dense cellularity with plump spindle cells, and with eosinophilic cytoplasm within variably hyalinized and edematous stroma, skeinoid fibers (extracellular collagen globules) and foci of hemorrhage. In addition, the tumor was composed of areas with epithelioid morphology. The immunohistochemistry results showed high expression of proto-oncogene c-kit, CD117, CD34 and vimentin, whereas α-smooth muscle actin was focally positive. Desmin and S-100 protein were negative. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor should be included in the differential diagnoses of intestinal mesenchymal tumors presenting as a single mass in young female adults. Given that gastrointestinal stromal tumors in young adults represent a more heterogeneous group than gastrointestinal stromal tumor in pediatric cases, more effort should be made to investigate its pathogenesis and potentially more specific treatment.

  8. CD34-positive stromal cells and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells in the tumor capsule of skin sweat gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirofumi; Enzan, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Eriko; Moriki, Toshiaki; Toi, Makoto; Zhang, Yanhu

    2002-01-01

    To elucidate the roles of CD34-positive stromal cells and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive stromal cells at the tumor border of skin sweat gland neoplasms, we examined expression of stromal cell markers in the tumor capsule of 19 skin sweat gland neoplasms (16 mixed tumors of the skin and three nodular hidradenomas) using monoclonal antibodies to CD34, CD31, cytokeratin 14 (CK14), alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) and high molecular weight caldesmon (HCD). We regarded CD34-positive, CD31-, CK14-, ASMA- and HCD-negative stromal cells to be CD34-positive stromal cells, and ASMA-positive, HCD-, CK14-, CD34- and CD31-negative stromal cells to be ASMA-positive stromal cells. CD34-positive stromal cells were detected in the tumor capsule of all 19 of the tumors examined. In nine of the 16 mixed tumors (56%) and all of the three nodular hidradenomas, ASMA-positive stromal cells were detected at the immediate inner side of the CD34-positive stromal cell layers. These results indicate that cellular components in the tumor capsules of mixed tumors of the skin and nodular hidradenomas are CD34-positive stromal cells and ASMA-positive stromal cells, and suggest that stromal cells of these two cell types are associated with tumor capsule formation of skin sweat gland neoplasms.

  9. Rare cause of neck pain: tumours of the posterior elements of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuura, Yoshihiro; Cason, Garrick; Osborn, James

    2016-12-15

    Here we present two cases of primary bone tumours of the cervical spine in patients who had persistent neck pain-in one case, lasting 8 years. In each case, there was a delay in diagnosis and referral to a spine specialist was prolonged. Primary bone tumours of the spine are rare, which is in contrast to the wide prevalence of cervical neck pain. Many primary care providers may go an entire career without encountering a symptomatic primary cervical spine tumour. In this paper, we discuss the clinical course and treatment of each patient and review the current literature on primary bone tumours of the spine. Owing to the subtle roentgenographic findings of primary cervical tumours, we highlight the importance of advanced imaging in the clinical work-up of simple axial neck pain lasting >6 weeks to avoid misdiagnosis of serious pathology. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Giant cell tumour in the foot of a skeletally immature girl: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, Joseph F

    2009-08-01

    We present a case of delayed diagnosis of a benign giant cell tumour (GCT) of the third metatarsal in a skeletally immature girl. The patient underwent en bloc excision of the tumour. The tumour had replaced the third metatarsal and had infiltrated the surrounding soft tissue and the second and fourth metatarsal bases. Deep, lateral and medial margins were all involved. A high index of suspicion is needed when evaluating any tumours of the foot, because the compact structure of the foot may delay diagnosis. Early detection is important for avoiding amputation, as the hindfoot and midfoot are classified as one compartment and radical resection is impossible to achieve. Tumours grow faster in the foot than in other bones. GCT in this location and age-group are rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a destructive bony lesion in skeletally immature patients.

  11. Low Oxygen Tension Maintains Multipotency, Whereas Normoxia Increases Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Berniakovich, Ina; Giorgio, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) culture conditions is of great importance for their more successful application in regenerative medicine. O2 regulates various aspects of cellular biology and, in vivo, MSC are exposed to different O2 concentrations spanning from very low tension in the bone marrow niche, to higher amounts in wounds. In our present work, we isolated mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and showed that they contained a population meeting requirements for MSC defin...

  12. Multilineage differentiation of porcine bone marrow stromal cells associated with specific gene expression pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong; Chen, Li

    2008-01-01

    genes. However, it is not fully clear whether multilineage differentiation (osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis) of BMSC is associated with a specific gene expression pattern. In the present study, we investigated the gene expression pattern of representative transcription factors and marker......There are increasing reports regarding differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) from human and various species of animals including pigs. The phenotype and function of BMSC along a mesenchymal lineage differentiation are well characterized by specific transcription factors and marker...

  13. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnosis and Prognosis; Tumor estromal gastrointestinal: diagnostico y pronostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M. T.; Olmedilla, P.; Gonzalez, S.; Oliver, J. M. [Fundacion Hospital de Alcorcon. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are mesenquimal tumors derived from cell precursors. They have the capacity for myogenic and neurogenic differentiation and are characterized by expression of KIT protein (tyrosine kinase growth factor). Clinically, they exhibit various biological behaviors. We present 8 cases of GIST, describing both their radiological manifestation through computerized tomography (CT) and most accepted criteria for benignity and malignancy. We also describe the response of one meta statically diagnosed tumor to tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (Author) 9 refs.

  14. Intranodal Schwannoma Mimicking a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Bum; Namkyoung, Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Chuncheon Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae Sung; Ryu, Byoung Yoon [Dept. of General Surgery, Chuncheon Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Young Hee [Dept. of Pathology, Chuncheon Scared Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A 66-year-old-woman is presented with intranodal schwannoma of the retroperitoneum. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) results demonstrated a large encapsulated mass with internal cystic or necrotic portions in the gastrosplenic space. The tumor abutted the greater curvature of the gastric body and slightly indented the proximal small bowel loops on a small bowel series. The observations suggested a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The mass was surgically proven to be a retroperitoneal tumor and histopathologically intranodal ancient schwannoma.

  15. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of large size, extragastrointestinal localization and different morphological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpon’ka I.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problems of accurate verification of the gastro¬intestinal stromal tumor are relevant today for many reasons. Thus, the histological diagnosis is complicated by the morphological similarity of other gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal neoplasms and by histologicaly different zones within the same investigation. We present the situation with the above issues: the differential diagnosis includes an analysis of morphological criteria and received immunohisto-chemical reactions. Between immunophenotypes of histologicaly different zones principal difference is not revealed.

  16. Treatment Of Brain Tumours In Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancokova, T.

    2007-01-01

    Children tumours are the second most common oncologic diseases in childhood (20 %) with highest incidence of mortality in children oncology. Brain tumours form a heterogenous group of tumours with their classification,diagnostic criteria and therapeutic modalities. General principles of treatment involve neurosurgery, which is a prognostic factor, its radicality depends on localization. Radiotherapy has limitations in children until 3 years for possible late effects. Chemotherapy is effective in tumours with high growing rate. These days challenge is to improve therapeutic outcomes and minimalize toxicity of therapy. (author)

  17. Tumours of the pineal region in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.D.; Schulte, F.J.; Winkler, D.; Mueller, D.

    1988-01-01

    36 patients with tumours in the pineal region were treated between 1980 and 1986, 19 of whom were under 20 years of age. Diagnosis was based on cranial CT, supplemented to by MRI as from 1986. Preoperative angiography was peformed on all patients to demonstrate tumour vascularization and type of vascular supply. Stereotactic biopsies were complemented by intraoperative ventriculography. Stereotactic biopsy only was performed in 13 patients out of the total group to verify tumour histology. 23 patients were directly operated on primarily. 3 of these died postoperative. In cases of germ-cell tumours and pineal blastomas the total brain and the vertebral canal were irradiated. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  19. Patterns of shift in ADC distributions in abdominal tumours during chemotherapy - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Kirsteen; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Histopathology Department, London (United Kingdom); Anderson, John [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Oncology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) relates to tissue cellularity, and change in ADC during chemotherapy may be a promising tool for assessing oncological response. To investigate the feasibility of measuring changes in ADC distribution in solid abdominal and pelvic paediatric tumours during chemotherapy, and to assess patterns of change. Consecutive children were included in a prospective observational study. ADC maps were calculated at presentation and following chemotherapy from a diffusion-sensitised sequence. ADC distribution in the whole tumour, excluding areas of low or absent gadolinium-enhancement, was investigated. Change during chemotherapy was assessed for each patient individually. Histopathological slices from the resected specimens were reviewed. There were seven children (nine tumours) included in the study. ADC in all except one deviated from a normal distribution. All tumours changed their ADC distribution during chemotherapy. Median ADC increased in all upper abdominal tumours, but more in tumours with histopathologically good or marked response to chemotherapy. Seven out of nine tumours attained a wider ADC distribution, the remaining two showed little chemotherapy response. ADC distribution changes during chemotherapy in childhood abdominal tumours are measurable. Distinct patterns of shift can be observed and ADC change is therefore promising as a noninvasive biomarker for therapy response. (orig.)

  20. SOLID PSEUDOPAPILLARY TUMOUR OF THE PANCREAS: A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingam Aruna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas is a rare tumour of low malignant potential occurring predominantly in young females. Its incidence has been increasing due to advanced imaging modalities. As this tumour offers a good prognosis, it is important to make a proper diagnosis to offer better treatment and reduce morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study for a period of 2 years (From May 2014 to April 2016. Of the 52 pancreatic specimens we received after surgery, 9 cases had a prior radiological diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas. The clinical and histopathological characteristics of SPT were studied along with review of literature. Whipple resection specimens which were radiologically diagnosed as adenocarcinoma of the periampullary region were excluded. RESULTS Nine cases were reported radiologically as papillary neoplasm of pancreas. On histopathology, 8 of them were confirmed as solid pseudopapillary tumours of the pancreas. One was a case of serous cystadenoma and other one was pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. One case which was suspected as pancreatic endocrine tumour radiologically was diagnosed as SPT. CONCLUSION SPT typically is limited to the pancreas at the time of diagnosis, and even with metastasis, an extended complete surgical excision offers good prognosis. Hence, it is important to distinguish it from other tumours of similar morphology. In this study, we discuss the process of establishing the diagnosis accurately of SPN in young patients presenting with pancreatic mass.

  1. Pituitary dysfunction in adult patients after cranial irradiation for head and nasopharyngeal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelman-Dijkstra, Natasha M.; Malgo, Frank; Neelis, Karen J.; Coremans, Ida; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Pereira, Alberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pituitary insufficiency after radiotherapy in the hypothalamic pituitary region is a well-known complication. However, endocrine assessments are not incorporated in the follow-up after cranial irradiation for head and neck tumours. Aim of the study: To evaluate pituitary function in patients cranially irradiated for non-pituitary tumours. Patients and methods: Evaluation of pituitary function in all available patients treated at our centre with cranial radiotherapy for head and neck tumours. Results: We included 80 patients. Forty patients were treated for cerebral tumours, 15 for nasopharyngeal tumours, and 25 for different tumours like meningioma or cerebral metastasis. Mean age was 47.5 (18.6–89.7) years. Mean radiation dose delivered at the pituitary region was 56.27 Gy (40.0–70.0). Pituitary insufficiency was present in 16 patients within 2 years after irradiation 23/49 patients (47%) after 5 years and 27/45 (60%) after 10 years and 31/35 patients (89%) after 15 years. Conclusion: Pituitary insufficiency is highly prevalent in adult patients treated with cranial radiotherapy for head and nasopharyngeal tumours. These prevalence rates are comparable to those observed after radiotherapy for pituitary tumours. Because hormone replacement of endocrine deficits improves quality of life and prevents potential severe complications, such as Addisonian crises, periodical evaluation of pituitary function is advocated

  2. Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Kamran P; Dalton, Rory R; Brown, James A

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old tetraplegic patient with suppurative epididymitis was found on follow-up examination and ultrasonography to have a testicular mass. The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis. Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign. The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis. This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

  3. Solitary Fibrous Tumour of the Pleura – Cases Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadczak, Przemysław; Guz, Wiesław; Kaznowska, Ewa; Ramotowski, Radosław; Szalacha-Tarała, Ewa; Górecki, Andrzej; Samojedny, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Isolated fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP – Solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura/localized fibrous tumour of the pleura) is a rare primary tumour of the pleura of mesenchymal origin. In most cases, it is a benign lesion. It is composed of spindle cells similar to fibroblasts and derives probably from submesothelial mesenchyme. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical symptoms, incidence, possibility of suggesting the diagnosis on the basis of imaging tests, and confirmation of the diagnosis in pathological tests with regard to studies of histochemistry examination. Clinical and morphological material obtained from 14 patients from Department of Thoracic Surgery of Subcarpathian Chest Disease Center treated between year 2004 and 2010 was analysed. In the first stage, selected cases of patients with isolated fibrous tumour of the pleura were chosen from the archives and the analysis of their medical history was carried out. Basic information about age, gender, medical history, smoking habit, physical examination and results of imaging, endoscopic and morphological examinations were noted. The second parallel component of the study was pathomorphological examinations of the surgical material obtained from the patients, including the assessment of morphology and immunohistochemistry. Of the 14 examined patients, fibrous tumour occurred in 8 men and 6 women. The age range of the patients was 37–73 years, with a peak attributable to the 6 th decade of life. In 8 patients the tumour was detected incidentally during routine examinations. In 7 patients there were no clinical signs of respiratory disease, and if present, then the most common complaint was shortness of breath. Regarding symptoms not connected with the respiratory system, anemia occurred most frequently. Fibrous tumour of the pleura was more often associated with the visceral pleura than with the parietal pleura. The largest lesion was approximately 20 cm in size. Fibrous tumour of the pleura is a

  4. Significance of collateral arterial supply to Wilms' tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundkvist, K.; Esscher, T.; Jorulf, H.; Larsson, E.; Laeckgren, G.; Uppsala Univ.; Uppsala Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of collateral arterial supply was examined by angiography in 19 children with Wilms' tumour. Collateral arterial supply was related to tumour size. Ten of 14 tumours displaying collateral circulation were entirely intrarenal at operation, confirmed by histopathology. Angiography in Wilms' tumour is indicated when the results of urography, ultrasonography or computed tomography are equivocal or extrarenal tumour growth is suggested. (orig.)

  5. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  6. Impact of tumour volume on prediction of progression-free survival in sinonasal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennersdorf, Florian; Mauz, Paul-Stefan; Adam, Patrick; Welz, Stefan; Sievert, Anne; Ernemann, Ulrike; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyse potential prognostic factors, with emphasis on tumour volume, in determining progression free survival (PFS) for malignancies of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. Retrospective analysis of 106 patients with primary sinonasal malignancies treated and followed-up between March 2006 and October 2012. Possible predictive parameters for PFS were entered into univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis included age, sex, baseline tumour volume (based on MR imaging), histology type, TNM stage and prognostic groups according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis concerning the predictive value of tumour volume for recurrence was also conducted. The main histological subgroup consisted of epithelial tumours (77%). The majority of the patients (68%) showed advanced tumour burden (AJCC stage III–IV). Lymph node involvement was present in 18 cases. The mean tumour volume was 26.6 ± 21.2 cm 3 . The median PFS for all patients was 24.9 months (range: 2.5–84.5 months). The ROC curve analysis for the tumour volume showed 58.1% sensitivity and 75.4% specificity for predicting recurrence. Tumour volume, AJCC staging, T- and N- stage were significant predictors in the univariate analysis. Positive lymph node status and tumour volume remained significant and independent predictors in the multivariate analysis. Radiological tumour volume proofed to be a statistically reliable predictor of PFS. In the multivariate analysis, T-, N- and overall AJCC staging did not show significant prognostic value

  7. A short-term in vitro test for tumour sensitivity to adriamycin based on flow cytometric DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, S A; Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L L

    1983-01-01

    A new method to test the sensitivity of tumour cells to chemotherapy is presented. Tumour cells were incubated in vitro on agar, and drug-induced cell cycle perturbation was monitored by flow cytometric DNA analysis. In the present study the method was applied to monitor the effect of adriamycin...... tumours. The dose level causing maximum accumulation in the G2 + M phase is suggested as a parameter for quantifying the sensitivity. The results indicate that the method can be extended to sensitivity testing of human tumours....

  8. Malignant renal tumours in adults in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaeri, T U; Orakwe, J C; Nwofor, A M E; Oranusi, C K; Ulebe, A O

    2012-01-01

    Malignant renal tumour is the third commonest urological tumour after prostate and bladder cancer. It is however the urological tumour with the highest mortality/incidence ratio. To review the frequency, mode of presentation and histological pattern of patients with malignant renal tumours in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital. A 7 year retrospective review of all our renal tumour folders in the institution. 19 patients qualified for the study with a male/female ratio of 1:2.8 and a mean age of 52.6 +/- 15.8 years. The peak age was in the seventh decade. Most patient present late (78.9%).Renal cell cancer was the commonest tumour type with the commonest mode of presentation being abdominal mass and pain. Malignant renal tumours present very late in our environment and patients hesitate in accepting available treatment option which is surgery. There is need for increased patient awareness and high index of suspicion by the clinician, particularly during imaging procedures, as this would significantly enhance the early detection of these patients.

  9. Update on gastrointestinal stromal tumors for radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; O' Neill, Alibhe; Jagannathan, Jyothi P. [Dept. of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (United States); Baheti, Akahay D. [Dept. of Radiology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai (India); Tirumani, Harika [Dept. of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has evolved significantly in the last two decades due to better understanding of their biologic behavior as well as development of molecular targeted therapies. GISTs with exon 11 mutation respond to imatinib whereas GISTs with exon 9 or succinate dehydrogenase subunit mutations do not. Risk stratification models have enabled stratifying GISTs according to risk of recurrence and choosing patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. Assessing response to targeted therapies in GIST using conventional response criteria has several potential pitfalls leading to search for alternate response criteria based on changes in tumor attenuation, volume, metabolic and functional parameters. Surveillance of patients with GIST in the adjuvant setting is important for timely detection of recurrences.

  10. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor – An Evolving Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornillo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with RTK inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan) the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other “entities,” have been discovered (e.g., succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, and mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway). The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data. PMID:25593916

  11. Prostatic stromal microenvironment and experimental diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The diabetes causes alterations in various organ systems, including the male accessory sex glands. The prostate is very important in the reproductive process and it is a frequent target of malignant changes. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the histochemical and ultrastructural alterations in the prostate of diabetic animals. Two groups of animals were utilized: control and non-obese diabetic mice (NOD. Twelve days after the characterization of diabetic status the ventral prostate was collected, fixed in Karnovsky and paraformaldehyde, processed for histochemistry and TEM associated to stereology. The results showed reduction of the epithelial area and increasing of the stromal area with muscular and collagen hypertrophy in the prostatic gland. It was characterized the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, inflammatory processes and dilation of the organelles involved in the secretory process. It was concluded that diabetes besides damaging the reproductive process, affects the glandular homeostasis favoring the development of prostatic pathologies.

  12. Cryopreservation and revival of mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Kastrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years, the pace of preclinical stem cell research is astonishing and adult stem cells have become the subject of intense research. Due to the presence of promising supporting preclinical data, human clinical trials for stem cell regenerative treatment of various diseases have been...... initiated. As there has been a precedent for the use of bone marrow stem cells in the treatment of hematological malignancies and ischemic heart diseases through randomized clinical safety and efficacy trials, the development of new therapies based on culture-expanded human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs......) opens up new possibilities for cell therapy. To facilitate these applications, cryopreservation and long-term storage of MSCs becomes an absolute necessity. As a result, optimization of this cryopreservation protocol is absolutely critical. The major challenge during cellular cryopreservation...

  13. Collagen reorganization at the tumor-stromal interface facilitates local invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inman David R

    2006-12-01

    with this observation, primary tumor explants cultured in a randomly organized collagen matrix realigned the collagen fibers, allowing individual tumor cells to migrate out along radially aligned fibers. Conclusion The presentation of these tumor-associated collagen signatures allowed us to identify pre-palpable tumors and see cells at the tumor-stromal boundary invading into the stroma along radially aligned collagen fibers. As such, TACS should provide indications that a tumor is, or could become, invasive, and may serve as part of a strategy to help identify and characterize breast tumors in animal and human tissues.

  14. Decidual stromal cell response to paracrine signals from the trophoblast: amplification of immune and angiogenic modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, A P; Hamilton, A E; Talbi, S; Dosiou, C; Nyegaard, M; Nayak, N; Genbecev-Krtolica, O; Mavrogianis, P; Ferrer, K; Kruessel, J; Fazleabas, A T; Fisher, S J; Giudice, L C

    2007-01-01

    During the invasive phase of implantation, trophoblasts and maternal decidual stromal cells secrete products that regulate trophoblast differentiation and migration into the maternal endometrium. Paracrine interactions between the extravillous trophoblast and the maternal decidua are important for successful embryonic implantation, including establishing the placental vasculature, anchoring the placenta to the uterine wall, and promoting the immunoacceptance of the fetal allograph. To our knowledge, global crosstalk between the trophoblast and the decidua has not been elucidated to date, and the present study used a functional genomics approach to investigate these paracrine interactions. Human endometrial stromal cells were decidualized with progesterone and further treated with conditioned media from human trophoblasts (TCM) or, as a control, with control conditioned media (CCM) from nondecidualized stromal cells for 0, 3, and 12 h. Total RNA was isolated and processed for analysis on whole-genome, high-density oligonucleotide arrays containing 54,600 genes. We found that 1374 genes were significantly upregulated and that 3443 genes were significantly downregulated after 12 h of coincubation of stromal cells with TCM, compared to CCM. Among the most upregulated genes were the chemokines CXCL1 (GRO1) and IL8,CXCR4, and other genes involved in the immune response (CCL8 [SCYA8], pentraxin 3 (PTX3), IL6, and interferon-regulated and -related genes) as well as TNFAIP6 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6) and metalloproteinases (MMP1, MMP10, and MMP14). Among the downregulated genes were growth factors, e.g., IGF1, FGF1, TGFB1, and angiopoietin-1, and genes involved in Wnt signaling (WNT4 and FZD). Real-time RT-PCR and ELISAs, as well as immunohistochemical analysis of human placental bed specimens, confirmed these data for representative genes of both up- and downregulated groups. The data demonstrate a significant induction of proinflammatory cytokines and

  15. The differentiation directions of the bone marrow stromal cells under modeling microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, Olga; Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Within experiments on rats simulating microgravity by base load remove from back limbs (duration of the experiment 1,5 months) on marrow stromal cells cultures (ex vivo, in vitro) comprising osteogenic cells-predecessors, extracted from femurs, studied their peculiarities of the colony formation ablity, the cell structure, some cytological and ultra-structural characteristics and differentiation direction. It was found that that under microgravity conditions there is a decline of the stromal cells colony formation intensity, decrease of the colonies size and cells mitotic activity that indicates decrease of their growth potential. Both in control and in experiment the colonies were presented by population of low-differentiated cells, differentiated cells and mature cells. The comparative cytological and morphometric analysis have shown that the studied stromal cells in colonies have the smaller sizes, more elongated shape, and higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Cells composition in the experiment colonies is reliably different by the ratio of the low-differentiating to being differentiated cells; a ratio of low-differentiated to already differentiated cells; ratio of differentiated cells to total number of all cells. In comparison with control group, amount of the cells passed trough a differentiation stage and mature cells in colonies is decreased by 3 to 4 times. Among the differentiated stromal cells in colonies increasing amount of adipocytes was revealed. The analysis of electron microscope microphotographs showed that in osteogenic cells differentiated under microgravity conditions, there is a reduction of the specific volume of a granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi's complex and quantity of nuclei reduction that indicates depression of the specific biosyntheses process intensity in cells. The increase of lysosomes and myelinic structures quantity is linked to organelles partial reduction. Consolidation of mitochondrias is an evidence of the cells’ energy

  16. Why are epididymal tumours so rare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ching-Hei; Wang, Kai; Cooper, Trevor G

    2012-01-01

    Epididymal tumour incidence is at most 0.03% of all male cancers. It is an enigma why the human epididymis does not often succumb to cancer, when it expresses markers of stem and cancer cells, and constitutively expresses oncogenes, pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic factors that allow tumour cells to escape immunosurveillance in cancer-prone tissues. The privileged position of the human epididymis in evading tumourigenicity is reflected in transgenic mouse models in which induction of tumours in other organs is not accompanied by epididymal neoplasia. The epididymis appears to: (i) prevent tumour initiation (it probably lacks stem cells and has strong anti-oxidative mechanisms, active tumour suppressors and inactive oncogene products); (ii) foster tumour monitoring and destruction (by strong immuno-surveillance and -eradication, and cellular senescence); (iii) avert proliferation and angiogenesis (with persistent tight junctions, the presence of anti-angiogenic factors and misplaced pro-angiogenic factors), which together (iv) promote dormancy and restrict dividing cells to hyperplasia. Epididymal cells may be rendered non-responsive to oncogenic stimuli by the constitutive expression of factors generally inducible in tumours, and resistant to the normal epididymal environment, which mimics that of a tumour niche promoting tumour growth. The threshold for tumour initiation may thus be higher in the epididymis than in other organs. Several anti-tumour mechanisms are those that maintain spermatozoa quiescent and immunologically silent, so the low incidence of cancer in the epididymis may be a consequence of its role in sperm maturation and storage. Understanding these mechanisms may throw light on cancer prevention and therapy in general. PMID:22522502

  17. Mapping the tumour HLA ligandome by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenmann, Lena Katharina; Marcu, Ana; Stevanović, Stefan

    2018-04-15

    The entirety of HLA-presented peptides is referred to as the HLA ligandome of a cell or tissue, in tumours often termed immunopeptidome. Mapping the tumour immunopeptidome by mass spectrometry (MS) comprehensively views the pathophysiologically relevant antigenic signature of human malignancies. MS is an unbiased approach stringently filtering the candidates to be tested as opposed to epitope prediction algorithms. In the setting of peptide-specific immunotherapies, MS-based strategies significantly diminish the risk of lacking clinical benefit, as they yield highly enriched amounts of truly presented peptides. Early immunopeptidomic efforts were severely limited by technical sensitivity and manual spectra interpretation. The technological progress with development of orbitrap mass analysers and enhanced chromatographic performance led to vast improvements in mass accuracy, sensitivity, resolution and speed. Concomitantly, bioinformatic tools were developed to process MS data, integrate sequencing results, and to deconvolute multi-allelic datasets. This enabled the immense advancement of tumour immunopeptidomics. Studying the HLA-presented peptide repertoire bears high potential for both answering basic scientific questions and translational application. Mapping the tumour HLA ligandome has started to significantly contribute to target identification for the design of peptide-specific cancer immunotherapies in clinical trials and compassionate need treatments. In contrast to prediction algorithms, rare HLA allotypes and HLA class II can be adequately addressed when choosing MS-guided target identification platforms. Herein, we review the identification of tumour HLA ligands focusing on sources, methods, bioinformatic data analysis, translational application and provide an outlook on future developments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Malignant tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, E.

    1983-01-01

    The thesis analyses 317 patients with vulvar malignancies treated at the University Hospital, Lund, during 1960-1979. The three most common histological types of malignancy have been analysed. The oncological clinic in Lund has since the 1960's used a surgical technique where the primary tumour and the regional lymph nodes are operated on in two separate surgical seances. The vulvectomy is performed with tarm knife technique, and the wound is left open. The 5-year crude survival rate for the entire patient material treated with curative intention was over 60 %, which agrees well with reports from other centres. Our surgical approach using two separate seances has, however, much lower rates of postoperative complications and mortality than the rates in other reports. The overall most important prognostic factors for the patients with invasive vulvar malignancies are the presence of lymphatic metastases at the time of surgery, and the surgical radicality of the primary surgery. The treatment at most stages of tumour development and most histological types should include total vulvectomy preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymphadenectomy. Only local extirpation and hemivulvectomy are, however, indicated for small microinvasively growing squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Samll invasive onesided squamous cell carcinoma is best treated with ipsilateral surgery combined with preoperative irradiation of the inguinal lymph nodes. Patients with metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes should receive additional irradiation of the inguinal and pelvic lymph node stations. (Author)

  19. Analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL6 gene in patients with stromal keratitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Aaron R.; Yang Li; Cevallos, A. Vicky; Margolis, Todd P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work suggests that herpes simplex virus (HSV) stromal keratitis in the mouse is caused by autoreactive T lymphocytes triggered by a 16 amino acid region of the HSV UL6 protein (aa299-314) , Science 279, 1344-1347). In the present study we sought to determine whether genetic variation of this presumed autoreactive UL6 epitope is responsible for different pathogenic patterns of human HSV keratitis. To accomplish this, we sequenced the HSV UL6 gene from ocular isolates of 10 patients with necrotizing stromal keratitis, 7 patients with recurrent epithelial keratitis, and 8 patients with other forms of HSV keratitis. The sequences obtained predicted identical UL6(299-314) epitopes for all 25 viral isolates. Furthermore, the upstream sequence of all isolates was free of insertions, deletions, and stop codons. We conclude that different pathogenic patterns of human HSV keratitis occur independent of genetic variation of the HSV UL6 (299-314) epitope

  20. Applications of accelerators to tumour therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The first lecture is devoted to an historical review of the developments of the teletherapy techniques which make use of hadron beams and are collectively called “hadrontherapy”. The main emphasis is on the use of protons and light ions, but also neutrons, pions and antiprotons are considered. The second lecture reviews the rationale behind the use of carbon ions in the treatment of radioresistant tumours and the results obtained both with proton and carbon ion beams on the 60 000 patients treated worldwide. The numbers of patients who would profit from hadrontherapy are presented together with the current landscape of running and planned hospital based centres. The main technical challenges set by this therapeutic modality are discussed in the third lecture together with the approaches either adopted or suggested to face them. The challenges are the treatment of moving organs, the development of new tools for Quality Assurance, the design of rotating gantries for carbon ions. The last discussed issue con...

  1. Appendicular skeletal tumours coined by odontogenic terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zidkova, H.; Matejovksy, Z.; Kolar, J.; Horn, V.; Sprindrich, J.; Beran, J.; Slavik, M.

    1981-10-01

    Two intriguing tumours in the appendicular skeleton are coined by odontogenic terms: the adamantinomas and cementomas (or cementifying fibromas ). Both are extremely rare, mainly the latter. Eight verified observations are presented here: five adamantinomas and three cementomas. Whereas in adamantinomas, the localization and radiographic picture was very typical in all cases, only one cementoma was found in the metaphysis of a long tubular bone in our survey. Diaphyseal tibial localization in one, and metacarpal in another patient are the first two atypical localizations described for this tumor in the world's medical literature. Angiography is characteristic for a benign expansive lesion and should be carried out in all cases. An en bloc resection is the intervention of choice for both these entities.

  2. Gastric Schwannoma mimicking malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor and misdiagnosed by (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiu; Li, Beilei; Cai, Liang; Hou, Xiaoguang; Shi, Hongcheng; Hou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor that accounts for only 0.2% of all gastric tumors. The current study presents a case of gastric Schwannoma misdiagnosed as malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced or not enhanced and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

  3. A model of the effects of cancer cell motility and cellular adhesion properties on tumour-immune dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascoli, Federico; Flood, Emelie; Kim, Peter S

    2017-06-01

    We present a three-dimensional model simulating the dynamics of an anti-cancer T-cell response against a small, avascular, early-stage tumour. Interactions at the tumour site are accounted for using an agent-based model (ABM), while immune cell dynamics in the lymph node are modelled as a system of delay differential equations (DDEs). We combine these separate approaches into a two-compartment hybrid ABM-DDE system to capture the T-cell response against the tumour. In the ABM at the tumour site, movement of tumour cells is modelled using effective physical forces with a specific focus on cell-to-cell adhesion properties and varying levels of tumour cell motility, thus taking into account the ability of cancer cells to spread and form clusters. We consider the effectiveness of the immune response over a range of parameters pertaining to tumour cell motility, cell-to-cell adhesion strength and growth rate. We also investigate the dependence of outcomes on the distribution of tumour cells. Low tumour cell motility is generally a good indicator for successful tumour eradication before relapse, while high motility leads, almost invariably, to relapse and tumour escape. In general, the effect of cell-to-cell adhesion on prognosis is dependent on the level of tumour cell motility, with an often unpredictable cross influence between adhesion and motility, which can lead to counterintuitive effects. In terms of overall tumour shape and structure, the spatial distribution of cancer cells in clusters of various sizes has shown to be strongly related to the likelihood of extinction. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  4. Stromal infrastructure of the lymph node and coordination of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jonathan E; Turley, Shannon J

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of adaptive immune responses depends upon the careful maneuvering of lymphocytes and antigen into and within strategically placed lymph nodes (LNs). Non-hematopoietic stromal cells form the cellular infrastructure that directs this process. Once regarded as merely structural features of lymphoid tissues, these cells are now appreciated as essential regulators of immune cell trafficking, fluid flow, and LN homeostasis. Recent advances in the identification and in vivo targeting of specific stromal populations have resulted in striking new insights to the function of stromal cells and reveal a level of complexity previously unrealized. We discuss here recent discoveries that highlight the pivotal role that stromal cells play in orchestrating immune cell homeostasis and adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestinal stromal cells in mucosal immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, B M J; Simmons, A

    2013-03-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that non-hematopoietic stromal cells of the intestine have multiple roles in immune responses and inflammation at this mucosal site. Despite this, many still consider gut stromal cells as passive structural entities, with past research focused heavily on their roles in fibrosis, tumor progression, and wound healing, rather than their contributions to immune function. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of stromal cells in intestinal immunity, highlighting the many immunological axes in which stromal cells have a functional role. We also consider emerging data that broaden the potential scope of their contribution to immunity in the gut and argue that these so-called "non-immune" cells are reclassified in light of their diverse contributions to intestinal innate immunity and the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis.

  6. Cryopreservation and revival of human mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising and innovative new treatment for different degenerative and autoimmune diseases, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow have demonstrated great therapeutic potential due to their immunosuppressive and regenerative capacities. The establishment...

  7. Engineering stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro for toxicology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Crosstalk between epithelial and stromal cells drives the morphogenesis of ectodermal organs during development and promotes normal mature adult epithelial tissue function. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) have been examined using mammalian models, ex vivo t...

  8. Management of hemorrhage in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Kong, Fanmin; Zhou, Jianping; Dong, Ming; Dong, Qi

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common mesenchymal tumors. They originate from the wall of hollow viscera and may be found in any part of the digestive tract. The prognosis of patients with stromal tumors depends on various risk factors, including size, location, presence of mitotic figures, and tumor rupture. Emergency surgery is often required for stromal tumors with hemorrhage. The current literature suggests that stromal tumor hemorrhage indicates poor prognosis. Although the optimal treatment options for hemorrhagic GISTs are based on surgical experience, there remains controversy with regard to optimum postoperative management as well as the classification of malignant potential. This article reviews the biological characteristics, diagnostic features, prognostic factors, treatment, and postoperative management of GISTs with hemorrhage.

  9. Stromal-to-epithelial transition during postpartum endometrial regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chiu Huang

    Full Text Available Endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus which is composed of epithelial and stromal tissue compartments enclosed by the two smooth muscle layers of the myometrium. In women, much of the endometrium is shed and regenerated each month during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial regeneration also occurs after parturition. The cellular mechanisms that regulate endometrial regeneration are still poorly understood. Using genetic fate-mapping in the mouse, we found that the epithelial compartment of the endometrium maintains its epithelial identity during the estrous cycle and postpartum regeneration. However, whereas the stromal compartment maintains its identity during homeostatic cycling, after parturition a subset of stromal cells differentiates into epithelium that is subsequently maintained. These findings identify potential progenitor cells within the endometrial stromal compartment that produce long-term epithelial tissue during postpartum endometrial regeneration.

  10. Stromal-to-epithelial transition during postpartum endometrial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Orvis, Grant D; Wang, Ying; Behringer, Richard R

    2012-01-01

    Endometrium is the inner lining of the uterus which is composed of epithelial and stromal tissue compartments enclosed by the two smooth muscle layers of the myometrium. In women, much of the endometrium is shed and regenerated each month during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial regeneration also occurs after parturition. The cellular mechanisms that regulate endometrial regeneration are still poorly understood. Using genetic fate-mapping in the mouse, we found that the epithelial compartment of the endometrium maintains its epithelial identity during the estrous cycle and postpartum regeneration. However, whereas the stromal compartment maintains its identity during homeostatic cycling, after parturition a subset of stromal cells differentiates into epithelium that is subsequently maintained. These findings identify potential progenitor cells within the endometrial stromal compartment that produce long-term epithelial tissue during postpartum endometrial regeneration.

  11. Analysis of adrenocortical tumours morphology as regards their structure and potential malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajor, M.; Ciupinska-Kajor, M.; Dobrosz, Z.; Ziaja, J.; Krol, R.; Heitzman, M.; Cierpka, L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A consequence of diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is introduction of pharmacological therapy, precise monitoring of the patients and in some cases re-operation. The aim of the study is to analyse morphology of adrenocortical tumours as regards their malignancy by use of criteria proposed by Weiss. Material and methods: 110 adrenocortical tumours in 107 patients were analysed (M 27.1%, F 72.9%; age 32 to 77 years, mean 55.2 ± 9.7). Conn syndrome was diagnosed in 16 patients (14.9%), Cushing syndrome in 12 (11.2%), and virilisation in 3 (2.8%). In 76 patients (71.0%) biochemical tests did not reveal hormonal hyperactivity of the tumour. Results: In routine histopathological examination ACC was diagnosed in 6 tumours (5.4%), adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) in 92 (83.6%) and adrenocortical hyperplasia in 12 (10.9%). Nuclear grade III or IV was observed in 8 tumours (7.3%), mitotic rate > 5/50 high power fields in 6 (5.4%), atypical mitoses in 5 (4.5%), clear cells constituting < 25% of the tumour in 10 (9.1%), diffuse architecture in 8 (7.3%), necrosis in 16 (14.5%), veins infiltration in 4 (3.6%), sinusoids infiltration in 7 (6.3%), and tumour capsule infiltration in 5 (4.5%). Among ACC tumours 4 - 9 features of malignancy were present, among ACA - 0 - 3 features. Statistical analysis revealed correlation between number of criteria proposed by Weiss and maximal tumour size (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The structure and cell arrangement in adrenocortical adenoma are heterogeneous. Application of criteria proposed by Weiss in histopathological examination of adrenocortical tumours can be useful in differentiating adrenocortical adenoma from carcinoma. (author)

  12. a-Tocopherol enhances tumour growth inhibition by cis-dichlorodiammine platinum (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies indicate that alpha-tocopherol enhances the efficacy of cisplatin as demonstrated by inoculation of Dalton's lymphoma cells incubated with either cisplatin (5 or 10 µg/ml alone or cisplatin + alpha-tocopherol (25 or 50 µg/ml into C3H/He mice. Tumour cells (3 x 10(6 cells/mouse incubated with cisplatin grow slowly in syngeneic mice as indicated by the late appearance of tumour. However, mice failed to develop tumour when inoculated with tumour cells incubated with cisplatin + alpha-tocopherol. When the animals were challenged with tumour cells (3 x 10(6 cells/mouse on the 15th day after the initial inoculation, 30-50% survived more than 60 days, with 10% tumour-free survivors being observed in some groups. Antitumour activity was higher in mice receiving lymphoma cells (3 x 10(6 cells/mouse preincubated with cisplatin + alpha-tocopherol compared to cisplatin alone. Tumour-bearing mice receiving cisplatin in combination with different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol exhibited significantly higher (P<0.001 intratumour platinum content (123-306% but without any change in the kidney platinum content as compared to those receiving cisplatin (5 or 10 µg/ml alone. Enhancement of cisplatin-induced tumour growth inhibition is probably due to the modulation of tumour cell membrane permeability by alpha-tocopherol. alpha-Tocopherol might increase the influx of cisplatin into tumour cells, causing the DNA repair machinery to be less efficient due to increased efficiency of adduct formation in the DNA molecule. This effect of alpha-tocopherol can render cisplatin more effective as an antitumour agent.

  13. PP13. CHERNOBYL, BREXIT AND BRAIN TUMOURS

    Science.gov (United States)

    chia, Dr kazumi; Davies, Ms Rhiannon; Brazil, Dr Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, many hundreds of thousands of people from the newly ascended states travelled to the UK to look for work. Polish workers were by far the largest group and today, Polish is the second most commonly spoken language in the UK. In central London, the multidisciplinary, neuro-oncology team at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT) and Kings College Hospital serves a catchment area of nearly 3.5 million, 1% (32,253) of whom are recorded to have been born in Poland at the last 2011 census. Over the past few years, we have observed a relatively large number of Polish-born UK residents presenting with primary brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumours. Data collection is ongoing but we believe that the numbers of newly diagnosed cases far exceeds the published age standardized incidence rate for brain and CNS tumors in Poland which is 10 per 100,000. If a higher than expected incidence of brain and CNS tumors in our local Polish population is observed this could be explained by a number of socioeconomic/health factors. However, as we mark the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident this year, we should also keep in mind geohistorical factors that may be relevant to this particular immigrant population. Poland neighbours Ukraine where the Chernobyl accident occurred, and was affected by the radioactive fallout that followed the disaster. The main health impact from Chernobyl has so far been the increased incidence of thyroid cancer but there is now increasing concern about the increased risk of non-thyroid, solid tumors. An increased incidence in CNS tumours has been seen in atomic bomb survivors where even a low exposures (<1Sv) was associated with an increased risk. Cohort studies in Belarus and Ukraine, two countries with the most radiation contamination, have so far not demonstrated any significant increase in non-thyroid cancers but it may still be early days. We know from long term

  14. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  15. Malignant Appendage Tumours in Zaria | Samaila | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were diagnosed malignant adnexeal tumour of Eccrine sweat gland origin. Conclusion: Malignant appendage tumours showed a higher frequency in middle aged men in this review. A good knowledge and understanding of the pathology, high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical studies should help in ...

  16. STAT3 signaling mediates tumour resistance to EGFR targeted therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Ahmad A; Tan, Fiona H; Putoczki, Tracy L; Stylli, Stanley S; Luwor, Rodney B

    2017-08-15

    Several EGFR inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical assessment or are approved for the clinical management of patients with varying tumour types. However, treatment often results in a lack of response in many patients. The majority of patients that initially respond eventually present with tumours that display acquired resistance to the original therapy. A large number of receptor tyrosine and intracellular kinases have been implicated in driving signaling that mediates this tumour resistance to anti-EGFR targeted therapy, and in a few cases these discoveries have led to overall changes in prospective tumour screening and clinical practice (K-RAS in mCRC and EGFR T790M in NSCLC). In this mini-review, we specifically focus on the role of the STAT3 signaling axis in providing both intrinsic and acquired resistance to inhibitors of the EGFR. We also focus on STAT3 pathway targeting in an attempt to overcome resistance to anti-EGFR therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EVALUATION OF MEDIASTINAL TUMOURS: A STUDY OF 50 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema K. R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Mediastinum is a site for neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions and many of them present as mediastinal mass. The location and composition of these lesions are critical in arriving at a clinical diagnosis. This study of different mediastinal masses is aimed to find out frequency of malignancy, their compartmental distribution and characteristics through computed tomography. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted at Government Medical College, Thrissur, India, during the period 2010-2012 with a total of 50 patients with suspected mediastinal masses. All patients were subjected to investigations like chest X-ray, CT scan along with guided fine needle aspiration/biopsy for definite tissue diagnosis. The major variables were age, clinical symptoms, mass location, imaging studies, and tissue pathology. RESULT Fifty patients enrolled in this study were analysed and compared with existing studies in the literature. 34 cases (68% were malignant and 16 cases (32% were benign. Majority of the lesions were seen in the anterior compartment, followed by posterior compartment. Bronchogenic carcinoma and lymphoma were the common malignant tumours seen in the anterior and middle compartments of the mediastinum, whereas neurogenic tumours, mostly benign, were the common tumours in the posterior compartment. CONCLUSION CT scan is an effective tool in evaluating mediastinal masses. Moreover, sampling the mass is important in obtaining pathological diagnosis. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy either as single or in combination are the main modalities of treatment. Accurate preoperative pathological diagnosis, invasion and infiltration of the tumour were the key to successful treatment.

  18. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Saira; Sebire, Neil; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); McCarville, Mary Beth [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy (MNTI) is a rare neoplasm of neural crest origin. To describe three further cases of MNTI, with emphasis on CT and MRI findings. Data for children with histologically confirmed MNTI following biopsy or surgery were retrieved. Three children with available imaging at the time of diagnosis were included in the study. All three children had primary tumour in the head and neck region: one in the maxilla, one in the occipital bone (extra-axial but with intracranial extension) and one with an unusual tumour growing exophytically from the subcutaneous tissues adjacent to the occipital bone. All tumours were iso/hypointense both on T1- and T2-weighted MRI, and showed marked contrast enhancement in their non-ossified components. CT allowed identification of bone destruction and remodelling. Our findings are consistent with previously reported cases of MNTI regarding age at presentation and location in the head and neck region. Our MR findings did not demonstrate the typical pattern of T1-shortening expected from melanin deposition. (orig.)

  19. Generating prior probabilities for classifiers of brain tumours using belief networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvanitis Theodoros N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous methods for classifying brain tumours based on magnetic resonance spectra and imaging have been presented in the last 15 years. Generally, these methods use supervised machine learning to develop a classifier from a database of cases for which the diagnosis is already known. However, little has been published on developing classifiers based on mixed modalities, e.g. combining imaging information with spectroscopy. In this work a method of generating probabilities of tumour class from anatomical location is presented. Methods The method of "belief networks" is introduced as a means of generating probabilities that a tumour is any given type. The belief networks are constructed using a database of paediatric tumour cases consisting of data collected over five decades; the problems associated with using this data are discussed. To verify the usefulness of the networks, an application of the method is presented in which prior probabilities were generated and combined with a classification of tumours based solely on MRS data. Results Belief networks were constructed from a database of over 1300 cases. These can be used to generate a probability that a tumour is any given type. Networks are presented for astrocytoma grades I and II, astrocytoma grades III and IV, ependymoma, pineoblastoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET, germinoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma and a group representing rare tumours, "other". Using the network to generate prior probabilities for classification improves the accuracy when compared with generating prior probabilities based on class prevalence. Conclusion Bayesian belief networks are a simple way of using discrete clinical information to generate probabilities usable in classification. The belief network method can be robust to incomplete datasets. Inclusion of a priori knowledge is an effective way of improving classification of brain tumours by non-invasive methods.

  20. Impact of tumour volume on prediction of progression-free survival in sinonasal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennersdorf Florian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to analyse potential prognostic factors, with emphasis on tumour volume, in determining progression free survival (PFS for malignancies of the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses.