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Sample records for strix varia northern

  1. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

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    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  2. Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) Genome: Divergence with the Barred Owl (Strix varia) and Characterization of Light-Associated Genes.

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    Hanna, Zachary R; Henderson, James B; Wall, Jeffrey D; Emerling, Christopher A; Fuchs, Jérôme; Runckel, Charles; Mindell, David P; Bowie, Rauri C K; DeRisi, Joseph L; Dumbacher, John P

    2017-10-01

    We report here the assembly of a northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) genome. We generated Illumina paired-end sequence data at 90× coverage using nine libraries with insert lengths ranging from ∼250 to 9,600 nt and read lengths from 100 to 375 nt. The genome assembly is comprised of 8,108 scaffolds totaling 1.26 × 109 nt in length with an N50 length of 3.98 × 106 nt. We calculated the genome-wide fixation index (FST) of S. o. caurina with the closely related barred owl (Strix varia) as 0.819. We examined 19 genes that encode proteins with light-dependent functions in our genome assembly as well as in that of the barn owl (Tyto alba). We present genomic evidence for loss of three of these in S. o. caurina and four in T. alba. We suggest that most light-associated gene functions have been maintained in owls and their loss has not proceeded to the same extent as in other dim-light-adapted vertebrates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Determination of Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Barred Owls ( Strix varia ) by Contrast Fluoroscopy.

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    Doss, Grayson A; Williams, Jackie M; Mans, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Contrast imaging studies are routinely performed in avian patients when an underlying abnormality of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is suspected. Fluoroscopy offers several advantages over traditional radiography and can be performed in conscious animals with minimal stress and restraint. Although birds of prey are commonly encountered as patients, little is known about GI transit times and contrast imaging studies in these species, especially owls. Owls are commonly encountered in zoological, educational, and wildlife settings. In this study, 12 adult barred owls ( Strix varia ) were gavage fed a 30% weight-by-volume barium suspension (25 mL/kg body weight). Fluoroscopic exposures were recorded at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes after administration. Overall GI transit time and transit times of various GI organs were recorded. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) overall GI transit time was 60 minutes (IQR: 19-60 minutes) and ranged from 5-120 minutes. Ventricular and small intestinal contrast filling was rapid. Ventricular emptying was complete by a median of 60 minutes (IQR: 30-120 minutes; range: 30-240 minutes), whereas small intestinal emptying was not complete in 9/12 birds by 300 minutes. Median small intestinal contraction rate was 15 per minute (IQR: 13-16 minutes; range: 10-19 minutes). Median overall GI transit time in barred owls is more rapid than mean transit times reported for psittacine birds and red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ). Fluoroscopy is a safe, suitable method for investigating GI motility and transit in this species.

  4. Abundance and population characteristics of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park, Washington

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    D. Erran Seaman

    1997-01-01

    We monitored the threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) in Olympic National Park from 1992 through 1996. We used a stratified random sampling scheme to survey 35 plots totaling 236 km?, approximately 10 percent of the forested area of the park.

  5. Food habits of the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at six nest sites in Washington?s east Cascades

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    Kenneth R. Bevis; Jo Ellen Richards; Gina M. King; Eric E. Hanson

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on 245 pellet samples containing 479 identified prey items collected at six Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) breeding sites in the eastern portion of its range. The majority of prey (biomass) came from four species; northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), bushy-tailed woodrats (...

  6. Radiographic evaluation of perching-joint angles in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and barred owls (Strix varia).

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    Bonin, Glen; Lauer, Susanne K; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N; Hosgood, Giselle; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2009-06-01

    Information on perching-joint angles in birds is limited. Joint immobilization in a physiologic perching angle has the potential to result more often in complete restoration of limb function. We evaluated perching-joint angles in 10 healthy cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 10 Hispaniolan Amazons (Amazona ventralis), and 9 barred owls (Strix varia) and determined intra- and interobserver variability for goniometric measurements in 2 different radiographic projections. Intra- and interobserver variation was less than 7% for all stifle and intertarsal joint measurements but frequently exceeded 10% for the hip-joint measurements. Hip, stifle, and intertarsal perching angles differed significantly among cockatiels, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and barred owls. The accuracy of measurements performed on straight lateral radiographic projections with superimposed limbs was not consistently superior to measurements on oblique projections with a slightly rotated pelvis. Stifle and intertarsal joint angles can be measured on radiographs by different observers with acceptable variability, but intra- and interobserver variability for hip-joint-angle measurements is higher.

  7. Varia

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    Genesis, La Rédaction de

    2013-01-01

    La section Varia s’ouvre sur une question de grande actualité : que devient la critique génétique à l’ère de l’écriture numérique, quand les précieuses traces manuscrites auront disparu ? En exploitant de récentes publications américaines et allemandes, Jean-Louis Lebrave montre que, contrairement à toutes les craintes et grâce aux méthodes de l’informatique légale (« computer forensics »), la critique génétique a de beaux jours devant elle. Suit une présentation de la critique génétique en A...

  8. Influence of primary prey on home-range size and habitat-use patterns of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)

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    Cynthia J. Zabel; Kevin S. McKelvey; James P. Ward

    1995-01-01

    Correlations between the home-range size of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and proportion of their range in old-growth forest have been reported, but there are few data on the relationship between their home-range size and prey. The primary prey of spotted owls are wood rats and northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus). Wood...

  9. Comparative food niche analysis of Strix Owls in Belarus

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    Alexey K. Tishechkin

    1997-01-01

    Three Strix species breed sympatrically in Belarus. The Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) is one of two commonest owl species in the country, and is distributed throughout the whole territory. Its' range overlaps widely with two other species, the Ural Owl (S. uralensis) which is common in the forests of the northern part and the Great...

  10. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

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    Ackers, Steven H.; Davis, Raymond J.; Olsen, K.; Dugger, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last few decades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often essential for producing range wide maps. Habitat monitoring for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), whose geographic covers about 23 million ha, is based on SDMs that use Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery to create forest vegetation data layers using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) methods. Vegetation data layers derived from GNN are modeled relationships between forest inventory plot data, climate and topographic data, and the spectral signatures acquired by the satellite. When used as predictor variables for SDMs, there is some transference of the GNN modeling error to the final habitat map.Recent increases in the use of light detection and ranging (lidar) data, coupled with the need to produce spatially accurate and detailed forest vegetation maps have spurred interest in its use for SDMs and habitat mapping. Instead of modeling predictor variables from remotely sensed spectral data, lidar provides direct measurements of vegetation height for use in SDMs. We expect a SDM habitat map produced from directly measured predictor variables to be more accurate than one produced from modeled predictors.We used maximum entropy (Maxent) SDM modeling software to compare predictive performance and estimates of habitat area between Landsat-based and lidar-based northern spotted owl SDMs and habitat maps. We explored the differences and similarities between these maps, and to a pre-existing aerial photo-interpreted habitat map produced by local wildlife biologists. The lidar-based map had the highest predictive performance based on 10 bootstrapped replicate models (AUC = 0.809 ± 0.011), but the

  11. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

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    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  12. Modeling co-occurrence of northern spotted and barred owls: accounting for detection probability differences

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    Bailey, Larissa L.; Reid, Janice A.; Forsman, Eric D.; Nichols, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Barred owls (Strix varia) have recently expanded their range and now encompass the entire range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). This expansion has led to two important issues of concern for management of northern spotted owls: (1) possible competitive interactions between the two species that could contribute to population declines of northern spotted owls, and (2) possible changes in vocalization behavior and detection probabilities of northern spotted owls induced by presence of barred owls. We used a two-species occupancy model to investigate whether there was evidence of competitive exclusion between the two species at study locations in Oregon, USA. We simultaneously estimated detection probabilities for both species and determined if the presence of one species influenced the detection of the other species. Model selection results and associated parameter estimates provided no evidence that barred owls excluded spotted owls from territories. We found strong evidence that detection probabilities differed for the two species, with higher probabilities for northern spotted owls that are the object of current surveys. Non-detection of barred owls is very common in surveys for northern spotted owls, and detection of both owl species was negatively influenced by the presence of the congeneric species. Our results suggest that analyses directed at hypotheses of barred owl effects on demographic or occupancy vital rates of northern spotted owls need to deal adequately with imperfect and variable detection probabilities for both species.

  13. Clutch size variation in Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) from adjacent valley systems: can this be used as a surrogate to investigate temporal and spatial variations in vole density?

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    Steve J. Petty; Billy L. Fawkes

    1997-01-01

    Research on Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) in Kielder Forest, northern England, since 1981 demonstrated that field voles (Microtus agrestis) were their most important food. Here, field voles exhibited a 3-4 year cycle of abundance, and mean clutch size in Tawny Owls was significantly related to vole abundance in March. In this analysis...

  14. Demography of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

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    Zabel, Cynthia J.; Salmons, Susan E.; Forsman, Eric D.; DeStefano, Stephen; Raphael, Martin G.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are associated with lower elevation, commercially valuable, late-successional coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Meta-analyses of demographic parameters indicate that Northern Spotted Owl populations are declining throughout their range (Anderson and Burnham 1992, Burnham et al. this volume). Recent research has attempted to determine whether management activities have affected the viability of Spotted Owl populations, and results have led to development of conservation plans for the species (Dawson et al. 1987, Thomas et al. 1990, Murphy and Noon 1992, USDI 1992, Thomas et al. 1993b).In the Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (USDI 1992b) threats to the species were identified as small population sizes, declining populations, limited amounts of habitat, continued loss and fragmentation of habitat, geographically isolated populations, and predation and competition from other avian species. Weather and fire are natural processes that also may affect reproductive success of Spotted Owls. Weather may be a factor in the high annual variability in fecundity of Spotted Owls, as has been suggested for other predatory bird species (Newton, 1979, 1986). However, these factors have not been addressed in previous studies of Spotted Owls.Our objectives were to estimate survival, fecundity, and annual rates of population change (l) for resident, territorial female Spotted Owls at two study areas in the coastal mountains of southwestern Oregon. We tested if the amount of rainfall was correlated with reproduction of Spotted Owls. While surveying for Spotted Owls, we documented the increased presence of Barred Owls (Strix varia), a potential competitor of Spotted Owls.

  15. Estimating inbreeding rates in Northern Spotted Owls: insights from pedigrees and spatio-demographic models

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    The federally-threatened Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has a substantial influence on management of federal lands. Despite decades of investigation, important details about its status and habits remain unknown. In particular, determining the frequency of inbre...

  16. Effects of experimental removal of barred owls on population demography of northern spotted owls in Washington and Oregon—2015 progress report

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    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lewicki, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2016-03-14

    Evidence indicates that competition with newly established barred owls (Strix varia) is causing rapid declines in populations of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), and that the longterm persistence of spotted owls may be in question without additional management intervention. A pilot study in California showed that lethal removal of barred owls in combination with habitat conservation may be able to slow or even reverse population declines of spotted owls at local scales, but it remains unknown whether similar results can be obtained in larger areas with different forest conditions and where barred owls are more abundant. In 2015, we implemented a before-after-controlimpact (BACI) experimental design on two study areas in Oregon and Washington with at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on spotted owls to determine if removal of barred owls can improve population trends of spatially associated spotted owls. Here we provide an overview of our research accomplishments and preliminary results in Oregon and Washington in 2015.

  17. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

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    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  18. Varia

    OpenAIRE

    Albera, François; Albera, François; Albera, François; Albera, François; Albera, François; Boillat, Alain; Bretèque, François Amy de la; Bullot, Erik; Cosandey, Roland; Forestier, Laurent Le; Forestier, Laurent Le; Gili, Jean Antoine; Gili, Jean Antoine; Gili, Jean Antoine; Jaques, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Le volume associe réflexion théorique et méthodologique et la publication d'études originales découvrant des pans méconnus de l'histoire du cinéma. La partie « Point de vue » est consacrée à l'ouvrage d'Antoine de Baecque paru chez Gallimard. L'auteur répond aux questions de plusieurs rédacteurs de la revue à propos de sa proposition de repérer des « formes cinématographiques historiques » dans les films ouvrant à une compréhension des phénomènes majeurs du 20e siècle (génocide, effondrement ...

  19. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

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    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  20. Nest reuse by Northern Spotted Owls on the east slope of the Cascade Range, Washington

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    Stan G. Sovern; Margaret Taylor; Eric D. Forsman

    2011-01-01

    During a long-term demography study of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascade Range of Washington State in 1989 to 2008, we documented 276 nests of Northern Spotted Owls at 73 different territories. Of these nests, 90.2% were on platforms, mostly in clumps of deformed limbs caused by dwarf mistletoe (primarily...

  1. Albinism in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) and other owls

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    Pentti Alaja; Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    An incomplete albino Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) was observed in Vesanto and Kajaani, Finland, 1994-1995. The literature pertaining to albinism in owls indicates that total and incomplete albinism has only been reported in 13 different owl species, the Great Gray Owl being the only species with more than five records. Thus six to seven incomplete...

  2. Estimation of food consumption from pellets cast by captive Ural Owls (Strix uralensis)

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    Aki Higuchi; Manabu T. Abe

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable data in the literature on the diet of the Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) based on pellet analysis. Though it is possible to identify prey items by this method, the volume of food consumption is still unknown. The population of Ural Owls in Japan is declining due to the reduction of old-growth forest and the concurrent loss of...

  3. Modeling demographic performance of northern spotted owls relative to forest habitat in Oregon

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    Olson, Gail S.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.; Reid, Janice A.; Loschl, Peter J.; Ripple, William J.

    2004-01-01

    Northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are known to be associated with late-successional forests in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, but the effects of habitat on their demographic performance are relatively unknown. We developed statistical models relating owl survival and productivity to forest cover types within the Roseburg Study Area in the Oregon Coast Range of Oregon, USA. We further combined these demographic parameters using a Leslie-type matrix to obtain an estimate of habitat fitness potential for each owl territory (n = 94). We used mark–recapture methods to develop models for survival and linear mixed models for productivity. We measured forest composition and landscape patterns at 3 landscape scales centered on nest and activity sites within owl territories using an aerial photo-based map and a Geographic Information System (GIS). We also considered additional covariates such as age, sex, and presence of barred owls (Strix varia), and seasonal climate variables (temperature and precipitation) in our models. We used Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank and compare models. Survival had a quadratic relationship with the amount of late- and mid-seral forests within 1,500 m of nesting centers. Survival also was influenced by the amount of precipitation during the nesting season. Only 16% of the variability in survival was accounted for by our best model, but 85% of this was due to the habitat variable. Reproductive rates fluctuated biennially and were positively related to the amount of edge between late- and mid-seral forests and other habitat classes. Reproductive rates also were influenced by parent age, amount of precipitation during nesting season, and presence of barred owls. Our best model accounted for 84% of the variability in productivity, but only 3% of that was due to the habitat variable. Estimates of habitat fitness potential (which may range from 0 to infinity) for the 94 territories ranged from 0.74 to 1

  4. Application of Bayesian methods to habitat selection modeling of the northern spotted owl in California: new statistical methods for wildlife research

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    Howard B. Stauffer; Cynthia J. Zabel; Jeffrey R. Dunk

    2005-01-01

    We compared a set of competing logistic regression habitat selection models for Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in California. The habitat selection models were estimated, compared, evaluated, and tested using multiple sample datasets collected on federal forestlands in northern California. We used Bayesian methods in interpreting...

  5. Mapping sources, sinks, and connectivity using a simulation model of Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a study of source-sink dynamics at a landscape scale. In conducting the study, we make use of a mature simulation model for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) that was developed as part of the US Fish and Wildlife Service’s most recent recovery plannin...

  6. Models for mapping potential habitat at landscape scales: an example using northern spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. McComb; Michael T. McGrath; Thomas A. Spies; David. Vesely

    2002-01-01

    We are assessing the potential for current and alternative policies in the Oregon Coast Range to affect habitat capability for a suite of forest resources. We provide an example of a spatially explicit habitat capability model for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina)to illustrate the approach we are taking to assess potential changes...

  7. Multistate Models Reveal Long-Term Trends of Northern Spotted Owls in the Absence of a Novel Competitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Kroll

    Full Text Available Quantifying spatial and temporal variability in population trends is a critical aspect of successful management of imperiled species. We evaluated territory occupancy dynamics of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina, California, USA, 1990-2014. The study area possessed two unique aspects. First, timber management has occurred for over 100 years, resulting in dramatically different forest successional and structural conditions compared to other areas. Second, the barred owl (Strix varia, an exotic congener known to exert significant negative effects on spotted owls, has not colonized the study area. We used a Bayesian dynamic multistate model to evaluate if territory occupancy of reproductive spotted owls has declined as in other study areas. The state-space approach for dynamic multistate modeling imputes the number of territories for each nesting state and allows for the estimation of longer-term trends in occupied or reproductive territories from longitudinal studies. The multistate approach accounts for different detection probabilities by nesting state (to account for either inherent differences in detection or for the use of different survey methods for different occupancy states and reduces bias in state assignment. Estimated linear trends in the number of reproductive territories suggested an average loss of approximately one half territory per year (-0.55, 90% CRI: -0.76, -0.33, in one management block and a loss of 0.15 per year (-0.15, 90% CRI: -0.24, -0.07, in another management block during the 25 year observation period. Estimated trends in the third management block were also negative, but substantial uncertainty existed in the estimate (-0.09, 90% CRI: -0.35, 0.17. Our results indicate that the number of territories occupied by northern spotted owl pairs remained relatively constant over a 25 year period (-0.07, 90% CRI: -0.20, 0.05; -0.01, 90% CRI: -0.19, 0.16; -0.16, 90% CRI: -0.40, 0.06. However, we cannot exclude

  8. Multistate Models Reveal Long-Term Trends of Northern Spotted Owls in the Absence of a Novel Competitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Andrew J; Jones, Jay E; Stringer, Angela B; Meekins, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying spatial and temporal variability in population trends is a critical aspect of successful management of imperiled species. We evaluated territory occupancy dynamics of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), California, USA, 1990-2014. The study area possessed two unique aspects. First, timber management has occurred for over 100 years, resulting in dramatically different forest successional and structural conditions compared to other areas. Second, the barred owl (Strix varia), an exotic congener known to exert significant negative effects on spotted owls, has not colonized the study area. We used a Bayesian dynamic multistate model to evaluate if territory occupancy of reproductive spotted owls has declined as in other study areas. The state-space approach for dynamic multistate modeling imputes the number of territories for each nesting state and allows for the estimation of longer-term trends in occupied or reproductive territories from longitudinal studies. The multistate approach accounts for different detection probabilities by nesting state (to account for either inherent differences in detection or for the use of different survey methods for different occupancy states) and reduces bias in state assignment. Estimated linear trends in the number of reproductive territories suggested an average loss of approximately one half territory per year (-0.55, 90% CRI: -0.76, -0.33), in one management block and a loss of 0.15 per year (-0.15, 90% CRI: -0.24, -0.07), in another management block during the 25 year observation period. Estimated trends in the third management block were also negative, but substantial uncertainty existed in the estimate (-0.09, 90% CRI: -0.35, 0.17). Our results indicate that the number of territories occupied by northern spotted owl pairs remained relatively constant over a 25 year period (-0.07, 90% CRI: -0.20, 0.05; -0.01, 90% CRI: -0.19, 0.16; -0.16, 90% CRI: -0.40, 0.06). However, we cannot exclude small

  9. Effects of experimental removal of Barred Owls on population demography of Northern Spotted Owls in Washington and Oregon—2017 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Dugger, Katie M.; Lesmeister, Damon B.; Dilione, Krista E.; Simon, David C.

    2018-05-21

    Populations of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina; hereinafter referred to as Spotted Owl) are declining throughout this subspecies’ geographic range. Evidence indicates that competition with invading populations of Barred Owls (S. varia) has contributed significantly to those declines. A pilot study in California showed that localized removal of Barred Owls coupled with conservation of suitable forest conditions can slow or even reverse population declines of Spotted Owls. It remains unknown, however, whether similar results can be obtained in areas with different forest conditions, greater densities of Barred Owls, and fewer remaining Spotted Owls. During 2015–17, we initiated a before-after-control-impact (BACI) experiment at three study areas in Oregon and Washington to determine if removal of Barred Owls can improve population trends of Spotted Owls. Each study area had at least 20 years of pre-treatment demographic data on Spotted Owls, and represented different forest conditions occupied by the two owl species in the Pacific Northwest. This report describes research accomplishments and preliminary results from the first 2.5 years (March 2015–August 2017) of the planned 5-year experiment.

  10. The scientific basis for modeling Northern Spotted Owl habitat: A response to Loehle, Irwin, Manly, and Merrill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Dunk; Brian Woodbridge; Elizabeth M. Glenn; Raymond J. Davis; Katherine Fitzgerald; Paul Henson; David W. LaPlante; Bruce G. Marcot; Barry R. Noon; Martin G. Raphael; Nathan H. Schumaker; Brendan. White

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently revised the recovery plan (USFWS, 2011) and designated Critical Habitat (USFWS, 2012a) for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). The Critical Habitat designation was based in part on a map of relative habitat suitability that was developed by USFWS (2011, 2012b) for this purpose. Loehle...

  11. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie M. Dugger; Eric D. Forsman; Alan B. Franklin; Raymond J. Davis; Gary C. White; Carl J. Schwarz; Kenneth P. Burnham; James D. Nichols; James E. Hines; Charles B. Yackulic; Paul F. Doherty; Larissa Bailey; Darren A. Clark; Steven H. Ackers; Lawrence S. Andrews; Benjamin Augustine; Brian L. Biswell; Jennifer Blakesley; Peter C. Carlson; Matthew J. Clement; Lowell V. Diller; Elizabeth M. Glenn; Adam Green; Scott A. Gremel; Dale R. Herter; J. Mark Higley; Jeremy Hobson; Rob B. Horn; Kathryn P. Huyvaert; Christopher McCafferty; Trent McDonald; Kevin McDonnell; Gail S. Olson; Janice A. Reid; Jeremy Rockweit; Viviana Ruiz; Jessica Saenz; Stan G. Sovern

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of species’ vital rates and an understanding of the factors affecting those parameters over time and space can provide crucial information for management and conservation. We used mark–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected during 1985–2013 to evaluate population processes of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis...

  12. Modeling of site occupancy dynamics for northern spotted owls, with emphasis on the effects of barred owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gail S.; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.; Ackers, Steven H.; Loschl, Peter J.; Reid, Janice A.; Dugger, Katie M.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Ripple, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) have been studied intensively since their listing as a threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1990. Studies of spotted owl site occupancy have used various binary response measures, but most of these studies have made the assumption that detectability is perfect, or at least high and not variable. Further, previous studies did not consider temporal variation in site occupancy. We used relatively new methods for open population modeling of site occupancy that incorporated imperfect and variable detectability of spotted owls and allowed modeling of temporal variation in site occupancy, extinction, and colonization probabilities. We also examined the effects of barred owl (S. varia) presence on these parameters. We used spotted owl survey data from 1990 to 2002 for 3 study areas in Oregon, USA, and we used program MARK to develop and analyze site occupancy models. We found per visit detection probabilities averaged variable among study years and study areas. Site occupancy probabilities for owl pairs declined greatly on 1 study area and slightly on the other 2 areas. For all owls, including singles and pairs, site occupancy was mostly stable through time. Barred owl presence had a negative effect on spotted owl detection probabilities, and it had either a positive effect on local-extinction probabilities or a negative effect on colonization probabilities. We conclude that further analyses of spotted owls must account for imperfect and variable detectability and barred owl presence to properly interpret results. Further, because barred owl presence is increasing within the range of northern spotted owls, we expect to see further declines in the proportion of sites occupied by spotted owls.

  13. Age-dependent diet change, parental care and reproductive costin tawny owls Strix aluco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvári, Lajos; Hegyi, Zoltán; Csörgõ, Tibor; Hahn, István

    2000-07-01

    Tawny owls Strix aluco breeding in nest-boxes were studied in a mixed oak/hornbeam/beech forest located in the Duna-Ipoly National Park 30 km north-west of Budapest, Hungary, during the period 1992-1999. Diet composition, prey mass, breeding performance and body mass of the parents of known age were recorded. Older males had a greater ability to choose alternate prey, delivered a greater mass of prey with a higher feeding frequency and achieved higher productivity than younger males when the availability of the preferred prey declined. The reproductive cost was paid only by young parents. We suggest that the lowest breeding performance, which was observed with young parents in adverse weather conditions, may be due to both the lower ability of these younger birds to exploit alternative prey and to their poor body condition which resulted in them providing fewer resources to their offspring because of their need to provide for their own survival.

  14. The contribution of federal and nonfederal habitat to persistence of the northern spotted owl on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington: report of the reanalysis team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Holthausen; Martin G. Raphael; Kevin S. McKelvey; Eric D. Forsman; Edward E. Starkey; D. Erran. Seaman

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed likely patterns of distribution and persistence of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) on the Olympic Peninsula. Analysis focused on the effects of Federal habitat under provisions of the Northwest Forest Plan; additional benefits to the owl population of different levels of habitat retention on non-Federal lands; effects of establishing a...

  15. Registro del búho leonado Strix fulvescens en el estado de Oaxaca, México Record of the Fulvous Owl Strix fulvescens in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda Ramírez-Julián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante comparaciones acústicas y espectrográficas del búho leonado Strix fulvescens, se determinó su presencia en el noroeste de la sierra Norte de Oaxaca. Este registro constituye la confirmación de su presencia en el estado; amplía 350 km aproximadamente su distribución hacia el noroeste y aumenta a 21 las especies de búhos registradas en Oaxaca.The occurrence of Fulvous Owl Strix fulvescens in the northwestern portion of the Sierra Norte of Oaxaca was determined using aural and spectrographic comparison. This record confirms the presence of Fulvous Owl in the state of Oaxaca, expanding its distribution range to the northwest by about 350 Km, and increasing to 21 species the number of owls recorded in Oaxaca.

  16. California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) habitat use patterns in a burned landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyes, Stephanie; Roberts, Susan L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecosystem process of mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, but there is limited scientific information addressing wildlife habitat use in burned landscapes. Recent studies have presented contradictory information regarding the effects of stand-replacing wildfires on Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis) and their habitat. While fire promotes heterogeneous forest landscapes shown to be favored by owls, high severity fire may create large canopy gaps that can fragment the closed-canopy habitat preferred by Spotted Owls. We used radio-telemetry to determine whether foraging California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, showed selection for particular fire severity patch types within their home ranges. Our results suggested that Spotted Owls exhibited strong habitat selection within their home ranges for locations near the roost and edge habitats, and weak selection for lower fire severity patch types. Although owls selected high contrast edges with greater relative probabilities than low contrast edges, we did not detect a statistical difference between these probabilities. Protecting forests from stand-replacing fires via mechanical thinning or prescribed fire is a priority for management agencies, and our results suggest that fires of low to moderate severity can create habitat conditions within California Spotted Owls' home ranges that are favored for foraging.

  17. Diet of the Tawny Owl Strix aluco in the area of Slovenske gorice (NE Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janžekovič Franc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Tawny Owl Strix aluco was studied in the area of Slovenske gorice - NE Slovenia. The analysis was carried out by examining pellets collected at ten locations in the period from 1984 to 2015. From the pellets, 2,121 prey units were isolated. The predominant prey were mammals (Mammalia, 84.8%, followed by birds (Aves, 8.3%, insects (Insecta, 4.7%, frogs (Anura, 1.6% and earthworms (Oligochaeta, 0.5%. Four orders of mammals were found: rodents (Rodentia, insectivores (Insectivora, bats (Chiroptera and carnivores (Carnivora. The most frequent prey in the owls’ diet were voles (Arvicolinae, 46.6% and mice (Murinae, 28.8%, while the number of shrews (Soricidae was low (4.5%. The obtained results are in concordance with the conclusions of other studies. In the area of Slovenske gorice, the Tawny Owl is an opportunistic predator of small mammals with an emphasis on voles and mice. Prey frequencies differ significantly among some localities. Variability in proportions of prey species among localities can also be the result of sampling carried out in different seasons and variability in the population dynamics of small mammals among years. Challenges for future research are to describe seasonal variability of the diet and to evaluate interspecific competition within the guild of night predators of small mammals: Tawny Owl, Long-eared Owl Asio otus, and Barn Owl Tyto alba, which are sympatric in this area.

  18. A telemetry study of the social organization of a tawny owl (Strix aluco) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Bølstad, Mikkel S.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial dispersion and social interactions were studied in 11 neighbouring pairs of radio-tagged tawny owls Strix aluco in a deciduous wood in Denmark from 1998-2001. The numbers and shapes of territories were stable throughout the survey and similar to a mapping made 40 years earlier. The home...... involving one owl only from each pair. The dispute rate between neighbouring pairs correlated positively with home-range overlap. The total annual mortality was 21% (95% CI: 6-33%). Dead owners were usually replaced within 1-2 months. Two out of four cases of radio-tagged owls disappearing from...

  19. Interpolaci??n por recurrencia en varias variables

    OpenAIRE

    L??pez Carmona, Antonio

    1981-01-01

    Se hace un estudio a fondo de la interpolaci??n por recurrencia bajo una formulaci??n algebraica muy general que deja a las conocidas f??rmulas de interpolaci??n de Lagrange Newton Aitken y Neville como casos particulares de esta formulaci??n. Todos los resultados obtenidos los aplicamos a la interpolaci??n en varias variables de la que hacemos un importante estudio

  20. Interpolación por recurrencia en varias variables

    OpenAIRE

    López Carmona, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Se hace un estudio a fondo de la interpolación por recurrencia bajo una formulación algebraica muy general que deja a las conocidas fórmulas de interpolación de Lagrange Newton Aitken y Neville como casos particulares de esta formulación. Todos los resultados obtenidos los aplicamos a la interpolación en varias variables de la que hacemos un importante estudio

  1. Meta-analysis of California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territory occupancy in the Sierra Nevada: habitat associations and their implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Tempel; John J. Keane; R. J. Gutierrez; Jared D. Wolfe; Gavin M. Jones; Alexander Koltunov; Carlos M. Ramirez; William J. Berigan; Claire V. Gallagher; Thomas E. Munton; Paula A. Shaklee; Sheila A. Whitmore; M. Zachariah Peery

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the occupancy dynamics of 275 California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) territories in 4 study areas in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1993 to 2011. We used Landsat data to develop maps of canopy cover for each study area, which we then used to quantify annual territory-specific habitat...

  2. Tawny owl (Strix aluco) as a potential transmitter of Enterobacteriaceae epidemiologically relevant for forest service workers, nature protection service and ornithologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywaczewski, Grzegorz; Kowalczyk-Pecka, Danuta; Cios, Szymon; Bojar, Wiktor; Jankuszew, Andrzej; Bojar, Hubert; Kolejko, Marcin

    2017-03-31

    Established taxa within the Enterobacteriaceae wereisolated from cloacal swabs of Strix aluco chicks in nest boxes located at five research sites. ChromID ESBL medium (bioMerieux) was used to select a pool of Enterobacteriaceae strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Drug sensitivity of the chosen strains was determined from the full pool of Enterobacteriaceae to 6 chemotherapeutics of different mechanisms of action. The study evaluated the sensitivity of ESBL-synthesizing isolates to substances belonging to penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, clavams, carbapenems and monobactams. Analysis of the results indicated a potential role of Strix aluco in the dissemination of epidemiologically-relevant Enterobacteriaceae, and, importantly, pose health risks to forest service workers, nature protection service and ornithologists. The results can also serve as the basis for further environmental studies.

  3. The effects of habitat, climate, and Barred Owls on long-term demography of Northern Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, Catherine; Forsman, Eric D.; Franklin, Alan B.; Davis, Raymond J.; White, Gary C.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Doherty, Paul F.; Bailey, Larissa; Clark, Darren A.; Ackers, Steven H.; Andrews, Lawrence S.; Augustine, Benjamin; Biswell, Brian L.; Blakesley, Jennifer; Carlson, Peter C.; Clement, Matthew J.; Diller, Lowell V.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Green, Adam; Gremel, Scott A.; Herter, Dale R.; Higley, J. Mark; Hobson, Jeremy; Horn, Rob B.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; McCafferty, Christopher; McDonald, Trent; McDonnell, Kevin; Olson, Gail S.; Reid, Janice A.; Rockweit, Jeremy; Ruiz, Viviana; Saenz, Jessica; Sovern, Stan G.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of species' vital rates and an understanding of the factors affecting those parameters over time and space can provide crucial information for management and conservation. We used mark–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected during 1985–2013 to evaluate population processes of Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in 11 study areas in Washington, Oregon, and northern California, USA. We estimated apparent survival, fecundity, recruitment, rate of population change, and local extinction and colonization rates, and investigated relationships between these parameters and the amount of suitable habitat, local and regional variation in meteorological conditions, and competition with Barred Owls (Strix varia). Data were analyzed for each area separately and in a meta-analysis of all areas combined, following a strict protocol for data collection, preparation, and analysis. We used mixed effects linear models for analyses of fecundity, Cormack-Jolly-Seber open population models for analyses of apparent annual survival (ϕ), and a reparameterization of the Jolly-Seber capture–recapture model (i.e. reverse Jolly-Seber; RJS) to estimate annual rates of population change (λRJS) and recruitment. We also modeled territory occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls and Barred Owls in each study area using 2-species occupancy models. Estimated mean annual rates of population change (λ) suggested that Spotted Owl populations declined from 1.2% to 8.4% per year depending on the study area. The weighted mean estimate of λ for all study areas was 0.962 (± 0.019 SE; 95% CI: 0.925–0.999), indicating an estimated range-wide decline of 3.8% per year from 1985 to 2013. Variation in recruitment rates across the range of the Spotted Owl was best explained by an interaction between total winter precipitation and mean minimum winter temperature. Thus, recruitment rates were highest when both total precipitation (29 cm) and

  4. Relative effects of road risk, habitat suitability, and connectivity on wildlife roadkills: the case of tawny owls (Strix aluco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Lourenço, Rui; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions, there is still incomplete understanding of factors responsible for high road mortality. In particular, few empirical studies examined the idea that spatial variation in roadkills is influenced by a complex interplay between road-related factors, and species-specific habitat quality and landscape connectivity. In this study we addressed this issue, using a 7-year dataset of tawny owl (Strix aluco) roadkills recorded along 37 km of road in southern Portugal. We used a multi-species roadkill index as a surrogate of intrinsic road risk, and we used a Maxent distribution model to estimate habitat suitability. Landscape connectivity was estimated from least-cost paths between tawny owl territories, using habitat suitability as a resistance surface. We defined 10 alternative scenarios to compute connectivity, based on variation in potential movement patterns according to territory quality and dispersal distance thresholds. Hierarchical partitioning of a regression model indicated that independent variation in tawny owl roadkills was explained primarily by the roadkill index (70.5%) and, to a much lesser extent, by landscape connectivity (26.2%), while habitat suitability had minor effects (3.3%). Analysis of connectivity scenarios suggested that owl roadkills were primarily related to short range movements (habitat quality and landscape connectivity are globally high for the study species. Nevertheless, the study supported the view that functional connectivity should be incorporated whenever possible in roadkill models, as it may greatly increase their power to predict the location of roadkill hotspots.

  5. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years.

  6. Great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in Yosemite National Park: on the importance of food, forest structure, and human disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.

    2013-01-01

    We studied great gray owls (Strix nebulosa Forster) in Yosemite National Park, California, measuring variables that could potentially influence patterns of occurrence and conservation of this stateendangered species. We found that owl presence was closely tied to habitat (red fir (Abies magnified A. Murray) and the abundance of meadows), prey, and snags across the landscape. We also found that indicators of human recreational activities negatively influenced owl distribution and habitat use. Great gray owls appear to prefer mid-elevation red fir forest with meadows that are drier and more productive in terms of small mammal populations. That these areas also have the highest human activity presents a paradox, both for individual owls and for the future conservation and management of this California endangered species. The extent to which human recreation in natural areas affects animal behavior, species distribution, and productivity is a growing issue in natural area management. We present information that will allow land managers to better understand how existing natural resources, coupled with human recreation, influence the distribution and habitat use of the great gray owl.

  7. Chapter 4: Northern spotted owl habitat and populations: Status and threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Damon B.; Davis, Ramond J; Singleton, Peter H; Wiens, David

    2018-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1990 (USFWS 1990). Providing adequate amounts of suitable forest cover to sustain the subspecies was a major component of the first recovery plan for northern spotted owls (USFWS 1992) and a driver in the basic reserve design and old-forest restoration under the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP, or Plan) (USDA and USDI 1994). The reserve design included large contiguous blocks of late-successional forest, which was expected to be sufficient to provide habitat for many interacting pairs of northern spotted owls. As such, the selection of reserves generally favored areas with the highest quality old-growth

  8. Genetic diversity within lichen photobionts of the Lecanora varia group (Lichenes, Ascomycota)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Ortega, S.; Søchting, Ulrik; Printzen, C.

    partner of the symbiosis. Meanwhile, knowledge about photobiont diversity and the degree of photobiont selectivity of the fungus have been lacking behind. The Lecanora varia group is a set of species within the genus Lecanora defined by the presence of an amphitecial cortex along with the presence...... of usnic acid as secondary metabolite. We have focused on a small group of three species, namely L. varia, L. burgaziae, and L. densa which share very similar anatomical and morphological characters and an identical chemistry, with psoromic and 2-O-demethylpsoromic acids in addition to usnic acid. We have...... collected populations of these three species from various localities within their distributional range: L varia (Spain, Austria, Sweden, Czech Republic, western Siberia); L. burgaziae (Spain) and L. densa (North America and Spain). Subsequently, we sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region...

  9. The evolution of mapping habitat for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina): A comparison of photo-interpreted, Landsat-based, and lidar-based habitat maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven H. Ackers; Raymond J. Davis; Keith A. Olsen; Katie M. Dugger

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife habitat mapping has evolved at a rapid pace over the last fewdecades. Beginning with simple, often subjective, hand-drawn maps, habitat mapping now involves complex species distribution models (SDMs) using mapped predictor variables derived from remotely sensed data. For species that inhabit large geographic areas, remote sensing technology is often...

  10. Varia. (Miscellany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthey, Marinette

    1996-01-01

    This collection of diverse research papers in linguistics includes: "La notion de tour de parole dans une perspective syntaxique" ("The Notion of Turn Taking from a Syntactic Perspective") (Jean-Marc Luscher, Sandrine Piaget, Christian Rubattel); "'Si tu me fais honneur d'un p'tit telephone demain matin ben je suis…

  11. ANALISIS PENETAPAN HARGA JUAL BERDASARKAN TARGET COSTING PADA PT VARIA USAHA BETON PLANT BM MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHAR MUNTA

    2017-05-01

    The Results showed there are differences in the price of Paving Blocks namely (1 in 2012 the difference between the price of Rp 25.70. (2 In 2013 the price difference Rp 3,31. And (3 In 2014 the difference between the price of Rp 1,37. Which means that the Target Costing Method is better than the Conventional Method in PT Varia Usaha Beton Plant BM Makassar.

  12. Barred Owl Habitat and Prey: A Review and Synthesis of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Livezey, Kent B.

    2007-01-01

    Barred Owls (Strix varia) historically inhabited the forests of eastern North America. During the last century, they expanded their range to include forests throughout the southern provinces of Canada, southeastern Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and northern California. To date, there has been no synthesis of the varied habitats or prey used by Barred Owls in their expanded range. Here I review and synthesize studies concerning habitat (N  =  114) and prey (N  =  43) of Barred ...

  13. Variações no posicionamento dos eixos visuais em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de estrabismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Scalco Brum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar as variações no ângulo de posicionamento ocular pós-operatório em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias para correção de estrabismo e identificar possíveis fatores de risco associados a tal ocorrência. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 819 pacientes portadores de estrabismo submetidos à cirurgia para correção do desvio ocular entre janeiro de 1995 e dezembro de 2005 no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo. Os pacientes foram divididos em quatro grupos quanto ao tipo de desvio pré-operatório (esotropia alternante, esotropia monocular, exotropia alternante e exotropia monocular e as variações no posicionamento ocular foram quantificadas em cada grupo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de variações no posicionamento ocular (pós-operatório maiores que 10∆ entre o total de pacientes estudado foi de 33,5% (274 pacientes. Entre estes, foi verificada maior frequência de desvios no sentido exotrópico (178 pacientes ou 65,0% do que no sentido esotrópico (96 pacientes ou 35,0%, diferença esta que foi estatisticamente significativa (teste do qui-quadrado; p<0,001. CONCLUSÕES: Instabilidade no posicionamento ocular pode ocorrer ao longo do tempo em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de estrabismo. Tal ocorrência reforça a necessidade do desenvolvimento de alternativas terapêuticas a fim de proporcionar maior estabilidade ao sistema oculomotor no pós-operatório de cirurgias de estrabismo.

  14. Variação anatômica no lenho de Astronium lecointei Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo de Lima Melo

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação dos elementos celulares de Astronium lecointei Ducke no sentido medula-câmbio, analisaram-se amostras de madeira de três regiões radiais da árvore, a 1,30 m do solo: 0% (próximo à medula, 50% (região intermediária e 100% (próximo ao câmbio vascular. A metodologia aplicada no trabalho foi aquela tradicionalmente recomendada para estudos em anatomia de madeira, seguindo orientação do IAWA Committee. Observou-se que alguns elementos anatômicos apresentaram tendências de variação definidas e estatisticamente significativas: frequência, diâmetro e comprimento dos elementos de vaso, altura dos raios em micrômetros e comprimento das fibras. Observou-se também maior obstrução dos poros por tilas próximo à medula e na região intermediária. A tendência de estabilização das dimensões dessas estruturas pode estar indicando a formação de madeira adulta a partir da região intermediária analisada no lenho da espécie.

  15. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  16. [Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on seed germination and physiological characteristics of Coronilla varia under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Le Yuan; Chen, Nian Lai; Han, Guo Jun; Li, Liang

    2017-10-01

    This research investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L -1 ) of salicylic acid on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of legume forage Coronilla varia (cultivar 'Lvbaoshi') under PEG-6000 (concentration 8% and 12%) simulated drought stress. The results showed that under drought stress, 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination vigour, germination index, vitality index and bud length of C. varia. Under the stress of 12% PEG, the dry mass of C. varia seedlings processed by 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid was significantly higher than that under drought stress. 0.5-1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid processing significantly increased proline, soluble protein content, the activities of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase of C. varia seedlings under drought stress, but cell electrolyte permeability, H2O2 content and O2 - · production rate of seedlings were significantly decreased. 1.0 mmol·L -1 salicylic acid produced the best results. When the concentration of salicylic acid was beyond 2.0 mmol·L -1 , no mitigation effect was observed on the seed germination and growth of seedlings under drought stress. It was concluded that salicylic acid at appropriate concentrations could effectively improve osmotic regulation, antioxidation and mitigate the damage of drought stress so as to promote the growth of C. varia seedlings.

  17. Contabilização das variações da necessidade de capital de giro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Seidel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Quando se deseja iniciar uma atividade ou mesmo expandi-la, muito se analisa a necessidade de aplicações em ativos permanentes, mas pouca atenção é dedicada ao "investimento em clientes e estoques". Dessa forma a concessão de prazo para clientes ou a opção por um aumento nos níveis dos estoques, ambos valores contabilizados no ativo circulante, pode significar uma decisão de investimento tão ou mais duradoura do que aquela efetuada em ativos permanentes. A Necessidade de Capital de Giro (NCG, e suas variações, podem levar à falência muitas empresas, principalmente pequenas e médias. Além da preocupação monetária, uma empresa necessita garantir a manutenção de sua estrutura física, permanente e operacional, necessária para suas atividades. O lucro contabilizado através do Custo Corrente Corrigido (CCC, precisa de ajustes para ser considerado totalmente distribuível; sob nosso ponto de vista, as variações da NCG fazem parte desses ajustes. A idéia central deste artigo é a criação de uma Reserva de Capital denominada Reserva das Variações da Necessidade de Capital de Giro (RVNCG como forma de garantir a manutenção do capital físico da empresa, ajustando o lucro passível de distribuição através da contabilização das variações da NCG. Esse artigo está dividido em quatro partes. Na primeira, percorremos o embasamento teórico. No desenvolvimento, segunda parte, traçamos os objetivos, as premissas e descrevemos a criação e a contabilização da RVNCG. Na terceira parte, demonstramos a proposta do artigo através de três exemplos numéricos com os respectivos Balanços Patrimoniais e Demonstrações do Resultado, mostrando a utilização proposta da RVNCG; por fim, na quarta e última parte apresentamos nossas conclusões.When we want to begin or expand an activity, the need to invest in permanent assets is profoundly analyzed, but little attention is given to the investment in clients and inventories

  18. Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ulrika, E-mail: ulrika.eriksson@oru.se [Man-Technology-Environment (MTM) Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro (Sweden); Roos, Anna; Lind, Ylva [Swedish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Hope, Kjell; Ekblad, Alf; Kärrman, Anna [Man-Technology-Environment (MTM) Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ({sup 13}C and {sup 15}N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997–2001, 2008–2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008–2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02–2.4 ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02–0.16 ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3–52 ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24–2.7 ng/g). The {sup 15}N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2–3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been

  19. Comparison of PFASs contamination in the freshwater and terrestrial environments by analysis of eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus), tawny owl (Strix aluco), and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Roos, Anna; Lind, Ylva; Hope, Kjell; Ekblad, Alf; Kärrman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The level of PFAS (per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances) contamination in freshwater and terrestrial Swedish environments in 2013/2014 was assessed by analyzing a range of perfluorinated alkyl acids, fluorotelomer acids, sulfonamides, sulfonamidoethanols and polyfluoralkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs) in predator bird eggs. Stable isotopes ( 13 C and 15 N) were analyzed to elucidate the dietary source. The tawny owl (Strix aluco, n=10) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, n=40), two terrestrial species, and the osprey (Pandion haliaetus, n=30), a freshwater specie were included. In addition, a temporal trend (1997–2001, 2008–2009, 2013) in osprey was studied as well. The PFAS profile was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in eggs from osprey and tawny owl, while for common kestrel perfluorinated carboxylic acids (∑PFCA) exceeded the level of PFOS. PFOS concentration in osprey eggs remained at the same level between 1997 and 2001 and 2013. For the long-chained PFCAs, there were a significant increase in concentrations in osprey eggs between 1997 and 2001 and 2008–2009. The levels of PFOS and PFCAs were about 10 and five times higher, respectively, in osprey compared to tawny owl and common kestrel. Evidence of direct exposure from PFCA precursor compounds to birds in both freshwater and terrestrial environment was observed. Low levels of diPAPs were detected in a few samples of osprey (<0.02–2.4 ng/g) and common kestrel (<0.02–0.16 ng/g) eggs, and 6:2 FTSA was detected in a majority of the osprey eggs (<6.3–52 ng/g). One saturated telomer acid (7:3 FTCA), which is a transformation marker from precursor exposure, was detected in all species (<0.24–2.7 ng/g). The 15 N data showed higher levels in osprey eggs compared to tawny owl and common kestrel, indicating that they feed on a 2–3 times higher trophic level. We conclude that ospreys are continuously exposed to PFAS at levels where adverse toxic effects have been observed in

  20. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO VARIA L.) GENETICLALY ENGINEERED TO EXPRESS A HUMAN METALLOTHIONEIN (HMT) GENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of these studies were two-fold: (1) to determine efficacy of low and high expression hMT gene constructs by assessing accumulation of Cu in shoots of parental and transgenic plants of alfalfa (Medicago varia L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO4 by addit...

  1. Geografia da mortalidade infantil do Brasil: variações espaciais e desigualdades territoriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivaldo Faria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar as variações espaciais e as desigualdades territoriais nos indicadores de mortalidade infantil do Brasil. O estudo foi feito com todos os óbitos infantis e nascidos vivos registrados em sistemas oficiais nos anos de 2012 e 2013 nas 558 microrregiões brasileiras. Os indicadores foram calculados e estimados através do método bayesiano empírico. As características do território foram analisadas através de um indicador multicritério denominado Índice de Privação Social. Os resultados indicaram elevados coeficientes de mortalidade infantil (CMI nas microrregiões dos estados do nordeste e norte do país e fatores associados relacionados à idade da mãe, doenças infecciosas, vazios assistenciais e falta de acompanhamento pré-natal. Nas microrregiões dos estados do sudeste e sul e parte do centro-oeste os CMI são menos elevados e os fatores associados estão mais relacionados com a prematuridade e baixo peso à nascença.

  2. Variações anatômicas em Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações anatômicas de espécimes de L. columella coletados de diferentes criadouros situados em diversos Municípios do Estado de São Paulo: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. As comparações morfométricas foram baseadas em estudos do aparelho genital, rim e rádula. Foram medidos, para cada criadouro, os comprimentos do conjunto útero-vagina, dueto da espermateca, prepúcio e bainha do pênis. Foram ainda calculados os índices de relação entre bainha do pênis/prepúcio e estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação entre comprimento da concha e comprimento do prepúcio. Cortes longitudiais do complexo peniano foram também objeto de estudo. Em relação a rádula foram determinados o número de fileiras transversais e o número de dentes por fileira, e estabelecida uma fórmula radular aproximada para os diversos criadouros.Soft parts of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied in order to determine morphometric variations. These morphometric cornparisons were made upon reproductive system, kidney and radula of snail samples collected in different municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Length measurementes of uterus, duct of spermatheca, prepuce and penis sheath were taken; the ratio penis sheath/prepuce and correlation coefficients between length of shell and length of prepuce were established. Longitudinal sections of penial complex were also studied. The number of trans verse rows, number of teeth per rows and the length of shell were determined. For each sample, the radular formula was indicated.

  3. Pollution influence in the variability of the lichen Lecanora varia (Ehrh) ach in the area of Bratislava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisut, I; Jelinkova, E

    1973-01-01

    The lichen Lecanora varia was transplanted from nonpolluted areas to polluted areas in Bratislava. The morphology of the organisms changed; soredia and apothecia with a soredious margin were formed. New young ascocarp with a paler colored discus and a margin were common. The transformation is conditioned by the degree of air pollution exposure. The rate is variable, and depends considerably on macroclimatic circumstances (mainly on the quantity of precipitation in winter). 10 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider) and L. (L.) pretiosa (Banks) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): redescriptions and synonymies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Catherine A; Sosa, Francisco; Albuquerque, Gilberto S

    2013-01-01

    We dedicate this article to the memory of Sergio de Freitas, FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil (deceased, 2012). He was an active and enthusiastic Neuropterist and the cherished mentor and friend of Francisco Sosa. Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species - Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider, 1851) and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa (Banks, 1910). Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species-for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) ampla (Walker, 1853), Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) walkerina Navás, 1913; for Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea Banks, 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás, 1925 with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia or Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) phaeocephala Navás, 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi (Navás, 1911), and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) variata (Navás, 1913). To help stabilize Leucochrysa taxonomy, lectotypes are designated for Allochrysa pretiosa and Allochrysa variata. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás, 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  5. Variação morfológica e populacional de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae) no extremo sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Melise Lucas

    2014-01-01

    A presente dissertação, intitulada “Variação Morfológica e populacional de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae) no extremo sul do Brasil”, encontra-se organizada em dois artigos. O primeiro artigo, intitulado “Variação geográfica na morfologia e estrutura populacional de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae) no extremo sul do Brasil” e o segundo artigo, com o título: “Irregularidades no padrão de escudos de Trachemys dorbigni (Testudines, Emydidae): ontogenia e variação espacial”. Es...

  6. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    The federally threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is the focus of intensive conservation efforts that have led to much forested land being reserved as habitat for the owl and associated wildlife species throughout the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Recently, however, a relatively new threat to spotted owls has emerged in the form of an invasive competitor: the congeneric barred owl (S. varia). As barred owls have rapidly expanded their populations into the entire range of the northern spotted owl, mounting evidence indicates that they are displacing, hybridizing with, and even killing spotted owls. The range expansion by barred owls into western North America has made an already complex conservation issue even more contentious, and a lack of information on the ecological relationships between the 2 species has hampered recovery efforts for northern spotted owls. We investigated spatial relationships, habitat use, diets, survival, and reproduction of sympatric spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon, USA, during 2007–2009. Our overall objective was to determine the potential for and possible consequences of competition for space, habitat, and food between these previously allopatric owl species. Our study included 29 spotted owls and 28 barred owls that were radio-marked in 36 neighboring territories and monitored over a 24-month period. Based on repeated surveys of both species, the number of territories occupied by pairs of barred owls in the 745-km2 study area (82) greatly outnumbered those occupied by pairs of spotted owls (15). Estimates of mean size of home ranges and core-use areas of spotted owls (1,843 ha and 305 ha, respectively) were 2–4 times larger than those of barred owls (581 ha and 188 ha, respectively). Individual spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories often had overlapping home ranges, but interspecific space sharing was largely restricted to broader foraging areas in the home range

  7. Rukopisni zbornik Varia Dalmatica (Codex Lucianus) kao svjedočanstvo humanističke književne komunikacije

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović, Neven

    2008-01-01

    Lokalnoj književnoj komunikaciji — prepoznatljivoj, za potrebe ovog teksta, po apostrofiranju konkretnoga, stvarnog adresata — namijenjeno je 99 tekstova rukopisnog zbornika Varia Dalmatica (Zadar, Znanstvena biblioteka, sign. 25290, ms. 617). Svi su tekstovi nastali do siječnja 1614, a prepisao ih je Trogiranin Petar Lucić; samo je četiri pjesme povodom njegove smrti prepisao Petrov sin Ivan, budući glasoviti povjesničar. Tekstovi lokalne književne komunikacije većinom su pjesme (samo su dva...

  8. Nomenklaturno-fitocenološka revizija asocijacije Calamagrostio variae-Piceetum dinaricum Bertović 1975 nom. illeg. u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Vukelić, Joso; Alegro, Antun; Šegota, Vedran; Šapić, Irena

    2010-01-01

    U široj okolici Zavižana na sjevernom Velebitu, S. Bertović je (1975) opisao smrekovu asocijaciju sa šarenkastom šašuljicom (Calamagro­stio variae-Piceetum dinaricum Bertović 1975). Naziv je asocijacije nelegiti­man (čl. 31. i 34a, Međunarodni kodeks fitocenološke nomenklature /ICPN/, Weber, Moravec i Theurillat 2000) pa je u radu naziv promijenjen u Hyperico grisebachii-Piceetum abietis (Bertović 1975) nom. nov. hoc loco i tako nomen­katurno revidiran. Osim toga, fitocenoza je istražena na š...

  9. Thinning of young Douglas-fir forests decreases density of northern flying squirrels in the Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Tom; Hagar, Joan C.; McComb, Brenda C.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale commercial thinning of young forests in the Pacific Northwest is currently promoted on public lands to accelerate the development of late-seral forest structure for the benefit of wildlife species such as northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and their prey, including the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). Attempts to measure the impact of commercial thinning on northern flying squirrels have mostly addressed short-term effects (2–5 years post-thinning) and the few published studies of longer-term results have been contradictory. We measured densities of northern flying squirrels 11–13 years after thinning of young (55–65 years) Douglas-fir forest stands in the Cascade Range of Oregon, as part of the Young Stand Thinning & Diversity Study. The study includes four replicate blocks, each consisting of an unthinned control stand and one stand each of the following thinning treatments: Heavy Thin; Light Thin; and Light Thin with Gaps. Thinning decreased density of northern flying squirrels, and squirrel densities were significantly lower in heavily thinned stands than in more lightly thinned stands. Regression analysis revealed a strong positive relationship of flying squirrel density with density of large (>30 cm diameter) standing dead trees and a negative relationship with percent cover of low understory shrubs. Maintaining sufficient area and connectivity of dense, closed canopy forest is recommended as a strategy to assure that long-term goals of promoting late-seral structure do not conflict with short-term habitat requirements of this important species.

  10. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  11. Variação estacional da oferta e preços de couve-flor em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Lima e Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da variedade de cultivares atualmente disponíveis, de suas diferentes exigências climáticas e das diferenças climáticas entre as várias regiões produtoras, a couve-flor pode apresentar variações estacionais de oferta e de preços ao longo do ano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a variação estacional da oferta e dos preços da couve-flor praticados no Estado de Minas Gerais, representados pelas unidades da CEASAMINAS, bem como as componentes dessa oferta para cada principal região abastecedora do Estado, no período de 2005 a 2009. A unidade CEASAMINAS (Grande BH foi responsável por 68% da comercialização anual de couve-flor em Minas Gerais por meio das unidades da CEASAMINAS, que oscilou entre 9.420 e 10.937 toneladas anuais. A quase totalidade de produção proveio de municípios mineiros, localizados em quatro grandes mesorregiões: Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Campo das Vertentes, Triângulo Mineiro e Vale do Rio Doce, que representaram, respectivamente, 49%, 28%, 9% e 6% da oferta anual. As variações estacionais de oferta refletiram claramente as limitações dos cultivares atualmente disponíveis e a necessidade de novos cultivares que possam tolerar as grandes oscilações de temperatura nos meses de meia estação. Também ficou evidente que, a despeito da disponibilidade de cultivares de verão, a produção de couve-flor ainda é mais baixa nessa época do ano, um reflexo provável da alta precipitação que ocasiona maiores perdas por doenças na lavoura e em pós-colheita.

  12. Conservation of ParaHox genes' function in patterning of the digestive tract of the marine gastropod Gibbula varia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steiner Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of all three ParaHox genes has been described in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans, but to date one of these three genes, Xlox has not been reported from any ecdysozoan taxa and both Xlox and Gsx are absent in nematodes. There is evidence that the ParaHox genes were ancestrally a single chromosomal cluster. Colinear expression of the ParaHox genes in anterior, middle, and posterior tissues of several species studied so far suggest that these genes may be responsible for axial patterning of the digestive tract. So far, there are no data on expression of these genes in molluscs. Results We isolated the complete coding sequences of the three Gibbula varia ParaHox genes, and then tested their expression in larval and postlarval development. In Gibbula varia, the ParaHox genes participate in patterning of the digestive tract and are expressed in some cells of the neuroectoderm. The expression of these genes coincides with the gradual formation of the gut in the larva. Gva-Gsx patterns potential neural precursors of cerebral ganglia as well as of the apical sensory organ. During larval development this gene is involved in the formation of the mouth and during postlarval development it is expressed in the precursor cells involved in secretion of the radula, the odontoblasts. Gva-Xolx and Gva-Cdx are involved in gut patterning in the middle and posterior parts of digestive tract, respectively. Both genes are expressed in some ventral neuroectodermal cells; however the expression of Gva-Cdx fades in later larval stages while the expression of Gva-Xolx in these cells persists. Conclusions In Gibbula varia the ParaHox genes are expressed during anterior-posterior patterning of the digestive system. This colinearity is not easy to spot during early larval stages because the differentiated endothelial cells within the yolk permanently migrate to their destinations in the gut. After torsion, Gsx patterns the mouth and foregut

  13. Diámetro biparietal en fetos a término en varias razas de perros

    OpenAIRE

    Cahua U, Jacqueline; Quispe M, Lizeth

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo la determinación de la medición ecográfica cuantitativa del diámetro biparietal de fetos a término en perras. Se trabajó con 181 informes ecográficos de varias razas de perras en gestación cuyos fetos tenían menos de 210 latidos por minuto, y que fueron examinados en el consultorio de ecografía de la Clínica de Animales Menores de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú, entre los años 2000-2014. The pr...

  14. Modos em vigas com secção transversal de variação linear

    OpenAIRE

    Jovita Rasch Bracht Juver

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo principal deste trabalho é a obtenção dos modos e as freqüências naturais de vigas de variação linear e em forma de cunha, com condições de contorno clássicas e não-clássicas, descritas pelo modelo estrutural de Euler-Bernoulli. A forma dos modos foi determinado com o uso das funções cilíndricas. No caso forçado se considera uma força harmônica e se resolve o problema pelo método espectral, utuilizando o software simbólico Maple V5. Realiza-se uma análise comparativa dos resultados...

  15. Relação entre idade e variação da flexibilidade de bailarinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Huber da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se o comportamento da flexibilidade, após 8 semanas de aplicação da técnica de alongamento por Facilitação Neuromuscular Proprioceptiva em bailarinas, tem relação com suas idades. A amostra foi obtida de forma intencional, composta por 11 bailarinas na faixa etária de 13 a 16 anos. Realizou-se avaliação da flexibilidade angular dos movimentos de flexão (com o joelho estendido, abdução e rotação externa do quadril através da goniometria e da flexibilidade linear com a Caixa de Sentar e Alcançar de Wells, antes e após o período experimental de oito semanas, com duas intervenções semanais, utilizando a técnica de FNP. Para análise, usou-se estatística descritiva, teste t e correlação linear de Pearson. Adotou-se significância de 5%. Somente a variação da rotação externa e da Caixa de Sentar e Alcançar, durante o período experimental, apresentaram correlação estatisticamente significativa com a idade das bailarinas, porém, essa correlação ainda assim foi bastante fraca. Pode-se perceber que praticamente não houve relação entre a variação da flexibilidade com a idade da amostra.

  16. Variação na cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo: um panorama do conhecimento atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sampaio Farinaci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em diversos países têm evidenciado a ocorrência de transição florestal, fenômeno em que o aumento da cobertura florestal supera as perdas por desflorestamento. No Brasil, embora o desflorestamento ocorra em maior grau que a expansão das florestas, é possível que em certas regiões essa relação seja inversa. Levantamentos recentes sugerem a tendência do Estado de São Paulo em direção à transição florestal. Com os objetivos de analisar as evidências dessa transição e facilitar o uso da informação já existente, fez-se uma revisão de quatro fontes de dados sobre a variação da cobertura vegetal nativa em São Paulo (Instituto Florestal, SOS Mata Atlântica/INPE, IBGE e CATI/IEA. Os resultados indicaram que as discrepâncias entre esses levantamentos podem, ao menos em parte, ser atribuídas a diferenças metodológicas e de objetivos. Ressaltam-se seus pontos de concordância e discutem-se possibilidades de harmonização dessas informações.

  17. A variação denominativa nos textos especializados da aromaterapia: o caso da unidade terminológica Alecrim = Rosemary variation within Aromatherapy texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Munhoz Albano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva discutir a variação da planta Alecrim, no âmbito da denominação científica e popular, na ótica do prescritivismo das teorias da variação linguística. A análise concentra-se nas variantes terminológicas em consonância com seu uso.This article aims to discuss variation with respect to the scientific and common denominations of the Rosemary plant, based on the approach of prescription of the theories of linguistic variation. The analysis focuses on the terminological variants in consonance with their use by experts in the field.

  18. J.S.Bach variações "Goldberg" : um guia para a formação do homem completo

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Jank

    1988-01-01

    Resumo: Dentre muitas formas possíveis de abordagem para esta obra monumental de J. S. Bach, o presente trabalho traz um enfoque eminentemente humanístico, através do qual transparece a intenção do compositor de estruturar, na forma de tema e variações um ?guia para a formação do homem completo? Esta intenção se manifesta na organização geral da obra, com uma clara divisão em três grupos de variações, nos quais são explorados aspectos técnicos, composicionais e de interpretação. Com base na ...

  19. Variação sazonal nos teores de flavonoides, taninos e atividade antioxidante de Davilla rugosa Poir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Marques Macedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Davilla rugosa Poir. (Dilleniaceae é uma trepadeira, conhecida como folha de lixa e cipó-cabloco, com distribuição geográfica ampla no Brasil. É utilizada como analgésica, vasoconstritora, antiúlcera, útil no tratamento das hemorroidas e varizes. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar a influência da variação sazonal sobre alguns parâmetros das folhas de D. rugosa, como os teores de flavonoides e taninos. Os teores de flavonoides e taninos, determinados nas 4 estações do ano, foram avaliados segundo a Farmacopeia Brasileira e foram mais elevados no verão (0,71%; 16,73% seguido do outono (0,58%; 16,39%. Considerando que substâncias fenólicas são, provavelmente, os responsáveis pela atividade anti-inflamatória e antiulcerogênica, podemos inferir que a melhor época de coleta, que conduza a uma matéria-prima com concentrações desejáveis de princípios ativos, é, preferencialmente, no verão seguida do outono. A atividade antioxidante do extrato de acetato de etila, desengordurado com hexano, submetido ao teste do DPPH, apresentou uma CE50 de 24,73 ± 2,95 µg/ mL e no ensaio do fosfomobdênio de 1,85 ±0,57 mmol de ácido ascórbico/mg de extrato seco. A atividade antioxidante encontrada nos extratos reforça os efeitos anti-inflamatórios e antiúlcera gástrica atribuídos para a espécie.

  20. CÁLCULO DE LOS COSTOS DE CALIDAD EN LA UNIDAD EMPRESARIAL DE BASE PRODUCCIONES VARIAS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo de los costos de calidad como elemento integrante del Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, es una necesidad para los directivos de las empresas cubanas, al constituir una técnica identificada como instrumento avanzado de gestión, que permitirá mejorar la competitividad y servir de fuente informativa. Identificar y calcular los costos de calidad, así como proponer planes de medidas, que propicien una disminución de los gastos operativos, lo cual puede ser utilizado como herramienta para mejorar los procesos. La Unidad Empresarial de Base Producciones Varias de Cienfuegos presenta el diagnóstico para dar paso al Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y a la certificación de su Sistema de Gestión de la Calidad, según la Norma NC-ISO 9001:2008 y el decreto Ley 281, por lo que el objetivo de la investigación fue calcular los costos de calidad por procesos en dicha empresa. Para lograrlo se utilizaron métodos de nivel empírico y técnicas como la observación directa, revisión documental y el trabajo en grupos, lo cual permitió calcular los costos de calidad en todos los procesos. Los resultados alcanzados son aplicables a empresas que operan en la economía cubana y según el modelo económico cubano puesto en práctica a partir del año 2011.

  1. Variações nos períodos de pulsação das estrelas PG 1159-035 e G117-B15-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J. E. S.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    A medida que uma estrela evolui, sua trajetória no diagrama-HR passa pelas chamadas "faixas de instabilidade" podendo tornar-se uma variável. Ao longo da seqüência das anãs brancas existem três faixas de instabilidade, contando com a faixa das pré-anãs brancas (DOs). Estrelas nestas faixas podem apresentar pulsações não-radiais com períodos bastante estáveis, ente 100 e 1000 segundos. Os períodos de pulsação sofrem variações com a evolução da estrela, podendo aumentar ou diminuir. As DOs, por serem mais quentes evoluem mais rapidamente e isto faz com que as variações em seus períodos de pulsação sejam maiores (em magnitude) do que as variações que ocorrem nos períodos de pulsação de anãs brancas pulsantes mais frias como as DBs e as DAs. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados das medidas das variações de períodos de pulsação de duas estrelas: a PG 1159-035 e a G117-B15-A. Essas duas estrelas estão nos extremos da seqüência das anãs brancas: a PG 1159-035 é uma pré-anã branca (DO) e seus períodos de pulsação variam na ordem de 1 segundo a cada 3000 anos. Já a G117-B15-A é uma DA e seus períodos de pulsação variam cerca de 1 segundo a cada 30 milhões de anos.

  2. Two common and problematic leucochrysine species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider and L. (L. pretiosa (Banks (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae: redescriptions and synonymies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tauber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucochrysa McLachlan is the largest genus in the Chrysopidae, yet it has received relatively little taxonomic attention. We treat two problematic and common Leucochrysa species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa varia (Schneider, 1851 and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa pretiosa (Banks, 1910. Both are highly variable in coloration and were described before the systematic importance of chrysopid genitalia was recognized. Recent studies show that these species occur within a large complex of cryptic species and that they have accumulated a number of taxonomic problems. We identify new synonymies for each of the species – for L. (L. varia: Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa ampla (Walker, 1853, Leucochrysa internata (Walker, 1853, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa walkerina Navás, 1913; for L. (L. pretiosa: Leucochrysa erminea Banks 1946. The synonymy of Leucochrysa delicata Navás 1925 with L. (L. pretiosa is stabilized by the designation of a neotype. The following species, which were previously synonymized with L. (L. varia or L. (L. pretiosa, are reinstated as valid: Leucochrysa phaeocephala Navás 1929, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa angrandi (Navás, 1911, and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa variata (Navás, 1913. Finally, Leucochrysa vegana Navás 1917 is considered a nomen dubium.

  3. O tratamento da diversidade e variação linguísticas em livros didáticos de Português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Goulart Morais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, analiso como a diversidade e a variação linguísticas são tratadas nos Livros Didáticos de Português (LDP nos anos finais do ensino fundamental, na tentativa de problematizar como as atividades propostas nesses materiais didáticos tematizam conceitos sociolinguísticos importantes, tais como o conceito de norma e as relações entre fala e escrita e oralidade e letramento. As análises dos dados validaram a nossa hipótese de que nos LDP, que circulam atualmente nas escolas brasileiras, ainda predomina a submissão das marcas da diversidade e da variação linguísticas aos processos de normatização da língua, mesmo onde se propõe apresentar e discutir a variação linguística. As análises validaram, também, o nosso entendimento de que tais atividades dos LDP fazem parte do processo de valorização da norma padrão como a única variedade legítima e a modalidade escrita formal como aquela gramaticalmente organizada.

  4. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  5. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available his article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  6. Variação sazonal da fotossíntese e clorofila em progênies de Grevillea robusta Cunn

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Mario Takao; UNICENTRO; Martins, Emerson Gonçalves; EMBRAPA

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se a fotossíntese e o teor de clorofila em seis progênies de Grevillea robusta Cunn. durante um ano, visando detectar possíveis variações sazonais. As progênies demonstraram reações distintas entre si e entre as estações do ano, sugerindo que as grandezas fisiológicas podem servir como indicadores do comportamento genético aos quatro anos de idade das progênies testadas. A fotossíntese elevou-se no sentido do inverno para primavera e verão, para decair no sentido do outono-inverno. A ...

  7. Análise das variações anatômicas do canal da mandíbula encontradas em radiografias panorâmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yza Daniella Nunes Andrade

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No âmbito da clínica odontológica, o bloqueio do nervo alveolar inferior é o mais utilizado; todavia, diversos estudos têm mostrado as mais altas taxas de fracasso, as quais, normalmente, têm como motivo a falha na observação da posição, da forma e da anatomia dos nervos. Essas falhas decorrentes da variação anatômica do nervo alveolar inferior já vêm sendo estudadas na literatura, através de estudos com a análise de radiografias panorâmicas, como proposto neste estudo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência e a prevalência das variações anatômicas, bem como a correlação das variações do canal da mandíbula com lado e sexo, que podem ocorrer no canal mandibular, por meio de radiografias panorâmicas de pacientes atendidos no Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisadas 1.500 radiografias panorâmicas de pacientes atendidos pelo Departamento de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS. Imagens radiográficas foram observadas sobre um negatoscópio, utilizando-se uma máscara preta ao redor das radiografias, em ambiente com luminosidade apropriada. RESULTADO: Neste estudo, foram observados 5,3% de bifurcações do canal mandibular; 47,5% de canais altos; 16,8% de canais intermediários; 27,1% de canais baixos, e 8,6% de canais com outras variações. CONCLUSÃO: Baseando-se na altura do canal mandibular, houve maior prevalência dos canais altos do que os demais nas mulheres, sendo que não houve diferenças entre os gêneros com relação aos demais tipos e lados afetados. Na classificação dos canais bífidos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre homens e mulheres. Observou-se que a maior prevalência foi para canais sem bifurcação.

  8. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  9. Variação temporal do gradiente radial de o/h a partir de uma amostra de nebulosas planetárias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, W. J.; Costa, R. D. D.; Uchida, M. M. M.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes radiais de abundância são observados no disco de nossa Galáxia e também em outras galáxias espirais. No caso da Galáxia, o principal problema relativo aos gradientes é sua variação temporal, que constitui um dos principais vínculos aos modelos de evolução química da Galáxia. As nebulosas planetárias são particularmente interessantes no estudo dos gradientes e suas variações, tanto espaciais como temporais. São objetos brilhantes, podendo ser observadas a grandes distâncias, e têm abundâncias relativamente precisas de diversos elementos químicos. Além disso, sendo originadas de estrelas com massas entre 0.8 e 8 massas solares na sequência principal, incluem objetos com idades e populações diferentes, o que as torna especialmente interessantes ao estudo da variação temporal dos gradientes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos resultados recentes sobre a variação temporal do gradiente de O/H a partir de uma amostra contendo cerca de 200 nebulosas, para as quais obtivemos distâncias por métodos estatísticos. As abundâncias foram parcialmente obtidas a partir de observações em Itajubá e La Silla, sendo as restantes obtidas da literatura. Os resultados mostram, pela primeira vez, evidências de um achatamento do gradiente de O/H, de -0.11 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 9 giga-anos ou de -0.08 dex/kpc para -0.06 dex/kpc nos últimos 5 giga-anos. Esses valores apresentam um bom acordo com alguns modelos recentes para a evolução química da Galáxia. (FAPESP/CNPq)

  10. Variação de temperatura do músculo quadríceps femoral exposto a duas modalidades de crioterapia por meio de termografia

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Alberito Rodrigo de; Medeiros,Daiane Lazzeri de; Souza,Francieli Tibes de; Paula,Grazieli Francine de; Barbosa,Patrícia Mantovani; Vasconcellos,Paula Renata Olegini; Buzanello,Márcia Rosângela; Bertolini,Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Crioterapia é qualquer forma de aplicação terapêutica de frio que leva à diminuição da temperatura dos tecidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar as variações na temperatura superficial do músculo quadríceps femoral, em três momentos distintos, quando expostos a duas modalidades de crioterapia: sacos com gelo ou sacos contendo mistura de gelo e água. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 18 indivíduos, com idade entre 18 e 25 anos, de ambos os sexos. Em cada voluntário foi realizada, simul...

  11. Variação inter-individual nos níveis de bilirrubina: o papel dos factores genéticos e adquiridos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Carina; Vieira, Emília; Santos, Rosário; Carvalho, João; Santos-Silva, Alice; Elísio, Costa; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

    2011-01-01

    A bilirrubina é um pigmento biliar que deriva principalmente do catabolismo da hemoglobina. É um marcador bioquímico de doenças hepáticas e hematológicas e tem vindo a ser alvo de interesse devido à sua capacidade antioxidante. O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a contribuição de vários factores para a variação da concentração da bilirrubina sérica na população portuguesa. Foi analisado o contributo dos polimorfismo genéticos no promotor do gene UGT1A1 (c.-41_40...

  12. Northern Ireland gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R S [Belfast City Council Gas Dept.; Asquith, R S; Brown, J M; McKay, G

    1977-07-01

    Throughout Northern Ireland the production of town gas is derived from hydrocarbon feedstocks. In the larger undertakings in Northern Ireland the feedstock is light distillate; a light petroleum feedstock which is a crude gasoline comprised mainly of pentanes, reformed in catalytic plants. The remaining gas undertakings produce a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)/air mixture using a mixture of either butane or propane and air. The individual gas units and the type of reforming feedstock are shown. A review of the oil-dependence of town gas and electricity production in Northern Ireland has been considered and is mainly responsible for the high fuel prices experienced in the community. A detailed description of the reforming process has been described, and considerable efforts have been made to optimize the process. In spite of substantial economic savings being made on the processing unit, the gas industry is very susceptible to the changes in oil prices which have escalated rapidly in recent years. The difference in gas prices between the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland indicates that North Sea gas would offer major economic benefits to the gas industry in Northern Ireland, which is operating at a substantial loss at the moment. The industrial concerns, which are dependent on gas and therefore paying high fuel costs, suffer in competition with outside companies. The injection of a moderately cheap natural gas supply to the community may encourage industrial expansion and provide work in a high unemployment area. Although substantial costs must be incurred in distribution pipelines and burner conversions if Northern Ireland changes to natural gas, there appears to be a strong case to introduce North Sea gas in the near future.

  13. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  14. EJEMPLIFICACIÓN DE UNA ESTRATEGIA METODOLÓGICA PARA CONTRIBUIR AL DESARROLLO DE COMPETENCIAS EN LA ASIGNATURA DEL CÁLCULO DE VARIAS VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ruiz Mendoza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se aplicó una estrategia didáctica centrada en la realización de actividades para el desarrollo de competencias formativas en el aula clase, mediante el vínculo de la teoría con la práctica, a estudiantes que ya habían cursado la asignatura del Cálculo de varias variables que se imparte en la Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Para ello se utilizó el software Cabri Plus 11 como medio para la comprensión de los temas de la asignatura, tomando en cuenta las potencialidades del proceso didáctico así como las potencialidades del Cálculo de varias variables. Se muestran los resultados parciales de la aplicación de la estrategia.

  15. Variação da densidade básica da madeira de progênies de Eucalyptus urophylla em dois locais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Mourão Brasil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Estudou-se neste trabalho a variação da densidade básica da madeira entre procedências e progênies de eucalipto plantados em duas localidades. As progênies de Eucalyptus urophylla originárias da ilha de Timor na Indonésia foram plantadas em Belo Oriente (MG e Linhares (ES no delineamento de blocos compactos em famílias (compact family blocks com 3 repetições no espaçamento de 3,0 x 2,0m. Após 4 anos as  árvores  foram amostradas ao nível do DAP com a sonda Pressler e sua densidade básica determinada pelo método do máximo teor de umidade. Os resultados mostraram que as progênies tiveram  comportamento similar nos dois locais. A maior variação entre progênies ocorreu naquelas provenientes da região Oebaha II. Os valores médios de densidade básica* das progênies não foram diferentes das procedências brasileiras utilizadas como testemunhas no experimento.

  16. Variações na composição de queijo Minas artesanal da Serra da Canastra nas quatro estações do ano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gonçalves Costa Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Muitos, estudos ja foram conduzido com queijos artesanais nas regiões produtoras dc estado de Minas Gerais, e particularmente na Serra da Canastra, porém, os mesmos ainda são muito carentes de estudos que permitam melhoria da qualidade, padronização entre produtores e ao longo das variações sazonais que acontecem. Este trabalho estudou a composição do queijo Canastra a partir da escolha de uma quedaria típica e tradicional da região e em cada uma das quatro estações do ano. Poucas diferenças de temperatura e umidade relativa puderam ser verificadas entre as estações que mostra uma descaracterização entre elas. Porém mesmo assim resultaram em diferenças significativas na composição dos queijos, também per causa da sazonalidade da produção do leite e variação no "pingo", e, ainda pela despadronização do leite para fabricação de queijo, mesmo com o processo de fabricação sendo bem padronizado.

  17. Proteinas do liquido cefalorraqueano: II. Valores normais das frações proteicas obtidas por eletroforese (variações ligadas a cor, sexo e idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Singer Vermes

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante dosagens de proteínas totais e eletroforese sobre acetato de celulose de 213 amostras de LCR normal, obtidas por punção da cisterna magna, foram efetuados estudos para verificação de variações ligadas à cor, sexo e idade. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1. não existem diferenças ligadas à cor no proteinograma do LCR; 2. em crianças, os fatores sexo e idade não influem nos valores estudados; 3. as taxas de proteínas totais e frações protéicas do LCR normal de criança diferem das de homens e de mulheres; 4. em adultos ocorrem variações ligadas ao sexo no proteinograma do LCR; 5. em adultos, proteínas totais e todas frações protéicas, quando expressas em mg/100 ml, aumentam com o avançar da idade. Foram estabelecidas, para a metodologia usada, as taxas fisiológicas do proteinograma do LCR de crianças, homens e mulheres, separadamente.

  18. Decomposição estrutural da variação do emprego nos setores industriais no brasil entre os anos de 2000 e 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Diane Nakatani-Macedo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar a variação de emprego nos setores industriais nos anos 2000-2009 para o Brasil. Utiliza-se a metodologia de insumo-pro­duto, através da decomposição estrutural da variação do emprego em efeitos de intensidade, de tecnologia, da demanda, do crescimento e total. Os principais resultados mostraram que entre os dois períodos estudados, houve um acréscimo de 4,39 milhões de vagas para o setor industrial que isoladamente foi responsável por, aproximadamente, 25% do resultado nacional. Dentre os efeitos estudados pode-se destacar o efeito crescimento e intensidade como principal responsável pelos resultados. Ao considerar o efeito total, os setores que apresentaram maior crescimento relativo no número de empregos foram os de alimentos e bebidas, artigos do vestuário e acessórios e construção civil. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que houve um aumento do número de postos de trabalho para a indústria no Brasil no período analisado, onde a tecnologia, apesar de não explicar unicamente o efeito crescimento, mostra impactos positivos na geração de emprego no efeito total.

  19. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  20. insurgencies in northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Criminal Court (ICC) investigations into the LRA activities. ... and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... the ICC, Luis Moreno Ocampo, met at Hotel Intercontinental, Hyde Park, London, ..... expunge criminal liability for war crimes and crimes against humanity, appear.

  1. Variações fisiológicas da pressão do líquido cefalorraqueano na cisterna magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spina-França

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available É feito estudo de revisão das variações fisiológicas da pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna (punção suboccipital. Em relação à série de 1.500 pacientes com afecções do sistema nervoso e sem sintomatologia de hipotensão ou de hipertensão intracraniana, a pressão média normal do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna foi de 11,9 cm de água (paciente calmo, decúbito lateral horizontal. As variações fisiológicas de pressão, segundo os achados, têm como limites os valôres de 4,1 e 19,7 cm de água. Êsses valôres permitem caracterizar, para a cisterna magna, a existência de hipotensão do LCR quando a pressão fôr menor ou igual a 4 cm de água; a hipertensão é caracterizada por valores iguais ou maiores do que 20 cm de água. A pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna é menor do que no fundo de saco lombar. Para série de 276 pacientes o valor médio achado para êste último nível foi de 16,7 cm de água (decúbito lateral horizontal. A diferença entre as médias foi altamente significativa. Não foram verificadas modificações da pressão do LCR ao nível da cisterna magna que pudessem ser relacionadas ao sexo. Sem que representassem dados de interêsse para a prática, foram verificadas variações ligadas à côr e à idade dos pacientes. Em média a pressão do LCR se mostrou menor entre pacientes prêtos e amarelos que entre os brancos e os mulatos. Um declínio do valor médio da pressão foi verificado à medida em que aumentava a idade dos pacientes. Êste declínio mostrou-se maior para o grupo de pacientes com idade acima de 60 anos.

  2. Variação do volume de gotas de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorugo Silvestre Nascimento

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a variação intra e interexaminadores do volume de gotas dispensados de frascos de colírios lubrificantes disponíveis no mercado. Métodos: Foram estudados cinco frascos de colírios lubrificantes e dezenove voluntários participaram deste estudo. A massa média de gotas de 20µl dos colírios foi obtida utilizando micropipeta e balança de precisão e como padrão para comparação com a massa das gotas obtidas pelos voluntários. Cinco gotas de cada frasco foram pesadas individualmente com o tubo de colírio perpendicular à balança, usando o primeiro e segundo dedos da mão direita, de forma que a pressão fosse aplicada somente no meio do frasco. Os experimentos foram realizados em uma sala climatizada a temperatura ambiente (21±1°C. Resultados: Todos os frascos de colírios apresentaram variação estatisticamente significante das massas das gotas obtidas pelos examinadores quando comparadas com a massa média padrão de 0,0182±0,0014g, com exceção da comparação entre os dados do colírio A com o colírio D, que não apresentou variação estatisticamente significante. Conclusão: O presente estudo demonstra a ausência de uniformidade das gotas dispensadas pelos frascos de colírios disponíveis no mercado e a sua inadequação à real necessidade, uma vez que as gotas dispensadas são maiores do que o indicado. Esse fato torna-se um problema quando se trata de período de tratamento prolongado, especialmente com colírios dispendiosos como os indicados para a terapêutica do glaucoma. Nesse sentido, a padronização das gotas de colírios se faz necessária.

  3. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Dupla variação anatômica vascular em um único indivíduo: estudo morfométrico

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    Cristiane Regina Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Variações anatômicas são pequenas diferenças morfológicas congênitas que aparecem nos diferentes sistemas orgânicos, as quais não acarretam prejuízo ou distúrbio funcional para o indivíduo. No que diz respeito aos vasos sanguíneos, alterações no desenvolvimento embriológico podem gerar duplicidade de vasos, agenesia ou ocasionar o surgimento de artérias e o desembocar de veias fora da descrição anatômica padrão. Relato de caso: Foi observada dupla variação anatômica vascular em um indivíduo durante uma dissecação de rotina no Laboratório de Anatomia do Centro Universitário São Camilo. A artéria renal principal tinha origem na parte abdominal da artéria aorta seguindo até sua entrada no hilo renal, porém, em vez de um trajeto retilíneo a partir da aorta, a mesma possuía um trajeto descendente e bem angulado. A partir da artéria renal principal surgia uma artéria polar aberrante que entrava no polo inferior do rim direito. Em um nível mais inferior, na altura da bifurcação da aorta, originava-se outra artéria polar aberrante que entrava no hilo renal, seguindo um trajeto retilíneo até o polo inferior do rim direito. A artéria hepática comum originava-se no tronco celíaco seguindo até sua entrada na porta do fígado. A artéria mesentérica superior possuía origem no tronco celíaco. A artéria hepática direita originava-se na artéria mesentérica superior. Conclusão: O estudo das variações anatômicas constitui-se tarefa árdua em virtude das inúmeras expressões diferentes que ocorrem no corpo humano, porém, o conhecimento dessas variações é de extrema valia para a clínica e o planejamento cirúrgico, garantindo a precisão e evitando complicações pós-cirúrgicas ou diagnósticos errôneos.

  5. Waste level analysis in a care section with the lean maintenance method to minimize waste in PT. Varia Usaha Beton Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochmoeljati Rr.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problem faced by PT. Varia Usaha Beton Gresik is not the maintenance activity according to Standard Operation Procedure (SOP, but the activities conducted without taking into account the waste. The purpose of this study is to examine the waste in the maintenance activities as to minimize it by the lean maintenance method. This is taken on a conveyor belt weigher machine, a bucket conveyor, a concrete mixer, and a machine host. The variable is the flow of treatment by reducing waste and by giving recommendation of improvement. Data collection includes damage data, production data, product disability data, and maintenance activity data. The conclusion is QT-10 waste motion machine takes 532 minutes for waste repair, 45 minutes for waste process, and 90 minutes for waste waiting. Our recommendations include improvement on the information provided, on training and rewards, and on supervisors of the production line.

  6. Variação e contatos linguísticos do vestfaliano rio-grandense falado no Vale do Taquari

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Horst

    2014-01-01

    A presente Dissertação apresenta as etapas e os resultados de uma pesquisa que objetiva descrever os processos envolvidos na variação e constituição da língua brasileira de imigração alemã vestfaliano (We, também conhecida como sapato-de-pau, Plattdüütsch), identificando aspectos de sua configuração linguística e as territorialidades de uso e manutenção dessa língua em um contexto de plurilinguismo e de contato com variedades do português (Pt) e do alemão (Dt - Deutsch), sobretudo do Hunsrück...

  7. Somaclonal variation on in vitro callus culture potato cultivars Variação somaclonal in vitro em cultura de calos de cultivares de batata

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    Patricia N. Bordallo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic seeds can be an alternative for those species in which botanical seeds are not viable. One of the major problems of in vitro plant cultivation is the high level of somaclonal variation. The most common factors affecting somaclonal variation are genotype, explant source, in vitro period and cultivation conditions in which the culture is established. In this work, calli were induced using leaf and stem explants of the commercial potato cultivars Achat, Baraka, Baronesa, Bintje, and Contenda in MS culture media supplemented with 1.65 mM of picloram and 11.5 mM of 2,4-D. Seventy and 90 days after induction, DNA samples of 40 calli were compared concerning the effects of the two explant (leaf and stem and two growth regulator sources on five potatoes cultivars. A total of 20 arbitrary sequence primers were evaluated. The RAPD pattern generated by these primers suggested a high percentage of polymorphic fragments among the five genotypes, indicating a high level of genetic variation among cultivars. Cultivar Baronesa showed the highest number of polymorphic fragments for all treatments. The cultivar Contenda showed the smallest somaclonal variation, for most of the treatments, except for the treatment which consisted of stem explants, picloram (1.65 mM application, and a 70-day period of callus formation. 'Contenda' is, therefore, the most suitable cultivar for synthetic seed production.A produção de sementes sintéticas pode ser uma altenativa para culturas, cuja produção de sementes botânicas não é viável. Um dos principais problemas do cultivo de planta in vitro é o alto nível de variação somaclonal resultante. Os fatores mais comuns que afetam a variação somaclonal são genótipo, fonte de explante e duração e condições de cultivo. Neste trabalho, calos foram induzidos utilizando explantes de folha e caule das cultivares comerciais de batata Achat, Baraka, Baronesa, Bintje e Contenda em meio de cultura MS, suplementado

  8. Caracterização do lenho e variação radial de Pittosporum undulatum Vent. (pau-incenso)

    OpenAIRE

    Longui, Eduardo Luiz; Romeiro, Diego; Silva, Morgana Tramontini da; Ribeiro, Ariane; Gouveia, Tatiana Cestini; Lima, Israel Luiz de; Florsheim, Sandra Monteiro Borges

    2011-01-01

    Estudou-se o lenho de Pittosporum undulatum do Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren, objetivando-se sua caracterização, investigar a variação radial da anatomia e densidade básica, suas correlações e discutir os resultados em um contexto ecológico. Empregaram-se as metodologias usuais para anatomia e densidade da madeira. As características anatômicas corroboram com o descrito para o gênero, ressalta-se a presença de camadas de crescimento, não mencionada na literatura. O diâmetro das fibras não a...

  9. Fast Identification of Radical Scavengers from Securigera varia by Combining 13C-NMR-Based Dereplication to Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sientzoff, Pacôme; Hubert, Jane; Janin, Coralie; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Harakat, Dominique; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul

    2015-08-14

    Securigera varia (Fabaceae) is a common herbaceous perennial plant widely growing in Europe and Asia and purposely established for erosion control, roadside planting, and soil rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the radical scavenging activity of a crude methanol extract of S. varia aerial parts by using the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and to rapidly identify the compounds involved in this activity. The crude extract was initially separated in five fractions on Diaion HP20 resin and the most active part was fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Extraction (CPE). Known compounds were directly identified by a (13)C-NMR-based dereplication method. Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography purification experiments were further performed to identify unknown or minor active compounds. As a result, one new (13) and twelve known flavonoid glycosides together with three nitropropanoylglucopyranoses were isolated, including astragalin (1), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), trifolin (4), isoquercitrin (5), hyperoside (6), isovitexin (7), isoorientin (8), isovitexin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (10), luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (11), apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (12), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (13), 6-O-(3-nitropropanoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), coronillin (16) and coronarian (15). 120 mg of the most active compound isoorientin against the free radical DPPH was recovered by CPE with an HPLC purity of 99%.

  10. Fast Identification of Radical Scavengers from Securigera varia by Combining 13C-NMR-Based Dereplication to Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacôme Sientzoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Securigera varia (Fabaceae is a common herbaceous perennial plant widely growing in Europe and Asia and purposely established for erosion control, roadside planting, and soil rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the radical scavenging activity of a crude methanol extract of S. varia aerial parts by using the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and to rapidly identify the compounds involved in this activity. The crude extract was initially separated in five fractions on Diaion HP20 resin and the most active part was fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Extraction (CPE. Known compounds were directly identified by a 13C-NMR-based dereplication method. Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography purification experiments were further performed to identify unknown or minor active compounds. As a result, one new (13 and twelve known flavonoid glycosides together with three nitropropanoylglucopyranoses were isolated, including astragalin (1, kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, kaempferol-3,4′-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, trifolin (4, isoquercitrin (5, hyperoside (6, isovitexin (7, isoorientin (8, isovitexin 4′-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9, apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (10, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (11, apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (12, apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (13, 6-O-(3-nitropropanoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (14, coronillin (16 and coronarian (15. 120 mg of the most active compound isoorientin against the free radical DPPH was recovered by CPE with an HPLC purity of 99%.

  11. Variação do incremento anual ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes idades e densidades populacionais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martins Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variação do crescimento anual em diferentes alturas do fuste de Pinus taeda L. foi estudada por meio da análise de tronco em árvores do estrato dominante e médio. Foram coletadas secções transversais ao longo do fuste de 9 árvores-amostra, tomadas na base, à altura do peito (DAP, e após, a cada metro. A amostragem foi constituída de 4 árvores provenientes de Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, em floresta com 17 anos de idade, submetida a um desbaste, e 5 árvores de Ponte Alta do Norte, Santa Catarina, em floresta com 34 anos, submetida a cinco desbastes. Os resultados, expressos na forma percentual do incremento em área basal na posição "i", sobre o incremento em área basal ao nível do DAP, mostraram a forte variação na deposição anual de lenho ao longo do fuste em função da densidade populacional, caracterizando os efeitos da competição e da liberação pela execução do desbaste. Árvores sujeitas à competição mostraram maior crescimento nas partes superiores do fuste, enquanto que árvores sob menor concorrência apresentaram maior crescimento em posições inferiores, facilmente identificadas pela forma e inclinação das curvas de incremento.

  12. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  13. Fibromyalgia patients' quality of life and pain intensity variation Variação da intensidade da dor e da qualidade de vida de pacientes com fibromialgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: One of the most reported issues on the Fibromyalgia syndrome is the pain intensity variation and its impact on patients' life quality. OBJECTIVES: 1 to establish the correlation among pain, anxiety and depression intensity perception; 2 to determine whether there is a correlation between pain intensity variation and the impact of fibromyalgia on patients' quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study was carried out with 21 patients, who received a diary to register their perceptions on pain, anxiety and depression intensity. The patients have made this procedure three times a day, for a fifteen-day period. The impact on life quality was measured by the the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionaire (FIQ. RESULTS: It was observed a significant variation on pain intensity during the day periods. There was not a significant variation for anxiety and depression through the day periods. It was not observed any significant correlation between pain and depression or pain and anxiety intensity perception at any time of the day, during the study period. When considering the whole study period, it was observed that there was a correlation between pain and anxiety and pain and depression in the morning. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that there is a significant pain variation through the day periods and there is a correlation between pain and anxiety and pain and depression in the morning. There is a significant correlation of life quality with pain in the morning, anxiety in the afternoon and evening; and depression in all periods of the day.INTRODUÇÃO: Uma das questões mais relatadas é a variação da intensidade da dor no decorrer do dia e seu impacto na qualidade de vida. OBJETIVOS: Estabelecer a correlação entre a percepção da intensidade da dor, da ansiedade e da depressão e determinar a correlação entre a variação da intensidade da dor e o impacto na qualidade de vida. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Estudou-se 21 pacientes com fibromialgia. As

  14. Ajuste do rendimento para a variação do estande em experimentos de melhoramento genético do feijão Adjustment of the yield for the stand variation in common bean genetic breeding experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clause Fátima de Brum Piana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ajuste do rendimento pela variação do estande em experimentos de feijão e propor procedimento para ajustamento por análise de co-variação. Utilizaram-se dados de 33 ambientes do Ensaio Estadual de Feijão do Rio Grande do Sul. Realizaram-se as análises de variação e de co-variação de rendimento e de estande em cada ambiente. Foram considerados quatro modelos de ajustamento alternativos: sem ajuste para a variação do estande; com ajuste para o estande médio geral; com ajuste para os estandes médios dos genótipos; e com ajuste para os estandes médios dos grupos de genótipos. Em 70% dos ambientes, ocorreu efeito linear ou quadrático significativo de estande sobre rendimento e em 85% efeito significativo de genótipo sobre estande. O efeito compensatório manifestou-se com diferentes intensidades nos ambientes. O ajuste do rendimento para a variação do estande, considerando o efeito de genótipos sobre o estande, é importante em ensaios de melhoramento do feijão. É necessário o registro de informações que permitam discriminar a origem da variação do estande.The objective of this work was to evaluate the adjustment of the yield for the stand in common bean experiments and to propose a procedure for the adjustment through covariance analysis. Data from 33 environments of the Common Bean Assay of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were used. Variance and covariance analyses of yield and stand were proceeded for each environment. Four alternative models were considered: without adjustment for stand; with adjustment for the average stand; with adjustment for the genotypes average stand; and with adjustment for the groups of genotypes average stand. Significant linear or quadratic effects of stand on yield occurred in 70% of the environments and of genotype on stand in 85%. The compensatory effect was manifested with different intensities in the environments. The adjustment of the yield

  15. As variações da forma do sifão carotídeo na arteriografia cerebral: estudo sobre 120 casos não tumorais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mattos Pimenta

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de 120 arteriogramas de pacientes em que foi comprovada a inexistência de lesão que ocupa espaço intracraniano, permitiu o reconhecimento de várias formas de sifão carotídeo normal. Foi assim possível fazer uma classificação anatômica dos vários tipos e concluir que a forma do sifão não permite, sozinha, fazer o diagnóstico topográfico de tumores intracranianos. É importante reconhecer exatamente os limites do sifão, a fim de localizar, precisamente, os aneurismas da carótida interna. Do exposto podemos tirar duas ordens de conclusões: 1 Conclusões anatômicas - O sifão carotídeo normal não apresenta grande número de variações de forma, podendo ser reconhecidos dois tipos básicos: angulados e arredondados. Os primeiros subdividem-se em angulados com ramos oblíquos (ângulo agudo ou ângulo obtuso e angulados com um ramo horizontal (superior ou inferior. Os segundos (arredondados dividem-se em três subtipos: semi-elíptico, em alça (horizontal ou oblíquo e em S (superior, inferior ou duplo. Nos grupos e subgrupos cada segmento do sifão pode apresentar variação no comprimento e espessura, como é evidente à observação dos esquemas. 2 Conclusões neurocirúrgicas - A existência de grande número de formas consideradas como normais de sifão carotídeo leva à conclusão de que não é possível basear o diagnóstico de tumor, ou melhor, de lesão que ocupa espaço intracraniano, exclusivamente pela imagem arteriográfica do sifão. As variações fisiológicas do sifão, somadas às das artérias do grupo silviano e da cerebral anterior, trazem dificuldades diagnosticas que obrigam o neurocirurgião a procurar o maior número de indícios para fazer a interpretação correta do exame. Assim sendo, na rotina neurocirúrgica é aconselhável que os arteriogramas sejam feitos pelo menos em duas posições: perfil e ântero-posterior. E' importante reconhecer bem os limites do sifão para se estabelecer

  16. Variação no conteúdo de beta-glucanas em cultivares brasileiros de aveia Beta-glucan content variation in brasilian oat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. de SÁ

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescente interesse em alimentos funcionais e nutracêuticos, a aveia (Avena sativa L. tem se destacado, devido ao seu teor de fibras alimentares e principalmente às beta-glucanas. As (1,3(1,4-beta-D-glucanas, fibras alimentares na maioria solúveis, atuam na redução do colesterol em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia. Existem estudos para determinar as causas de variação do teor desta fibra em aveia, porém, pouco se sabe sobre a aveia cultivada no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se existem diferenças no conteúdo de beta-glucanas entre cultivares brasileiros e se há variação na porcentagem desta fibra devido ao ano de cultivo. Os cultivares IAC7, UFRGS14, UPF16 e UPF17 (3 amostras de cada, e ainda três amostras do cultivar IAC7 para cada ano de cultivo (97 e 98, foram analisados segundo os métodos da AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists. Os teores médios (peso seco de beta-glucanas foram 6,50% (IAC7, 4,30% (UFRGS14, 3,51% (UPF16 e 3,78% (UPF17, com erro padrão de ±0,084 e coeficiente de variação de 7,89 %. Observou-se efeito significativo dos cultivares (p=0,03 e grande variabilidade entre as amostras (p=0,0001. O cultivar IAC7 apresentou média de beta-glucanas de 5,11% em 97 e 6,50 % em 98 (erro padrão ±0,14; CV=10,53% e observou-se efeito significativo do ano de cultivo.With the increasing interest in functional foods and nutraceuticals, oats (Avena sativa L. have received special attention because of their dietary fiber contents, and specially of their beta-glucans. The mostly soluble dietary fibers (1,3(1,4-beta-D-glucans, reduce serum cholesterol in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. There are studies about the causes of variation in the contents of this fiber in oats, however, very little is known about Brazilian cultivars. The objective of this work was to verify if there were differences in the beta-glucan contents among brazilian cultivars and if there was variation in the

  17. TEACHERS’ ACCOUNTS OF LANGUAGE VARIATIONS Relatos de Professores sobre Variações Lingüísticas Não-Padrão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Telles

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teachers' stigmatizing perspectives of their students' nonstandard varieties of Portuguese. Theoretically, the study was grounded on Personal Construct Psychology, Perspective Transformation in Teacher Education, Transformative Bidialectalism and Critical Language Awareness. The objectives were to jointly access and assess the teachers’ implicit theories about nonstandard language and to verify to what extent these theories affected their classroom pedagogy. My research questions turned to how the participating teachers understood nonstandard language; and to how their understandings are reflected on their language teaching. The viewing of the teachers’ videotaped classes and Repertory Grid activities inspired reflective conversations with the two teacher participants on their language and classroom experiences. These conversations were audio-recorded, transcribed and their analysis followed the thematizing approach of Hermeneutic Phenomenology. The study revealed teachers’ implicit theories about language variation defining pedagogies based on deficit and standard grammar perspectives. These pedagogies are in constant interaction with the teachers’ lived experiences, the contextual restrictions of schools and the limitations of teacher education programs.O presente trabalho trata das perspectivas estigmatizantes que duas professoras de língua portuguesa trazem em relação às variações lingüísticas não-padrão de seus alunos. Teoricamente, meu estudo se embasa na Psicologia dos Construtos Pessoais, Transformação de Perspectivas na Educação de Professores, Bi-dialetalismo Transformador e Sensibilidade Crítica à Linguagem. Meus objetivos foram acessar e ponderar sobre as teorias implícitas das professoras sobre linguagem não-padrão e verificar como tais teorias afetam suas pedagogias. Suas aulas foram gravadas em vídeo e atividades com Mapas do Repertório de seus conceitos sobre língua portuguesa

  18. Habitualidade e variação entre pretérito imperfeito e perífrases imperfectivas em contos escritos em espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márluce Coan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, tratamos da variação linguística entre o pretérito imperfeito e perífrases imperfectivas na codificação do aspecto habitual em espanhol. Deram suporte a nossa pesquisa, dentre outros, pressupostos do Funcionalismo Linguístico (HOPPER & THOMPSON, 1980; GIVÓN, 1990 e da Teoria da Variação e Mudança (LABOV, 1972. Nossos dados provêm de vinte e quatro contos escritos por autores de língua espanhola, selecionados a partir do parâmetro comarca cultural: Caribe; México e América Central; Andes; Rio da Prata; Chile; e Espanha. Obtivemos um total de 126 dados, sendo que 29 desses são de formas do pretérito imperfeito do indicativo, 23% do total, e 97 de perífrases imperfectivas de passado, o que corresponde a 77% do total. Constatamos que, na função habitual, as perífrases ocorrem, mais frequentemente, motivadas por sujeito agentivo, estilo dos autores Gabriel García Márquez e Virgilio Piñera, verbos dinâmicos e durativos e presença de modificador aspectual.Palavras-chave: Habitualidade; perífrases imperfectivas; pretérito imperfeito.Abstract: In this article, we deal with the linguistic variation between the imperfect past tense and imperfective periphrases in the encoding of habitual aspect in Spanish. As theoretical backgrounds, among others, we used Linguistic Functionalism (HOPPER & THOMPSON, 1980; GIVÓN, 1990 and Variation and Change Theory (LABOV, 1972. Our data comes from twenty four short stories written by Spanish language writers, selected based on the cultural region parameter: Caribe; Mexico and Central America; Andes, Rio da Prata; Chile; and Spain. It was obtained a total of 126 data: 29 of them are imperfect past tense of indicative forms, that is, 23% of the total, and 97 are imperfective periphrasis of past, that is, 77% of the total. In the habitual function it was found that periphrasis occur more frequently, motivated by agentive subject, the style of the writers Gabriel García M

  19. Variação sazonal do fluxo de calor no solo dentro de um manguezal tropical Seazonal variation of soil heat flux within tropical mangrove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. L. Moura

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os manguezais são ecossistemas de grande importância em virtude da sua biodiversidade, embora ainda pouco estudados. O fluxo de calor no solo (FCS é uma propriedade que interfere no microclima de um ecossistema e depende de vários fatores. Um estudo experimental foi realizado em um manguezal no município de Marechal Deodoro, Alagoas, no período de outubro/2004 a outubro/2005, com o objetivo de caracterizar a variação sazonal do FCS; para isto, uma estação meteorológica automática foi montada em uma torre micrometeorológica para registrar diferentes elementos do tempo e clima, de forma contínua. Especificamente, para medição do FCS a 10 cm de profundidade utilizou-se uma bateria de três fluxímetros modelo HFT3 (Campbell Scientific, EUA no sentido de que a interferência da não uniformidade do solo nas medições fosse minimizada. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram influência da radiação solar, precipitação e da maré sobre a variação diária e sazonal do FCS, além de grande diferença de amplitude diária do FCS entre os períodos chuvoso (9 W m-2 e seco (36 W m-2.Mangrove swamps are highly important ecosystems due to their biodiversity, but they still are little studied. Soil heat fluxes (SHF is one of the proprieties that interfere in the ecosystem microclimate and depends on lots of factors. An experimental study was carried out in a mangrove forest in the Marechal Deodoro city, in the State of Alagoas, from October/2004 to October/2005, with the aim of describing the SHF seasonal variation. To this end, an automatic weather station was assembled in a micrometeorological tower to register the data continuously. To measure SHF in 10 cm depth one battery with three (3 fluximeter model HFT3 (Campbell Scientific, EUA was used so that the soil uniformity interference in the measurements was reduced. The obtained results showed influence of solar radiation, rainfall and tidal wave in the daily and seasonal SHF variation. A

  20. Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groisman, Pavel; Shugart, Herman; Kicklighter, David

    2017-01-01

    . The Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI) has been designed as an essential continuation of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which was launched in 2004. NEESPI sought to elucidate all aspects of ongoing environmental change, to inform societies and, thus, to better...

  1. Simulação da Variação do Espaçamento na Viabilidade Econômica de um Sistema Agroflorestal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Araujo Cordeiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar simulação, verificando a rentabilidade de um sistema agrossilvicultural composto por eucalipto, arroz, soja e gado, de acordo com a variação do espaçamento de plantio do eucalipto e dos sistemas agroflorestais, bem como comparar os resultados com o plantio convencional do eucalipto. A análise econômica foi realizada mediante os métodos de avaliação de projetos florestais, Valor Presente Líquido (VPL, Benefício Periódico Equivalente (BPE, Razão Benefício/Custo (B/C e Taxa Interna de Retorno (TIR. Todos os projetos analisados apresentaram-se viáveis economicamente, sendo que o eucalipto em monocultivo apresentou melhores resultados. Verificou-se que o ganho em área com plantio das culturas agrícolas e criação de gado não obtém o mesmo retorno econômico caso a área estivesse com plantio de árvores.

  2. Variação na qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca Culinary quality variation in cassava roots

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    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A falta de regularidade na qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca de mesa é um dos fatores de restrição à expansão de seu consumo. Raízes cozidas de boa qualidade, entre outras características, devem apresentar-se, quando esmagadas por um garfo, na forma de uma massa não encaroçada, plástica e não pegajosa. O tempo de cozimento culinário correlaciona-se bem com a qualidade da massa cozida, isto é, quanto menor esse tempo, melhor a massa gerada. Dessa forma, neste trabalho, a duração do tempo de cozimento (DTC foi usada como método indireto e expedito para avaliação da qualidade culinária das raízes de mandioca. Os fatores que interferem na DTC podem ser reunidos em dois grupos: (a intrínsecos: variação dentro e entre raízes da mesma planta e entre plantas da mesma variedade; (b extrínsecos: variação em função do genótipo, do ambiente e do estado fisiológico das plantas. Estudos preliminares realizados pelo Instituto Agronômico (IAC tiveram por objetivos verificar e quantificar a magnitude dessas variações. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos de campo, em dois solos distintos, utilizando cinco variedades amostradas mensalmente, do 7.° ao 15.° mês de idade das plantas. A DTC foi determinada a partir de água fervente, em subamostras de cada raiz da planta. Os resultados mais relevantes mostraram que: (a a DTC diminuiu, de 10 a 14 minutos, da base para a ponta da raiz; (b a amplitude média de variação entre as raízes de uma mesma planta foi de 11, 10 e 27 minutos, respectivamente, para plantas com 8, 12 e 15 meses; (c houve diferenças na DTC para variedades (9 minutos e para tipos de solo (17 minutos; (d o efeito médio de época de colheita foi de 19 minutos. O período de menor DTC foi do 7.° ao 12.° mês de idade das plantas.Irregular culinary quality of cassava roots has been one of the major point that restricts its expansion for human consumption. A good quality cassava root, after cooking

  3. Variação intraespecífica do lenho de Eugenia uniflora L. em duas diferentes fitofisionomias do complexo vegetacional atlântico

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    Priscila Alves Marques

    Full Text Available Myrtaceae está entre as principais famílias lenhosas da Floresta Atlântica, destacando-se Eugenia L. como o gênero de maior riqueza de espécies na família. Eugenia uniflora L. apresenta grande representatividade em áreas de restinga, seu ambiente natural, e é amplamente cultivada em outras regiões em função da sua importância econômica. Este estudo investigou a anatomia do lenho de E. uniflora, crescendo em duas fitofisionomias do complexo vegetacional atlântico no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dezesseis parâmetros anatômicos foram analisados e revelaram que os elementos celulares dos indivíduos de restinga apresentam maior frequência e são mais curtos e mais largos, e os raios mais baixos e largos do que os dos indivíduos crescendo na Floresta Ombrófila Densa. Os resultados mostraram como as condições ambientais influenciam a estrutura anatômica da madeira e indicam variações intraespecíficas da espécie e de seus mecanismos de adaptação e de sobrevivência no complexo Mata Atlântica.

  4. Estudo da massa específica básica e da variação dimensional da madeira de três espécies de eucalipto para a indústria moveleira

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    Camila Santos Doubek Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da madeira de árvores de espécies de reflorestamento pela indústria moveleira tem apresentado tendência de crescimento nos últimos anos. Nesse sentido, no presente trabalho foram determinadas a massa específica básica e variação dimensional da madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus dunnii e Eucalyptus urophylla, de 18 anos, para a aplicação como componentes de madeira maciça em movelaria. Os ensaios laboratoriais para a avaliação da massa específica básica e da variação dimensional da madeira nos sentidos radial e longitudinal do tronco das árvores de eucaliptos foram realizados de acordo com a NBR 7190/96. Os resultados da análise da madeira das espécies de eucalipto foram submetidos ao Teste de Homogeneidade, Análise de Variância, Teste de Tukey e Correlação de Pearson e comparados com o desempenho da madeira de sucupira (Bowdichia nitida e de cumaru (Dipteryx odorata utilizadas na indústria moveleira. Verificou-se para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis menor valor de variação dimensional, sendo a mais indicada para componentes de móveis que exigem elevada estabilidade dimensional, além de peças de maior superfície. A madeira dessa espécie apresentou índice de variação dimensional compatível com o de espécies nativas utilizadas na indústria moveleira. Verificou-se, ainda, variação radial das propriedades da madeira, com alta correlação entre a massa específica básica e a variação dimensional. No sentido longitudinal, a base do tronco das árvores de eucalipto mostrou-se com a região de madeira de maior estabilidade dimensional.

  5. Ocorrência do pólen de Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae nas coletas de Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae em uma área de Manaus, AM, Brasil Occurrence of Podocarpus sp. (Podocarpaceae pollen on Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 (Apidae: Meliponinae in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Antonio Carlos Marques-Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de doze meses, o pólen transportado por Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 foi coletado das corbículas das operárias, logo após o fechamento da entrada das colméias. Feita a identificação polínica dos grãos de pólen e sua frequência mensal nas amostras, constatou-se que as espécies das famílias mais visitadas pela ordem de coleta, foram: Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae e Moraceae. As operárias coletaram o pólen de 79 espécies de plantas distribuídas em 60 gêneros e 37 famílias, sendo as mais frequentes: Cecropia sp. visitada o ano todo com atratividade em janeiro de 82,03%, Morus sp. com atratividade de 37,46% em dezembro; Myrcia amazonica DC. com atratividade em abril de 32,34% e Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma em junho com atratividade de 36,54%. Quanto a Podocarpus sp. esse é o primeiro relato da presença do pólen dessa espécie em coletas de meliponíneos, o que não deixa de ser um fato curioso, uma vez que se trata de uma gimnosperma encontrada em áreas específicas da região amazônica e que apresentou atratividade para Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836 de 4,94% no mês de março.Over a 12 month period, pollen was sampled from the corbiculae of workers of the stingless bee Frieseomelitta varia Lepeletier 1836. Collections were obtained immediately after sealing the hives, located in a forest fragment in the city of Manaus. Pollen was identified and monthly frequency of each type was tallied. The most-visited plant families in decreasing order of frequency were Cecropiaceae, Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae and Moraceae. Identified pollen was harvested from 79 plant species in 60 genera and 37 families. The most frequent species were: Cecropia sp., visited year-round but with highest attractiveness (82% in January; Morus sp., with peak attractiveness (37% in December; Myrcia amazonica DC. with 32% peak attractiveness in April; and Pouteria macrophylla (A.DC. Eyma, with 37% peak attractiveness in

  6. Water in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report contains background information, including historical aspects, roles of government agencies, and relevant technical information, for use as a resource document at a conference on water resources in northern Alberta. An overview is presented of the three river basins which are the geographic focus of this report (Peace River, Athabasca, and Beaver River), describing their characteristics, the types of human activity occurring in them, and the relevant issues pertaining to water. The roles and responsibilities of government departments and agencies in water management are then introduced. A section on water resource issues defines ten topic areas, and for each issue, a summary of the issue, background of the issue, and key concerns and suggested actions are given. These issue areas concern groundwater management (including protection from contamination by oil field produced water), community water supply, farmland drainage and erosion, protection of surface water quality, watershed and wetlands management, farm and rural water supply, tourism/recreation and fisheries, industrial water use (particularly by the oil sand, forestry, and hydroelectric power industries), native peoples' concerns, and water diversion. The final section discusses a number of common themes which arose from the public consultation process, including integrated planning and program coordination, monitoring and enforcement, public information, and research requirements. 22 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  8. Proteinas do liquido cefalorraqueano: III. Valores normais das imuneglobulinas G, A e M (variações ligadas a cor, sexo e idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M. Singer Vermes

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada inicialmente revisão de literatura a respeito dos resultados obtidos na determinação das taxas de imuneglobulinas do LCR normal, mediante diferentes métodos, assim como da influência dos fatores cor, sexo e idade, nestes valores. Mediante imunodifusão radial foram determinados os níveis de IgG, IgA e IgM do LCR normal de 115, 78 e 45 pessoas, respectivamente. Todas as amostras de LCR foram obtidas por punção sub-occipital (LCR-SO. Os resultados destas determinações permitiram concluir que: a as taxas médias de IgG, IgA e IgM do LCR de pretos ou pardos não diferem daquelas de brancos; b não existem variações ligadas ao sexo, nem à idade, em crianças com 1 a 11 anos, nas taxas das imuneglobulinas estudadas, no LCR; c os níveis fisiológicos em crianças com 1 a 11 anos, para IgG variam entre 0,21 e 2,93 mg/100 ml; os teores absolutos médios de IgG de crianças são inferiores àqueles encontrados em adultos; os níveis percentuais médios de IgG de crianças não diferem daqueles de adultos; d as taxas de IgA do LCR de crianças, tanto em valores absolutos como relativos, são, em média, inferiores àquelas encontradas em adultos, não ultrapassando, em condições normais, 0,15 mg/100 ml (0,7% do total protéico; e em adultos, não se observam variações ligadas ao sexo, nem à idade, nos níveis das imuneglobulinas estudadas, no LCR-SO; as taxas normais de IgG encontradas no LCR-SO de adultos são de 0,51 a 4,00 mg/100 ml; em crianças e adultos, as taxas fisiológicas desta imuneglobulina, em termos percentuais, são de 3 a 12%; o LCR-SO normal de adultos contém IgA em concentrações de até 0,32 mg/100 ml (0,9% do total protéico; f a IgM encontra-se no LCR-SO normal, tanto de crianças como de adultos, em níveis muito baixos, não ultrapassando 0,2 mg/100 ml (0,25% do total protéico.

  9. Associação entre dois diferentes tipos de estrangulamento com a variação da pressão intraocular em atletas de jiu-jitsu

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpi,Marinho Jorge; Conte,Marcelo; Rossin,Reginaldo Alexandre; Skubs,Renato; Lenk,Rudolf Eberhard; Brant,Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre dois diferentes tipos de estrangulamento com a variação da pressão intraocular em atletas de jiu-jitsu. MÉTODO: Estudo observacional em grupo de 9 atletas de jiu-jitsu, com mínimo 6 meses de treinamento, sexo masculino, idades entre 20 e 30 anos, sem presença de lesões físicas e do bulbo ocular. Buscou-se associação entre a variação da pressão intraocular e os estrangulamentos Frontal da Guarda (E1) e Frontal da Montada (E2). A pressão intraocular foi de...

  10. Ophiuroidea das regiões antartica e subantartica: 2. variação em Gorgonocephalus chílensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae Ophiuroidea from antarctic and subantarctic regions: 2. variation on Gorgonocephalus chilensis (Philippi (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea, Gorgonocephalidae

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    Ana Maria Gouveia Monteiro

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 198 exemplares de Gorgonocephalus chilensis das regiões antártica e subantartica, tendo-se em vista a variação de caracteres morfológicos externos. Foi constatada uma grande variação nas características morfológicas externas, que parece independer de localização geográfica.A revision is presented on the variability of the ornamentation and other extermal morphological aspects of Gorgonocephalus chilensis. The samples were obtained along the period of 1962 to 1972 by the R/V "Hero" and "Eltanin" (USARP and by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" from the Brazilian Navy.

  11. Influência da icterícia colestática na variação ponderal em modelo experimental

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    Leonardo de Souza Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da icterícia colestática na variação ponderal. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 64 ratos adultos, distribuídos em seis grupos: F1 (n=6 - fêmeas normais, F2 (n=6 - fêmeas laparotomizadas, F3 (n=20 - fêmeas ictéricas, M1 (n=6 - machos normais, M2 (n=6 - machos laparotomizados, M3 (n=20 - machos ictéricos. A icterícia foi obtida com ligadura e secção do ducto biliopancreático. Os pesos dos animais foram registrados semanalmente, durante sete semanas. No 14º dia de experimento, dosaram-se as bilirrubinas séricas e os hormônios gonadais. Após a sétima semana, realizou-se estudo histológico do fígado. RESULTADOS: Os animais dos grupos F3 e M3 apresentaram bilirrubinas elevadas e diminuição da massa corpórea, quando comparados com os demais grupos. As diferenças ponderais foram significativas a partir da quarta semana entre as fêmeas e da quinta semana entre os machos. Nos animais ictéricos houve aumento do estradiol e diminuição da progesterona e da testosterona total. Septos de fibroses perivenular e periportal, colangite e hiperplasia de ductos biliares ocorreram no fígado dos animais ictéricos. Nenhum animal apresentou cirrose. CONCLUSÃO: Ocorreu redução do peso corpóreo murino em presença de icterícia colestática em ambos os sexos.

  12. Evaluación de varias técnicas de extracción de ADN de Cryptococcus spp. a partir de muestras ambientales.

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    Alexandra Castañeda

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available El género Cryptococcus comprende, al menos, 38 especies, pero sólo 3 se han informado como patógenas para el hombre y los animales: Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus albidus y Cryptococcus neoformans; esta última es la más frecuente. La infección se adquiere por la inhalación de los propágulos infectantes del medio ambiente. Los estudios del hábitat se han realizado con técnicas de extracción con soluciones tampón y cultivos en medios selectivos. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar varias técnicas de extracción del ADN de Cryptococcus spp. a partir de muestras ambientales. Como controles se emplearon aislamientos de C. neoformans, C. albidus, C. laurentii y Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. Se emplearon vermiculitas, suelos contaminados en el laboratorio con 10 a 106 blastoconidias/g y muestras naturalmente colonizadas con C. neoformans. El ADN se extrajo con métodos físicos, químicos y con un estuche comercial, y se purificó usando bloques de agarosa y columnas de sílica. Para la amplificación con PCR se emplearon los iniciadores CN4-CN5 específicos para C. neoformans. Sólo el estuche comercial permitió extraer y purificar el ADN de las muestras de suelos contaminados hasta una concentración de 10 blastoconidias/g de suelo y de una de las muestras naturalmente colonizadas. Con este trabajo se logró la extracción y amplificación de ADN de Cryptococcus spp. a partir de muestras ambientales lo cual constituye una herramienta importante para delimitar las áreas ecológicas de C. neoformans en nuestro país.

  13. Ancoragens e variações nas representações sociais da corrupção Anchoring and variations in the social representations of corruption

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    Gabrielle Poeschl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinam-se neste artigo as representações da corrupção de inquiridos portugueses e procuram-se identificar variações consoante os grupos sociais e os contextos geral, global ou nacional em que o fenómeno é considerado. Verificou-se que a “corrupção em geral” é representada por práticas e motivos que reflectem um julgamento moral e por grupos e actividades ilegais, tal como acontece em relação à corrupção ao nível global. Esta tem ainda uma dimensão geopolítica, enquanto a corrupção ao nível nacional é entendida de forma particularizada, realçando-se casos e situações específicas muitas vezes divulgados pelos media.In this paper, we examine the representations of corruption of Portuguese respondents and attempt to identify variations according to different social groups and to the general, global, or national contexts in which the phenomenon is considered. We found that “corruption, in general”, is represented by practices and motives that reflect a moral judgment, and by illegal groups and activities, as is also the case for corruption at the global level. Corruption at the global level also has a geopolitical dimension, whereas corruption at the national level is seen in a particularized way, highlighting cases and situations often debated in the media.

  14. Improving yield and water use efficiency of apple trees through intercrop-mulch of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments in the Loess Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W.; Li, Y.; Gong, Q.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, Z.; Zhai, B.; Wang, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Improving water use efficiency (WUE) and soil fertility is relevant for apple production in drylands. The effects of intercrop-mulch (IM) of crown vetch (Coronilla varia L.) combined with different fertilizer treatments on WUE of apple trees and soil fertility of apple orchards were assessed over three years (2011, 2013 and 2014). A split-plot design was adopted, in which the main treatments were IM and no intercrop-mulch (NIM). Five sub-treatments were established: no fertilization (CK); nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP); manure (M); N, P and potassium fertilizer (NPK); and NPK fertilizer combined with manure (NPKM). Due to mowing and mulching each month during July–September, the evapotranspiration for IM was 17.3% lower than that of NIM in the dry year of 2013. Additionally, the soil water storage of NPKM treatment was higher than that of CK during the experimental period. Thus, single fruit weight and fruit number per tree increased with IM and NPKM application. Moreover, applying NPKM with IM resulted in the highest yield (on average of three years), which was 73.25% and 130.51% greater than that of CK in IM and NIM, respectively. The WUE of NPKM combined with IM was also the highest in 2013 and 2014 (47.69 and 56.95% greater than applying IM alone). In addition, due to application of IM combined with NPKM, soil organic matter was increased by 25.8% compared with that of CK (in NIM). Additionally, application of IM combined with NPKM obtained more economic net return, compared to other combinations. Therefore, applying NPKM with IM is recommended for improving apple production in this rain-fed agricultural area.

  15. Expansão urbana e variações mesoclimáticas em João Pessoa, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liése Carneiro Sobreira

    Full Text Available A cidade de João Pessoa, na Paraíba, vem sendo submetida, nos últimos anos, a um forte crescimento urbano. Nesse contexto, este trabalho verificou entre as décadas de 1980 e 2000 variações climáticas significativas que possam ser correlacionadas com o crescimento urbano. Para tanto, utilizaram-se imagens de satélite nos anos de 1977 e 2009 para o cálculo da área edificada, bem como foram utilizadas séries de dados das variáveis climáticas: precipitação pluviométrica e temperatura do ar, colhidas em duas estações instaladas na malha urbana, e uma terceira, tomada como estação de referência, fora da malha urbana. Para a caracterização do crescimento da cidade, utilizaram-se dados quantitativos da população residente constantes dos censos demográficos de 1872 a 2009. Para a verificação do ritmo do comportamento da série temporal de temperatura e precipitação foram gerados gráficos da temperatura média e do acumulado mensal dos meses correspondentes aos trimestres mais quentes e menos quentes do período de 1984 a 2008. Dos resultados obtidos do tratamento e análise dos dados pode-se verificar que a temperatura do ar da cidade aumentou nos últimos 26 anos, havendo-se detectado que as temperaturas do ar sofreram elevações mais expressivas nos meses do trimestre mais quente, fato que pode ser correlacionado com a expansão da malha urbana.

  16. Radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Kh.; Boboev, B.D.; Bolibekov, Sh.; Akhmedov, M.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to radiological monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau. The physicochemical properties of water of northern slopes of Mogoltau were studied. The radiation monitoring of northern slopes of Mogoltau was carried out during several years under various weather conditions. The exposure rate of human settlements of northern part of Mogoltau was defined.

  17. Variação sazonal na prevalência de distúrbios hipertensivos da gestação entre primigestas do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Vettorazzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A hipertensão é uma das mais graves patologias gestacionais, levando a um aumento importante da morbimortalidade materna e perinatal. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a correlação entre o número de internações hospitalares em primigestas com distúrbios hipertensivos na gestação e variação sazonal. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo ecológico entre todas as primigestas com idade gestacional maior de 20 semanas que internaram no Centro Obstétrico do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre num período de 12 meses. A frequência de internações por distúrbios hipertensivos foi comparada nos diferentes meses e estações do ano e também em relação à temperatura média e mínima do dia da internação e da semana anterior. Resultados: Foram estudadas 1.327 primigestas com idade média de 20,7 anos e idade gestacional média de 38,6 semanas. Entre estas, 232 (17,5% apresentaram alteração na pressão arterial, sendo que 9,7% apresentaram pré-eclâmpsia (PE e 7,5% outros distúrbios hipertensivos da gestação. Não houve associação significativa entre a frequência de internações por distúrbios hipertensivos e a temperatura média ou mínima do dia ou da semana anterior à internação. Ao longo do ano, ocorreu variação significativa (p < 0,05 na frequência de internações por pré-eclâmpsia, sendo esta maior no mês de setembro (15,1% das internações, marcando a transição entre o inverno e primavera. Conclusão: As variações da temperatura têm influência no número de internações por hipertensão na gestação, sendo essa informação útil no planejamento do sistema de saúde e da disponibilidade de leitos hospitalares.    Introduction: Hypertension is one of the most severe pregnancy disorders, leading to a significant increase of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the correlation of the number of hospital admissions of primiparous women with

  18. The Numidian of northern Tunisia: stratigraphic data and geodynamic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbi, F.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Numidian flysch consists of a thick turbiditic sandy and clayey formation of Oligocene-Lower Miocene age which outcrops largely in northern Tunisia. Concerning the relationship between the Numidian formation and its «substratum», two hypothesis are discussed : i allochtonous Numidian units (tangential abnormal contact ; ii autochtonous Numidian units (sedimentary contact : locally downlap. Detailed investigation undertaken in the study area, based on the survey and the dating of lithological logs, coupled with geodynamic and petrogenetic events, lead to the following results : i absence of tangential tectonic contact in the base of Numidian series ; ii a significant Tertiary tectonics attested by several phases. Moreover, the Numidian siliciclastic series are affected, like the other Tertiary formations in the North of Tunisia, by south-east ward deep-seated thrusts, oriented N50-60.El flysch Numidiense es una formación arenisco-arcillosa de gran espesor y de edad Oligoceno-Mioceno inferior, que aflora en el norte de Túnez. La naturaleza del contacto basal de esta formación ha suscitado numerosas discusiones. De ellas destacan dos hipótesis: 1 las unidades numidienses alóctonas se apoyan en forma de contacto anormal tangencial, y 2 se trata de unidades autóctonas (contacto sedimentario normal, a veces de tipo "downlap".El levantamiento de cortes litológicos detallados y su datación, combinado con datos de tipo geodinámico y petrogenético, ha permitido confirmar la ausencia de un contacto tectónico tangencial en la base del Numidiense y por el contrario, establecer la existencia de una significativa tectónica terciaria desarrollada en varias fases. Asi, las series siliciclásticas Numidienses se ven afectadas, como otras formaciones terciarias del norte de Túnez, por cabalgamientos de vergencia SE.

  19. Variação lingüística e alfabetização: um estudo com crianças da primeira série do ensino fundamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Domingos Barrera

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a influência da variação lingüística sobre a aquisição da linguagem escrita. Participaram da pesquisa 65 alunos de três classes da primeira série de uma escola pública de ensino fundamental. O material utilizado para avaliar o nível de variação lingüística das crianças foi aplicado no início do ano escolar. As provas utilizadas para avaliar os níveis de leitura e escrita foram aplicadas no início e final do ano letivo. A análise estatística mostrou correlação negativa significativa entre os níveis iniciais de variação lingüística e o desempenho final das crianças em leitura, sugerindo que a utilização de linguagem não-padrão pelos alunos pode dificultar o processo de alfabetização, sobretudo quando não trabalhada adequadamente pelas professoras. Os resultados obtidos sugerem a importância de uma efetiva difusão dos conhecimentos lingüísticos e sociolingüísticos, através dos cursos de formação de professores alfabetizadores.

  20. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  1. Variação anatômica radial do lenho de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) e sua influência na densidade aparente. Radial variation of wood anatomy in açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata) and its influence on the specific gravity.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI; Israel Luiz de LIMA; Sandra Monteiro Borges FLORSHEIM; Alaor BUFOLO

    2009-01-01

    Variações entre as dimensões e frequênciasdas células da madeira existem entre espéciesdiferentes, entre indivíduos da mesma espécie ouainda dentro da mesma árvore nas direções radial eaxial. Essa variação influencia diretamente nadensidade aparente e consequentemente no uso dasdiferentes madeiras. O presente estudo determinoua variação anatômica radial e sua influência nadensidade aparente no lenho de árvores de Luehea divaricata, a partir de amostras coletadas no DAP,por meio de método dest...

  2. Importância clínica do músculo esternal e suas variações anatômicas: uma revisão sistemática da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Agapito de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A presença do músculo esternal é uma variação anatômica que está situada anteriormente ao osso esterno e suas estruturas adjacentes e não tem função totalmente definida. Há na literatura mais relatos de estudos anatômicos sobre o músculo esternal do que sobre as implicações clínicas da sua presença. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as descrições existentes das variações anatômicas do músculo esternal, compreendendo, assim, a importância clínica desse conhecimento. Foram avaliados artigos nas línguas portuguesa e inglesa, indexados nas bases de dados PubMed e SciELO, publicados entre 1867 e 2016. Buscou-se verificar os tipos de variações anatômicas do músculo esternal descritas, suas origens e inserções, inervação e irrigação sanguínea. Em seguida, foi relatada a importância clínica do conhecimento dessa variação. O músculo esternal apresenta diversas dimensões e inserções, o que dificulta a determinação de sua função. Devido à localização paraesternal, em exames de imagem o referido músculo pode ser visto como uma nodulação anormal na região da mama e ser confundido com um tumor. O reconhecimento dessa variação antes de procedimentos cirúrgicos na parede torácica evita possíveis complicações e possibilita o uso do tecido como retalho muscular em cirurgias reconstrutivas da mama; também pode ser usado na melhora de resultados estéticos em mamoplastia de aumento ou fornecer cobertura extra para próteses. O conhecimento sobre essa variação anatômica é bastante relevante, pois a percepção da existência do músculo esternal e de suas variações relaciona-se a importantes implicações clínicas em cirurgias de mama e tórax.

  3. Variação da pressão intraocular no exercício resistido realizado em duas diferentes posições

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sander Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Verificar a variação da PIO no exercício resistido na posição sentada e em decúbito dorsal. Métodos Foram avaliados 14 voluntários do Centro de Atividades Físicas do Banco de Olhos de Sorocaba (BOS Fit. Os critérios de exclusão adotados foram: I opacidade de meios; II alteração de volume do bulbo ocular ou ausência de bulbo ocular; III PIO maior do que 21mmHg; IV idade inferior 20 e superior a 40 anos; V tempo de prática de treinamento resistido inferior a 30 dias. Inicialmente foi realizado o teste de predição no exercício leg press para determinar o percentual de carga para o respectivo exercício durante o experimento. Os voluntários foram submetidos a duas intervenções separadas em um intervalo de 72 horas, ambas com o mesmo volume e intensidade no exercício leg press, ou seja, 3 séries de 15 repetições com 60% 1RM, tempo de intervalo entre as séries de 60 segundos e velocidade moderada, de acordo com as seguintes posições: P1 leg-press executado na posição sentada e P2 leg press na posição em decúbito dorsal. A PIO foi obtida utilizando o tonômetro de Perkins em três momentos: M1 imediatamente antes do exercício; M2 imediatamente após a terceira série; M3 três minutos após a finalização da terceira série. Resultados Em ambas as posições houve queda significativa da PIO após o exercício (M2, permanecendo significativamente reduzida após três minutos de recuperação (M3. Contudo, não houve diferença da PIO segundo a posição (P1 e P2, independentemente do momento de aferição (M1, M2 e M3. Conclusão Houve queda da PIO decorrente ao exercício resistido e não foi verificada resposta diferencial da PIO de acordo com a posição do exercício.

  4. Análise da variação do desempenho de empresas brasileiras Analysis of variation in the performance of Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Thiago Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a influência dos ciclos econômicos no desempenho das firmas. Dados sobre uma amostra representativa de firmas de capital aberto, atuantes em 18 setores da economia, foram coletados por um período de vinte e três anos (1986-2008. Os resultados encontrados corroboram os estudos anteriores ao atribuírem maior importância aos fatores associados às características da firma, mesmo considerando um período de análise com maior número de anos e, por conseguinte, com a contribuição de um elevado numero de variáveis macroeconômicas, tais como crises e diferentes planos econômicos. Porém, foi possível confirmar que intervalos de tempo maiores de análise tendem a reduzir o efeito da firma, e que as contribuições do efeito ano em particular apesar de corroborarem os resultados obtidos nos estudos anteriores, em termos absolutos, relativamente apresentam uma grande variação. O mesmo fenômeno é observado quando se verifica a interação entre ano e ramo de negócios, implicando que diferentes ramos são afetados de maneira desigual pelas variáveis macroeconômicas em períodos de tempo mais longos.

    This paper analyzes the influence of economic cycles on the performance of firms. Data on a representative sample of open capital traded firms, operating in eighteen sectors of the economy, were collected for a period of twenty-three years (1986-2008. The results corroborate previous studies to give greater importance to factors associated with characteristics of the firm, even though a period of analysis with more years and, therefore, the contribution of a large number of macroeconomic variables, such as crises and different economic plans. However, it was possible to confirm that longer intervals of analysis tend to reduce the effect of the firm, and that the contributions of the effect in particular years, although

  5. Variação de temperatura do músculo quadríceps femoral exposto a duas modalidades de crioterapia por meio de termografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberito Rodrigo de Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Crioterapia é qualquer forma de aplicação terapêutica de frio que leva à diminuição da temperatura dos tecidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar as variações na temperatura superficial do músculo quadríceps femoral, em três momentos distintos, quando expostos a duas modalidades de crioterapia: sacos com gelo ou sacos contendo mistura de gelo e água. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 18 indivíduos, com idade entre 18 e 25 anos, de ambos os sexos. Em cada voluntário foi realizada, simultaneamente, crioterapia com gelo na coxa esquerda e mistura de gelo e água na coxa direita, durante 15 minutos na região do quadríceps femoral. A temperatura superficial foi mensurada por um termógrafo e foram feitos registros nos seguintes momentos: pré-crioterapia, imediatamente e 15 e 30 minutos após a retirada da modalidade de crioterapia. RESULTADOS: Ambas as modalidades de crioterapia foram eficientes para diminuir a temperatura do quadríceps femoral e a mistura de gelo e água foi capaz de induzir a uma temperatura mais baixa em relação àquela modalidade que usou somente gelo. O resfriamento, para ambas as modalidades, perdurou por, pelo menos, 15 minutos após a retirada do gelo e a temperatura superficial já estava restaurada ao nível pré-aplicação aos 30 minutos após a retirada. CONCLUSÃO: Ambas as modalidades promoveram redução da temperatura que perdurou, pelo menos, durante 15 minutos; e após 30 minutos da retirada das modalidades a temperatura foi restabelecida aos níveis normais. Contudo, a mistura de gelo e água produziu resfriamento maior do que a modalidade de gelo sozinho.

  6. Northern micro-grid project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, David; Singh, Bob

    2010-09-15

    The electrical distribution system for the Kasabonika Lake First Nation in northern Ontario (Canada) consumed 1.2 million liters of diesel fuel in 2008, amounting to 3,434 tones of CO2 emissions. The Northern Micro-Grid Project, supported by seven partners, involves integrating renewable generation & storage into the Kasabonika Lake distribution system. Through R&D and demonstration, the objectives are to reduce the amount of diesel consumed, support the distribution system exclusively on renewable resources during light loads, engage and impart knowledge/training to better position the community for future opportunities. The paper will discuss challenges, opportunities and future plans associated with the project.

  7. Estrutura do pasto de capim-braquiária com variação de alturas Structure of signal grass pasture with height variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as características estruturais da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm dentro de uma mesma pastagem, em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. A variação na altura inicial das plantas no pasto de capim-braquiária apresentou resposta linear e negativa. As massas de lâmina foliar verde, colmo verde, material morto, forragem verde e forragem total aumentaram linearmente com a altura das plantas no pasto. Contrariamente, houve redução linear na relação lâminas foliares verdes/colmos verdes com a altura das plantas no pasto (de 1,16 para 0,58. A altura das plantas no pasto teve efeito mais pronunciado sobre o aumento das massas de colmo verde e material morto que sobre a massa de lâmina foliar verde. A densidade volumétrica de lâminas foliares verdes decresceu (de 97,09 para 39,07 kg/cm.ha de MS com a altura das plantas no pasto. Mesma resposta ocorreu para as densidades volumétricas de forragem verde (de 181,62 para 107,85 kg/cm.ha de MS e forragem total (de 283,39 para 195,72 kg/cm.ha de MS. Por outro lado, não houve efeito da altura das plantas no pasto sobre as densidades volumétricas de colmos verdes e material morto, que apresentaram valores médios de 80,95 e 95,61 kg/cm.ha de MS, respectivamente. A altura das plantas no pasto teve efeito quadrático sobre a interceptação de luz pelo dossel. Áreas da pastagem com alturas de 10, 20, 30 e 40 cm apresentaram valores de interceptação luminosa de 56,15; 85,16; 93,39 e 96,57%, respectivamente. Ocorre variação espacial e temporal na estrutura do pasto de B. decumbens manejado sob lotação contínua.This study was carried out aiming to evaluate the structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture. Four heights of plants (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated within the same grazing area in a randomized block

  8. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  9. Temporal trends (1986–2005) of essential and non-essential elements in a terrestrial raptor in northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustnes, Jan O., E-mail: Jan.O.Bustnes@nina.no [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM — High North Research Centre on Climate and the Environment, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Bårdsen, Bård-J. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM — High North Research Centre on Climate and the Environment, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Bangjord, Georg [The Norwegian Directorate for Nature, NO-7485 Trondheim (Norway); Lierhagen, Syverin [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, FRAM — High North Research Centre on Climate and the Environment, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-08-01

    In the recent decades, the atmospheric deposition of many metals has declined in northern Europe, mostly due to reductions of emissions in other parts of the Europe. However, less is known about the temporal trends at higher trophic levels in terrestrial food chains. In this study we measured 39 different essential and non-essential elements in tawny owl (Strix aluco) tail-feathers (n = 633) collected annually between 1986 and 2005 in Central Norway. There was a strong decline in lead (Pb) concentrations (∼ 94%) consistent with the termination of the use of Pb as a petrol additive. There were also significant declines in cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and arsenic (As) concentrations. Zinc (Zn) may also have declined after 2000, but this is not yet clear due to possible analytical problems. More unexpected was a strong decline of boron (B) in the late 1980s and early 1990s with a subsequent leveling-off, but with high concentrations in 1999. The decline in B could be related to changes in the agricultural practices and use of fertilizers. Tin (Sn) showed an abrupt decline in the mid-1990s, after which the concentrations established at one fifth of the level before this time. Iron (Fe) was stable until the late 1990s, but showed an increase afterwards, whereas lanthanum (La) tended to increase up to the mid-1990s and then leveled-off. Aluminum (Al) showed decreasing levels until the mid-1990s, but a considerable increase afterwards. There was a small increase in praseodymium (Pr), but the only element showing a consistent strong increase over the study period (61%) was rubidium (Rb). The causes of the temporal trends in different elements may be changed input to the local ecosystem from local and trans-boundary sources, but possibly also variation in climate and feeding conditions for the owls. - Highlights: • Long-term trends of 39 different elements were analyzed in tawny owl feathers. • Most trends followed the trends observed in moss and precipitation.

  10. Temporal trends (1986–2005) of essential and non-essential elements in a terrestrial raptor in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan O.; Bårdsen, Bård-J.; Bangjord, Georg; Lierhagen, Syverin; Yoccoz, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    In the recent decades, the atmospheric deposition of many metals has declined in northern Europe, mostly due to reductions of emissions in other parts of the Europe. However, less is known about the temporal trends at higher trophic levels in terrestrial food chains. In this study we measured 39 different essential and non-essential elements in tawny owl (Strix aluco) tail-feathers (n = 633) collected annually between 1986 and 2005 in Central Norway. There was a strong decline in lead (Pb) concentrations (∼ 94%) consistent with the termination of the use of Pb as a petrol additive. There were also significant declines in cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and arsenic (As) concentrations. Zinc (Zn) may also have declined after 2000, but this is not yet clear due to possible analytical problems. More unexpected was a strong decline of boron (B) in the late 1980s and early 1990s with a subsequent leveling-off, but with high concentrations in 1999. The decline in B could be related to changes in the agricultural practices and use of fertilizers. Tin (Sn) showed an abrupt decline in the mid-1990s, after which the concentrations established at one fifth of the level before this time. Iron (Fe) was stable until the late 1990s, but showed an increase afterwards, whereas lanthanum (La) tended to increase up to the mid-1990s and then leveled-off. Aluminum (Al) showed decreasing levels until the mid-1990s, but a considerable increase afterwards. There was a small increase in praseodymium (Pr), but the only element showing a consistent strong increase over the study period (61%) was rubidium (Rb). The causes of the temporal trends in different elements may be changed input to the local ecosystem from local and trans-boundary sources, but possibly also variation in climate and feeding conditions for the owls. - Highlights: • Long-term trends of 39 different elements were analyzed in tawny owl feathers. • Most trends followed the trends observed in moss and precipitation.

  11. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  12. Variação de caracteres em híbridos de abacaxizeiro obtidos de diferentes cruzamentos Characters variation in pineapple hybrids obtained by different crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Santos Cabral

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A herança dos caracteres utilizados na seleção de híbridos de abacaxi é de suma importância para o sucesso dos programas de melhoramento genético desta fruteira. o trabalho teve como objetivo analisar as variações observadas nos principais caracteres utilizados na seleção de híbridos de abacaxi obtidos de diferentes cruzamentos. Foi realizada a análise de variância dos caracteres: altura da planta do solo até à base do fruto, comprimento do pedúnculo, peso do fruto sem coroa, peso da coroa, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável de 446 genótipos avaliados e 213 selecionados. observou-se uma diminuição do peso do fruto nos híbridos selecionados na maioria dos cruzamentos e aumento dos sólidos solúveis em todos os cruzamentos, quando comparados com todos os genótipos avaliados. Constatou-se correlação linear simples positiva significativa entre o peso do fruto e a altura da planta. Foi observada também correlação linear simples significativa, de baixa magnitude, positiva entre o peso do fruto e o peso da coroa, a altura da planta e o peso da coroa, a altura da planta e o teor de sólidos solúveis e negativa entre o teor de sólidos solúveis e ocomprimento do pedúnculo. Verificou-se diferença entre os cruzamentos na seleção de genótipos de abacaxi para os caracteres estudados.The inheritance of traits used for the selection of pineapple hybrids is very important for the success of the genetic breeding program of this fruit crop. The objective of the present work was to analyze the variations observed in main traits used for the selection of pineapple hybrids obtained by different crosses. The analysis of variance for 446 evaluated and 213 selected genotypes was carried out for the following traits: plant height from soil to the base of the fruit, peduncle length, weight of the fruit without the crown, weight of the crown, total soluble solids content and titrable acidity. in general, it was observed that

  13. Análise da variação da produtividade dos serviços de água portugueses entre 1994 e 2001 usando a abordagem de malmquist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cunha Marques

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade de uma organização pode ser definida como a relação entre os produtos (outputs e os factores de produção consumidos (inputs. Este artigo discute e aplica uma técnica fronteira de natureza não paramétrica de cálculo da produtividade baseada no índice de produtividade de Malmquist (IPM. Pretende-se, através de um caso prático de aplicação ao sector da água em Portugal, evidenciar as potencialidades dos IPM, que assumem um relevo particular na regulação económica das indústrias de rede. O estudo da produtividade envolve 45 entidades gestoras, abrangendo cerca de 48 % da população portuguesa, e é efectuado para o período 1994-2001. Verifica-se que a evolução da produtividade foi negativa neste período, sobretudo devido à variação da tecnologia de produção e, em menor dimensão, à variação da eficiência de escala. Pelo contrário, a variação da eficiência técnica foi positiva e a variação da eficiência de sobreutilização apresentou um contributo insignificante.A decision-making unit productivity can be defined as the relationship between the products (outputs and the production factors consumed (inputs. This article discusses and applies a non-parametric frontier technique to measure productivity based on the Malmquist productivity index (MPI. By means of a case-study applied to the water sector in Portugal, we intend to stress the MPI strengths which are particularly relevant to the economic regulation of the network industries. The productivity study consists of 45 water services comprising around 48 % of the Portuguese population and it covers the period 1994-2001. We noticed that the productivity change was negative during this period, particularly due to the production technology change and to the scale efficiency change to a less extent. Conversely, the technical efficiency change was positive and the congestion efficiency change presented an insignificant value.

  14. Análise quantitativa no estudo da variação linguística: noções de estatística e análise comparativa entre Varbrul e SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Jardel de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo do modelo estatístico utilizado nosestudos variacionistas e uma análise das especificidades do softwareVarbrul em relação aos métodos convencionais de estimação deparâmetros. Além disso, apresenta os aspectos teóricos estatísticosmais relevantes que contribuem para a análise da variação linguísticae uma análise comparativa entre os resultados do Varbrul e do SPSS.

  15. Verificação do poder preditivo do spread entre as taxas de juros de longo e curto prazos na variação das taxas de curto prazo no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Arlete da

    2006-01-01

    A Hipótese das Expectativas (HE) é testada na Estrutura a Termo das Taxas de Juros brasileira (ETTJ) no sentido de se verificar se a inclinação da curva de juros, representada pelo spread entre as taxas de juros de longo e curto prazos, pode explicar as variações das taxas de juros de curto prazo no Brasil. Foram utilizadas séries com médias mensais das taxas de juros de um, três e seis meses, de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2006, empregando metodologia baseada em regressões individuais. Os r...

  16. As variações na comunidade de Odonata (Insecta) em córregos podem ser explicadas pelo Paradoxo do Plâncton? Explicando a riqueza de espécies pela variabilidade ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Junior, José Max Barbosa; Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos; Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso; Pinto, Nelson Silva; Universidade Federal de Goiás; Juen, Leandro; Universidade Federal do Pará

    2013-01-01

    A teoria do Paradoxo do Plâncton postula que ambientes que apresentam flutuações temporais periódicas apresentariam alta diversidade de espécie, uma vez que essas flutuações impediriam a ocorrência da exclusão competitiva. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variação da comunidade de Odonata adulto na Bacia do Rio Suiá-Miçú, testando a hipótese de que locais que apresentam variá...

  17. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  18. Edible insects of Northern Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Lautenschläger,Thea; Neinhuis,Christoph; Monizi,Mawunu; Mandombe,José Lau; Förster,Anke; Henle,Thomas; Nuss,Matthias

    2017-01-01

    From 2013–2017, we accompanied and interviewed local people harvesting edible insects in the Northern Angolan province of Uíge. Insect and host plant samples were collected for species identification and nutritive analyses. Additionally, live caterpillars were taken to feed and keep until pupation and eclosion of the imago, necessary for morphological species identification. Altogether, 18 insect species eaten by humans were recorded. Twenty four edible insect species were formerly known from...

  19. Variação das dimensões características e da forma dos frutos de café durante o processo de secagem Variation of characteristic dimensions and forms of coffee fruits during drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da variação do teor de umidade nas dimensões e propriedades físicas-esfericidade e circularidade do fruto do café das espécies arabica e canephora, de diferentes variedades. Os resultados obtidos permitiram afirmar que a redução do teor de umidade afeta de forma acentuada as características físicas do fruto do cafeeiro das espécies e variedades estudadas, indicando que são importantes as variações das dimensões do fruto ao longo do processo de secagem e, ainda, que as expressões matemáticas ajustadas aos dados obtidos representaram de forma satisfatória os fenômenos estudados.The present work had as objective to evaluate the effect of moisture content variation on dimensions and physical properties (sphericity and roundness of coffee fruit of the arabica and canephora species, for different varieties. The obtained results show that the reduction of moisture content affects in an accentuated way the physical characteristics of coffee fruit of the studied species and varieties, indicating that the variations of dimensions of the fruit along the drying process are important. Further, the mathematical expressions adjusted to the data were satisfactory for the studied phenomena.

  20. Análise da variação do tempo dedicado ás viagens urbanas da população de Manaus – AM, em função do modo de transporte utilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leite

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de planejamento, característica da maioria dos bairros de Manaus deixou como herança um sistema viário incompatível com o tamanho atual da cidade. Neste artigo busca-se analisar a variação do tempo dedicado às viagens urbanas em Manaus em função de três diferentes modos de transporte: ônibus, micro-ônibus e automóvel. Receptores do Sistema de Posicionamento Global (GPS e recursos de um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG foram utilizados para levantar e tratar os dados das viagens urbanas realizadas. Considera-se (por tudo o que o trabalho permitiu concluir, que a metodologia adotada foi bastante consistente para o reconhecimento da variação de desempenho de modos de transporte investigados. Os percursos mais longos permitiram melhor desempenho que os mais curtos, notadamente influenciado pela área central da cidade, que registrou os trechos mais lentos para os três modos.

  1. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  2. Exfoliation syndrome in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idakwo U

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ugbede Idakwo,1 Olusola Olawoye,2 Benedictus GK Ajayi,1 Robert Ritch3 1Eleta Eye Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Einhorn Clinical Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, New York Eye and Ear Infirmary of Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To estimate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome (XFS and its association with ocular diseases in Northern Nigeria.Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who presented to the outpatient department of ECWA Eye Hospital Kano from February 2015 to May 2015 were included in the study. Each patient had a complete ophthalmic examination. The anterior segment examination included tonometry, gonioscopy, and detailed slit-lamp examination to assess for the presence or absence of exfoliation material, inflammatory cells, and other abnormal findings. Patients with exfoliation material on the anterior lens surface and/or pupillary margin in either or both eyes were considered to have XFS. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0.Results: A total of 620 patients living in Northern Nigeria from the 6 geopolitical zones were examined. The majority of them (34.5% were indigenous Hausas. There was a male preponderance of 56.6%, while the mean age at presentation for examination in all age groups was 55.7±13.7 years. There were 9 patients with XFS; the frequency was 1.5%, with most of the patients being 70–80 years old. In patients who were ≥50 years, the frequency was 2.5%. Patients with XFS had a higher mean age of 68±4.9 years. The frequency of XFS among glaucoma patients was 4.4%, while among cataract patients it was 3.7%. No other associated ocular disease was found in the patients with XFS.Conclusion: This study shows that XFS does exist in Northern Nigeria, as was found in the South. The prevalence of XFS was, however, not reported in the Nigerian

  3. Variação da toxidez de Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae em coelhos Variation of the toxicity of Arrabidaea bilabiata (Bignoniaceae in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia F. Jabour

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A brotação e as folhas maduras dessecadas e trituradas de Arrabidaea bilabiata, um cipó ou arbusto escandente da família Bignoniaceae, foram administradas em suspensão aquosa por via intragástrica a 15 coelhos adultos nas doses que variaram de 0,25-6,0g/kg. Nos experimentos com a brotação coletada em outubro (fim da época de seca, a menor dose que causou a morte dos coelhos foi de 0,5g/kg e em maio (fim da época de cheia, a menor dose que causou a morte foi de 1,0g/kg. Já com as folhas maduras coletadas em outubro a menor dose que causou a morte dos coelhos foi de 4,0g/kg e em maio, a menor dose que causou a morte foi de 6,0g/kg. A evolução em todos os casos letais foi superaguda. Clinicamente os coelhos de súbito debatiam-se com força na gaiola, caiam em decúbito lateral ou esternal, faziam movimentos de pedalagem, apresentavam acentuada dispnéia e morriam. À necropsia não foram observadas alterações significativas e ao exame histopatológico as lesões mais importantes caracterizaram-se, nos rins, por degeneração hidrópico-vacuolar das células epiteliais dos túbulos contornados distais, no fígado por vacuolização difusa do citoplasma e necrose de hepatócitos, predominantemente centro-lobular e paracentral e presença de esférulas eosinofílicas nos sinusóides hepáticos, no coração, por grupos de fibras cardíacas com eosinofilia aumentada, além de congestão nos rins, fígado, coração e pulmão. Neste estudo ficou estabelecido que a toxidez de A. bilabiata varia de acordo com a época do ano e o estado de maturação, pois essa planta foi mais tóxica em outubro e quando em brotação, confirmando, assim, os dados obtidos previamente em bovinos e búfalos.The dried and powdered mature leaves and sprouts of Arrabidaea bilabiata (fam. Bignoniaceae, a liana or scandent shrub, were administered by stomach tube to 15 rabbits at doses of 0.25-6.0g/kg. The lowest dose of the sprouts collected in October (End of

  4. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  5. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  6. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy (NMMA, miningacademy.ca) is a new educational institution located in Flin Flon, Manitoba. It is associated with the University College of the North and is specifically intended to serve the needs of the Northern Manitoban communities with regards to job creation by providing training in a variety of mining, construction, and exploration related areas. NMMA's mission is to provide innovative and responsible solutions for the creation of a knowledgeable, skilled, and sustainable workforce within a vibrant, mineral-rich resource industry. It facilitates strategic training initiatives and research activities in order to strengthen the social, economic, and environmental benefits of a robust mining and resources sector. In terms of education, NMMA offers its own programs, mostly short courses in health and safety, courses organized by the University College of the North (wilderness safety, prospecting, and exploration), and courses organized in association with provincial Industries-Based Safety Programs and Associations (a variety of construction-related trades). However, the programming is not limited to those courses already on the syllabus: the Academy operates on open-doors policy and welcomes people with their unique and diverse needs; it prides itself in its ability to tailor or create specific on-demand courses and deliver them locally in the North. The Northern Manitoba Mining Academy also provides access to its world-class facilities for field-based undergraduate courses, as well as graduate students and researchers doing field work. Full sample preparation facilities are offered to students and scientists in all natural and environmental sciences.

  7. Northern communities sustainable energy initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltman, Ursula; Widmeyer, Scott; Moen, Harlan

    2010-09-15

    The Circumpolar North may provide the solution to the world's most urgent problems. Combining new technologies with the resources, opportunities and needs of the north, the Arctic region may become instrumental in promoting nature's ability to sequester natural carbons while supplying future energy demands to the world. With the technologies for efficiencies and CCS, the abundant supply of natural gas exists for an efficient northern network of electrical generating facilities in the circumpolar region. A symbiotic relationship between facilities can ensure dependable clean electricity and support East-West distribution of power across international time zones strategically connected to southern grids.

  8. Variações na composição e estrutura da vegetação permitem detectar agrupamentos florísticos em uma Floresta Subtropical Atlântica no Sul do Brasil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Maçaneiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n4p43 As variações da vegetação em função da posição topográfica têm despertado o interesse dos pesquisadores. Entretanto, poucos estudos verificaram as associações florísticas formadas pela posição topográfica de uma encosta. Neste trabalho, analisamos se as variações na vegetação permitem detectar agrupamentos florísticos em uma Floresta Pluvial Subtropical. A vegetação foi amostrada em 25 parcelas de 400 m² distribuídas sistematicamente, onde foram medidos os indivíduos com DAP ≥ 5,0 cm. Amostramos 1.727 indivíduos e 144 espécies. A ordenação NMDS segregou três grupos em função da posição topográfica da encosta (Monte Carlo, P ≥ 0,05; ANOSIM, P < 0,001. Euterpe edulis e Sloanea guianensis se destacaram nos terços inferior e médio da encosta, enquanto Ocotea aciphylla e Alchornea triplinervia se destacaram no terço superior. Algumas espécies se mostraram indicadoras dos setores analisados, como é o caso de Actinostemon concolor e Alsophila setosa no terço inferior, Cyathea corcovadensis e Rudgea recurva no terço médio e Myrcia pulchra e Podocarpus sellowii no terço superior. Nossos resultados indicaram que as variações florísticas e estruturais observadas por Veloso e Klein (1959 e Klein (1980; 1984 para o Vale do Itajaí em Santa Catarina apresentam validade estatística nos dias atuais, pois verificamos a formação de diferentes grupos de acordo com a posição topográfica da encosta.

  9. Wood owls of the genera Strix and Ciccaba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1964-01-01

    "... speaking here as a taxonomist to taxonomists, I am certainly no less than respectful toward the noble art of classification" (Léon Croizat, 1958, p. 119). In considering a thorough systematic study a necessity before entering into zoogeographical theories, the author feels he may expect the

  10. Nature: a colour comparison between Northern South Africa and Northern Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1983 DSTO in Australia measured the reflectances of grass, trees and soil in northern Australia, using a custom-build spectroradiometer. During 2002 CSIR in South Africa performed similar measurements in northern South Africa, using a...

  11. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  12. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  13. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  14. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  15. Cult sites in northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brink

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The pagan cult in northern Sweden, i.e, Norrland, has for some decades been a neglected chapter in our history, a situation which unfortunately applies to Sweden as a whole, at least where onomastics are concerned. The aim is thus to deliver an overview of the evidence that we have of pre-Christian religious activities in these northern parts — in this aspect, onomastic material is nearly almost all we have got — and some general remarks about the conversion to the new Christian religion. The area of investigation is what in the (Swedish medieval period was known as Norrland. In other words, the part of Sweden considered here is modern Central Norrland. With our state of knowledge of today it is not so easy to pick out the place-names that have denoted some kind of pagan cult activity. The place-name material can be divided into: 1. Theoforic place-names 2. place-names denoting the site of a pagan cult, which do not however contain theoforic elements 3. place-names with a possible pagan cultic element.

  16. Geothermal conditions in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Eugster, W.; Griesser, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The geothermal field in northern Switzerland, derived from a great number of borehole temperature measurements, is characterized by a strongly positive temperature gradient and heat flow anomaly (>150 mW/m 2 ) in the lower Aare valley. The anomaly is centered above the recently discovered Permocarboniferous trough. Several possibilities to explain the anomaly (thermal disturbance in the mantle, cooling shallow intrusion, locally strong uplift/erosion, local contrasts in petrophysical properties) can be ruled out on the basis of model calculations. Uprising deep groundwater is favoured as the mechanism creating the observed anomaly. Deep groundwater circulation was investigated in detail, especially to clarify the hydraulic role of the Permocarboniferous trough, by coupled thermo-hydraulic modelling, using the integrated finite difference technique. The model was carefully validated by field data. The results reveal the draining effect of the Permocarboniferous trough and indicate that vertical permeability is present in the vicinity of the trough even at depths of several kilometers. They further imply that large parts of the crystalline basement in northern Switzerland have average hydraulic conductivities >10 -9 m/sec and that Darcy velocities in the order of 10 mm/year must be expected. (author) 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Computação algébrica no cálculo das variações: determinação de simetrias e leis de conservação

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Paulo D.F.; Torres, Delfim F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Os problemas de optimização dinâmica (em espaços de funções) tratados pelo calculo das variações, são normalmente resolvidos por recurso às condições necessárias de Euler-Lagrange, que são equações diferenciais de segunda ordem (ou de ordem superior, quando os problemas variacionais envolvem derivadas de ordem superior a um). Estas equações são, em geral, não lineares e de difícil resolução. Uma forma de as simplificar consiste em obter leis de conservação: primeiros integrais ...

  18. Autocontrole: um estudo sobre o efeito da variação simultânea da magnitude e do atraso do reforço e da possibilidade de realização de atividades distrativas

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Mariana São Thiago Bezerra de

    2007-01-01

    O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo analisar o autocontrole de crianças a partir da variação simultânea da magnitude e do atraso do reforço, com e sem a possibilidade de realização de atividades distrativas durante o período de atraso do reforço. Os participantes, 11 crianças com idade de 5 a 11 anos, com e sem o diagnóstico de TDAH, foram submetidas a esquema concorrente-encadeado num computador. A conseqüência produzida pela resposta no primeiro elo, dava início ao segundo elo e ...

  19. Análise Empírica dos Impactos dos Accruals na Variação do Capital Circulante Líquido: um estudo no setor de siderurgia e metalurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Douglas Colauto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo demonstra os impactos dos accruals na variação do capital circulante líquido em companhias abertas do setor de siderurgia e metalurgia. Para constatação de evidências empíricas, utilizou-se como população-alvo as Sociedades Anônimas Abertas apresentadas entre as 500 Maiores e Melhores Empresas, segundo critério da Revista Exame na edição de 2003. A amostra extraída da população foi do tipo intencional não probabilística, com 7 empresas representativas do setor de Siderurgia e Metalurgia. O estudo é delineado como descritivo utilizando-se as técnicas de cluster e intervalo interpercentil para categorizar os dados necessários para as inferências. Os resultados ajudam a melhorar qualidade da informação contábil ao mostrar que os accruals provocam alterações no resultado do período, mas não infl uenciam, simultaneamente, o fluxo financeiro das atividades operacionais das empresas. Coefi cientes de correlações entre o resultado contábil do período ajustado pelos accruals e a variação do capital circulante líquido não apresentaram homogeneidade nos setores observados, mas denotaram significância estatística.

  20. Variações anuais na produção de frutos e sementes de Castanheira-do-Brasil (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl., Lecythidaceae em florestas nativas de Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Tonini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar as variações anuais na produção de frutos e sementes entre populações e indivíduos em castanhais nativos de Roraima. Os dados foram obtidos em cinco parcelas permanentes de 300 m x 300 m instaladas nos Municípios de Caracaraí e São João da Baliza. Nas parcelas permanentes, todas as castanheiras com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP superior ou igual a 10 cm foram identificadas, medidas e numeradas através de placas de alumínio presas aos fustes por pregos. Durante o período de queda dos frutos (março a julho, as árvores foram visitadas em duas ocasiões no meio e no final desse período, e os frutos contados, abertos e pesados com balança de gancho digital com precisão de 50 g. A produção de frutos e sementes varia entre populações e indivíduos e a maioria não produz frutos todos os anos. No ano de maior produção, um castanhal chega a produzir 52 vezes mais do que em anos de baixa. Nos locais estudados, a produção total concentra-se em um pequeno número de indivíduos com um ano de pico de produção (mast-year.

  1. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  2. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Home > African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...

  3. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  4. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  5. Harvesting systems for the northern forest hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a summary of research results and environmental compliance measures for timber harvesting operations. Data are presented from the Northern Research Station's forest inventory and analysis of 20 states in the northern forest hardwoods. Harvesting systems available in the region today are summarized. Equations for estimating harvesting costs are...

  6. A variação de preposições com verbo ir de movimento em comunidades rurais do semiárido baiano A variação de preposições com verbo ir de movimento em comunidades rurais do semiárido baiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmara Moura de JESUS

    2012-06-01

    ística Variacionista, o presente estudo é direcionado para descrever o fenômeno da variação que envolve as preposições a, para e em introduzidas pelo verbo ir de movimento e analisar os fatores condicionantes (linguísticos e sociolinguísticos do uso dessas preposições. Os resultados apontam indícios de uma mudança praticamente concluída, visto ter-se encontrado apenas seis ocorrências com a preposição a. Dentre as 582 ocorrências que constituem os corpora, destacam-se 418 realizações com a variante para (71% e 164 com a variante em (29%. O programa estatístico Goldvarb 2001 selecionou as variáveis grau de definitude do nome locativo, permanência no local, pessoa do discurso, comunidade, tempo verbal, sexo/gênero, escolaridade, (indeterminação do sujeito e narratividade do discurso como as determinantes na regência variável do verbo ir de movimento.

  7. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  8. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  9. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  10. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-05

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influência da variação da liquidez na precificação de ativos: análise em painel do mercado brasileiro no período de janeiro de 2000 a junho de 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelmara Mendes Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A influência da liquidez para o retorno dos ativos vem sendo amplamente pesquisada nos últimos anos, tanto do ponto de vista dos ativos individuais quanto do ponto de vista da liquidez de mercado. Este trabalho tem por objetivo principal avaliar a influência da variação da liquidez na precificação das ações. Como medidas de liquidez foram utilizadas as variações na quantidade de títulos, na quantidade de negócios e no volume financeiro, bem como estas variáveis ponderadas pelo índice Bovespa e também estas variáveis defasadas. A amostra é composta pelas ações negociadas na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo. Foram coletados dados mensais para o período de janeiro de 2000 a junho de 2008. Os resultados mostraram que o retorno dos ativos é influenciado positivamente pelo retorno do índice Bovespa e pelas variações de liquidez. Geralmente, são as empresas com menores níveis de liquidez que apresentam as maiores variações positivas da própria liquidez e, consequentemente, terão retornos mais elevados.

  12. Case studies: Northern Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Northern Saskatchewan comprises an area of about 350 000 km 2 . In 1951 the population was 11 000 people but by 2003 it was approaching 40 000, of whom about 87% are aboriginal, consisting of either First Nations or Metis people. The first uranium mining area developed in northern Saskatchewan was Uranium City, north of Lake Athabasca. These first mines started production in the early 1950s. Of the 10 producing mines, only Eldorado Nuclear remained in operation after 1965. The development of Uranium City, including better services such as a hospital, drew some aboriginals into the area. There was some aboriginal employment in the early mines but, with few exceptions, these employees only stayed a short time. The mining companies developed training programmes to prepare aboriginals for regular, wage earning jobs. This included lifestyle training such as how to manage personal finances. Further extensive training programmes were required on the job to help these employees become fully contributing members of the workforce, who could advance in their jobs, expand their job opportunities and earnings, and in order to reduce turnover. The question of accommodating mine staff is a complex one, including several options. The first option, a company town, can be developed adjacent to the mine site. It is owned by the company and accommodates everyone who works at the mine and in its service industries. This can result in lower cost accommodation for mine staff with the benefit of no personal capital investment that cannot be recouped after mine closure. The capital cost to the mining company is higher; there is an administrative cost to managing and maintaining many houses, apartments and bunkhouses, and the decommissioning problem at the end of mine life is bigger. Initial developments in northern Saskatchewan were based on the company town concept. At the time there were 25 or more advanced exploration projects in the Uranium City area, 10 of which developed into

  13. Perfil de deformação de embalagens em função da variação da pressão efetiva Package deformation profile as a function of the variation in effective pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Berto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As embalagens metálicas são amplamente utilizadas em processos de esterilização convencional de alimentos, realizados em autoclaves. Devido ao seu material de construção e principalmente ao design do corpo e tampa contendo ondulações, estas embalagens sofrem variação em seu volume interno durante o processamento térmico. A alteração deste volume interno é função da pressão efetiva, que é a diferença entre a pressão interna e externa da embalagem. O conhecimento do comportamento desta variação de volume, denominado de perfil da deformação da embalagem, é importante para a determinação do adequado espaço livre a ser deixado na etapa de enchimento, e para a verificação da necessidade e dimensionamento de uma contrapressão na autoclave durante o processamento térmico, que garanta a integridade da embalagem e eficiência de troca térmica do processo. Este trabalho constou da determinação do ponto de deformação permanente e do perfil de deformação de cinco tipos de embalagens cilíndricas metálicas comerciais, com volumes de 200, 307, 340, 908 e 2700 mL. Funções polinomiais ajustadas aos dados experimentais da variação do volume em função da pressão efetiva apresentaram altos coeficientes de correlação e valores de desvios padrões residuais abaixo de 10%, indicando que as mesmas podem predizer adequadamente este comportamento.Cans are widely used to sterilize food products in retorts using conventional processing techniques. Their construction material and the design of the rippled body lead to changes in the internal volume during thermal processing. This change in internal volume is due to the effective pressure, which is the difference between the pressures inside and outside the package. Knowledge of this variation in volume with respect to the pressure is important for the correct calculations of the package filling, head space, and to determine an appropriate over pressure to guarantee integrity

  14. Variação do potencial total da água em uma toposseqüência de solos de tabuleiro, durante dois anos Total water potential variation in a soil table land topsequence, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Souza

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quinzenalmente, em 1996 e 1997, a variação do potencial total da água ao longo do tempo, em solos de uma toposseqüência de tabuleiro localizada em Sapeaçu, BA. Esta toposseqüência tinha as seguintes características: a comprimento de 190 m; b declividade média de 0,097 m m-1; c cultivo com laranja; d Latossolo Amarelo argissólico coeso, no terço superior; e Argissolo Amarelo coeso, no terço médio; f Argissolo Acinzentado não coeso, no terço inferior. A umidade do solo foi medida com sonda de nêutrons, nas profundidades de 0,30, 0,70, 1,10 e 1,50 m. Com base nas respectivas curvas de retenção, obteve-se o potencial matricial e, em seguida, o potencial total da água, para cada solo, profundidade e tempo. A camada coesa dificulta o fluxo de água no solo, tanto no processo de molhamento como no de secamento. Em conseqüência, o potencial total da água em solos com camada coesa varia bruscamente na camada mais superficial, ao longo do tempo, e mais lentamente nas camadas mais profundas. Em solo não coeso, a variação brusca do potencial ocorre apenas na camada mais superficial. O limite de tensão de água no solo de -1.500 kPa como sendo o ponto de murchamento permanente não se aplica à cultura dos citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate, fortnightly, during 1996/1997, the total soil water potential variation in a tableland topsequence in Sapeaçu county, BA, Brazil. This topsequence had the following characteristics: a length of 190 m; b slope of 0.097 m m-1; c orange as growing crop; d the upper third with a cohesive argisolic Yellow Latosol; e the middle third with a cohesive Yellow Argisol; and f the lower third with a non-cohesive Gray Argisol. Soil water was estimated by neutron probe at depths of0.30, 0.70, 1.10, and 1.50 m. Based on water retention curves, matric potential and, in sequence, total soil water potential were determined, for each soil and depth in

  15. Updating the ranking of the coefficients of variation from maize experiments=Atualização da proposta de classificação dos coeficientes de variação para a cultura do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Moreira Rezende

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to update the ranking of the coefficients of variation (CVs from maize experiments and evaluate the accuracy of the data from the latest Brazilian publications. We rank-ordered the CVs for grain yield, plant and ear heights, number of ears per plant, and weight of commercial ears, except for the weight of 100 grains. The data were obtained from 143 scientific papers published from 2005 to 2010. The classification was based on the average (m and standard deviation (SD and the CVs were ranked as low, intermediate, high and very high. All of the random variables had the CVs normally distributed. For most of the traits, we observed a large difference between the ranks from Scapim and Pimentel Gomes. In summary, the coefficients of variation have to be classified for each variable, significant improvement occurred in the accuracy of the national maize experiments in the last 15 years, and they still require periodic updating.O objetivo desse trabalho foi fazer a atualização na proposta de classificação dos coeficientes de variação (CV para a cultura do milho e avaliar a qualidade dos dados dos artigos mais recentes publicados no Brasil. Os CV das diferentes variáveis aleatórias foram obtidos a partir da consulta de 143 artigos científicos publicados de 2005 e 2010. As faixas de classificação dos (CV foram baseadas na média (m e no desvio-padrão (DP da seguinte forma: baixo; médio; alto; muito alto. Todos os cv das variáveis aleatórias apresentaram distribuição normal. Foi possível observar que para a maioria dos caracteres avaliados houve uma grande diferença entre a classificação proposta e a de Pimentel-Gomes. Houve melhoria significativa na qualidade experimental na cultura do milho para os principais caracteres produtividade de grãos, alturas de planta e espiga, número de espigas por planta e peso de espigas comerciais, sendo a única exceção o peso de 100 grãos. Conclui-se que as faixas

  16. Determinação da variação da viscosidade intrínseca do poli (tereftalato de etileno de embalagens Determination of intrinsic viscosity variation for polyethyelene terephthalate's bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro D. Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de embalagens de poli(tereftalato de etileno -PET- para acondicionamento de refrigerantes, água mineral, sucos concentrados e óleos comestíveis apresenta polímeros de diferentes tipos, que foram desenvolvidos para personalizar o atendimento a clientes desejosos de propriedades melhores e mais específicas, principalmente em termos de massa molar. No caso do PET, assim como na indústria da reciclagem do polímero, o ensaio de viscosidade intrínseca é muito usado para determinar a massa molar. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de viscosidade intrínseca de PET advindo de embalagens de várias marcas de refrigerantes, sucos e óleos de soja. Amostras de cada embalagem foram dissolvidas em solução de fenol-tetracloroetano (60:40 em peso e o fluxo das mesmas em um viscosímetro Cannon-Fenske a 30 °C para medir a viscosidade relativa, que foi convertido para viscosidade intrínseca. Os resultados mostraram uma variação no valor da propriedade conforme se variava o volume, tipo e a marca do produto envasado. Para as 21 amostras analisadas, os resultados variaram de 0,70 a 0,79 dL/g. Portanto, uma melhor seleção das embalagens pode ajudar os recicladores na obtenção de produtos melhores, com menor variação na massa molar. Os valores de densidade obtidos apresentaram uma pequena variação, que torna-se maior quando transformados em cristalinidade.The market of polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles presents polymers of different types, which have been developed in order to provide the client with products with improved properties, mainly in respect of molar mass. In the case of PET, as well as in the recycling industry of this polymer, the test of intrinsic viscosity is widely used to determine molar mass. This study presents the results of intrinsic viscosity and density for PET bottles of soft-drinks, juices and soy-bean oils. Samples of each bottle were dissolved in 60-40 phenol-tetrachloroethane solution and flowed

  17. Novo método de classificação de coeficientes de variação para a cultura do arroz de terras altas A new method of variation coefficient classification for upland rice crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Helena de Araújo Diniz Costa

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação de coeficientes de variação (CV como medida de precisão em experimentos tem sido realizada em diversas culturas, com alguns trabalhos propondo métodos para obtenção de faixas de classificação de CV, e outros trabalhos definindo as faixas de classificação, sempre com base na média e no desvio-padrão dos CVs, e pressupondo que os mesmos têm distribuição normal, o que nem sempre é verdadeiro. Este trabalho teve por objetivo propor um método para definir faixas de classificação de CV, independentemente da distribuição que possam apresentar; o método é baseado no uso da mediana (Md e do pseudo-sigma (PS. Utilizaramse, para este estudo, dados de 110 experimentos com arroz de terras altas, delineados em blocos completos casualizados, blocos incompletos generalizados, e reticulados quadrados, selecionandose os caracteres relacionados às doenças, ao acamamento, ao rendimento de grãos e a alguns componentes da produção. Foram construídas faixas de classificação de CV de cada caráter estudado, de forma geral e considerando o delineamento experimental empregado em experimentos com 30 a 100 tratamentos. O método proposto é eficiente para a definição de faixas dos CVs, independentemente de sua distribuição, e a variação nos valores do CV evidencia a importância de se considerar não só a variável em estudo, mas também o delineamento experimental utilizado. Experimentos que apresentaram menores CVs foram aqueles em que se empregaram os Delineamentos de Blocos Incompletos. As variáveis relacionadas às doenças e ao acamamento apresentam maiores coeficientes de variação.The assessment of coefficients of variation (CV as a measure of precision in experiments has been done for various crops, and some researchers have proposed a methodology to get classification bands of CV, and others defining the classification bands itself; based on the mean and on the standard deviation of the CV, assuming that they

  18. Roman whetstone production in northern Gaul (Belgium and northern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Thiébaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the latest research on the production of Roman whetstones in northern Gaul. To date, little has been written about this specialised industry. However, three workshops producing whetstones were discovered recently in the north of Gaul in Buizingen (Province of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, Nereth (Province of Liège, Belgium and Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne (Department of Ardennes, France. Production debris and rough-outs recovered at these sites allowed us to reconstruct the operational sequence of manufacture, from the choice of raw material to the finished product. Technological studies enabled us to determine the production stages and highlight the similarities and differences between the three study areas. Analyses of the materials reveal the use of fine-grained sedimentary and low-grade metamorphic rocks outcropping near the workshops. All these rocks are linked to the Caledonian inliers of Brabant-London, Stavelot-Venn, and Rocroi. The large amount of waste found at Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne, far more than that recovered at Buizingen and Nereth, is indicative of the economic importance of this whetstone workshop. This importance is reflected in the fact that whetstones from Le Châtelet-sur-Sormonne are distributed over a large area throughout Belgium, France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Picardie and Champagne-Ardenne regions, Germany, and the Netherlands. This paper presents the waste and rough-outs from the three production sites. It also defines rock types and their origins and offers insights into whetstone manufacturing processes and techniques.

  19. Análise das variações florísticas e estruturais da comunidade arbórea de um fragmento de floresta semidecídua às margens do rio Capivari, Lavras-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Josival Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo das variações florísticas e estruturais da comunidade arbórea em um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecídua situado às margens do rio Capivari, em Lavras, Minas Gerais, com o objetivo de analisar as correlações entre variáveis ambientais (edáficas, topográficas e morfométricas do fragmento e a distribuição das espécies arbóreas. Procurou-se, também, ampliar o conhecimento sobre a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica das comunidades arbóreas da região do alto rio Grande. As espécies arbóreas foram amostradas em coletas extensivas na área e intensivas dentro de 28 parcelas de 20 20 m, tendo sido considerados apenas os indivíduos com DAP > 5 cm. As parcelas foram distribuídas em cinco transeções, dispostas paralelamente à inclinação predominante do terreno. As variáveis ambientais foram obtidas por meio do levantamento topográfico do fragmento e de análises químicas e granulométricas de amostras dos solos. As correlações entre distribuição das abundâncias das espécies e as variáveis ambientais nas parcelas foram avaliadas por análise de correspondência canônica (CCA. A listagem florística registrou 166 espécies, sendo 140 encontradas dentro das parcelas. A comunidade arbórea apresentou um elevado índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' = 4,258 nats/indivíduo, correlacionado à baixa dominância ecológica (alta equabilidade de Pielou, J' = 0,862 e, possivelmente, à alta heterogeneidade ambiental local. A CCA demonstrou que a heterogeneidade ambiental do fragmento é caracterizada principalmente pela topografia acidentada e pelas variações de fertilidade, granulometria e regime hídrico dos solos, sendo este último o mais fortemente correlacionado com a distribuição das espécies. Muitas espécies arbóreas mostraram clara preferência por dois habitats: a baixa encosta, com solos mais úmidos e férteis, e a alta encosta, com solos menos úmidos e f

  20. Genetic variations among passion fruit species using rapd markers Variação genética entre espécies de maracujá utilizando marcadores rapd

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    Ana Paula de Andrade Aukar

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been evaluated the genetic variability through the use of RAPD molecular markers on the following passionflower species: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims and its botanical variety P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. In this research work, the analyses of the random amplified polymorphic DNA products (RAPD were employed to estimate the genetic diversity and the taxonomic linkage within the species above. The total of 21 primers were used in this study which generated 270 different polymorphic products. It was possible to detect that the Passiflora species had shown a similarity of 17,3%, and between Passiflora edulis Sims and Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa a similarity of 34,35% has been found. The rate of similarity within edulis specie is low, making it clear that a large variability between the yellow and the purple forms exists.Foram avaliadas as variações genéticas através de marcadores moleculares RAPD, as seguintes espécies de maracujá: Passiflora amethystina, P. caerulea, P. cincinnata, P. coccinea, P. serrato digitata, P. foetida, P. maliformis, P. alata, P. giberti, P. laurifolia, P. macrocarpa, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. suberosa, P. ligularis, P. capsularis, P. edulis Sims e sua variedade botânica P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. Neste estudo, a análise dos produtos da amplificação ao acaso do DNA polimórfico (RAPD foi usada para estimar a diversidade genética e as relações taxonômicas entre as espécies. Foram utilizados 21 "primers", que produziram um total de 270 bandas polimórficas. Verificou-se que as espécies de Passiflora apresentaram uma média de similaridade de 17,3%, e entre Passiflora edulis Sims e Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa, de 34,35%. Pode-se perceber que o valor de

  1. Variação da contagem de células somáticas em vacas leiteiras de acordo com patógenos da mastite Somatic cell counts variation in dairy cows according to mastitis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Souza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de patógenos da mastite sobre a contagem de células somáticas (CCS em leite. Foram coletadas 3.987 amostras de leite de 2.657 animais oriundos de 24 rebanhos leiteiros localizados nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais. As amostras de leite foram usadas para CCS e identificação de patógenos da mastite. Estatísticas descritivas, teste T para amostras independentes e modelo linear generalizado foram usados para análise dos dados. O modelo linear generalizado identificou os efeitos de rebanho, animal dentro de rebanho, ordem de parto, estação do ano e infecção intramamária causada por Streptococcus agalactiae e Streptococcus spp. que não S. agalactiae como significativos na variação da CCS. O efeito de animal dentro de rebanho foi maior que o efeito de rebanho. S. agalactiae foi o patógeno responsável pelo maior aumento da CCS em vacas e apresentou em média 1.520.000 células/mL. Foi observado efeito específico dos patógenos na variação da CCS.The influence of mastitis pathogens on variation of milk somatic cell count (SCC was evaluated. Three thousand nine hundred eighty-seven milk samples were colected from 2,657 dairy cows in 24 herds located in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. The milk samples were used to SCC and identification of mastitis pathogens. Descriptive statistics, T test for independent samples, and generalized linear model were used to data analysis. The generalized linear model identified the effects of herd, animal within herd, parity, year season, intramammary infection, and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus spp. except S. agalactiae as significant on SCC variation. The effect of animal within herd was higher than the effect of herd. S. agalactiae was the pathogen responsible for higher SCC increasing and presented the average of 1,520,000 cells/mL. The specific effect on SCC variation was observed in the study.

  2. Northern star J.S. Plaskett

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, R Peter

    2018-01-01

    Northern Star explores Plaskett's unorthodox and fascinating life from his rural roots near Woodstock through his days as a technician at the University of Toronto to his initiation in astronomy at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa.

  3. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  4. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  5. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  6. Child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Stroecker, B.; Abraha, Z.; Yohannes, M.; Samuel, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Subjects: Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected

  7. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Tilman Bruck

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  8. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Uma Avaliação da Variação da Temperatura da Superfície do Mar durante a Passagem do Furacão Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Carvalho de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho tenta-se observar a variação da temperatura da superfície do mar (TSM durante a passagem do ciclone tropical que atingiu a costa leste do Brasil em 2004, conhecido como furação Catarina, utilizando dados de temperatura da superfície do mar estimado via sensoriamento remoto orbital provenientes de dois sensores nos espectros de micro-ondas e infravermelho termal. Os resultados apontam que houve resfriamento máximo de aproximadamente 2,00o C quando comparados com dados de anos subsequentes ao evento. Além disso, os resultados indicaram, conforme esperado, que durante a passagem do Catarina o resfriamento da TSM realmente ocorreu, atingindo os valores máximos de -1,00o C e -0,99o C quando comparados com a TSM diária do sensor TMI e a composição diária de TSM usando dados dos sensores TMI e AVHRR (via método de interpolação de Barnes, respectivamente. Estimativa de TSM via dados infravermelho pouco contribuiu na análise, enquanto os dados de TSM micro-ondas apresentaram uma razoável capacidade de representar o comportamento qualitativo da TSM durante o evento Catarina. Os resultados estão em conformidade com os encontrados na literatura

  10. Clonal variation within a mucosal isolate derived from a patient with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis infection Variação clonal de um isolado derivado de um paciente com infecção mucosa pela Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Cuba-Cuba

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Three isolates over 5 years from a patient with persistent relapsing mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and 7 clones from one of these isolates were studied by zymodemes and scrodemes analysis. Results showed evidences of clonal phenotypic variation. Eight isoenzymes markers demonstrated clear differences on Cellulose Acetate (CA and thin starch gel electrophoresis. Also a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies showed such differences. Our observations provide additional evidence that Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis is composed by subpopulations of parasites with peculiar biochemical and antigenic characteristics.No transcurso de um período de 5 anos foram estudados 3 isolados de um paciente com leishmaniose mucosa recidivante causada pela Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis e 7 clones de um desses isolados. Este estudo foi feito pela análise dos serodemas e zimodemas. Os resultados indicaram a ocorrência de variações fenotípicas clonais. Oito marcadores isoenzimáticos demonstraram diferenças nos padrões eletroforéticos em Acetato de Celulose (AC, bem como em camada fina de amido. Da mesma forma foram consultadas diferenças em um painel de anticorpos monoclonais específicos e subespecíficos. Nossas observações indicam ainda que a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis está composta por subpopulações de parasitas com características bioquímicas e antigênicas peculiares.

  11. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana na Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro: VI. observações sobre a freqüência horária e variação mensal dos transmissores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estudo da freqüência horária dos principais vetores da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, na Ilha Grande, durante os anos de 1976 a 1977, foram realizadas 4 capturas de 24 horas com isca animal (cão, ao ar livre, e 5 capturas de 24 horas em um único domicilio da área. Observou-se que a espécie Lutzomyia intermedia ocorreu durante todo o período noturno, com densidade constante no domicílio humano, enquanto a espécie Lutzomyia migonei apresentou maiores densidades no período da madrugada, nas capturas com isca animal (cão. Em 156 horas de estudo sobre variação mensal, durante o período de março de 1976 a fevereiro de 1977, a espécie L. intermedia ocorreu durante todo o ano, sendo abril, maio, outubro e dezembro os meses de maior densidade; a espécie L. migonei apresentou-se com baixa densidade, chegando a desaparecer no mês de setembro. As elevadas densidades das espécies L. intermedia e L. migonei indicam-nas como as prováveis vetoras de LTA na Ilha Grande.

  12. Modelos de crescimento resultantes da combinação e variações dos modelos de Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey aplicados em Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Carlos Ramos de Brito

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver novos modelos de crescimento para recursos florestais aplicados à leucena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit], tendo como base as hipóteses biológicas propostas por Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey. O experimento de leucena foi conduzido na Estação Experimental da Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária - IPA, Caruaru, PE. Foram utilizadas 544 árvores de leucena de um experimento com vinte remedições realizadas ao longo de 12 anos. Compararam-se novos modelos de crescimento resultantes da combinação e variações dos modelos de Chapman-Richards e Silva-Bailey, bem como outros comumente usados em recursos florestais. Para a seleção das equações, utilizaram-se o Índice de Ajuste (IA, o erro-padrão da estimativa e a distribuição gráfica dos resíduos. Os resultados indicaram que todos os modelos testados se ajustaram de maneira satisfatória aos dados, podendo ser utilizados para se estimar o crescimento em altura da leucena.

  13. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  14. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  15. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  16. The Maritime Cultural Landscape of Northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Nicolás

    2017-12-01

    This article is a contribution to the study of the indigenous navigation and its boats in the region of northern Patagonia. This article also aims to contribute to the understanding of indigenous navigation practices and technologies and their origins from prehistoric times to the mid-twentieth century. It presents and discusses the concept of Westerdahl's Maritime Cultural Landscape in relation to other landscape concepts. This model is applied to northern Patagonia in order to discuss if it is possible to speak of a true maritime culture in the region. For this purpose, archaeological, historical and ethnographic data are presented in an integrative and innovative methodology for the discipline. Finally, the Maritime Cultural Landscape model will allow the integration of aquatic and terrestrial landscapes as routes traveled by native inhabitants of northern Patagonia and southern Chile, and propose an important and diversified maritime, river and lake tradition.

  17. Accessing northern California earthquake data via Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Neuhauser, Douglas; Bogaert, Barbara; Oppenheimer, David

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides easy access to central and northern California digital earthquake data. It is located at the University of California, Berkeley, and is operated jointly with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Menlo Park, Calif., and funded by the University of California and the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program. It has been accessible to users in the scientific community through Internet since mid-1992.The data center provides an on-line archive for parametric and waveform data from two regional networks: the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) operated by the USGS and the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) operated by the Seismographic Station at the University of California, Berkeley.

  18. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  19. Building Healthy Northern Communities Through Strengthening Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Schmidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines and evaluates the effects of one-time funding on capacity building of health and social welfare organizations in a remote and northern section of British Columbia Canada. The Province of British Columbia awarded a two million dollar grant (Canadian to the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC. Organizations applied for funds through a competitive process that was managed by the School of Social Work at UNBC. Twenty-five different community organizations and agencies received funding for a period of eighteen months. The organizations and agencies delivered a range of services and activities located in remote First Nations communities as well as the natural resource-based single industry towns of northern BC.

  20. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  1. Os sistemas atmosféricos e a variação do tempo em Maringá, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Atmosphere systems and weather variations in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Marcon da Silveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O município de Maringá, atravessado pelas coordenadas de 23º27´S e51º57´W, situa-se no Norte do Estado do Paraná - Brasil. Verifica-se aí acentuada variação do tempo atmosférico, decorrente da alternância de sistemas atmosféricos tropicais e extratropicais. O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar as variações diárias doselementos climáticos à superfície em Maringá e suas relações com os sistemas atmosféricos geradores dos diferentes tipos de tempo que atuaram durante o outono e o inverno de 1996. Objetivou também averiguar as relações entre a atuação da Frente Polar Atlântica (FPA e a pluviosidade local. Elegeu-se o ano de 1996 por apresentar neutralidade em relação aos fenômenos El Niño e La Niña. Esse estudo apoiou-se na concepção dinâmica de clima e na metodologia da análise rítmica. Constatou-se que, durante o período em estudo, todas aschuvas decorreram, direta ou indiretamente, da Frente Polar Atlântica (FPA. Constatou-se também que a pluviosidade esteve mais relacionada com a duração dos sistemas frontais do que com o número de passagens desses sistemas pela região. As temperaturas muito baixas decorreram principalmente das incursões de sistemas polares interiorizados e geralmente ocorreram quando as frentes não promoveram chuva.The municipality of Maringá, 23°27' S and 51°57' W, lies in the north State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Pronounced atmosphere variations are due to alternations in tropical and extra-tropical atmosphere systems. Daily variations of surface climate factors in Maringá and their relationships with atmospheric systems which cause different types of weather during autumn and winter of 1996 have been investigated. The relationship between the activities of the Atlantic Polar Front (APF and local rainfall has also been analyzed. The year 1996 has been chosen because of the absence of the El Niño and LaNiña phenomena. The analysis was based on the dynamic

  2. Variação de terpenos em Hyptis suaveolens e seu papel na defesa contra herbívoros The role of terpene variation in Hyptis suaveolens in the defense against herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Acompanhou-se o desenvolvimento de populações de Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (Labiatae em três localidades paulistas: Horto Florestal de Sumaré, Câmpus da UNICAMP (Campinas e Fazenda Santa Genebra (Distrito de Barão Geraldo, Campinas, em 1981-83. Em cada local, escolheu-se uma população exposta à luz e outra, à sombra, com o objetivo de verificar em que fase do ciclo de vida as populações se tornavam mais suscetíveis ao ataque de herbívoros; de estimar a abundância dos herbívoros naturais e seus efeitos nas populações e a conseqüência da variação química dos monoterpenos que nelas ocorrem sobre os herbívoros. As populações tornavam-se mais suscetíveis aos herbívoros no período que antecedia a floração. Não se observou forte ataque de herbívoros nessa fase, embora se apresentassem em maior densidade. Os resultados sugerem que a variação na composição química possa afetar o desenvolvimento de herbívoros generalistas. No entanto, o Pyrausta insignatalis Guenée (Lep.-Pyralidae-Pyraustinae, provavelmente bem adaptado à planta, parece não ter sido afetado por esses terpenos. Não se detectaram diferenças entre populações expostas ao sol ou à sombra. Tais resultados apóiam a idéia de que a variabilidade química dentro de populações vegetais é importante estratégia de defesa contra herbívoros, dificultando-lhes a especialização.Populations of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit. (Labiatae were accompanied during their development in three sites: Horto Florestal de Sumaré, Campus of UNICAMP (Campinas, and Fazenda Santa Genebra (Distrito de Barão Geraldo, Campinas, all in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1981 through 1983. At each site, a population exposed to full sunlight and another in the shade were studied. The objective was to evaluate, during plant development, the period when they were more susceptible to attack by herbivores; to consider the abundance of herbivores, and the role of variation

  3. Small relief shape variations influence spatial variability of soil chemical attributes Pequenas variações das formas de relevo influenciam a variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Soils with small variations in relief and under the same management system present differentiated spatial variabilities of their attributes. This variability is a function of soil position in the landscape, even if the relief has little expression. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of relief shape and depth on spatial variability of soil chemical attributes in a Typic Hapludox cultivated with sugar cane at two landscape compartments. Soil samples were collected in the intercrossing points of a grid, in the traffic line, at 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths, comprising a set of 100 georeferenced points. The spatial variabilities of pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, cation exchange capacity and base saturation were quantified. Small relief shape variations lead to differentiated variability in soil chemical attributes as indicated by the dependence on pedoform found for chemical attributes at both 0-0.2 m and 0.6-0.8 m depths. Because of the higher variability, it is advisable to collect large number of samples in areas with concave and convex shapes. Combining relief shapes and geostatistics allows the determination of areas with different spatial variability for soil chemical attributes.Solos submetidos ao mesmo sistema de manejo em locais com pequena variação de relevo, manifestam variabilidade espacial diferenciada de seus atributos. Esta variabilidade é condicionada pela posição dos solos na paisagem ou no declive, mesmo que o relevo seja de pequena expressão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência da forma do relevo na variabilidade espacial de atributos químicos em um latossolo cultivado com cana-de-açúcar em dois compartimentos da paisagem. Os solos foram amostrados nos pontos de cruzamento de uma malha, com intervalos regulares de 10 m, perfazendo um total de 100 pontos, nas profundidades de 0-0,2 m e 0,6-0,8 m. Foi avaliado a variabilidade espacial do pH, fósforo (P, potássio (K, cálcio (Ca, magnésio (Mg, acidez

  4. Variação interobservador no diagnóstico histopatológico do carcinoma ductal in situ da mama Interobserver variation of the histopathologic diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Almeida Salles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: fazer avaliação crítica do diagnóstico histopatológico do carcinoma ductal in situ (CDIS da mama empregando a variação interobservador quanto ao diagnóstico, padrão arquitetural predominante, grau nuclear e grau histológico. MÉTODOS: oitenta e cinco casos com diagnóstico inicial de CDIS foram revisados por um mesmo patologista, especialista em patologia mamária, que selecionou 15 casos para análise interobservador. A análise foi realizada por cinco patologistas e um especialista internacional em patologia mamária, que receberam as mesmas lâminas e um protocolo para classificar as lesões em hiperplasia ductal atípica (HDA, CDIS e CDIS com microinvasão (CDIS-MIC. Caso o diagnóstico fosse de CDIS, os patologistas deveriam também classificá-lo quanto ao padrão arquitetural, grau nuclear e grau histológico. Os resultados foram analisados usando-se concordância percentual e o teste kappa. RESULTADOS: houve grande variação diagnóstica interobservador. Em um caso tivemos todos os diagnósticos, desde HDA, CDIS até CDIS-MIC. Usando o teste kappa para a comparação entre os diagnósticos dos cinco observadores e o especialista internacional obtivemos concordância interobservador mínima (PURPOSE: to perform a critical evaluation of the histopathological diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast, through the analysis of interobserver variation related to diagnosis, architectural pattern, nuclear grade, and histological grade. METHODS: eighty-five cases with an initial diagnosis of DCIS were reviewed by the same pathologist, specialist in breast pathology, who selected 15 cases for interobserver analysis. The analysis was carried out by five pathologists and an international expert in breast pathology, who received the same slides and a protocol for classifying the lesions as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, DCIS, or ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvasion (DCIS-MIC. If the diagnosis was DCIS

  5. Radial variation of wood anatomy and basic density of Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. Variação radial da anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated wood samples of five Anadenanthera colubrina trees, aiming to study radial variation of anatomy and basic density. The trees were cut from “lote 5 do Rodoanel trecho sul” in Embu municipality, State of São Paulo, where vegetation is classified as Montane Ombrophilous Dense Forest and climate is classified as Cwa. We cut discs from the diameter at breast height ‒ DBH, and then cut samples from pith-to-bark to anatomical and basic density analysis. The results suggest that Anadenanthera colubrina has a very common anatomical and basic density radial variation pattern from pith-to-bark between hardwoods with an increase in vessel diameter favoring hydraulic conductivity, fiber wall thickness and length, ray height and width, and basic density. While the negative relationship between vessel diameter and frequency is well reported for many species, it has not been observed in A. colubrina because vessel frequency oscillates radially. This typical radial pattern also occurs in other native species in planting conditions, already demonstrated by our group in other studies, obviously with some changes depending on species. Investigamos amostras de madeira de cinco árvores de Anadenanthera colubrina objetivando estudar a variação radial da anatomia e densidade básica. As árvores foram cortadas no lote 5 do Rodoanel trecho sul, no município de Embu, com a vegetação de Floresta Ombrófila Densa Montana e clima do tipo Cwa. Cortamos discos à altura do peito ‒ DAP e destes obtivemos amostras radiais da medula para a casca, destas preparamos amostras para a determinação anatômica e da densidade básica. Os resultados sugerem que Anadenanthera colubrina apresenta um padrão radial de variação bastante comum no sentido medula-casca para as angiospermas arbóreas, com aumento no diâmetro dos vasos, consequentemente condutividade hidráulica, comprimento e espessura da parede da fibra, altura e largura do raio e densidade b

  6. Estudos sôbre reservatórios e vectores silvestres do Trypanosoma cruzi. XXIV. Variação dos dados biométricos obtidos em amostras do T. cruzi isolados de casos humanos da Doença de Chagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferriolli Filho

    1968-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo biométrico de 10 amostras de Trypanosoma cruzi isoladas de casos humanos da doença de CHAGAS, nove mantidas em camundongos brancos jovens e uma mantida em ratos brancos jovens, mostrou a existência de grandes variações amostrais. Assim os valores do comprimento total médio das diferentes amostras variaram entre 16,3μ e 21,8μ., enquanto os valores do índice nuclear médio oscilaram entre 0,93 e 1,52. Êstes resultados ampliam os limites de variações amostrais até agora observadas no T. cruzi, especialmente os que se referem ao índice nuclear médio.

  7. Northern Land Council v. the Commonwealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Ranger Project Area in the Northern Territory contains deposits of uranium. By section 5 of the Atomic Energy Amendment Act (No. 2) 1980 the assignment of an agreement between the Commonwealth and joint venturers for the conduct of uranium mining was authorised. The Northern Land Council, representing Aboriginal interests, challenged the validity of the section. It was held that the section was valid. The Council also submitted that, although it had entered into an agreement with the Commonwealth in 1978, the agreement was void or voidable

  8. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  9. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  10. Variação anual na abertura do dossel, temperatura e umidade do ar no sub-bosque de três ambientes florestais no sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050988445Visando contribuir para o conhecimento dos fatores físicos que afetam a estrutura da comunidade vegetal em remanescentes de mata atlântica do sul da Bahia foi analisada a variação anual do microclima do sub-bosque num fragmento de floresta de encosta na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso (RST e num sistema agroflorestal rústico utilizado para o cultivo do cacau (Cabruca, localizado nas proximidades da RST. Dados da abertura do dossel (CO, da temperatura do ar (Ta, da umidade relativa do ar (RH e do déficit de pressão de vapor (VPD foram coletados entre abril de 2005 e abril de 2006 na base (RSTB, 340 m e no topo (RSTT, 640 m da RST e na Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Dados de precipitação pluvial, Ta, RH e VPD foram também coletados numa área aberta (OA, 270 m. As maiores precipitações (> 100 mm ocorreram em Novembro de 2005 e Abril de 2006, enquanto outubro de 2005 foi o mês mais seco (< 20 mm. CO variou entre 2,5% na CB (Abril, 2006 e 7,7% na RST (Outubro, 2005. Os baixos valores de pluviosidade registrados em Outubro de 2005 afetaram VPDmax em todos os ambientes. Estes efeitos foram mais pronunciados em OA, seguido de CB, RSTB e RSTT. Os valores de Ta, RH e VPD em CB foram mais próximos aos valores observados em OA do que aos valores observados no interior da floresta.

  11. Estudo Sobre a Decomposição dos Determinantes da Variação da Pobreza nos Estados Brasileiros no Período 2001 a 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cabral da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Fundamentando-se nas teorias que procuram relacionar pobreza, desigualdade, crescimento econômico e bem-estar, o objetivo central deste estudo é decompor a variação da pobreza, baseando-se nos seguintes fatores: efeito tendência, efeito crescimento, efeito desigualdade e efeito residual em relação aos estados brasileiros, entre 2001 e 2012. Para tanto, parte-se da estimação de um modelo estatístico com dados em painel, com utilização das seguintes variáveis: pobreza, renda familiar per capita e o índice de Gini, extraídas da PNAD. Em relação ao modelo adotado, é válido destacar que o efeito tendência é uma distinção, uma vez que não foi ainda utilizada em decomposições para área rural, mas apenas para zona urbana. Quanto ao aspecto relativo à redução de pobreza, os resultados encontrados indicam que, na maior parte dos estados, o efeito crescimento se sobressaiu em relação aos demais no período analisado. Não obstante, o efeito distribuição também teve sua importância nesse processo, seguido do efeito tendência. Porém, o efeito residual foi de pouca relevância.

  12. Variação sazonal dos valores de bioquímica sérica de jiboias amazônicas (Boa constrictor constrictor mantidas em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis José da Silva Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p165   Na região Norte do Brasil, as estações do ano não são bem definidas como acontece nas regiões Sul e Sudeste, devido ao clima equatorial quente e úmido, com um período mais chuvoso, conhecido como inverno amazônico, e um período menos chuvoso, conhecido como verão amazônico. Com esta pesquisa, objetivou-se avaliar a variação dos valores bioquímicos séricos de jiboias amazônicas correlacionadas com a sazonalidade da região. Foram realizadas análises bioquímicas séricas (AST, ALT, DHL, FA, cálcio, ácido úrico, fósforo, proteína total, albumina e globulina de 31 serpentes da espécie Boa constrictor constrictor, mantidas em cativeiro. Levando em consideração a variável sazonalidade, observou-se que oito dos dez parâmetros são maiores no inverno em comparação ao verão (proteína total, albumina, globulina, ALT, AST, FA, DHL e cálcio sendo que os valores de ALT, AST e cálcio mostraram ter diferenças estatísticas significantes no verão e inverno amazônicos, enquanto que os demais parâmetros parecem não ser influenciados pela sazonalidade. Esta foi a primeira pesquisa, em cativeiro, analisando o perfil bioquímico sérico serpentes Boa constrictor constrictor no Estado do Pará.

  13. Influência da variação da velocidade de rotação e do tipo de cimento nas propriedades de argamassas de revestimento nos estados fresco e endurecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Torres

    Full Text Available Resumo A etapa de mistura influencia as condições de execução do revestimento de argamassa, visto que desde o primeiro contato dos materiais sólidos com água uma série de eventos de aglomeração e desaglomeração no sistema é verificada. Acontece que durante o processamento das argamassas em obra a utilização de equipamentos com distintos mecanismos de mistura pode modificar o desempenho do sistema de revestimento. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da condição de mistura durante o processamento de argamassas aditivadas com incorporador de ar e formuladas com diferentes tipos de cimento. As misturas foram realizadas em um reômetro rotacional variando-se a velocidade de rotação, porém mantendo-se o tempo total de batimento. Reometria de mistura, ciclo de cisalhamento e teor de ar incorporado foram as propriedades avaliadas no estado fresco, enquanto porosidade, resistência mecânica, módulo de elasticidade e permeabilidade ao ar foram utilizados para avaliação do estado endurecido. Com base nos resultados obtidos pôde-se afirmar que a variação da velocidade de rotação e o tipo de cimento utilizado impactaram as propriedades das composições nos estados fresco e endurecido.

  14. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  15. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H

    1995-10-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals.

  16. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  17. Potato pathogens in Northern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Cooke, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic conditions in Northern and Western (NW) Europe, which are very suitable for the cultivation of potatoes, are also very favourable for a range of diseases of which late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is by far the most important with the potential to cause total crop loss. It

  18. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  19. Placing our northern hardwood woodlots under management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell J. Hutnik

    1956-01-01

    Do you own a woodlot? Does it contain mostly northern hardwoods - that is, beech, birch, maple, and ash, with some hemlock and spruce? If the answers to these two questions are "yes," then you may be interested in the work that is carried on at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. This is one of the field laboratories established by the U. S....

  20. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  1. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  2. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music…

  3. Nursing care after death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-30

    Essential facts According to the Registrar General Annual Report published in August 2016 there were 15,548 deaths in Northern Ireland in 2015, with almost two thirds being of people aged 75 or more. Almost half (48%) occurred in NHS hospitals, with a further 20% in other hospitals or nursing homes.

  4. Trypanosomes of Bufo americanus from northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K; Davis, J S; Slaght, K S

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred one American toads (Bufo americanus) from northern Michigan were examined for blood trypanosomes. Three species, Trypanosoma bufophlebotomi, T. schmidti-like sp. and T. pseudopodia, had prevalences of 27, 16 and 1%, respectively. Cross experimental inoculations showed that T. bufophlebotomi from toads is not the same as T. ranarum found in frogs of the family Ranidae of this region.

  5. Mining and energy in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Included in this book is a section on each of the major minerals of present or future importance to the Northern Territory. Brief details of the uranium mining projects at Nabarlek, Ranger, Koongarra and Jabiluka in the Alligator Rivers regions are given. Subjects such as environmental protection, Aboriginal land rights and the geology of the area are also considered

  6. Deprivation, HIV and AIDS in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-09-28

    physical aggression, deprivation, hunger and family separation, among others, for over twenty years. ... by various types of sexual crimes of rape (including marital rape), defilement and child .... insecurity and civil strife raged in northern Uganda mainly between the government ...... The Daily Monitor of September 28, 2007.

  7. Otological emergencies among the northern Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Acute suppurative otitis media, acute otitis media and foreign body insertion into the ear still constitute the common otological emergencies in Northern Nigeria. These are all preventable emergencies through community health education, training of community health worker to recognize the symptom and signs ...

  8. Ecological units of the Northern Region: Subsections

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Nesser; Gary L. Ford; C. Lee Maynard; Debbie Dumroese

    1997-01-01

    Ecological units are described at the subsection level of the Forest Service National Hierarchical Framework of Ecological Units. A total of 91 subsections are delineated on the 1996 map "Ecological Units of the Northern Region: Subsections," based on physical and biological criteria. This document consists of descriptions of the climate, geomorphology,...

  9. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    vulnerability among pastoralist communities in Mandera and Turkana in Northern Kenya, led by the Kenyan NGO ... to understand how people have experienced droughts and other ... norms and gender roles may make them more or less vulnerable, ... and see direct impacts on the resources they depend on for their.

  10. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine L. Goodale; Michael J. Apps; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher B. Field; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Houghton; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Gundolf H. Kohlmaier; Werner Kurz; Shirong Liu; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Z. Shvidenko

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measurement-based constraints on the magnitude of net forest carbon uptake. We brought together...

  11. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kayhude at the river Alster and Schlamersdorf at the river Trave, both in Schleswig-Holstein, Northern Germany. Measurements on modern materials from these rivers may not give a single reservoir age correction that can be applied to archaeological samples, but they will show the order of magnitude...

  12. The Lemmatisation of Adverbs in Northern Sotho*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    A dictionary should not primarily reflect the attitude of the lexicographer; it should ... ditional focus on the word as representative of the lexicon should be shifted to .... 25. Thirdly, a single glance at the treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dic-.

  13. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  14. Historic Hydroclimatic Variability in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Villanueva-Diaz; J. Cerano-Paredes; D.W. Stahle; B. H. Luckman; M.D. Therrell; M.K. Cleaveland; G. Gutierrez-Garcia

    2006-01-01

    The understanding of historic hydroclimatic variability is basic to plan for a proper management of limited water resources in northern Mexico. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies for climate reconstruction and to analyze the influence of circulatory patterns, such as ENSO. Climatic sensitive treering chronologies were...

  15. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    , followed by structural adjustment programmes and neoliberalism, have all contributed to increasing the inequality between the north and the south. Although Ghana has now joined the ranks of lower middle-income countries, its northern part lags behind, with 22.2% of the population living below the poverty...

  16. Demographic change in the northern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Johnson; Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Forest spans more than 26 million acres across Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. With densely settled urban cores, sprawling suburbs, struggling industrial and forest products towns, fast growing recreational areas, and isolated rural villages, the region includes many of the diverse strands that together compose the demographic fabric of the...

  17. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The indicative series The present tense Principal Identifying pos. lst and 2nd .... na 'man' and morutiši 'teacher' or bohlale 'wisdom' or mpša 'dog' in Table 1, A–C ... (and the compiler of a basic Northern Sotho grammar) to use the user's pre-.

  18. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  19. Seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, T.; Myneni, R.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.

  20. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  1. Discussion on several geological problems and uranium metallogeny on northern border of northern China block (platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong.

    1987-01-01

    According to the informations from the satellite image and the field investigation the following geological events on the northern border of the Northern China Block are recognized and confirmed, duch as suture zones between blocks, folding-reversed fault zones, back-arc collision zones (faulted zones), transitional zone between platform and geosyncline, magmatic are and the double sturcture composed of NNE trend magmatic active belt and fault-depression belts (basins) of Yenshan-Ximalaya age. On thsee bases the following problems, such as the unique structural environment of uranium mineralization related to abyssal magmatic rocks and Yenshan magmatic active zone (including volcanic belt) on the northern border of the Northern China Block, the metallogenetic modes for urnaium deposits of 'magmatic type' and 'neutralized surface type' in fault-depression zone and the classification of uranium metallogenetic belts and the criteria for such classification are studied and discussed. Several uranium deposits are given for illustrations

  2. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...

  3. Executive Summary: Forests of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary provides an overview of the 200-page report, Forests of the Northern United States, which covers in detail current forest conditions, recent trends, issues, threats and opportunities in the forests in the 20 Northern States. It provides a context for subsequent Northern Forest Futures Project analyses that will forecast alternative future...

  4. Músculo pronador redondo: variações anatômicas e predisposição para a compressão do nervo mediano Pronator teres muscle: anatomical variations and predisposition for the compression of the median nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Clóris de Carvalho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O nervo mediano pode ser comprimido em nível de músculo pronador redondo (MPR, resultando na síndrome do pronador redondo. Objetivou-se analisar a constituição do MPR e sua relação com o nervo mediano na dissecação de 100 membros superiores humanos, oriundos de laboratórios de anatomia. Em 72% dos casos, o nervo mediano passou entre as cabeças umeral e ulnar do MPR. Em 15% a cabeça ulnar esteve ausente, com o nervo mediano passando posteriormente a cabeça umeral ou através dela. Em 9% a cabeça ulnar se fez representar por um feixe fibroso. Em 2% o nervo mediano passou através da cabeça ulnar e em 2% através da cabeça umeral, mesmo na presença da cabeça ulnar. Os dados sugerem que as variações na relação músculo/nervo representam fatores potenciais para a compressão do nervo mediano, por tornarem mais restrita a passagem desse nervo no antebraço.The median nerve can be compressed at the level of pronator teres muscle (PTM, resulting in the pronator teres syndrome. This work aim was to analyze the PTM and its relationship with the median nerve. In order to do so, we have dissected 100 human upper limbs from anatomy laboratories. In 72% of the cases, the median nerve passed between the umeral and ulnar heads of PTM. In 15% of the cases, the ulnar head was absent, with the median nerve passing behind the umeral head or through it. In 9%, a fibrous bundle represented the ulnar head. In 2%, the median nerve passed through the ulnar head and in 2% through the umeral head, even in the presence of the ulnar head. The data suggest that the variations in the relationship muscle/nerve represent potential factors for the median nerve compression, for they make the passage for this nerve in the forearm even narrower.

  5. Geographic distribution and morphological variation in Mimon bennettii (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Distribuição geográfica e variação morfológica em Mimon bennettii (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gregorin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied discrete and quantitative data from 88 specimens of the subgenus Mimon previously identified as Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 and M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 from diverse parts of their range. Our data indicate that specimens of Mimon bennetii in Brazil presented geographic variation in morphometrical characters and mosaic variation in qualitative traits. Specimens from the Cerrado biome collected in Brazilian states like Piaui, Tocantins, and Goiás have longer forearms than those distributed in the Atlantic and Amazon forested domains. Based on morphometrics, as showed by t-tests, specimens of M. bennettii from the Brazilian Cerrado resemble phenetically more with M. cozumelae than the M. bennettii from Atlantic Forest. Characters presently used to diagnosis M. cozumelae also were also recorded to M. bennettii in diverse parts of Brazil, making that validity of M. cozumelae questionable based on this kind of traits. This research also updated the geographic distribution to the M. bennettii in Brazil.Foi analisada a morfologia quantitativa e qualitativa de 88 espécimes do subgênero Mimon previamente identificados como Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 e M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 de diversas localidades dentro de sua distribuição. Os dados indicam que os espécimes de Mimon bennetii no Brasil apresentam variação geográfica nos caracteres morfométricos e em mosaico nos qualitativos. Espécimes do bioma Cerrado provenientes dos estados brasileiros do Piauí, Tocantins e Goiás têm antebraço mais longo que os indivíduos dos domínios da Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica. Com base na morfometria aplicando teste t-Student, os espécimes de M. bennettii do Cerrado lembram fenéticamente mais M. cozumelae que M. bennettii da Floresta Atlântica. Os caracteres morfológicos atualmente empregados para diagnosticar M. cozumelae também foram registrados para M. bennettii em diversas áreas do Brasil, tornando a validade de M. cozumelae

  6. Comportamento da laranjeira Piralima sobre Poncirus trifoliata com variações na altura de enxertia Behaviour of Piralima orange on Poncirus trifoliata rootstock as a function of budding height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Sampaio

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se a combinação de laranjeira Piralima, Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. sobre Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. fazendo-se variações nas alturas das enxertias, com operações efetuadas a zero, dez, vinte e quarenta centímetros de altura. Avaliações realizadas após seis anos e meio de implantação do experimento permitiram as seguintes conclusões: 1 as alturas das enxertias afetaram o desenvolvimento global das plantas, com as enxertias mais altas reforçando o efeito ananicante do Poncirus trifoliata; 2 as diferentes alturas de enxertia não afetaram as produções de frutos das três primeiras produções comerciais. Na quarta colheita surgiu diferença entre os tratamentos extremos, com maiores produções acontecendo para plantas enxertadas próximas ao solo; 3 o Poncirus trifoliata induziu características ananicantes às copas e as constantes boas produções de frutos de bom tamanho. Mostrou-se ser porta-enxerto interessante para o cultivar Piralima.The combination Poncirus trifoliata x Piralima acidless orange was studied as a function of the budding height, from zero to forty centimeters. After six and half years of evaluations the results led to the following conclusions: 1 variation in the budding height affected the plant global development: the higher was the budding height, the more intense was the Poncirus trifoliata dwarf effect. 2 variation in budding height did not affect orange yield during the first three commercial harvests. Difference occurred in the fourth harvest, between the extreme treatments, with larger yields for plants budded near to the soil. 3 Poncirus trifoliata induced dwarf characteristics to 'Piralima' stock as well as regular and good yield along the years, and the fruits were classified as high grade. Poncirus trifoliata showed to be an interesting rootstock for the cultivar Piralima.

  7. Variação sazonal no recrutamento de Phragmatopoma caudata (Polychaeta, Sabellariidae na costa sudeste do Brasil: biometria e validação de metodologia para categorização de classes etárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisse Faroni-Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo explora a maturação de gametas e biometria de Phragmatopoma caudata Krøyer in Mörch, 1863 para endossar uma metodologia e oferecer uma técnica adequada para estudos que objetivam avaliar a ecologia populacional. A análise de correlação de Pearson confirmou a relação positiva (r = 0,90, P <0,0001 entre o comprimento do corpo e o comprimento da coroa opercular. Indivíduos com opercular crown < 0,9 mm podem ser considerados como juvenil devido à ausência de gametas. Portanto, utilizando-se o método aprovado para separar as classes de tamanho, a população dos recifes de P. caudata no Parque Estadual Xixová-Japuí (PEJX na Baía de Santos, Estado de São Paulo, foi examinada durante dois anos, com o objetivo de analisar a densidade populacional e o padrão sazonal da classe juvenil. Em período de elevadas taxas de juvenis, a densidade populacional atingiu 128.115 ind./m², porém, a média foi 65.090±22.033 ind./m². As análises estatísticas (Kruskal-Wallis H = 18,475, p < 0,01 revelaram existir variação significativa na composição juvenil entre as estações chuvosa e seca. Apesar da presença de juvenis em meses de seca, as estações chuvosas contemplaram 92,1% dos juvenis amostrados. O padrão de juvenis observado pode estar relacionado com fatores biológicos (e.g. gametogênese e ciclo de vida e abióticos (e.g. suprimento alimentar e correntes marinhas. Estes resultados destacam a necessidade de programas de monitoramento de longo prazo que integrem elementos ecológicos e abióticos, a fim de obter uma compreensão mais completa da ecologia desse poliqueta e ajudar a gerenciar a biodiversidade marinha do PEJX.

  8. Correção de textos e concepções de língua e variação: relações nem sempre aparentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho são identificar conceitos de língua e de variação lingüística subjacentes à correção de textos escolares realizada por professores de língua materna e explicitar a relação entre esses conceitos e a correção/avaliação feita. Para isso, foram analisadas duas redações corrigidas e avaliadas por um grupo de professores em formação continuada, tendo-lhe sido solicitada a justificativa para a nota a elas atribuída. A análise foi baseada em princípios teóricos relativos à formação de professor, correção/avaliação e concepções de linguagem. Os resultados indicam que os professores corrigem, sobretudo, seguindo normas do código, embora ao justificarem suas notas lancem mão de informações discursivo-textuais, demonstrando terem se apropriado de um discurso teórico moderno sobreposto a práticas tradicionais.This paper has two main aims to be achieved. The first one relates to identifying concepts of language and linguistic variety subjacent to school texts correction led by teachers of mother tongue, whereas the second one concerns the elicitation of the relation between those concepts and the correction/evaluation practices adopted by the teachers. For that, two compositions were corrected and evaluated by a group of teachers to be. Afterwards, they were required to justify the grades given. The analysis was based on theoretical principles in relation to teacher training, correction/evaluation practices, and language concepts as well. The results show that although teachers correct compositions based mainly on code rules, during the grades justification phase they refer to discursive information. This implies that despite the fact that they have acquired a modern theoretical discourse, they still adopt traditional corretive practices.

  9. Variação da evapotranspiração de referência calculada em diferentes intervalos de tempo Variation of the reference evapotranspiration calculated for different times interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro J. Back

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Valores de evapotranspiração de referência foram calculados em intervalos de um, cinco, dez, quinze dias e mensal. Foram utilizados dados meteorológicos da Estação Meteorológica de Urussanga - SC (latitude 28°31'S, longitude 49°19'W referentes ao período de 1981 a 2004. A evapotranspiração de referência foi calculada pelo método de Penman-Monteith com base nas médias das variáveis meteorológicas dos diferentes períodos estudados. Observou-se que não houve diferenças significativas nas médias de evapotranspiração calculadas nos diversos intervalos de tempo. No entanto, houve diferenças significativas na dispersão dos valores em torno da média. Para valores diários, foi obtido coeficiente de variação (C.V. entre 30 e 40%, e para valores mensais, variou entre 6% e 12%. Observou-se, também, que os dados de evapotranspiração se ajustaram à distribuição Beta, e assim foram estimados, para cada mês, os valores de evapotranspiração de referência com probabilidades de 5; 10; 25; 50; 75; 90 e 95%.Reference evapotranspiration values were calculated for time interval of one, five, ten, fifteen days and monthly. Meteorological series data from 1981 to 2004 from Urussanga Weather Station (latitude 28°31'S, longitude 49°19'W were used to calculate reference evapotranspiration with Penman-Monteith method with mean of meteorological variables for every time intervals. No difference was observed in average reference evapotranspiration computed in all time steps. However, some difference in variations of data around the average was observed. For daily value, the variation coefficient varies from 30 to 40% and for monthly values de coefficient variation varied from 6 to 12%. It was observed that the reference evapotranspirations adjusted very well to Beta distribution probability, and the reference evapotranspiration with probability of 5; 10; 25; 50; 75; 90 e 95% was estimated.

  10. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana na Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro: VI. observações sobre a freqüência horária e variação mensal dos transmissores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estudo da freqüência horária dos principais vetores da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, na Ilha Grande, durante os anos de 1976 a 1977, foram realizadas 4 capturas de 24 horas com isca animal (cão, ao ar livre, e 5 capturas de 24 horas em um único domicilio da área. Observou-se que a espécie Lutzomyia intermedia ocorreu durante todo o período noturno, com densidade constante no domicílio humano, enquanto a espécie Lutzomyia migonei apresentou maiores densidades no período da madrugada, nas capturas com isca animal (cão. Em 156 horas de estudo sobre variação mensal, durante o período de março de 1976 a fevereiro de 1977, a espécie L. intermedia ocorreu durante todo o ano, sendo abril, maio, outubro e dezembro os meses de maior densidade; a espécie L. migonei apresentou-se com baixa densidade, chegando a desaparecer no mês de setembro. As elevadas densidades das espécies L. intermedia e L. migonei indicam-nas como as prováveis vetoras de LTA na Ilha Grande.For the study of time frequency of the principal vectors of the Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Ilha Grande (Great Island, from 1976 to 1977 we made four catches in 24 hours with animal bait (dog in the outdoors and five catches in just one house of the area. It was found that the species Lutzomyia intermedia occurred during the whole night a steady density in human dwellings, while the species Lutzomyia migonei presented greater density at dawn, in catches with animal bait (dog. in a 156 hours' study on monthly variation, from March 1976 to February 1977, a specie Lutzomyia intermedia appeared during the whole year, the months of April, May, October and December being those of greater density while the specie Lutzomyia migonei had a low density even disappearing in September. The high densities of the species Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia migonei indica te them as the probable vectors of the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilha Grande.

  11. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.; Mac, M.J.; Opler, P.A.; Puckett Haecker, C. E.; Doran, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  12. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  13. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2014-01-01

    The aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland were built under hard conditions, such as harsh climate and scarce resources. Hence, the aisle-truss houses display a number of resource-saving and sustainable building principles, including the arcade construction and the use of passive energy strategies......, which make them relevant to research. This paper investigates resource-saving and sustainable principles in the aisle-truss houses of Thy, Northern Jutland. General features as well as three cases of the one-wing dwelling aisle-truss houses are studied. The aim is to improve the understanding of aisle......-truss houses. Another aim is to suggest strategies for modern sustainable building on the basis of the identified principles in aisle-truss houses....

  14. Uranium and thorium deposits of Northern Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.; Gould, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    This, the second edition of the uranium-thorium deposit inventory, describes briefly the deposits of uranium and/or thorium in northern Ontario, which for the purposes of this circular is defined as that part of Ontario lying north and west of the Grenville Front. The most significant of the deposits described are fossil placers lying at or near the base of the Middle Precambrian Huronian Supergroup. These include the producing and past-producing mines of the Elliot Lake - Agnew Lake area. Also included are the pitchblende veins spatially associated with Late Precambrian (Keweenawan) diabase dikes of the Theano Point - Montreal River area. Miscellaneous Early Precambrian pegmatite, pitchblende-coffinite-sulphide occurrences near the Middle-Early Precambrian unconformity fringing the Lake Superior basin, and disseminations in diabase, granitic rocks, alkalic complexes and breccias scattered throughout northern Ontario make up the rest of the occurrences

  15. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  16. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Northern States Power Company (open-quotes NSPclose quotes) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP's historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future

  17. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  18. Food irradiation - a Northern Ireland dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation is a technology which has been exploited in a wide variety of industries ranging from sterilization of medical products and polymer modification to applications with respect to food. Whilst food irradiation has recently become a controversial subject, the process has been studied for many years. Many products could be irradiated to advantage and these need to be thoroughly investigated before final recommendations can be made as to the commercial feasibility and suitability of the processing technology in the Northern Ireland context

  19. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Mouette, Jean; Legault, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D) movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at http://www.iap.fr/aurora3d

  20. Recent climate changes in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenberth, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of analyzed changes in surface wind stress, sea level pressures and surface temperatures between 1980-86 and previous periods indicates the reality of statistically significant and substantial climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere, especially over the North Pacific, on decadal time scales. Cooling in North Pacific sea surface temperatures and warming along the west coast of North America and Alaska are ascribed mainly to the changes in thermal advection associated with a deeper and more extensive Aleutian Low

  1. Wildfires in northern Siberian larch dominated communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I; Dvinskaya, Maria L; Im, Sergey T; Ranson, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (∼66°N, 100°E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activity in this area, fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated on the basis of burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 to 350 yr with a 200 ± 50 yr mean. For southerly larch dominated communities, FRI was found to be shorter (77 ± 20 yr at ∼ 61°N, and 82 ± 7 at 64°N), and it was longer at the northern boundary (∼71°) of larch stands (320 ± 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th–18th centuries, FRI was approximately twice as long those as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth, and a radial growth increase to about twice the background value (with more than six times observed in extreme cases). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  2. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. annual report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. operates in west-central and northeast British Columbia. The company delivers natural gas to customers through a transmission pipeline connected to Duke Energy system near Summit Lake, British Columbia. This report states that in 2002 financial results were disappointing. The company's net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001 ($4.6 million versus $5.7 million). In December 2002, Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. completed $15 million in financing. Additions to property, plant and equipment reached a total of $6 million in 2002. A new, seven-year contract with Methanex Corporation was successfully negotiated. Pacific Northern Gas Ltd. filed revenue requirements applications with the British Columbia Utilities Commission, seeking the Commission's approval of rates for 2003 and requesting approval of a new deferral account in all divisions. A settlement of the western system 2003 revenue requirements application was negotiated with its customers. The annual report presented a highlight of all activities, including corporate governance and management discussions and analysis. Consolidated financial statements were also provided. tabs

  3. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km 2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m 3 . (author). 1 fig

  4. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  5. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative to the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streletskiy, D. A.; Groisman, P. Y.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Gulev, S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Qi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2004, the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - an interdisciplinary program of internationally-supported Earth systems and science research - has addressed large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental changes over Northern Eurasia and their impact on the Global Earth system. With 40 books and more than 1500 peer-reviewed journal publications to its credit, NEESPI's output can now be used to directly support decision-making for societal needs. Specifically, it was decided to shift gradually the foci of regional studies in Northern Eurasia towards applications with the following major Science Question: "What dynamic and interactive change(s) will affect societal well-being, activities, and health, and what might be the mitigation and adaptation strategies that could support sustainable development and decision-making activities in Northern Eurasia?" To answer this question requires a stronger socio-economic component in the ongoing and future regional studies focused on sustainable societal development under changing climatic and environmental conditions. The NEESPI Research Team has reorganized itself into "Northern Eurasia Future Initiative" (NEFI) and developed a new Science Plan released in June 2016. The Plan underwent a 6-month-long public review and was finalized at the end of 2016. Its description was thereafter split between two review papers: Groisman et al. (2017) and Monier et al. (2017). The first paper describes the Plan rationale and a new set of topical questions. The second paper describes a major modeling approach that will be employed in addressing the "what to do" questions of the NEFI Research (cf., presentation by Monier et al. at this Session). In the current presentation, we outline the new NEFI research foci and present latest NEFI findings including international projects in the Eurasian Arctic, boreal zone, and the Dry Land Belt of Northern Eurasia (cf., also presentations at sister

  6. Variações nos níveis de adiponectina nos pacientes com doença renal crônica: um estudo prospectivo de 12 meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ayako Kamimura

    2012-09-01

    adiponectina (β = -0,04; p = 0,025; R² = 0,21. CONCLUSÃO: A idade, o sexo, a função renal e a gordura visceral estiveram independentemente associados com os níveis de adiponectina nos pacientes com DRC na fase não dialítica. No entanto, a mudança da gordura visceral foi o único preditor das variações nos níveis de adiponectina ao longo de 12 meses.

  7. Variações espaço-temporais no estoque de sementes do solo na floresta amazônica Space-time variations in soil seed stock in an amazon rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwton Leal Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A dispersão eficiente, a longevidade e a capacidade das sementes de permanecer em estado latente a espera de condições adequadas de germinação no banco de sementes do solo da floresta garantem a presença de espécies arbóreas pioneiras nas áreas perturbadas. As variações estacionais e espaciais na densidade e na composição florística do banco de sementes em Florestas Tropicais Úmidas são assuntos ainda pouco compreendidos. Este trabalho verificou a existência de modificações espaço-temporais do banco de sementes presente em áreas de Floresta Tropical úmida localizadas próximas a Manaus, AM. Em cada uma das seis áreas estudadas, foram coletadas 40 amostras circulares de solo superficial (10 cm de diâmetro e 2 cm de profundidade ao acaso. Essas amostras foram coletadas a cada dois meses, entre agosto/2004 e junho/2005,. As amostras de solo foram distribuídas em bandejas em casa de vegetação e a emergência das sementes presentes no solo foi acompanhada por 4 meses. Houve uma redução significativa (H: 14,09, p The dispersion efficiency, longevity and the ability of seeds to remain latent waiting for suitable conditions for germination in the forest soil seed bank ensures the presence of pioneer tree species in disturbed areas. The seasonal and spatial variations in the density and floristic composition of the seed bank in tropical rainforests is a subject still little understood. This work verified the existence of spatio-temporal changes of the seed bank present in areas of humid tropical rain forest located near Manaus, Amazonas. In each of the six study areas, 40 circular samples of topsoil (10 cm in diameter and 2 cm deep were randomly collected every two months, from August 2004 to June/2005. Inside a greenhouse, the collected soil samples were distributed in trays and the emergence of seeds present in the soil was accompanied during four months. There was a significant reduction (H: 14.09112, p <0.05 in the mean

  8. Variações diárias nas excreções de creatinina e derivados de purinas em novilhas Daily variation in the urinary excretion of creatinine and purine derivatives in heifers

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    Thalita Lázaro Leal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as variações nas excreções diárias de creatinina e de uréia na urina utilizando coletas durante seis dias consecutivos em novilhas de origem leiteira; avaliou-se também o efeito da duração do período de coleta sobre a estimativa da produção microbiana obtida a partir dos derivados de purinas na urina. Utilizaram-se onze novilhas de grau de sangue predominantemente Holandês, com 287 ± 49 kg, considerando o grupo de animais como amostra aleatória simples da população. Para comparação entre dias de coletas, empregou-se análise de variância como ferramenta para isolamento do erro puro, adotando-se modelo constituído pelo efeito aleatório de animal e pelo efeito fixo de dia de avaliação. O volumoso foi constituído de silagem de milho fornecida à vontade. Diariamente, foram fornecidos 2,0 kg de concentrado por animal. O período experimental teve duração de seis dias, pois os animais já estavam adaptados à dieta. As coletas de urina foram realizadas utilizando-se sondas de Folley nº 22 ou 26, sendo determinado o volume urinário diário. As excreções urinárias de creatinina, uréia, alantoína, ácido úrico e derivados de purinas totais não foram afetadas pelos dias de coleta de urina. Do mesmo modo, a quantidade estimada de proteína microbiana não diferiu entre os dias de coleta de urina. O valor médio para a excreção de creatinina foi de 30,5 mg/kgPV, 124,84 mg/kg0,75 ou 1,1 mmol/kg0,75. A ausência de efeito de número de dias sobre a excreção de creatinina tem grande aplicação prática, pois, além de reduzir o trabalho com tempos longos de coleta, permite a redução dos custos da pesquisa, podendo ser recomendadas coletas de urina com duração de 24 horas.The objective of this trial was to investigate the daily variation in the urinary excretions of creatinine and nitrogen compounds in dairy heifers. It was also of particular interest to determine whether or not estimation of

  9. Revisão: Polifenóis em cacau e derivados: teores, fatores de variação e efeitos na saúde Review: Polyphenols in cocoa and derivatives: factors of variation and health effects

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    Priscilla Efraim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O número de estudos sobre os polifenóis presentes no cacau tem aumentado consideravelmente nos últimos anos, principalmente relacionando-os aos benefícios à saúde humana. Mais recentemente, alguns trabalhos têm procurado prever o teor de polifenóis em produtos derivados de cacau com base no teor de sólidos desengordurados de cacau (SDC e como o processamento afeta os polifenóis do cacau. As compilações da literatura, em geral, aprofundam os mecanismos dos efeitos benéficos dos compostos fenólicos do cacau no organismo humano. Esta revisão fornece um panorama das principais pesquisas relacionadas aos altos teores de polifenóis presentes no cacau e produtos derivados, bem como aos seus benefícios à saúde. Além disso, busca apresentar aspectos tecnológicos que influenciam o perfil dos compostos fenólicos durante as etapas de processamento. Pelas pesquisas científicas, a destruição dos compostos fenólicos naturalmente presentes nas sementes se dá principalmente nas etapas realizadas para o desenvolvimento do sabor de chocolate, as quais favorecem a diminuição da adstringência e do amargor. Os polifenóis, responsáveis pela capacidade antioxidante do cacau, são drasticamente reduzidos durante a fermentação das sementes e a alcalinização dos nibs e liquors, etapas que envolvem a ocorrência de complexas reações bioquímicas ou uma significativa variação do pH. A produção de chocolate ao leite ou amargo, excluindo o chocolate branco, apresenta um enorme potencial para inovação tecnológica, visto a necessidade da manutenção destes compostos importantes para a saúde, sem prejuízo do sabor agradável, atributo esperado e de grande importância em produtos como o chocolate.The number of studies on cocoa polyphenols has increased significantly in recent years, mainly due to their benefits on human health. Recently, some researchers have studied how to predict the polyphenolic content of cocoa products based

  10. Variação da pressão intraocular após teste submáximo de força no treinamento resistido Intraocular pressure variation after submaximal strength test in resistance training

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    Marcelo Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a variação da pressão intraocular (PIO decorrente da aplicação do teste de predição para uma repetição máxima (1RM. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em estudo observacional 145 calouros (22,04 ± 4,17 anos; de ambos os sexos do curso de Educação Física da Escola Superior de Educação Física de Jundiaí (ESEFJ. Os critérios de exclusão foram: opacidade de meios, alteração de globo ocular ou ausência de globo ocular. Todos os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. A avaliação da PIO foi determinada por duas medidas consecutivas com o tonômetro de Perkins: i pré-teste: antes do teste de 1RM e ii pós-teste: logo após a realização do teste. O teste de 1RM consistiu em predizer o valor de uma repetição máxima através de repetições até a fadiga. Foram utilizados os seguintes exercícios resistidos: supino, pulley dorsal, desenvolvimento, rosca direta e leg press 45º. Como procedimento estatístico foi empregado o teste "t" de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu redução da PIO após a realização do teste de predição de 1RM: 13,48 ± 3,32 vs.10,20 ± 3,72 mmHg (pPURPOSE: To verify the intraocular pressure (IOP after sub-maximal strength test. METHODS: 145 Physical Education freshmen (22.04 ± 4.17 years old; female and male from Superior Physical Education School of Jundiaí (ESEFJ were evaluated in an observacional study. The exclusion criteria were: media opacity and eyeball absence or changes. All subjects agreed to take part in this research and signed up the Informed Consent. IOP was measured by Perkins tonometer: i pretest: just before the submaximal strength test performance and ii post-test: immediately after the strength test. The strength test consisted in the one-repetition-maximum-assessment through repetition until fatigue. Resistance training exercises such as bench press, pulley dorsal high, shoulder press, arm curl and leg press 45º were performed

  11. Variação sazonal nos atendimentos de emergência por asma em Gama, Distrito Federal Seasonal variations in emergency room visits for asthma attacks in Gama, Brazil

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    Laércio Moreira Valença

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar o atendimento por asma em um serviço de emergência público e estudar a flutuação sazonal, considerando as condições climáticas locais, caracterizadas por duas estações, uma chuvosa e úmida e outra seca. MÉTODOS: Levantamento retrospectivo conduzido em um hospital geral comunitário. Um total de 37.642 consultas emergenciais por asma, bronquite, pneumonia, infecções de vias aéreas superiores e outras condições foram identificadas durante um período de dois anos. As informações constantes em cada guia de atendimento foram levantadas para posterior análise. RESULTADOS: Asma foi o segundo diagnóstico mais freqüente dentre as condições respiratórias (24%. A maioria das consultas por asma foi feita em crianças de zero a catorze anos (56,6%. A análise de regressão mostrou uma variação sazonal dos atendimentos, com concentração significativamente maior de casos de asma no mês de março (p = 0,0109 e concentração menor nos meses de agosto e setembro (p = 0,0485 e p = 0,0169, respectivamente. A correlação entre asma e clima foi mais significativa em relação à flutuação da umidade defasada de um e dois meses (p = 0,0026 e p = 0,0002, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: As visitas por asma ao pronto-socorro foram mais freqüentes durante a estação úmida. O aumento do número de casos cresceu um a dois meses após o aumento da umidade e diminuiu no período seco. Essa correlação positiva levanta a possibilidade de uma relação causal com a proliferação de ácaros domésticos e fungos ambientais.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of asthma attacks treated in the emergency room of a public hospital and to study seasonal fluctuations, taking into consideration the local climate, which is characterized by having only two seasons: a rainy/humid season and a dry season. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted in a community general hospital. A total of 37,642 emergency room consultations

  12. Genetic variation and environmental effects on beta-conglycinin and glycinin content in Brazilian soybean cultivars Variação genética e ambiental e teores de beta-conglicinina e glicinina em cultivares de soja brasileiras

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    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine genetic and environmental effects on beta-conglycinin and glycinin content in Brazilian soybean cultivars. The concentrations of these protein fractions were analyzed by scanning densitometry after electrophoresis, in 90 Brazilian soybean cultivars sown in Ponta Grossa, PR, in 2001. The effects of the sowing location were determined in the cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista, sown in 16 locations of Goiás and Minas Gerais states (Central Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5, sown in 12 locations of Paraná and São Paulo states (Southern Brazil, in 2002 soybean season. A significant variability for beta-conglycinin (7S and glycinin (11S protein fractions ratio was observed among the 90 Brazilian soybean cultivars. 'MS/BRS 169' (Bacuri and 'BR-8' (Pelotas presented the highest and the lowest 11S/7S ratios (2.76 and 1.17, respectively. Beta-conglycinin protein fractions presented more variability than glycinin protein fractions. Grouping test classified 7S proteins in seven groups, 11S proteins in four groups, and protein fraction ratios (11S/7S in nine groups. Significant effect of sowing locations was also observed on protein fractions contents. There is a good possibility of breeding for individual protein fractions, and their subunits, without affecting protein content.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da variação genética e ambiental sobre os teores de beta-conglicinina e glicinina em cultivares de soja brasileiras. A concentração dessas frações protéicas foi determinada por densitometria após eletroforese, em 90 cultivares de soja, semeadas em Ponta Grossa, PR, em 2001. Os efeitos dos locais de semeadura foram determinados na cultivar MG/BR 46 (Conquista, semeada em 16 locais de Goiás e Minas Gerais, e na cultivar IAS 5, semeada em 12 locais no Paraná e em São Paulo, em 2002. Foi observada variabilidade significativa quanto à razão entre as frações protéicas da beta

  13. Variaţia compoziţiei chimice a cărnii de iepure de casă în funcţie de vârstă

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    MARDARI Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to its chemical composition, rabbit meat is superior to beef, mutton and pork, as it is relatively low in fat and contains more protein. This paper presents the results of a study on the variation of chemical composition of rabbit meat slaughtered at the age of 2, 4 and 7 months. The initial humidity of the meat is on average 68.28 %, while the hygroscopic humidity in the rabbits slaughtered at the age of 2 months constitutes 3.17 % and it is at the highest level (compared to 2.95 % at the age of 7 months. The dry matter constitutes on average 26.46 % and the organic one - 25.46 %. The highest values of these indices were recorded at the age of 7 months- 31.76 % (dry matter and 31.03 % (organic matter. The highest quality of rabbit meat could be obtained from the age of 2 to 4 months when the ratio between water and dry matter constitutes 3.31/1 and 3,09/1.3.31/1 respectively. Rezumat. După compoziţia chimică, carnea de iepure este superioară cărnii de vită, precum şi celei de oaie sau de porc, conţine puţină grăsime şi relativ mai multă proteină. În acest articol sunt prezentate rezultatele unui studiu privind variaţia compoziţiei chimice a cărnii de iepuri sacrificaţi la vârsta de 2, 4 şi 7 luni. Umiditatea iniţială din carne constituie, în medie, 68,28 %, umiditatea higroscopică la iepurii sacrificaţi la 2 luni constituie 3,17 % şi este la cel mai înalt nivel (faţă de 2,95 % la 7 luni de viaţă. Substanţa uscată constituie, în medie, 26,46 %, iar cea organică – 25,46 %, cele mai înalte valori ale acestor indici înregistrându-se la vârsta de 7 luni – 31,76 % (substanţa uscată şi 31,03 % (substanţa organică. Carnea de iepure este de cea mai bună calitate la vârsta de la 2 la 4 luni, când raportul dintre apă şi substanţa uscată constituie 3,31/1 şi respectiv 3,09/1.

  14. Variação temporal na prevalência do excesso de peso e obesidade em adultos: Brasil, 2006 a 2009 Temporal variation in the prevalence of weight and obesity excess in adults: Brazil, 2006 to 2009

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    Denise Petrucci Gigante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Excesso de peso e obesidade são problemas de saúde pública que atingem parcela importante da população mundial. Este estudo tem o objetivo de descrever as tendências nas prevalências do excesso de peso e da obesidade, no período de 2006 e 2009, obtidas por meio de entrevistas telefônicas em 27 cidades brasileiras com uma população de 18 anos ou mais. O índice de massa corporal (IMC foi calculado a partir do peso e altura referidos; o excesso de peso e obesidade foram definidos por IMC >25 kg/m² e >30 kg/m², respectivamente. A variação temporal das prevalências do excesso e peso e de obesidade é apresentada para homens e mulheres, de acordo com grupo etário, escolaridade, união estável e cor da pele. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada na análise. As prevalências do excesso de peso foram 43,0, 42,7, 44,2 e 46,6%, para cada ano do período de 2006 a 2009, respectivamente. Para obesidade, no mesmo período, foram encontradas as seguintes prevalências: 11,4, 12,7, 13,2 e 13,8%. A tendência temporal variou em relação às variáveis demográficas e econômicas. O aumento nas prevalências ocorreu nas mulheres e entre os mais jovens. A tendência temporal foi independente do estado civil dos entrevistados, mas o aumento nas prevalências ocorreu em mulheres brancas e com menor escolaridade. Os resultados do presente estudo confirmam a urgência da necessidade de medidas efetivas de prevenção e controle, uma vez que a tendência do aumento está ocorrendo em um curto intervalo de tempo, especialmente entre os jovens.Overweight and obesity are public health issues that affect an important part of the world population. This study aims at describing the trends in overweight and obesity prevalence rates from 2006 to 2009, by means of telephone surveys in 27 Brazilian cities, with a population aged 18 years or older. The body mass index (BMI was calculated by the reported height and weight; overweight and obesity were

  15. Variações fenológicas das espécies do cerrado em Emas - Pirassununga, SP Phenological variations of the cerrado species in Emas (Pirassununga, SP

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    Marco Antonio Batalha

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a flora vascular de uma área de cerrado, situada no distrito de Emas, município de Pirassununga, Estado de São Paulo (aproximadamente, 22º02'S e 47º30'W. Entre abril de 1994 e abril de 1995, realizou-se um levantamento florístico, em que foram amostradas 358 espécies. A partir dos dados deste levantamento, estudaram-se as variações fenológicas das espécies, procurando analisá-las como estratégias adaptativas. Os componentes herbáceo-subarbustivo e arbustivoarbóreo comportaram-se de maneira distinta. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas floresceram principalmente no início da estação chuvosa, enquanto que as herbáceo-subarbustivas produziram flores, de modo geral, apenas no final da estação úmida, após período de acúmulo de carboidratos. As espécies do componente herbáceo-subarbustivo tiveram pico de frutificação no final da estação chuvosa, qualquer que fosse a síndrome de dispersão de seus diásporos. Já as espécies do componente arbustivo-arbóreo apresentaram comportamentos distintos, conforme a síndrome de dispersão. As espécies zoocóricas frutificaram ao longo de toda estação úmida, enquanto que as anemocóricas e autocóricas produziram frutos, principalmente no início da estação seca.The vascular flora of the cerrado in Emas district, Pirassununga municipality, São Paulo State (approximately 22º02'S and 47º30'W was studied. Between April 1994 and April 1995 a floristic survey was carried out, when 358 species, representing 227 genera and 78 families, were found. During this survey, the phenologycal variations were observed and analysed as adaptive strategies. The woody and herbaceous components had distinct behaviours. The woody species flowered mainly at the beginning of the rainy season, while the herbaceous ones produced flowers generally at the end of that season, after a period of carbohydrate accumulation. The herbaceous species produced fruits specially at the end of the

  16. Tabagismo e variação ponderal: a fisiopatologia e genética podem explicar esta associação? Smoking and changes in body weight: can physiopathology and genetics explain this association?

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    Raquel Chatkin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é a principal causa de morte prevenível na maioria dos países, inclusive no Brasil. Parar de fumar é uma estratégia importante para reduzir a morbidade e mortalidade associada às doenças tabaco-relacionadas. Sabe-se da relação inversa entre uso de nicotina e peso corporal, onde o índice de massa corporal tende a ser menor em fumantes quando comparados aos não fumantes. Além disso, abstinência tabágica resulta em aumento de peso, sendo que ex-fumantes geralmente aumentam de 5 a 6 kg, mas cerca de 10% adquirem mais de 10 kg. O tratamento farmacológico para a cessação do tabagismo pode atenuar este ganho de peso. O aumento de peso na cessação do tabagismo como contributório à epidemia de obesidade é pouco estudado. Nos EUA, calcula-se que a fração do problema atribuível à cessação do tabagismo seja de 6% para homens e 3,2% para mulheres. Os mecanismos não são claros, mas há evidências mostrando que a dopamina e serotonina diminuem a ingestão alimentar. A administração de nicotina por qualquer via eleva agudamente os níveis destes neurotransmissores no cérebro, causando menor necessidade de ingestão energética e diminuindo o apetite. Além disso, a nicotina tem efeito direto no metabolismo do tecido adiposo, influenciando a taxa de ganho ponderal após a cessação do tabagismo. A leptina, grelina e neuropeptídio Y são peptídeos que podem contribuir para esta relação inversa entre nicotina e índice de massa corporal, em um papel ainda não determinado como conseqüente ou causador das variações ponderais.Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in most countries, including Brazil. Smoking cessation is an important strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco-related diseases. An inverse relationship between nicotine use and body weight has been reported, in which body weight tends to be lower among smokers than among nonsmokers. Smoking abstinence

  17. Nomenclature, variation, and the biological species concept in Lamasina (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini Nomenclatura, variação e o conceito biológico de espécie em Lamasina (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini

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    Robert K. Robbins

    2008-03-01

    Papilio ganimedes Cramer, 1775 é invalidado e um possível síntipo é ilustrado. Os resultados da análise de variação do complexo Lamasina ganimedes diferem significativamente daqueles publicados anteriormente, fornecendo poucas evidências para sustentar a hipótese que L. lathyi (Bálint, 2005 é uma espécie distinta sob o conceito biológico de espécie. Lamasina lathyi é um sinônimo de L. ganimedes syn. nov. A evidência estatística falseia categoricamente a hipótese publicada que os complexos de espécies L. rhaptissima (Johnson, 1991 (14 machos e L. columbia (Bálint, 2005 (8 fêmeas são diferentes e não machos e fêmeas do mesmo complexo. Lamasina columbia é endêmica do oeste da Colômbia. A hipótese de L. rhapsodia (Bálint, 2005, da Bolívia, ser uma espécie válida não está tão bem suportada quanto as hipóteses que consideram o único exemplar conhecido da espécie como uma variante geográfica ou um indivíduo aberrante. Lamasina rhapsodia é um sinônimo de L. rhaptissima syn. nov. Foi observada uma semelhança superficial entre os gêneros Paiwarria Kaye, 1904 e Lamasina referente aos padrões das asas em vista ventral. É apresentada uma checklist para Lamasina.

  18. Causas de variação nos preços de bovinos nelore elite no Brasil Causes of variation in the prices of nelore elite cattle in Brazil

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    João Cláudio do Carmo Paneto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as causas de variação nos preços de bovinos da raça nelore pertencentes a rebanhos de seleção, os quais foram comercializados em leilões, para verificar as influências das avaliações genéticas e dos julgamentos de exterior sobre esses preços. Para tanto, foram computados os preços de venda de 426 bovinos da referida raça em 12 leilões ocorridos em diversas localidades brasileiras (regiões Centro-Oeste, Norte e Sudeste, entre os anos de 2002 e 2005. O valor médio foi de R$ 3.325,49, sendo o mínimo de R$ 1.400,00 e o máximo de R$ 10.500,00. Esses dados foram digitados juntamente com outras informações que eram apresentadas nos catálogos dos leilões. As informações registradas incluíram o sexo de cada animal, o nome do leilão e as DEPs informadas nos catálogos. Além da avaliação da influência das informações dos catálogos, também foi avaliada a influência das informações dos reprodutores, pais dos animais vendidos nos leilões, envolvendo suas DEPs publicadas em um sumário de reprodutores da raça e as pontuações de suas progênies em julgamentos. Os métodos estatísticos aplicados foram análises de variâncias e análises de agrupamento (método K-médias. Como resultado, foi observado que animais com superioridade genética em características relacionadas a desempenho ponderal, considerando-se os efeitos diretos e maternos, foram valorizados ao serem comercializados nos leilões. Em contra-partida, a pontuação dos reprodutores nos julgamentos não teve influência significativa sobre os preços médios de venda de suas progênies nos leilões.This study aimed to understand the causes of variation in the marketing prices of elite flock nelore cattle commercialized by auction, especially to verify the influences of EPDs and visual assessment. The selling prices of 426 animals from the nelore breed commercialized during 12 auctions held in various Brazilian

  19. Variação do teor de umidade e da densidade básica na madeira de sete espécies de eucalipto Variation of the moisture content and specific gravity in the wood of seven eucalypt species

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    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As variações de umidade e da densidade do lenho das árvores são as principais causas dos defeitos de secagem, como o empenamento e fendilhamento das peças de madeira. Os tipos de madeira presentes em um tronco estão relacionados com as variações dessas duas importantes propriedades físicas. Os gradientes de umidade e da densidade da madeira de sete espécies de eucalipto foram avaliados nas direções radial e longitudinal do tronco de árvores recém-abatidas. Os resultados apontaram uma maior homogeneidade de distribuição de umidade dentro das árvores de E. paniculata e E. citriodora, indicada pelos coeficientes de variação e desvio-padrão. O diferencial de umidade da madeira nas regiões internas do tronco de E. paniculata e E. citriodora foi de 20% e de E. urophylla e E. grandis, de 80%. A densidade básica da madeira aumentou na direção radial do tronco, e cada espécie de eucalipto apresentou um modelo de variação.The occurrence of high moisture and density gradients inside of the tree is related with drying defects, especially those characterized by warp and split of the wood. The unequal behavior of wood pieces due to variation of these two properties can be attributed to differences within the wood that constitutes the log. Considering the importance of knowing the moisture and density gradients in eucalyptus trees, this work had as objective evaluating the variations of the moisture content and specific gravity in the radial and longitudinal directions of the trees of seven eucalypts species. Based on the results concerning the moisture distribution inside the tree, there was a great homogeneity in the species of E. paniculata and E. citriodora, sustained by the low values of variation coefficient and standard deviation. In these species, the moisture differential among the inner and outer parts of the log rarely reached 20%, while for the logs of E. urophylla and E. grandis, this diferencial reached 80%. In spite of

  20. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

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    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  1. Seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China

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    Yaqiong Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine theileriosis is a common disease transmitted by ticks, and can cause loss of beef and dairy cattle worldwide. Here, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA based on Theileria luwenshuni surface protein (TlSP was developed and used to carry out a seroepidemiological survey of bovine theileriosis in northern China. Methods We used the BugBuster Ni-NTA His•Bind Purification Kit to purify recombinant TlSP (rTlSP, which was subsequently analyzed by Western Blotting to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pathogen-positive sera. The iELISA method based on rTlSP was successfully developed. Sera from 2005 blood samples were tested with the rTlSP-iELISA method, and blood smears from these samples were observed by microscopy. Results The specificity of iELISA was 98.9%, the sensitivity was 98.5%, and the cut-off was selected as 24.6%. Western Blot analysis of rTlSP confirmed that there were cross-reactions with Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Theileria ovis, Theileria annulata, Theileria orientalis and Theileria sinensis. The epidemiological survey showed that the highest positive rate of bovine theileriosis was 98.3%, the lowest rate was 84.1%, and the average positive rate was 95.4% by iELISA. With microscopy, the highest positive rate was 38.9%, the lowest rate was 5.1%, and the relative average positive rate was 13.7%. Conclusions An rTlSP-iELISA was developed to detect circulating antibodies against bovine Theileria in northern China. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of bovine theileriosis in northern China, and it also provides seroepidemiological data on bovine theileriosis in China.

  2. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  3. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K; Turunen, J; Alm, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  4. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  5. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.

    2013-01-01

    The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe...... were examined for phylogenetic structure. There was no evidence of differentiation, suggesting that these Dreyfusia species have recently diverged or require taxonomic revision. All existing published and unpublished reports on natural enemies of D. nordmannianae in its place of origin were reviewed...

  6. Freshwater reservoir effect variability in Northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, B.; Heinemeier, J.

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect is a potential problem when radiocarbon dating fish bones, shells, human bones, or food crusts on pottery from sites near rivers or lakes. The reservoir age in hardwater rivers can be up to several thousand years and may be highly variable. Accurate 14C dating of f...... that can also be expected for the past. This knowledge will be applied to the dating of food crusts on pottery from the Mesolithic sites Kayhude at the Alster River and Schlamersdorf at the Trave River, both in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany....

  7. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  8. Deep seismic sounding in northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Unger, J.D.; Leith, W.S.; Mooney, W.D.; Solodilov, L.; Egorkin, A.V.; Ryaboy, V.Z.

    1992-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, the former Soviet Union has carried out an extensive program of seismic studies of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, known as “Deep Seismic Sounding” or DSS [Piwinskii, 1979; Zverev and Kosminskaya, 1980; Egorkin and Pavlenkova, 1981; Egorkin and Chernyshov, 1983; Scheimer and Borg, 1985]. Beginning in 1939–1940 with a series of small-scale seismic experiments near Moscow, DSS profiling has broadened into a national multiinstitutional exploration effort that has completed almost 150,000 km of profiles covering all major geological provinces of northern Eurasia [Ryaboy, 1989].

  9. Biogeochemical processes in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaye-Haake, B.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Murty, V.S.N.; Ittekkot, V.

    in the northern Indian Ocean’’, and from national research programs of India and Germany con- ducted as a contribution to the international JGOFS Process Study in the Arabian Sea. Addi- tional contributions cover research carried out within India’s Polymetallic... of coccolithophorids in addition to organic carbon and carbonate con- centrations and accumulation rates for a 200ka record Prabhu and Shankar show that glacial stages 2,4 and 6 have had higher productivities in the eastern Arabian Sea at about 151N. They, moreover...

  10. The Evolution of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. D.

    2001-05-01

    For much of the last 50 million years, high-latitude regions remained too warm to allow snow to accumulate and form ice sheets. Shackleton et al. (1984) published a landmark paper correlating the first occurrence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD) observed at Rockall Plateau with a prominent increase in benthic foraminiferal d18O values during the late Pliocene. These late Pliocene to Pleistocene ice sheets were modulated on an orbital frequency and have characterized the global climate over the past 2.6 myr (Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Shackleton et al., 1984; Ruddiman, et al., 1986). During the early Pliocene, northern hemisphere glaciation (NHG) variations were less significant (Jansen et al., 1993). Our understanding of the Plio-Pleistocene ice sheet cycles can be viewed from two different perspectives. When viewed from the late Pleistocene, the fundamental question is what changed near the early/late Pliocene boundary to produce the large-scale, glacial-interglacial cycles of the past 2.6 Ma. In contrast, the view from the middle to late Miocene is quite different. Since the pioneering work of Shackleton et al. (1984), the record of NHG has been extended further back in time with drilling in the Norwegian Sea (ODP Leg 104). At Sites 642 and 644, IRD was found throughout the late Miocene and back to ~12 Ma. More recent drilling in the high northern latitudes occurred on ODP Leg 151. Site 909 recovered a middle Miocene section from the Fram Straits with rounded quartz grains that were interpreted as IRD (Wolf-Welling et al., 1996). Age estimates for those sediments place the first northern hemisphere ice sheets at least as old as 14 Ma. The occurrence of sand-sized particles (>1000 μm) and coal below this level indicates the possibility of glacial activity in the Northern Hemisphere as early as 16 Ma. Thus, the late Pliocene to Pleistocene cycles appear to be the resumption of the glacial-interglacial pattern that began during the Miocene. While the Miocene ice

  11. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  12. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  13. Variação sazonal do fitoplâncton da região do Saco da Ribeira (lat. 23º30'S; long, 45º07'W, Ubatuba, Brasil Seasonal variation or phytoplankton in the region of Saco da Ribeira (lat. 23º30'S; long. 45º 07'W, Ubatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Sassi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre a variação sazonal do fitoplâncton e clorofila-a foram desenvolvidos na região de Ubatuba, extremo norte do Estado de São Paulo (Lat. 23º30'S, Long. 45º07'W, através de coletas mensais, durante o período de junho de 1974 a setembro de 1975. Foram também avaliados a temperatura da água, salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e transparência. Paralelamente, foram obtidos dados pluviométricos da região, referentes ao período considerado. As amostras destinadas aos referidos estudos foram coletadas verticalmente, em três níveis de profundidade: superfície, profundidade de extinção do disco de Secchi e 60 centímetros acima do fundo. Qualitativamente, as diatomáceas apresentaram-se como o grupo mais diversificado e, em segundo lugar, os dinoflagelados. Quantitativamente, a população fitoplanctônica apresentou-se constituída fundamentalmente por fitoflagelados, seguidos por diatomáceas e dinoflagelados. Cianofíceas e silicoflagelados também estiveram presentes, porém em quantidades muito menores. Excluindo-se os fitoflagelados, as espécies mais representativas da população fitoplanctônica da região foram as diatomáceas Nitzchia closterium, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Navicula sp. e o dinoflagelado Gymnodinium sp. O número máximo de células observado, de um modo geral, ocorreu durante o verão, evidenciado tanto pelas contagens (máximo de 1.028.000 células/litro, como pelas determinações de clorofila-a (máximo de 6,86 µg/1; nesta época, houve um máximo de precipitação pluviométrica e modificação na estabilidade térmica da coluna d'água. Os estudos de fracionamento demonstraram que a fração menor que 20 µm (nanofitoplâncton é a predominante no fitoplâncton total.Seasonal changes in phytoplankton populations in the chlorophyll-a concentration and on some environmental factors were studied monthly from June 1974 to September 1975 at Ubatuba, northern coast of São Paulo. Water

  14. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  15. Sonoma Ecology Center Northern California Arundo Distribution Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from numerous sources, including Arundo...

  16. The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles Brandon; Reid, Janice; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Davis, Raymond; Forsman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The role of competition in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well known from detailed process-based studies. Our understanding of competition's importance at broader scales is less resolved and mainly based on static species distribution maps. Here, we bridge this gap by examining the joint occupancy dynamics of an invading (barred owl: Strix varia) and a resident species (Northern spotted owl: Strix occidentalis caurina) in a 1000 km2 study area over a 22 - year period. Past studies of these competitors have focused on the dynamics of one species at a time, hindering efforts to parse out the roles of habitat and competition and to forecast the future of the resident species. In addition, while these studies accounted for the imperfect detection of the focal species, no multiseason analysis of these species has accounted for the imperfect detection of the secondary species, potentially biasing inference. We analyze survey data using models that combine the general multistate-multiseason occupancy modeling framework with autologistic modeling - allowing us to account for important aspects of our study system. We find that local extinction probability increases for each species when the other is present; however, the effect of the invader on the resident is greater. Although the species prefer different habitats, these habitats are highly correlated at the patch scale and the impacts of invader on the resident are greatest in patches that would otherwise be optimal. As a consequence, competition leads to a weaker relationship between habitat and Northern spotted owl occupancy. Colonization and extinction rates of the invader are closely related to neighborhood occupancy, and over the first half of the study the availability of colonists limited the rate of population growth. Competition is likely to exclude the resident species both through its immediate effects on local extinction, and by indirectly lowering colonization rates as Northern

  17. The roles of competition and habitat in the dynamics of populations and species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackulic, Charles B; Reid, Janice; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Davis, Raymond; Forsman, Eric

    2014-02-01

    The role of competition in structuring biotic communities at fine spatial scales is well known from detailed process-based studies. Our understanding of competition's importance at broader scales is less resolved and mainly based on static species distribution maps. Here, we bridge this gap by examining the joint occupancy dynamics of an invading species (Barred Owl, Strix varia) and a resident species (Northern Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis caurina) in a 1000-km study area over a 22-year period. Past studies of these competitors have focused on the dynamics of one species at a time, hindering efforts to parse out the roles of habitat and competition and to forecast the future of the resident species. In addition, while these studies accounted for the imperfect detection of the focal species, no multi-season analysis of these species has accounted for the imperfect detection of the secondary species, potentially biasing inference. We analyzed survey data using models that combine the general multistate-multi-season occupancy modeling framework with autologistic modeling, allowing us to account for important aspects of our study system. We found that local extinction probability increases for each species when the other is present; however, the effect of the invader on the resident is greater. Although the species prefer different habitats, these habitats are highly correlated at the patch scale, and the impacts of invader on the resident are greatest in patches that would otherwise be optimal. As a consequence, competition leads to a weaker relationship between habitat and Northern Spotted Owl occupancy. Colonization and extinction rates of the invader are closely related to neighborhood occupancy, and over the first half of the study the availability of colonists limited the rate of population growth. Competition is likely to exclude the resident species, both through its immediate effects on local extinction and by indirectly lowering colonization rates as

  18. Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the bivalve Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758 on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were studied in Perna perna from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena and Ponta do Retiro on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State by ICP-AES. The average concentration was 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd; 1.9 ± 0.6 (Cr; 6.1 ± 0.7 (Cu; 1,130 ± 113 (Fe; 22 ± 3.2 (Mn; 9.3 ± 4.6 (Ni; 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb; 44 ± 5.8 (Zn µg.g-1 dry weight. There were no significant difference for almost all the studied metals in relation to sex. Although, significant spatial variations (p Este trabalho descreve as concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn em Perna perna das praias de Barra do Furado (BF, Buena (B and Ponta do Retiro (PR na costa Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As concentrações dos metais foram determinadas em ICP-AES. As concentrações médias foram 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd; 1,9 ± 0.6 (Cr; 6,13 ± 0.7 (Cu; 1.130 ± 113 (Fe; 22 ± 3,2 (Mn; 9.3 ± 4,6 (Ni; 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb; 44 ± 5,8 (Zn µg.g-1 de peso seco. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos metais, em relação ao sexo. Variações espaciais significativas (p < 0.05 ocorreram para Cr, Pb e Ni com os maiores valores em BF. Variações temporais significativas (p < 0.05 ocorreram nas três praias, contudo, nenhuma tendência sazonal de acumulação foi observada. As concentrações dos metais foram similares aquelas áreas descritas sob baixo impacto de poluição por metais pesados, exceto para o Fe, cujos altos valores provavelmente estão associados a presença de substratos locais ricos em óxido de Fe.

  19. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Radioactivity in Northern Ireland soils - December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.W.K.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the survey was to establish the radionuclide content of permanent pasture soils. The extent of contamination from the Chernobyl accident was also studied with the use of Cs-134 as an indicator of Chernobyl fallout. A preliminary radiological assessment was performed by referring to the generalised derived limits. Results of the grassland grid survey show that Chernobyl-derived radiocaesium was widely spread throughout Northern Ireland with the exception of the East Coast where the deposition was more localised reflecting the showery-rainfall pattern on the 3rd May 1986. Accumulation of Chernobyl material showed a high correlation with rainfall on that day, which resulted in a substantial increase in Cs-137 levels compared to estimated pre-Chernobyl concentrations in many areas. The main areas affected lay in a band across the country from the North East to the South with a smaller incursion to the North. The plutonium content in soils from Northern Ireland arising from nuclear weapons fallout was similar to levels found in other surveys completed in Great Britain before Chernobyl. (author)

  1. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  2. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  3. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  5. Variações diárias nas excreções de creatinina e derivados de purinas em novilhos Daily variation in the excretion of creatinine and purine derivatives in steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Lázaro Leal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar as variações nas excreções diárias de creatinina, uréia e derivados de purinas (DP na urina utilizando coletas durante seis dias consecutivos e avaliar as concentrações de nitrogênio uréico no plasma (NUP em novilhos. Utilizaram-se quatro animais, machos castrados, de grau de sangue predominantemente Holandês, peso médio de 445 kg, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 x 4, com os tratamentos definidos em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dois níveis de uréia em substituição ao farelo de soja: 0 e 100%; e dois níveis de oferta de concentrado: 0,75 e 1,25% do PV e a comparação entre dias de avaliação, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. O volumoso, constituído de silagem de capim-elefante (80% e silagem de sorgo (20%, foi fornecido à vontade. A síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos, estimada a partir da excreção de DP, foi maior quando houve maior oferta de concentrado e menor quando a proteína do farelo de soja foi substituída pela uréia. Não houve efeito da interação níveis de concentrado ´ níveis de uréia nem efeito de níveis de uréia sobre a concentração de NUP e a excreção de N-uréico na urina. As excreções urinárias de uréia, alantoína, ácido úrico e a quantidade estimada de proteína microbiana não foram afetadas pelos dias de coleta de urina. Não houve diferença na excreção de creatinina entre os dias de coleta, sendo obtido valor médio de 25,47 mg/kgPV, 117,92 mg/kg0,75 ou 1,04 mmol/kg0,75. A ausência de efeito de número de dias sobre a excreção de creatinina tem grande aplicação prática. Na estimativa da excreção de creatinina e de derivados de purinas, recomendam-se coletas de urina com duração de 24 horas.The objective of this trial was to investigate the daily variation in the urinary excretions of creatinine, urea and purine derivatives (PD as well as the plasma concentration of urea-N (PUN in steers. Four castrated Holstein steers averaging 445 kg

  6. Variação na temperatura do solo em três sistemas de manejo na cultura do feijão Soil temperature variation in three different systems of soil management in blackbeans crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Rodrigues da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A temperatura do solo é uma propriedade que afeta diretamente o crescimento das plantas e é influenciada pelo balanço de energia na superfície do solo. Dessa maneira, os sistemas de manejo do solo têm efeito na temperatura, visto que alteram as condições da superfície do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito de três sistemas de manejo na temperatura do solo durante todo o ciclo do feijoeiro. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com os seguintes preparos do solo: plantio direto há sete anos (PD; plantio direto revolvido por uma aração e uma gradagem (PDar e plantio direto revolvido por escarificador (PDesc, distribuídos em quatro blocos. O solo do experimento é classificado como Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico. A temperatura do solo foi determinada durante todo o ciclo do feijoeiro, realizando-se leituras a cada 10 min, em um sistema automatizado de coleta de dados, com sensores do tipo termopar (cobre-constantan, instalados na profundidade de 0,025 m e a 0,10 m. Foram determinadas a densidade do solo e a produtividade do feijoeiro. Durante todo o ciclo do feijoeiro, o PD apresentou a menor temperatura máxima e a menor amplitude diária entre os sistemas de manejo. Na profundidade de 0,025 m, o PDar apresentou temperatura máxima de 42,2 °C, o PDesc de 43,7 °C e o PD de 36,1 °C. A variação diária da temperatura do solo num dia com 12 h de sol, no início do desenvolvimento das plantas (02/12/2002, indicou que a maior temperatura ocorreu próximo às 15 h, com valores de 40 ºC, no PDar, e 30 ºC, no PD, na profundidade de 0,025 m. Quando as plantas sombreavam o solo, não houve diferenças na temperatura do solo entre os sistemas de manejo. As diferenças na temperatura do solo não provocaram diferenças na produtividade de grãos do feijoeiro, haja vista que os maiores efeitos da temperatura do solo ocorrem na germinação e emergência das plântulas.Soil temperature is a

  7. Variações nos métodos de aplicação dos herbicidas Diuron e Tripluralin na cultura do algodoeiro Methods of application of the herbicides Diuron and Trifluralin in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Alves

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos das variações nos métodos de aplicação dos herbicidas Diuron e Trifluralin na cultura algodoeira, para verificar sua eficiência no combate às ervas daninhas. O tratamento Trifluralin aplicado em pré-plantio incorporado, provocou excelente combate às ervas daninhas gramíneas, porém irrisória redução da população das dicotiledôneas. A aplicação de Trifluralin em pré-plantio incorporado e a de Diuron em pré-emergência, aumentaram consideravelmente a área de contrôle nos dois grupos de ervas más. O tratamento Diuron aplicado em pré-emergência foi bastante efetivo no combate às ervas de "fôlhas largas", enquanto que no combate às gramineas não foi tão eficiente. O incorporação do Diuron, aplicado em pré-plantio, não aumentou a eficiência do produto químico. A redução da dose de Diuron em pré-plantio incorporado ou em pré-emergência não proporcionou combate adequado às ervas más.1 - An experiment to study the various modalities of the application of the herbicides diuron and trifluralin in cotton plantings was carried out in purple latosol soil, Chapadão series. The two herbicides were applied in various doses and at different times. The most common weeds in the trial area were capim pé-de-galinha (goosegrass, capim carrapicho (sandbur, capim colchão (crabgrass, beldroega (purslane, carraplcho de carneiro, and poaia. 2 - The effectiveness of diuron (1.60 kg/ha, applied pre-planting, was not increased by incorporation into the soil. The control of weeds was efficient, but the yield was inferior to that of plots without incorporation. Of the weeds that survived the treatment, a predominance of grass species was noted. Some of the cotton leaves turned yellow in plots that received this herbicide, but this chlorosis was temporary and the plants regained their normal color within a few weeks. The tolerance of cotton for the treatments did not appear to be affected by the method of

  8. Variação do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria central da retina durante as diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório Central retinal artery blood flow variation during menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Viana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência vascular da artéria central da retina, por meio do fluxo Doppler, nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional, longitudinal e prospectivo com avaliação de 34 mulheres saudáveis, submetidas a estudo dopplerfluxométrico do fundo do olho para avaliação da resistência vascular da artéria central da retina nas posições sentada e deitada, durante quatro fases do ciclo menstrual: fase folicular inicial, fase folicular média, fase periovulatória e fase lútea média. A confirmação da ovulação no ciclo de estudo foi feita pela dosagem de progesterona sérica na fase lútea média. Foram avaliados os índices de pulsatilidade (IP e de resistência, e as velocidades máxima, mínima e média. RESULTADOS: a idade média foi de 29,7 anos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os índices obtidos para ambos os olhos; assim, utilizamos as médias dos índices para realizar o cálculo estatístico. Quando comparadas às posições de realização do exame, detectou-se um IP maior na posição sentada; assim, as análises foram avaliadas em separado, respeitando-se a posição da paciente. O IP da artéria central da retina, avaliado com a paciente deitada, variou durante o ciclo menstrual, apresentando-se significativamente mais baixo nas fases folicular média (1,5±0,3 e periovulatória (1,5±0,3 quando comparadas às fases folicular precoce (1,7±0,4 e lútea média (1,7±0,4. Quando a avaliação foi feita com a paciente sentada não foram observadas diferenças para as diferentes fases do ciclo. CONCLUSÕES: num ciclo menstrual ovulatório ocorre diminuição da resistência vascular na artéria central da retina e posterior reversão do efeito, como demonstrado pelas variações do IP.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vascular blood flow of the central retinal arteries using dopplervelocimetry in the different phases of the ovulatory menstrual cycle. METHODS: we performed

  9. Variações genéticas em populações de Eucalyptus spp. detectadas por meio de marcadores moleculares Genetic variations in Eucalyptus spp. genotypes detected by means of molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pereira Caixeta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia de marcadores moleculares, aliada às técnicas clássicas do melhoramento, pode contribuir significativamente para o conhecimento básico da cultura e do caráter estudado e para a geração e o desenvolvimento de produtos melhorados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar marcadores RAPD para detectar e maximizar a variabilidade genética em genótipos Eucalyptus, identificando cruzamentos favoráveis para um programa de melhoramento florestal, visando o uso múltiplo. Foram analisados 44 genótipos de híbridos naturais do gênero Eucalyptus, plantados na região noroeste de Minas Gerais. Os marcadores moleculares RAPD apresentaram poder de discriminação eficiente entre os 44 genótipos avaliados, constatando-se uma distância genética média entre os genótipos de Eucalyptus de 54% e divergência genética variando de 24 a 73%. Este fato indica que entre os indivíduos analisados existe uma ampla base genética, o que possibilita a manipulação desse material em programas de melhoramento. A distância genética entre os genótipos 5 e 9; 9 e 10; 9 e 19; 9 e 25; 9 e 33; 9 e 35; 9 e 36; 9 e 44; 10 e 33; 12 e 19; 12 e 33; e 12 e 39 apresentou-se maior ou igual a 70%. A análise de agrupamento estabelecida, utilizando UPGMA e o critério de corte de 80% da distância genética total, permitiu a formação de nove grupos distintos. Esses grupos apresentaram divergência genética média superior a 60%. A maior média de distância ocorreu entre o grupo I e os demais, com 67%. A avaliação por marcadores moleculares RAPD forneceu uma identificação direta da variação genética dos genótipos e, neste sentido, novos cruzamentos para produção de híbridos específicos poderão ser gerados, aumentando, assim, a divergência genética e a produtividade de derivados de madeira de qualidade superior para usos múltiplos em programas de melhoramento florestal.Molecular marker technology combined with the classic breeding techniques

  10. Free and total GMP (glycomacropeptide contents of milk during bovine lactation Variação dos teores de GMP (glicomacropeptídeo livre e total no leite bovino durante a lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Furlanetti

    2003-12-01

    dos problemas sanitários concentrou-se próximo ao parto, com poucas e espaçadas ocorrências de mastites clínicas. Os resultados do teste de CMT mostraram reações compatíveis às fases da lactação. Para o GMP livre as maiores variações ocorreram em função do período de lactação e em conseqüência de mastites clínicas e subclínicas. Valores elevados foram observados no início da lactação (5,87mg de ácido siálico/L de leite, normalizando para valores próximos de 3,30mg/L já ao final do segundo mês e voltando a elevar-se no terço final da lactação. Em média, as mesmas tendências foram observadas para o teor de GMP total liberado pela ação de coalho comercial, iniciando com valores ligeiramente elevados (35,59mg/L, tornando-se normal e assim se mantendo até o sexto mês com valores próximos a 27,15mg/L, e novamente elevando-se gradualmente até o final da lactação, com 58,35mg de ácido siálico/L de leite. Esses resultados mostram-se úteis para a correta interpretação de métodos aplicados à seleção do leite, seja em relação ao "status" proteolítico da matéria-prima ou mesmo para coibição de fraudes por adição de soro ao leite.

  11. Uranium Stakeholder Engagement in Northern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggitt, P., E-mail: p.waggitt@iaea.org [Darwin, NT (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Uranium has been mined in the Northern Territory of Australia more or less continuously since 1949. Most of these mines have been located on Aboriginal land, although in many cases Native Title has only been recently established and the rights of the Traditional Owners finally acknowledged. In earlier days consultation with the Traditional Owners was generally unheard of and few sites were rehabilitated when mining ceased. However, leading practice in modern mining, including uranium mining, requires that these two issues are paid particular attention, whether it be for development and operation of current mines or the remediation of legacy sites. The paper presents two brief case studies in relation to stakeholder engagement developed in the Alligator Rivers Region uranium field of Australia’s Northern Territory. The subject of the first case study, the South Alligator valley, was subject to intensive prospecting and exploration which resulted in the development of 13 small uranium mines between 1955 and 1964. The operations were abandoned and the area returned to being a cattle ranch. In 1987 the valley lay within an area that was incorporated into the World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park. In 1996 the Gunlom Land Trust, an association of traditional owners, was granted native title to the area under the Commonwealth’s Northern Territory Land Rights Act (1976). The new owners immediately leased the land back to the Commonwealth Government for continued use as a National Park. A condition of that lease was that all former mine sites and associated workings would be rehabilitated by 2015. The paper describes the comprehensive consultation process involving all stakeholders that was developed for this programme; and goes on to describe the programme of remediation works to date and the situation as of 2009. The second case history deals with the consultation process developed by one Government agency as it works with Traditional Owners and other

  12. The Lemmatization of Copulatives in Northern Sotho *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: For learners of Northern Sotho as a second or even foreign language, the copulative system is probably the most complicated grammatical system to master. The encoding needs of such learners, i.e. to find enough information in dictionaries in order to actively use copulatives in speech and writing, are poorly served in currently available dictionaries. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatization problems regarding copulatives in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. It will be illustrated that the maximum utilisation of macrostructural and microstructural strategies as well as the mediostructure is called for in order to reach this objective. Prerequisites will be to reconstruct the entire copulative system in a user-friendly way, to abstract the rules governing the use of copulatives and to isolate the appropriate lemmas. The treatment of copulatives in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be critically evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATIZATION, COPULATIVES, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, ACCESS STRUCTURE, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, CROSS-REFERENCING, MEDIOSTRUCTURE, DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGES

    Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho. Vir aanleerders van Noord-Sotho as tweede of vreemde taal is die kopulatief waarskynlik die mees komplekse grammatiese sisteem om te bemeester. Die enkoderende behoeftes van sulke aanleerders, dit is om genoegsame inligting in woordeboeke te verkry ten einde kopulatiewe in spraak en skrif aktief te kan gebruik, word nie bevredig in beskikbare woordeboeke nie. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om oplossings aan die hand te doen vir die lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van kopulatiewe in Noord-Sotho en om gidsinskrywings voor te hou wat as modelle kan dien vir

  13. Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Motorcycles are the most popular means of transportation in northern Ghana, and their accidents are major causes of out-patient attendance and admis-sions in the Bolgatanga Municipality. Objective: This paper estimates the economic burden of motorcycle accidents in the Bolgatanga Municipality in Northern ...

  14. Conflicts in Northern Ghana: Search for Solutions, Stakeholders and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Northern Ghana that have drawn national attention, most of which were/are violent. It ... analysis of four case studies on the northern Ghana conflicts. ...... It will also be necessary to consider sponsorship of research and studies in ... more important to keep communications flows and avoid the creation of suspicion and.

  15. ACHP | Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Publications arrow Intro: Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern New Mexico Perspectives Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Northern information Heritage tourism offers a triple benefit to communities—it promotes the preservation of their

  16. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  17. Silvicultural guide for northern hardwoods in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Robbo. Holleran

    2014-01-01

    This revision of the 1987 silvicultural guide includes updated and expanded silvicultural information on northern hardwoods as well as additional information on wildlife habitat and the management of mixed-wood and northern hardwood-oak stands. The prescription methodology is simpler and more field-oriented. This guide also includes an appendix of familiar tables and...

  18. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, A.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Herzke, D.; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, van J.A.; Gabrielsen, G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate

  19. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic

  20. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "extra" as the learner's active vocabulary is reinforced during look-up activities. As pointed out by Potgieter (2012: ... become part and parcel of the Northern Sotho vocabulary. Through this the dictionary is ..... ising the acquisition and fostering of a deeper knowledge of Northern Sotho in the future. In the words of Landau ...

  1. Northern Sotho grammatical descriptions: the design of a tokeniser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since Northern Sotho uses the disjunctive method of writing, it creates difficulties for the morphological analyser to correctly analyse Northern Sotho verbs. In order to overcome this obstacle a tokeniser, which could isolate verbs from raw texts, needs to be created. The verbal element a ka be a se a re šadišetša 'he had not ...

  2. Adverbial descriptions in Northern Sotho | Pretorius | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Important language strategies, such as the use of auxiliary word groups and ideophones in expressing adverbial meanings are, to a great extent, neglected in most popular Northern Sotho grammars. Owing to the fact that in most cases, no one-to-one lexical equivalence exists between Northern Sotho and for instance ...

  3. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentiles) nesting in south central Wyoming consumed at least 33 species of prey; 14 were mammals and 19 were birds. Based on percent occurrence in regurgitated pellets, dominant (>10% frequency) prey species included: red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus; present in 50% of pellets), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus; 34...

  4. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  5. The Lemmatisation of adverbs in northern Sotho | Prinsloo | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, ...

  6. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  7. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern Nigeria. VA Pam, DA Dakul, COE Onwuliri. Abstract. This study investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in calves from Jos, Northern Nigeria. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from the calves, recruited for an all year ...

  8. An Analysis of the Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oxford Bilingual School Dictionary: Northern Sotho and English (De Schryver 2007) is a welcome addition to dictionaries that have been compiled for school use in particular. Its novelty and appeal lie in the fact that the lemmas and Northern Sotho mini-grammar are based on a corpus of general language usage and ...

  9. APPLE MANGO VALUE CHAIN IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA: CASE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-03

    Sep 3, 2015 ... This study, conducted in Mereb-Leke district of Tigray, Northern ... development agencies, donors and NGOs are ... Apple Mango Value Chain in Northern Ethiopia: Case Study of Mereb-Leke District. 17 ... of the districts in the Tigray Regional State of ... city, Axum and Rama town, respectively and 5 and.

  10. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12717-002] Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of Meeting: Thursday, January 26, 2012 from 11... Meeting: Commission staff will meet with Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving...

  11. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Male Infertility in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the perceptions of male infertility in northern Botswana and their implications for efficacious family planning and AIDS prevention programmes in the country. HIV rates are rapidly increasing in northern Botswana and it is estimated that nearly 30% of the population are infected. A significant factor in ...

  12. Ground use by northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourthé, Italo M C; Guedes, Danusa; Fidelis, Janaína; Boubli, Jean P; Mendes, Sérgio L; Strier, Karen B

    2007-06-01

    Many arboreal primates descend to the ground, a custom that may occur more frequently in disturbed habitats, and in the presence of researchers to whom the primates are habituated. In this paper, we describe opportunistic observations of ground use in two groups of northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Members of both groups were observed drinking, resting, feeding, playing, and traveling on the ground to different degrees, and variation in the levels of habituation of the two groups may be responsible for the differences in the distribution of their terrestrial activities. The potential increase in vulnerability to predation or disease owing to ground use has implications for the conservation of this critically endangered species. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Distribution of TPM in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wängberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Iverfeldt, Ake; Sommar, Jonas

    2003-03-20

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) in air has been measured during five 2-week campaigns at five measurement sites in Northern Europe. The measurements covered four seasons and the result constitutes a unique TPM data set from this region. Evidence for transport of TPM on a regional scale is reported as well as the historical trend of TPM in south of Sweden. All TPM measurements were made using a new mini particulate sampler. The device consists of a quartz fibre filter contained in a quarts glass filter holder and is a modified version of the MiniSamplr. This approach proves to be reliable and more cost efficient in comparison to alternative methods. Tests made to evaluate the performance of the sampler in terms of precision and comparability with sampling on Teflon membrane filters are also reported.

  14. Land use in the northern Coachella Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, J. B.; Bowden, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery has proved to have great utility for monitoring land use change and as a data source for regional planning. In California, open space desert resources are under severe pressure to serve as a source for recreational gratification to individuals living in the heavily populated southern coastal plain. Concern for these sensitive arid environments has been expressed by both federal and state agencies. The northern half of the Coachella Valley has historically served as a focal point for weekend recreational activity and second homes. Since demand in this area has remained high, land use change from rural to urban residential has been occurring continuously since 1968. This area of rapid change is an ideal site to illustrate the utility of satellite imagery as a data source for planning information, and has served as the areal focus of this investigation.

  15. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  16. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  17. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  18. {sup 137}Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barisic, D; Lulic, S; Vdovic, N; Vertacnik, A [Center for Marine Research - Department Zagreb, ' Ruder Boskovic' Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Juracic, M [Department of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1996-01-01

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. {sup 137}Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for {sup 137}Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher {sup 137}Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  19. 137Cs in northern Adriatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Vdovic, N.; Vertacnik, A.; Juracic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs in shallow northern Adriatic sediments was obtained on the basis of measurement results from 25 sediment box cores, sampled during the Adriatic Scientific COoperation Program (ASCOP) 16 cruise in the summer 1990. 137 Cs was determined in surface sediments (0-3 cm) and 12-15 cm-deep sediment. It was found that the lowest caesium concentrations correspond to sands, which are spread along the Croatian coast. Parallel to the Italian coast, 137 Cs concentrations in pelites are the highest. It seems that the influence of Po River is significant for 137 Cs activities in recent marine sediments along Italian coast south of Po River delta. Significantly higher 137 Cs activities in 0-3 cm sediment layer can be attributed to the deposition caused by Chernobyl accident. (author)

  20. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets....... There are no large differences in applied coping strategies across the region, but district-level data demonstrate how local strategies differ between localities within the districts. The results emphasize that in order to target rural policies and make them efficient, it is important to take into account the local...

  1. Carbon monoxide budget in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakwin, P.S.; Tans, P.P. (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)); Novelli, P.C. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1994-03-15

    To improve urban air quality the major industrialized nations of the West took steps during the 1970s and 1980s to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automobiles and other industrial sources. Overall, CO/CO[sub 2] emission ratios from the mix of fossil fuel combustion sources have been reduced by about half during 1976-1990. Also, the tropospheric abundance of hydroxyl radical (OH), which is the main sink for CO, is proposed to have increased globally by about 1.0 [+-] 0.8% yr[sup [minus]1]. The authors use a simple two-box model to examine the impact of shrinking emissions and increasing OH on the global abundance of CO. They find that these factors contribute about equally in reducing CO levels in the Northern Hemisphere troposphere by about 1.8 [+-] 0.8 ppb yr[sup [minus]1] on average. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, D.G. [Yellowknife, North West Territories (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  3. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  4. Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and northern plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurela, A; Punkkinen, R

    1981-01-01

    Convincing quantitative data have recently been published about the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by certain plants. Several qualitative pieces of evidence were found suggesting similar ability in northern plants. The volume fraction of NO/sub 2/ in the air, Phi, was measured at Kevo (70/sup 0/N, 27/sup 0/E). The Saltzman method was used, with a continuously recording detector, especially developed for measurements below the usual analytical limit of this method (0.005 ppm). The systematic error of Phi was estimated to be less than 50%. In general, Phi did not vary much with time. However, when the recorder of the atmospheric electric field at the adjacent Meteorological Station of Kevo once rose up to 4 times the normal value, the Phi-curve simultaneously rose momentarily. By using the measured value of anti-Phi, the annual uptake of NO/sub 2/-nitrogen by plants in the region of Kevo was estimated to be about 0.1 g(N)m/sup -2/ for a canopy of pines and lichens, and about 0.001 g(N)m/sup -2/ for plants at the tops of low mountains. In terms of dry weight of lichens, the uptake rate would be of the order of 0.1 ..mu..g(N)h/sup -1/ (g dry weight)/sup -1/, based on independent measurements. These amount are of the same order of magnitude as the yields of biological nitrogen fixation by lichens in corresponding conditions. A direct experimental study of the uptake of atmospheric NO/sub 2/ by northern plants seems very desirable and readily feasible.

  5. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  6. Aerosol pollution over Northern India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas.

  7. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  8. Variação temporal de características morfológicas de folhas em dez espécies do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, Macaé, RJ, Brasil Temporal variation of morphological leaf traits in ten species from Restinga of Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Henrique Pimentel Rosado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ordenar espécies em relação a um contínuo de variação de características foliares pode ser útil para inferir sobre a suscetibilidade de uma comunidade a alterações na disponibilidade de recursos e/ou condições ambientais ao longo do tempo. Dez espécies lenhosas de restinga foram acompanhadas quanto à variação temporal de atributos morfológicos foliares. Folhas de dez espécies de restinga foram coletadas nos meses de fevereiro, abril e agosto ao longo de três anos para caracterização da variação temporal da massa de folha por unidade de área (MFA, suculência (SUC, espessura (ESP e densidade (DEN. As espécies apresentaram uma tendência de valores mais elevados para as características estudadas nos meses mais secos. A partir da comparação sazonal e interanual da MFA, SUC, ESP e DEN sugerimos que a natureza das respostas das plantas à heterogeneidade temporal na disponibilidade de água foi convergente, independentemente do padrão fenológico de produção foliar e filogenia. Portanto, a similaridade observada entre as espécies na dinâmica temporal dos atributos foliares indica a disponibilidade hídrica como um fator determinante para o sucesso na ocupação das planícies arenosas costeiras do norte fluminense.Ranking species in relation to a continuum of leaf-trait variation can be useful to infer community susceptibility to changes in resource availability and/or environmental conditions over time. Leaves of ten woody restinga species were sampled in February, April and August over a period of 3 years to characterize temporal variability of leaf mass per area (LMA, succulence (SUC, thickness (THI and density (DEN. The species showed a trend toward higher leaf-trait values in dry months during the three-year study. Based on seasonal and interannual comparison of LMA, SUC, THI and DEN we suggest that plant responses to temporal heterogeneity in water availability were convergent, independent of leaf phenological

  9. Classificação de coeficientes de variação na experimentação com nutrição de eqüinos Classification of the coefficient of variation in experimentation with equine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Q. Lana

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a classificação de coeficientes de variação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibras em detergente neutro e ácido, energia bruta, fibra bruta, celulose, hemicelulose, lignina, extrato etéreo e ganho de peso diário, com base em artigos científicos e teses em eqüinocultura. Os coeficientes de variação foram classificados em: baixo [(m+2DP]. Todas as respostas medidas apresentaram distribuição normal pelo teste Lilliefors. Quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro e celulose, houve concordância entre a classificação proposta e a sugerida na literatura, sendo os mais discrepantes os coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia bruta e lignina. Desse modo, para cada variável analisada existe distribuição diferenciada dos coeficientes de variação, o que sugere a necessidade de classificação específica para as respostas medidas em nutrição de eqüinos.Coefficients of variation (CV distribution for several variables in equine nutrition were obtained. The data are from theses and published scientific papers in equine nutrition. The CV were classified as low [CV£(m-1sd]; medium [(m-1sd(m+2sd]. The Lilliefors test for all variables showed no discrepancy from normal distribution. The distributions obtained for coefficients of digestibility for cellulose and fibre in neutral and acid detergent, were close enough to the classification suggested in the literature. However, the distributions for coefficient of digestibility for gross energy and lignin, showed high discrepancies from this classification suggesting that trial precision should be evaluated according to the variable considered. There is a different distribution for coefficients of variation for each variable suggesting the need of specific classification for each characteristic in equine studies.

  10. Variação anatômica radial do lenho de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata e sua influência na densidade aparente. Radial variation of wood anatomy in açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata and its influence on the specific gravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Variações entre as dimensões e frequênciasdas células da madeira existem entre espéciesdiferentes, entre indivíduos da mesma espécie ouainda dentro da mesma árvore nas direções radial eaxial. Essa variação influencia diretamente nadensidade aparente e consequentemente no uso dasdiferentes madeiras. O presente estudo determinoua variação anatômica radial e sua influência nadensidade aparente no lenho de árvores de Luehea divaricata, a partir de amostras coletadas no DAP,por meio de método destrutivo. Para a avaliaçãoanatômica e da densidade aparente foram empregadastécnicas usuais em anatomia e propriedades físicasda madeira e os dados tratados estatisticamente.Os resultados revelaram que o diâmetro dos vasos,espessura da parede das fibras e a densidadeaparente foram significativamente menores na regiãoda medula, já o lume das fibras foi significativamentemaior nesta região, que também apresentou raiosmais volumosos. Sugere-se que fibras com paredesmais finas e raios com maior volume na região damedula contribuíram de forma determinante paraos menores valores de densidade aparente.Variations between the size and frequencyof the wood cells occur among differentspecies, trees of the same species or even withinthe same tree in the radial and axial directions.These variations affect directly the specific gravityand consequently the use of different woods.This study determined the radial anatomicalvariation and its influence on specific gravity ofthe wood of Luehea divaricata trees, from samplescollected on DBH by using destructive method.For the evaluation of anatomical characteristicsand specific gravity were employed standardtechniques in anatomy and physical propertiesof wood and the data analyzed statistically.The results revealed significantly lower vesseldiameter, fiber wall thickness and specific gravityin pith, fiber lumen was significantly higher inthis region, which also showed very large rays.It is suggested

  11. Atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas isoladas do Capim-Marandu e suas variações em função do pH Allelopathic activity of chemical substances isolated from Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and their variations in function of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas pela Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e determinar as variações na atividade dessas substâncias em função da variação do pH da solução. A atividade alelopática foi realizada em bioensaios de germinação e desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo, utilizando as plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia como receptoras. Os efeitos do pH foram analisados na faixa de 3,0 a 9,0. Os triterpenos pentacíclicos friedelina e epifriedelinol isolados da parte aérea de B. brizantha apresentaram baixa atividade inibitória na germinação de sementes e no desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das duas plantas daninhas. As duas substâncias apresentaram comportamento diferenciado em relação à variação do pH da solução, com inibições mais marcantes em relação à planta daninha mata-pasto.This work aimed to isolate, identify and determine the allelopathic activity of the chemical substances produced by Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and to verify the effects of the pH in the solution on the activity of these compounds. The allelopathic activity was evaluated based on germination bioassays and radicle and hypocotyl growth using the species 'malícia' (Mimosa pudica and 'mata-pasto' (Senna obtusifolia as receptors. The effect of pH was analyzed in a range from 3.0 to 9.0. The pentacyclic triterpenes friedelin and epifriefelinol isolated from the shoots of B. brizantha showed a low inhibitory activity against seed germination and radicle and hypocotyl growth of the two receptor plants evaluated. The pentacyclic triterpenes friedelin and epifrifelinol presented differentiated behaviors in relation to the pH variation in the solution, with stronger inhibition activity against the weed 'mata-pasto'.

  12. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  13. Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Z.; Casadio, S.; Fernández, M.; Salgado, L.

    2001-04-01

    During the Campanian-Maastrichtian, Patagonia was flooded by the Atlantic and reduced to an archipelago. Several localities of northern Patagonia have yielded marine reptiles. Analysis of several assemblages suggests that the diversity and abundance of pelagic marine reptiles in northern Patagonia was higher by the end of the Cretaceous than previously thought. Several plesiosaurids, including Aristonectes parvidens and the polycotylid Sulcusuchus, and the first remains of mosasaurinae have been found. The Cretaceous marine reptile record from South America is scanty. Nevertheless, materials described here suggest that Tethyan and Weddelian forms converged in northern Patagonia, as seen with invertebrates.

  14. Radon in dwellings in Northern Ireland. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.; Lomas, P.; O'Riordan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of radon made in some 1500 dwellings throughout Northern Ireland by the autumn of 1993 show that the average concentration is 19 Bq m -3 with some values up to fifty times higher. Around 30 of these dwellings are above the Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 adopted by the Government. Data are presented in considerable detail and various forms. Several hundred dwellings in Northern Ireland are estimated to exceed the Action Level, most of which are in a separately designated Affected Area in the southeast. Recommendations are made to promote the discovery and remedy of dwellings above the Action Level throughout Northern Ireland. (author)

  15. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  16. WIND SPEED Monitoring in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygina, O.; Korshunova, N. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The wind regime of Russia varies a great deal due to the large size of the country's territory and variety of climate and terrain conditions. Changes in the regime of surface wind are of great practical importance. They can affect heat and water balance. Strong wind is one of the most hazardous meteorological event for various sectors of economy and for infrastructure. The main objective of this research is to monitoring wind speed change in Northern Eurasia At meteorological stations wind speed and wind direction are measured at the height of 10-12 meters over the land surface with the help of wind meters or wind wanes. Calculations were made on the basis of data for the period of 1980-2015. It allowed the massive scale disruption of homogeneity to be eliminated and sufficient period needed to obtain sustainable statistic characteristics to be retained. Data on average and maximum wind speed measured at 1457 stations of Russia were used. The analysis of changes in wind characteristics was made on the basis of point data and series of average characteristics obtained for 18 quasi-homogeneous climatic regions. Statistical characteristics (average and maximum values of wind speed, prevailing wind direction, values of the boundary of the 90%, 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed) were obtained for all seasons and for the year as a whole. Values of boundaries of the 95% and 99%-confidence interval in the distribution of maximum wind speed were considered as indicators of extremeness of the wind regime. The trend of changes in average and maximum wind speed was assessed with a linear trend coefficient. A special attention was paid to wind changes in the Arctic where dramatic changes in surface air temperature and sea ice extent and density have been observed during the past decade. The analysis of the results allowed seasonal and regional features of changes in the wind regime on the territory of the northern part of Eurasia to be

  17. Florística e variação espaço-temporal de macrófitas aquáticas em reservatórios de abastecimento da Bacia do Rio Iguaçu, PR, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Suelen Cristina Alves da

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Macrófitas aquáticas são estruturadoras do ecosistema proporcionando a ciclagem de nutrientes na coluna d'água, além de promover abrigo à fauna aquática. Contudo, a poluição aquática pode promover a intensa proliferação dessas plantas causando efeitos deletérios ao meio aquático além de encarecer os custos com manutenção de turbinas e grades de segurança em reservatórios. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar um levantamento florístico e estudo ecológico da variação espaço-temp...

  18. Demanda energética e eficiência da distribuição de sementes de milho sob variação de velocidade e condição de solo Seeder energetic demand and distribution efficiency of corn seeds under speed variation and soil condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Mahl

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a demanda energética e a eficiência da distribuição de sementes de uma semeadora-adubadora para semeadura direta, submetida à variação de velocidade e condições de solo, na semeadura da cultura do milho. O estudo foi desenvolvido em um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico, na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, no município de Botucatu - SP. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições, combinando-se três velocidades de deslocamento (4,4; 6,1 e 8,1 km h-1 e duas condições de solo (solo manejado sob sistema de plantio direto há cinco anos e solo preparado com escarificador há 18 meses. Avaliaram-se a força de tração, a potência na barra de tração, o consumo de combustível, a capacidade de campo efetiva, a distribuição longitudinal de plantas, o coeficiente de variação, o índice de precisão e o número de plantas por hectare (estande inicial. Os resultados revelaram que, aumentando-se a velocidade de 4,4 para 8,1 km h-1, consegue-se aumentar em 86% a capacidade operacional, com incremento de 96% na demanda de potência na barra de tração e redução de 26% no consumo operacional de combustível. A maior velocidade (8,1 km h-1 proporcionou menor porcentual de espaçamentos normais e aumento no porcentual de espaçamentos múltiplos e falhos, maior coeficiente de variação e pior índice de precisão. A variação da velocidade não interferiu no número de plantas por hectare.This work evaluated the energetic demand and distribution efficiency of corn seeds in a no-till seeder when submitted to travel speed and soil condition variation. The study was developed in a soil classified as Ultissoil, at Fazenda Experimental Lageado, Botucatu Country, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized block with eight repetitions, being the treatments a combination of three displacement speeds (4.4; 6.1 and 8.1 km h-1 and two soil conditions (soil

  19. Efetividade do aconselhamento nutricional da Pastoral da Criança sobre a variação de hemoglobina entre menores de seis anos de idade Effectiveness of nutritional counseling provided by the Children's Mission on hemoglobin variation in under-six children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iná dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a efetividade do treinamento das líderes da Pastoral da Criança em aconselhamento nutricional sobre a variação da hemoglobina entre menores de seis anos, foi realizada uma intervenção comunitária. Por sorteio, uma das duas áreas de ação da Pastoral da Criança em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi selecionada e as líderes treinadas (Grupo Intervenção. A outra área constituiu o Grupo Controle. Após consentimento, a mãe foi entrevistada sobre a família, saúde e alimentação da criança. A hemoglobina foi medida com fotômetro portátil ao ingressar no estudo e após seis meses. O desfecho foi a variação da hemoglobina, da primeira para a segunda medida. Ingressaram 183 crianças intervenção e 179 crianças controle, comparáveis quanto ao sexo, idade, características ao nascer, aporte de ferro e nível médio de hemoglobina. Na análise ajustada, a variação no grupo intervenção foi 0,18 ± 0,27g/dl maior do que no controle. Embora a diferença entre os grupos não fosse estatisticamente significativa, a variação foi positiva no grupo intervenção e negativa no grupo controle, sugerindo benefício do treinamento.A community intervention was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of leadership training in the Children's Mission (of the Brazilian Catholic Church for providing nutritional counseling on hemoglobin variation in children less than six years of age. Two areas of activity by the Children's Mission in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were randomly selected and the leaders in one were trained (intervention group. The other area constituted the control group. After providing consent, mothers were interviewed concerning the family and the child's health and eating. Hemoglobin was measured with a portable photometer upon entry into the study and at six months. The outcome variable was hemoglobin variation between the first and second measurements. The study included 183 intervention

  20. Comparação da reposição volêmica aguda guiada por variação de pressão de pulso e por metas convencionais  de ressuscitação em modelo suíno de choque hemorrágico com endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Noel-Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: A fluidoterapia é o tratamento de primeira linha para pacientes em choque hemorrágico ou choque séptico para restauração do volume circulante e da perfusão tecidual, mas diversas questões relacionadas a este tópico permanecem em debate, particularmente em relação às metas de ressuscitação representadas por variáveis fisiológicas a serem atingidas. A variação de pressão de pulso (VPP) já foi proposta como índice confiável para predição de fluido-responsividade em pacientes sob vent...

  1. Solar energy in the Northern Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuikom, M.; Ndjomaha, Ch.; Vandenbergh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Cameroon Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has initiated a research project for studying the promotion of renewable energies and their impact on rural development. This work has been realized jointly with the department of Economy and Rural Development of the Agronomic University of Gembloux (Belgium), the Centre Des Etudes de L'Environnement et de Developpement du Cameroun (CEDC, Maroua) and the Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET, Germany). This initiative comes when the electricity sector in Cameroon has been facing important changes (Privatization of the national company of electricity, creation of a rural electrification agency, multiplication of the dialogues and seminars around the strategies of promotion for renewable energies, frequent black-outs during the dry season). The first objective of the project is to contribute to a better knowledge of the situation of the use of renewable energies in Cameroon. Therefore, Mrs Marthe Djuikom undertook from July to September 2003 a socio-economic survey on the use of solar energy in the northern Cameroon. The next step will be the creation of an energy program at the CEDC with the following tasks: promotion of photovoltaic technology, support of local and international synergies on the organisational aspects, training, information and coordination of reflexions at the local level for the promotion of rural electrification projects. (authors)

  2. Cryptostroma corticale in the northern Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria OLIVEIRA LONGA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptostroma corticale was observed on declining trees of Acer pseudoplatanus L. at Montovolo, a mountain site located in the northern Apennines, Italy. Morphological and biomolecular analyses confirmed the presence of the fungus in affected trees, which has not yet been officially described as occurring in Italy. No damage by the pathogen was observed on other species of Acer in the affected area, while drought–related decline symptoms were present on Quercus pubescens and Ostrya carpinifolia near the affected site, confirming the possible role of climate and especially repeated drought periods in the appearance of the problem. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  3. Environmental factors along the Northern Sea Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjeld, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Northern Sea Route runs ca 5,600 nautical miles across the top of Russia from Murmansk to Vladivostok, and includes half of the Arctic basin. An environmental impact assessment is needed for this route because of the potential for commercial shipping to disturb the vulnerable Arctic environment along the route. For example, Russian development of oil and gas resources in the area served by the route is expected to rise dramatically in the near future. Drilling in the route area offshore has already begun, and potential blowouts or tanker spills are of concern. A pilot study on the environment along this route was conducted in 1990/91, focusing on a study of the literature and communications with Russian scientists working on Arctic ecology. Existing data seem to be insufficient and generally only cover the westernmost and easternmost parts of the route. A five-year research plan is proposed to provide an inventory of Arctic species in the route area and levels of contaminants present, to assess the environmental sensitivity of the area, and analyze impacts that increased shipping might have on the environment. Protection measures will also be suggested. 1 fig

  4. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  5. Nurse teacher stress in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P; Houghton, D M

    1993-08-01

    Occupational stress among a 60% sample of all nurse tutors in Northern Ireland was investigated by means of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Maslach Burnout Inventory and a stress questionnaire. Seventy per cent of tutors judged themselves to be worse or much worse than usual on 45% of GHQ items. Significant levels of moderate and high burnout were discovered on the sub-scales of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, with an almost unanimous (95%) report of high burnout arising out of feelings of lack of personal accomplishment. Male nurse tutors reported more frequent and more intense signs of burnout than their female counterparts at a statistically significant level of difference in emotional exhaustion (P = 0.028 and P = 0.003 respectively) and in depersonalization (P work stressor most commonly identified by tutors (72%) was that of experiencing too little time to perform their duties to their satisfaction. The most common request for help to alleviate workplace stress (61%) was for more support and appreciation from their seniors.

  6. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan H Hurowitz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale.We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90% confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast.Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  7. Virtual Northern analysis of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Evan H; Drori, Iddo; Stodden, Victoria C; Donoho, David L; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-05-23

    We applied the Virtual Northern technique to human brain mRNA to systematically measure human mRNA transcript lengths on a genome-wide scale. We used separation by gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization to cDNA microarrays to measure 8,774 mRNA transcript lengths representing at least 6,238 genes at high (>90%) confidence. By comparing these transcript lengths to the Refseq and H-Invitational full-length cDNA databases, we found that nearly half of our measurements appeared to represent novel transcript variants. Comparison of length measurements determined by hybridization to different cDNAs derived from the same gene identified clones that potentially correspond to alternative transcript variants. We observed a close linear relationship between ORF and mRNA lengths in human mRNAs, identical in form to the relationship we had previously identified in yeast. Some functional classes of protein are encoded by mRNAs whose untranslated regions (UTRs) tend to be longer or shorter than average; these functional classes were similar in both human and yeast. Human transcript diversity is extensive and largely unannotated. Our length dataset can be used as a new criterion for judging the completeness of cDNAs and annotating mRNA sequences. Similar relationships between the lengths of the UTRs in human and yeast mRNAs and the functions of the proteins they encode suggest that UTR sequences serve an important regulatory role among eukaryotes.

  8. Seasonal variation of phenolic content in galled and non-galled tissues of Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae Variação sazonal do conteúdo fenólico em tecidos galhados e não-galhados de Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Lima Detoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti and T. mecanga, induce distinct galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, a globose and a fusiform gall morphotype. Seasonal changes of phenolic content in the tissues of the two distinct galls were compared to those of non-galled leaves and stems of the host plants over one year. The variation in the phenolic content profiles was similar in both non-galled and galled tissues, and was primarily associated with changes in the levels of rainfall, indicating a direct response to hydric stress. In periods of drastic changes in water precipitation, the alterations were significantly higher in non-galled than in galled tissues suggesting that the gall inducers might limit the variation in the phenolic concentration for their own benefit.Duas espécies, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti e T. mecanga, induzem galhas distintas em Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, um morfotipo globoso e um fusiforme. Mudanças sazonais no conteúdo fenólico nos tecidos das duas galhas foram comparadas àquelas de folha e caule não galhados das plantas hospedeiras por um ano. A variação no perfil de conteúdo fenólico foi similar em tecidos galhados e não galhados, sendo associada primariamente às mudanças nos níveis de chuva, constituindo uma resposta direta ao estresse hídrico. Nos períodos de mudanças drásticas na precipitação de água, as alterações foram significativamente maiores em tecido não galhados do que em tecidos galhados, sugerindo que os galhadores estariam limitando a variação do conteúdo fenólico em seu próprio benefício.

  9. Atmospheric mercury in Sweden, Northern Finland and Northern Europe. Results from national monitoring and European research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waengberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric mercury concentrations and mercury fluxes measured during the period 1995 to 1999 at the AMAP master station of Pallas, a remote station in Northern Finland, and at Roervik an EMEP station located on the west coast of Sweden are reported. The results are discussed and compared with atmospheric mercury data generated within the EU-project, Mercury over Europe (MOE). Total particulate mercury exhibit a strong south to north gradient with the highest concentrations in the south, near source areas in Central Europe. Mercury in precipitation also exhibits a south to north gradient.

  10. Northern tropical Atlantic climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), and increased Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical Atlantic is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical Atlantic. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical Atlantic is important because the tropical Atlantic Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical Atlantic (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for

  11. Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823: estudo quali-quantitativo da variação ontogenética do padrão eletroforético de proteínas gerais do cristalino Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 quali-quantitative studies on ontogenetic variation of the electrophoretic patterns of eye-lens proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Emília Amato de Moraes Vazzoler

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as possíveis variações do padrão eletroforético de proteínas gerais do cristalino de Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, em função do desenvolvimento ontogenetico, do sexo e do ciclo de maturaçao das gonadas, com vistas a sua utilizaçao em estudos populacionais. Foram analisados, por eletroforese em acetato de celulose, cristalinos de 546 exemplares com comprimento total entre 98 e 710 mm, coletados no período de fevereiro de 1975 a fevereiro de 1976, na costa sudeste do Brasil (23ºS - 29ºS, area ocupada pela populaçao I da espécie (Vazzoler, 1971. 0 padrao geral obtido foi dividido em 4 conjuntos com 8 frações protéicas. Para indivíduos de mesmo tamanho nao foram constatadas diferenças entre os padrões do cristalino esquerdo e direito, entre padrões de machos e fêmeas e entre padrões de exemplares com gonadas em diferentes estádios de maturidade. Entretanto, ocorrem acentuadas variações quali-quantitativas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento ontogenêtico. O conjunto I sofre marcada queda em sua concentração relativa, enquanto os conjuntos II, III e IV apresentam incremento. 0 conjunto II sofre variações qualitativas, apresentando 2 frações para indivíduos jovens (até 300-350 mm e apenas uma nos adultos. As frações I, II-l, II-2, III-3 e IV-2 apresentam variações mais acentuadas até a classe de 300-350 mm; ocorre estabilizaçao da concentração relativa das frações II-1, II-2 e III-3 a partir de 300-350 mm, e da I e IV-2 a partir de 450-500 mm. As frações III-1, III-2 e IV-1 apresentam pequenas variações, sendo praticamente constantes. Desse modo, para utilizaçao dos padrões eletroforêticos de proteínas dos cristalinos como marcadores genêtico-bioquímicos em estudos sobre variações intra-específicas, algumas estratégias devem ser consideradas, de acordo com os objetivos do estudo: a - comparar apenas as frações que se mostraram estáveis durante o desenvolvimento (III

  12. Northern Edge Navajo Casino, Fruitland, NM: NN0030343

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPDES Permit and Fact Sheet explaining EPA's action under the Clean Water Act to issue NPDES Permit No. NN0030343) to the Navajo Tribal Utility Authority Northern Edge Navajo Casino Wastewater Treatment Facility, 2752 Indian Service Road 36, Fruitland, NM.

  13. Can IVF save the northern white rhino from extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-31

    As the last male northern white rhino is euthanased, leaving just two females - his daughter and granddaughter - what is the future for this subspecies? Sophie Ingledew explains. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Changes in abundance of the northern Benguela sardine stock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in abundance of the northern Benguela sardine stock during the decade ... with comments on the relative importance of fishing and the environment. ... Survey-based recruitment indices suggest that the changes in the 1990s were ...

  15. BOKO HARAM IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: A MAUDUDIAN LEGACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    The title is Religious Fundamentalism in Northern. Nigeria: An ... intellectual awareness characterized by preaching, teaching, and writing of .... theory of modern jahiliyya. When he ..... thesis on mainstream Muslim opinion” (1991, 3). The Boko ...

  16. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  17. A management guide for northern hardwoods in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert; Victor S. Jensen

    1958-01-01

    Northern hardwood forests occupy about 9 million acres of land in New England. In recent years, these hardwood forests have made increasing contributions to the economy of this region. Their future management should be even more rewarding.

  18. Climate of the northern Indian Ocean and associated productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Gopinathan, C.K.

    The climatic factors likely to influence the phytoplankton production in the northern Indian Ocean are examined. The major cause for the high productivity of the Arabian Sea is the nutrient enrichment of the euphotic zone by upwelling especially off...

  19. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  20. How second-growth northern hardwoods develop after thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1953-01-01

    In the northern hardwood region, second-growth stands occupy thousands of acres. These stands are of all ages, in all conditions. They were brought about by fire, charcoal and fuelwood cuttings, land abandonment, or a combination of these causes.

  1. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  2. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  3. Inland Aquaculture and Adaptation to Climate Change in Northern ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... as an important source of employment and food security for rural residents. ... Researchers will explore past impacts and future risks of floods and droughts on farms ... Survey of climate-related risks to tilapia pond farms in Northern Thailand.

  4. Northern North Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0156768)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern North Pacific (NNP) plays a significant role in long-term earth and ocean climate change. It is also a region of high importance for regional marine...

  5. Spawning and development of Lesueurigobius sanzoi ofT northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sin 08003, Barcelona Spain. Received 22 August 1988; ... The presence of Lesueurigobius sanzoi (de Buen, 1918) on the continental shelf off northern ..... Perfiles de temperatura del Sudoeste de.

  6. Squaring the Circle: Attempting Peace in Northern Ireland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchi, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Finding a political framework for self-government in Northern Ireland that will be supported by both nationalists and unionists is referred to as a modern day attempt to do the impossible-to 'square the circle...

  7. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  8. Colonic microbiota signatures across five northern European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay, C.; Rigottier-Gois, L.; Holmstrom, K.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Collins, M.D.; Thiel, R.; Namsolleck, P.; Blaut, M.; Dore, J.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the colonic microbiota of 91 northern Europeans was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 18 phylogenetic probes. On average 75% of the bacteria were identified, and large interindividual variations were observed. Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum

  9. VT Green Mountain National Forest Map - Northern Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BasemapOther_GMNFMAPN is a cartographic map product depicting the northern half of the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF). The paper map...

  10. Modelling the Main Ionospheric Trough Across the Northern Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Bath as follows: The contractor will investigate disturbances in the Northern Hemisphere ionosphere using a Multi-instrument data analysis (MIDAS) imaging algorithm...

  11. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  12. Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and southern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... and bottom water physico-chemistry were determined at a significantly larger spatial scale.

  13. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  14. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  15. girl child education: what is the future in northern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. SOLOMON AVIDIME

    Northern Nigeria‟s high gender inequity in education places the majority of young girls at a severe ... to boost female enrolment in junior secondary schools, create girl-friendly school ..... Mortality, Fertility and Gender Bias in India: A District.

  16. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  17. Key Lake human resources and northern business initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudar, R.; McIntyre, J.; McInnes, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    The Key Lake Operation is committed to a policy of maximizing Saskatchewan, and particularly northern Saskatchewan, employment and business opportunities. The participation rate of northern people in the Key Lake operation's workforce has risen from 23.8% in 1983, to 42% today. Cameco's objective is to achieve 50% representation of residents of Saskatchewan's north in the Key Lake workforce by 1995. The company also extends this strategic objective to contractors. All contractors are required to maximize employment opportunities for residents of Saskatchewan's north, and report employment levels to the company as a condition of the contract. Today, contractors at the Key Lake site have achieved a northern participation rate of 47%. This paper highlights strategies for increasing northern/aboriginal participation and provides several examples of successes from these initiatives. (author)

  18. The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baschek, Burkard; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Brix, Holger; Riethmüller, Rolf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Breitbach, Gisbert; Brügge, Bernd; Colijn, Franciscus; Doerffer, Roland; Eschenbach, Christiane; Friedrich, Jana; Fischer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan; Horstmann, Jochen; Krasemann, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed...

  19. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  20. Export marketing strategies for the Northern Ireland seed potato industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned primarily with the export marketing performance of the Northern Ireland seed potato industry. The Industry has shown a dramatic decline in exports over the past twenty years, and this thesis proposes strategies aimed at regaining, and maintaining, a competitive advantage for the industry in world markets. A comparative analysis is conducted of the strategic and organisational export capabilities of the Northern Ireland industry and its main compet...

  1. Measurement of background gamma radiation in the northern Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Bordner, Autumn S.; Crosswell, Danielle A.; Katz, Ainsley O.; Shah, Jill T.; Zhang, Catherine R.; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Hughes, Emlyn W.; Ruderman, Malvin A.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-seven nuclear tests were conducted on two atolls in the northern Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. These tests produced radioactive fallout, which even today gives rise to radiation measurable above naturally occurring background levels. Rather than obtain new data, recent estimates of contamination levels in the northern Marshall Islands use measurements made decades ago to calculate present radiation levels. In contrast, we report on timely measurements on three different atolls...

  2. Atmospheric circulation in northern hemisphere and north atlantic oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Вадимович Холопцев

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conditions under which statistical connections of interannual changes of repitition duration periods in Northern hemisphere of elementary circulation mechanisms associated to meridional northern and meridional southern groups with variations of North Atlantic oscillation are significant were revealed. It is shown, that the characteristics changes of these connections taking place in modern period can be caused by distribution changes of distribution of sea surface temperatures

  3. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Amalie V.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Herzke, Dorte; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate whether the amount of ingested plastic affects the concentration of certain plastic-adsorbed toxicants in their tissues. Marine plastic pollution is a field of utmost importance. It is our hope tha...

  4. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Judith R; Feldbaum, Harley

    2009-01-01

    The boycott of polio vaccination in three Northern Nigerian states in 2003 created a global health crisis that was political in origin. This paper traces the diplomatic actions that were taken by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the United Nations, and the U.S. government, to restart polio vaccination and resolve the crisis. The polio vaccination boycott in Northern Nigeria provides a useful case study of the practice of global health diplomacy.

  5. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  6. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Marnie; MacDougall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and Metis learners. Results demonstrate that

  7. Vegetative substrates used by larval northern pike in Rainy and Kabetogama Lakes, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne L. Timm; Rodney B. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to identify characteristics of aquatic vegetative communities used as larval northern pike nursery habitat in Rainy and Kabetogama lakes, glacial shield reservoirs in northern Minnesota. Quatrefoil light traps fished at night were used to sample larval northern pike in 11 potential nursery areas. Larval northern pike were most commonly sampled among...

  8. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1. Definitions...

  9. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage... for insurance provider) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage...

  10. Climate change impacts in Northern Canada: Assessing our current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, M.J.; Eamer, J. [Environment Canada, Environmental Conservation Branch, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Munier, A.; Ogden, A. [Yukon College, Northern Climate ExChange, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Duerden, F. [Ryerson University, School of Applied Geography, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hik, D. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fox, S.; Riedlinger, D.; Thorpe, N. [GeoNorth Limited, Whitehorse, YT (Canada); Johnson, I.; Jensen, M. [Legend Seekers Anthropological Research, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A research project by the Northern Climate ExChange at Yukon College, undertaken to bring together into one document all relevant information that will help facilitate the identification of priorities for climate change research, monitoring, technological development and policy development in Canada's North, is described. In addition to the report, project deliverables also include a database of climate change information sources and a database of northern climate change contacts. The review includes scientific, local and Traditional Knowledge sources relating to climate change about each of seventeen natural and human systems (e.g. boreal forests, community health, mining, etc.), synthesized into a table for each system, with projected environmental changes crossed in matrix format with system components. Each cross-relationship was given a ranking; supporting information was included, based on the current state of knowledge of that relationship. In general, current information concerning northern systems, predicted climate changes and the impacts of those changes on northern systems is poor. However, much information does exist and the gap analysis revealed a number of general patterns relating to this information. Clearly, more research is required throughout northern Canada, but in particular, in the eastern Arctic, to provide a greater understanding of the implications of climate changes across the North, and to aid in the development of finer-scale, regional circulation models resulting in better predictive capacity of climate change and its impacts on northern areas.

  11. Comparative ability of northern pintails, gadwalls, and northern shovelers to metabolize foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Feeding trials were used to compare the ability of northern pintails (Anas acuta), gadwalls (A. strepera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) to metabolize energy from a turkey starter ration, alfalfa pellets, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) seeds. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected among the three species for any of the three foods (kg body weight/day basis), for dry matter intake (DMI), body weight gain (BWG), apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or metabolized energy (MEE) on any given diet consumed in quantities large enough to promote body weight gain. The AME content of alfalfa was 57% less than the value for turkey starter and 50% less than for barnyardgrass seeds. All three species metabolized more energy and gained weight faster when fed turkey starter. Energy modeling may be facilitated if additional research verifies that all species of dabbling ducks have equal ability to obtain energy from foods available to them in the wild. Behavioral and morphological factors may be more important in defining feeding niches than digestive physiology, at least for the three duck species tested, at the time of year of the experiments, and within the limits of the quality of foods used.

  12. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  13. Gender and livelihoods in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, S

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study in 1993-94 on women and sustainable development in Hunza and Nagar districts in the Karakorum mountains of northern Pakistan. The study aims to explore the impact of development on women's work burden and sustainable use of natural resources. Local natural resource management has been a complex system of agro-pastoralist use, with poor yields. Modernization resulted in construction of the Karakorum Highway in 1978 and the Aga Khan Support Program, which mobilized the community in irrigation and agricultural projects. Village organizations were formed as a forum for community decision making and information exchange. These changes resulted in the doubling of household income during 1983-92. Agricultural productivity increased without compromising soil fertility. Livestock herds doubled during 1976-86. The road created the opportunity for new strategies for improving income. Wholesale markets became accessible. Tourism increased, the economy diversified in ways that increased women's income and control of income, and demand for education increased. Women reported that the increased demands on workload were worth the improved standard of living. Gendered work was reallocated, and division of labor changed among women of various ages. Village councils began protecting depleted forest reserves. Men collected wood on the higher slopes, according to anthropomorphic and spiritual beliefs. Women's knowledge of the environment was greater with age and specific to the tasks performed. Men and women did not have permanently fixed gender roles. Women were not exclusive managers of the environment. Women benefited the most from technology that was in their interest and not controlled by men.

  14. Uranium deposits: northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reade, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Fox Hills Sandstone and the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous) are the host rocks for uranium deposits in Weld County, northern Denver Julesburg basin, Colorado. The uranium deposits discovered in the Grover and Sand Creek areas occur in well-defined north--south trending channel sandstones of the Laramie Formation whereas the sandstone channel in the upper part of the Fox Hills Sandstone trends east--west. Mineralization was localized where the lithology was favorable for uranium accumulation. Exploration was guided by log interpretation methods similar to those proposed by Bruce Rubin for the Powder River basin, Wyoming, because alteration could not be readily identified in drilling samples. The uranium host rocks consist of medium- to fine-grained carbonaceous, feldspathic fluvial channel sandstones. The uranium deposits consist of simple to stacked roll fronts. Reserve estimates for the deposits are: (1) Grover 1,007,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.14 percent eU 3 O 8 ,2) Sand Creek 154,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.08 percent eU 3 O 8 , and 3) The Pawnee deposit 1,060,000 lbs with an average grade of 0.07 percent eU 3 O 8 . The configuration of the geochemical cells in the Grover and Sand Creek sandstones indicate that uraniferous fluids moved northward whereas in the Pawnee sandstone of the Fox Hills uraniferous fluids moved southward. Precipitation of uranium in the frontal zone probably was caused by downdip migration of oxygcnated groundwater high in uranium content moving through a favorable highly carbonaceous and pyritic host sandstone

  15. Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.

    2005-02-01

    The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

  16. Radioactivity in the northern seas of europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Madruga, Maria Jose; Oliveira, Joao M.; Gouveia, Jorge M.; Silva, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    The recent accidents with nuclear powered Russian submarines, such as the Kursk and the K-159, that took place in the Arctic Seas, give rise to high concerns of the public and the media about the radioactive contamination of marine ecosystems and radiological safety of the European population. Those accidents were preceded by decades of discharges of radioactive liquid effluents into coastal seas of Europe and the dumping of packed radioactive waste into the North Atlantic. Being Portugal one country with high consumption rate of seafood caught in its own coastal waters as well as in far seas including the Ar tic seas, the investigation of the radioactive contamination of fish was investigated. Analysis of fish from the Sea of Labrador, Sea of Iceland and Barents Sea, has shown that gamma-emitting radionuclides of artificial origin are in general not detected. The only gamma emitting radionuclide present is Cs-137, in concentrations not higher than 0.3 Bq/kg. This radionuclide originates in the deposition of radioactive fallout following nuclear weapon tests performed in the fifties and sixties. Radionuclides in fish from northern regions and in fish from the Portuguese coast generally are present in concentrations lower than those currently reported for fish from the Irish Sea and the Baltic Sea, impacted with the discharges of radioactive waste from Sellafield and the deposition of fallout from Chernobyl, respectively. Nevertheless, the potential for future accidents and the radioactive waste dumped into the North Atlantic may in the future modify this scenario and potentially increase the currently very low radionuclide concentration in fish included in the Portuguese diet. Therefore, the research and radiological surveillance must be maintained in order to monitor the radiological risk and to ensure the quality of food available to consumers. (author)

  17. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  18. Atmospheric mercury cycles in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.; Rodger, B.

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the lower atmosphere of northern Wisconsin exhibits strong annual and diurnal cycles similar to those previously reported for other rural monitoring sites across mid-latitude North America. Annually, TGM was highest in late winter and then gradually declined until late summer. During 2002-04, the average TGM concentration was 1.4 ± 0.2 (SD) ng m -3, and the amplitude of the annual cycle was 0.4 ng m -3 (˜30% of the long-term mean). The diurnal cycle was characterized by increasing TGM concentrations during the morning followed by decreases during the afternoon and night. The diurnal amplitude was variable but it was largest in spring and summer, when daily TGM oscillations of 20-40% were not uncommon. Notably, we also observed a diurnal cycle for TGM indoors in a room ventilated through an open window. Even though TGM concentrations were an order of magnitude higher indoors, (presumably due to historical practices within the building: e.g. latex paint, fluorescent lamps, thermometers), the diurnal cycle was remarkably similar to that observed outdoors. The indoor cycle was not directly attributable to human activity, the metabolic activity of vegetation or diurnal atmospheric dynamics; but it was related to changes in temperature and oxidants in outdoor air that infiltrated the room. Although there was an obvious difference in the proximal source of indoor and outdoor TGM, similarities in behavior suggest that common TGM cycles may be driven largely by adsorption/desorption reactions involving solid surfaces, such as leaves, snow, dust and walls. Such behavior would imply a short residence time for Hg in the lower atmosphere and intense recycling - consistent with the "ping-pong ball" or "multi-hop" conceptual models proposed by others.

  19. Northern gas : Arctic Canada and Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses supply challenges in relation to Northern gas availability in Arctic Canada and Alaska. A background of BP Canada Energy Company was provided. It was suggested that gas from traditional North American basins would not meet demand, and that incremental sources of supply would be needed. A map of traditional and non-tradition supply sources was presented along with details of supply and infrastructure investment requirements from 2003-2025. The roles of producers, local distribution companies, pipelines and policy makers in infrastructure development were examined. Potential resources in Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta were discussed, along with details of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and exploration activities. Alaska's North Slope gas resource was reviewed. Several large projects devolving from the Alaska Gas Pipeline represent an anticipated total investment of $20 billion. Various regulatory and economic conditions necessary for the successful completion of the project include the Alaska Fiscal Contract; Alaska gas provisions in the Federal Energy Bill; details of the Canadian regulatory process; and cost reductions and market outlooks. It was concluded that the Alaska Gas Pipeline would provide thousands of jobs and provide stability of long-term gas prices as well as meeting North America's energy needs. In addition, the pipeline would provide $16 billion in Canadian government revenues and $40 billion in US government revenues. The pipeline would provide 4.5 billion cubic feet per day of clean energy, with half the carbon dioxide emissions of coal. It would also provide hundreds of billions of dollars in consumer savings. tabs, figs

  20. Child malnutrition in Tigray, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, A; Hagos, F; Kruseman, G; Linderhof, V; Stoecker, B; Abraha, Z; Yohannes, M; Samuel, G G

    2010-06-01

    Estimate levels of and identify factors contributing to child malnutrition in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey. Rural communities from four zones of Tigray. Three hundred and eighteen under five children representing 587 randomly selected households were included. Among the children surveyed, 46.9%, 33.0% and 11.6% were stunted,underweight and wasted, respectively. Older children were more likely to be undernourished. Stunting increases from 16% in the second half of the first year to 53% in children 24 months and older. Similarly, underweight increases from 10% in the first six months to 36.5% in children aged 24 months and older. A very high proportion of the mothers (80%) initiated feeding of newborns with pre-lacteal feeds primarily butter or water. Family foods and cereal-based porridge were the main complementary foods after six months. Child age, maternal anthropometric characteristics, inadequate complementary foods, the use of prelacteal feeds and area of residence were the main contributing factors to child undernutrition. Undernutrition gets worse as the children grow older. The energy and nutrient density of the complementary foods are low as the foods were prepared from a limited number of local staple cereals without the addition of sugar, fat/oil or animal products. More importantly, these foods are diluted with water to reduce their viscosity. This makes the quality and quantity of the foods insufficient to prevent stunting and underweight. Promotion of traditional household technologies such as germination and fermentation may be affordable measures to improve the quality of the complementary foods. Thus, sustained nutrition education programmes focusing on appropriate complementary feeding practices are recommended.

  1. Capture fishery in northern Todos os Santos Bay, tropical southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on marine and estuarine capture fishery activity in northern Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil, based on daily data collected between September 2003 and June 2005 is presented. Small-scale artisanal fishery in this area includes the use of traditional vessels both nonmotorized and motorized for locomotion, being carried out mainly by canoe or on foot, and involves many different kinds of gear, including gillnet, hook and line, seine nets, and traps. A total of 113 taxa were grouped into 77 resources, including 88 fish, 10 crustaceans, and 15 mollusks. Data on nominal catches of fish, crustaceans and mollusks are presented by month and location. A total of 345.2 tonnes of fishery resources were produced (285.4 tonnes of fish, 39.2 tonnes of fresh invertebrates, and 20.6 tonnes of processed invertebrates. Temporal variation in the fish catch was associated with the life cycle of the species or with the hydrographic conditions. The first-sale value of this catch amounted to around US$ 615,000.00, fishes representing 71.3% of it. A table of the average price of each fishery resource is presented. The results produced in this study may be considered a reference for future monitoring programs of fishery resources in the area.Informações sobre a atividade pesqueira extrativa da região norte da Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, nordeste do Brasil são apresentadas, baseadas em coleta diária de dados, realizada entre setembro de 2003 e junho de 2005. Trata-se de uma atividade extrativa artesanal, na qual são utilizadas embarcações tradicionais para o deslocamento ao local da extração. Em cada pescaria foram utilizadas várias artes, tais como rede de espera, linha e anzol, rede de cerco, armadilhas. Foram identificadas 113 categorias taxonômicas de peixes (88, crustáceos (10 e moluscos (15, arranjadas em 77 tipos de pescados comercializados. A produção total no período foi de 345,2 t (285.4 t de peixes, 39,2 t de

  2. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  3. Euroscepticism in Italy: Evolution of Northern League Political Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Barabanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.

  4. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  5. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  6. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km 2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of

  7. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  8. Women and development in Northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C T

    1985-07-01

    Northern Belize, composed of Orange Walk and Corozal districts, is the sugar-producing region of Belize, a newly independent country on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and because of the extensive involvement in the modern sugar industry, existing status differentials in Orange Walk have increased. Town farmers have increased their sugarcane license sizes more than villagers and also are much more likely to meet or exceed their delivery quotas than villagers. There has been the differentiation of a new middle socioeconomic stratum in Orange Walk, with a much higher proportion of villagers remaining in the lower stratum than townspeople. With greater involvement in the market economy, there has been a decline in the social integration of groups in the district as well as less symbiosis between husband and wife and among related male age mates. Some people now consistently work for others; there was an egalitarian labor exchange before. With the decline in subsistence production, the extensive reciprocity in food among related women diminishes. Women have participated in the overall changes in Orange Walk, yet their position vis-a-vis men has become weaker. Women are most likely to hold licenses in the communities that participated earliest in the sugar industry and that are the most traditional. With greater market involvement, women become less likely to hold licenses. Women's licenses have not increased to the same degree as those of men. And, with the income from sugar and wage labor, the family income is more and more viewed as belonging to men, rather than being the result of a joint family enterprise. Women become dependent on what men give them, with less control and security. With declining subsistence production, women have a reduced basis of involvement in traditional reciprocal food exchanges with other households. They lose some independent sources of money income with the result of increasing undernutrition for young children. The economic

  9. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  10. Análise da variação dos valores da rotação medial conforme a posição da diáfise do úmero Analysis on the variation of medial rotation values according to the position of the humeral diaphysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a validade da medida de rotação medial (RM do ombro pelos níveis vertebrais conforme a variação da posição da diáfise do úmero, testando o bigoniômetro como novo instrumental de aferição. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, prospectivamente, 140 ombros (70 pacientes que tinham limitação da RM do ombro unilateral. Avaliou-se, por meio da escala visual, o nível vertebral e correlacionou-se com o ângulo obtido conforme a posição da diáfise do úmero utilizando o bigoniômetro desenvolvido com a Engenharia Mecânica do Mackenzie. RESULTADOS: O nível vertebral máximo alcançado na RM do lado não acometido variou de T3 a T12, e para o lado acometido variou de T6 a trocânter. Já quando o membro acometido foi reposicionado em RM de acordo com os valores angulares do lado normal, 57,13% dos pacientes alcançaram níveis mais baixos entre sacro, glúteo e trocânter. Analisando o nível vertebral máximo alcançado e a variação entre o ângulo x (plano frontal: abdução e RM do ombro acometido e o ângulo x não acometido em RM, verificamos que quanto maior a angulação do eixo da diáfise menor a variação do nível vertebral alcançado. Avaliando a correlação linear entre as variáveis diferença do nível vertebral máximo alcançado e a variação do ângulo y (extensão e adução do ombro acometido e ângulo y não acometido em RM, verificamos que não há uma relação linear bem estabelecida entre estas variáveis. CONCLUSÃO: A medida da RM pelos níveis vertebrais não corresponde aos valores reais, pois varia conforme o posicionamento da diáfise do úmero.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the validity of measurements of shoulder medial rotation (MR of the shoulder, using vertebral levels, according to the variation in the position of the humeral diaphysis, and to test the bi-goniometer as a new measuring instrument. METHODS: 140 shoulders (70 patients were prospectively evaluated in cases presenting unilateral

  11. Community-based study on intracerebral hemorrhage in northern Hokkaido. Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study (NOHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kazuhiro; Shirai, Wakako; Tokumitu, Naoki; Aizawa, Shizuka

    2008-01-01

    A survey on stroke was conducted to evaluate the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the prevalence of risk factors. The subjects, comprising those patients who suffesed a stroke, were registered on the Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study between July 2002 and June 2006. The severity of their illness was rated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at hospital admission, while their outcome was determined by the mortality within 3 months and the mRS (modified Rankin Scale score). Of the 1,046 registered stroke patients, 271 (25.9%) were found to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage. Their mean age was 70.3±11.7 years; male-to-female ratio, 154/117; mean NIHSS at admission, 11.8±8.1; mortality within 3 months, 19.2%; and percentage who regained independence within 3 months (mRS: ≤2), 32.5%. A history of hypertension was found in 72.6%, and 13.7% had no treatment. MRI (T2*) revealed micro-hemorrhage outside the lesions in 67.5%. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were taking anti-platelet agents at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no significant difference between the mortalities of the anti-platelet-agent-users and non-users but the percentage of those regaining independence within 3 months was 19.1% for the users against 37.3% for the non-users (p=0.0177), with a significantly poor outcome in the user group. In northern Hokkaido, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage remains high, and the percentage of those with poorly controlled or uncontrolled hypertension was 30%. These findings suggest a need to educate not only the inhabitants themselves but also the physicians engaged in their care. (author)

  12. Geomorphology and landscape organization of a northern peatland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    The geomorphic evolution of northern peatlands is governed by complex ecohydrological feedback mechanisms and associated hydro-climatic drivers. For example, prevailing models of bog development (i.e. Ingram's groundwater mounding hypothesis and variants) attempt to explicitly link bog dome characteristics to the regional climate based on analytical and numerical models of lateral groundwater flow and the first-order control of water table position on rates of peat accumulation. In this talk I will present new results from quantitative geomorphic analyses of a northern peatland complex at the De Beers Victor diamond mine site in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of northern Ontario. This work capitalizes on spatially-extensive, high-resolution topographic (LiDAR) data to rigorously test analytical and numerical models of bog dome development in this landscape. The analysis and discussion are then expanded beyond individual bog formations to more broadly consider ecohydrological drivers of landscape organization, with implications for understanding and modeling catchment-scale runoff response. Results show that in this landscape, drainage patterns exhibit relatively well-organized characteristics consistent with observed runoff responses in six gauged research catchments. Interpreted together, the results of these geomorphic and hydrologic analyses help refine our understanding of water balance partitioning among different landcover types within northern peatland complexes. These findings can be used to help guide the development of appropriate numerical model structures for hydrologic prediction in ungauged peatland basins of northern Canada.

  13. Paludification and forest retreat in northern oceanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R M M; Jeffree, C E; Rees, W G

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discussed in relation to the long-term effects of flooding on tree survival. The heightened values currently detected in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, together with rising winter temperatures, and increased rainfall in many areas in northern Europe, presents an increasing risk of paludification with adverse consequences for forest regeneration, particularly in areas with oceanic climates. Climatic warming in oceanic areas may increase the area covered by bogs and, contrary to general expectations, lead to a retreat rather than an advance in the northern limit of the boreal forest. High water-table levels are not automatically detrimental to forest survival as can be seen in swamp, bottom land and mangrove forests. Consequently, the inhibitory effects of flooding on tree survival and regeneration in northern regions should not be uncritically accepted as merely due to high water levels. Evidence is discussed which suggests that physiological and ecological factors may interact to inhibit forest regeneration in habitats where there is a risk of prolonged winter-flooding combined with warmer winters and cool moist summers.

  14. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374

  15. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care.

  16. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  17. FACTOR IN ENSURING A BALANCED BUDGET NORTHERN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Anatol’evna Naidenova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main tools of sustainable development of the country as a whole and its individual regions are federal and regional budgets. At the same time a prerequisite for the use of this tool is its equilibrium. It is the basic principle of a responsible fiscal policy. The article describes the factors to equilibrium. on the budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation. The measures to ensure budgetary equilibrium in the northern regions of the Russian Federation are offered.The purpose of the article. Substantiating the measures to balance the budgets of the northern Russian Federation subjects on the basis of analysis of the factors that directly affect the mobilization of potential tax revenues to regional budgets.Method and methodology of work. Theoretical and empirical methods, analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction.Results of the study. To ensure factors unbalanced budgets northern territories. The proposals the balance of revenues and expenditures of the regional budgets of the northern regions of the Russian Federation are submitted.Application area. Finance authorities of subjects of the Russian Federation.

  18. Chapter 13. Current management situation: Great gray owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The breeding range of great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in the United States includes portions of Alaska, mountains in the western United States including portions of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges and the northern Rockies, and portions of Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, and New York (see Chapter 14 and Map 3). The species is sometimes observed...

  19. Comparative habitat use of sympatric Mexican spotted and great horned owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Jeffrey S. Jenness; Randolph A. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    To provide information on comparative habitat use, we studied radiotagged Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida: n = 13) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus: n = 4) in northern Arizona. Home-range size (95% adaptive kernel estimate) did not differ significantly between species during either the breeding or nonbreeding...

  20. Analysis of Sensitivity and Uncertainty in an Individual-Based Model of a Threatened Wildlife Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present a multi-faceted sensitivity analysis of a spatially explicit, individual-based model (IBM) (HexSim) of a threatened species, the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) on a national forest in Washington, USA. Few sensitivity analyses have been conducted on ...

  1. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  2. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez

    1992-01-01

    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  3. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  4. Composição do sangue e do leite em ovinos leiteiros do sul do Brasil: variações na gestação e na lactação Blood and milk composition in dairy ewes from southern Brazil: variations during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arnt Brito

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A ovinocultura de leite tem avançado no Rio Grande do Sul nos últimos anos, sem o conhecimento das variações nos parâmetros metabólicos e de composição do leite que possa servir de apoio à pesquisa e à clínica. Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a variação dos perfis metabólico e hematológico e da composição do leite em ovinos leiteiros da raça Lacaune criados em regime de confinamento na Serra Gaúcha. O trabalho foi realizado no município de Bento Gonçalves (região serrana do RS. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue de 14 animais por venipunção jugular para a realização de hemograma e do perfil bioquímico, em cada uma das seguintes categorias: ovelhas vazias; aos 60, 90 e 120 dias de gestação e aos 7, 30, 60 e 140 dias de lactação. Durante os mesmos períodos da lactação, foram coletadas amostras para a determinação dos componentes físico-químicos do leite. A acidez Dornic e o teor de proteína e gordura do leite foram diferentes dos citados em outros países. O perfil metabólico apresentou maiores variações com relação à média no final da gestação e no início da lactação. A uréia mostrou diferença (PDairy sheep industry has increased intensively in southern Brazil, however, without the corresponding knowledge of variations on metabolic and hematological parameters and on milk composition, with application in research and clinical activities. This work was carried out on Lacaune sheep, intensively grazed in the county of Bento Gonçalves (RS, in southern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein for metabolic profiles and hematology. Samples were taken randomly from 14 sheep in each of the following periods: nonpregnant ewes; at 60, 90 and 120 of pregnancy and at 7, 30, 60 and 140 days of lactation. During the lactation period, milk samples were also taken to assay the physico-chemical composition. Milk acidity, protein and fat levels were different from reference levels in

  5. Variações do conteúdo de carboidratos em gemas e ramos de dois anos de macieira em região de baixa ocorrência de frio Variations of carbohydrate content in two year old buds and stems of apple trees in a region of low chill occurence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar as variações do conteúdo de carboidratos em gemas e ramos de dois anos de idade de macieira 'Imperial Gala' com ou sem frio suplementar durante o outono e inverno, cultivadas em região de baixa ocorrência de frio. Os ramos foram coletados em Porto Amazonas-PR, em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto (19-04, 10-05, 31-05, 21-06, 12-07, 02-08 e 23-08 e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas à temperatura de 4 a 7° C. As análises de carboidratos foram realizadas em gemas e porções de ramos adjacentes às mesmas. Os carboidratos solúveis (CS totais foram determinados pelo método do fenol-ácido sulfúrico, realizando-se a leitura por espectrofotometria (absorbância a 490 nm. Os carboidratos insolúveis (CI totais foram estimados pelo rendimento da fração de tecido vegetal insolúvel em álcool e solúvel em álcali, após liofilização. Existem significativas variações do conteúdo de carboidratos em gemas e ramos de dois anos durante a dormência. O aumento da intensidade de dormência no outono está associado à redução do conteúdo de CS em gemas. O tratamento com 1.440 horas de frio suplementar modifica significativamente as variações do conteúdo de CS em ramos e de CI em gemas.This work aimed to quantify the variation of carbohydrate content in two year old buds and stems of apple trees cv. 'Imperial Gala' with or without supplementary chill during autumn and winter, cultivated in a region of low chill occurence. The stems were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, at intervals of 21 days from April to August (April 19th, May 10th, May 31st, June 21st, July 12th, August 2nd and August 23rd and were either treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7° C. The carbohydrates were analysed in buds and stem tissues adjacent to the buds. The soluble carbohydrates (SC were evaluated by the phenol-sulfuric acid method and the final determination was achieved by

  6. Study of the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerefos, C.; Vasaras, A.; Syrakov, D.; Ganev, K.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims at a detailed study and explanation of the pollution transport in the air basin over South-Western Bulgaria and Northern Greece and assessment of the air pollution exchange between Bulgaria and Greece. Some well known specific climatic air pollution effects were studied and explained. Calculations were made of the S0 2 pollution of the Balkan peninsula from both Greek and Bulgarian sources for 1995 and the country to country pollution budget diagrams were build. Days with extreme mean concentration for Bulgaria and Northern Greece were picked out and some further specification of the contribution of the different sources in both the countries to these cases of extreme pollution was made. Some preliminary studies of possible mesoscale effects on the pollution exchange between Bulgaria and northern Greece were carried out. A three-layer pollution transport model with more complex chemistry block was introduced and some preliminary simulations of Sulfur and Nitrogen compounds transport were performed. (author)

  7. An alternative method for processing northern blots after capillary transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2015-03-02

    Different laboratories use different methods for the prehybridization, hybridization, and washing steps of the northern blotting procedure. In this protocol, a northern blot is pretreated with Church and Gilbert hybridization buffer to block nonspecific probe-binding sites. The immobilized RNA is then hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the RNA of interest. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. The solutions and conditions described here may be ideal for those who prefer to use fewer ingredients in their solutions. This protocol is designed to achieve the same goals as other northern blotting approaches. It minimizes background (nonspecific adherence of probe to membrane and nonspecific hybridization) and maximizes specific hybridization to RNAs immobilized on a membrane. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    The northern part of the Ten Mile and Taunton River basins is an area of about 195 square miles within Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in southeastern Massachusetts. The northern boundary of the area (plate 1) is the drainage divide separating these basins from that of the Charles, Neponset, and Weymouth River basins. The western boundary is, for the most part, the divide separating the basins from the Blackstone River basin. The eastern boundary is at the edge of the Brockton-Pembroke area (Petersen, 1962; Petersen and Shaw, 1961). The southern boundary in Seekonk is the northern limit of the East Providence quadrangle, for which a ground-water map was prepared by Allen and Gorman (1959); eastward, the southern boundaries of the city of Attleboro and the towns of Norton, Easton, and West Bridgewater form the southern boundary of the area.

  9. Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2001-01-01

    One of the hypothesized effects of global warming from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases is a change in the frequency and/or intensity of extratropical cyclones. In this study, winter frequencies and intensities of extratropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1959-97 are examined to determine if identifiable trends are occurring. Results indicate a statistically significant decrease in midlatitude cyclone frequency and a significant increase in high-latitude cyclone frequency. In addition, storm intensity has increased in both the high and midlatitudes. The changes in storm frequency correlate with changes in winter Northern Hemisphere temperature and support hypotheses that global warming may result in a northward shift of storm tracks in the Northern Hemisphere.

  10. Extreme river flow dependence in Northern Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria, M. Franco; Scott, M.; Hoey, T.; Fischbacher-Smith, D.

    2012-04-01

    Various methods for the spatial analysis of hydrologic data have been developed recently. Here we present results using the conditional probability approach proposed by Keef et al. [Appl. Stat. (2009): 58,601-18] to investigate spatial interdependence in extreme river flows in Scotland. This approach does not require the specification of a correlation function, being mostly suitable for relatively small geographical areas. The work is motivated by the Flood Risk Management Act (Scotland (2009)) which requires maps of flood risk that take account of spatial dependence in extreme river flow. The method is based on two conditional measures of spatial flood risk: firstly the conditional probability PC(p) that a set of sites Y = (Y 1,...,Y d) within a region C of interest exceed a flow threshold Qp at time t (or any lag of t), given that in the specified conditioning site X > Qp; and, secondly the expected number of sites within C that will exceed a flow Qp on average (given that X > Qp). The conditional probabilities are estimated using the conditional distribution of Y |X = x (for large x), which can be modeled using a semi-parametric approach (Heffernan and Tawn [Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B (2004): 66,497-546]). Once the model is fitted, pseudo-samples can be generated to estimate functionals of the joint tails of the distribution of (Y,X). Conditional return level plots were directly compared to traditional return level plots thus improving our understanding of the dependence structure of extreme river flow events. Confidence intervals were calculated using block bootstrapping methods (100 replicates). We report results from applying this approach to a set of four rivers (Dulnain, Lossie, Ewe and Ness) in Northern Scotland. These sites were chosen based on data quality, spatial location and catchment characteristics. The river Ness, being the largest (catchment size 1839.1km2) was chosen as the conditioning river. Both the Ewe (441.1km2) and Ness catchments have

  11. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  12. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  13. Estudo da variação da concentração de metano no biogás produzido a partir das águas residuárias do café A study on the variation of methane concentration in biogas produced from coffee wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Calil Prado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A água residuária do café (ARC, originada no processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro, produz quantidade considerável de biogás que pode e deve ser utilizado como fonte de energia alternativa e complementar. Neste trabalho, foi estudada a variação da concentração de metano do biogás produzido a partir das ARC, por tratamento anaeróbio, em reator UASB, em escala laboratorial. As amostras foram coletadas durante 86 dias. As análises da concentração de metano foram realizadas por cromatografia gás-sólido (CGS. A produção de biogás e de metano, foi de 0,545 a 0,602 m³ kg-1DQO removida e de 0,382 a 0,421 m³ kg-1 DQO removida, respectivamente. Os resultados da concentração de metano no biogás variaram de 48,60 a 68,14 %, influenciados pela variação dos parâmetros temperatura, pH, acidez e compostos fenólicos presentes nas ARC. Como havia sido previsto, as maiores concentrações de metano foram verificadas nos períodos em que o pH estava mais próximo da neutralidade.The wastewater produced from wet coffee processing (WCP, originated from the coffee fruits, can produce great quantities of biogas, which, in turn, can be also used as an alternative or complementary energy source. In this research, we studied the variation of methane concentration produced by WCP in a laboratory-scale UASB reactor with anaerobic treatment. The samples were collected during a period of 86 days. The methane concentration was measured through gas solid chromatography (GSC. The production of biogas and methane ranged from 0.545 to 0.602 m³ kg-1DQO removed and from 0.382 a 0.421 m³ kg-1 DQO removed, respectively. Methane presence in the biogas ranged from 48.60% to 68.14 %. This variation was influenced by the following parameters: temperature, pH, acidity, and phenol compounds present in the WCP. As expected, greater concentrations of methane gas were verified during the periods when the pH close to neutral.

  14. Seasonal variation of the phytoplankton community structure in the São João River, Iguaçu National Park, Brazil Variação sazonal da estrutura da comunidade fitoplanctônica no Rio São João, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC. Bortolini

    2013-02-01

    , calculados a partir da densidade fitoplanctônica, foram temporalmente heterogêneos e espacialmente similares. Em geral, variações significativas na composição do fitoplâncton foram devidas às variações nas condições limnológicas, principalmente temperatura, transparência e nutrientes. Espacialmente, a estrutura foi mais similar, em razão da proximidade das estações e, também, da similaridade da distribuição da comunidade em ambientes lóticos, devido ao fluxo unidirecional.

  15. Relação entre diferença mínima significativa e coeficiente de variação nos ensaios de competição de cultivares Relation among least significant difference and coefficient of variation in the cultivar competition trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Col Lúcio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar ensaios de competição de cultivares de milho, trigo, soja, feijão, cevada, aveia, triticale e sorgo conduzidos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e estimar a relação entre a diferença mínima significativa (DMS e o coeficiente de variação (CV. Foram utilizadas as principais características estatísticas de 2014 ensaios: delineamento experimental, número de cultivares, número de repetições, número de graus de liberdade do erro, CV e a DMS obtida pelo método de Tukey em porcentagem da média dos ensaios. A estimativa da equação de regressão entre a DMS e o CV (variável independente, passando pela origem, resultou numa relação média de DMS = 2,72xCV, variando entre 2,47 (cevada e 3,05 (sorgo. Esta variação nas relações indicam que existe diferenças nos planos experimentais tradicionais usados pelos pesquisadores. A DMS é uma estatística adequada para o controle de qualidade dos ensaios de competição de cultivares. Ela é facilmente obtido a partir do CV e reflete, em termos do valor comercial da produção, a importância da sua magnitude.The objetive of this work was to study competition trials of maize, wheat, soybeans, drybeans, barley, oats, triticale and sorghum conducted in Rio Grande do Sul State and estimate relations between least significant difference and coefficient of variation. Statistics characteristics of 2014 trials were used, such as: experimental design, number of cultivars, replications, error degrees of freedom, coeffïcient of variation (CV and least significant difference (LSD obtained from Tukey's test by the porcentage of the experiment mean. The regression equation passing through the origin obtained between LSD and CV as the independent variable resulted in LSD = 2.72xCV, with the angular coeffïcient ranging from 2.47 (barley to 3.05 (sorghum. These difference indicate that there are deviations of the traditional experimental layouts used by field crop

  16. Variações do conteúdo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol em gemas e ramos de macieira durante a dormência Variations of glucose, frutose and sorbitol content in buds and stems of apple tree during the dormancy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as variações do conteúdo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol em gemas e ramos de um ano de macieira durante o período de dormência. Os ramos da cultivar "Imperial Gala" foram coletados em Porto Amazonas-PR, em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto (19/04, 10/05, 31/05, 21/06, 12/07, 02/08 e 23/08, e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas à temperatura de 4 a 7°C. As análises dos carboidratos foram realizadas em gemas e porções de ramos adjacentes às primeiras por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. Ocorreu um acúmulo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol nas gemas de macieira durante a dormência. O acúmulo de glucose e frutose nos ramos aconteceu até o início de agosto quando, em seguida, houve redução, enquanto o sorbitol decresceu até junho e, em seguida, elevou-se até o final de agosto. O tratamento com frio ao longo da dormência modificou as variações dos conteúdos de carboidratos nas gemas e ramos de macieira.This research was aimed at evaluating the variations of glucose, frutose and sorbitol content in one year old buds and stems of apple trees during the dormancy period. The stems of cv. Imperial Gala were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, at intervals of 21 days from April to August (April 19th, May 10th, May 31st, June 21st, July 12th, August 2nd and August 23rd and were treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7°C. The carbohydrates were analysed in buds and stem tissues close to buds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was an increase of glucose, frutose and sorbitol content in apple tree buds during the dormancy. An increase of glucose and frutose content in stems occured until August 2nd followed by a significative reduction, while the sorbitol content decreased until June 21st followed by an increase until August 31st. The chill treatment during the dormancy period modified the variations of

  17. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K.; Huttunen, S.; Kauppi, M.; Ohtonen, R.; Laehdesmaeki, P. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  18. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K; Huttunen, S; Kauppi, M; Ohtonen, R; Laehdesmaeki, P [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  19. The cataclasis in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland two main phases of cataclastic deformation can be distinguished: a 'cataclasis 1' in a higher temperature hydrothermal regime, as a consequence of tectonic and magmatic-hydrothermal events in Upper Carboniferous time and a lower temperature 'cataclasis 2', which can be related to Permian tectonics at the northern margin of the Paleozoic Konstanz-Frick trough. These cataclases are interpreted as a result of longlasting and complex tectonic processes at shallow crustal levels. (author) 30 refs., 4 figs

  20. Endeavor cruise 071 navigation and bathymetry, northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.; McCreery, C.; Dickson, S.; Baker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sub-bottom seismic profiling was carried out by R/V Endeavor during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Data collection was concentrated in LLWODP study area E-N3, which encompasses the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and the adjacent lower continental rise. Time, position, and depth were logged and marked on the seismic record at 15-minute intervals. These navigational and bathymetric data have been used to produce a time/position/depth listing, and a detailed bathymetric map of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and surrounding physiographic provinces. 6 figures, 1 table

  1. Predators control post-fledging mortality in tawny owls, Strix aluco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter

    2005-01-01

    , primarily due to predation from raptors and mammals (predominantly foxes Vulpes vulpes). Predation by mammals occurred within the first few days after fledging, with young leaving the nest at an early age being at particularly high risk. Young that had received extra food as nestlings were also at higher...... risk of being preyed upon by mammals, possibly because they were easier to locate on their smell. Total mortality risk (control broods) increased with fledging date from 14% in April to >58% in June due to an increasing raptor predation risk. Individual attributes such as sex, condition......, immunocompetence or prevalence of blood parasites did not predict total or cause-specific mortality risk. Survival during the post-fledging dependency period was therefore primarily a function of variation in predation pressures, particularly from raptors. Increasing raptor predation of late broods appears...

  2. Late quaternary faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Fennoscandia, with particular reference to the Lansjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many fault scarps, interpreted as post- or late-glacial in age, occur in northern Sweden and adjacent parts of Finland and Norway. In the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden attempts have been made to date fault displacement relative to the glacial and postglacial stratigraphy by trenching across some of these fault scarps. It is shown that the faulting occurred soon after the local deglaciation some 9000 years ago. There are no signs of movements since that time. The faulting was obviously associated with violent earthquakes because seismically induced phenomena, dating from the same period as the faulting, are frequently found in the vicinity. Numerous landslides, developed in glacial till, occur in the same region as the faults and different types of seismites (seismically-induced sediment deformation) were found when actively sought for. It is concluded that several earthquakes of high magnitudes occurred in northern Fennoscandia during the vanishing of the inland ice sheet. (author)

  3. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  4. Focusing on variation: methods and applications of the concept of beta diversity in aquatic ecosystems Focando na variação: métodos e aplicações do conceito de diversidade beta em ecossistemas aquáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sanches Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists usually estimate means, but devote much less attention to variation. The study of variation is a key aspect to understand natural systems and to make predictions regarding them. In community ecology, most studies focus on local species diversity (alpha diversity, but only in recent decades have ecologists devoted proper attention to variation in community composition among sites (beta diversity. This is in spite of the fact that the first attempts to estimate beta diversity date back to the pioneering work by Koch and Whittaker in the 1950s. Progress in the last decade has been made in the development both of methods and of hypotheses about the origin and maintenance of variation in community composition. For instance, methods are available to partition total diversity in a region (gamma diversity, in a local component (alpha, and several beta diversities, each corresponding to one scale in a hierarchy. The popularization of the so-called raw-data approach (based on partial constrained ordination techniques and the distance-based approach (based on correlation of dissimilarity/distance matrices have allowed many ecologists to address current hypotheses about beta diversity patterns. Overall, these hypotheses are based on niche and neutral theory, accounting for the relative roles of environmental and spatial processes (or a combination of them in shaping metacommunities. Recent studies have addressed these issues on a variety of spatial and temporal scales, habitats and taxonomic groups. Moreover, life history and functional traits of species such as dispersal abilities and rarity have begun to be considered in studies of beta diversity. In this article we briefly review some of these new tools and approaches developed in recent years, and illustrate them by using case studies in aquatic ecosystems.Ecólogos geralmente estimam médias, mas dedicam pouca atenção à variação. O estudo da variação é um aspecto chave para entender

  5. A integração da pesquisa ao conhecimento ecológico local no subsídio ao manejo: variações no estoque natural da ostra de mangue crassostrea spp. na reserva extrativista do Mandira, Cananéia-SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Cabral Machado

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de descrever uma experiência de integração entre conhecimento científico e comunitário no subsídio ao manejo, a partir das avaliações do estoque da ostra de mangue Crassostrea spp. na Reserva Extrativista do Mandira, baseadas em estudos populacionais e no Conhecimento Ecológico Local (CEL e percepção da comunidade. Os dados dos estudos populacionais apresentaram aspectos concordantes com o Conhecimento Ecológico Local, evidenciando variações no estoque de ostras na Reserva.This study aimed to illustrate the experience of integration between scientific knowledge and Local Ecological Knowledge to subside management from the assessments of the mangrove oyster stock in the Mandira Extractive Reserve, based on population studies and on local ecological knowledge and perception of the community. Data from population studies showed features consistent with the Local Ecological Knowledge, providing evidence of variations in the stock of oysters in the Mandira Extractive Reserve.

  6. Efeitos de variações cambiais em uma abordagem de dinâmica de mudança estrutural à teoria do crescimento restrito pelo balanço de pagamentos The effects of exchange rate variations in a structural economic dynamic approach to the balance of payment constrained growth theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Azevedo Araujo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, mostra-se que variações once-for-all do nível da taxa de câmbio podem desempenhar um papel importante na composição setorial da economia e tal fato tem implicações importantes em termos de uma versão desagregada da Lei de Thirlwall mesmo diante do argumento da insignificância quantitativa dos movimentos de preços relativos. Mostra-se, então, que a taxa de crescimento de um país compatível com o equilíbrio no balanço de pagamentos pode ser afetada por movimentos do nível de taxas de câmbio nominal e o conceito de uma taxa de câmbio natural é introduzida.In this paper it is shown that once-for-all variations at the level of the exchange rate can play an important role in the sectoral composition of the economy. This fact has important implications in terms of a disaggregated version of Thirlwall's law, even when the argument of the quantitative unimportance of relative price movements holds. The growth rate of a country is therefore shown to be affected by once-for-all movements at the level of nominal exchange rates and the concept of a natural exchange rate is introduced.

  7. Variação sazonal das condições internas de colônias de Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Seasonal variations in the internal condictions of colonies the Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, at Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Von B. Borges

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das condições internas das colônias de Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971, ao longo do ano, é importante para a compreensão do comportamento das abelhas sem ferrão e seu manejo. Visa-se o estudo da biologia de M. marginata obscurior em ambiente natural, com ênfase na variação sazonal das condições internas das colônias. Quatro colônias foram estudadas no Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata, em São Francisco de Paula, RS. Avaliou-se o volume dos ninhos, a ocorrência e duração da diapausa e o número total de favos e de células de cria nos dois últimos favos. O volume do invólucro inicial das quatro colônias foi semelhante, variando de 2,26 a 2,69 litros. Ao final da avaliação observou-se que o volume do invólucro da colônia A reduziu 5%, enquanto as demais cresceram 61% (colônia B, 84% (C e 71% (D. A partir do monitoramento mensal dos favos de cria constatou-se a ocorrência de diapausa em três colônias (B, C e D enquanto a colônia A permaneceu com postura ininterruptamente. As colônias cessaram a construção de células de cria e postura da rainha durante o outono e reiniciaram esta atividade no final do inverno. Sugere-se que a variação do período de diapausa (8 a 23 semanas seja determinada por fatores internos das colônias. O número máximo de favos registrado durante a primavera e o verão variou de 6 a 8, enquanto que o número estimado de células de cria dos dois últimos favos variou de 116 a 1190. Foi possível reconhecer padrões, bem como variações sazonais, relacionados ao volume do invólucro dos ninhos, à ocorrência de diapausa e ao número de favos e de células de cria nos dois últimos favos. Variações sazonais das condições internas entre as colônias mostraram-se evidentes e podem ser creditadas a características intrínsecas das colônias.The knowledge of the internal conditions of Melipona marginata obscurior Moure, 1971 colonies, through

  8. Limnological variations of a deep reservoir in periods with distinct rainfall patterns Variações na limnologia de um reservatório profundo em períodos com diferentes padrões de precipitação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Geraldes

    2012-12-01

    impactos da variação da precipitação nas concentrações de fósforo total, de clorofila a, oxigénio dissolvido, condutividade e profundidade do disco de Secchi, bem como na abundância de Anabaena flos-aquae e das espécies mais abundantes de crustáceos zooplactónicos. MÉTODOS: As amostragens foram realizadas mensalmente de Outubro de 2000 a Setembro de 2002 e de Outubro de 2007 a Setembro de 2009 num único ponto localizado na zona mais profunda do reservatório. Todos os dados foram obtidos na zona eufótica. RESULTADOS: As concentrações de fósforo total foram mais elevadas durante os períodos de maior precipitação. Por seu turno, a condutividade decresceu durante os períodos mencionados. Anabaena só foi detetada entre Setembro e Dezembro de 2001. A abundância de Daphnia longispina sofreu grandes variações durante o decurso deste estudo. Diaphanosoma brachyurum e Ceriodaphnia pulchella apresentaram sempre um forte padrão sazonal. Ambas as espécies são termófilas e só começam a ser detetadas a partir do início do verão quando a temperatura da água atinge os 15 ºC. Copidodiaptomus numidicus não apresenta qualquer padrão sazonal. CONCLUSÕES: Algumas das mudanças observadas nos parâmetros ambientais (condutividade, concentrações de fósforo total e na abundância de Anabaena são induzidas pelas variações na precipitação. Estas mudanças afetam a abundância do zooplâncton. As espécies mais afetadas são aquelas que não apresentam padrões sazonais (C. numidicus ou espécies que ocorrem essencialmente entre o inverno e o início do verão. No entanto, uma grande variedade de interações de natureza física, química e biótica são suscetíveis de afetar a abundância do zooplâncton. Assim, é necessário ter cautela quando se relacionam as alterações na comunidade zooplanctónica exclusivamente com variações na precipitação. De facto, muitas das alterações observadas são induzidas por outros fatores que variam de forma

  9. Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rui

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838

  10. Una visión sucinta de la enseñanza de la medicina a través de la historia: II. Colombia, un sitio donde confluyeron varias culturas con su arte de curar = A succinct vision of medical teaching throughout history: II. Colombia, a place where different cultures came together with their art of healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Hernández, Diana Patricia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Para comprender cómo se ha enseñado la medicina a través de los tiempos, es necesario apoyarse en los historiadores que han tratado su evolución y, a partir de ellos, indagar sobre las actitudes de los médicos en su posición como docentes y acerca de cómo era la apropiación del conocimiento en cada época por parte de los estudiantes. En este segundo artículo se presenta una visión sucinta de la enseñanza de la medicina en Colombia en diferentes épocas, empezando con la Conquista Española cuando se encontraron varias culturas, la española y las aborígenes, con sus respectivas tradiciones en el arte de curar y en la forma de enseñarlo; se incluyen también la llegada de la enseñanza de la medicina a la universidad colombiana y la actual propuesta curricular de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia.

  11. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalathon Choocharoen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand and Laos. Qualitative analysis of local knowledge systems is performed using the Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit (AKT5 software. Results show that ethnic minorities in the two countries perceive large ruminants to be a highly positive component of local forest agro-ecosystems due to their contribution to nutrient cycling, forest fire control, water retention, and leaf-litter dispersal. The knowledge and perceptions of agrosilvopastoral farmers are then contrasted with the remarkably different forestry policy frameworks of the two countries. We find that the knowledge and diversity of practices exercised by ethnic minority groups contrasts with the current simplified and negative image that government officials tend to construct of agrosilvopastoral systems. We conclude that local knowledge of forest-livestock systems can offer alternative or complementary explanations on ecological cause-and-effect relationships which may need further scientific investigation and validation.

  12. Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma insulin pattern in a Hausa-Fulani ethnic group in northern Nigeria. ... Results: Although there were marked individual variations with 16.7% of individuals demonstrating fasting ... Key Words: Plasma Insulin, northern Nigeria Annals of ...

  13. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  14. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  15. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  16. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan...

  17. Impact of maize storage on rural household food security in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    security in Northern Kwazulu-Natal1 ... incidence of hunger is high among rural South African .... FARMERS IN THREE STUDY DISTRICTS OF NORTHERN KWAZULU-NATAL, 1999 (N = 134) ... Three goats equaled one head of cattle. Calves ...

  18. Compression and Processing of Space Image Sequences of Northern Lights and Sprites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Martins, Bo; Jensen, Ole Riis

    1999-01-01

    Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated.......Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated....

  19. Landslide inventory and susceptibility modelling using geospatial tools, in Hunza-Nagar valley, northern Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacha, Alam Sher; Shafique, Muhammad; van der Werff, H.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive landslide inventory and susceptibility maps are prerequisite for developing and implementing landslide mitigation strategies. Landslide susceptibility maps for the landslides prone regions in northern Pakistan are rarely available. The Hunza-Nagar valley in northern Pakistan is known

  20. Territory Boundary Polygons, Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), 1999, US Census Bureau

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Boundaries of the northern most islands of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI). Siapan, Rota and Tinian are not included in these data set. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and...