WorldWideScience

Sample records for striving readers retrieved

  1. Using Randomized Clinical Trials to Determine the Impact of Reading Intervention on Struggling Adolescent Readers: Reports of Research from Five Nationally Funded Striving Readers Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loadman, William; Sprague, Kim; Hamilton, Jennifer; Coffey, Deb; Faddis, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education awarded eight Striving Readers grants to projects around the country. The goal of Striving Readers is to improve literacy skills and achievement for struggling readers in middle and high school and to increase the research base using randomized clinical research to address improvement in adolescent…

  2. DEAFNESS, RETELLING AND READER FOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Rosendo de Souza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on formation of readers has raised some discussions and change of atitudes, to the development of full readers. But, the methodologies that strive for proficiency of Deaf readers there are scarse. We intend to discuss in this article the formation of a reader Deaf through from an interventional research, with cognitive approach. The reader formation of Deaf will be possible with appropriate method to their peculiarities.

  3. Striving for excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughn, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    With guidance and assistance from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), nuclear utilities are striving for excellence by making steady improvements in industry performance indicators. Duke Power Company has solidly committed to support the industry's effort to obtain higher standards of excellence. Dedicated, highly trained employees, who are motivated to making it happen, carry out this commitment within a management framework which includes: 1) top management support and direct involvement; 2) a strategy to achieve excellence over the long run; 3) a nuclear management priority structure; and 4) a goals program

  4. Striving for Experiential Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    -tinction between a hermeneutics of suspicion and a hermeneutics of faith, this article sketches out two possible answers. It first presents a critical approach that exposes hidden truths to educate and emancipate its readers. The concept of ‘critique’ has recently come under scrutiny, however, with postcritical...

  5. 75 FR 69986 - Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ..., targeted interventions for students reading below grade level, and other research-based methods of... attendance but will help us to plan the meeting and to facilitate the security process. Providing input at... subgrantees create effective partnerships with relevant organizations, including the State Advisory Council on...

  6. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... correspondence; (b) Design forms that are easy to fill-in, read, transmit, process, and retrieve, and reduce...

  7. Virtue Acquisition: The Paradox of Striving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelian-inspired accounts of virtue acquisition stress guided practice and habituated action to develop virtue. This emphasis on action can lead to the "paradox of striving". The paradox occurs when we try too hard to act well and thereby spoil our efforts. I identify four forms of striving--forcing, impulsivity, overthinking, and…

  8. CUZCO READER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLA, DONALD F.

    WRITTEN TO ACCOMPANY THE SPOKEN CUZCO QUECHUA MATERIALS, THIS READER CONSISTS OF SHORT SELECTIONS ACTUALLY RECORDED IN THE FIELD AND REPRESENTING SEVERAL SUBDIALECTS SPOKEN IN RURAL SECTIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF CUZCO, PERU. INCLUDED ARE DIALOGS, STORIES, SONGS, CULTURAL SELECTIONS, AND INTERVIEWS. THE FORMAT GIVES THE CUZCO QUECHUA DIALECT AND…

  9. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  10. Contextual Bandits for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of and outlook on research at the intersection of information retrieval (IR) and contextual bandit problems. A critical problem in information retrieval is online learning to rank, where a search engine strives to improve the quality of the ranked result lists it

  11. Reader survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big.

  12. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  13. Striving for Economic and Political Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Hu Jintao, China’s president and Communist Party chief, is asking his government to abandon its 25-year-old policy of striving for the fastest possible economic growth, regardless of the costs to society and the environment. Instead, he wants China to balance sustainable growth with a programme to redress the many negative consequences of two decades of 9%-plus GDP growth. Although we do not expect Hu to fix China’s health care system or to deliver a clean and green environment in just five y...

  14. Striving for balance between caring and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Julie Y; Larsen, Dorte; Brødsgaard, Anne

    2017-01-01

    with 14 young adults were conducted. RESULTS: The essence of the phenomenon of having a parent with multiple sclerosis was synthesized into 'Striving for balance between caring and restraint' from two themes 'caring' and 'restraint' and eight subthemes. Participants' experiences of caring for parents...... that one of the greatest challenges of having a parent with multiple sclerosis is achieving a balance between caring for others and asserting one's own desires. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Health care professionals can support the family by encouraging family members to participate in consultations...

  15. 76 FR 13143 - Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Grant Program; Office of Elementary and Secondary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... learning program environments that engage and motivate children and youth in speaking, listening, reading... and grade-level mastery of (A) oral language skills, both listening and speaking, (B) phonological..., fluently, and with comprehension, relying on knowledge of the vocabulary in those texts and of the...

  16. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  17. JAPANESE READERS (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    THREE JAPANESE READERS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CONTAIN VOCABULARY, NOTES, AND DRILL SENTENCES. THE THREE READERS--(1) ARU SARARIIMAN NO ITI-NITI, (2) OTOOSAN WA KAMI-SAMA, AND (3) ARU GAKUSEI NO HANNITI--ARE WRITTEN IN THE ROMAJI ALPHABET. EACH READER HAS A VOCABULARY LISTING WITH ENGLISH EXPLANATIONS AND DRILL SENTENCES. AN ENGLISH WORD DEFINITION…

  18. Thermoluminescence dosimeter reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.E.A.; Marshall, J.; Brabants, J.A.P.; Davies, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    An electric circuit arrangement is described including a photomultiplier tube and a high voltage source therefor also includes a feedback loop from the output of the tube to the high voltage source, and loop providing automatic gain stabilization for the tube. The arrangement is used in a dosimeter reader to provide sensitivity correction for the reader each time the reader is to be used

  19. Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Couverture du livre Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Auteur(s) : Okore Apia Okorafor. Maison(s) d'édition : UCT Press, CRDI. 1 avril 2010. ISBN : 9781919895215. 200 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504895.

  20. Texts and Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  1. Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    Apr 1, 2010 ... Book cover Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism ... Primary Healthcare Spending is an important reference for ... field of health policy and health economics, agencies involved in providing ...

  2. Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean Experience ... of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. ... implementation of policies meant to promote education of girls and women.

  3. Dynamics of Networks if Everyone Strives for Structural Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Rijt, Arnout van de

    2008-01-01

    When entrepreneurs enter structural holes in networks, they can exploit the related benefits. Evidence for these benefits has steadily accumulated. The authors ask whether those who strive for such structural advantages can maintain them if others follow their example. Burt speculates that they

  4. The motivational properties of hope in goal striving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    We argue that hope is not an expectancy based on beliefs about pathways to desired goals and personal capacities to act on them, but an experience of the mere possibility of a desired outcome. We propose that in the latter sense, hope has unique motivational consequences for goal striving.

  5. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This concerns the article 'Ashoke Sen and S-duality'. The article omits an important fact: there is absolutely no experimental evidence for string theory. Without this information, readers may think they are reading about established facts, not speculation. A string theorist, Witten, was awarded a Fields Medal, which shows that ...

  6. Bytes, Books and Readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve

    2016-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...

  7. Growing Young Gifted Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Patricia F.

    2009-01-01

    There is great pressure on parents to teach children to read as early as possible. In reality, precocious (early advanced) readers seem to almost master the skill on their own, without the assistance of highly touted, commercially available programs. The 18-month-old toddler who names the letters on alphabet blocks; or the 26-month-old who can…

  8. Mathematics skills in good readers with hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marcia A; Pengelly, Sarah; Dennis, Maureen; Wilkinson, Margaret; Rogers, Tracey; Faulkner, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Children with hydrocephalus have poor math skills. We investigated the nature of their arithmetic computation errors by comparing written subtraction errors in good readers with hydrocephalus, typically developing good readers of the same age, and younger children matched for math level to the children with hydrocephalus. Children with hydrocephalus made more procedural errors (although not more fact retrieval or visual-spatial errors) than age-matched controls; they made the same number of procedural errors as younger, math-level matched children. We also investigated a broad range of math abilities, and found that children with hydrocephalus performed more poorly than age-matched controls on tests of geometry and applied math skills such as estimation and problem solving. Computation deficits in children with hydrocephalus reflect delayed development of procedural knowledge. Problems in specific math domains such as geometry and applied math, were associated with deficits in constituent cognitive skills such as visual spatial competence, memory, and general knowledge.

  9. Using temporal information to construct, update, and retrieve situation models of narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinck, M.; Hähnel, A.; Becker, G.

    2001-01-01

    Four experiments explored how readers use temporal information to construct and update situation models and retrieve them from memory. In Experiment 1, readers spontaneously constructed temporal and spatial situation models of single sentences. In Experiment 2, temporal inconsistencies caused

  10. Striving for Sustainable Organizational Changes in Hypercomplex Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit

    2017-01-01

    , and to enable organizational development (OD) to address the big question of the day. Originality/Value: The article adds to organizational development, HRM, NPM and performance management by providing a conception on, what it takes to become reflective of a higher order as to strive towards sustainability....../methodology/approach 1. Clarifying this articles understanding of the interrelated emergence of human resource management, new public management and performance management systems as producing a shared reservoir of semantics shaping other social systems through translation processes, structural coupling and coevolution...... conceptualization of different types of PMS to the levels of re-entry conceptualized in step 2 Findings This allows revealing the interplay of different types of PMS systems and whether they hinder or stabilize this long and vulnerable chain of re-entries needed in the striving for sustainable organizational...

  11. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  12. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  13. Dose reader CD-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakowiuk, A.; Kaluska, I.; Machaj, B.

    2005-01-01

    Dose Reader CD-02 is designed for measurement of dose from a long narrow band of dosimetric foil used for check up and control of electron beam dose during sterilization of materials and products on conveyor belt. Irradiated foil after processing (heating) is inserted into foil driving (moving) system and when the foil is moved across focused light beam the absorbed dose is measured and displayed at the same time at computer monitor (in form of a diagram). The absorbed dose is measured on the principle of light attenuation at selected light wavelength (foil absorbance is measured). (author)

  14. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,

  15. Aiming High: Exploring the Influence of Implementation Fidelity and Cognitive Demand Levels on Struggling Readers' Literacy Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jill; Feighan, Kelly; Kirtcheva, Elena; Heereen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Researchers studied components of a two-year school-wide Striving Readers intervention aimed at bolstering middle school teachers' use of literacy strategies to raise students' reading achievement. Although students of intervention teachers had significantly higher Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores than students of non-participating…

  16. Helping Struggling Adolescent Readers: Is Implementation of Different Components of Scholastic's READ 180 Associated with Differences in Student Achievement Gains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Debra J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses data from the evaluation of a Striving Readers project to examine the associations between levels of implementation of different components of Scholastic's "READ 180" and student achievement as measured on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) reading assessment. The approach was hierarchical linear modeling using…

  17. White paper on science and technology, 1997. Striving for an open research community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns the policy measures intended to promote science and technology, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. This report is constituted from three parts. Part 1 and 2 discuss trends in a wide range of scientific and technological activities to help the reader understand the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. Part 1, titled 'striving for an open research community', attempt an analysis of reform and current and future issues addressed in the Science and Technology Basic Plan, which was enacted in July, 1996. Part 2 uses various data to compare scientific and technological activities in Japan with those in other selected countries. Part 3 relates to policies implanted for the promotion of science and technology in the Science and Technology Agency, Japan Government. Here is described on science and technology policy development, development of comprehensive and systematic policies and promotion of research activities. (G.K.)

  18. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Rob M A; de Vet, Emely; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels depended on the perceived proximity to the goal. Participants with weight-loss intentions were randomly selected from an Internet panel and completed questionnaires at three points in time, baseline (T1; N= 725), 2 weeks later at T2 (N= 582) and again 2 months later at T3 (N= 528). Questionnaires assessed anticipated emotions (at T1) and experienced emotions (at T2) towards goal attainment and non-attainment. Goal proximity, goal desirability, and effort levels in striving for weight loss were assessed at both T1 and T2. Current and target weights were reported at all three assessments. In line with predictions, we found that negative anticipated emotions towards goal non-attainment resulted in increased effort but only if people perceived themselves in close proximity to their goal. Effort, in turn, predicted weight loss and goal achievement. The current data bear important practical implications as they identify anticipated emotions as targets of behaviour change interventions aimed to stimulate effort in striving for broad, health-related goals like weight loss. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  19. White paper on science and technology, 1996. Striving to become a front-runner in research activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the first report on policy measures implemented with regard to the promotion of science and technology, in accordance with Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law, which was enacted in November 1995. Parts 1 and 2 of this report discuss trends in a wide range of scientific and technological activities to help the reader understand the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology. Part 1, titled 'Striving to become a front-runner in research activity', attempts and analysis of the public's expectations and demands concerning science and technology; of the state of affairs at institutions engaged in R and D; and of the issues that require attention in the pursuit of future of research activity. In Part 2, various types of data are used to compare Japan's scientific and technological activities with those in other major nations. And, Part 3 contains Policies implemented for the promotion of science and technology. (G.K.)

  20. Report Card on Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This report examines the nature of the modern basal reader, its economics, and use. First, the report provides a history showing how the confluence of business principles, positivistic science, and behavioral psychology led to the transformation of reading textbooks into basal readers. Next, the report examines objectives and subjective factors…

  1. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  2. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  3. Systems and Architectures for Multimedia Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djeraba, C.; Sebe, N.; Lew, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a brief survey on multimedia information retrieval and we introduce some ideas investigated in the special issue. We hope that the contributions of this issue will stimulate the readers to tackle the current challenges and problems in this highly important research

  4. Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences Striving towards Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHAZLI, Nur Farahin; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2013-01-01

    The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences has in its 25 years “Silver Jubilee” achieved another milestone of being visible to the biomedical community when it was accepted in PubMed. The journal aim to increase its readership so as to increase impact in the biomedical field amongst its Asian readers despite having a high rejection rate. This was done to maintain quality of the manuscripts published over the years. PubMed listing should enable more manuscripts to be cited as its the leading biomedical journal for the Asian community. PMID:24043990

  5. Career Development Strivings: Assessing Goals and Motivation in Career Decision-Making and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Bryan J.; Sargent, Adam M.; Steger, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes and demonstrates a novel approach to assessing goals and motives among individuals engaged in the career decision-making and planning process. Participants generated five career development strivings, rated each striving along several dimensions (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, sense of calling, spiritual significance,…

  6. 41 CFR 102-79.110 - What Integrated Workplace policy must Federal agencies strive to promote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capital costs over a substantial time period; and (i) Support alternative workplace arrangements... Workplace policy must Federal agencies strive to promote? 102-79.110 Section 102-79.110 Public Contracts and... Integrated Workplace § 102-79.110 What Integrated Workplace policy must Federal agencies strive to promote...

  7. Faculty Agency in Striving University Contexts: Mundane yet Powerful Acts of Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Leslie D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from Archer's critical realist theory of agency, this paper has two specific aims. First, the cultural and structural features of one "striving" institution are outlined. Then, I illustrate how faculty members asserted agency inside their striving university in ways intended to disrupt the structures and cultures that striving…

  8. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eNicenboim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  9. A culture of striving augments use of working memory? Implications for attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-01-01

    A culture of striving was notable in the developmental background of many of the elite and super elite athletes in the Hardy et al. Critically, a culture of striving was credited with a positive influence on a range of issues relevant to elite sports performance, including performance under pressure. Of the six athletes who did not reveal a culture of striving, five reported the greatest difficulty performing in high-pressure situations. We suspect that a culture of striving facilitates the development of attention control ability, which subsequently assists performance under pressure. We discuss attention control from the perspective of working memory and hypothesize that a culture of striving trains individuals to maximize their working memory capacity. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  11. Image retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    The paper touches upon indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Different conceptions of what subject indexing means are described as a basis for defining an operational subject indexing strategy for images. The methodology is based on the art historian Erwin Panofsky......), special knowledge about image codes, and special knowledge about history of ideas. The semiologist Roland Barthes has established a semiology for pictorial expressions based on advertising photos. Barthes uses the concepts denotation/connotation where denotations can be explained as the sober expression...

  12. Triage for Struggling Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Linda J.

    2006-01-01

    To improve achievement for struggling readers in particular, secondary schools must design programs and curricula to address students' lack of background knowledge, delayed English language development, and limited success in reading. In this article, the author presents a systems approach that offers intensive care for the most at-risk students…

  13. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  14. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  15. Discovering the Self in Islam: Self-Striving, Self-Regard, and Self-Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Nik Ahmad Hisham Ismail, Mustafa Tekke

    2016-01-01

    This study explored some self domains and reviewed them through Islamic perspective, more particularly self-knowledge and faith. It provided an extensive literature on particular concepts of self-striving, self-regard, and self-neglect. To briefly point out, the self has many origins, however deeply noted as such heart, spirit, and psyche in Islam. From these, this study looked at the two known self domains: self-striving, and self-regard. Apart from these concepts, researchers differently ch...

  16. Multimedia database retrieval technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Muneesawang, Paisarn; Guan, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This book explores multimedia applications that emerged from computer vision and machine learning technologies. These state-of-the-art applications include MPEG-7, interactive multimedia retrieval, multimodal fusion, annotation, and database re-ranking. The application-oriented approach maximizes reader understanding of this complex field. Established researchers explain the latest developments in multimedia database technology and offer a glimpse of future technologies. The authors emphasize the crucial role of innovation, inspiring users to develop new applications in multimedia technologies

  17. Everyday strivings in war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: suffering from a hyper-focus on avoidance and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Breen, William E; Julian, Terri

    2010-09-01

    This research investigated whether combat veterans' daily strivings are related to the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and well-being. Veterans created a list of their most important strivings, which were content-analyzed for emotion regulation and approach or avoidance themes. It was hypothesized that veterans pursuing strivings with themes of emotion regulation or avoidance experience deleterious consequences compared with other veterans. For all veterans, devoting finite time and energy in daily life to regulating emotions was associated with less purpose, meaning, and joy compared with other strivings. Veterans with PTSD endorsed more strivings related to emotion regulation and devoted considerable effort to emotion regulation and avoidance strivings. Yet, these efforts failed to translate into any discernible benefits; veterans without PTSD derived greater joy and meaning from strivings focusing on approac- oriented behavior and themes other than emotion regulation. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of emotion regulation strivings led to the lowest global well-being and daily self-esteem during a 14-day assessment period. The presence of PTSD and a high rate of avoidance strivings also led to lower emotional well-being. Results indicate that strivings devoted to regulating emotions or avoidance efforts influence the mental health of veterans with and without PTSD. Studying personality at different levels of analysis-traits, strivings, and life narratives-allows for a fine-grained understanding of emotional disorders.

  18. Extending the E-Z Reader Model of Eye Movement Control to Chinese Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…

  19. Every reader his book – every book its reader?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    ’ advisory and audience development. This is achieved through an analysis of opinions and reflections expressed by 13 managers and librarians in all six county libraries in Denmark. The interviews are analysed through the model which merges three concepts: cultural policy, new public management......Collections are no longer the main attraction in libraries, and libraries are working to find new paths to tread. One strategy is to focus on reading and literature in new and surprising ways. The aim of this article is to enrich an understanding of activities situated in the span between readers...... and professional logics. Our findings show that Danish librarians’ views on readers’ advisory and audience development strike a balance between the experience and empowerment rationales with a prevailing focus on users. A user orientation and focus on user experiences have created a situation wherein the notions...

  20. Can self-verification strivings fully transcend the self-other barrier? Seeking verification of ingroup identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Angel; Seyle, D Conor; Huici, Carmen; Swann, William B

    2009-12-01

    Recent research has demonstrated self-verification strivings in groups, such that people strive to verify collective identities, which are personal self-views (e.g., "sensitive") associated with group membership (e.g., "women"). Such demonstrations stop short of showing that the desire for self-verification can fully transcend the self-other barrier, as in people working to verify ingroup identities (e.g., "Americans are loud") even when such identities are not self-descriptive ("I am quiet and unassuming"). Five studies focus on such ingroup verification strivings. Results indicate that people prefer to interact with individuals who verify their ingroup identities over those who enhance these identities (Experiments 1-5). Strivings for ingroup identity verification were independent of the extent to which the identities were self-descriptive but were stronger among participants who were highly invested in their ingroup identities, as reflected in high certainty of these identities (Experiments 1-4) and high identification with the group (Experiments 1-5). In addition, whereas past demonstrations of self-verification strivings have been limited to efforts to verify the content of identities (Experiments 1 to 3), the findings also show that they strive to verify the valence of their identities (i.e., the extent to which the identities are valued; Experiments 4 and 5). Self-verification strivings, rather than self-enhancement strivings, appeared to motivate participants' strivings for ingroup identity verification. Links to collective self-verification strivings and social identity theory are discussed.

  1. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  2. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and

  3. E-book Reader Devices and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažur, I.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore (http://ebookstore.sony.com/is the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?

  4. Exploring Faculty Experiences in a Striving University through the Lens of Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Leslie D.; Martinez, E.; Ordu, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw from academic capitalism to explore the work lives and experiences of faculty who work in a striving university. Our analysis suggests that faculty members feel pressures induced by academic capitalism, including a lack of space, no time and the sense of constant surveillance. Our work adds to the theoretical as well as…

  5. Effects of Goal-Striving Stress on the Mental Health of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Neighbors, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    Although many scholars have theorized about how responding to the stress of blocked opportunities can affect the well-being of black Americans, few scholars have empirically examined the relationships between striving efforts, personal goals, and mental health among black Americans. This investigation examines the relationship between…

  6. Striving for habitual well-being in non-invasive ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Grøfte, Thorbjørn

    2013-01-01

    December 2009 to January 2012. Results. A substantive theory of striving for habitual well-being was developed. The theory included three phases: initiation, transition, and determination. Each phase contained a set of subcategories to indicate the dimensions of and variations in the participants...

  7. Women Faculty Departures from a Striving Institution: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    The quest for institutional prestige in the academic hierarchy has become a common phenomenon among universities in the United States. At the same time, the institutions that choose to embark on such a journey (referred to as striving institutions) have not been closely examined to determine how such efforts influence the different constituencies…

  8. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  9. Transforming the energy system: Why municipalities strive for energy self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelken, Maximilian; Römer, Benedikt; Drescher, Marcus; Welpe, Isabell

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that a rising number of municipalities in Germany are striving for energy self-sufficiency, there is little understanding of the driving factors behind this development. We investigate economic, ecological, social and energy system related factors that drive municipalities to strive for energy self-sufficiency with a focus on electricity supply. The empirical data for this study is based on insights generated through expert interviews (N =19) with mayors, energy experts and scientists as well as a quantitative study among mayors and energy officers (N =109) of German municipalities. Results show that environmental awareness, tax revenues and greater independence from private utilities are positively related to the mayors’ attitude towards the realization of energy self-sufficiency. Furthermore, citizens, the political environment, the mayor's political power, and his/her financial resources are relevant factors for a municipality striving for energy self-sufficiency. Policymakers need to decide whether or not to support mayors in this development. For suitable policy interventions, the results suggest the importance of an integrated approach that considers a combination of identified factors. Finally, we propose a morphological box to structure different aspects of energy self-sufficiency and categorize the present study. - Highlights: • Municipalities striving for energy self-sufficiency can play a key role in the transition of the energy system. • Tax revenues and environmental awareness main drivers behind mayors’ attitude towards energy self-sufficiency. • Citizens and the political environment main influencers of mayors striving for energy self-sufficiency. • 19 expert interviews analyzed for the framework of the study based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). • 109 mayors and energy officers participated in the quantitative main survey.

  10. Teaching the Total Language with Readers Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jess A., Jr.

    Reading, writing, speech assignments for special education classes, English as a second language and many other classroom projects can be taught through the involvement created by Readers Theatre. Readers Theatre is the presentation of dialogue-type material in play form. The actors hold the script as they move through it and a narrator's voice…

  11. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  12. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  13. Using Readers' Theater with Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenburger, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The author needed a way to engage her students in the reading process and found one extremely successful strategy: using Readers' Theater. Readers' Theater "dramatizes" literature through a classroom performance and provides visual and oral stimulus to students who are not used to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. It involves a…

  14. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.

  15. Readers Theatre plus Comprehension and Word Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Stokes, Faida; Rasinski, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Readers Theatre has been used to introduce critical issues, promote fluency among English learners and non-English learners, teach vocabulary, and integrate content in the classroom. Previous studies of Readers Theatre application have demonstrated an increase in student reading fluency, motivation, and confidence. The focus of this systemic…

  16. The active reader: what is active?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.

    2012-01-01

    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept

  17. Practicum Training for Teachers of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Darrell

    2011-01-01

    Teachers who work with struggling beginning readers need a supervised training experience that leads them to understand both how reading ability develops and how to adapt instruction to meet the needs of individual children. The practicum, in which a teacher works with one struggling reader under the supervision of an experienced and expert…

  18. Cyber Literature: A Reader – Writer Interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathu Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Literature is a term known since the coming of the internet which brings a convenience, changing habit and world view. This study is a survey-based on respondents’ opinion about the existence of cyber literature on social media; of its benefit and impact to the reader. This study limits to the poems on Facebook group. The reason is simple; it favors the short form. For the study of a reader-writer interactivity in cyber literature is more likely on poetry. The approach is reader response literary theory with focus on the reader-writer interactivity on Facebook. This research aimed at uncovering the motivation of readers to response the uploaded text, the reasons why they love it and what its advantages. The results showed that cyber literature is successfully to introduce a new literary genre as well as to raise motivation and creativity of authors to make use the internet space.

  19. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  20. A new fully automated TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Ratna, P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    At present personnel monitoring in India is being carried out using a number of manual and semiautomatic TLD badge Readers and the BARC TL dosimeter badge designed during 1970. Of late the manual TLD badge readers are almost completely replaced by semiautomatic readers with a number of performance improvements like use of hot gas heating to reduce the readout time considerably. PC based design with storage of glow curve for every dosimeter, on-line dose computation and printout of dose reports, etc. However the semiautomatic system suffers from the lack of a machine readable ID code on the badge and the physical design of the dosimeter card not readily compatible for automation. This paper describes a fully automated TLD badge Reader developed in the RSS Division, using a new TLD badge with machine readable ID code. The new PC based reader has a built-in reader for reading the ID code, in the form of an array of holes, on the dosimeter card. The reader has a number of self-diagnostic features to ensure a high degree of reliability. (author)

  1. Process Synchronization with Readers and Writers Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kawash, Jalal

    2005-01-01

    The readers-writers problem is one of the very well known problems in concurrency theory. It was first introduced by Courtois et.al. in 1971 [1] and requires the synchronization of processes trying to read and write a shared resource. Several readers are allowed to access the resource simultaneously, but a writer must be given exclusive access to that resource. Courtois et.al. gave semaphore-based solutions to what they called the first and second readers-writers problems. Both of their solut...

  2. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  3. Ethical and cultural striving: Lived experiences of minority nurses in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Jakobsen, Rita; Sørlie, Venke

    2017-09-01

    Nursing workforce in Western European health institutions has become more diverse because of immigration and recruitment from Asian, African, and East-European countries. Minority healthcare providers may experience communication problems in interaction with patients and coworkers, and they are likely to experience conflict or uncertainty when confronted with different cultural traditions and values. Persons with dementia are a vulnerable group, and the consequences of their illness challenge the ability to understand and express oneself verbally. The large number of minority healthcare providers in nursing homes underlines the importance to obtain better knowledge about this group's experiences with the care challenges in dementia care units. Can you tell about any challenges in the experiences in the encounter with persons suffering from dementia? Participants and research context: Five minority healthcare providers in a nursing home, in a dementia unit. All guidelines for research ethic were followed. Ethical consideration: The participants were informed that participation was voluntary, and they were guarantied anonymity. We used a qualitative method, conducting individual interviews, using a narrative approach. In the analysis, we applied a phenomenological-hermeneutical method, developed for researching life experiences. One theme and four subthemes: striving to understand the quality of care for persons with dementia. The subthemes: sensitivity to understand the patients' verbal and nonverbal expressions. To understand gratefulness, understand the patient as an adult and autonomous person, and understand the patient as a patient in a nursing home. Challenges comprise both ethical and cultural striving to understand persons with dementia. To care for persons with dementia in an unfamiliar context may be understood as a striving for acting ethically, when at the same time striving to adapt and acculturate to new cultural norms, in order to practice good

  4. Nurses negotiating professional-familial care boundaries: striving for balance within double duty caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Brown, Judith Belle; St-Amant, Oona; Sutherland, Nisha; Martin-Matthews, Anne; Keefe, Janice; Kerr, Mickey

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this sequential, two-phase mixed-methods study was to examine the health of male and female nurses who provided care to older relatives (i.e., double duty caregivers). We explored the experiences of 32 double duty caregivers, which led to the development of an emergent grounded theory, Negotiating Professional-Familial Care Boundaries with two broad dialectical processes: professionalizing familial care and striving for balance. This article examines striving for balance, which is the process that responds to familial care expectations in the midst of available resources and reflects the health experiences of double duty caregivers. Two subprocesses of striving for balance, reaping the benefits and taking a toll, are presented in three composite vignettes, each representing specific double duty caregiving (DDC) prototypes (making it work, working to manage, living on the edge). This emergent theory extends current thinking of family caregiving that will inform the development and refinement of practices and policies relevant to DDC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Striving for meaning-Life in supported housing for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin, Rosita; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael; Syrén, Susanne; Sandgren, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a grounded theory about people with psychiatric disabilities, living in supported housing. Interviews as well as observations during the interviews were analyzed together with secondary analyses of quantitative and qualitative material from previous studies. Being deprived of self-determination emerged as the main concern for residents in supported housing and striving for meaning emerged as the pattern of behavior through which this group resolves their main concern. Striving for meaning involves living in the present, striving for self-determination, strengthening self-esteem, emotional processing and resting from the present. The strategies facilitate each other and are used singly, together simultaneously, or alternately. If they are successful, a meaning in the present is perceived. If all the strategies fail repeatedly, escaping from the present is used in order to deal with being deprived of self-determination. The implications of the findings suggest prioritizing a reduction of the institutional nature of the social and physical environment, and to support the residents' self-determination.

  6. Measuring striving for understanding and learning value of geometry: a validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Aydınyer, Yurdagül

    2017-11-01

    The current study aimed to construct a questionnaire that measures students' personality traits related to striving for understanding and learning value of geometry and then examine its psychometric properties. Through the use of multiple methods on two independent samples of 402 and 521 middle school students, two studies were performed to address this issue to provide support for its validity. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis indicated the two-factor model. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis indicated the better fit of two-factor model compared to one or three-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity evidence provided insight into the distinctiveness of the two factors. Subgroup validity evidence revealed gender differences for striving for understanding geometry trait favouring girls and grade level differences for learning value of geometry trait favouring the sixth- and seventh-grade students. Predictive validity evidence demonstrated that the striving for understanding geometry trait but not learning value of geometry trait was significantly correlated with prior mathematics achievement. In both studies, each factor and the entire questionnaire showed satisfactory reliability. In conclusion, the questionnaire was psychometrically sound.

  7. Striving for meaning—Life in supported housing for people with psychiatric disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Brolin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a grounded theory about people with psychiatric disabilities, living in supported housing. Interviews as well as observations during the interviews were analyzed together with secondary analyses of quantitative and qualitative material from previous studies. Being deprived of self-determination emerged as the main concern for residents in supported housing and striving for meaning emerged as the pattern of behavior through which this group resolves their main concern. Striving for meaning involves living in the present, striving for self-determination, strengthening self-esteem, emotional processing and resting from the present. The strategies facilitate each other and are used singly, together simultaneously, or alternately. If they are successful, a meaning in the present is perceived. If all the strategies fail repeatedly, escaping from the present is used in order to deal with being deprived of self-determination. The implications of the findings suggest prioritizing a reduction of the institutional nature of the social and physical environment, and to support the residents’ self-determination.

  8. Cultural Journalism Publications for Reluctant Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Barbara

    1980-01-01

    Provides a list of cultural journalism publications (based on oral history interviews) written, edited, and produced by students around the country that provide good easy reading for older reluctant readers. (MKM)

  9. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana KAIGORODOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thank you for inviting me to this meeting. I understood that it is a meeting of the editorial board with readers. But I would like to note that there is still such a small layer between the editors and readers, which is called the printing house. So it is the typography that materially embodies the ideas, thoughts and innovations of the editorial staff and the authors.

  10. Thomas Hardy and His Readers: Contradictions of the Rebellious Serial Writer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Sánchez Espinosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the relationship between Thomas Hardy and his contemporary readers from The Poor Man and the Lady, his first, unpublished, novel, to The Well- Beloved, his last one. It discovers a writer split into two, with Hardy, the artist, striving to cohabitate with Hardy-the serial writer for the three decades his career as a novelist lasted. In order to fully appreciate Hardy's novels as they have reached us nowadays, after the 1912 Wessex edition, we should focus on the contradictions between their initial manuscripts, their edited versions for the family magazines and their final reconstructions into volume forms. Although Hardy certainly wanted quick success with the Victorian masses he never let go of his "higher aspirations" to be received differently by a more select readership, even if this alternative reading had to be done between the lines at a later stage.

  11. Laparoscopic specimen retrieval bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgick, Noam

    2014-10-01

    Specimen retrieval bags have long been used in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery for contained removal of adnexal cysts and masses. More recently, the concerns regarding spread of malignant cells during mechanical morcellation of myoma have led to an additional use of specimen retrieval bags for contained "in-bag" morcellation. This review will discuss the indications for use retrieval bags in gynecologic endoscopy, and describe the different specimen bags available to date.

  12. Private information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev

  13. Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

  14. E-Book Readers in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N. Olsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.

  15. Striving for balance between family and work demands among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, Monica; Josephson, Malin; Arsalani, Narges; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2010-04-01

    The study reported here explored Iranian nurses' experience of managing work and family roles. Grounded theory method guided the data collection and data analysis from both individual and focus group interviews. Five categories emerged: family role, working conditions, seeking support, perceiving dissatisfaction, and perceiving threats to health. The core concept that emerged was striving for balance between family and work demands. In the work-family role the Iranian nurses faced significant pressures, and they mostly relied on their own capabilities to create balance, often neglecting their own needs. This resulted in perceived dissatisfaction and health threats.

  16. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period

  17. Retrieval from semantic memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman-Vonk, Wietske

    1977-01-01

    The present study has been concerned with the retrieval of semantic information. Retrieving semantic information is a fundamental process in almost any kind of cognitive behavior. The introduction presented the main experimental paradigms and results found in the literature on semantic memory as

  18. Does striving to succeed come at a physiological or psychosocial cost for adults who experienced child maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Hazzard, Vivienne M; Bauer, Katherine W; Clark, Cari Jo; Miller, Alison L

    2017-12-01

    While striving to succeed in the face of adversity may provide individuals with outward benefits, it may come at a cost to individuals' physical health. The current study examines whether striving predicts greater physiological or psychosocial costs among those who experienced child maltreatment, a stressor that disrupts the caregiving environment and threatens relationship security. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we tested whether greater striving after childhood maltreatment would come at a cost, increasing underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and depressive symptoms despite showing outward success via income and college degree attainment. The study included 13,341 Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents who self-reported striving and their experiences of childhood neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. As young adults, participants reported depressive symptoms, income, and college degree attainment and completed a health assessment from which a 30-year Framingham-based CVD risk score was calculated. Higher striving was associated with lower CVD risk and depressive symptoms, and higher income and college degree attainment, regardless of maltreatment history. These findings highlight the potential for striving as a target for interventions and support the need to examine multiple biological and behavioral outcomes to understand the multifaceted nature of resilience.

  19. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  20. Data Fusion in Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The technique of data fusion has been used extensively in information retrieval due to the complexity and diversity of tasks involved such as web and social networks, legal, enterprise, and many others. This book presents both a theoretical and empirical approach to data fusion. Several typical data fusion algorithms are discussed, analyzed and evaluated. A reader will find answers to the following questions, among others: -          What are the key factors that affect the performance of data fusion algorithms significantly? -          What conditions are favorable to data fusion algorithms? -          CombSum and CombMNZ, which one is better? and why? -          What is the rationale of using the linear combination method? -          How can the best fusion option be found under any given circumstances?

  1. Microcomputer control of automated TL reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarland, B.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic TL reader has been developed for use within a TLD based personal monitoring service. A 6800 based microcomputer is used for system control, operator communication, calibration and checking of reader operation, and for output of data. The dosimeter identity code is printed in human readable characters on the dosimeter card, and is read by using an optical character recognition unit. The code may include individual sensitivity correction coefficients for the TL chips on the card. The chips are heated with hot nitrogen gas and the thermoluminescence is recorded by a photomultiplier tube circuit, the gain and offset of which are continuously monitored and, when necessary, adjusted, to maintain calibration. The reader may operate in any of seven modes, i.e. reading modes for three types of dosimeters, semiautomatic modes for production of the three types of dosimeters, and a monitor mode. (Auth.)

  2. Postdecisional counterfactual thinking by actors and readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Vittorio; Ferrante, Donatella; Pighin, Stefania; Gonzalez, Michel

    2007-06-01

    How do individuals think counterfactually about the outcomes of their decisions? Most previous studies have investigated how readers think about fictional stories, rather than how actors think about events they have actually experienced. We assumed that differences in individuals' roles (actor vs. reader) can make different information available, which in turn can affect counterfactual thinking. Hence, we predicted an effect of role on postdecisional counterfactual thinking. Reporting the results of eight studies, we show that readers undo the negative outcome of a story by undoing the protagonist's choice to tackle a given problem, rather than the protagonist's unsuccessful attempt to solve it. But actors who make the same choice and experience the same negative outcome as the protagonist undo this outcome by altering features of the problem. We also show that this effect does not depend on motivational factors. These results contradict current accounts of counterfactual thinking and demonstrate the necessity of investigating the counterfactual thoughts of individuals in varied roles.

  3. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... be seen as journalistic positioning strategies and interactivity and mediated connectivity as both vital and challenging for the very field of journalism. This indicates that not only do the different kinds of interactivity seem to imply different kind of readers – they also seem to imply different ideals...

  4. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  5. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  6. Retrieval options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval;

  7. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  8. Rights of Postsecondary Readers and Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, JoAnne; Angus, Kathryn Bartle

    2018-01-01

    A position statement on the rights of adult readers and learners was adopted by the CRLA board in 2002 and published with a theoretical rationale in ["Journal of College Reading and Learning"] "JCRL," Spring 2003. The statement was a guideline for educators seeking to improve the quality of adult education. In 2016, at the…

  9. Communication: Learning to Write for the Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Mavis M.

    1980-01-01

    A new approach to teaching students to write effective business letters is presented. It uses class members as resources, writers, and readers for the assignment. Four stages are described: the interview, discussion of models and format, revision, and the reply. Results of the exercise and suggestions for continued application are included. (CT)

  10. A digital reader for condenser ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuermer, K.

    1978-01-01

    A reader for condenser chambers is described which has a completely automatic reading/charging operation, a modern digital readout presentation, and two full decades of exposure readout for each dosimeter type. The calibration and operation of the instrument are given

  11. Satisfying the Needs of the Serious Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Richard

    1987-01-01

    An examination of how well the Canadian public library is meeting the needs of the serious reader interested in self education, as compared to new and secondhand book stores and academic libraries, found that the public library is the most important and effective agency in providing materials for this group. (CLB)

  12. Patterns of Analogical Reasoning among Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…

  13. Collaboration between SSMJ and its readers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of us in the healthcare professions throughout the world can learn much from each other. This has been demonstrated so well by the collaboration between the editors, authors, medical experts and readers of the South Sudan Medical Journal. The Editor-in-Chief recently sent out a request for photographs and received a ...

  14. Readers' Tellings: Narrators, Settings, Flashbacks and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the impact of flashbacks and changes in settings and narrators on reader comprehension. Individually, 34 fourth graders (9 and 10 years of age), mostly with above average reading abilities (5.0), orally read the first chapter of a novel. Both publisher and readability formulae estimated the text to be at a fourth- grade…

  15. Next Generation Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)

  16. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  17. Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Katie; O'Rear, Allison; Morris, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that additional reading instruction is necessary to support struggling adolescent readers. In addition to time allocated for reading and access to appropriately leveled texts, many students need teacher support in learning and implementing a range of reading strategies. As a high school English teacher and a middle school Social…

  18. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  19. Understanding Deaf Readers: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstone, Aaron Weir

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills, beyond a functional level, is difficult for most deaf readers. Standardized testing demonstrates a median 4th grade reading level that remains consistent even after national norming of the Stanford Achievement test on the population of deaf school children. Deaf education continues to generate various educational…

  20. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  1. Guiding Young Readers to Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…

  2. Lexical Reading in Dysfluent Readers of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Melanie; Moll, Kristina; Jones, Manon W.; Banfi, Chiara; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Landerl, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Dyslexia in consistent orthographies like German is characterized by dysfluent reading, which is often assumed to result from failure to build up an orthographic lexicon and overreliance on decoding. However, earlier evidence indicates effects of lexical processing at least in some German dyslexic readers. We investigated variations in reading…

  3. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  4. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  5. Information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  6. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  9. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  10. Retrieve An Image

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Retrieve An Image. “A building”. “Box-shaped”. “Brown Color”. “Foreshortened view”. OR. Why not specify a similar looking picture? -- Main Motivation!

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  13. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  14. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  15. The automated Risoe TL dating reader system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The features of the new modified Riso TL dating reader system are described. A vacuum chamber that accommodates the entire 24-position sample changer unit has been designed. The vacuum and N 2 -gas functions are software-controlled. A newly designed heater system is capable of repeated heating cycles to 700 0 C. The sample changer system accommodates fine-grain discs as well as planchettes for coarse grains. Two software-controlled beta irradiators can be attached to the reader, e.g. for predose measurement. The software allows a user without programming expertise to create any desired measuring sequence, and to store and recall data and glow curves for making analyses. (author)

  16. Improvements of RGD3 TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianxing; Wang Jiaqi; Li Yuanfang; Wu Furong; Xiao Wuyun

    1999-01-01

    The author summarized the main features of the improved RGD3 TLD reader. Through a large number of experiments some persuasive data are obtained, which show that an remarkable improvement has been achieved, especially in its stability to the standard illuminates, data dispersivity, and effectiveness to glow curves analysis. Working with the newly developed data processing software, the comprehensive performance of the whole system will be enhanced greatly

  17. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  18. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  19. Microcomputer control of automated TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarland, Bert.

    1979-10-01

    The interfacing electronics, the control algorithms and the developed programs of a 6800 microcomputer controlled automated TLD reader are described. The TL reading system is implemented with a photomultiplier tube and a charge-to-pulse converter. The gain of the TL reading system is controlled through the use of a temperature compensated LED reference light source. Automatic compensation of PM tube dark current is optional. The short term stability of TL readings is better than 3 %. (author)

  20. Movie reviews: Who are the readers?

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Ignacio Azuela Flores; Victor Fernandez-Blanco; Maria Jose Sanzo-Perez

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the relationship between movie reviews and consumer's decision process has focused mainly on the side of critics, who have been defined as "influencers" or as "predictors" (Eliashberg & Shugan, 1997). Also, new ways to measure the impact of the critic have been introduced (Gemser, van Oostrum & Leenders, 2007) and the consistency of their opinions over time has been proved (Ginsburgh & Weyers, 1999). However, there is scarce evidence about the readers of movie reviews: who are...

  1. Tactile spatial resolution in blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, R W; Hamilton, R H; Kauffman, T; Keenan, J P; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-06-27

    To determine if blind people have heightened tactile spatial acuity. Recently, studies using magnetic source imaging and somatosensory evoked potentials have shown that the cortical representation of the reading fingers of blind Braille readers is expanded compared to that of fingers of sighted subjects. Furthermore, the visual cortex is activated during certain tactile tasks in blind subjects but not sighted subjects. The authors hypothesized that the expanded cortical representation of fingers used in Braille reading may reflect an enhanced fidelity in the neural transmission of spatial details of a stimulus. If so, the quantitative limit of spatial acuity would be superior in blind people. The authors employed a grating orientation discrimination task in which threshold performance is accounted for by the spatial resolution limits of the neural image evoked by a stimulus. The authors quantified the psychophysical limits of spatial acuity at the middle and index fingers of 15 blind Braille readers and 15 sighted control subjects. The mean grating orientation threshold was significantly (p = 0.03) lower in the blind group (1.04 mm) compared to the sighted group (1.46 mm). The self-reported dominant reading finger in blind subjects had a mean grating orientation threshold of 0.80 mm, which was significantly better than other fingers tested. Thresholds at non-Braille reading fingers in blind subjects averaged 1.12 mm, which were also superior to sighted subjects' performances. Superior tactile spatial acuity in blind Braille readers may represent an adaptive, behavioral correlate of cortical plasticity.

  2. Structure retrieval in HREM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribelyuk, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A new iteration method for direct structure retrieval starting from the exit plane-wave function Ψ e (r) is proposed and tested on models. The imaginary part of the potential cannot be retrieved. The effects of the limited resolution of Ψ e (r) as well as neglect of high-order Laue-zone effects and the choice of the starting potential on the result are discussed. The procedure is found to be preferable to that based on the subsequent approximation method with respect to a higher convergence rate. It is shown that an error as low as 10% may be obtained for the real part of the retrieved potential up to vertical strokeσV(r)tvertical stroke<5. (orig.)

  3. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented......: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions) put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992) is presented...

  4. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced un

  5. Information Retrieval Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation has always played a major role in information retrieval, with the early pioneers such as Cyril Cleverdon and Gerard Salton laying the foundations for most of the evaluation methodologies in use today. The retrieval community has been extremely fortunate to have such a well-grounded evaluation paradigm during a period when most of the human language technologies were just developing. This lecture has the goal of explaining where these evaluation methodologies came from and how they have continued to adapt to the vastly changed environment in the search engine world today. The lecture

  6. Information storage and retrieval system at Westinghouse Hanford Company Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theo, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The information storage and retrieval system developed at Westinghouse--Hanford is described. It will be able to store over two million documents on line. The system uses an interactive minicomputer to search for keyworded documents. Documents of interest can be displayed on CRTs or printed on microfilm reader--printers. 31 figures

  7. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  8. Readers and Texts in the Primary Years. Rethinking Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tony; Leather, Bob

    Exploring the responses of a variety of readers from three-year-old Dominic sharing a picture book with his father to adults reading a poem by Ted Hughes, this book examines the ways in which various readers respond to different texts. The aim of the book is to develop an awareness of the issues involved in readers' responses for primary teachers.…

  9. Rereading Multicultural Readers: What Definition of Multicultural Are We Buying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Nancy

    A flood of new multicultural readers and textbooks are hitting the market for writing and literature courses at the college level. Yet there has been no systematic examination of how these readers are being used, the purposes and audiences for which they are written, or the critical reception they have received. Multicultural readers distinguish…

  10. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  11. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  12. Reader Engagement in English and Persian Applied Linguistics Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…

  13. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated…

  14. Development of retrievability plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1999-03-01

    It has become clear, from monitoring of many national programmes for siting of final repositories for radioactive waste disposal, that the potential or otherwise for retrievability of emplaced wastes is the one issue in particular which is repeatedly raised during public consultation and interaction. Although even those repositories which may be constructed over the next decades will operate for many decades more and be sealed only after a long-term monitoring phase, there is little operational pressure to finalise retrievability concepts. However, as siting processes require detailed conceptual designs to be developed, as do the associated safety assessment exercises, it is becoming increasingly recognised that the potential for retrieval must be examined now. This report is the culmination of a short project carried out for the Swedish National Co-ordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal to examine the situation as regards the development and possible implementation of retrievability as an integral part of a disposal concept for nuclear waste. Because of the short work period involved, it can at best be only an overview, designed to provide a broad picture of current plans. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has begun to examine the issue, and a report is due later in 1999. A major collaborative investigation, which began in March 1998, is also currently underway under the auspices of the EU, but only involves implementing agencies from the various Member States. This report is intended to serve as background to these other studies when they appear. Utilising currently available information, as well as personal contacts, those countries currently examining retrievability or reversibility of disposal in some form have been identified. Information regarding these proposals has been collated, and contact made with relevant agencies and national regulatory bodies where possible. The report includes some review of the technical aspects of retrievability, with especial

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign ...

  16. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  17. Energy Storage and Retrieval

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Energy Storage and Retrieval The Secondary Battery Route. A K Shukla P Vishnu Kamath.

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  19. Utah Text Retrieval Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaar, L A

    1983-10-01

    The Utah Text Retrieval project seeks well-engineered solutions to the implementation of large, inexpensive, rapid text information retrieval systems. The project has three major components. Perhaps the best known is the work on the specialized processors, particularly search engines, necessary to achieve the desired performance and cost. The other two concern the user interface to the system and the system's internal structure. The work on user interface development is not only concentrating on the syntax and semantics of the query language, but also on the overall environment the system presents to the user. Environmental enhancements include convenient ways to browse through retrieved documents, access to other information retrieval systems through gateways supporting a common command interface, and interfaces to word processing systems. The system's internal structure is based on a high-level data communications protocol linking the user interface, index processor, search processor, and other system modules. This allows them to be easily distributed in a multi- or specialized-processor configuration. It also allows new modules, such as a knowledge-based query reformulator, to be added. 15 references.

  20. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes kno...

  1. Music Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  2. Information Retrieval in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Arthur

    Discussed in this paper are the information problems in physics and the current program of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) being conducted in an attempt to develop an information retrieval system. The seriousness of the need is described by means of graphs indicating the exponential rise in the number of physics publications in the last…

  3. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail: manolo@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: jotag@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: alex@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: andy@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gilberto@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  4. Techno-Literacy Practices of Emergent Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razeale G. Fernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available – This research explored the techno-literacy practices of emergent readers. The study found that young children experienced a multi-literate practices in their homes that comprised not only print and paper-based literacies but also techno-literacies. That television, games on tablets and phones are the sources of textual pleasure of young children.Families reported that children watched television and play games on tablets/phones regularly. This is due to the limited options of leisure activities available to younger children. Emergent readers are highly focused to televisual text as they demonstrate meaningmaking practices when they constantly ask questions and talk about what they are watching,hence they are active meaning-makers. The learning opportunities which include hand eye coordination, parallel processing, and problem solving skills young children acquired through playing computer games and games on tablet/iPad . Aside from these, they also developed a number of literacy skills as well as how to behave as players.It can be concluded thatexposure to imagery in electronic technologies contributed to the children’s literacy development. The literate identities of emergent readers can be further enhanced as they begin formal schooling. Data indicated that young children are developing techno-literacy practices and this concurs to the findings of Marsh (2010. Therefore, technology serves as a tool for the literacy development of young children. That techno-literacy practices of young children should be valued in school. Future research should also consider attitude, behavior and practices of parents towards the use of technology by children.

  5. Retrievability, ethics and democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Westerlind, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ethics is always a social concern, an integrated part of laws and regulations. Treatment of ethics as a separate part in the decision making process is therefore always debatable. It cannot be introduced as an extraneous component to compensate for, or to improve, a morally flawed practice, and the margin for unethical practices is strongly circumscribed by regulation in the nuclear field, internationally. However, a discussion on different stakeholders and their different ethical concerns should always be welcome. One example is the implementer's views on ethics. Even if they are in complete parity with existing legal and regulatory goals, the goals may still represent the implementer's own motives and choices. Also, stakeholders may view the laws or regulations as unfair. In making the critique, the stakeholder simply formulates a separate political standpoint. Finally, an alternative discussion is to place existing regulations into an ethical perspective - adding a new dimension to the issues. Retrievability for high level waste repositories is often in focus in ethical discussions. Unfortunately, it is used in many ways and has become an unclear term. It may cover anything from planned recuperation to the property of waste being retrievable in years or tens of years, or in the distant time range of hundreds or thousands of years. The term retrievability is often proposed to cover mainly positive qualities such as the option of later changes to the repository or a new disposal concept. However, as ICRP and others have pointed out, it also implies the possibility of: i) operational exposures, ii) continuing risks of accidental releases, iii) financial provisions to cover operating costs and iv) continuing reliance on institutional control, thus imposing some burdens to future generations. In a certain sense, anything can be retrieved from any repository. There is therefore a need for a clear and operable definition of retrievability requirements, including the

  6. Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.

  7. Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Traci; de Ridder, Denise; Fujita, Kentaro

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this article is to review and highlight the relevance of social psychological research on self-regulation for health-related theory and practice. We first review research on goal setting, or determining which goals to pursue and the criteria to determine whether one has succeeded. We discuss when and why people adopt goals, what properties of goals increase the likelihood of their attainment, and why people abandon goals. We then review research on goal striving, which includes the planning and execution of actions that lead to goal attainment, and the processes that people use to shield their goals from being disrupted by other competing goals, temptations, or distractions. We describe four types of strategies that people use when pursuing goals. We find that self-regulation entails the operation of a number of psychological mechanisms, and that there is no single solution that will help all people in all situations. We recommend a number of strategies that can help people to more effectively set and attain health-related goals. We conclude that enhancing health behavior requires a nuanced understanding and sensitivity to the varied, dynamic psychological processes involved in self-regulation, and that health is a prototypical and central domain in which to examine the relevance of these theoretical models for real behavior. We discuss the implications of this research for theory and practice in health-related domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. How might global health master deadly sins and strive for greater virtues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Panter-Brick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of critical reflection, we examine how the field of global health might surmount current challenges and prioritize its ethical mandate, namely to achieve, for all people, equity in health. We use the parlance of mastering deadly sins and striving for greater virtues in an effort to review what is needed to transform global health action. Global health falls prey to four main temptations: coveting silo gains, lusting for technological solutions, leaving broad promises largely unfulfilled, and boasting of narrow successes. This necessitates a change of heart: to keep faith with the promise it made, global health requires a realignment of core values and a sharper focus on the primacy of relationships with the communities it serves. Based on the literature to date, we highlight six steps to re-orienting global health action. Articulating a coherent global health agenda will come from principled action, enacted through courage and prudence in decision-making to foster people-centered systems of care over the entire lifespan.

  9. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SCHMITZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available From the scientific perspective this review is very interesting. It is well-structured, has an attractive lay-out and typography and serves as an important forum for the scientific debate on public administration in the Republic of Moldova. Furthermore, there is a special website with several subwebsites for the review. This makes it easy for every interested reader to get an idea of the review. Finally, the websites allows free downloads even of the newest issue. This allows everybody to read it, even students (because it is free and foreign researchers (who otherwise would not have access to Moldovan scientific reviews.

  10. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2000-07-01

    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  12. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR), music imagery information retrieval (MIIR) aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition-such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  13. Toward Studying Music Cognition with Information Retrieval Techniques: Lessons Learned from the OpenMIIR Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stober

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging sub-field of music information retrieval (MIR, music imagery information retrieval (MIIR aims to retrieve information from brain activity recorded during music cognition–such as listening to or imagining music pieces. This is a highly inter-disciplinary endeavor that requires expertise in MIR as well as cognitive neuroscience and psychology. The OpenMIIR initiative strives to foster collaborations between these fields to advance the state of the art in MIIR. As a first step, electroencephalography (EEG recordings of music perception and imagination have been made publicly available, enabling MIR researchers to easily test and adapt their existing approaches for music analysis like fingerprinting, beat tracking or tempo estimation on this new kind of data. This paper reports on first results of MIIR experiments using these OpenMIIR datasets and points out how these findings could drive new research in cognitive neuroscience.

  14. Mobile medical image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  15. Automatic spent fuel ID number reader (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, S.; Kawamoto, H.; Fujimaki, K.; Kobe, A.

    1991-01-01

    An effective and efficient technique has been developed for facilitating identification works of LWR spent fuel stored in large scale spent fuel storage pools of such as processing plants. Experience shows that there are often difficulties in the implementation of operator's nuclear material accountancy and control works as well as safeguards inspections conducted on spent fuel assemblies stored in deep water pool. This paper reports that the technique is realized as an automatic spent fuel ID number reader system installed on fuel handling machine. The ID number reader system consists of an optical sub-system and an image processing sub-system. Thousands of spent fuel assemblies stored in under water open racks in each storage pool could be identified within relatively short time (e.g. within several hours) by using this combination. Various performance tests were carried out on image processing sub-system in 1990 using TV images obtained from different types of spent fuel assemblies stored in various storage pools of PWR and BWR power stations

  16. Qualitative content analysis of online news media coverage of weight loss surgery and related reader comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N M; Champion, C C; Spence, J C

    2012-10-01

    The media has the ability to affect public opinion and policy direction. Prevalence of morbid obesity in Canada is increasing; as is the only effective long-term treatment, weight loss surgery (WLS). Limited research has explored media re/presentations of WLS. The purpose of this study was to examine national online news coverage (and reader comments) of WLS using content analysis. We sought to understand the dominant messages being conveyed within the news texts and reader comments, specifically whose voice was represented, who was the intended audience and what was the overall tone. Articles and comments were retrieved from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation news web site and analysed using line-by-line techniques. Articles were predominantly 'positive/supportive' (63%) in tone and frequently presented the voices and opinions of 'experts' conveying a biomedical perspective. Comments were overwhelmingly 'negative' (56%) and often derogatory including such language as 'piggy' and 'fatty'. Comments were almost exclusively anonymous (99%) and were frequently directed at other commenters (33%) and 'fat' people (6%). The potentially problematic nature of media framing and reader comments, particularly as they could relate to weight-based stigmatization and discrimination is discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  19. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

  20. JINR information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaudov, D.D.; Govorun, N.N.

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the main files of the JINR Information Retrieval System is described. There are four main files in the System. They are as follows: MD file that consists of abstracts of documents; OMPOD file where the index records of documents are gathered; MZD file that consists of list heads, and OMD file- the file of descriptors. The last three files are considered in some detail. The System is realized in the COBOL language on the CDC computer

  1. Affective Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ju-Chiang; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Hsin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Much of the appeal of music lies in its power to convey emotions/moods and to evoke them in listeners. In consequence, the past decade witnessed a growing interest in modeling emotions from musical signals in the music information retrieval (MIR) community. In this article, we present a novel generative approach to music emotion modeling, with a specific focus on the valence-arousal (VA) dimension model of emotion. The presented generative model, called \\emph{acoustic emotion Gaussians} (AEG)...

  2. Automated Medical Literature Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hawking

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The constantly growing publication rate of medical research articles puts increasing pressure on medical specialists who need to be aware of the recent developments in their field. The currently used literature retrieval systems allow researchers to find specific papers; however the search task is still repetitive and time-consuming. Aims In this paper we describe a system that retrieves medical publications by automatically generating queries based on data from an electronic patient record. This allows the doctor to focus on medical issues and provide an improved service to the patient, with higher confidence that it is underpinned by current research. Method Our research prototype automatically generates query terms based on the patient record and adds weight factors for each term. Currently the patient’s age is taken into account with a fuzzy logic derived weight, and terms describing blood-related anomalies are derived from recent blood test results. Conditionally selected homonyms are used for query expansion. The query retrieves matching records from a local index of PubMed publications and displays results in descending relevance for the given patient. Recent publications are clearly highlighted for instant recognition by the researcher. Results Nine medical specialists from the Royal Adelaide Hospital evaluated the system and submitted pre-trial and post-trial questionnaires. Throughout the study we received positive feedback as doctors felt the support provided by the prototype was useful, and which they would like to use in their daily routine. Conclusion By supporting the time-consuming task of query formulation and iterative modification as well as by presenting the search results in order of relevance for the specific patient, literature retrieval becomes part of the daily workflow of busy professionals.

  3. The Wikipedia Image Retrieval Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tsikrika (Theodora); J. Kludas

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe wikipedia image retrieval task at ImageCLEF provides a testbed for the system-oriented evaluation of visual information retrieval from a collection of Wikipedia images. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of retrieval approaches that exploit textual and visual evidence in the

  4. DORS: DDC Online Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Songqiao; Svenonius, Elaine

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Dewey Online Retrieval System (DORS), which was developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), to experiment with classification-based search strategies in online catalogs. Classification structures in automated information retrieval are discussed; and specifications for a classification retrieval interface are…

  5. An historical overview of the first two decades of striving towards Safe Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Gaynor D

    2010-02-01

    The paper examines some of the progress and problems encountered during the first two decades of the Safe Motherhood Initiative. Sufficient statistics are cited to identify the immensity of the persisting problems associated with maternal death and morbidity before the study focuses on some of the endeavours designed to enable women to survive their natural function of giving birth. Varying attitudes and approaches that have characterised the initiatives launched in the past 20 years are reviewed and their changing emphases noted. The stress on treating the medical causes of maternal death in the early years have been complemented by increasing attention to social and political issues as time has elapsed. The advent of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has impelled efforts to provide skilled attendance for all women during childbirth; the poor, socially disadvantaged and vulnerable being those most at risk. MDG 5, concerning maternal health, is perceived as pivotal in the context of global development. Maternal death when viewed from the human rights perspective is perceived as a social injustice rather than a health disadvantage and Safe Motherhood is currently considered increasingly as a basic human right. The study offers a synthesis of concepts and actions that are contributing to building Safe Motherhood across the globe in the 21st century. In considering the factors that inhibit the degree of safety associated with giving birth, global efforts that are tackling a persisting buffer zone are identified and continuous action urged in order to strive towards the targets set for 2015. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  7. The People Paradox: Self-Esteem Striving, Immortality Ideologies, and Human Response to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis L. Dickinson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1973, Ernest Becker, a cultural anthropologist cross-trained in philosophy, sociology, and psychiatry, invoked consciousness of self and the inevitability of death as the primary sources of human anxiety and repression. He proposed that the psychological basis of cooperation, competition, and emotional and mental health is a tendency to hold tightly to anxiety-buffering cultural world views or "immortality projects" that serve as the basis for self-esteem and meaning. Although he focused mainly on social and political outcomes like war, torture, and genocide, he was increasingly aware that materialism, denial of nature, and immortality-striving efforts to control, rather than sanctify, the natural world were problems whose severity was increasing. In this paper I review Becker's ideas and suggest ways in which they illuminate human response to global climate change. Because immortality projects range from belief in technology and materialism to reverence for nature or belief in a celestial god, they act both as barriers to and facilitators of sustainable practices. I propose that Becker's cross-disciplinary "science of man," and the predictions it generates for proximate-level determinants of social behavior, add significantly to our understanding of and potential for managing the people paradox, i.e., that the very things that bring us symbolic immortality often conflict with our prospects for survival. Analysis of immortality projects as one of the proximate barriers to addressing climate change is both cautionary and hopeful, providing insights that should be included in the cross-disciplinary quest to uncover new pathways toward rational, social change.

  8. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toss Göran

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. Methods The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Results The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. Conclusion HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  9. A striving for independence: a qualitative study of women living with vertebral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Inger; Ek, Anna-Christina; Toss, Göran; Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta

    2010-04-16

    Quantitative studies using generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires have shown that osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures have a significant negative effect on HRQOL, but there are only few studies that address what it means to live with vertebral fracture from a deeper experiential perspective. How HRQOL and daily life are affected several years after vertebral fracture and how women cope with this are more unclear. This study aimed to describe how HRQOL and daily life had been affected in women with vertebral fracture several years after diagnosis. The study design was qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten Swedish women during 2008. Data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis. The findings of this study revealed three themes related to the influence on HRQOL and daily life: A threatened independence, i.e. back pain, anxiety, negative impact on self-image and consequences in daily life; Strategies for maintaining independence, i.e. coping, self-care and support; and The importance of maintaining independence, i.e. the ability to perform everyday activities, social interaction and having something meaningful to do. The women were striving for independence or maintaining their independence by trying to manage different types of symptoms and consequences in different ways. HRQOL and daily life were strongly affected in a negative way by the impact of the vertebral fracture. Information from this study may provide new knowledge and understanding of the women's experiences of living with vertebral fracture from an insider's point of view in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the women's everyday life. However, further evaluation is still needed in larger study groups.

  10. [Survey among readers of the Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Dominicus, J C; van Harten, P N

    2006-01-01

    The editorial board has defined the objectives of this journal as follows: to provide its readers with refreshing information, to report the results of scientific research and to build bridges between research and everyday practice. To find out what readers want and whether they support the board's objectives, and to use this information in planning the contents of future issues of the journal. All readers were invited to complete a questionnaire either on paper or via the website. Questionnaires were completed by 255 readers (response rate 5.7%). The average rating on a 5-point Likert scale was 3.8. Thematic issues and issues devoted to book reviews were given a high rating. There seems to be a demandfor evidence-based medicine, the inclusion of scientific results reported in other journals and practice-based articles. No significant differences were found between the views expressed by readers who had previously submitted an article for publication and those who had not, nor between Flemish readers and Dutch readers. The website was not visited very often. The Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie is greatly appreciated by its readers. They are largely in agreement with the objectives formulated by the editorial board. Thematic issues are highly rated and many subjects are mentioned by the readers for future issues. The low response to the survey can affect its representativity. The editorial board will take readers' wishes into consideration when selecting material for future issues of the journal.

  11. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Factors that Affect Retrieval Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisbuesch, Philipp, E-mail: philippgeisbuesch@gmx.de; Benenati, James F.; Pena, Constantino S.; Couvillon, Joseph; Powell, Alex; Gandhi, Ripal; Samuels, Shaun; Uthoff, Heiko [Baptist Cardiac and Vascular Institute, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To report and analyze the indications, procedural success, and complications of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCF) placement and to identify parameters that influence retrieval attempt and failure. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2010, a total of 200 patients (80 men, median age 67 years, range 11-95 years) received a rIVCF with the clinical possibility that it could be removed. All patients with rIVCF were prospectively entered into a database and followed until retrieval or a decision not to retrieve the filter was made. A retrospective analysis of this database was performed. Results: Sixty-one percent of patients had an accepted indication for filter placement; 39% of patients had a relative indication. There was a tendency toward a higher retrieval rate in patients with relative indications (40% vs. 55%, P = 0.076). Filter placement was technically successful in all patients, with no procedure-related mortality. The retrieval rate was 53%. Patient age of >80 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.056, P > 0.0001) and presence of malignancy (OR 0.303, P = 0.003) was associated with a significantly reduced probability for attempted retrieval. Retrieval failure occurred in 7% (6 of 91) of all retrieval attempts. A time interval of > 90 days between implantation and attempted retrieval was associated with retrieval failure (OR 19.8, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Patient age >80 years and a history of malignancy are predictors of a reduced probability for retrieval attempt. The rate of retrieval failure is low and seems to be associated with a time interval of >90 days between filter placement and retrieval.

  12. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Factors that Affect Retrieval Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisbüsch, Philipp; Benenati, James F.; Peña, Constantino S.; Couvillon, Joseph; Powell, Alex; Gandhi, Ripal; Samuels, Shaun; Uthoff, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report and analyze the indications, procedural success, and complications of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCF) placement and to identify parameters that influence retrieval attempt and failure. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2010, a total of 200 patients (80 men, median age 67 years, range 11–95 years) received a rIVCF with the clinical possibility that it could be removed. All patients with rIVCF were prospectively entered into a database and followed until retrieval or a decision not to retrieve the filter was made. A retrospective analysis of this database was performed. Results: Sixty-one percent of patients had an accepted indication for filter placement; 39% of patients had a relative indication. There was a tendency toward a higher retrieval rate in patients with relative indications (40% vs. 55%, P = 0.076). Filter placement was technically successful in all patients, with no procedure-related mortality. The retrieval rate was 53%. Patient age of >80 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.056, P > 0.0001) and presence of malignancy (OR 0.303, P = 0.003) was associated with a significantly reduced probability for attempted retrieval. Retrieval failure occurred in 7% (6 of 91) of all retrieval attempts. A time interval of > 90 days between implantation and attempted retrieval was associated with retrieval failure (OR 19.8, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Patient age >80 years and a history of malignancy are predictors of a reduced probability for retrieval attempt. The rate of retrieval failure is low and seems to be associated with a time interval of >90 days between filter placement and retrieval.

  13. How Readers Shape the Content of an Encyclopedia: A Case Study Comparing the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890 with Wikipedia (2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spree

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How knowledge is negotiated between the makers of encyclopedias and their audiences remains an ongoing question in research on encyclopedias. A comparative content analysis of the published answers of letters to the editor of the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (Korrespondenzblatt from 1885 and the discussion pages of the article potato of the German Wikipedia (2013 reveals continuities as well as changes in the communication between encyclopedia producers and their audiences. The main reasons why readers and editors communicate are the need for updated factual information, an exchange on editorial principles and the intellectual exchange of ideas on ideological and philosophical questions in relation to the encyclopedic content. Editors and readers attach a lot of importance to the process of verifying information through bibliographical references. Whereas, for the editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon the leading role of experts remains undisputed, Wikipedians work in a contradictory situation. They are on the one hand exposing knowledge production to a permanent process of negotiation, thereby challenging the role of experts, on the other hand relying strongly on bibliographical authorities. Whilst the reasons for the communication between readers and editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon and among Wikipedia contributors coincide, the understanding of the roles of readers and editors differ. The editors of the Korrespondenzblatt keep up a lecturing attitude. As opposed to this, administrators in Wikipedia want to encourage participation and strive to develop expertise among the participating contributors. Albeit power relations between administrators, regular authors, occasional authors and readers continue to exist they are comparatively flat and transient. Regardless of these differences, the comparison between Meyers Konversationslexikon and Wikipedia indicates that the sine qua non for activating an upwards spiral of quality

  14. A New 1DVAR Retrieval for AMSR2 and GMI: Validation and Sensitivites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    A new non-raining retrieval has been developed for microwave imagers and applied to the GMI and AMSR2 sensors. With the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) as the forward model for the physical retrieval, a 1-dimensional variational method finds the atmospheric state which minimizes the difference between observed and simulated brightness temperatures. A key innovation of the algorithm development is a method to calculate the sensor error covariance matrix that is specific to the forward model employed and includes off-diagonal elements, allowing the algorithm to handle various forward models and sensors with little cross-talk. The water vapor profile is resolved by way of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and then summed to get total precipitable water (TPW). Validation of retrieved 10m wind speed, TPW, and sea surface temperature (SST) is performed via comparison with buoys and radiosondes as well as global models and other remotely sensed products. In addition to the validation, sensitivity experiments investigate the impact of ancillary data on the under-constrained retrieval, a concern for climate data records that strive to be independent of model biases. The introduction of model analysis data is found to aid the algorithm most at high frequency channels and affect TPW retrievals, whereas wind and cloud water retrievals show little effect from ingesting further ancillary data.

  15. Reader performance in visual assessment of breast density using visual analogue scales: Are some readers more predictive of breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Millicent; Harkness, Elaine F.; Foden, Philip; Wilson, Mary; Gadde, Soujanya; Beetles, Ursula; Lim, Yit Y.; Jain, Anil; Bundred, Sally; Barr, Nicky; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Maxwell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.

    2018-03-01

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, and is used in risk prediction and for deciding appropriate imaging strategies. In the Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening (PROCAS) study, percent density estimated by two readers on Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) has shown a strong relationship with breast cancer risk when assessed against automated methods. However, this method suffers from reader variability. This study aimed to assess the performance of PROCAS readers using VAS, and to identify those most predictive of breast cancer. We selected the seven readers who had estimated density on over 6,500 women including at least 100 cancer cases, analysing their performance using multivariable logistic regression and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis. All seven readers showed statistically significant odds ratios (OR) for cancer risk according to VAS score after adjusting for classical risk factors. The OR was greatest for reader 18 at 1.026 (95% Cl 1.018-1.034). Adjusted Area Under the ROC Curves (AUCs) were statistically significant for all readers, but greatest for reader 14 at 0.639. Further analysis of the VAS scores for these two readers showed reader 14 had higher sensitivity (78.0% versus 42.2%), whereas reader 18 had higher specificity (78.0% versus 46.0%). Our results demonstrate individual differences when assigning VAS scores; one better identified those with increased risk, whereas another better identified low risk individuals. However, despite their different strengths, both readers showed similar predictive abilities overall. Standardised training for VAS may improve reader variability and consistency of VAS scoring.

  16. Skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Nathalie N; Slattery, Timothy J; Mayberry, Rachel I; Rayner, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that, compared with hearing people, deaf people have enhanced visual attention to simple stimuli viewed in the parafovea and periphery. Although a large part of reading involves processing the fixated words in foveal vision, readers also utilize information in parafoveal vision to preprocess upcoming words and decide where to look next. In the study reported here, we investigated whether auditory deprivation affects low-level visual processing during reading by comparing the perceptual span of deaf signers who were skilled and less-skilled readers with the perceptual span of skilled hearing readers. Compared with hearing readers, the two groups of deaf readers had a larger perceptual span than would be expected given their reading ability. These results provide the first evidence that deaf readers' enhanced attentional allocation to the parafovea is used during complex cognitive tasks, such as reading.

  17. Guenter Tulip Filter Retrieval Experience: Predictors of Successful Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turba, Ulku Cenk; Arslan, Bulent; Meuse, Michael; Sabri, Saher; Macik, Barbara Gail; Hagspiel, Klaus D.; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Angle, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We report our experience with Guenter Tulip filter placement indications, retrievals, and procedural problems, with emphasis on alternative retrieval techniques. We have identified 92 consecutive patients in whom a Guenter Tulip filter was placed and filter removal attempted. We recorded patient demographic information, filter placement and retrieval indications, procedures, standard and nonstandard filter retrieval techniques, complications, and clinical outcomes. The mean time to retrieval for those who experienced filter strut penetration was statistically significant [F(1,90) = 8.55, p = 0.004]. Filter strut(s) IVC penetration and successful retrieval were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.043). The filter hook-IVC relationship correlated with successful retrieval. A modified guidewire loop technique was applied in 8 of 10 cases where the hook appeared to penetrate the IVC wall and could not be engaged with a loop snare catheter, providing additional technical success in 6 of 8 (75%). Therefore, the total filter retrieval success increased from 88 to 95%. In conclusion, the Guenter Tulip filter has high successful retrieval rates with low rates of complication. Additional maneuvers such as a guidewire loop method can be used to improve retrieval success rates when the filter hook is endothelialized.

  18. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding.

  19. Can agonistic striving lead to unexplained illness? Implicit goals, pain tolerance, and somatic symptoms in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Craig K; Elder, Gavin J; Laird, Kelsey T; Shelby, Grace D; Walker, Lynn S

    2014-09-01

    We tested the social action theory hypotheses that (a) psychological stress induced by struggling to control others (agonistic striving) is associated with higher levels of subjective somatic symptoms than stress induced by struggling to control the self (transcendence striving); (b) the association between agonistic striving and symptoms is moderated by the ability to tolerate pain; and (c) associations among agonistic goals, pain tolerance, and subjective symptoms are not explained by personality and affective traits or negative emotional responses to personal stressors. Implicit motives and negative emotional reactivity to recurring personal stressors were assessed by Social Competence Interview in 333 adolescents and adults who participated in longitudinal research on functional abdominal pain at a university medical center. Pain tolerance was assessed by graduated thermal pain protocol; subjective somatic symptoms, and personality/affective traits assessed by questionnaires. The primary outcome measure was the self-reported severity of 35 somatic symptoms often experienced in the absence of diagnosable disease. All hypotheses were supported. Nonconscious agonistic strivings may increase the perceived frequency and severity of subjective somatic symptoms; this tendency is greatly magnified by difficulty in self-regulating responses to painful stimuli. Implicit agonistic motives and their associations with symptoms are not explained by individual differences in trait neuroticism, anxiety, depression, anger, or low self-esteem or by negative emotional reactivity to a personal stressor. These findings may afford fruitful insights into mechanisms by which stressful social environments undermine health and suggest promising directions for clinical intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Reception theory and the Christian reader: A preliminary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Comhrink

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpre­tive acts o f both writer and reader.

  1. Readers Theatre : Dramatising environment issues for oral skills development

    OpenAIRE

    Paatrick Ng Chin Leong

    2009-01-01

    Readers Theatre was introduced to a class of Japanese students studying intermediate-level English in an international university in Japan. The aim of the study is to investingate whether Readers Theatre enhances the oral skills of Japanese students as they negotiate an environmental issue in English. In my presentation, I will demonstrate how Readers Theatre is implemented in class and the comments by students will be analysed and discussed during the presentation.

  2. Music retrieval in ICOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  3. Monitored retrievable storage status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal for Congressional consideration of the inclusion of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility as part of the Federal Nuclear Waste Management System. The DOE plans to submit the proposal package to the Congress by January 15, 1986. The proposed preferred location of the MRS facility is the former Clinch River Breeder site in the state of Tennessee. If the Congress approves implementation of the MRS proposal, it is estimated that the facility could be licensed and operational in ten years

  4. Monitored retrievable storage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established a national policy for the safe storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The NWPA requires that DOE... ''submit a proposal to Congress on the need for and feasibility of one or more Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facilities''... In subsequent evaluations of the commercial nuclear waste management system, DOE has identified important advantages in providing an MRS Facility as an integral part of the total system. The integral MRS Facility serves as an independent, centralized spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste handling and packaging facility with a safe temporary storage capacity

  5. Multimedia Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Rueger, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    At its very core multimedia information retrieval means the process of searching for and finding multimedia documents; the corresponding research field is concerned with building the best possible multimedia search engines. The intriguing bit here is that the query itself can be a multimedia excerpt: For example, when you walk around in an unknown place and stumble across an interesting landmark, would it not be great if you could just take a picture with your mobile phone and send it to a service that finds a similar picture in a database and tells you more about the building -- and about its

  6. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  7. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  8. The e-Reader — an Educational or an Entertainment Tool? e-Readers in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ahlroos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will discuss a pilot project conducted at the Tritonia Academic Library, Vaasa, in Finland, from September 2010 until May 2011. The project was designed to investigate the application of e-readers in academic settings and to learn how teachers and students experience the use of e-readers in academic education. Four groups of students and one group of teachers used Kindle readers for varied periods of time in different courses. The course material and the textbooks were downloaded on the e-readers. The feedback from the participants was collected through questionnaires and teacher interviews. The results suggest that the e-reader is a future tool for learning, though some features need to be improved before e-readers can really enable efficient learning and researching.

  9. Ethics issues in retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Norden, M.

    2000-01-01

    We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

  10. Co-editors’ Note to Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dear Cross-Currents readers, We are pleased to present you with the fifteenth quarterly issue of the Cross-Currents e-journal. The research articles in the June 2015 issue—guest edited by Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Xiang Biao (University of Oxford, and Antonia Chao (Tunghai University—explore the theme “Governing Marriage Migrations: Perspectives from Mainland China and Taiwan.” The issue includes five articles by scholars from Japan, Germany, the UK, Taiwan, and Hong Kong who are engaged in critical analysis of cross-border migration for the purpose of marriage in the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan as a subject of governance. As the guest editors emphasize in their introduction, cross-border marriage is “perceived to be inseparable from a wide range of other issues, such as sexual morality, family norms, national identity, and border security.” The contributors—Hongfang Hao (Kyoto University, Caroline Grillot (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Mei-Hua Chen (National Sun Yat-sen University, and Hsun-Hui Tseng (Chinese University of Hong Kong—offer valuable new insights on international marriage migration in their multidisciplinary and fieldwork-based studies...

  11. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  12. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions

  13. Breaking the Silence: Toward Improving LGBTQ Representation in Composition Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…

  14. Accelerated Reader Program: What Do Teachers Really Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy Frances; Westberg, Karen; Hejny, Anne

    2017-01-01

    What do teachers really think about the Accelerated Reader program, a widely used supplemental, independent reading program in which their students read fiction and non-fiction books of their choice and take brief online comprehension quizzes about the books? The Accelerated Reader (AR) program was designed by Renaissance Learning Company to…

  15. Eye Movements Reveal Readers' Lexical Quality and Reading Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…

  16. Infographics for Educational Purposes: Their Structure, Properties and Reader Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…

  17. How the Relationship between Text and Headings Influences Readers' Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristin; Schuster, Jonathan; Allen, Jaryn

    2008-01-01

    Two questions regarding signals' influence on memory were examined. First, the relationship between headings and text was manipulated to determine whether headings serve as visual cues, directing readers to recall all subsequent information, or content-specific cues, directing readers to recall only to certain information. Second, distance between…

  18. Are You Ready for E-Readers in Your Library?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some things to consider when thinking about adding e-readers to one's collection. These include: (1) What is the purpose?; (2) Which device?; (3) How will one keep track of his or her e-readers and their contents?; (4) What are some potential pitfalls?; (5) Is there a positive impact on student learning?; and (6) Are…

  19. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  20. A Comparative Review of Stratification Texts and Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  1. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…

  2. Resolving Struggling Readers' Homework Difficulties: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; Mccabe, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Struggling readers often fail to complete homework or complete it in a slipshod, haphazard fashion. Often, this adversely affects grades, erodes motivation for academics, and causes conflict between readers, parents, and school personnel. To help teachers and educational consultants (e.g., reading specialists, school psychologists) help struggling…

  3. Organizing Instruction for Struggling Readers in Tutorial Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Hutchison, Amy C.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors suggest that many of the problems struggling readers encounter while reading stem from distinct yet fundamental sources of difficulty related to the types of text read (print or online), the task or activity readers engage in, and the sociocultural context of reading. The authors further argue that although these…

  4. Addressing Learning Disabilities with UDL and Technology: Strategic Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…

  5. Peace Pilgrim: A Readers Theatre Approach to Peace Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joanne M.

    Readers theater is a dramatic art that directs attention to the words of a text. During a performance, a reader (rather than an actor) presents and interprets the work within a narrative context intended by the author. In this project, the text, a collection of the words and writings of a woman known as the Peace Pilgrim, tells the story of her…

  6. Finding versus Fixing: Self-Monitoring for Readers Who Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy L.; Kaye, Elizabeth L.

    2017-01-01

    This article explains how teachers can understand, notice, and supportively respond to readers who struggle with self-monitoring during text reading. The unique strategic processing demands for readers who struggle support the argument that teaching children to find and notice errors is different than fixing a word, or getting it right. Three…

  7. LESS SKILLED READERS HAVE LESS EFFICIENT SUPPRESSION MECHANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1993-09-01

    One approach to understanding the component processes and mechanisms underlying adult reading skill is to compare the performance of more skilled and less skilled readers on laboratory experiments. The results of some recent experiments employing this approach demonstrate that less skilled adult readers suppress less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meanings of spade ), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patience ), the typical-but-absent members of scenes (e.g., a tractor in a farm scene), and words superimposed on pictures. Less skilled readers are not less efficient in activating contextually appropriate information; in fact, they activate contextually appropriate information more strongly than more skilled readers do. Therefore, one conclusion that can be drawn from these experiments is that less skilled adult readers suffer from less efficient suppression mechanisms.

  8. Overview of PADC nuclear track readers. Recent trends and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulber, E.

    2009-01-01

    The development of automated track readers dates back to the first routine dosimetry applications of solid state nuclear track detectors. Many research-laboratory track readers and a few commercial systems were introduced in the past 25 years. The traditional application area for high-throughput track readers is radon testing in buildings and fast neutron dosimetry. The latter application, in particular, has considerably increased the need for efficient polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) track reader systems with high throughput. The paper provides an overview of recent trends in the development of high-throughput PADC track readers and it gives a glimpse into the practice of designing this category of devices. A general overview is provided of the technical aspects relating to the optics, the hardware and the track recognition approaches. Ultimate theoretical limits in the performance as well as promising new approaches are addressed. Requirements and practical solutions are illustrated with reference to a commercially available system.

  9. Cicero, Retrieving the Honorable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Frank

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From Marcus Tullius Cicero’s philosophical writings, the author first draws out a modest network of ideas that informs his understanding of what it means to be a good man (vir bonus. Then, he finds in Cicero the idea of a befitting mutuality among four distinctively human capacities: a faculty for inquiry into and love for truth manifest in words and actions (reason; a disposition for the recognition of and attraction to things of worth beyond self-interest (the honorable; an acute sense of one own spheres of responsibility along with facility for speaking and acting appropriately within them (appropriate action, and fostering and extending the bonds of mutual personal relations grounded in justice and benevolence (society. Against the background of deep commitments in modernity to hedonism and autonomous individualism, the author proposes a retrieval of the virtue of the honorable as an attractive alternative.

  10. Retrievability: An international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Using available information from the published literature and material obtained from a network of contacts, a short introductory overview of international developments in the field of retrievability of emplaced nuclear waste was produced for the Swedish National Siting Coordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal. This examined the issue in terms of a number of basic questions: Definition, Need, Design Implications, Safeguards for Fissile Material, Public Acceptability and Safety Assessment. The report was submitted in February 1999, and acted as a catalyst for the organisation of an international seminar by KASAM, the Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (these proceedings). This paper describes the report contents, and points to the invited papers at the seminar which expand on and update the limited descriptions in the original report. (author)

  11. Beyond information retrieval: information discovery and multimedia information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Raieli

    2017-01-01

    The paper compares the current methodologies for search and discovery of information and information resources: terminological search and term-based language, own of information retrieval (IR); semantic search and information discovery, being developed mainly through the language of linked data; semiotic search and content-based language, experienced by multimedia information retrieval (MIR).MIR semiotic methodology is, then, detailed.

  12. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  13. Retrieval Practice Benefits Deductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglington, Luke G.; Kang, Sean H. K.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to benefit learning. However, the benefit has sometimes been attenuated with more complex materials that require integrating multiple units of information. Critically, Tran et al. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22," 135-140 (2015) found that retrieval practice improves sentence memory but not the…

  14. Topology of Document Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel M.; Cater, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of a topological structure to examine the closeness between documents in retrieval systems and analyzes the topological structure of a vector-space model, a fuzzy-set model, an extended Boolean model, a probabilistic model, and a TIRS (Topological Information Retrieval System) model. Proofs for the results are appended. (17…

  15. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  16. How to average logarithmic retrievals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calculation of mean trace gas contributions from profiles obtained by retrievals of the logarithm of the abundance rather than retrievals of the abundance itself are prone to biases. By means of a system simulator, biases of linear versus logarithmic averaging were evaluated for both maximum likelihood and maximum a priori retrievals, for various signal to noise ratios and atmospheric variabilities. These biases can easily reach ten percent or more. As a rule of thumb we found for maximum likelihood retrievals that linear averaging better represents the true mean value in cases of large local natural variability and high signal to noise ratios, while for small local natural variability logarithmic averaging often is superior. In the case of maximum a posteriori retrievals, the mean is dominated by the a priori information used in the retrievals and the method of averaging is of minor concern. For larger natural variabilities, the appropriateness of the one or the other method of averaging depends on the particular case because the various biasing mechanisms partly compensate in an unpredictable manner. This complication arises mainly because of the fact that in logarithmic retrievals the weight of the prior information depends on abundance of the gas itself. No simple rule was found on which kind of averaging is superior, and instead of suggesting simple recipes we cannot do much more than to create awareness of the traps related with averaging of mixing ratios obtained from logarithmic retrievals.

  17. Vocabulary Control for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    This book deals with properties of vocabularies for indexing and searching document collections; the construction, organization, display, and maintenance of these vocabularies; and the vocabulary as a factor affecting the performance of retrieval systems. Most of the text is concerned with vocabularies for post-coordinate retrieval systems, with…

  18. Examining College Students’ Reading Behaviors and Needs for Ebook Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese

  19. Semantic and phonological coding in poor and normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellutino, F R; Scanlon, D M; Spearing, D

    1995-02-01

    Three studies were conducted evaluating semantic and phonological coding deficits as alternative explanations of reading disability. In the first study, poor and normal readers in second and sixth grade were compared on various tests evaluating semantic development as well as on tests evaluating rapid naming and pseudoword decoding as independent measures of phonological coding ability. In a second study, the same subjects were given verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks using high and low meaning words as verbal stimuli and Chinese ideographs as visual stimuli. On the semantic tasks, poor readers performed below the level of the normal readers only at the sixth grade level, but, on the rapid naming and pseudoword learning tasks, they performed below the normal readers at the second as well as at the sixth grade level. On both the verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks, performance in poor readers approximated that of normal readers when the word stimuli were high in meaning but not when they were low in meaning. These patterns were essentially replicated in a third study that used some of the same semantic and phonological measures used in the first experiment, and verbal memory and visual-verbal learning tasks that employed word lists and visual stimuli (novel alphabetic characters) that more closely approximated those used in learning to read. It was concluded that semantic coding deficits are an unlikely cause of reading difficulties in most poor readers at the beginning stages of reading skills acquisition, but accrue as a consequence of prolonged reading difficulties in older readers. It was also concluded that phonological coding deficits are a probable cause of reading difficulties in most poor readers.

  20. Bayesian aerosol retrieval algorithm for MODIS AOD retrieval over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipponen, Antti; Mielonen, Tero; Pitkänen, Mikko R. A.; Levy, Robert C.; Sawyer, Virginia R.; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Kolehmainen, Ville; Arola, Antti

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a Bayesian aerosol retrieval (BAR) algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over land from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In the BAR algorithm, we simultaneously retrieve all dark land pixels in a granule, utilize spatial correlation models for the unknown aerosol parameters, use a statistical prior model for the surface reflectance, and take into account the uncertainties due to fixed aerosol models. The retrieved parameters are total AOD at 0.55 µm, fine-mode fraction (FMF), and surface reflectances at four different wavelengths (0.47, 0.55, 0.64, and 2.1 µm). The accuracy of the new algorithm is evaluated by comparing the AOD retrievals to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD. The results show that the BAR significantly improves the accuracy of AOD retrievals over the operational Dark Target (DT) algorithm. A reduction of about 29 % in the AOD root mean square error and decrease of about 80 % in the median bias of AOD were found globally when the BAR was used instead of the DT algorithm. Furthermore, the fraction of AOD retrievals inside the ±(0.05+15 %) expected error envelope increased from 55 to 76 %. In addition to retrieving the values of AOD, FMF, and surface reflectance, the BAR also gives pixel-level posterior uncertainty estimates for the retrieved parameters. The BAR algorithm always results in physical, non-negative AOD values, and the average computation time for a single granule was less than a minute on a modern personal computer.

  1. E-Books on the Mobile E-Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for e-books has been established during the past several years. Many e-book readers are commercially available, and millions of e-book titles are available for purchase or free download. E-paper technology has matured enough to be used as the screen for dedicated e-book readers which make reading possible with the familiar feel of reading printed books. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the status of the e-book, including the architecture and features of e-book readers, market adoption and e-book industry ecosystem.

  2. Journal of Clipped Words in Reader's Digest Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Lestari

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Clipped Words in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of clipped words which are used in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest, to find out sthe dominantly used in the whole story and to reason the dominant clipped word use in the text. The study use descriptive qualitative method. The data were collected from seventeen selected Reader's Digest which contains the clipped word by applie...

  3. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  4. Power Efficient Gurumukhi Unicode Reader Design and Implementation on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Sunny; Pandey, Bishwajeet

    2017-01-01

    Gurumukhi is found to be the most widely used language of Pakistan, and it is ranked 3rd in Canada, 7th in India and almost 4th most spoken language in U.K. This Unicode Reader is cost effective solution for learning as well as understanding the Punjabi language by the people across the globe .This...... reader helps the user to understand, whether written text is consonants, vowels or digits of Gurumukhi scripts. This paper can also be the solution to the various problems occurred in research of Punjabi natural language processing. Hardware is designed for Gurumukhi Unicode Reader (GUR...

  5. Conflicting but close: Readers' integration of information sources as a function of their disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saux, Gaston; Britt, Anne; Le Bigot, Ludovic; Vibert, Nicolas; Burin, Debora; Rouet, Jean-François

    2017-01-01

    According to the documents model framework (Britt, Perfetti, Sandak, & Rouet, 1999), readers' detection of contradictions within texts increases their integration of source-content links (i.e., who says what). This study examines whether conflict may also strengthen the relationship between the respective sources. In two experiments, participants read brief news reports containing two critical statements attributed to different sources. In half of the reports, the statements were consistent with each other, whereas in the other half they were discrepant. Participants were tested for source memory and source integration in an immediate item-recognition task (Experiment 1) and a cued recall task (Experiments 1 and 2). In both experiments, discrepancies increased readers' memory for sources. We found that discrepant sources enhanced retrieval of the other source compared to consistent sources (using a delayed recall measure; Experiments 1 and 2). However, discrepant sources failed to prime the other source as evidenced in an online recognition measure (Experiment 1). We argue that discrepancies promoted the construction of links between sources, but that integration did not take place during reading.

  6. Acceptance of Others, Feeling of Being Accepted and Striving for Being Accepted Among the Representatives of Different Kinds of Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Stanoeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an important issue related to the human attitudes and needs in interpersonal and professional aspects. The theoretical part deals with several psychological components of the self-esteem and esteem of the others – acceptance of the others, feeling of being accepted, need for approval. Some gender differences in manifestations of acceptance and feeling of being accepted at the workplace are discussed. This article presents some empirical data for the degree of acceptance of others, feeling of being accepted and the strive for being accepted among the representatives of helping, pedagogical, administrative and economic occupations, as well as non-qualified workers. The goals of the study were to reveal the interdependency between these constructs and to be found some significant differences between the representatives of the four groups of occupations. The methods of the first study were W. Fey’s scales “Acceptance of others”, and “How do I feel accepted by others”. The method of the second study was Crown and Marlowe Scale for Social Desirability. The results indicated some significant differences in acceptance of others and feeling of being accepted between the non-qualified workers and the representatives of helping, administrative and economic occupations. There were not any significant difference in strive for being accepted between the fouroccupational groups.

  7. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How Readers and Advertisers Benefit from Local Newspaper Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Shu-Ling Chen; Everett, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    Explores relations among three competitive schemes with respect to newspapers' price structures, including advertising rates and prices to consumers. Finds that readers get some benefit from greater competition, but that advertisers do not. (MM)

  9. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader... surface of certain culture media used in disc-agar diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The...

  10. An Interview with Crosby Bonsall: A Writer for Beginning Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Carole

    1985-01-01

    Crosby Bonsall, a prolific author-illustrator for young readers, comments on many topics related to writing, illustrating, and young children's initial independent encounters with print in books. (HOD)

  11. the management of writer-reader interaction in newspaper editorials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ntsane

    how dialogically expansive and contractive resources are used in this respect in editorials from different ... adopts a particular position and how they interact with potential readers. Engagement ..... An introductory tour through Appraisal Theory.

  12. Interactive Exploration for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Fournier

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new version of our content-based image retrieval system RETIN. It is based on adaptive quantization of the color space, together with new features aiming at representing the spatial relationship between colors. Color analysis is also extended to texture. Using these powerful indexes, an original interactive retrieval strategy is introduced. The process is based on two steps for handling the retrieval of very large image categories. First, a controlled exploration method of the database is presented. Second, a relevance feedback method based on statistical learning is proposed. All the steps are evaluated by experiments on a generalist database.

  13. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  14. LESS SKILLED READERS HAVE LESS EFFICIENT SUPPRESSION MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    1993-01-01

    One approach to understanding the component processes and mechanisms underlying adult reading skill is to compare the performance of more skilled and less skilled readers on laboratory experiments. The results of some recent experiments employing this approach demonstrate that less skilled adult readers suppress less efficiently the inappropriate meanings of ambiguous words (e.g., the playing card vs. garden tool meanings of spade), the incorrect forms of homophones (e.g., patients vs. patien...

  15. Making a Commitment to Strategic-Reader Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FREDRICKA L. STOLLER; REIKO KOMIYAMA

    2013-01-01

    Skilled readers by definition are strategic; they are able to use a repertoire of reading strategies , flexibly and in meaningful combinations , to achieve their reading comprehension goals . Thus , one of the aims of foreign and second language (L2) reading curricula should be to move students toward becoming more strategic readers . This curricular orientation can be best achieved when a strong commitment is made to strategic-reader training as a regular and consistent component of instruction across the curriculum . To explore this stance , we examine the reading strategies used by skilled readers , contrast teaching strategies with training strategic readers ( i .e . , strategic-reader training) , and examine five strategic-reader training approaches from first language contexts that can be adapted by L2 professionals to enhance the reading instruction offered in their L 2 classes . The five approaches targeted for exploration include Directed Reading-Thinking Activity , Reciprocal Teaching , Transactional Strategies Instruction , Questioning the Author , and Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction . Though distinct from one another , they all acknowledge the importance of explicit explanations about strategies (or reminders about the use of select strategies) , teacher modeling , scaffolded tasks , active student engagement , student practice , classroom discussions of strategy use , and the gradual release of responsibility to students who eventually decide for themselves (and/or with peers) when , where , and why to use which strategies to achieve their comprehension goals . We conclude with a discussion of the challenges , and suggestions for overcoming them , that L 2 teachers and students often face in making a commitment to strategic-reader training .

  16. Flexible electronics enters the e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    A company that was spun off from the physics department at the University of Cambridge in the UK 10 years ago released its first product last month. Plastic Logic, founded by Henning Sirringhaus and Richard Friend, launched an electronic reader that can display books, magazines and newspapers on a flexible, lightweight plastic display. The reader commercializes pioneering work first started over 20 years ago at the lab by the two physicists, who are based in the department's optoelectronics group.

  17. Inferential processes in readers with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosende-Vázquez, Marta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to know if the source of the difficulty in making inferences, readers with Down syndrome, is in access to prior knowledge or constructing ideas from purely textual knowledge (based on Saldaña and Frith, 2002 for autism. Involved a sample of 20 students with Down syndrome and mild mental retardation (mean IQ = 60 and a control group of 20 children without cognitive deficits. They were matched as to their extent read metal age via Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (average 8 years. We created two experimental situations: a subjects had to generate inferences based on physical knowledge, b social inferences about knowledge. The ability to check and reaction times in the activation of inferences about physical and social knowledge. We also analyzed the influence that the effect "priming". Results showed: a a rate of correct inferences similar verification tasks between the two groups, b Down subjects take longer to access knowledge that the previous text, c reaction times used by subjects Down were higher in activating physical inferences, d there were no significant differences in the population without reaction times gap between physical and social inferences e subjects without deficits benefited effect "priming" in both types of inferences f Down subjects only improve reaction time in the inferences of social nature. El presente estudio pretende conocer si el origen de la dificultad para realizar inferencias, en lectores con Síndrome de Down, se encuentra en el acceso al conocimiento previo o en la construcción de ideas a partir del conocimiento puramente textual (basándonos en Saldaña y Frith, 2002 para autismo. Participó una muestra de 20 alumnos con Síndrome de Down y discapacidad mental leve (media de C.I.= 60 y un grupo control de 20 alumnos sin déficit cognitivo. Ambos fueron igualados en cuanto a su edad mental lectora medida a través de la Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (media 8 a

  18. Networks of reader and country status: an analysis of Mendeley reader statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haunschild

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  19. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2017-03-28

    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.

  20. Environmental dose measurement with microprocessor based portable TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    Application of TL method for environmental gamma-radiation dosimetry involves uncertainty caused by the dose collected during the transport from the point of annealing to the place of exposure and back to the place of evaluation. Should an accident occur read out is delayed due to the need to transport to a laboratory equipped with a TLD reader. A portable reader capable of reading out the TL dosemeter at the place of exposure ('in situ TLD reader') eliminates the above mentioned disadvantages. We have developed a microprocessor based portable TLD reader for monitoring environmental gamma-radiation doses and for on board reading out of doses on space stations. The first version of our portable, battery operated reader (named Pille - 'butterfly') was made at the beginning of the 80s. These devices used CaSO 4 bulb dosemeters and the evaluation technique was based on analogue timing circuits and analogue to digital conversion of the photomultiplier current with a read out precision of 1 μGy and a measuring range up to 10 Gy. The measured values were displayed and manually recorded. The version with an external power supply was used for space dosimetry as an onboard TLD reader

  1. Topic structure for information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Sanderson, M.; Zhai, C.; Zobel, J.; Allan, J.; Aslam, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In my research, I propose a coherence measure, with the goal of discovering and using topic structures within and between documents, of which I explore its extensions and applications in information retrieval.

  2. Ontology-based Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styltsvig, Henrik Bulskov

    In this thesis, we will present methods for introducing ontologies in information retrieval. The main hypothesis is that the inclusion of conceptual knowledge such as ontologies in the information retrieval process can contribute to the solution of major problems currently found in information...... retrieval. This utilization of ontologies has a number of challenges. Our focus is on the use of similarity measures derived from the knowledge about relations between concepts in ontologies, the recognition of semantic information in texts and the mapping of this knowledge into the ontologies in use......, as well as how to fuse together the ideas of ontological similarity and ontological indexing into a realistic information retrieval scenario. To achieve the recognition of semantic knowledge in a text, shallow natural language processing is used during indexing that reveals knowledge to the level of noun...

  3. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...

  4. Retrieval processes in social identification

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Alexander Ivor

    2015-01-01

    The utility of selective retrieval processes in our everyday lives is evident across the varied contexts we are subjected to as human beings. Memory is characterised by an unlimited storage capacity, but limited retrieval capacity. Subsequently, we are selective in what we remember in a given context in order to use memory in an adaptive manner. Previous theory places memory at the centre of deriving and maintaining a sense of self and personal identity. In contrast however, the extent to whi...

  5. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  6. 2012 best practices for repositories collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of biological materials for research international society for biological and environmental repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    effective practices are presented for the management of specimen collections and repositories. The term "Best Practice" is used in cases where a level of operation is indicated that is above the basic recommended practice or more specifically designates the most effective practice. It is understood that repositories in certain locations or with particular financial constraints may not be able to adhere to each of the items designated as "Best Practices". Repositories fitting into either of these categories will need to decide how they might best adhere to these recommendations within their particular circumstances. While adherence to ISBER Best Practices is strictly on a voluntary basis, it is important to note that some aspects of specimen management are governed by national/federal, regional and local regulations. The reader should refer directly to regulations for their national/federal, regional and local requirements, as appropriate. ISBER has strived to include terminology appropriate to the various specimen types covered under these practices, but here too, the reader should take steps to ensure the appropriateness of the recommendations to their particular repository type prior to the implementation of any new approaches. Important terms within the document are italicized when first used in a section and defined in the glossary. The ISBER Best Practices are periodically reviewed and revised to reflect advances in research and technology. The third edition of the Best Practices builds on the foundation established in the first and second editions which were published in 2005 and 2008, respectively.

  7. Goal striving, goal attainment, and well-being: adapting and testing the self-concordance model in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alison; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan

    2007-12-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), this study examined the motivational processes underlying goal striving in sport as well as the role of perceived coach autonomy support in the goal process. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 210 British athletes showed that autonomous goal motives positively predicted effort, which, in turn, predicted goal attainment. Goal attainment was positively linked to need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted psychological well-being. Effort and need satisfaction were found to mediate the associations between autonomous motives and goal attainment and between attainment and well-being, respectively. Controlled motives negatively predicted well-being, and coach autonomy support positively predicted both autonomous motives and need satisfaction. Associations of autonomous motives with effort were not reducible to goal difficulty, goal specificity, or goal efficacy. These findings support the self-concordance model as a framework for further research on goal setting in sport.

  8. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  9. Striving for quality use of medicines: how effective is Australia's ban on direct-to-consumer prescription medicine advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sonja

    2009-02-01

    The potential for both positive and negative effects arising from direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines challenges health policymakers to develop regulatory schemes which selectively capture the positive aspects of the practice. Australia has dealt with this quandary by banning the practice, while New Zealand and the United States permit it. However, in recent times pharmaceutical companies have been increasingly successful in introducing promotional materials into the Australian market. This article demonstrates that the Australian ban is consistent with striving for the major policy goal of quality use of medicines, thus providing the basis for arguing that solutions to strengthen the ban against the identified threats ought to be implemented. Quality use of medicines can be most effectively achieved via the combined effect of the strengthened ban and the mimicking of the limited positive aspects of direct-to-consumer advertising by government provision of non-promotional information to consumers.

  10. Echoic memory processes in good and poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, S; Engle, R W

    1986-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether echoic memory plays a role in differences between good and poor readers. The first two experiments used a suffix procedure in which the subject is read a list of digits with either a tone control or the word go appended to the list. For lists that exceeded the length of the subjects memory span by one digit (i.e., that avoided ceiling effects), the poor readers showed a larger decrement in the suffix condition than did the good readers. The third experiment was directed at the question of whether the duration of echoic memory is different for good and poor readers. Children shadowed words presented to one ear at a rate determined to give 75-85% shadowing accuracy. The items presented to the nonattended ear were words and an occasional digit. At various intervals after the presentation of the digit, a light signaled that the subject was to cease shadowing and attempt to recall any digit that had occurred in the nonattended ear recently. Whereas good and poor readers recalled the digit equally if tested immediately after presentation, the poor readers showed a faster decline in recall of the digit as retention interval increased. A fourth experiment was conducted to determine whether the differences in echoic memory were specific to speech stimuli or occurred at a more basic level of aural persistence. Bursts of white noise were separated by 9-400 ms of silence and the subject was to say whether there were one or two sounds presented. There were no differences in detectability functions for good and poor readers.

  11. Visual consequences of electronic reader use: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maducdoc, Marlon M; Haider, Asghar; Nalbandian, Angèle; Youm, Julie H; Morgan, Payam V; Crow, Robert W

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing prevalence of electronic readers (e-readers) for vocational and professional uses, it is important to discover if there are visual consequences in the use of these products. There are no studies in the literature quantifying the incidence or severity of eyestrain, nor are there clinical characteristics that may predispose to these symptoms with e-reader use. The primary objective of this pilot study was to assess the degree of eyestrain associated with e-reader use compared to traditional paper format. The secondary outcomes of this study were to assess the rate of eyestrain associated with e-reader use and identify any clinical characteristics that may be associated with the development of eyestrain. Forty-four students were randomly assigned to study (e-reader iPAD) and control (print) groups. Participant posture, luminosity of the room, and reading distance from reading device were measured during a 1-h session for both groups. At the end of the session, questionnaires were administered to determine symptoms. Significantly higher rates of eyestrain (p = 0.008) and irritation (p = 0.011) were found among the iPAD study group as compared to the print 'control' group. The study group was also 4.9 times more likely to report severe eyestrain (95 % CI [1.4, 16.9]). No clinical characteristics predisposing to eyestrain could be identified. These findings conclude that reading on e-readers may induce increased levels of irritation and eyestrain. Predisposing factors, etiology, and potential remedial interventions remain to be determined.

  12. Elaborative Retrieval: Do Semantic Mediators Improve Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Melissa; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The elaborative retrieval account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances retention because the retrieval process produces the generation of semantic mediators that link cues to target information. We tested 2 assumptions that form the basis of this account: that semantic mediators are more likely to be generated during…

  13. Reader error during CT colonography: causes and implications for training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, Andrew; Tam, Emily; Gartner, Louise; Scarth, Julia; Peiris, Chand; Gupta, Arun; Marshall, Michele; Burling, David; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the variability in baseline computed tomography colonography (CTC) performance using untrained readers by documenting sources of error to guide future training requirements. Twenty CTC endoscopically validated data sets containing 32 polyps were consensus read by three unblinded radiologists experienced in CTC, creating a reference standard. Six readers without prior CTC training [four residents and two board-certified subspecialty gastrointestinal (GI) radiologists] read the 20 cases. Readers drew a region of interest (ROI) around every area they considered a potential colonic lesion, even if subsequently dismissed, before creating a final report. Using this final report, reader ROIs were classified as true positive detections, true negatives correctly dismissed, true detections incorrectly dismissed (i.e., classification error), or perceptual errors. Detection of polyps 1-5 mm, 6-9 mm, and ≥10 mm ranged from 7.1% to 28.6%, 16.7% to 41.7%, and 16.7% to 83.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between polyp detection or false positives for the GI radiologists compared with residents (p=0.67, p=0.4 respectively). Most missed polyps were due to failure of detection rather than characterization (range 82-95%). Untrained reader performance is variable but generally poor. Most missed polyps are due perceptual error rather than characterization, suggesting basic training should focus heavily on lesion detection. (orig.)

  14. CT colonography: effect of experience and training on reader performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stuart A.; Burling, David; Morley, Simon; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve; Bassett, Paul; Atkin, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of radiologist experience and increasing exposure to CT colonography on reader performance. Three radiologists of differing general experience (consultant, research fellow, trainee) independently analysed 100 CT colonographic datasets. Readers had no prior experience of CT colonography and received feedback and training after the first 50 cases from an independent experienced radiologist. Diagnostic performance and reporting times were compared for the first and second 50 datasets and compared with the results of a radiologist experienced in CT colonography. Before training only the consultant reader achieved statistical equivalence with the reference standard for detection of larger polyps. After training, detection rates ranged between 25 and 58% for larger polyps. Only the trainee significantly improved after training (P=0.007), with performance of other readers unchanged or even worse. Reporting times following training were reduced significantly for the consultant and fellow (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), but increased for the trainee (P<0.001). In comparison to the consultant reader, the odds of detection of larger polyps was 0.36 (CI 0.16, 0.82) for the fellow and 0.36 (CI 0.14, 0.91) for the trainee. There is considerable variation in the ability to report CT colonography. Prior experience in gastrointestinal radiology is a distinct advantage. Competence cannot be assumed even after directed training via a database of 50 cases. (orig.)

  15. Development of optically stimulated luminescence reader systems in BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    BARC has very vast experience in the development of thermoluminescence (TL) reader systems both for routine personnel monitoring and research application. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) related instrumentation is a recent development in BARC. The increasing popularity of OSL technique in the radiation dosimetry applications in the recent past has driven investigation and developmental programme in the OSL measurement facilities at BARC. As the consequence of the efforts directed towards the indigenous development of OSL reader system, OSL readers with various readout modes like continuous wave (CW) OSL mode, linear intensity modulated OSL (LM-OSL), pulsed OSL (POSL) have been developed. In addition to these conventional modes of operation a novel non-linear OSL mode (NL-OSL) has also been developed for the OSL measurements. This paper reviews the details of the development of OSL reader system including experience with high intensity blue/green LED stimulation light source and detection system. Also discussed are recently developed versatile integrated TL/OSL reader systems for TL and OSL measurements. (author)

  16. The role of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation in retrieval practice: insights from comparing recognition memory testing formats and restudying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuanji; Rosburg, Timm; Hou, Mingzhu; Li, Bingbing; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of retrieval practice for aiding long-term memory, referred to as the testing effect, has been widely demonstrated. However, the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In the present study, we sought to explore the role of pre-retrieval processes at initial testing on later recognition performance by using event-related potentials (ERPs). Subjects studied two lists of words (Chinese characters) and then performed a recognition task or a source memory task, or restudied the word lists. At the end of the experiment, subjects received a final recognition test based on the remember-know paradigm. Behaviorally, initial testing (active retrieval) enhanced memory retention relative to restudying (passive retrieval). The retrieval mode at initial testing was indexed by more positive-going ERPs for unstudied items in the active-retrieval tasks than in passive retrieval from 300 to 900 ms. Follow-up analyses showed that the magnitude of the early ERP retrieval mode effect (300-500 ms) was predictive of the behavioral testing effect later on. In addition, the ERPs for correctly rejected new items during initial testing differed between the two active-retrieval tasks from 500 to 900 ms, and this ERP retrieval orientation effect predicted differential behavioral testing gains between the two active-retrieval conditions. Our findings confirm that initial testing promotes later retrieval relative to restudying, and they further suggest that adopting pre-retrieval processing in the forms of retrieval mode and retrieval orientation might contribute to these memory enhancements.

  17. A study on the development of an infographic reader questionnaire and reader opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational materials are commonly used to assist with communication during learning. One of the ways to determine the use of educational materials and their contribution to the learning process is to ask students for their opinions. Student opinions provide useful information regarding various objectives such as making both the learning process and resources more effective, bringing about the necessary improvements and organising the teaching process. In this study, we developed a questionnaire for determining the opinions of information graphics (infographics readers on information graphics prepared for teaching purposes. This study was conducted in the fall semester of the 2013-2014 academic year with the participation of 59 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education. The students were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 29 items that inquired their opinions on infographics. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a second questionnaire consisting of 23 items and six factors (Learnability, Selection Preferences, Sharing, Basic Presentation Structure, Memorability, and Role in the Learning Process was developed. According to the study results, the students considered infographics as highly instructive, and described that they help ensure a more lasting learning experience.

  18. Understanding the independent influence of duty and achievement striving when predicting the relationship between conscientiousness and organizational cultural profiles and helping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Henry; Livne, Ephrat; Marinova, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The theory that 2 facets of the factor conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, are related to self- or other-centered motives, is supported in 2 studies. In Study 1 (N = 204 undergraduates), the self-centered facet of achievement striving was found to be the most important predictor of attraction toward organizational cultures that were outcome-based, aggressive, and emphasized rewards. Achievement strivers were less attracted to supportive and decisive organizations. In Study 2 (N = 189 part-time MBA students) the other-centered facet of duty was found to be predictive of helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  19. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included

  20. Criticality safety considerations. Integral Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This report summarizes the criticality analysis performed to address criticality safety concerns and to support facility design during the conceptual design phase of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility. The report addresses the criticality safety concerns, the design features of the facility relative to criticality, and the results of the analysis of both normal operating and hypothetical off-normal conditions. Key references are provided (Appendix C) if additional information is desired by the reader. The MRS Facility design was developed and the related analysis was performed in accordance with the MRS Facility Functional Design Criteria and the Basis for Design. The detailed description and calculations are documented in the Integral MRS Facility Conceptual Design Report. In addition to the summary portion of this report, explanatary notes for various terms, calculation methodology, and design parameters are presented in Appendix A. Appendix B provides a brief glossary of technical terms

  1. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne

    2017-01-01

    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  2. Struggling Readers: Assessment and Instruction in Grades K-6. Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajthy, Ernest; Lipa-Wade, Sally

    This book focuses on three distinct types of struggling readers that teachers will instantly recognize from their own classrooms--the "Catch-On Reader," the "Catch-Up Reader," and the "Stalled Reader." The book provides detailed case studies which bring to life the specific problems these students are likely to face…

  3. Using Twitter to Teach Reader-Oriented Biblical Interpretation: "Tweading" the Gospel of Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter offers an engaging way to introduce students to reader-oriented interpretation of the Bible. The exercise described here introduces students to the idea that the reader has a role in the production of a text's meaning, which thus varies from reader to reader. Twitter enables us to capture the real-time thoughts of a variety of…

  4. How Do Fluent and Poor Readers' Endurance Differ in Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Keskin, Hasan Kagan; Akyol, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    It was observed in this research how endurance status of fluent readers and poor readers changed as the text became longer. 40 students of the primary school 4th-grade, 20 were fluent readers and other 20 were poor readers, participated in the research. A narrative text was utilised in the data collection process. Students' oral readings were…

  5. Information retrieval in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyanagi, Yoshio

    1983-01-01

    Various information retrieval systems for elementary particle physics are introduced. Scientific information has been distributed in the form of books, periodicals or preprints. Some periodicals include the abstracts of information only. Recently, computer systems, by which the information retrieval can be easily done, have been developed. The construction of networks connecting various computer systems is in progress. It is possible to call the data base of Rutherford Laboratory from a telephone terminal of Laurence Berkeley Laboratory. The access to the Network by British Science Research Council can be made from DESY or CERN. The examples of on-line information retrieval in Japan are presented. Some of the periodicals of secondary information and data books are also introduced. (Kato, T.)

  6. Context based multimedia information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti

    The large amounts of digital media becoming available require that new approaches are developed for retrieving, navigating and recommending the data to users in a way that refl ects how we semantically perceive the content. The thesis investigates ways to retrieve and present content for users...... topics from a large collection of the transcribed speech to improve retrieval of spoken documents. The context modelling is done using a variant of probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA), to extract properties of the textual sources that refl ect how humans perceive context. We perform PLSA...... of Wikipedia , as well as text-based semantic similarity. The final aspect investigated is how to include some of the structured data available in Wikipedia to include temporal information. We show that a multiway extension of PLSA makes it possible to extract temporally meaningful topics, better than using...

  7. Information retrieval in digital environments

    CERN Document Server

    Dinet, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Information retrieval is a central and essential activity. It is indeed difficult to find a human activity that does not need to retrieve information in an environment which is often increasingly digital: moving and navigating, learning, having fun, communicating, informing, making a decision, etc. Most human activities are intimately linked to our ability to search quickly and effectively for relevant information, the stakes are sometimes extremely important: passing an exam, voting, finding a job, remaining autonomous, being socially connected, developing a critical spirit, or simply surviv

  8. Bibliometric-enhanced information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, Philipp; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Larsen, Birger; Schaer, Philipp; Mutschke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although they offer value-added effects for users. In this workshop we will explore how statistical modelling of scholarship, such as Bradfordizing or network analysis of coauthorship network, can

  9. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  10. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  11. The Ecosystem of Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose-Vicente; Martinez-Mendez, Francisco-Javier; Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an initial proposal for a formal framework that, by studying the metric variables involved in information retrieval, can establish the sequence of events involved and how to perform it. Method: A systematic approach from the equations of Shannon and Weaver to establish the decidability of information retrieval…

  12. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  13. Information Retrieval in Virtual Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Pöyry, Päivi

    2006-01-01

    Information retrieval in the context of virtual universities deals with the representation, organization, and access to learning objects. The representation and organization of learning objects should provide the learner with an easy access to the learning objects. In this article, we give an overview of the ONES system, and analyze the relevance…

  14. Wind Retrieval using Marine Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    utilized to remove the 180° directional ambiguity in SAR wave retrieval ( Engen and Johnson, 1995). We have observed a strong dependency of the...1629–1642, Sep 2007. Engen , G., and H. Johnson, “SAR ocean wave inversion using image cross spectra”, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, vol. 33

  15. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  16. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.

    This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…

  17. 3,000 Paper Cranes: Children's Literature for Remedial Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumaker, Marjorie P.; Shumaker, Ronald C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how the educational experience of sixth grade remedial readers was revitalized and enriched through a project that grew out of reading "Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes." Suggests using "real" books (literature) to liberate remedial students from skill drills and reading games. (NH)

  18. The Fluid Reading Primer: Animated Decoding Support for Emergent Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, Polle T.; Mackinlay, Jock D.

    A prototype application called the Fluid Reading Primer was developed to help emergent readers with the process of decoding written words into their spoken forms. The Fluid Reading Primer is part of a larger research project called Fluid Documents, which is exploring the use of interactive animation of typography to show additional information in…

  19. Scaffolding or Distracting: CD-ROM Storybooks and Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Cathy J.; Chang, Ching-Wen

    2010-01-01

    CD-ROM storybooks, often referred to as electronic texts, e-books, and interactive stories, are learning tools with supplemental features such as automatic reading of text, sound effects, word pronunciations, and graphic animations which support the development of reading skills and comprehension in beginning readers. Some CD-ROM storybooks also…

  20. English for Mass Communications and for Other Purposes-Readers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an investigation into the way readers perceive the use of English, for different purposes, and in particular, for mass communication in a second language setting. For this purpose, a simple questionnaire in form of the Likert rating scale was used to generate data. The study involved 337 respondents.

  1. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  2. Verbal Processing Reaction Times in "Normal" and "Poor" Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jack; And Others

    After it had been determined that reaction time (RT) was a sensitive measure of hemispheric dominance in a verbal task performed by normal adult readers, the reaction times of three groups of subjects (20 normal reading college students, 12 normal reading third graders and 11 poor reading grade school students) were compared. Ss were exposed to…

  3. ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle S.; Bianco, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo,

  4. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip

    2016-01-01

    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  5. The Role of Reader in Felpo Filva, by Eva Furnari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira L. Gebara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the relationship between writer-reader and mediation of the text, it is necessary to identify the positions they occupy. Before the Internet, it was not common for the reader to approach the writer directly, except though letters. This virtual (but not digital contact is modelling to understand the reader’s relationship with the author because, in the written lines, he ends up indicating how he understands himself and the other – in a game of faces, understood in this work as Kerbrat-Orecchioni (2006 it characterizes in conversation. In this hyper-gender, without socio-historical restrictions or of categorization (MAINGUENEAU, 2010, there is a mandatory provision that constrains the sender to identify his position from the moment he chooses how to address the recipient. In these forms of treatment, the relationships of preservation or threat to the in the light of what is extended or made explicit in the treatment given to the theme of the letter to be outlined. This article aims to identify the concepts of the reader in the correspondence exchanged by the main characters, Charlô and Felpo, core of the development of the narrative (FURNARI, 2006. These concepts allow us to comprehend, in a discursive and dialogical perspective, which boundaries remain for the reader towards the text and which are outdated.

  6. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.

    2011-01-01

    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image

  7. Dose reader of dosimetric foil; Czytnik dawki folii dozymetrycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.; Strzalkowski, J.; Smolko, K.

    1997-12-31

    Read out the absorbance of a dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such a solution makes possible the compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.0004 A. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Readers' opinion about English original articles in Ugeskrift for Laeger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Rosberg, Hanne Mohr; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish Medical Association performed a survey together with TNS Gallup Denmark among the readers of Ugeskrift for Laeger (Journal of the Danish Medical Association). The main motivation for the questionnaire was to evaluate the acceptability of changing the publication language...

  9. Spongelike Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary in Beginning Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie; Dixon, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relation between phonological awareness, sound-to-letter mapping knowledge, and printed word learning in novice five-year-old readers. Explores effects of visual memory and of teaching methods. Finds mental representations of printed words are more easily formed by beginners who are able to match at least some of the phonological…

  10. Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund National Library Power Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes the National Library Power Program, a collaborative effort sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund in cooperation with local education funds and public school districts that was designed to create public elementary and middle school library programs that are central to the education program of the school. (LRW)

  11. Guiding the Gifted Reader. ERIC Digest #E481.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsted, Judith Wynn

    This digest offers guidelines in providing challenging reading opportunities for gifted students. Research findings concerning the characteristics of the gifted child as reader (e.g., they read earlier, better and more) are noted. Specific needs of gifted learners can be met by: using literature as a supplement to the readings in basal texts;…

  12. Prosodic Awareness and Punctuation Ability in Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2018-01-01

    We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…

  13. Selecting literature for beginner readers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibbert, Liesel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores complexities of choosing appropriate reading material which may provide maximum engagement for beginner readers in Southern Africa, with the aim of instilling a lifelong love of reading. The article presents a case in favour of literary criteria as base line for choices of reading material for beginner readers. Furthermore, the article outlines general characteristics of reading material for beginner readers, as well as specific criteria to be considered in the Southern African context, taking into account the linguistic diversity which exists in formal education and the vast literacy backlog in the region. Furthermore, it is argued that translated children’s stories should ideally be adapted rather than literally translated, in order to meet the requirements of what is universally regarded as good children’s literature for beginner readers. A culture of reading can only be instilled by adhering to the following criteria, i.e. ensuring affective engagement, maximum meaning-making potential, delight, the engagement of the imagination for the purposes of developing the creative mind, and strong identification with the material for the purposes of developing a sense of agency.

  14. Supporting Struggling Readers in Secondary School Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Takahashi, Kiriko; Park, Hye-Jin; Stodden, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many secondary school students struggle to read complex expository text such as science textbooks. This article provides step-by-step guidance on how to foster expository reading for struggling readers in secondary school science classes. Two strategies are introduced: Text-to-Speech (TTS) Software as a reading compensatory strategy and the…

  15. The influence of psychological type preferences on readers trying To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Around 65% could do so ('imaginers') and 35% could not. The likelihood of being an imaginer was higher among (i) women than among men, (ii) those who preferred intuition to sensing or feeling to thinking, and (iii) those who were most charismatically active. Readers with intuition as their dominant function were most ...

  16. The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Neil; Hoosen, Sarah; Levey, Lisbeth; Moore, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem examines how to use open licensing to promote quality learning resources for young children that are relevant and interesting. Research in early reading tends to focus on traditional publishing value and supply chains, without taking much consideration of new approaches and solutions…

  17. Technology for the Struggling Reader: Free and Easily Accessible Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Sheri; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental problem for many struggling readers, their parents, and their teachers is that there are few benchmarks to guide decision making about assistive technological supports when the nature of a disability is cognitive (e.g., specific learning disability, SLD) rather than physical. However, resources such as the National Center on…

  18. Improving the Performance of Poor Readers through Autogenic Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Reports that the addition of 15 minutes of relaxation training to weekly remedial reading periods for disabled readers throughout a school year raised concentration levels and decreased anxiety, neuroticism, and number of reading errors. Describes a few types of relaxation exercises that may be helpful. (ET)

  19. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance. However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.

  20. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  1. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Poulos, A.; Brennan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  2. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  3. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  4. The Development of Visual Search Strategies in Biscriptal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Susan Rikard; Green, David; Tam, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    To test whether cognitive processing in bilingual depends on script combinations and language proficiency, this study investigated the development of alphabetic and logographic visual search strategies in two kinds of biscriptals: (1) Malay-English and (2) Chinese-English readers. Results support the view that there are script implications of…

  5. Trends in Teacher Certification: Equipping Teachers to Prepare Proficient Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Ensuring that students are reading proficiently by third grade is a key component of keeping students on track to graduate high school and pursue college and careers. Because of the magnitude of this academic milestone, states typically pursue policies that promote early identification and intervention for struggling readers. However, teachers are…

  6. A new microcontroller-based RADFET dosimeter reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasović, Nikola D.; Ristić, Goran S.

    2012-01-01

    A new reader for radiation dose measurements using RADFET (pMOSFET) dosemeters has been developed. The threshold voltage (V T ) of the pMOSFETs is measured using a “one-point” method that determines V T as the gate voltage for a given drain current. Using V T , the absorbed dose, which is directly proportional to the threshold voltage shift, is calculated. The reader is based on a low cost 8-bit PIC 18F4520 microcontroller (MCU), and works independently of a personal computer, uses a touch screen and stores the data in microcontroller memory. Good agreement in threshold voltage values, obtained using a high-quality source-measure unit and the reader, was obtained. In addition, the reader can be used for threshold voltage measurement with other types of MOSFETs, especially in long duration experiments, as well as for the real-time measurements in radiotherapy, either as an autonomous system or integrated in a larger monitoring configuration.

  7. Reader Response and the Verbal Icon: Implications for English Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    During the past 15 years, a fundamental change has taken place in literary criticism, with a decline in New Criticism (literature viewed as a public object) and an increase in reader response criticism (literature viewed as a private experience). New Critics considered the meaning of a literary text to exist within the text as an independent and…

  8. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  9. SSR: What's in "School Science Review" for "PSR" Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakin, Liz

    2004-01-01

    This article summarises ideas and developments in teaching and learning in science of relevance to "Primary Science Review" ("PSR") readers from three recent issues (309, 310, and 311) of "School Science Review" ("SSR"), the ASE journal for science education 11-19. The themes running through these are: ICT, the implications for science education…

  10. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2008-01-01

    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  11. Building the Foundation for Close Reading with Developing Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sheila F.; McEnery, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Close Reading utilizes several strategies to help readers think more critically about a text. Close reading can be performed within the context of shared readings, read-alouds by the teacher, literature discussion groups, and guided reading groups. Students attempting to more closely read difficult texts may benefit from technologies and platforms…

  12. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve

  13. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  14. Ethnicity, goal striving and schizophrenia: a case-control study of three ethnic groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Rosemarie; Leff, Julian; Bhugra, Dinesh; Takei, Nori; Corridan, Bryan

    2004-12-01

    The need to achieve is common to all societies, and failure to do so may have a highly detrimental psychological impact. For those on the margins of mainstream society, especially migrants or descendants of migrants, the impact of failed or poor achievements may increase their vulnerability to mental illness. In a prospective study of schizophrenia in three ethnic groups (White, Indian and African-Caribbean) we studied the impact of goal striving and investigated whether the gap between the poor achievement and the high aspirations of members of some minority ethnic groups was potentially a factor contributing to the development of the illness. The patients and age- and sex-matched controls from their respective communities were asked to rate their perceived current levels of achievement and their past and future expectations in five domains--social standing, housing, education, employment and financial status on a 10-point scale. The control subjects from the three ethnic groups scored similarly in most areas, supporting the validity of inter-ethnic comparisons. The gap between achievement and expectations did not appear to cause high disappointment levels in any group, and in fact only in the domain of housing did the African-Caribbean patients assess their current achievement as being significantly lower than that of their matched controls. Poor housing conditions may be one of the risk factors contributing to the high incidence of schizophrenia in African-Caribbeans.

  15. Striving for Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of top management team diversity on academic excellence in universities. Academic excellence is conceptualized as successfully gaining funds for inter-organizational research collaborations, interdisciplinary graduate schools......, and high ranked scientific reputation. Design/methodology/approach: -The study applies upper echelon theory to universities. Three hypotheses are developed: 1) (Overall) top management team heterogeneity is positively associated with successful funding of excellence clusters, 2) (Overall) top management...... no significant effects. Besides top management team composition, we find that a high number of faculties and a broad inclusion of internal status groups (students, tenured faculty, academic and administrative staff) and external stakeholders in decision making processes may enhance academic excellence...

  16. Mind the Gap: Bridging the Divide between Non-Readers and Lifelong Readers with Hi-Lo Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…

  17. To retrieve or not to retrieve: These are the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.; Nickelson, D.F.; Swanson, S.P.

    1997-10-01

    There are many factors that must be evaluated when determining whether a buried mixed waste site should be retrieved and subsequently stored, treated, and/or disposed of or if some other action is more appropriate. The criteria developed for the evaluation of remedial actions at mixed waste sites under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulation EPA, provide an excellent methodology for deciding upon a preferred action even if the site is not under CERCLA regulation. Each topic for evaluation in the criteria is not mutually exclusive, and many tradeoffs must be reviewed. The criteria have been broken down into a number of categories: overall protection of human health and the environment; compliance with Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs); long-term effectiveness and permanence; reduction of toxicity, mobility, and volume; short-term effectiveness; implementability; cost; state acceptance; and community acceptance. Once the data is gathered, a Hazards Analysis must be performed to understand the risks of the site to workers, the public, and the environment. The Hazard Analysis is critical in helping personnel understand the associated issues so that an effective evaluation can take place. The intent of this paper is not to focus on a particular site, but to provide information that is useful for many problem holders to better understand the issues associated with buried mixed waste retrieval. Ultimately, these issues affect the final decision of whether or not retrieval is a feasible alternative

  18. Impact of retrievability of repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.; Gaag, J. v.d.; Prij, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the impact of the retrievability on the design of the repository will be handled. Retrievability of radioactive waste from a repository in geological formations has received increasing attention during recent years. It is obvious that this retrievability will have consequences in terms of mining engineering, safety and cost. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate cost consequences by comparing two extreme options for retrievable storage. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  19. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  20. Database, expert systems, information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedele, P.; Grandoni, G.; Mammarella, M.C.

    1989-12-01

    The great debate concerning the Italian high-school reform has induced a ferment of activity among the most interested and sensible of people. This was clearly demonstrated by the course 'Innovazione metodologico-didattica e tecnologie informatiche' organized for the staff of the 'lstituto Professionale L. Einaudi' of Lamezia Terme. The course was an interesting opportunity for discussions and interaction between the world of School and computer technology used in the Research field. This three day course included theoretical and practical lessons, showing computer facilities that could be useful for teaching. During the practical lessons some computer tools were presented from the very simple Electronic Sheets to the more complicated information Retrieval on CD-ROM interactive realizations. The main topics will be discussed later. They are: Modelling, Data Base, Integrated Information Systems, Expert Systems, Information Retrieval. (author)

  1. Construction, emplacement, and retrievability (preclosure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, W.

    1985-01-01

    Each of the three preclosure subgroups of the Construction, Emplacement, and Retrievability Working Group adopted a six-step approach to identify and assess current needs in geotechnical modeling and characterization. This approach may be summarized as follows: identify phenomena related to emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes, identify types of models which are required to calculate the phenomena, establish the input data needs for the models, assess the current availability of the models, assess the current status of documentation, verification, and validation of the models, and determine the adequacy of instrumentation and measurement techniques to (a) validate the models, where necessary, and (b) obtain input data for design. Systematic application of these six steps leads to the establishment of the research requirements for geotechnical modeling and characterization. A summary of modeling techniques which apply to the three subsequent sections on construction, emplacement, and retrievability is presented. Research needs, which apply to all preclosure activities, are summarized

  2. Hooked on Music Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bas de Haas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reply to 'Lure(d into listening: The potential of cognition-based music information retrieval,' in which Henkjan Honing discusses the potential impact of his proposed Listen, Lure & Locate project on Music Information Retrieval (MIR. Honing presents some critical remarks on data-oriented approaches in MIR, which we endorse. To place these remarks in context, we first give a brief overview of the state of the art of MIR research. Then we present a series of arguments that show why purely data-oriented approaches are unlikely to take MIR research and applications to a more advanced level. Next, we propose our view on MIR research, in which the modelling of musical knowledge has a central role. Finally, we elaborate on the ideas in Honing's paper from a MIR perspective in this paper and propose some additions to the Listen, Lure & Locate project.

  3. Topic Models in Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Information Processing Systems, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2004. Brown, P.F., Della Pietra, V.J., deSouza, P.V., Lai, J.C. and Mercer, R.L., Class-based...2003. http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1216-0. Croft, W.B., Lucia , T.J., Cringean, J., and Willett, P., Retrieving Documents By Plausible Inference

  4. Retrievability in an ethical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunberg, A.-M.

    2000-01-01

    At the outset, a short summary is given of how the ethical discussion developed historically, all from the so-called double KASAM principle of 1987 - safety in operation, combined with reparability, with controls not necessary, but not impossible - until the phase of focusing on retrievability as a result of a deepened ethical discussion. The ethical development is seen schematically according to two phases. The concept of retrievability functions as a symbol for the shift from the first to the second phase. Intergenerational equity is interpreted as an obligation to maximize the safety of future generations, whilst imposing a minimum of risks, burdens and costs. The basic disposal concept is an intrinsically definitive and non-retrievable one. The second phase carries over from the first its principle of the total responsibility of our generation, but interprets the principle of intergenerational equity as also including equal opportunities. This leads to the following conclusion: What is at stake is a precarious act of balance, with a preserved equal weight for the two principles in each decision and every measure. Finally, some questions for future treatment are put, and the author draws the following conclusions. We can hardly advance further than to manufacture an interactive waste management system, allowing us to involve present and future generations in an open, flexible, and non-preconstrained decision making process. In such a process, retrievability presents itself as an inescapable dimension. But at the same time we cannot guarantee future generations freedom to act without providing for them a repository which is designed to be finally closed. (author)

  5. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  6. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  7. Functional alarming and information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper deals with two facets of the design and efficient utilisation by operating personnel of computer-based interfaces for monitoring and the supervisory control of complex industrial systems - e.g., power stations, chemical plants, etc. These are alarming and information retrieval both of which are extremely sensitive to computerisation. For example, the advent of computers for display requires that some means of assuring easy and rapid access to large amounts of relevant stored information be found. In this paper, alarming and information retrieval are linked together through a multilevel functional description of the target plant. This representation serves as a framework for structuring the access to information as well as defining associated ''alarms'' at the various descriptive levels. Particular attention is paid to the level where mass and energy flows and balances are relevant. It is shown that the number of alarms here is reduced considerably while information about content and interrelationships is enhanced - which at the same time eases the retrieval problem. (author)

  8. Interactive Information Retrieval: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992 is presented. As a response to this call the 'IIR evaluation model' by Borlund (e.g., 2003a is introduced. The objective of the IIR evaluation model is to facilitate IIR evaluation as close as possible to actual information searching and IR processes, though still in a relatively controlled evaluation environment, in which the test instrument of a simulated work task situation plays a central part.

  9. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  10. Retrieval.

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Allyson

    1990-01-01

    Allyson Clay’s "Traces of a City in the Spaces Between Some People" is a series of twenty diptychs contrasting fabricated faux finishing with expressionist painting and text. The fabricated paint applications evoke city surfaces like concrete and granite; they also evoke modernist painting.  Unlike modernist painting, however, the faux surfaces are decorative and mechanically painted. The choice to have the surfaces fabricated serves to disrupt the egoism of modern abstraction and the im...

  11. A TLD reader for wide range in situ dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I.

    1998-01-01

    A portable thermoluminescent dosemeter reader suitable for reading at the site of exposure is described. The instrument consists of a glass bulb containing the CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent material laminated to the surface of an electrically heated resistive metal plate. The bulb is encapsulated in a cylindrical, pen-like metal holder made of aluminium. A one-wire-port integrated electronic programmable memory chip mounted inside the holder contains the identification code and the individual calibration parameters of the dosemeter. The aperture of the holder is normally covered by a stainless steel tube to protect the bulb from light and mechanical shocks. The tube slips backwards automatically when the dosemeter is inserted into the reader. The system is used by the Hungarian nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  12. Optimised to Fail: Card Readers for Online Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimer, Saar; Murdoch, Steven J.; Anderson, Ross

    The Chip Authentication Programme (CAP) has been introduced by banks in Europe to deal with the soaring losses due to online banking fraud. A handheld reader is used together with the customer’s debit card to generate one-time codes for both login and transaction authentication. The CAP protocol is not public, and was rolled out without any public scrutiny. We reverse engineered the UK variant of card readers and smart cards and here provide the first public description of the protocol. We found numerous weaknesses that are due to design errors such as reusing authentication tokens, overloading data semantics, and failing to ensure freshness of responses. The overall strategic error was excessive optimisation. There are also policy implications. The move from signature to PIN for authorising point-of-sale transactions shifted liability from banks to customers; CAP introduces the same problem for online banking. It may also expose customers to physical harm.

  13. Social Imaginary in web advertising of e-readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Marcela Angelozzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the imaginary meanings that appear in the advertising discourses on e-book reading devices commonly known as e-readers. It starts from the assumption that imaginary meanings are associated with both: the imaginary associated to digital technologies (Cabrera, 2006, 2011 and to the imaginary of "order of books" (Chartier, 2000, 2005. In order to carry out the exploration, the advertising discourses in the homepages of three cases are analized: The Amazon Kindle, Kobo and MovistarBq brands. The conclusion is that e-readers are devices that participate of the imaginary of the digital technologies as other devices in the complex of digital technologies in everyday life, and also refers strongly to the imaginary meanings related to printed books.

  14. THE CRITICAL READER IN THE POETRY OF MANUEL GUSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide Anchieta de Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the poetry of Manuel Gusmão, the reader is invited to actively partici­pate in writing and reading scenes. To the poet-critic, the act of reading, understood as emancipatory and political practice, is sharing the aesthe­tic experience and the development of our sensitive-cognitive instances, beyond the world learning outside and inside the text. In this sense, our article aims to examine the critical reader configuration from three aspects present in that poetry – act of co-motion, epistemological construction and erratic tissue habitation. With this perspective, we turn to the theoretical­-critical of Roland Bathes, Jacques Rancière and Eduardo Prado Coelho.

  15. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  16. Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning, but Retrieval Success (versus Failure) Does Not Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornell, Nate; Klein, Patricia Jacobs; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory enhances learning. We propose a 2-stage framework to explain the benefits of retrieval. Stage 1 takes place as one attempts to retrieve an answer, which activates knowledge related to the retrieval cue. Stage 2 begins when the answer becomes available, at which point appropriate connections are strengthened and…

  17. How does typeface familiarity affect reading performance and reader preference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    the reading speed and preferences of participants. Participants were tested twice with common and uncommon letter shapes, once before and once after spending 20 minutes reading a story with the font. The results indicate that the exposure period has an effect on the speed of reading, but the uncommon letter...... shapes did not. Readers did not like the uncommon letter shapes. This has implications for the selection of type and the design of future typefaces....

  18. The Use of English Collocations in Reader's Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Yudita Putri Nurani; Sinaga, Lidiman Sahat Martua

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study is aimed at identifying and describing the types of free collocations found in the articles of Reader's Digest. By taking a sample of ten articles from different months for each year since 2003 up to 2012, it was found all the four productive free collocations were in the data. Type 4 (Determiner + Adjective + Noun) was the dominant type (53.92 %). This was possible because the adjective in the pattern included the present participle and past participle of v...

  19. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  20. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  1. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: patbaltzer@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: dietzelmatthias2@hotmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The main findings of our study are, that reader experience and lesion type (i.e., mass versus non-mass enhancement) are independent predictors of the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. • Specifically, benign and malignant non-mass lesions cannot be differentiated with sufficient accuracy, especially if readers are not experienced. • We conclude that future research in breast MRI should focus on non-mass lesions, as these are the problem makers in modern breast MRI. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of lesion type (mass versus non-mass) and reader experience on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (BMRI) in a non-screening setting. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients (mean age, 55 ± 12 years) with breast lesions that were verified by biopsy or surgery, and who had had BMRI as part of their diagnostic workup, were eligible for this retrospective single-center study. Cancers diagnosed by biopsy before BMRI were excluded to eliminate biological and interpretation bias due to biopsy or chemotherapy effects (n = 103). Six blinded readers (experience level, high (HE, n = 2); intermediate (IE, n = 2); and low (LE, n = 2)) evaluated all examinations and assigned independent MRI BI-RADS ratings. Lesion type (mass, non-mass, focal) was noted. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and logistic regression analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracies. Results: There were 259 histologically verified lesions (123 malignant, 136 benign) investigated. There were 169 mass (103 malignant, 66 benign) and 48 non-mass lesions (19 malignant, 29 benign). Another 42 lesions that met the inclusion criteria were biopsied due to conventional findings (i.e., microcalcifications, architectural distortions), but did not enhance on MRI (41 benign, one DCIS). ROC analysis revealed a total area under the curve (AUC) between 0.834 (LE) and 0.935 (HI). Logistic regression identified a significant effect of non-mass lesions (P < 0.0001) and

  2. STARtorialist: Astronomy Fashion & Culture Blog and Reader Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.

    2016-01-01

    STARtorialist (startorialist.com) is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.

  3. Social  reading - the reader on digital margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Despot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic books enrich the reading experience through a range of possibilities digital technology offers, such as commenting or adding content at the margin space, marking interesting chapters and sharing the content with other readers. The phenomenon of social reading emerges with the influence of technology in the sphere of reading books and creates interactions for readers with the content and other readers. The great potential of enriching the reading experience is visible in the digital platforms for social reading, where the interaction and the creation of new content encourages the development of new way of reading and creativity. These activities may contribute to better understanding of the text. This enhances the communication about the text thus revitalizing the content and moves the reading itself from private to public sphere. This paper will show how are the activities in the digital margins transformed into a good indicator of the reading behavior, as well as the importance and usefulness of such for publishers to create new publishing products and services.

  4. Text Mining in Python through the HTRC Feature Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Organisciak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a toolkit for working with the 13.6 million volume Extracted Features Dataset from the HathiTrust Research Center. You will learn how to peer at the words and trends of any book in the collection, while developing broadly useful Python data analysis skills. The HathiTrust holds nearly 15 million digitized volumes from libraries around the world. In addition to their individual value, these works in aggregate are extremely valuable for historians. Spanning many centuries and genres, they offer a way to learn about large-scale trends in history and culture, as well as evidence for changes in language or even the structure of the book. To simplify access to this collection the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC has released the Extracted Features dataset (Capitanu et al. 2015: a dataset that provides quantitative information describing every page of every volume in the collection. In this lesson, we introduce the HTRC Feature Reader, a library for working with the HTRC Extracted Features dataset using the Python programming language. The HTRC Feature Reader is structured to support work using popular data science libraries, particularly Pandas. Pandas provides simple structures for holding data and powerful ways to interact with it. The HTRC Feature Reader uses these data structures, so learning how to use it will also cover general data analysis skills in Python.

  5. Multimedia information retrieval theory and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Raieli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Novel processing and searching tools for the management of new multimedia documents have developed. Multimedia Information Retrieval (MMIR) is an organic system made up of Text Retrieval (TR); Visual Retrieval (VR); Video Retrieval (VDR); and Audio Retrieval (AR) systems. So that each type of digital document may be analysed and searched by the elements of language appropriate to its nature, search criteria must be extended. Such an approach is known as the Content Based Information Retrieval (CBIR), and is the core of MMIR. This novel content-based concept of information handling needs to be integrated with more traditional semantics. Multimedia Information Retrieval focuses on the tools of processing and searching applicable to the content-based management of new multimedia documents. Translated from Italian by Giles Smith, the book is divided in to two parts. Part one discusses MMIR and related theories, and puts forward new methodologies; part two reviews various experimental and operating MMIR systems, a...

  6. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  7. Subgrouping Poor Readers on the Basis of Individual Differences in Reading-Related Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Catts, Hugh W.; Hogan, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of the Reading Component Model to subgroup poor readers. A large sample of poor readers was identified in second grade and subgrouped on the basis of relative strengths and weaknesses in word recognition and listening comprehension. Although homogeneous subgroups were not identified, poor readers could be classified into four subgroups that differed significantly in reading-related abilities. Further analyses showed that poor readers' strengths and weakn...

  8. Challenges in striving to simultaneously achieve multiple resource allocation goals: the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Heather; Charles, Cathy; Elit, Laurie; Gafni, Amiram

    2016-01-01

    The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) makes recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories (except Quebec) to guide their cancer drug funding decisions. The objective of this paper is to explore, using an economic perspective and the pCODR as an example, the challenges associated with striving to simultaneously achieve the goals of maximizing health benefits with available resources and improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. The first challenge concerns how to interpret the goals in order to determine how resources should be allocated to achieve each goal. The second challenge relates to whether, if pursued simultaneously, both goals can be achieved to the same extent that each goal could have been achieved alone with the same available resources. Regarding the first challenge, we illustrate that, due to a lack of definitional clarity, it is difficult to determine exactly how resources should be allocated in order to achieve the goal of improving access to a more consistent standard of care across Canada. Regarding the second challenge, we illustrate that choosing to strive for both of the pCODR goals simultaneously will likely be associated with tradeoffs in the extent to which one or both goals can be achieved (relative to what could have been achieved for each goal alone with the same available resources). We suggest that, if the pCODR and the provincial drug plan decision-makers it supports want to strive for both goals simultaneously, they must prioritize the goals and explicitly identify the tradeoffs associated with the prioritization. This will ensure that the consequences of striving to simultaneously achieve both goals are explicit, transparent, and predictable for provincial drug plan decision-makers, physicians, patients, caregivers, and society as a whole.

  9. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules on multidetector CT in concurrent-reader and second-reader modes: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Aoki, Takatoshi; Yamagata, Hitoshi; Nogami, Munenobu; Matsumoto, Keiko; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the reading times and detection performances of radiologists in concurrent-reader and second-reader modes of computer-aided detection (CAD) for lung nodules on multidetector computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Fifty clinical multidetector CT datasets containing nodules up to 20 mm in diameter were retrospectively collected. For the detection and rating of non-calcified nodules larger than 4 mm in diameter, 6 radiologists (3 experienced radiologists and 3 resident radiologists) independently interpreted these datasets twice, once with concurrent-reader CAD and once with second-reader CAD. The reference standard of nodules in the datasets was determined by the consensus of two experienced chest radiologists. The reading times and detection performances in the two modes of CAD were statistically compared, where jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was used for the comparison of detection performances. Results: Two hundreds and seven nodules constituted the reference standard. Reading time was significantly shorter in the concurrent-reader mode than in the second-reader mode, with the mean reading time for the 6 radiologists being 132 s with concurrent-reader CAD and 210 s with second-reader CAD (p < 0.01). JAFROC analysis revealed no significant difference between the detection performances in the two modes, with the average figure-of-merit value for the 6 radiologists being 0.70 with concurrent-reader CAD and 0.72 with second-reader CAD (p = 0.35). Conclusion: In CAD for lung nodules on multidetector CT, the concurrent-reader mode is more time-efficient than the second-reader mode, and there can be no significant difference between the two modes in terms of detection performance of radiologists

  10. Predicting Text Comprehension, Processing, and Familiarity in Adult Readers: New Approaches to Readability Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; Skalicky, Stephen; Dascalu, Mihai; McNamara, Danielle S.; Kyle, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    Research has identified a number of linguistic features that influence the reading comprehension of young readers; yet, less is known about whether and how these findings extend to adult readers. This study examines text comprehension, processing, and familiarity judgment provided by adult readers using a number of different approaches (i.e.,…

  11. A General Audiovisual Temporal Processing Deficit in Adult Readers with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ana A.; Jesse, Alexandra; Groen, Margriet A.; McQueen, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with dyslexia on their sensitivity to the simultaneity of…

  12. A general audiovisual temporal processing deficit in adult readers with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francisco, A.A.; Jesse, A.; Groen, M.A.; McQueen, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Because reading is an audiovisual process, reading impairment may reflect an audiovisual processing deficit. The aim of the present study was to test the existence and scope of such a deficit in adult readers with dyslexia. Method: We tested 39 typical readers and 51 adult readers with

  13. Does Feeling Come First? How Poetry Can Help Readers Broaden Their Understanding of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva-Wood, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Assuming that readers' emotional responses can enhance readers' metacognitive experiences and inform literary analysis, this study of 11th-grade poetry readers features instruction that models both cognitive and affective reading processes. The author: (1) Presents a case for more explicit attention to emotion in language arts classrooms; (2)…

  14. Bimodal Reading: Benefits of a Talking Computer for Average and Less Skilled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montali, Julie; Lewandowski, Lawrence

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen average readers and 18 less-skilled readers (grades 8 and 9) were presented with social studies and science passages via a computer either visually (on screen), auditorily (read by digitized voice), or bimodally (on screen, highlighted while being voiced). Less-skilled readers demonstrated comprehension in the bimodal condition equivalent…

  15. Computer Games versus Maps before Reading Stories: Priming Readers' Spatial Situation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Majchrzak, Dan; Hayes, Shelley; Drobisz, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how computer games and maps compare as preparation for readers to comprehend and retain spatial relations in text narratives. Readers create situation models of five dimensions: spatial, temporal, causal, goal, and protagonist (Zwaan, Langston, & Graesser 1995). Of these five, readers mentally model the spatial…

  16. French Immersion Experience and Reading Skill Development in At-Risk Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…

  17. Follow the Reader: An Effective Strategy to Support Students Reading More Complex Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klvacek, Michelle L.; Monroe, Eula Ewing; Wilcox, Brad; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Morrison, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how one second-grade teacher implemented Follow the Reader, her term for dyad reading. Common Core expects students to read increasingly complex texts. Teachers can implement dyad reading with this end in mind. It is a modified version of the neurological impress method in which a lead reader and an assisted reader sit side…

  18. Information retrieval and individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents individual differences, which are found in studies of information retrieval with emphasis on models of personality traits, cognitive and learning styles. It pays special attention to those models which are most often included in studies of information behaviour,information seeking,perceptions of IR systems, etc., but also brings forward some models which have not yet been included in such studies. Additionally, the relationship between different individual characteristics and individual’s chosen profession or academic area is discussed. In this context,the paper presents how investigation of individual differences can be useful in the design of IR systems.

  19. Six sigma for revenue retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonien, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in revenue retrieval due to failures in obtaining charges have contributed to a negative bottom line for numerous hospitals. Improving documentation practices through a Six Sigma process improvement initiative can minimize opportunities for errors through reviews and instill structure for compliance and consistency. Commitment to the Six Sigma principles with continuous monitoring of outcomes and constant communication of results to departments, management, and payers is a strong approach to reducing the financial impact of denials on an organization's revenues and expenses. Using Six Sigma tools can help improve the organization's financial performance not only for today, but also for health care's uncertain future.

  20. Striving to be prepared for the painful: Management strategies following a family member's diagnosis of advanced cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedberg Berith

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer has consequences not only for the sick person but also for those who have a close relationship with that person. Greater knowledge about how family members manage the situation in the period immediately following the diagnosis means greater opportunity to provide the best possible support for the family. The purpose of this study was to explore management strategies that family members use when the patient is in the early stage of treatment for advanced cancer. Methods Twenty family members of cancer patients were included in the study shortly after the diagnosis. The patients had been diagnosed 8-14 weeks earlier with advanced lung cancer or gastrointestinal cancer. The data were collected in interviews with family members and subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. Through the identification of similarities and dissimilarities in the units of meaning, abstraction into codes and sub-themes became possible. The sub-themes were then brought together in one overarching theme. Results The overall function of management strategies is expressed in the theme Striving to be prepared for the painful. The family members prepare themselves mentally for the anticipated tragedy. Family relationships become increasingly important, and family members want to spend all their time together. They try to banish thoughts of the impending death and want to live as normal a life as possible. It becomes important to family members to live in the present and save their energy for the time when they will need it the most. How participants handle their worries, anxiety and sadness can be categorized into seven sub-themes or management strategies: Making things easier in everyday life, Banishing thoughts about the approaching loss, Living in the present, Adjusting to the sick person's situation, Distracting oneself by being with others, Shielding the family from grief, and Attempting to maintain hope. Conclusions The findings revealed

  1. Innovative grout/retrieval demonstration final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of an innovative retrieval technique for buried transuranic waste. Application of this retrieval technique was originally designed for full pit retrieval; however, it applies equally to a hot spot retrieval technology. The technique involves grouting the buried soil waste matrix with a jet grouting procedure, applying an expansive demolition grout to the matrix, and retrieving the debris. The grouted matrix provides an agglomeration of fine soil particles and contaminants resulting in an inherent contamination control during the dusty retrieval process. A full-scale field demonstration of this retrieval technique was performed on a simulated waste pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Details are reported on all phases of this proof-of-concept demonstration including pit construction, jet grouting activities, application of the demolition grout, and actual retrieval of the grouted pit. A quantitative evaluation of aerosolized soils and rare earth tracer spread is given for all phases of the demonstration, and these results are compared to a baseline retrieval activity using conventional retrieval means. 8 refs., 47 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Searching for evidence or approval? A commentary on database search in systematic reviews and alternative information retrieval methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Aogán; Tamás, Peter A

    2018-03-01

    Despite recognition that database search alone is inadequate even within the health sciences, it appears that reviewers in fields that have adopted systematic review are choosing to rely primarily, or only, on database search for information retrieval. This commentary reminds readers of factors that call into question the appropriateness of default reliance on database searches particularly as systematic review is adapted for use in new and lower consensus fields. It then discusses alternative methods for information retrieval that require development, formalisation, and evaluation. Our goals are to encourage reviewers to reflect critically and transparently on their choice of information retrieval methods and to encourage investment in research on alternatives. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  4. Conservaton and retrieval of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    This is a summary of the findings of a Nordic working group formed in 1990 and given the task of establishing a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories by investigating the following: (1) the type of information that should be conserved; (2) the form in which the information should be kept; (3) the quality of the information as regards both type and form; and (4) the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. High-level waste from nuclear power generation will remain radioactive for very long times even though the major part of the radioactivity will have decayed within 1000 yr. Certain information about the waste must be kept for long time periods because future generations may-intentionally or inadvertently-come into contact with the radioactive waste. Current day waste management would benefit from an early identification of documents to be part of an archive for radioactive waste repositories. The same reasoning is valid for repositories for other toxic wastes

  5. Integrated Rapid-Diagnostic-Test Reader Platform on a Cellphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a cellphone based Rapid-Diagnostic-Test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 grams, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting-diode (LED) based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 sec/image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application running on the cellphone then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data) to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world-map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) as well as HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android based smart-phones as well as an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist health-care professionals and policy makers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness. PMID:22596243

  6. Assessing user preferences for e-readers and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Ber, Jeanne M; Lombardo, Nancy T; Honisett, Amy; Jones, Peter Stevens; Weber, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Librarians purchased 12 e-readers and six tablets to provide patrons the opportunity to experiment with the latest mobile technologies. After several train-the-trainer sessions, librarians shared device information with the broader health sciences community. Devices were cataloged and made available for a two-week checkout. A limited number of books and applications (apps) were preloaded for all the devices, and patrons were allowed to download their own content. Each tablet has Google Books, iBooks, Kindle, and Nook apps available to allow choice in reading e-books. Upon return, patrons were asked to complete a ten-question survey to determine preferences for device use.

  7. Reader-taylor: sewing and plotting the “text”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bernardi Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the presence of the ‘empty slots in the text’ in the short story "Imagens desabrigadas" of the writer Luci Collin. Investigates, therefore, the importance of these ‘openings to the textual’ embodiment of literary writing and also contributes to the emancipation of the reader in his encounter with the text. To this end, we raised some theoretic support brought by Wolfgang Iser and Terry Eagleton, as well as the reception theory of the literary text.

  8. First French reader a beginner's dual-language book

    CERN Document Server

    Appelbaum, Stanley

    2008-01-01

    This excellent anthology offers the beginning French-language student a first taste of some of the world's most significant prose. Chosen for both their eloquence and ease of reading, excerpts from such masterpieces as Les Misérables, The Red and the Black, Madame Bovary, Carmen, and The Three Musketeers will open new worlds for linguists. Readers will savor the words of fifty great writers of multiple genres from the seventeenth through twentieth centuries, including Voltaire, Rousseau, Balzac, Baudelaire, Dumas, Proust, and other literary virtuosos.Lucid and accessible, the unabridged Englis

  9. Retrieving fear memories, as time goes by…

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Monte, Fabricio H.; Quirk, Gregory J.; Li, Bo; Penzo, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Fear conditioning researches have led to a comprehensive picture of the neuronal circuit underlying the formation of fear memories. In contrast, knowledge about the retrieval of fear memories is much more limited. This disparity may stem from the fact that fear memories are not rigid, but reorganize over time. To bring clarity and raise awareness on the time-dependent dynamics of retrieval circuits, we review current evidence on the neuronal circuitry participating in fear memory retrieval at both early and late time points after conditioning. We focus on the temporal recruitment of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and its BDNFergic efferents to the central nucleus of the amygdala, for the retrieval and maintenance of fear memories. Finally, we speculate as to why retrieval circuits change across time, and the functional benefits of recruiting structures such as the paraventricular nucleus into the retrieval circuit. PMID:27217148

  10. Information retrieval implementing and evaluating search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Büttcher, Stefan; Cormack, Gordon V

    2016-01-01

    Information retrieval is the foundation for modern search engines. This textbook offers an introduction to the core topics underlying modern search technologies, including algorithms, data structures, indexing, retrieval, and evaluation. The emphasis is on implementation and experimentation; each chapter includes exercises and suggestions for student projects. Wumpus -- a multiuser open-source information retrieval system developed by one of the authors and available online -- provides model implementations and a basis for student work. The modular structure of the book allows instructors to use it in a variety of graduate-level courses, including courses taught from a database systems perspective, traditional information retrieval courses with a focus on IR theory, and courses covering the basics of Web retrieval. In addition to its classroom use, Information Retrieval will be a valuable reference for professionals in computer science, computer engineering, and software engineering.

  11. IMAGE DESCRIPTIONS FOR SKETCH BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL

    OpenAIRE

    SAAVEDRA RONDO, JOSE MANUEL; SAAVEDRA RONDO, JOSE MANUEL

    2008-01-01

    Due to the massive use of Internet together with the proliferation of media devices, content based image retrieval has become an active discipline in computer science. A common content based image retrieval approach requires that the user gives a regular image (e.g, a photo) as a query. However, having a regular image as query may be a serious problem. Indeed, people commonly use an image retrieval system because they do not count on the desired image. An easy alternative way t...

  12. Document image retrieval through word shape coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shijian; Li, Linlin; Tan, Chew Lim

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a document retrieval technique that is capable of searching document images without OCR (optical character recognition). The proposed technique retrieves document images by a new word shape coding scheme, which captures the document content through annotating each word image by a word shape code. In particular, we annotate word images by using a set of topological shape features including character ascenders/descenders, character holes, and character water reservoirs. With the annotated word shape codes, document images can be retrieved by either query keywords or a query document image. Experimental results show that the proposed document image retrieval technique is fast, efficient, and tolerant to various types of document degradation.

  13. Wellhead bowl protector and retrieving tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes improvement in a wellhead protection system including a wear bushing and a retrieving tool. The improvement comprises a wear bushing supported within the wellhead, wherein the wear bushing includes an enlarged upper end having an external support shoulder for engagement with an internal support shoulder formed in the wellhead; wherein the wear bushing further includes an internal circumferential slot intersected by at least one vertically extending slot, the vertical slot extending from the circumferential slot to the upper end of the wear bushing; a retrieving tool having at least one outwardly biased, retractable lug member mounted thereon; and wherein the retrieving tool includes an enlarged portion adapted to be received within the enlarged upper end of the wear bushing. This patent also describes a method of retrieving a wear bushing from a wellhead comprising the steps of: lowering a retrieving tool into the wellhead for locking engagement with the wear bushing; aligning the retrieving tool with the wear bushing for automatically forcing lug members carried by the retrieving tool outwardly into locking engagement with the wear bushing; monitoring drill string weight for determining engagement of the retrieving tool with the wear bushing, wherein a substantial decrease in drill string weight is an indication that the retrieving tool is engaged with the wear bushing; and removing the wear bushing from the wellhead

  14. Scalable Distributed Architectures for Information Retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhihong

    1999-01-01

    .... Our distributed architectures exploit parallelism in information retrieval on a cluster of parallel IR servers using symmetric multiprocessors, and use partial collection replication and selection...

  15. Accelerated Reader[R]: What Are the Lasting Effects on the Reading Habits of Middle School Students Exposed to Accelerated Reader[R] in Elementary Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Brimmer, Kathryn M.; Cipielewski, James F.

    Promoted by effective advertising and disseminated by word of mouth, many schools have adopted Accelerated Reader[R] as a supplementary reading program or as their primary reading program. Accelerated Reader[R]'s philosophy is that by using the system, students are motivated to read more and better books. A study investigated whether seventh grade…

  16. Experimental database retrieval system 'DARTS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Tani, Keiji; Haginoya, Hirobumi; Naito, Shinjiro.

    1989-02-01

    In JT-60, a large tokamak device of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), a plasma is fired for 5 ∼ 10 seconds at intervals of about 10 minutes. The each firing is called a shot. Plasma diagnostic data are edited as JT-60 experimental database at every shot cycle and are stored in a large-scale computer (FACOM-M780). Experimentalists look up the data for specific shots which they want to analyze and consider. As the total number of shots increases, they find a difficulty in the looking-up work. In order that they can easily access to their objective shot data or shot group data by using a computer terminal, 'DARTS' (DAtabase ReTrieval System) has been developed. This report may provide enough information on DARTS handling for users. (author)

  17. Personalized Mobile Information Retrieval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okkyung Choi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Building a global Network Relations with the internet has made huge changes in personal information system and even comments left on a webpage of SNS(Social Network Services are appreciated as important elements that would provide valuable information for someone. Social Network is a relation between individuals or groups, represented in a graph model, which converts the concept of psychological and social relations into a logical structure by using node and link. But, most of the current personalized systems on the basis of Social Network are built and constructed mainly in the PC environment, and the systems are neither designed nor implemented in mobile environment. Hence, the objective of this study is to propose methods of providing Personalized Mobile Information Retrieval System using NFC (Near Field Communication Smartphone, which will be then used for Smartphone users. Besides, this study aims to verify its efficiency through a comparative analysis of existing studies.

  18. A Minkowski Fractal Circularly Polarized Antenna for RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhong Yu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A design of fractal-like antenna with circular polarization for radio frequency identification (RFID reader applications is presented in this article. The modified Minkowski fractal structure is adopted as radiating patch for size reduction and broadband operation. A corner-truncated technology and a slot-opened method are employed to realize circular polarization and improve the gain of the proposed antenna, respectively. The proposed antenna is analyzed and optimized by HFSS. Return loss and maximum gain of the optimized antenna achieve to -22.2 dB and 1.12 dB at 920 MHz, respectively. The optimized design has an axial ratio (AR of 1.2 dB at central frequency of 920 MHz and impedance bandwidth (S11<=-10 dB of 40 MHz (4.3 %. Its input impedance is (57.9-j2.6 W that is close to input impedance of coaxial line (50 W. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimized antenna exhibits acceptable performances and may satisfy requirements of RFID reader applications.

  19. Signal and array processing techniques for RFID readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Amin, Moeness; Zhang, Yimin

    2006-05-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has recently attracted much attention in both the technical and business communities. It has found wide applications in, for example, toll collection, supply-chain management, access control, localization tracking, real-time monitoring, and object identification. Situations may arise where the movement directions of the tagged RFID items through a portal is of interest and must be determined. Doppler estimation may prove complicated or impractical to perform by RFID readers. Several alternative approaches, including the use of an array of sensors with arbitrary geometry, can be applied. In this paper, we consider direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation techniques for application to near-field narrowband RFID problems. Particularly, we examine the use of a pair of RFID antennas to track moving RFID tagged items through a portal. With two antennas, the near-field DOA estimation problem can be simplified to a far-field problem, yielding a simple way for identifying the direction of the tag movement, where only one parameter, the angle, needs to be considered. In this case, tracking of the moving direction of the tag simply amounts to computing the spatial cross-correlation between the data samples received at the two antennas. It is pointed out that the radiation patterns of the reader and tag antennas, particularly their phase characteristics, have a significant effect on the performance of DOA estimation. Indoor experiments are conducted in the Radar Imaging and RFID Labs at Villanova University for validating the proposed technique for target movement direction estimations.

  20. From Reader to Writer: Citizen Journalism as News Produsage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Axel

    Today, participatory or citizen journalism - journalism which enables readers to become writers - exists online and offline in a variety of forms and formats, operates under a number of editorial schemes, and focuses on a wide range of topics from the specialist to the generic and the micro-local to the global. Key models in this phenomenon include veteran sites Slashdot and Indymedia, as well as news-related weblogs; more recent additions into the mix have been the South Korean OhmyNews, which in 2003 was “the most influential online news site in that country, attracting an estimated 2 million readers a day” (Gillmor, 2003a, p. 7), with its new Japanese and international offshoots, as well as the Wikipedia with its highly up-to-date news and current events section and its more recent offshoot Wikinews, and even citizen-produced video news as it is found in sites such as YouTube and Current.tv.

  1. Using miscue analysis to assess comprehension in deaf college readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John; Mayer, Connie

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, teachers have used miscue analysis as a tool to assess and evaluate the reading abilities of hearing students in elementary and middle schools and to design effective literacy programs. More recently, teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing students have also reported its usefulness for diagnosing word- and phrase-level reading difficulties and for planning instruction. To our knowledge, miscue analysis has not been used with older, college-age deaf students who might also be having difficulty decoding and understanding text at the word level. The goal of this study was to determine whether such an analysis would be helpful in identifying the source of college students' reading comprehension difficulties. After analyzing the miscues of 10 college-age readers and the results of other comprehension-related tasks, we concluded that comprehension of basic grade school-level passages depended on the ability to recognize and comprehend key words and phrases in these texts. We also concluded that these diagnostic procedures provided useful information about the reading abilities and strategies of each reader that had implications for designing more effective interventions.

  2. Conservation and retrieval of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    High-level waste from nuclear power generation will remain radioactive for thousands of years even though 99% of the radioactivity will have decayed within the first millennium. For a hypothetical group involved in future actions to retrieve or repair a repository, information about its location, design, and content would be necessary. The need of such groups can be used to design the information that should be kept in a waste archive. Two main strategies exist for long-germ information transfer, one which links information thorough successive transfers of archived material and other forms of knowledge in society, and one - such as marking the site with a monument - relying upon a direct link from the present to the distant future. Digital methods are not recommended for long-term storage, but digital processing may be a valuable tool to structure information summaries, and in the creation of better long-lasting records. Advances in archive management should also be pursued to widen the choice of information carriers of high durability. In the Nordic countries, during the first few thousand years, and perhaps up to the next period of glaciation, monuments at a repository site may be used to warn the public of the presence of dangerous waste. But messages from such markers may pose interpretation problems as we have today for messages left by earlier societies such as rune inscriptions. Since the national borders may change in the time scale relevant for nuclear waste, the creation of an international archive for all radioactive wastes would represent an improvement as regards conservation and retrieval of information. (EG)

  3. Functional-anatomic study of episodic retrieval using fMRI. I. Retrieval effort versus retrieval success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Koutstaal, W; Schacter, D L; Wagner, A D; Rosen, B R

    1998-04-01

    A number of recent functional imaging studies have identified brain areas activated during tasks involving episodic memory retrieval. The identification of such areas provides a foundation for targeted hypotheses regarding the more specific contributions that these areas make to episodic retrieval. As a beginning effort toward such an endeavor, whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine 14 subjects during episodic word recognition in a block-designed fMRI experiment. Study conditions were manipulated by presenting either shallow or deep encoding tasks. This manipulation yielded two recognition conditions that differed with regard to retrieval effort and retrieval success: shallow encoding yielded low levels of recognition success with high levels of retrieval effort, and deep encoding yielded high levels of recognition success with low levels of effort. Many brain areas were activated in common by these two recognition conditions compared to a low-level fixation condition, including left and right prefrontal regions often detected during PET episodic retrieval paradigms (e.g., R. L. Buckner et al., 1996, J. Neurosci. 16, 6219-6235) thereby generalizing these findings to fMRI. Characterization of the activated regions in relation to the separate recognition conditions showed (1) bilateral anterior insular regions and a left dorsal prefrontal region were more active after shallow encoding, when retrieval demanded greatest effort, and (2) right anterior prefrontal cortex, which has been implicated in episodic retrieval, was most active during successful retrieval after deep encoding. We discuss these findings in relation to component processes involved in episodic retrieval and in the context of a companion study using event-related fMRI.

  4. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  5. Effect of computer-aided detection as a second reader in multidetector-row CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Peloschek, Philipp; Plank, Christina; Maier, Andrea; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Graser, Anno; Bogoni, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on lesion detection as a second reader in computed tomographic colonography, and to compare the influence of CAD on the performance of readers with different levels of expertise. Fifty-two CT colonography patient data-sets (37 patients: 55 endoscopically confirmed polyps ≥0.5 cm, seven cancers; 15 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by four radiologists (two expert, two nonexpert). After primary data evaluation, a second reading augmented with findings of CAD (polyp-enhanced view, Siemens) was performed. Sensitivities and reading time were calculated for each reader without CAD and supported by CAD findings. The sensitivity of expert readers was 91% each, and of nonexpert readers, 76% and 75%, respectively, for polyp detection. CAD increased the sensitivity of expert readers to 96% (P = 0.25) and 93% (P = 1), and that of nonexpert readers to 91% (P = 0.008) and 95% (P = 0.001), respectively. All four readers diagnosed 100% of cancers, but CAD alone only 43%. CAD increased reading time by 2.1 min (mean). CAD as a second reader significantly improves sensitivity for polyp detection in a high disease prevalence population for nonexpert readers. CAD causes a modest increase in reading time. CAD is of limited value in the detection of cancer. (orig.)

  6. STRIVE: Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments: a pre-deployment VR system for training emotional coping skills and assessing chronic and acute stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after

  7. Interactive storage and retrieval of pathologist's observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, G.M.; Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.; McIntyre, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system was developed for interactive storage and retrieval of pathologic observations. Data are entered on a CRT terminal using modified SNOP (Systematized Nomenclature of Pathology) codes. They are then stored and processed in a PDP 11/70 computer, and are retrieved on demand, utilizing DATATRIEVE and a variety of reports convenient for statistical analysis

  8. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  9. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  10. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, D.; Trieschnigg, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  11. Peer to Peer Information Retrieval: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend

    Peer-to-peer technology is widely used for file sharing. In the past decade a number of prototype peer-to-peer information retrieval systems have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these have seen widespread real- world adoption and thus, in contrast with file sharing, information retrieval is

  12. MARC Coding of DDC for Subject Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajenberg, Arnold S.

    1983-01-01

    Recommends an expansion of MARC codes for decimal class numbers to enhance automated subject retrieval. Five values for a second indicator and two new subfields are suggested for encoding hierarchical relationships among decimal class numbers. Additional subfields are suggested to enhance retrieval through analysis of synthesized numbers in…

  13. Exploiting citation contexts for physics retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowska, Anna; Larsen, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The text surrounding citations within scientific papers may contain terms that usefully describe cited documents and can benefit retrieval. We present a preliminary study that investigates appending ci- tation contexts from citing documents to cited documents in the iSearch test collection. We ex...... in a large collection of physics papers, paving the way for future research that exploits citation contexts for retrieval....

  14. BIR 2014 - Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This first “Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval” (BIR 2014) workshop1 aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although...... analysis of co-authorship network, can improve retrieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain collections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between information retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics / scientometrics and to create a common ground...... for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface. Our interests include information retrieval, information seeking, science modelling, network analysis, and digital libraries. The goal is to apply insights from bibliometrics, scientometrics, and informetrics...

  15. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  16. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  17. Verbal Reports of Proficient Readers In Coping With Unfamiliar Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumarasdyati Kusumarasdyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the actual strategy use of good readers when they face hindrance in the form of unfamiliar words. Eight undergraduates majoring in English at Surabaya State University performed think-aloud while reading two texts to find out how they coped with such difficulties. The verbal protocol indicated that half of the participants mainly relied on a bilingual (English-Indonesian dictionary to attack unfamiliar words, and only one of them preferred to use a monolingual (English-English one. Two of them employed context cues to infer the meaning of the words, while one participant combined the use of context cues and a monolingual dictionary as the major strategy. All but one of the participants skipped some of lexical items whose meaning was unknown to them, especially when these words did not have a key contribution to the meaning of the whole text.

  18. The African Novel and the Western Reader. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Vermeulen

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available African literature, like any other literature remote in space or time, can be approached in two different ways. We can read it from our own point of view and try to appreciate it with our own literary standards. We can also try to read it as it was experienced and appreciated by its immediate audience, which means by the African public at the time of publication. Reactions given by a group of Dutch-speaking readers on a novel by E. Dongala clearly illustrate that the second approach is hardly achievable, however attractive it may seem. So we have to accept that every reading of an African literary work implies a serious degree of creative treason. KEYWORDS : Literary reception, literary criticism, African literature in French, E. Dongala

  19. Research on Positioning Algorithm of Forklift-mounted RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To conduct real-time and accurate positioning of the forklifts (people and goods in the warehouse is an effective means for improving warehouse management efficiency. To this end, this article puts forward the active positioning system with the forklift installed with RFID reader and the ground passageway embedded with RFID tag. In the running process, the position of forklift can be determined through recognition of the reference tags which are embedded at both sides of the passageway based on the three-side layout at right angle principle and their RSSI value. The positional accuracy can be improved by adjusting the layout distance of those reference tags. The experimental results show that this system can realize the positioning function of forklift, and it can be used in practical situations.

  20. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team

    2013-04-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format and recent readership statistics, as well as potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom.

  1. Updates from Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin; Chisari, N.; Donaldson, J.; Dressing, C. D.; Drout, M.; Faesi, C.; Fuchs, J. T.; Kohler, S.; Lovegrove, E.; Mills, E. A.; Nesvold, E.; Newton, E. R.; Olmstead, A.; Vasel, J. A.; Weiss, L. M.; Astrobites Team

    2014-01-01

    Astrobites (http://astrobites.com) is a daily blog aimed at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions across the United States. Primarily, we present journal articles recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences, including readers who are not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We present recent readership statistics and potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom. We also discuss the Astrobites format across multiple social media platforms, including the newly launched Astroplots, and highlight our recent work organizing the annual "Communicating Science" workshop for graduate students.

  2. Selective memory retrieval can impair and improve retrieval of other memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T; Samenieh, Anuscheh

    2012-03-01

    Research from the past decades has shown that retrieval of a specific memory (e.g., retrieving part of a previous vacation) typically attenuates retrieval of other memories (e.g., memories for other details of the event), causing retrieval-induced forgetting. More recently, however, it has been shown that retrieval can both attenuate and aid recall of other memories (K.-H. T. Bäuml & A. Samenieh, 2010). To identify the circumstances under which retrieval aids recall, the authors examined retrieval dynamics in listwise directed forgetting, context-dependent forgetting, proactive interference, and in the absence of any induced memory impairment. They found beneficial effects of selective retrieval in listwise directed forgetting and context-dependent forgetting but detrimental effects in all the other conditions. Because context-dependent forgetting and listwise directed forgetting arguably reflect impaired context access, the results suggest that memory retrieval aids recall of memories that are subject to impaired context access but attenuates recall in the absence of such circumstances. The findings are consistent with a 2-factor account of memory retrieval and suggest the existence of 2 faces of memory retrieval. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Retrieval-practice task affects relationship between working memory capacity and retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Bui, Dung C

    2016-11-01

    Retrieving a subset of items from memory can cause forgetting of other items in memory, a phenomenon referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF). Individuals who exhibit greater amounts of RIF have been shown to also exhibit superior working memory capacity (WMC) and faster stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs), results which have been interpreted as suggesting that RIF reflects an inhibitory process that is mediated by the processes of executive control. Across four experiments, we sought to further elucidate this issue by manipulating the way in which participants retrieved items during retrieval practice and examining how the resulting effects of forgetting correlated with WMC (Experiments 1-3) and SSRT (Experiment 4). Significant correlations were observed when participants retrieved items from an earlier study phase (within-list retrieval practice), but not when participants generated items from semantic memory (extra-list retrieval practice). These results provide important new insight into the role of executive-control processes in RIF.

  4. Semantic-based Ontology for Malay Qur'an Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, ND; Bennett, B; Atwell, ES

    2016-01-01

    The Quran has been translated into various languages around the world by Muslim experts. One of them is in Malay. There are numerous applications built to facilitate the retrieval of knowledge from the Malay Qur’an. However, there are limited resources and tools that are available or made accessible for the research on Malay Qur’an. Furthermore, there are several issues that need to be considered when dealing with Malay Qur’an translation; such as ambiguities of words, lack of equivalence wor...

  5. AUSES AND GRATIFICTIONS RESEARCH ON READING MOTIVATIONSE AND GRATIFICATIONS OFNEWSPAPER READERS

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Bayram

    2008-01-01

    Giving information is one of the main function of mass communication tools. Newspaper readers are using newspaper for different motivations. Gaining information, entertainment, leisure time activities, social integration is some motivations of media. Uses and gratifications theory asserts that reader is active part of communication process and reading habits figure on social and psychological needs. Items from readers’gratifications are categorized by using factor analysis from questionnair...

  6. EDMC: An enhanced distributed multi-channel anti-collision algorithm for RFID reader system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YuJing; Cui, Yinghua

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we proposes an enhanced distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments which is based on the distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments (called DiMCA). We proposes a monitor method to decide whether reader receive the latest control news after it selected the data channel. The simulation result shows that it improves interrogation delay.

  7. Memory retrieval of everyday information under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Lisa-Marie; Merz, Christian J

    2018-07-01

    Psychosocial stress is known to crucially influence learning and memory processes. Several studies have already shown an impairing effect of elevated cortisol concentrations on memory retrieval. These studies mainly used learning material consisting of stimuli with a limited ecological validity. When using material with a social contextual component or with educational relevant material both impairing and enhancing stress effects on memory retrieval could be observed. In line with these latter studies, the present experiment also used material with a higher ecological validity (a coherent text consisting of daily relevant numeric, figural and verbal information). After encoding, retrieval took place 24 h later after exposure to psychosocial stress or a control procedure (20 healthy men per group). The stress group was further subdivided into cortisol responders and non-responders. Results showed a significantly impaired retrieval of everyday information in non-responders compared to responders and controls. Altogether, the present findings indicate the need of an appropriate cortisol response for the successful memory retrieval of everyday information. Thus, the present findings suggest that cortisol increases - contrary to a stressful experience per se - seem to play a protective role for retrieving everyday information. Additionally, it could be speculated that the previously reported impairing stress effects on memory retrieval might depend on the used learning material. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Semantic-based surveillance video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Dan; Fu, Zhouyu; Zeng, Wenrong; Maybank, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Visual surveillance produces large amounts of video data. Effective indexing and retrieval from surveillance video databases are very important. Although there are many ways to represent the content of video clips in current video retrieval algorithms, there still exists a semantic gap between users and retrieval systems. Visual surveillance systems supply a platform for investigating semantic-based video retrieval. In this paper, a semantic-based video retrieval framework for visual surveillance is proposed. A cluster-based tracking algorithm is developed to acquire motion trajectories. The trajectories are then clustered hierarchically using the spatial and temporal information, to learn activity models. A hierarchical structure of semantic indexing and retrieval of object activities, where each individual activity automatically inherits all the semantic descriptions of the activity model to which it belongs, is proposed for accessing video clips and individual objects at the semantic level. The proposed retrieval framework supports various queries including queries by keywords, multiple object queries, and queries by sketch. For multiple object queries, succession and simultaneity restrictions, together with depth and breadth first orders, are considered. For sketch-based queries, a method for matching trajectories drawn by users to spatial trajectories is proposed. The effectiveness and efficiency of our framework are tested in a crowded traffic scene.

  9. Training readers at school: the educational project, the school library and the mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovilson José da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the formation of readers in the first years of elementary school and proposes the integration between the school pedagogical project, teachers, reading practices and the school library. Objective: To analyze the basic assumptions to train readers in school. Methods: Bibliographic research based on a literature review on the subject. Results: Initial elements that may be used to structure readers-training projects at any schools are presented. Conclusion: Training readers at school consists in having procedures and pedagogical actions performed in combination with guided and free usage of the library, borrowing books and time to hear stories and talk about them.

  10. The Usefulness Metrics of The Most Popular eReader Used by Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amazon Kindle, and Samsung Tablet are the most popular eReader devices used by higher education students. We presented these results, and then we analyzed the surveyed results in detail in order to develop an evaluation metric of the eReader in a mobile platform that clearly allows the selection of the most suitable eReader for higher education students. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a set of criteria that can be used by students in the selection of an eReader that matches their specific needs and requirements.

  11. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept-particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.

  12. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers. PMID:27867764

  13. Retrieval activates related words more than presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Hannah; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2018-03-23

    Retrieving information enhances learning more than restudying. One explanation of this effect is based on the role of mediators (e.g., sand-castle can be mediated by beach). Retrieval is hypothesised to activate mediators more than restudying, but existing tests of this hypothesis have had mixed results [Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37(6), 1547-1552. doi: 10.1037/a0024140 ; Lehman, M., & Karpicke, J. D. (2016). Elaborative retrieval: Do semantic mediators improve memory? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 42(10), 1573-1591. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000267 ]. The present experiments explored an explanation of the conflicting results, testing whether mediator activation during a retrieval attempt depends on the accessibility of the target information. A target was considered less versus more accessible when fewer versus more cues were given during retrieval practice (Experiments 1 and 2), when the target had been studied once versus three times initially (Experiment 3), or when the target could not be recalled versus could be recalled during retrieval practice (Experiments 1-3). A mini meta-analysis of all three experiments revealed a small effect such that retrieval activated mediators more than presentation, but mediator activation was not reliably related to target accessibility. Thus, retrieval may enhance learning by activating mediators, in part, but these results suggest the role of other processes, too.

  14. 108 Information Retrieval Methods in Libraries and Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    without adequate knowledge of information retrieval methods, the retrieval process for an ... discusses the concept of Information retrieval, the various information ..... Other advantages of automatic indexing are the maintenance of consistency.

  15. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  16. Reversibility and retrievability - What is the question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; Webster, S.

    2002-01-01

    Retrievability has become a very fashionable concept in recent years, undoubtedly as a result of the possible advantages regarding public acceptance. However, in this 'rush to retrieve' we must not lose sight of the fundamental principles that form the basis of any proposed strategy of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This paper takes a 'matter of fact' look at retrievability and the more general issue of reversibility in the context of geological disposal and draws a number of clear and concise conclusions on the subject. (author)

  17. Data retrieval techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozzi, G.L.; Dahl, C.C.; Gross, R.S.; Voeller, J.G. III

    1995-01-01

    Data retrieval, processing retrieved data, and maintaining the plant documentation system to reflect the as-built condition of the plant are challenging tasks for most existing nuclear facilities. The information management systems available when these facilities were designed and constructed are archaic by today's standards. Today's plant documentation systems generally include hard copy drawings and text, drawings in various CAD formats, handwritten information, and incompatible databases. These existing plant documentation systems perpetuate inefficiency for the plant technical staff in the performance of their daily activities. This paper discusses data retrieval techniques and tools available to nuclear facilities to minimize the impacts of the existing plant documentation system on plant technical staff productivity

  18. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose

  19. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...... submissions. The papers cover topics of state of the art contributions, features and classification, location context, language and semantics, music retrieval, and adaption and HCI....

  20. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-30

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

  1. Accelerated Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Green, Joseph J.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.; Shi, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm is an image-based wavefront-sensing method that can turn any science instrument focal plane into a wavefront sensor. MGS characterizes optical systems by estimating the wavefront errors in the exit pupil using only intensity images of a star or other point source of light. This innovative implementation of MGS significantly accelerates the MGS phase retrieval algorithm by using stream-processing hardware on conventional graphics cards. Stream processing is a relatively new, yet powerful, paradigm to allow parallel processing of certain applications that apply single instructions to multiple data (SIMD). These stream processors are designed specifically to support large-scale parallel computing on a single graphics chip. Computationally intensive algorithms, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), are particularly well suited for this computing environment. This high-speed version of MGS exploits commercially available hardware to accomplish the same objective in a fraction of the original time. The exploit involves performing matrix calculations in nVidia graphic cards. The graphical processor unit (GPU) is hardware that is specialized for computationally intensive, highly parallel computation. From the software perspective, a parallel programming model is used, called CUDA, to transparently scale multicore parallelism in hardware. This technology gives computationally intensive applications access to the processing power of the nVidia GPUs through a C/C++ programming interface. The AAMGS (Accelerated Adaptive MGS) software takes advantage of these advanced technologies, to accelerate the optical phase error characterization. With a single PC that contains four nVidia GTX-280 graphic cards, the new implementation can process four images simultaneously to produce a JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) wavefront measurement 60 times faster than the previous code.

  2. Retrieving Baseflow from SWOT Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratelli, F.; Flipo, N.; Biancamaria, S.; Rivière, A.

    2017-12-01

    The quantification of aquifer contribution to river discharge is of primary importance to evaluate the impact of climatic and anthropogenic stresses on the availability of water resources. Several baseflow estimation methods require river discharge measurements, which can be difficult to obtain at high spatio-temporal resolution for large scale basins. The SWOT satellite mission will provide discharge estimations for large rivers (50 - 100 m wide) even in remote basins. The frequency of these estimations depends on the position and ranges from zero to four values in the 21-days satellite cycle. This work aims at answering the following question: can baseflow be estimated from SWOT observations during the mission lifetime? An algorithm based on hydrograph separation by Chapman's filter was developed to automatically estimate the baseflow in a river network at regional or larger scale (> 10000 km2). The algorithm was first applied using the discharge time series simulated at daily time step by a coupled hydrological-hydrogeological model to obtain the reference baseflow estimations. The same algorithm is then forced with discharge time series sampled at SWOT observation frequency. The methodology was applied to the Seine River basin (65000 km2, France). The results show that the average baseflow is estimated with good accuracy for all the reaches which are observed at least once per cycle (relative bias less than 4%). The time evolution of baseflow is also rather well retrieved, with a Nash coefficient which is more than 0.7 for 94% of the network length. This work provides new potential for the SWOT mission in terms of global hydrological analysis.

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of mammography readers and their memory performance have no correlation with each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, P.; Cawson, J.N.; Mercuri, V.; Pitman, A.G.; Gledhill, S.; Shnier, D.; Taft, R.; Zentner, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The study aims to determine if any association exists between visual memory performance and diagnostic accuracy performance in a group of radiologist mammogram readers. Materials and Methods: One hundred proven mammograms (23 with cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases, with sets being of equal difficulty. Pairs of sets were presented in 5 reads (40 cases per read, order random) to a panel of 8 radiologist readers (either present or past screening readers, with experience range from 20 years). The readers were asked to either 'clear' or 'call back' cases depending on need for further workup, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old' (i .e. remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline (40 cases per reader), and were used to calculate the reader's false recollection rate. Three sets were repeated post-baseline once or twice (100 cases per reader). Reading conditions were standardised. Results: Memory performance differed markedly between readers. The number of correctly remembered cases (of 100 'old' cases) had a median of 10.5 and range of 0-58. The observed number of false recollections (of 40 'totally new' cases) had a median of 2 and range of 0-17. Diagnostic performance measures were mean (range): sensitivity 0.68 (0.54-0.81); specificity 0.82 (0.74-0.91); positive predictive value (PPV) 0.55 (0.500.65); negative predictive value (NPV) 0.89 (0.86-0.93) and accuracy 0.78 (0.76-0.83). Confidence intervals (CIs; 95%) for each reader overlapped for all the diagnostic parameters, indicating a lack of statistically significant difference between the readers at the 5% level. The most sensitive and the most specific reader showed a trend away from each other on sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV; their accuracies were 0.76 and 0.82, respectively, and their accuracy 95% CIs overlapped considerably. Correlation analysis by reader showed no association between observed memory performance and

  4. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Troy A W

    2014-01-01

    While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition) or three (TTT condition) consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their temporal attention

  5. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A W Visser

    Full Text Available While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items.Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition or three (TTT condition consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers.Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their

  6. Robust retrieval of fine art paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Bogdan; Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    The rapid growth of image archives increases the need for efficient and fast tools that can retrieve and search through large amount of visual data. In this paper we propose an efficient method of extracting the image color content, which serves as an image digital signature, allowing to efficiently index and retrieve the content of large, heterogeneous multimedia databases. We apply the proposed method for the retrieval of images from the WEBMUSEUM Internet database, containing the collection of fine art images and show that the new method of image color representation is robust to image distorsions caused by resizing and compression and can be incorporated into existing retrieval systems which exploit the information on color content in digital images.

  7. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  8. HTI retrieval demonstration project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This plan describes the process for demonstrating the retrieval of difficult Hanford tank waste forms utilizing commercial technologies and the private sector to conduct the operations. The demonstration is to be conducted in Tank 241-C-106

  9. Testicular Damage following Testicular Sperm Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Marcussen, Niels; Fedder, Maja D.K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible development of histological abnormalities such as fibrosis and microcalcifications after sperm retrieval in a ram model. Fourteen testicles in nine rams were exposed to open biopsy, multiple TESAs, or TESE, and the remaining four testicles were...... left unoperated on as controls. Three months after sperm retrieval, the testicles were removed, fixed, and cut into 1/2 cm thick slices and systematically put onto a glass plate exposing macroscopic abnormalities. Tissue from abnormal areas was cut into 3 μm sections and stained for histological...... evaluation. Pathological abnormalities were observed in testicles exposed to sperm retrieval (≥11 of 14) compared to 0 of 4 control testicles. Testicular damage was found independently of the kind of intervention used. Therefore, cryopreservation of excess sperm should be considered while retrieving sperm....

  10. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  11. Mobile Application Development: Component Retrieval System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project was to investigate requirements to develop an innovative mobile application to retrieve components’ detailed information from the Stennis...

  12. Snapchat media retrieval for novice device users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khan, ZC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available procedures that are easily enough for novice smartphone users to employ: not necessarily hackers or information security specialists, but an average smartphone user. The results indicate that, it is indeed possible for novices to retrieve Snapchat data...

  13. Memory Retrieval in Mice and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yakov, Aya; Dudai, Yadin; Mayford, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval, the use of learned information, was until recently mostly terra incognita in the neurobiology of memory, owing to shortage of research methods with the spatiotemporal resolution required to identify and dissect fast reactivation or reconstruction of complex memories in the mammalian brain. The development of novel paradigms, model systems, and new tools in molecular genetics, electrophysiology, optogenetics, in situ microscopy, and functional imaging, have contributed markedly in recent years to our ability to investigate brain mechanisms of retrieval. We review selected developments in the study of explicit retrieval in the rodent and human brain. The picture that emerges is that retrieval involves coordinated fast interplay of sparse and distributed corticohippocampal and neocortical networks that may permit permutational binding of representational elements to yield specific representations. These representations are driven largely by the activity patterns shaped during encoding, but are malleable, subject to the influence of time and interaction of the existing memory with novel information. PMID:26438596

  14. Post-Retrieval Extinction Attenuates Cocaine Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Gregory C; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that post-retrieval extinction training attenuates fear and reward-related memories in both humans and rodents. This noninvasive, behavioral approach has the potential to be used in clinical settings to treat maladaptive memories that underlie several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, few studies to date have used a post-retrieval extinction approach to attenuate addiction-related memories. In the current study, we attempted to disrupt cocaine...

  15. Automated information retrieval system for radioactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrev, V.G.; Bochkov, P.E.; Gorokhov, S.A.; Nekrasov, V.V.; Tolstikova, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    An automated information retrieval system for radioactivation analysis has been developed. An ES-1022 computer and a problem-oriented software ''The description information search system'' were used for the purpose. Main aspects and sources of forming the system information fund, characteristics of the information retrieval language of the system are reported and examples of question-answer dialogue are given. Two modes can be used: selective information distribution and retrospective search [ru

  16. Dialog-based Interactive Image Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Hui; Cheng, Yu; Rennie, Steven; Feris, Rogerio Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Existing methods for interactive image retrieval have demonstrated the merit of integrating user feedback, improving retrieval results. However, most current systems rely on restricted forms of user feedback, such as binary relevance responses, or feedback based on a fixed set of relative attributes, which limits their impact. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to interactive image search that enables users to provide feedback via natural language, allowing for more natural and effect...

  17. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...

  18. Development of fuel number reader by ultrasonic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omote, T.; Yoshida, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a spent fuel ID number reader using ultrasonic imaging techniques that has been developed to realize efficient and automatic verification of fuel numbers, thereby to reduce mental load and radiation exposure for operators engaged in the verification task. The ultrasonic imaging techniques for automatic fuel number recognition are described. High-speed and high reliability imaging of the spent fuel ID number are obtained by using linear array type ultrasonic probe. The ultrasonic wave is scanned by switching array probe in vertical direction, and scanned mechanically in horizontal direction. Time for imaging of spent fuel ID number on assembly was confirmed less than three seconds by these techniques. And it can recognize spent fuel ID number even if spent fuel ID number can not be visualized by an optical method because of depositing fuel number regions by soft card. In order to recognize spent fuel ID number more rapidly and more reliably, coded fuel number expressed by plural separate recesses form is developed. Every coded fuel number consists of six small holes (about 1 mm dia.) and can be marked adjacent to the existing fuel number expressed by letters and numbers

  19. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words.Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters.We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities.The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  20. Index finger somatosensory evoked potentials in blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Dayananda; Subrahmanyam, Roopakala Mysore; Rangashetty, Srinivasa; Sharma, Rajeev

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, vision has been considered the dominant modality in our multi-sensory perception of the surrounding world. Sensory input via non-visual tracts becomes of greater behavioural relevance in totally blind individuals to enable effective interaction with the world around them. These include audition and tactile perceptions, leading to an augmentation in these perceptions when compared with normal sighted individuals. The objective of the present work was to study the index finger somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in totally blind and normal sighted individuals. SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading totally blind females and compared with 15 age-matched normal sighted females. Latency and amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms (N9, N13, and N20) were measured. Amplitude of N20 SEP (a cortical somatosensory evoked potential) was significantly larger in the totally blind than in normal sighted individuals (p Braille reading right index finger. Totally blind Braille readers have larger N20 amplitude, suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical representation of the Braille reading index finger.

  1. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  2. An Analysis of Practical Lexicography: A Reader (Ed. Fontenelle 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Intended as a companion volume to The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography (Atkins and Run-dell 2008, Fontenelle's book aims to bring together the most relevant papers in practical lexicography. This review article presents a critical analysis of the success thereof, both in quantitative and qualitative terms.

    Keywords: PRACTICAL LEXICOGRAPHY, DICTIONARY, MONOLINGUAL, BILINGUAL, QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION, QUALITATIVE EVALUATION, CITATION PATTERNS, CORPUS TOOLS, MEANING, DEFINITIONS, EXAMPLES, EQUIVALENCE, DICTIONARY USE, ENGLISH, FRENCH

    Samenvatting: Een analyse van Practical Lexicography: A Reader (Fonte-nelle 2008. Bedoeld als achtergrondlectuur bij The Oxford Guide to Practical Lexicography (Atkins en Rundell 2008, is het doel van Fontenelle's boek om de meest relevante papers m.b.t. praktische lexicografie samen te brengen. Dit recensieartikel is een kritische analyse van het succes daarvan, zowel in kwantitatieve als kwalitatieve termen.

    Sleutelwoorden: PRAKTISCHE LEXICOGRAFIE, WOORDENBOEK, EENTALIG, TWEE-TALIG, KWANTITATIEVE EVALUATIE, KWALITATIEVE EVALUATIE, CITATIEPATRONEN, CORPUS SOFTWARE, BETEKENIS, DEFINITIES, VOORBEELDEN, EQUIVALENTIE, WOOR-DENBOEKGEBRUIK, ENGELS, FRANS

  3. Gauge theories of gravitation a reader with commentaries

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojevic, Milutin

    2013-01-01

    In the last five decades, the gauge approach to gravity has represented a research area of increasing importance for our understanding of the physics of fundamental interactions. A full clarification of the gauge dynamics of gravity is expected to be the last missing link to the hidden structure of a consistent unification of all the fundamental interactions, based on the gauge principle. The aim of the present reprint volume, with commentaries by Milutin Blagojevi & 263; and Friedrich W Hehl, is to introduce graduate and advanced undergraduate students of theoretical or mathematical physics, or any other interested researcher, to the field of classical gauge theories of gravity. This is not just an ordinary reprint volume; it is a guide to the literature on gauge theories of gravity. The reader is encouraged first to study the introductory commentaries and to become familiar with the basic content of the reprints and related ideas, then he/she can choose to read a specific reprint or reprints, and after ...

  4. Migrant readers and wordless books: visual narratives’ inclusive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Grilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research here told is the Italian contribution to the international project Visual Journeys: Understanding Immigrant Children’s Response to Visual Images in Picturebooks, Conducted in Scotland, Arizona, Spain and Australia as an Observation of the Response of Migrant ten-eleven years old Readers to the Wordless Book The Arrival by Shaun Tan (2006. Reflections are made about co-construction and negotiation of meaning in a shared reading; wordless book is experienced as occasion of empowerment for those involved, giving value to individual stories and showing a positive outcome in school life, as for self-esteem and reciprocal relationships; it promotes discussion and increases interest in books, it shows an important effect on learning a foreign language and creating a group. The perspective of the whole experience is an interdisciplinary approach. The reading of wordless or silent book can be a true practice of right and belonging to the international community, and therefore a precious means for an education to global citizenship.

  5. The Birthing of Things: Bergson as a Reader of Lucretius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Healy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I examine, in this short paper, the work of Henri Bergson on Lucretius first published in 1884, and argue for its vital significance in understanding the development of his philosophical thinking. This publication was to serve as an introduction to extracts from Lucretius, for his students at Clermont-Ferrand, with a commentary and notes on the poetry, philosophy, the physics, language and text of his poem De Rerum Natura. In the published volume most of the overview of Lucretius by Bergson is given in the long preface, and this is followed by extracts in Latin, without translation into French, with comments on lines and individual words, which covers all the books of the original poem. By 1899 it had gone to a third edition, and was still in print until the 1960's. Copies today are very difficult to obtain, and only recently has a full electronic version become available on the Internet Archive, to which readers are here directly referred.

  6. A portable eBook reader for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Ramiro; Hernandez, Hermes; Preza, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and first prototype of the TactoBook system, a novel concept of reading assistive device that aims to make eBooks accessible to the blind. The TactoBook consists of a computer-based software translator that converts fast and automatically any eBook into Braille. The Braille version of the eBook is then encrypted as a file and stored in a USB memory drive which is later inserted and reproduced in a compact, lightweight, and highly-portable tactile terminal. Braille readers can store multiple eBooks in the same USB and access/reproduce them in the tactile terminal without this being plugged to a computer. The first Braille terminal developed is a 10-cell prototype based on a piezoelectric ultrasonic actuation approach. Its overall performance is quite similar to the one obtained with traditional Braille terminals. However, unlike them, the full device is only 1 kg mass and its compact dimensions (20 × 15 × 10 cm) make it easily carried by the user. A technical overview of all subsystems is presented and discussed.

  7. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  8. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  9. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, K M

    2000-01-01

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval ...

  10. Attention during memory retrieval enhances future remembering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, Nicole M; Dubrow, Sarah; Wagner, Anthony D

    2009-10-01

    Memory retrieval is a powerful learning event that influences whether an experience will be remembered in the future. Although retrieval can succeed in the presence of distraction, dividing attention during retrieval may reduce the power of remembering as an encoding event. In the present experiments, participants studied pictures of objects under full attention and then engaged in item recognition and source memory retrieval under full or divided attention. Two days later, a second recognition and source recollection test assessed the impact of attention during initial retrieval on long-term retention. On this latter test, performance was superior for items that had been tested initially under full versus divided attention. More importantly, even when items were correctly recognized on the first test, divided attention reduced the likelihood of subsequent recognition on the second test. The same held true for source recollection. Additionally, foils presented during the first test were also less likely to be later recognized if they had been encountered initially under divided attention. These findings demonstrate that attentive retrieval is critical for learning through remembering.

  11. Working memory retrieval as a decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Benjamin; Raskevicius, Julius; Bays, Paul M; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2014-02-03

    Working memory (WM) is a core cognitive process fundamental to human behavior, yet the mechanisms underlying it remain highly controversial. Here we provide a new framework for understanding retrieval of information from WM, conceptualizing it as a decision based on the quality of internal evidence. Recent findings have demonstrated that precision of WM decreases with memory load. If WM retrieval uses a decision process that depends on memory quality, systematic changes in response time distribution should occur as a function of WM precision. We asked participants to view sample arrays and, after a delay, report the direction of change in location or orientation of a probe. As WM precision deteriorated with increasing memory load, retrieval time increased systematically. Crucially, the shape of reaction time distributions was consistent with a linear accumulator decision process. Varying either task relevance of items or maintenance duration influenced memory precision, with corresponding shifts in retrieval time. These results provide strong support for a decision-making account of WM retrieval based on noisy storage of items. Furthermore, they show that encoding, maintenance, and retrieval in WM need not be considered as separate processes, but may instead be conceptually unified as operations on the same noise-limited, neural representation.

  12. INIS retrieval service, towards on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio; Komatsubara, Yasutoshi

    1983-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute executes the retrieval service of INIS atomic energy information by batch system in cooperation with Genshiryoku Kozaikai. This service is very popular to the users in whole Japan, but the demand of on-line service has increased recently. Therefore, it was decided to begin the INIS on-line service from January, 1984, through the on-line information retrieval system of the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology. It is expected that when the operation will be started, the utilization of INIS atomic energy information in Japan will drastically increase. Also Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has carried out the retrieval service by on-line system for those in the institute besides the batch system, accordingly, at this opportunity, the state of utilization of both systems and their distinction to use effectively, and the operation and the method of utilization of the on-line information retrieval system of JICST are explained. In the on-line system, the users are accessible to the data base themselves, and immediate information retrieval is possible, while in the batch system, the related information can be retrieved without fail, and the troublesome operation of equipment is not necessary. (Kako, I.)

  13. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  14. Gunther Tulip Retrievable Inferior Vena Caval Filters: Indications, Efficacy, Retrieval, and Complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looby, S.; Given, M.F.; Geoghegan, T.; McErlean, A.; Lee, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the Gunther Tulip (GT) retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with regard to indications, filtration efficacy, complications, retrieval window, and use of anticoagulation. Method. A retrospective study was performed of 147 patients (64 men, 83 women; mean age 58.8 years) who underwent retrievable GT filter insertion between 2001 and 2005. The indications for placement included a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis with a contraindication to anticoagulation (n = 68), pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis while on anticoagulation (n = 49), prophylactic filter placement for high-risk surgical patients with a past history of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 20), and a high risk of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 10). Forty-nine of the 147 patients did not receive anticoagulation (33.7%) while 96 of 147 patients did, 82 of these receiving warfarin (56.5%), 11 receiving low-molecular weight heparins (7.58%), and 3 receiving antiplatelet agents alone (2.06%). Results. Filter placement was successful in 147 patients (100%). Two patients had two filters inserted. Of the 147 patients, filter deployment was on a permanent basis in 102 and with an intention to retrieve in 45 patients. There were 36 (80%) successful retrievals and 9 (20%) failed retrievals. The mean time to retrieval was 33.6 days. The reasons for failed retrieval included filter struts tightly adherent to the IVC wall (5/9), extreme filter tilt (2/9), and extensive filter thrombus (2/9). Complications included pneumothorax (n = 4), failure of filter expansion (n = 1), and breakthrough pulmonary embolism (n = 1). No IVC thrombotic episodes were recorded. Discussion. The Gunther Tulip retrievable filter can be used as a permanent or a retrievable filter. It is safe and efficacious. GT filters can be safely retrieved at a mean time interval of 33.6 days. The newly developed Celect filter may extend the retrieval interval

  15. The Experiences in Processing Policies and Contracts by Adult ESL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiog, Evalyn B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes the experiences of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) readers in processing legal texts prior to entering a financial agreement. A preliminary survey was conducted to determine the commonly read policies and contracts of adult ESL reader-consumers, which revealed those of banks and life-insurance companies; hence,…

  16. The Effect of Technology-Based Altered Readability Levels on Struggling Readers' Science Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Coyne, Michael; Dunn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study examining how altered readability levels affected struggling readers' (N = 288) comprehension of scientific concepts and vocabulary. Specifically, the researchers were interested in learning what effect altered readability levels have when low ability readers participate in a technology-based science…

  17. Expository Text Comprehension in Secondary School: For Which Readers Does Knowledge of Connectives Contribute the Most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welie, Camille; Schoonen, Rob; Kuiken, Folkert; Bergh, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different language backgrounds or readers who vary in reading…

  18. Is It Lateralization, Processing Strategies, or Both That Distinguishes Good And Poor Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. Selman; Engle, Randall W.

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether poor readers eventually establish a dichotic right ear advantage as predicted by a maturational lag theory. The first studied developmental differences in dichotic listening for normal and poor readers when the order of reporting simultaneously presented items was unconstrained; the second controlled for order…

  19. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  20. What Reader-Oriented Literary and Cognitive Theories Have to Give to Composing Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman-Kleine, JoAnne

    In developing an interactive model of composing, this paper discusses three groups of reader-oriented theories, each of which provides composing theorists with some research and theory to use in developing such a model. First the paper discusses the main principle of the literary reader-response theorists--that the meaning and value of texts do…

  1. Syntactic and Discourse Skills in Chinese Adolescent Readers with Dyslexia: A Profiling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Lo, Jason C. M.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Xiao, Xiaoyun; Chan, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of syntactic and discourse skills to morphological skills, rapid naming, and working memory in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia and to examine their cognitive-linguistic profiles. Fifty-two dyslexic readers (mean age, 13;42) from grade 7 to 9 in Hong Kong high schools were compared with 52…

  2. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  3. Developing Historical Reading and Writing with Adolescent Readers: Effects on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark; Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Croninger, Robert; Jackson, Cara; Deogracias, Jeehye Shim; Hoffman, Benjamin Polk

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a disciplinary reading and writing curriculum intervention with professional development are shared. We share our instructional approach and provide writing outcomes for struggling adolescent readers who read at or below basic proficiency levels, as well as writing outcomes for proficient and advanced readers.…

  4. Design and trial evaluation of the user interface for MusicReader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoné, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and trial results of MusicReader, a networked application realizing sheet music related services for the support of ensemble and orchestra rehearsals and performances. To this end, MusicReader presents sheet music on computer screens and supports annotations, sheet

  5. Metacognitive Online Reading Strategy Use: Readers' Perceptions in L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore whether first-language (L1) readers of different language backgrounds would employ similar metacognitive online reading strategies and whether reading online in a second language (L2) could be influenced by L1 reading strategies. To this end, 52 Canadian college students as English L1 readers and 38 Iranian university…

  6. News in online and print newspapers: Differences in reader consumption and recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, Leen; Jankowski, Nicholas; Heuvelman, A.

    2004-01-01

    How readers consume and recall news presented in online and print versions of two newspapersin the Netherlands are investigated in this experimental study. Few differences are found between the online and print versions in terms of news supply. Reader attention to the news stories varies, depending

  7. Teaching Early Readers to Self-Monitor and Self-Correct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sharon M.; Urbanowski, Melena

    2016-01-01

    Proficient readers self-monitor and self-correct to derive meaning from text. This article reviews research on how students learn to self-monitor and self-correct and describes a Reciprocal Teaching (RT) instructional routine that was successfully used with early readers to build their metacognitive processes. The RT routine included teacher…

  8. Professional writers and empathy: Exploring the barriers to anticipating reader problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.T.; Lentz, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that professional writers cannot accurately predict the problems readers will experience when using functional documents. In this paper, we give an overview of reasons why it can be so hardfor writers to anticipate reader problems. We elaborate on the concept of empathy, and

  9. Short Vowels versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraye, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different…

  10. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  11. Relations among Metamemory, Rehearsal Activity and Word Recall of Learning Disabled and Non-Disabled Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    In free recall of word lists involving different rehearsal strategies, more words were recalled by older (as against younger) children and by nondisabled (as against learning disabled) readers. Disabled readers tended to be nonstrategic recallers and less accurate estimators of their memory capacity. Recall differences were attributed to semantic…

  12. Examining the Effects of School-Provided E-Readers on Middle School Students' Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Quincy

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide, the increasing popularity of e-books is undeniable; sales of e-books increased an astounding 4,456% over a 5-year period. Researchers, Miranda, Johnson, and Rossi-Williams, determined that e-readers have a positive impact on students' desire to read. This study attempted to determine if the use of institution issued e-readers would…

  13. Developmental Trajectories for Children With Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928

  14. Designs of Concept Maps and Their Impacts on Readers' Performance in Memory and Reasoning while Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fuzzy Trace Theory, this study investigated the impacts of concept maps with two strategic orientations (comprehensive and thematic representations) on readers' performance of cognitive operations (such as perception, verbatim memory, gist reasoning and syntheses) while the readers were reading two history articles that…

  15. A Dual-Route Perspective on Eye Movements of Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…

  16. Predictors of Reading Comprehension among Struggling Readers Who Exhibit Differing Levels of Inattention and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…

  17. Literature Discussion: Encouraging Reading Interest and Comprehension in Struggling Middle School Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…

  18. Measuring the Reader Self-Perceptions of Adolescents: Introducing the RSPS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henk, William A.; Marinak, Barbara A.; Melnick, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new affective instrument for assessing the reader self-perceptions of students in grades seven through ten. The Reader Self-Perception Scale 2 (RSPS2) builds upon its predecessor, the RSPS, a tool that measures the reading efficacy beliefs of children in grades four through six. New items were created for the RSPS2 to…

  19. Making Connections: Linking Cognitive Psychology and Intervention Research to Improve Comprehension of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…

  20. Retrieval-Based Learning: Positive Effects of Retrieval Practice in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Karpicke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2 or recognition test (Experiment 3. In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed.