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Sample records for strip isolation schemes

  1. An analysis of stripping to isolated analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, E.F.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1983-04-01

    The Feshbach projection formalism is used to calculate the form factors for the (d,n) stripping process to isolated analog resonances. These are used in a standard DWBA stripping calculation in which the radial integration over all space is accomplished by including outerspace contributions evaluated along the complex contours of Vincent and Fortune. It turns out that the shape and magnitude of the predicted cross section is quite insensitive to the continuum proton wave emanating from the resonant residual state. (Author) [pt

  2. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmler, C., E-mail: christian.irmler@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, 1370 Sankyuk Dong, Buk Gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, K.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Kato, E. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mohanty, G.B. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Negishi, K. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuboyama, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Valentan, M. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO{sub 2} system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules.

  3. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmler, C.; Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I.; Higuchi, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.; Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H.; Rao, K.K.; Kato, E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Negishi, K.; Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Tsuboyama, T.; Valentan, M.

    2013-01-01

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO 2 system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules

  4. The Strip Clustering Scheme for data collection in large-scale Wireless Sensing Network of the road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoujing Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For intelligent traffic and road structural health monitoring, Wireless Sensing Network has been applied widely in transportation, and large quantity of sensor nodes have been embedded in roadways. Now the service lives of sensors are limited mainly because of their battery power storage. So the life cycle of the whole network can be extended if the service life of each sensor in the network is prolonged. In this paper, the Strip Clustering Scheme (SCS is proposed to replace the Conventional Scheme (CS. This method includes region division, cluster head node selection, link construction, data fusion and transmission. Adopting SCS can reduce a lot of redundant data and the total energy consumption of the network by data fusion. In addition, adopting SCS can also extend the monitoring area without increasing the communication range of the Access Point (AP, and facilitate further expansion of the network as a result. Based on the numerically simulated results, CS method can be used for the WSN within 75 m, and SCS method is more suitable when the monitoring range is larger than 75 m. To achieve the optimal network costs and the network life cycle by using SCS, the range of d (the longitudinal spacing of adjacent nodes, is suggested as 10–12.5 m and the energy of cluster head nodes is 60% higher than the energy of non-head nodes with fixed w (the transverse distance of adjacent nodes. And the extra energy of head nodes can be obtained by adding the number of battery within the head nodes or using renewable energy technologies. Keywords: WSN, Road, Energy consumption, Conventional Scheme, Strip Clustering Scheme

  5. A simple and rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of pathogenic isolates of Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Pecharaburanin, Nilawan; Suksawat, Pornthip; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sithigorngul, Weerawan

    2007-12-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and rabbit polyclonal antibody (PAb) against Vibrio harveyi were generated from immunization of mice and rabbits with highly virulent isolate of V. harveyi. Two MAbs specific to virulent isolates of V. harveyi were obtained and one of them (VH4) was selected to conjugate with colloidal gold as the detector antibody was laid on a sample pad. Rabbit polyclonal antibody was used as the capture antibody at the test line (T) and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (GAM) was used as the capture antibody at the control line (C) of nitrocellulose strip. The ready-to-use strip was held in a plastic case and then stored in a desiccated plastic bag. A sample volume of 100 microl of bacterial suspension from various sources mixed with application buffer was applied to the sample chamber at one end of the strip and allowed to flow by chromatography through the nitrocellulose membrane to the other end. In test samples containing virulent isolates of V. harveyi, the bacteria would bind to the monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold and the resulting complex would be captured by the antibodies at the test line to give a reddish-purple band. Any unbound monoclonal antibody conjugated with colloidal gold moved across the test line would be captured by the GAM and form a band at the control line (C). In sample without V. harveyi or with V. harveyi below the limit (culture. The beneficial features of this kit are that simple, convenient and quick results (within 15 min) can be obtained without the requirement of sophisticated tools or special equipments and skills.

  6. P-stop isolation study of irradiated n-in-p type silicon strip sensors for harsh radiation environment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084505

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the most radiation hard silicon sensors for the CMS Experiment after the Phase II Upgrade in 2023 a comprehensive study of silicon sensors after a fluence of up to $1.5\\times10^{15} n_{eq}/cm^{2}$ corresponding to $3000 fb^{-1}$ after the HL-LHC era has been carried out. The results led to the decision that the future Outer Tracker (20~cm${<}R{<}$110~cm) of CMS will consist of n-in-p type sensors. This technology is more radiation hard but also the manufacturing is more challenging compared to p-in-n type sensors due to additional process steps in order to suppress the accumulation of electrons between the readout strips. One possible isolation technique of adjacent strips is the p-stop structure which is a p-type material implantation with a certain pattern for each individual strip. However, electrical breakdown and charge collection studies indicate that the process parameters of the p-stop structure have to be carefully calibrated in order to achieve a sufficient strip isolatio...

  7. Bretylium potentiation of the contractor responses of isolated rabbit aortic strips to potassium and tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, K; Shibata, S

    1971-09-01

    1. Pretreatment of rabbit aortic strips with bretylium potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine but not to noradrenaline. On the other hand, such pretreatment inhibited the response to nicotine.2. Even in reserpinized or cold stored aortic strips, pretreatment with bretylium enhanced the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.3. Pretreatment of fresh, reserpinized, or cold stored aortic strips with pheniprazine potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.4. Pretreatment of aortic strips with bretylium or pheniprazine did not potentiate the response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).5. The results indicate that both bretylium and pheniprazine potentiate the action of tyramine and potassium, not by presynaptic mechanisms, but by postsynaptic action, causing an increase in the sensitivity of the effector cells to the stimulants.

  8. Investigation of charge stripping scheme for uranium ions at 1-20 MeV/nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuboki, Hironori; Harada, Hiroyuki; Saha, Pranab K.

    2018-05-01

    We investigated a possibility to obtain charge distributions of uranium ions under the conditions to meet the requirements of the booster synchrotron proposed for heavy ion acceleration at J-PARC. The charge distribution is expected to have a width as narrow as possible to realize multi-charge acceleration. The main candidate of stripping material is a carbon foil because we can obtain narrower distributions than gas stripper and a lot of data is available. Besides that, the thickness of the stripping material should be less than 142 μg cm-2 because the energy loss in the stripping material would be compensated by an auxiliary accelerating cavity in the synchrotron ring. We studied the impact energy with which the charge distribution attains equilibrium within this thickness and has the narrowest width. The width is estimated over 1-20 MeV/nucleon by the calculation using the ionization and electron capture cross sections. Scaling factors are introduced to reproduce the experimental data and are determined to be 2.0 and 0.08 for the cross sections of ionization and electron capture, respectively. We concluded that the narrowest width can be obtained at 5.5 MeV/nucleon with a 109-μg cm-2-thick carbon foil.

  9. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mendel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC. Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1–100 μM. At 25 and 50 μM, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop at 0.1 μM. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from β-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K+-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca2+ influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study.

  10. The splitting in potential Crank-Nicolson scheme with discrete transparent boundary conditions for the Schroedinger equation on a semi-infinite strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducomet, Bernard; Zlotnik, Alexander; Zlotnik, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    We consider an initial-boundary value problem for a generalized 2D time-dependent Schroedinger equation (with variable coefficients) on a semi-infinite strip. For the Crank-Nicolson-type finite-difference scheme with approximate or discrete transparent boundary conditions (TBCs), the Strang-type splitting with respect to the potential is applied. For the resulting method, the unconditional uniform in time L2-stability is proved. Due to the splitting, an effective direct algorithm using FFT is developed now to implement the method with the discrete TBC for general potential. Numerical results on the tunnel effect for rectangular barriers are included together with the detailed practical error analysis confirming nice properties of the method. (authors)

  11. Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme versus Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Typing Mycobacterium abscessus Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gabriel Esquitini; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Duarte, Rafael da Silva; de Freitas, Denise; Palaci, Moises; Hadad, David Jamil; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Caldas, Paulo César; Heym, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a large-scale comparison of PFGE profiles with the results of a recently developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. abscessus. Ninety-three isolates were analyzed, with 40 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates, 47 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, and six isolates with no assigned subspecies. Forty-five isolates were obtained during five outbreaks, and 48 were sporadic isolates that were not associated with outbreaks. For MLST, seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH) were sequenced, and each isolate was assigned a sequence type (ST) from the combination of obtained alleles. The PFGE patterns of DraI-digested DNA were compared with the MLST results. All isolates were analyzable by both methods. Isolates from monoclonal outbreaks showed unique STs and indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns. Thirty-three STs and 49 unique PFGE patterns were identified among the 93 isolates. The Simpson's index of diversity values for MLST and PFGE were 0.69 and 0.93, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 0.96 and 0.97, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. In conclusion, the MLST scheme showed 100% typeability and grouped monoclonal outbreak isolates in agreement with PFGE, but it was less discriminative than PFGE for M. abscessus. PMID:24899019

  12. Multilocus sequence typing scheme versus pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for typing Mycobacterium abscessus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gabriel Esquitini; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Duarte, Rafael da Silva; de Freitas, Denise; Palaci, Moises; Hadad, David Jamil; Lima, Karla Valéria Batista; Lopes, Maria Luiza; Ramos, Jesus Pais; Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Caldas, Paulo César; Heym, Beate; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2014-08-01

    Outbreaks of infections by rapidly growing mycobacteria following invasive procedures, such as ophthalmological, laparoscopic, arthroscopic, plastic, and cardiac surgeries, mesotherapy, and vaccination, have been detected in Brazil since 1998. Members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group have caused most of these outbreaks. As part of an epidemiological investigation, the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this project, we performed a large-scale comparison of PFGE profiles with the results of a recently developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for M. abscessus. Ninety-three isolates were analyzed, with 40 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates, 47 M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates, and six isolates with no assigned subspecies. Forty-five isolates were obtained during five outbreaks, and 48 were sporadic isolates that were not associated with outbreaks. For MLST, seven housekeeping genes (argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta, and purH) were sequenced, and each isolate was assigned a sequence type (ST) from the combination of obtained alleles. The PFGE patterns of DraI-digested DNA were compared with the MLST results. All isolates were analyzable by both methods. Isolates from monoclonal outbreaks showed unique STs and indistinguishable or very similar PFGE patterns. Thirty-three STs and 49 unique PFGE patterns were identified among the 93 isolates. The Simpson's index of diversity values for MLST and PFGE were 0.69 and 0.93, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 0.96 and 0.97, respectively, for M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. In conclusion, the MLST scheme showed 100% typeability and grouped monoclonal outbreak isolates in agreement with PFGE, but it was less discriminative than PFGE for M. abscessus. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Integration of Fault Detection and Isolation with Control Using Neuro-fuzzy Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asokan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithms is developed for fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control strategy for nonlinear systems subjected to an unknown time-varying fault. At first, the design of fault diagnosis scheme is performed using model based fault detection technique. The neuro-fuzzy chi-square scheme is applied for fault detection and isolation. The fault magnitude and time of occurrence of fault is obtained through neuro-fuzzy chi-square scheme. The estimated magnitude of the fault magnitude is normalized and used by the feed-forward control algorithm to make appropriate changes in the manipulated variable to keep the controlled variable near its set value. The feed-forward controller acts along with feed-back controller to control the multivariable system. The performance of the proposed scheme is applied to a three- tank process for various types of fault inputs to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Extreme isolation of WN3/O3 stars and implications for their evolutionary origin as the elusive stripped binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Götberg, Ylva; de Mink, Selma E.

    2018-03-01

    Recent surveys of the Magellanic Clouds have revealed a subtype of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star with peculiar properties. WN3/O3 spectra exhibit both WR-like emission and O3 V-like absorption - but at lower luminosity than O3 V or WN stars. We examine the projected spatial distribution of WN3/O3 stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud as compared to O-type stars. Surprisingly, WN3/O3 stars are among the most isolated of all classes of massive stars; they have a distribution similar to red supergiants dominated by initial masses of 10-15 M⊙, and are far more dispersed than classical WR stars or luminous blue variables. Their lack of association with clusters of O-type stars suggests strongly that WN3/O3 stars are not the descendants of single massive stars (30 M⊙ or above). Instead, they are likely products of interacting binaries at lower initial mass (10-18 M⊙). Comparison with binary models suggests a probable origin with primaries in this mass range that were stripped of their H envelopes through non-conservative mass transfer by a low-mass secondary. We show that model spectra and positions on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for binary-stripped stars are consistent with WN3/O3 stars. Monitoring radial velocities with high-resolution spectra can test for low-mass companions or runaway velocities. With lower initial mass and environments that avoid very massive stars, the WN3/O3 stars fit expectations for progenitors of Type Ib and possibly Type Ibn supernovae.

  15. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A.; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina) comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes. PMID:26284618

  16. High-voltage isolation transformer for sub-nanosecond rise time pulses constructed with annular parallel-strip transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akira

    2011-07-01

    A novel annular parallel-strip transmission line was devised to construct high-voltage high-speed pulse isolation transformers. The transmission lines can easily realize stable high-voltage operation and good impedance matching between primary and secondary circuits. The time constant for the step response of the transformer was calculated by introducing a simple low-frequency equivalent circuit model. Results show that the relation between the time constant and low-cut-off frequency of the transformer conforms to the theory of the general first-order linear time-invariant system. Results also show that the test transformer composed of the new transmission lines can transmit about 600 ps rise time pulses across the dc potential difference of more than 150 kV with insertion loss of -2.5 dB. The measured effective time constant of 12 ns agreed exactly with the theoretically predicted value. For practical applications involving the delivery of synchronized trigger signals to a dc high-voltage electron gun station, the transformer described in this paper exhibited advantages over methods using fiber optic cables for the signal transfer system. This transformer has no jitter or breakdown problems that invariably occur in active circuit components.

  17. Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Stable, Comparative Analyses of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Human Disease Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Alison J; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; McCarthy, Noel D; Maiden, Martin C J

    2017-07-01

    Human campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli , remains a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries, but the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis outbreaks remains poorly defined, largely due to limitations in the resolution and comparability of isolate characterization methods. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data enable the improvement of sequence-based typing approaches, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), by substantially increasing the number of loci examined. A core genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme defines a comprehensive set of those loci present in most members of a bacterial group, balancing very high resolution with comparability across the diversity of the group. Here we propose a set of 1,343 loci as a human campylobacteriosis cgMLST scheme (v1.0), the allelic profiles of which can be assigned to core genome sequence types. The 1,343 loci chosen were a subset of the 1,643 loci identified in the reannotation of the genome sequence of C. jejuni isolate NCTC 11168, chosen as being present in >95% of draft genomes of 2,472 representative United Kingdom campylobacteriosis isolates, comprising 2,207 (89.3%) C. jejuni isolates and 265 (10.7%) C. coli isolates. Validation of the cgMLST scheme was undertaken with 1,478 further high-quality draft genomes, containing 150 or fewer contiguous sequences, from disease isolate collections: 99.5% of these isolates contained ≥95% of the 1,343 cgMLST loci. In addition to the rapid and effective high-resolution analysis of large numbers of diverse isolates, the cgMLST scheme enabled the efficient identification of very closely related isolates from a well-defined single-source campylobacteriosis outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Cody et al.

  18. Characterization of Micrococcaceae strains isolated from the human urogenital tract by the conventional scheme and a micromethod.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldellon, C; Mégraud, F

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Micrococcaceae isolates were obtained from 82 men with nongonococcal urethritis, 24 women with vaginitis, and 54 girls with vulvovaginitis. Identification and biotyping of these strains were carried out by using the simplified scheme of Kloos and Schleifer (W. E. Kloos and K. H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol. 1:82-88, 1975) and the commercially available API Staph test (DMS Staph Trac). Staphylococcus epidermidis occurred in about half of these isolates. There was no st...

  19. Voltammetric behaviour at gold electrodes immersed in the BCR sequential extraction scheme media Application of underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry to determination of copper in soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beni, Valerio; Newton, Hazel V.; Arrigan, Damien W.M.; Hill, Martin; Lane, William A.; Mathewson, Alan

    2004-01-30

    The development of mercury-free electroanalytical systems for in-field analysis of pollutants requires a foundation on the electrochemical behaviour of the chosen electrode material in the target sample matrices. In this work, the behaviour of gold working electrodes in the media employed in the BCR sequential extraction protocol, for the fractionation of metals in solid environmental matrices, is reported. All three of the BCR sequential extraction media are redox active, on the basis of acidity and oxygen content as well as the inherent reducing or oxidising nature of some of the reagents employed: 0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1 M hydroxylammonium chloride (adjusted to pH 2) and 1 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 2) with added trace hydrogen peroxide. The available potential ranges together with the demonstrated detection of target metals in these media are presented. Stripping voltammetry of copper or lead in the BCR extract media solutions reveal a multi-peak behaviour due to the stripping of both bulk metal and underpotential metal deposits. A procedure based on underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) was evaluated for application to determination of copper in 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. A preliminary screening step in which different deposition times are applied to the sample enables a deposition time commensurate with UPD-SV to be selected so that no bulk deposition or stripping occurs thus simplifying the shape and features of the resulting voltammograms. Choice of the suitable deposition time is then followed by standards addition calibration. The method was validated by the analysis of a number of BCR 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. Good agreement was obtained been the UPD-SV method and atomic spectroscopic results.

  20. Voltammetric behaviour at gold electrodes immersed in the BCR sequential extraction scheme media Application of underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry to determination of copper in soil extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, Valerio; Newton, Hazel V.; Arrigan, Damien W.M.; Hill, Martin; Lane, William A.; Mathewson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The development of mercury-free electroanalytical systems for in-field analysis of pollutants requires a foundation on the electrochemical behaviour of the chosen electrode material in the target sample matrices. In this work, the behaviour of gold working electrodes in the media employed in the BCR sequential extraction protocol, for the fractionation of metals in solid environmental matrices, is reported. All three of the BCR sequential extraction media are redox active, on the basis of acidity and oxygen content as well as the inherent reducing or oxidising nature of some of the reagents employed: 0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1 M hydroxylammonium chloride (adjusted to pH 2) and 1 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 2) with added trace hydrogen peroxide. The available potential ranges together with the demonstrated detection of target metals in these media are presented. Stripping voltammetry of copper or lead in the BCR extract media solutions reveal a multi-peak behaviour due to the stripping of both bulk metal and underpotential metal deposits. A procedure based on underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) was evaluated for application to determination of copper in 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. A preliminary screening step in which different deposition times are applied to the sample enables a deposition time commensurate with UPD-SV to be selected so that no bulk deposition or stripping occurs thus simplifying the shape and features of the resulting voltammograms. Choice of the suitable deposition time is then followed by standards addition calibration. The method was validated by the analysis of a number of BCR 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. Good agreement was obtained been the UPD-SV method and atomic spectroscopic results

  1. Characterization of Micrococcaceae strains isolated from the human urogenital tract by the conventional scheme and a micromethod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldellon, C; Mégraud, F

    1985-03-01

    Two hundred and twelve Micrococcaceae isolates were obtained from 82 men with nongonococcal urethritis, 24 women with vaginitis, and 54 girls with vulvovaginitis. Identification and biotyping of these strains were carried out by using the simplified scheme of Kloos and Schleifer (W. E. Kloos and K. H. Schleifer, J. Clin. Microbiol. 1:82-88, 1975) and the commercially available API Staph test (DMS Staph Trac). Staphylococcus epidermidis occurred in about half of these isolates. There was no statistical difference between the urethral and vaginal specimens, except for S. haemolyticus found primarily in males and for S. simulans and S. aureus found primarily in girls between the ages of 1 and 12 years. S. saprophyticus, a major cause of urinary tract infections in young women, was never isolated from the vagina, suggesting the probability of another reservoir.

  2. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  3. An anomaly detection and isolation scheme with instance-based learning and sequential analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, T. S.; Garcia, H. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an online anomaly detection and isolation (FDI) technique using an instance-based learning method combined with a sequential change detection and isolation algorithm. The proposed method uses kernel density estimation techniques to build statistical models of the given empirical data (null hypothesis). The null hypothesis is associated with the set of alternative hypotheses modeling the abnormalities of the systems. A decision procedure involves a sequential change detection and isolation algorithm. Notably, the proposed method enjoys asymptotic optimality as the applied change detection and isolation algorithm is optimal in minimizing the worst mean detection/isolation delay for a given mean time before a false alarm or a false isolation. Applicability of this methodology is illustrated with redundant sensor data set and its performance. (authors)

  4. Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  5. Evaluation of MIC Strip Isavuconazole test for susceptibility testing of wild-type and non-wild-type Aspergillus fumigatus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Verweij, Paul; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2. The essent......We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2...

  6. Cooperative control scheme for an HVDC system connected to an isolated BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.; Goto, K.; Kawai, T.; Matori, I.; Nakao, T.; Watanabe, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a cooperative control system to achieve stable operation of an isolated BWR nuclear plant linked to an HVDC system. In the proposed control system, under normal conditions the power plant is controlled according to the generating power reference and the generator frequency deviation is adjusted by converter power control. Such frequency control is also effective in the case of AC-DC system faults. In addition to the frequency control, an overload control is provided with the HVDC system, where the DC transmission power in the sound poles is increased due to a fault detection signal from the faulty pole. Effects of the above mentioned control systems were studied using digital dynamic programs. The sets of simulation results confirmed that in the case of a DC single pole fault, the plant is able to continue operation without any use of the turbine speed control units even for a restarting failure in the faulty pole. In case of a DC two pole fault, the plant is able to continue operation, being assisted by turbine speed control units when restarting in the faulty poles succeeds. In case of an AC three-line to ground fault near the AC terminal of the converter at the sending or receiving end, the system is able to continue stable operation, being supplemented by the turbine control unit when the faulty section of the AC system is isolated by a main or back-up relaying system

  7. Selectively strippable paint schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R.; Thumm, D.; Blackford, Roger W.

    1993-03-01

    In order to meet the requirements of more environmentally acceptable paint stripping processes many different removal methods are under evaluation. These new processes can be divided into mechanical and chemical methods. ICI has developed a paint scheme with intermediate coat and fluid resistant polyurethane topcoat which can be stripped chemically in a short period of time with methylene chloride free and phenol free paint strippers.

  8. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  9. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  10. Method of stripping solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of stripping loaded solid particles is specified in which uniform batches of the loaded particles are passed successively upwardly through an elution column in the form of discrete plugs, the particles of which do not intermingle substantially with the particles of the vertically adjacent plug(s), and are contacted therein with eluant liquid flowed downwardly, strong eluate being withdrawn from the lower region of the column, the loaded particles being supplied as a slurry in a carrier liquid, and successive batches of loaded particles being isolated as measured batches and being separated from their carrier liquid before being contacted with strong eluate and slurried with the strong eluate into the lower region of the column. An example describes the stripping of ion exchange resin particles loaded with complex uranium ions. (author)

  11. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  12. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I...

  13. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  14. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  15. Sub-50-as isolated extreme ultraviolet continua generated by 1.6-cycle near-infrared pulse combined with double optical gating scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Katsuya; Mashiko, Hiroki; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Hanada, Yasutaka; Nakano, Hidetoshi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the generation of ultrabroad bandwidth attosecond continua extending to sub-50-as duration in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region based on a 1.6-cycle Ti:sapphire laser pulse. The combination of the amplitude gating scheme with a sub-two-cycle driver pulse and the double optical gating scheme achieves the continuum generation with a bandwidth of 70 eV at the full width at half maximum near the peak photon energy of 140 eV, which supports a Fourier-transform-limited pulse duration as short as 32 as. The carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) dependence of the attosecond continua shows a single-peak structure originating from the half-cycle cut-off at appropriate CEP values, which strongly indicates the generation of a single burst of an isolated attosecond pulse. Our approach suggests a possibility for isolated sub-50-as pulse generation in the EUV region by compensating for the intrinsic attosecond chirp with a Zr filter.

  16. Conducted EMI Mitigation Schemes in Isolated Switching-Mode Power Supply without the Need of a Y-capacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Yongjiang; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    In order to construct a low impedance loop for common mode electromagnetic interference (EMI) signals, traditional method is to use Y-capacitors as filtering components. However, in the commonly used isolated AC-DC switching mode power supplies (SMPS), the Y-capacitors branch also behaves...

  17. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Strip Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsien Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the permeation of indium ions through a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM, prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA as the base polymer, tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP as the plasticizer and di-(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA as the extractant. With 5 M HCl aqueous solution as the strip solution, we observed an initial indium permeability of 2.4 × 10−4 m/min. However, the permeability decreases with time, dropping to about 3.4 × 10−5 m/min after 200 min of operation. Evidence was obtained showing that hydrolysis of CTA occurred, causing a dramatic decrease in the feed pH (protons transported from strip to feed solutions and a loss of extractant and plasticizer from the membrane, and then leading to the loss of indium permeability. To alleviate the problem of hydrolysis, we proposed an operation scheme called polymer inclusion membranes with strip dispersion: dispersing the strip solution in extractant-containing oil and then bringing the dispersion to contact with the polymer membrane. Since the strong acid was dispersed in oil, the membrane did not directly contact the strong acid at all times, and membrane hydrolysis was thus alleviated and the loss of indium permeability was effectively prevented. With the proposed scheme, a stable indium permeability of 2.5 × 10−4 m/min was obtained during the whole time period of the permeation experiment.

  18. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  19. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  20. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  1. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  2. Gas stripping and mixing in galaxy clusters: a numerical comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heß, Steffen; Springel, Volker

    2012-11-01

    The ambient hot intrahalo gas in clusters of galaxies is constantly fed and stirred by infalling galaxies, a process that can be studied in detail with cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. However, different numerical methods yield discrepant predictions for crucial hydrodynamical processes, leading for example to different entropy profiles in clusters of galaxies. In particular, the widely used Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme is suspected to strongly damp fluid instabilities and turbulence, which are both crucial to establish the thermodynamic structure of clusters. In this study, we test to which extent our recently developed Voronoi particle hydrodynamics (VPH) scheme yields different results for the stripping of gas out of infalling galaxies and for the bulk gas properties of cluster. We consider both the evolution of isolated galaxy models that are exposed to a stream of intracluster medium or are dropped into cluster models, as well as non-radiative cosmological simulations of cluster formation. We also compare our particle-based method with results obtained with a fundamentally different discretization approach as implemented in the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that VPH leads to noticeably faster stripping of gas out of galaxies than SPH, in better agreement with the mesh-code than with SPH. We show that despite the fact that VPH in its present form is not as accurate as the moving mesh code in our investigated cases, its improved accuracy of gradient estimates makes VPH an attractive alternative to SPH.

  3. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  4. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  5. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  6. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  7. Pros and cons of flowers strips for farmers. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyttenbroeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. To counteract environmental problems due to agricultural intensification, European farmers can apply agri-environmental schemes in their fields. Flower strips are one example of these schemes, with the aim of supporting biodiversity, leading to an increase in "useful" species groups such as pollinators for crop pollination and natural enemies for pest control. However, to our knowledge, a complete appraisal of the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, does not yet exist. It is proposed that better and more complete information could increase the adoption and implementation of such agri-environmental schemes. Objectives. This study aims 1 to assess the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, and 2 to highlight the knowledge gaps that exist in the scientific literature, for the different types of pros and cons. Method. We listed the different components of the appraisal of pros and cons and conducted a systematic screening of the scientific literature on flower strips and these components. Results. The largest part of the 31 selected studies was concerning agronomical and ecological processes, such as pollination and animal pest control. Most of them indicated positive effects of flower strips. For many components of the appraisal, mostly economic and social ones, few or no studies were found. Conclusions. While a positive balance of pros and cons, from a farmer's point of view, came from our literature screening, large research gaps still remain and more research is required, especially in the economic and social components of the evaluation.

  8. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  9. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  10. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  11. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  12. Limnimeter and rain gauge FDI in sewer networks using an interval parity equations based detection approach and an enhanced isolation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology for limnimeter and rain-gauge fault detection and isolation (FDI) in sewer networks is presented. The proposed model based FDI approach uses interval parity equations for fault detection in order to enhance robustness against modelling errors and noise. They both are assumed unknown but bounded, following the so-called interval (or set-membership) approach. On the other hand, fault isolation relies on an algorithm that reasons using several fault signature matrice...

  13. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  14. “Tropicalisation” of Feed-in Tariffs: a custom-made support scheme for hybrid PV/diesel systems in isolated regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solano-Peralta, M.; Moner-Girona, M.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Vallvè, X.

    2009-01-01

    The interest and actions towards introducing renewables for off-grid regions has increased due to their ostensible cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness and quality services provided. Nevertheless, in many isolated areas diesel generators appear as a common option, confirming that there is a need for

  15. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  16. New developments in double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.; Boulos, T.; Cattaneo, P.; Dietl, H.; Hauff, D.; Holl, P.; Lange, E.; Lutz, G.; Moser, H.G.; Schwarz, A.S.; Settles, R.; Struder, L.; Kemmer, J.; Buttler, W.

    1990-01-01

    A new type of double sided silicon strip detector has been built and tested using highly density VLSI readout electronics connected to both sides. Capacitive coupling of the strips to the readout electronics has been achieved by integrating the capacitors into the detector design, which was made possible by introducing a new detector biasing concept. Schemes to simplify the technology of the fabrication of the detectors are discussed. The static performance properties of the devices as well as implications of the use of VLSI electronics in their readout are described. Prototype detectors of the described design equipped with high density readout electronics have been installed in the ALEPH detector at LEP. Test results on the performance are given

  17. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  18. Quantitative comparison of structure and dynamics of elastin following three isolation schemes by 13C solid state NMR and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, A; Louis, M; Dhital, B; Ho, H P; Chang, E J; Boutis, G S

    2015-05-01

    Methods for isolating elastin from fat, collagen, and muscle, commonly used in the design of artificial elastin based biomaterials, rely on exposing tissue to harsh pH levels and temperatures that usually denature many proteins. At present, a quantitative measurement of the modifications to elastin following isolation from other extracellular matrix constituents has not been reported. Using magic angle spinning (13)C NMR spectroscopy and relaxation methodologies, we have measured the modification in structure and dynamics following three known purification protocols. Our experimental data reveal that the (13)C spectra of the hydrated samples appear remarkably similar across the various purification methods. Subtle differences in the half maximum widths were observed in the backbone carbonyl suggesting possible structural heterogeneity across the different methods of purification. Additionally, small differences in the relative signal intensities were observed between purified samples. Lyophilizing the samples results in a reduction of backbone motion and reveals additional differences across the purification methods studied. These differences were most notable in the alanine motifs indicating possible changes in cross-linking or structural rigidity. The measured correlation times of glycine and proline moieties are observed to also vary considerably across the different purification methods, which may be related to peptide bond cleavage. Lastly, the relative concentration of desmosine cross-links in the samples quantified by MALDI mass spectrometry is reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. EPU correction scheme study at the CLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertwistle, Drew, E-mail: drew.bertwistle@lightsource.ca; Baribeau, C.; Dallin, L.; Chen, S.; Vogt, J.; Wurtz, W. [Canadian Light Source Inc. 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) Quantum Materials Spectroscopy Center (QMSC) beamline will employ a novel double period (55 mm, 180 mm) elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) to produce photons of arbitrary polarization in the soft X-ray regime. The long period and high field of the 180 mm period EPU will have a strong dynamic focusing effect on the storage ring electron beam. We have considered two partial correction schemes, a 4 m long planar array of BESSY-II style current strips, and soft iron L-shims. In this paper we briefly consider the implementation of these correction schemes.

  20. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Campabadal, F; Key, M; Lozano, M; Martínez, C; Pellegrini, G; Rafí, J M; Ullán, M; Johansen, L; Pommeresche, B; Stugu, B; Ciocio, A; Fadeev, V; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Siegrist, J; Spieler, H; Vu, C; Bell, P J; Charlton, D G; Dowell, John D; Gallop, B J; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Mahout, G; McMahon, T J; Wilson, J A; Barr, A J; Carter, J R; Fromant, B P; Goodrick, M J; Hill, J C; Lester, C G; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Robinson, D; Sabetfakhri, A; Shaw, R J; Anghinolfi, F; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Chouridou, S; Fortin, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwé, M; Ferrari, P; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; MacPherson, A; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Ruggiero, G; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Bialas, W; Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Koperny, S; Blocki, J; Brückman, P; Gadomski, S; Godlewski, J; Górnicki, E; Malecki, P; Moszczynski, A; Stanecka, E; Stodulski, M; Szczygiel, R; Turala, M; Wolter, M; Ahmad, A; Benes, J; Carpentieri, C; Feld, L; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Mikulec, B; Mangin-Brinet, M; D'Onofrio, M; Donega, M; Moêd, S; Sfyrla, A; Ferrère, D; Clark, A G; Perrin, E; Weber, M; Bates, R L; Cheplakov, A P; Saxon, D H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M; Iwata, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Ikegami, Y; Unno, Y; Takashima, R; Brodbeck, T; Chilingarov, A G; Hughes, G; Ratoff, P; Sloan, T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; King, B T; Maxfield, S J; Smith, N A; Sutcliffe, P; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Beck, G A; Carter, A A; Lloyd, S L; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Morin, J; Nagai, K; Pritchard, T W; Anderson, B E; Butterworth, J M; Fraser, T J; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Postranecky, M; Warren, M R M; Cindro, V; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Duerdoth, I P; Freestone, J; Foster, J M; Ibbotson, M; Loebinger, F K; Pater, J; Snow, S W; Thompson, R J; Atkinson, T M; Bright, G; Kazi, S; Lindsay, S; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G N; Bachindgagyan, G; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Merkine, M; Andricek, L; Bethke, Siegfried; Kudlaty, J; Lutz, Gerhard; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R; Schieck, J; Cornelissen, T; Gorfine, G W; Hartjes, F G; Hessey, N P; de Jong, P; Muijs, A J M; Peeters, S J M; Tomeda, Y; Tanaka, R; Nakano, I; Dorholt, O; Danielsen, K M; Huse, T; Sandaker, H; Stapnes, S; Bargassa, Pedrame; Reichold, A; Huffman, T; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A; Doucas, G; Hawes, B; Lau, W; Howell, D; Kundu, N; Wastie, R; Böhm, J; Mikestikova, M; Stastny, J; Broklová, Z; Broz, J; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Kubík, P; Reznicek, P; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I; Chren, D; Horazdovsky, T; Linhart, V; Pospísil, S; Sinor, M; Solar, M; Sopko, B; Stekl, I; Ardashev, E N; Golovnya, S N; Gorokhov, S A; Kholodenko, A G; Rudenko, R E; Ryadovikov, V N; Vorobev, A P; Adkin, P J; Apsimon, R J; Batchelor, L E; Bizzell, J P; Booker, P; Davis, V R; Easton, J M; Fowler, C; Gibson, M D; Haywood, S J; MacWaters, C; Matheson, J P; Matson, R M; McMahon, S J; Morris, F S; Morrissey, M; Murray, W J; Phillips, P W; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Dorfan, D E; Grillo, A A; Rosenbaum, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Booth, P; Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Dervan, P; Grigson, C; Harper, R; Moraes, A; Peak, L S; Varvell, K E; Chu Ming Lee; Hou Li Shing; Lee Shih Chang; Teng Ping Kun; Wan Chang Chun; Hara, K; Kato, Y; Kuwano, T; Minagawa, M; Sengoku, H; Bingefors, N; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Fuster, J; García, C; García, J E; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Modesto, P; Sánchez, J; Sospedra, L; Vos, M; Fasching, D; González, S; Jared, R C; Charles, E

    2005-01-01

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 multiplied by 1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  1. Phase transition scheme of isolated hydrogen-bonded material h-MeHPLN studied by neutron and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Ryoji; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Noda, Yukio; Kojima, Akiko; Mochida, Tomoyuki; Sugawara, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    The antiferroelectric material with an isolated hydrogen-bond, h-MeHPLN (5-methyl-9-hydroxyphenalenon), was structurally investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments in the low-temperature phase (T c =42K). The formation of a superlattice of 2 x b was found below T c , and the space group was identified to be P2 1 /c transformed from C2 c . Accordingly, the number of crystallographically independent molecules became two. The electron density distribution and the nuclear density distribution revealed some significant features below T c . One of the independent molecules exhibits an ordering of the hydrogen atom in the hydrogen-bond region, a conformational ordering of the methyl group and a molecular rotation around the a-axis. Moreover, a static electronic dipole moment is found in the hydrogen-bond region in this molecule. In contrast, the other molecule shows a disordered hydrogen atom, disordered conformation of the methyl group, no molecular rotation and a disordered electronic dipole moment. These features can be described simply in terms of a modulation wave of an order parameter. (author)

  2. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  3. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  4. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Short Strips Detectors for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  5. Aptamer-Based Paper Strip Sensor for Detecting Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woo-Ri; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Ko, Jung Ho; Ahn, Ji-Young; Min, Jiho; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2018-05-14

    Aptamer-based paper strip sensor for detecting Vibrio fischeri was developed. Our method was based on the aptamer sandwich assay between whole live cells, V. fischeri and DNA aptamer probes. Following 9 rounds of Cell-SELEX and one of the negative-SELEX, V. fischeri Cell Aptamer (VFCA)-02 and -03 were isolated, with the former showing approximately 10-fold greater avidity (in the subnanomolar range) for the target cells when arrayed on a surface. The colorimetric response of a paper sensor based on VFCA-02 was linear in the range of 4 × 10 1 to 4 × 10 5 CFU/mL of target cell by using scanning reader. The linear regression correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) was 0.9809. This system shows promise for use in aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticle probes in paper strip format for in-field detection of marine bioindicating bacteria.

  6. The bacterial contamination rate of glucose meter test strips in the hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Saeb, Amr T. M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra M.; AlQumaidi, Hamed M.; AlMogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of the multi-use vial and single-use packed glucose meter strips, and to identify the type and frequency of various bacterial contamination in different hospital wards. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted by a team from the Strategic Center for Diabetes Research in 7 general hospitals in the Central region of Saudi Arabia during the period from August to September 2014 to assess the bacterial contamination rate of the unused strips. A total of 10,447 strips were cultured using proper agar media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Results: The total bacterial contamination rate for the multi-use vials glucose strips was 31.7%, while single-use packed strips were not contaminated at all. Ministry of Health hospitals had the highest contamination rates compared with other hospitals. Critical, obstetric, and surgical wards had the highest bacterial isolates number, where most were in the risk group 3 according to the National Institute of Health guidelines. Staphylococcus species were the most common bacteria found. Conclusion: Glucose meter strips should be recognized as a source of bacterial contamination that could be behind serious hospital acquired infections. The hospital infection control team should adopt proper measures to implement protocols for glucose meter cleaning and glucose strips handling. PMID:27570855

  7. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  8. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  9. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  10. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abu Bakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10. The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.

  11. Apparatus for irradiating a continuous line metallic strip with electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shozo; Tanaka, Tadashi; Okamoto, Tadaaki; Ueno, Nagaharu.

    1970-01-01

    The secondary X-rays from an irradiated object are completely shielded by providing direction-change rollers between applicator rollers and irradiation devices. The substrate strip turns its direction of travel by 90 0 through idle rollers and before it enters a front side applicator roller. After the application of coatings, the strip travels over a roller to turn upwardly, so that the applicator is isolated from the following irradiation enclosure. Next, the irradiated strip changes its direction by 90 0 through a roller to enter a bake side coating applicator. After a direction change through a roller, the strip enters the irradiation enclosure. In this way, the applicators can prevent leakage of secondary X-rays. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential

  13. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  14. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  15. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  16. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  17. Signal multiplexing scheme for LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujo, C.I.; Mohan, Shyam; Joshi, Gopal; Singh, S.K.; Karande, Jitendra

    2004-01-01

    For the proper operation of the LINAC some signals, RF (radio frequency) as well as LF (low frequency) have to be available at the Master Control Station (MCS). These signals are needed to control, calibrate and characterize the RF fields in the resonators. This can be achieved by proper multiplexing of various signals locally and then routing the selected signals to the MCS. A multiplexing scheme has been designed and implemented, which will allow the signals from the selected cavity to the MCS. High isolation between channels and low insertion loss for a given signal are important issues while selecting the multiplexing scheme. (author)

  18. Study of surface properties of ATLAS12 strip sensors and their radiation resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikestikova, M.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ullan, M.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Tackmann, K.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Sevilla, S. Gonzalez; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Stastny, J.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    A radiation hard n+-in-p micro-strip sensor for the use in the Upgrade of the strip tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) has been developed by the "ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration" and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. Surface properties of different types of end-cap and barrel miniature sensors of the latest sensor design ATLAS12 have been studied before and after irradiation. The tested barrel sensors vary in "punch-through protection" (PTP) structure, and the end-cap sensors, whose stereo-strips differ in fan geometry, in strip pitch and in edge strip ganging options. Sensors have been irradiated with proton fluences of up to 1×1016 neq/cm2, by reactor neutron fluence of 1×1015 neq/cm2 and by gamma rays from 60Co up to dose of 1 MGy. The main goal of the present study is to characterize the leakage current for micro-discharge breakdown voltage estimation, the inter-strip resistance and capacitance, the bias resistance and the effectiveness of PTP structures as a function of bias voltage and fluence. It has been verified that the ATLAS12 sensors have high breakdown voltage well above the operational voltage which implies that different geometries of sensors do not influence their stability. The inter-strip isolation is a strong function of irradiation fluence, however the sensor performance is acceptable in the expected range for HL-LHC. New gated PTP structure exhibits low PTP onset voltage and sharp cut-off of effective resistance even at the highest tested radiation fluence. The inter-strip capacitance complies with the technical specification required before irradiation and no radiation-induced degradation was observed. A summary of ATLAS12 sensors tests is presented including a comparison of results from different irradiation sites. The measured characteristics are compared with the previous prototype of the sensor design, ATLAS07.

  19. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  20. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  1. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  2. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  3. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  4. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  5. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  6. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  7. T-CAD analysis of electric fields in n-in-p silicon strip detectors in dependence on the p-stop pattern and doping concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Printz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    However, n-in-p detectors necessarily need an isolation layer of the n+ strips due to an accumula- tion layer of electrons caused by positive charge in the SiO$_2$ at the sensor surface. An additional implantation of acceptors like boron between the n+ strips cuts the co...

  8. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good

  9. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir [BlueScope Steel, TEOB, 1 Bayview Road, Hastings Vic. 3915 (Australia)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Panjkovic@BlueScopeSteel.com

    2007-10-15

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good.

  10. Superconducting Strips: A Concept in Thermal Neutron Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Merlo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the never-ending quest for better detection efficiency and spatial resolution, various thermal neutron detection schemes have been proposed over the years. Given the presence of some converting layers (typically boron, but 6LiF is also widely used nowadays, the shift towards concepts based on solid state detectors has been steadily increasing and ingenious schemes thereby proposed. However, a trade-off has been always sought for between efficiency and spatial resolution; the problem can be (at least partially circumvented using more elaborate geometries, but this complicates the sample preparation and detector construction. Thus, viable alternatives must be found. What we proposed (and verified experimentally is a detection scheme based on the superconducting to normal transition. More precisely, using a boron converting layer, the α particles (generated in the (n, α reaction crossing a low critical temperature superconducting strip some 10 µm wide have been detected; the process, bolometric in nature and based on the ionization energy loss, is intrinsically fast and the spatial resolution very appealing. In this work, some of the work done so far will be illustrated, together with the principles of the measurement and various related problems. The realization of the detector is based on industrial deposition and photolitographic techniques well within the grasp of a condensed matter laboratory, so that there is substantial room for improvement over our elementary strip geometry. Some of the plans for future work will also be presented, together with some improvements both in the choice of the materials and the geometry of the detector.

  11. Study of surface properties of ATLAS12 strip sensors and their radiation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikestikova, M., E-mail: mikestik@fzu.cz [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ullan, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Gregor, I.M.; Tackmann, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A radiation hard n{sup +}-in-p micro-strip sensor for the use in the Upgrade of the strip tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) has been developed by the “ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration” and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. Surface properties of different types of end-cap and barrel miniature sensors of the latest sensor design ATLAS12 have been studied before and after irradiation. The tested barrel sensors vary in “punch-through protection” (PTP) structure, and the end-cap sensors, whose stereo-strips differ in fan geometry, in strip pitch and in edge strip ganging options. Sensors have been irradiated with proton fluences of up to 1×10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, by reactor neutron fluence of 1×10{sup 15} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} and by gamma rays from {sup 60}Co up to dose of 1 MGy. The main goal of the present study is to characterize the leakage current for micro-discharge breakdown voltage estimation, the inter-strip resistance and capacitance, the bias resistance and the effectiveness of PTP structures as a function of bias voltage and fluence. It has been verified that the ATLAS12 sensors have high breakdown voltage well above the operational voltage which implies that different geometries of sensors do not influence their stability. The inter-strip isolation is a strong function of irradiation fluence, however the sensor performance is acceptable in the expected range for HL-LHC. New gated PTP structure exhibits low PTP onset voltage and sharp cut-off of effective resistance even at the highest tested radiation fluence. The inter-strip capacitance complies with the technical specification required before irradiation and no radiation-induced degradation was observed. A summary of ATLAS12 sensors tests is presented including a comparison of results from different irradiation sites. The measured characteristics are compared with the previous prototype of the sensor design, ATLAS07. - Highlights:

  12. Characterization of constrained aged Ni Ti strips for using in artificial muscle actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanzadeh Nemati, N.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Marvelous bending/straightening effects of two-way shape memory alloy help their employment in design and manufacturing of new medical appliances. Constrained ageing with bending load scheme can induce two-way shape memory effect. Scanning electron microscopic analysis, electrical resistivity measurement and differential scanning calorimetry are employed to determine the property change due to flat strip constrained aging. Results show that flat-annealing prior to the aging shifts Ni Ti transformations temperatures to higher values. Super elastic behavior of the as-received/flat-annealed/aged samples with more adequate transition temperatures due to biological tissue replacement is studied by three-point flexural tests. Results show that curing changes the transition points of the Ni Ti strips. These changes affect the shape memory behavior of the Ni Ti strips embedded within the biocompatible flexible composite segments.

  13. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  14. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  15. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  17. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  18. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  19. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  20. Test of supersymmetry in the 193Ir→194Pt proton stripping reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, M.; Rotbard, G.; Kalifa, J.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Vernotte, J.; Seltz, R.; Burke, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    A breakdown of the selection rules of the supersymmetry model is observed for the population of the 0 2 + and 2 2 + levels of 194 Pt in the 193 Ir → 194 Pt proton stripping reactions performed using the Orsay and Mc Master University tandem accelerators. The existence of other violations in the neighbouring nuclei leads to believe that we are seeing the limitations of the supersymmetry scheme itself, at least for particle transfer reactions

  1. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  2. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  3. Artificial Intelligence for Inferential Control of Crude Oil Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ebnali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripper columns are used for sweetening crude oil, and they must hold product hydrogen sulfide content as near the set points as possible in the faces of upsets. Since product    quality cannot be measured easily and economically online, the control of product quality is often achieved by maintaining a suitable tray temperature near its set point. Tray temperature control method, however, is not a proper option for a multi-component stripping column because the tray temperature does not correspond exactly to the product composition. To overcome this problem, secondary measurements can be used to infer the product quality and adjust the values of the manipulated variables. In this paper, we have used a novel inferential control approach base on adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for stripping process. ANFIS with different learning algorithms is used for modeling the process and building a composition estimator to estimate the composition of the bottom product. The developed estimator is tested, and the results show that the predictions made by ANFIS structure are in good agreement with the results of simulation by ASPEN HYSYS process simulation package. In addition, inferential control by the implementation of ANFIS-based online composition estimator in a cascade control scheme is superior to traditional tray temperature control method based on less integral time absolute error and low duty consumption in reboiler.

  4. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  5. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  6. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  7. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  8. Study on shear strengthening of RC continuous T-beams using different layers of CFRP strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alferjani, M. B. S.; Samad, A. A. Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Elrawaff, Blkasem S.; Elzaroug, Omer [Faculty of Civil Engineering Omar Al Mukhtar University, Bayda, Libya, Africa (Libya)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are externally bonded to reinforced concrete (RC) members to provide additional strength such as flexural, shear, etc. However, this paper presents the results of an experimental investigation for enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous T- beams using different layers of CFRP wrapping schemes. A total of three concrete beams were tested and various sheet configurations and layouts were studied to determine their effects on ultimate shear strength and shear capacity of the beams. One beam was kept as control beams, while other beams were strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips with three side bonding and one or two layers of CFRP strips. From the test results, it was found that all schemes were found to be effective in enhancing the shear strength of RC beams. It was observed that the strength increases with the number of sheet layers provided the most effective strengthening for RC continuous T- beam. Beam strengthened using this scheme showed 23.21% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beam. Two prediction models available in literature were used for computing the contribution of CFRP strips and compared with the experimental results.

  9. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  10. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the

  11. Low-resistance strip sensors for beam-loss event protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullán, M.; Benítez, V.; Quirion, D.; Zabala, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Lacasta, C.; Soldevila, U.; García, C.; Fadeyev, V.; Wortman, J.; DeFilippis, J.; Shumko, M.; Grillo, A.A; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.

    2014-01-01

    AC-coupled silicon strip sensors can be damaged in case of a beam loss due to the possibility of a large charge accumulation in the bulk, developing very high voltages across the coupling capacitors which can destroy them. Punch-through structures are currently used to avoid this problem helping to evacuate the accumulated charge as large voltages are developing. Nevertheless, previous experiments, performed with laser pulses, have shown that these structures can become ineffective in relatively long strips. The large value of the implant resistance can effectively isolate the “far” end of the strip from the punch-through structure leading to large voltages. We present here our developments to fabricate low-resistance strip sensors to avoid this problem. The deposition of a conducting material in contact with the implants drastically reduces the strip resistance, assuring the effectiveness of the punch-through structures. First devices have been fabricated with this new technology. Initial results with laser tests show the expected reduction in peak voltages on the low resistivity implants. Other aspects of the sensor performance, including the signal formation, are not affected by the new technology

  12. Adaptive neural network controller for the molten steel level control of strip casting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung Yi; Huang, Shiuh Jer

    2010-01-01

    The twin-roll strip casting process is a steel-strip production method which combines continuous casting and hot rolling processes. The production line from molten liquid steel to the final steel-strip is shortened and the production cost is reduced significantly as compared to conventional continuous casting. The quality of strip casting process depends on many process parameters, such as molten steel level in the pool, solidification position, and roll gap. Their relationships are complex and the strip casting process has the properties of nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics. It is difficult to establish an accurate process model for designing a model-based controller to monitor the strip quality. In this paper, a model-free adaptive neural network controller is developed to overcome this problem. The proposed control strategy is based on a neural network structure combined with a sliding-mode control scheme. An adaptive rule is employed to on-line adjust the weights of radial basis functions by using the reaching condition of a specified sliding surface. This surface has the on-line learning ability to respond to the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors. Since this model-free controller has a simple control structure and small number of control parameters, it is easy to implement. Simulation results, based on a semi experimental system dynamic model and parameters, are executed to show the control performance of the proposed intelligent controller. In addition, the control performance is compared with that of a traditional Pid controller

  13. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  14. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the track inclination in a single

  15. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  16. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  17. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  18. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  19. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  20. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  1. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  2. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  3. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  5. Lorentz laser-assisted stripping (Lolas) for H-/H0 injection into proton drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastaldi, Ugo

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the main components of schemes for Lorentz laser-assisted stripping (abbreviated Lolas henceforth) proposed for injection into proton driver accumulators: H- → H0 + e- Lorentz stripping, H0→H0(n) laser excitation, H0(n)→p+ + e- Lorentz stripping. We mention results obtained in practice of H- beam transport and storage and of experiments addressing physics of the H- ion, of the H0 atom and of vacuum, which prove the feasibility of each Lolas component. For high enough injection energies, it is feasible to split without losses the H0 beam sent towards the accumulator into a fraction stripped to p+s and stored inside the accumulator and a complementary fraction of H0s delivered to high duty-cycle users. The fraction of stored beam can exceed 50% with one single Fabry-Perot cavity used to enhance the laser power density. Aspects of Lolas integration and optimization are pointed out

  6. Technology Development on P-type Silicon Strip Detectors for Proton Beam Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouadi, K.; Bouterfa, M.; Delamare, R.; Flandre, D.; Bertrand, D.; Henry, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a technology for the fabrication of n-in-p silicon strip detectors, which is based on the use of Al 2 O 3 oxide compared to p-spray insulation scheme. This technology has been developed using the best technological parameters deduced from simulations, particularly for the p-spray implantation parameters. Different wafers were processed towards the fabrication of the radiation detectors with p-spray insulation and Al 2 O 3 . The evaluation of the prototype detectors has been carried out by performing the electrical characterization of the devices through the measurement of current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics, as well as the measurement of detection response under radiation. The results of electrical measurements indicate that detectors fabricated with Al 2 O 3 exhibit a dark current several times lower than p-spray detectors and show an excellent electrical insulation between strips with a higher inter-strip resistance. Response of Al 2 O 3 strip detector under radiation has been found better. The resulting improved output signal dynamic range finally makes the use of Al 2 O 3 more attractive. (authors)

  7. Elastic crack-tip stress field in a semi-strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Reut

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the plain elasticity problem for a semi-strip with a transverse crack is investigated in the different cases of the boundary conditions at the semi-strips end. Unlike many works dedicated to this subject, the fixed singularities in the singular integral equation�s kernel are considered. The integral transformations� method is applied by the generalized scheme to reduce the initial problem to a one-dimensional problem. The one-dimensional problem is formulated as the vector boundary value problem which is solved with the help of matrix differential calculations and Green�s matrix apparatus. The solution of the problem is reduced to the solving of the system of three singular integral equations. Depending on the conditions given on the short edge of the semi-strip, the constructed singular integral equation can have one, or two fixed singularities. A special method is applied to solve this equation in regard of the singularities existence. Hence the system of the singular integral equations (SSIE is solved with the help of the generalized method. The stress intensity factors (SIF are investigated for different lengths of crack. The novelty of this work is in the application of new approach allowing the consideration of the fixed singularities in the problem about a transverse crack in the elastic semi-strip. The comparison of the numerical results� accuracy during the usage of the different approaches to the solving of SSIE is worked out

  8. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  9. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work is to determine Cr(VI) in water resources by anodic stripping voltammetry using SPE-. AuNPs modified electrode .... surface area about 4 fold). 3.2 Optimization of Parameters ..... in water samples. The above system offers a.

  10. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  11. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  12. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  13. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  14. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  15. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  16. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  18. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  19. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  20. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  1. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goutsias (John); H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis

  2. Downhole microseismic signal-to-noise ratio enhancement via strip matching shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ji, Shuo; Li, Yue; Qian, Zhihong; Lu, Weili

    2018-04-01

    Shearlet transform has been proved effective in noise attenuation. However, because of the low magnitude and high frequency of downhole microseismic signals, the coefficient values of valid signals and noise are similar in the shearlet domain. As a result, it is hard to suppress the noise. In this paper, we present a novel signal-to-noise ratio enhancement scheme called strip matching shearlet transform. The method takes into account the directivity of microseismic events and shearlets. Through strip matching, the matching degree in direction between them has been promoted. Then the coefficient values of valid signals are much larger than those of the noise. Consequently, we can separate them well with the help of thresholding. The experimental results on both synthetic records and field data illustrate that our proposed method preserves the useful components and attenuates the noise well.

  3. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  4. Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  6. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of..., and tolerances X1 Fine Quality Straight Stripped. Heavy, ripe, firm, semielastic, normal strength and...

  8. GASP. V. Ram-pressure stripping of a ring Hoag's-like galaxy in a massive cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Gullieuszik, M.; Mapelli, M.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Fritz, J.; Biviano, A.; Fasano, G.; Bettoni, D.; Vulcani, B.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2018-04-01

    Through an ongoing MUSE program dedicated to study gas removal processes in galaxies (GAs Stripping Phenomena in galaxies with MUSE, GASP), we have obtained deep and wide integral field spectroscopy of the galaxy JO171. This galaxy resembles the Hoag's galaxy, one of the most spectacular examples of ring galaxies, characterized by a completely detached ring of young stars surrounding a central old spheroid. At odds with the isolated Hoag's galaxy, JO171 is part of a dense environment, the cluster Abell 3667, which is causing gas stripping along tentacles. Moreover, its ring counter-rotates with respect to the central spheroid. The joint analysis of the stellar populations and the gas/stellar kinematics shows that the origin of the ring was not due to an internal mechanism, but was related to a gas accretion event that happened in the distant past, prior to accretion on to Abell 3667, most probably within a filament. More recently, since infall in the cluster, the gas in the ring has been stripped by ram pressure, causing the quenching of star formation in the stripped half of the ring. This is the first observed case of ram-pressure stripping in action in a ring galaxy, and MUSE observations are able to reveal both of the events (accretion and stripping) that caused dramatic transformations in this galaxy.

  9. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  10. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  11. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  12. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  13. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  14. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  15. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  16. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  17. Large strip RPCs for the LEPS2 TOF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, N., E-mail: natsuki@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Niiyama, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ohnishi, H. [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tran, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chu, M.-L.; Chang, W.-C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-Y. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    High time-resolution resistive plate chambers (RPCs) with large-size readout strips are developed for the time-of-flight (TOF) detector system of the LEPS2 experiment at SPring-8. The experimental requirement is a 50-ps time resolution for a strip size larger than 100 cm{sup 2}/channel. We are able to achieve 50-ps time resolutions with 2.5×100 cm{sup 2} strips by directly connecting the amplifiers to strips. With the same time resolution, the number of front-end electronics (FEE) is also reduced by signal addition. - Highlights: • Find a way to achieve a good time resolution with a large strip RPC. • 2.5 cm narrow strips have better resolutions than 5.0 cm ones. • The 0.5 mm narrow strip interval shows flat time resolutions between strips. • FEEs directly connected to strips make the signal reflection at the strip edge small. • A time resolution of 50 ps was achieved with 2.5 cm×100 cm strips.

  18. MLVA Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates with Emphasis on Serotypes 14, 9N and 9V: Comparison of Previously Described Panels and Proposal of a Novel 7 VNTR Loci-Based Simplified Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Natália S; Pinto, Tatiana C A; Merquior, Vânia L C; Castro, Luciana F S; da Rocha, Filomena S P; Morais, Jaqueline M; Peralta, José M; Teixeira, Lúcia M

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae remains as an important cause of community-acquired bacterial infections, and the nasopharynx of asymptomatic carriers is the major reservoir of this microorganism. Pneumococcal strains of serotype 14 and serogroup 9 are among the most frequently isolated from both asymptomatic carriers and patients with invasive disease living in Brazil. Internationally disseminated clones belonging to such serotypes have been associated with the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in our setting, highlighting the need for epidemiological tracking of these isolates. In this scenario, Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis (MLVA) has emerged as an alternative tool for the molecular characterization of pneumococci, in addition to more traditional techniques such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 18 VNTR loci, as well as other previously described reduced MLVA panels (7 VNTR loci), were evaluated as tools to characterize pneumococcal strains of serotypes 14, 9N and 9V belonging to international and regional clones isolated in Brazil. The 18 VNTR loci panel was highly congruent with MLST and PFGE, being also useful for indicating the genetic relationship with international clones and for discriminating among strains with indistinguishable STs and PFGE profiles. Analysis of the results also allowed deducing a novel shorter 7 VNTR loci panel, keeping a high discriminatory power for isolates of the serotypes investigated and a high congruence level with MLST and PFGE. The newly proposed simplified panel was then evaluated for typing pneumococcal strains of other commonly isolated serotypes. The results indicate that MLVA is a faster and easier to perform, reliable approach for the molecular characterization of S. pneumoniae isolates, with potential for cost-effective application, especially in resource-limited countries.

  19. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit......Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design....../methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape...

  20. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  1. Moving strip technique of electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Kishio; Wakasa, Hiroyuki; Oguri, Nobuhiro; Kitayama, Takuichi; Nakagiri, Yoshitada; Mikami, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio; Aono, Kaname

    1984-12-01

    The fieldsize in electron beam therapy is determined by the cone size. In case of skin metastasis of a malignant tumor and so on, which need a large field size and whose area is much larger than the size of the cone, a large field size is usually produced by dividing the portals. However, the dose distribution at the border of the field becomes unequal, and hot and cold dose areas are produced according to the distance between portals. We tried the strip field technique in a large field along the long axis of the body in order to flatten the dose of the border employing the moving strip used for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian cancer. We set the film in Mix-DP and used the strip field technique with 2.5cm steps. We discussed the relationship between the interval (distance between portals) and the flattening of the dose within the field. Skin movement due to breathing and influences on the flattening of the dose were considered. The proper flatness was obtained at depths of 0,1,2, and 3cm by setting the interval at 0.5cm. When skin movement was produced by breathing in +-1.5mm, the proper flaness was obtained also at a 0.5-cm interval. It seems that smoothing is increased by breathing. An ''electron beam moving strip'' with a 2.5-cm step and 0.5-cm interval was clinically effective in the treatment of patients with skin metastasis of colon cancer. (author).

  2. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Köppen, J.; Palouš, Jan; Combes, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 693-703 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GP205/08/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : interstellar medium * clusters of galaxies * gas stripping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  3. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  4. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  5. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Grützun, Verena; Quaas, Johannes; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Ament, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based re...

  6. Gamma spectrometry; level schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachot, J.; Bocquet, J.P.; Monnand, E.; Schussler, F.

    1977-01-01

    The research presented dealt with: a new beta emitter, isomer of 131 Sn; the 136 I levels fed through the radioactive decay of 136 Te (20.9s); the A=145 chain (β decay of Ba, La and Ce, and level schemes for 145 La, 145 Ce, 145 Pr); the A=47 chain (La and Ce, β decay, and the level schemes of 147 Ce and 147 Pr) [fr

  7. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  9. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  10. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  11. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  12. Level structure of 99Tc by inelastic scattering and proton stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.; Emigh, R.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The 98 Mo( 3 He,d) 99 Tc and 99 Tc(d,d') reactions have been used to study the levels of 99 Tc. Spin-parity assignments are made for nearly all states below 1.5 MeV excitation. Strong j-dependence is noted for l=1 transitions in the proton stripping reaction, making possible several new spin assignments. The inelastic scattering data on 99 Tc are compared to similar data on 98 Mo, and are found to be in agreement with a coupling scheme based on a shell model with good seniority. (Auth.)

  13. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  14. Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xi; Su, Xiaopeng; Yang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The approach of slow-light efficiency manipulation is theoretically investigated in graphene analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system, which cannot be realized in conventional quantum regime. In this system, two graphene strips with different Fermi energies placed side by side as radiative elements have been discussed, and the coupling strength between radiative elements and dark elements is tuned by these radiative elements. Our proposed scheme exploits the tuning of coupling strength between the radiative elements and dark elements in contrast with the existing approaches that rely on tuning the damping rates of radiative or dark elements. The transparent window and group delays can be tuned by different coupling strength without changing the geometry of structure. This manipulation can be explained using a temporal coupled-mode theory. Furthermore, the hybridized states in this EIT-like system can be manipulated by tuning the Fermi energy of radiative elements. This kind of controllable electromagnetically induced transparency has many significant potential applications in optoelectronic, photodetectors, tunable sensors, and storage of optical data regimes

  15. Purifying, concentrating and anhydriding bio-ethanol: Alternative process schemes and innovative separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreri, G.; Lovati, A.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the conventional process scheme for bio-ethanol production, this paper illustrates how the anhydriding section, which incorporates an azeotropic distillation process, can be conveniently substituted with a plate and frame pervaporation process which makes use of optimum heat exchange with the stripping section. This technical feasibility study, which proves the superior energy efficiency of the pervaporation scheme as compared with the conventional scheme, is followed by a cost benefit analysis which evidences the economic benefits also to be had with pervaporation

  16. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the sLHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Michel; Minano Moya, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. (authors)

  17. Adding rectifying/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design

  18. Adding rectifying/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Kejin [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangkj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China); Qian Jixin [School of Information Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Xihu-qu, Hangzhou-shi, Zhejiang 300027 (China)

    2008-06-15

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design.

  19. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown. A key issue ...

  20. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade Short Strips Detectors for the sLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  1. ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a factor ten, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for sLHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  2. Atlas Tracker Upgrade: Silicon Strip Detectors and Modules for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Minano, M

    2010-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN by a significant factor, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for Super-LHC operation. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will imply a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. Extensive R&D programmes are underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In parallel, new front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics will be shown.

  3. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    2012-01-01

    , namely an authenticated encryption scheme that is secure under chosen ciphertext attack. Therefore, many reasonable encryption schemes, such as AES in the CBC or CFB mode, are not among the implementation options. In this paper, we report new attacks on CBC and CFB based implementations of the well......Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  4. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  5. Fault isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

  6. An advanced ISOL facility based on ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The Argonne concept for an accelerator complex for efficiently producing high-quality radioactive beams from ion source energy up to 6-15 MeV/u is described. The Isotope-Separator-On-Line (ISOL) method is used. A high-power driver accelerator produces radionuclides in a target that is closely coupled to an ion source and mass separator. By using a driver accelerator which can deliver a variety of beams and energies the radionuclide production mechanisms can be chosen to optimize yields for the species of interest. To effectively utilize the high beam power of the driver two-step target/ion source geometries are proposed (1) Neutron production with intermediate energy deuterons on a primary target to produce neutron-rich fission products in a secondary 238 U target, and (2) Fragmentation of neutron-rich heavy ion rich fission products in a secondary beams such as 18 O in a target/catcher geometry. Heavy ion beams with total energies in the 1-10 GcV range are also available for radionuclide production via high-energy spallation reactions. At the present time R and D is in progress to develop superconducting resonator structures for a driver linac to cover the energy range up to 100 MeV per nucleon for heavy ions and 200 MeV for protons. The post accelerator scheme is based on using existing ISOL-type 1+ ion source technology followed by CW Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ) accelerators and superconducting linacs including the present ATLAS accelerator. A full-scale prototype of the first-stage RFQ has been successfully tested with RF at full design voltage and tests with ion beams are in progress. A benchmark beam, 132 Sn at 7 MeV/u, requires two stripping stages, one a gas stripper at very low velocity after the first RFQ section, and one a foil stripper at higher velocity after a superconducting-linac injector

  7. New analytic unitarization schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudell, J.-R.; Predazzi, E.; Selyugin, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider two well-known classes of unitarization of Born amplitudes of hadron elastic scattering. The standard class, which saturates at the black-disk limit includes the standard eikonal representation, while the other class, which goes beyond the black-disk limit to reach the full unitarity circle, includes the U matrix. It is shown that the basic properties of these schemes are independent of the functional form used for the unitarization, and that U matrix and eikonal schemes can be extended to have similar properties. A common form of unitarization is proposed interpolating between both classes. The correspondence with different nonlinear equations are also briefly examined.

  8. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  9. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  10. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  11. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer

  12. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  13. Contract saving schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O'Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contractual saving schemes for housing are institutionalised savings programmes normally linked to rights to loans for home purchase. They are diverse types as they have been developed differently in each national context, but normally fall into categories of open, closed, compulsory, and ‘free

  14. Alternative reprocessing schemes evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper reviews the parameters which determine the inaccessibility of the plutonium in reprocessing plants. Among the various parameters, the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials, the various processing schemes and the confinement are considered. The emphasis is placed on that latter parameter, and the advantages of an increased confinement in the socalled PIPEX reprocessing plant type are presented

  15. Introduction to association schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper gives an introduction to the theory of association schemes, following Bose-Mesner (1959), Biggs (1974), Delsarte (1973), Bannai-Ito (1984) and Brouwer-Cohen-Neumaier (1989). Apart from definitions and many examples, also several proofs and some problems are included. The paragraphs

  16. Reaction schemes of immunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaage, M.; Barbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors apply a general theory for multiple equilibria to the reaction schemes of immunoanalysis, competition and sandwich. This approach allows the manufacturer to optimize the system and provide the user with interpolation functions for the standard curve and its first derivative as well, thus giving access to variance [fr

  17. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  18. Apparatus for measuring profile thickness of strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hold, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring the thickness profile of steel strip comprises a radiation source reciprocally movable in a stepwise fashion (by a belt) across the strip width on one side thereof and a single elongated detector on the other side of the strip aligned with the scanning source. This detector may be a fluorescent scintillator detector or an ionisation chamber. Means are provided for sensing the degree of excitation in the detector in synchronism with the scanning source whereby to provide an output representative of the thickness profile of the strip. (author)

  19. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  20. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, O.; Feigt, I.; Willig, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  1. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  2. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  3. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  4. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersi, S; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  5. Microwave assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nano strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruban Kumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.; Saral, A.M. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano strips was carried out by chemical precipitation method followed by microwave irradiation. The microwave assisted reactions proceed at fast rates. It is found that the presence of the complex reagent EDTA plays an important role in the morphological changes of nanostructure hydroxyapatite. EDTA acts as a hexadentate unit by wrapping itself around the Ca{sup 2+} metal ion with, four oxygen and two nitrogen atoms and forms several five member chelate rings. The relative specific surface energies associated with the facets of the crystal determines the shape of the crystal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite nano strips with the range 50-100 nm in EDTA influenced HAP powders. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) result combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the presence of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the as-prepared material. X-ray patterns collected on the powder after heat-treatment at 1100 C for 2 h in air exhibits single phase of HAP. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. The structure of the Cepheid instability strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    About 100 classical Cepheids having color excesses on a homogeneous system with standard errors of 0.02 or less mag are used with the Feast-Walker period-luminosity-color relation to study the distribution of such stars in the instability strip. It is found that mean (B-V)mag is a better indicator of mean effective temperature than is mean B(i) - mean V(i)(i). The blue edge of the color-magnitude distribution is consistent with the theoretical blue edge for Y = 0.28 and Z = 0.02. Although the highest amplitude stars are found near the center of the period-color array, high- and low-amplitude stars can intermingle, and both kinds are to be found near the edges of the distribution. The same is true on the C-M array. Finally, it is pointed out that the Cepheids do not populate the instability strip uniformly if the red edge is taken to be parallel to the theoretical blue edge. Rather, the local instability region runs as a parallelogram in the C-M array from the theoretical blue edge upward and to the red. 24 refs

  7. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  8. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  9. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.N.; Akerstedt, T.; Kecklund, L.G.; Anund, A.

    2016-01-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective

  10. Metal films with imprinted nanostructures by template stripping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes

    We present a novel template stripping procedure for fabricating metal films with imprinted nanostructures. The basic idea is to deposit a gold film onto a nano-structured substrate and subsequently strip the film from the substrate surface thereby revealing imprinted nanostructures in the film...... result is a thin gold film with imprinted nano-cavities....

  11. Reforestation of strip-mined lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Spencer Potter; Sidney Weitzman; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1951-01-01

    The early 1940's witnessed a striking increase in strip-mining throughout the eastern coal region. West Virginia, with its extensive coal resources, naturally was caught in the full current of this shift in mining methods. Today the raw gash on the hillside - almost infallibly the mark of a strip-mine operation - is a familiar sight in the State.

  12. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  13. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  14. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  15. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  16. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available residual stresses using x-ray diffraction (XRD) surface probing technique. Preliminary results were obtained for the surface residual stress at the center of the titanium strips for the 100 and 325 mesh strips rolled at 0.1 roll gap for 20 and 50 mm set...

  17. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  18. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  19. Laser stripping of relativistic H- ions with practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlin, R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes laser stripping of H - ions. Some applications are suggested for HEP including stripping 2GeV ions circulating in an accelerator with radius 75 meters where laser meets ion head on in a three meter interaction region. The paper describes photoionizaton cross section, laser power calculation, and how to generate the 5 micrometer light

  20. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  1. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  2. Optimizing the quality of silicon strip sensors produced by Infineon Technologies Austria AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treberspurg, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; König, A; Bartl, U; Hacker, J; Wübben, T

    2014-01-01

    The tracking systems of most modern particle physics experiments are realized by silicon based sensors. The size of such systems has continuously increased and nowadays a sensitive area of several 100 m 2 has to be covered. This large amount of sensors might exceed the production capabilities of existing companies and institutes. Therefore the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) and the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed together a production process for p-on-n strip sensors. Although the first prototype run has shown a promising quality, it has been observed that weak strips exist, which are mainly located at distinctive areas on each wafer. At these areas the affected parameters are correlated to each other. A similar behaviour could be reproduced with a smaller second batch, whose sensors have been used for further analysis and advanced measurements. This paper sums up the characteristic behaviour of the specific effect and presents different possibilities how to cure the sensors. The systematic accumulation of weak strips can be traced back to a specific operation during the fabrication process. All data strongly indicate that the effect is caused by local charging effects on an isolating layer

  3. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  4. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  5. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  6. Coplanar strips for Josephson voltage standard circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.; May, T.; Wende, G.; Fritzsch, L.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2001-01-01

    We present a microwave circuit for Josephson voltage standards. Here, the Josephson junctions are integrated in a microwave transmission line designed as coplanar strips (CPS). The new layout offers the possibility of achieving a higher scale of integration and to considerably simplify the fabrication technology. The characteristic impedance of the CPS is about 50 Ω, and this should be of interest for programmable Josephson voltage standard circuits with SNS or SINIS junctions. To demonstrate the function of the microwave circuit design, conventional 10 V Josephson voltage standard circuits with 17000 Nb/AlO x /Nb junctions were prepared and tested. Stable Shapiro steps at the 10 V level were generated. Furthermore, arrays of 1400 SINIS junctions in this microwave layout exhibited first-order Shapiro steps. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  8. Strip specimen tests for pipeline materials and girth welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, William C. [Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Strip specimen testing of pipeline materials has been widely applied as a method of getting data relevant to the performance of pipelines under axial direction loading. Comparisons of strip specimen against smaller standard tests (round tensile bar, fracture toughness specimens, polished round bars) and against full-scale or large-scale testing will be explored. Data from early-generation pipe welds from the 1920's to the 1940's to the most recent materials for offshore reeled pipe will be used for examples. Strip samples can provide full thickness information to take account of varying material properties or imperfection distribution through the thickness. Strip samples can also accommodate measurement of effects of the original surface finish or weld surface shape. Strip samples have more design flexibility than standard tests, but must be designed to limit stress concentrations and effects of local bending. (author)

  9. Eddy current distribution and lift force for finite MAGLEV strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, D L; Eastham, A R; Fombrun, C; Chong, M

    1974-07-01

    The transverse distribution of induced eddy currents across a flat conducing strip of finite width, due to a rectangular dc magnet moving above it, was modelled experimentally, and was compared with that calculated for an infinite sheet. The electrodynamic suspension was simulated by means of a stationary ac-excited copper magnet suspended above an aluminum strip, and the induced surface current density was measured by a voltage pickup probe connected to a lock-in amplifier. The effect of reducing strip width is examined and shown to produce high current densities close to the edges. These results are related to the variation of lift force with strip width, determined by impedance modelling. A slight enhancement of lift is evident for intermediate strip widths.

  10. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  11. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  12. Adaptive PCA based fault diagnosis scheme in imperial smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhikun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gui, Weihua; Jiang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fault detection scheme based on a recursive principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to deal with the problem of false alarm due to normal process changes in real process. Our further study is also dedicated to develop a fault isolation approach based on Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) test and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which is one of general techniques of PCA, on which the off-set and scaling fault can be easily isolated with explicit off-set fault direction and scaling fault classification. The identification of off-set and scaling fault is also applied. The complete scheme of PCA-based fault diagnosis procedure is proposed. The proposed scheme is first applied to Imperial Smelting Process, and the results show that the proposed strategies can be able to mitigate false alarms and isolate faults efficiently. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  14. Development of a multiplex lateral flow strip test for foot-and-mouth disease virus detection using monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Caterer, Nigel R; Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the world's most highly contagious animal diseases with tremendous economic consequences. A rapid and specific test for FMD diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures. This project developed a multiplex lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (multiplex-LFI) for the rapid detection and serotyping of FMD viruses. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against serotypes O, A, and Asia 1 were used as capture mAbs. The mAbs were conjugated with fluorescein, rhodamine or biotin for serotype O, A and Asia 1, respectively. The detection mAbs which consisted of a serotype-independent mAb in combination with one serotype A-specific mAb and one Asia 1-specific mAb, were each colloidal gold-conjugated. The strips used in this study contained one control line and three test lines, which corresponded to one of the three serotypes, O, A or Asia 1. The newly developed multiplex-LFI strip test specifically identified serotype O (n=46), A (n=45) and Asia 1 (n=17) in all tested field isolates. The sensitivity of this strip test was comparable to the double antibody sandwich ELISA for serotypes O and A, but lower than the ELISA for serotype Asia 1. The multiplex-LFI strip test identified all tissue suspensions from animals that were experimentally inoculated with serotypes O, A or Asia 1. FMD viruses were detected in 38% and 50% of the swab samples from the lesion areas of experimentally inoculated sheep for serotypes O and A, respectively. The capability of the multiplex-LFI strip tests to produce rapid results with high specificity for FMD viruses of multiple serotypes makes this test a valuable tool to detect FMD viruses at outbreak sites. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microstructural research on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by a compact strip production line under different thermal histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Chen Qixiang; Kang Yonglin; Sun Yi

    2005-01-01

    Coupons with the same composition and thickness (4.0 mm nominal gauge) obtained from hot strips of low carbon steel underwent a series of investigations to analyze the microstructural characteristics and mechanisms responsible for their differences in mechanical properties. Two different industrial technologies were adopted, although the strips used in this research were produced on the same Compact Strip Production (CSP) line. One of the strips was produced with a routine γ→α CSP thermal history, but the other with a γ→α→γ* conventional thermal history. The only difference between them was that one technology had a α→γ* thermal history. Different specimens of both types of strips were prepared for metallographic observation, tensile tests, electron back-scattered diffraction tests and positron annihilation technique tests. Experimental results showed that the differences in mechanical properties could be ascribed to dissimilarities not only in the grain size and textural components but also in dislocation density

  16. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  17. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  18. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  19. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  20. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  1. Membrane air stripping utilizing a plate and frame configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane air stripping has recently been proposed as a possible method to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and radon from drinking water supplies. Current and anticipated regulatory requirements, driven by health consequences, make the removal of these contaminants mandatory. This work examines the use of plate and frame membrane air stripping for the removal of VOCs and radon from a water supply. The theoretical basis of membrane air stripping and a literature review are included. The advantages of membrane air stripping versus other methods of removal, as well as the advantages of a plate and frame configuration versus a hollow fiber configuration for membrane air stripping are discussed. Multiple regression/correlation techniques are used to model mass transfer coefficients and fluid resistances. An economic evaluation is performed using the developed models. The costs of comparable membrane and packed tower air stripping systems are 4.86 cents per thousand gallons versus 4.36 cents per thousand gallons, respectively. This work indicates that plate and frame membrane air stripping may, in fact, prove to be an economical alternative to packed tower aeration and carbon adsorption for the removal of VOCs and radon

  2. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  3. A full quantum network scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hai-Qiang; Wei Ke-Jin; Yang Jian-Hui; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  4. Overburden stripping from deeply buried orebodies by controlled nuclear explosive casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saperstein, L W; Mishra, R [Department of Mining, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Previous schemes to strip the overburden from a deeply-buried orebody by nuclear explosives have been hampered by various constraints. These are the notions that surface topography should slope in the desired direction to facilitate casting; that the orebody should be stripped all at once, meaning that an unsafe and unnaturally high yield will be detonated; or that the overburden be broken and cast, in a manner akin to conventional blasting, with a series of explosions linked by milli-second delays, such delays being an unproven and, perhaps non-permissible technology; and, finally, that the schemes leave an excessive amount of overburden to be removed by conventional means. It is proposed that deep orebodies, idealized by a 250-ft. thick copper porphyry under 600 feet of cover, be stripped in successive rows, using available row-charge technology. A first row, of greater magnitude than those succeeding, is used to expose the orebody. The second row is placed so as to throw overburden into the void created by the first. All rows are placed so as not to damage the ore. Except for the first row, all rows utilize directed throwing. After a row is detonated, the ore beneath it would be removed by conventional means. The void thus created would provide space for the successive row to fire into. Further, the additional free-face provided by the void imparts a major direction to the ejecta. Because of the directed nature of the throw, ore removal does not have to proceed directly beneath the row slope. Advantages to this scheme are its adaptability to terrain; its reduction in overburden to be removed by conventional methods; its increased speed in uncovering ore; its reduction of unit costs; audits adaptability to production rates. An example, utilizing the idealized orebody shows that production of ore can begin within a year of project approval versus four or five years for the same orebody developed conventionally; that no more than eight percent of the overburden has

  5. Overburden stripping from deeply buried orebodies by controlled nuclear explosive casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saperstein, L.W.; Mishra, R.

    1970-01-01

    Previous schemes to strip the overburden from a deeply-buried orebody by nuclear explosives have been hampered by various constraints. These are the notions that surface topography should slope in the desired direction to facilitate casting; that the orebody should be stripped all at once, meaning that an unsafe and unnaturally high yield will be detonated; or that the overburden be broken and cast, in a manner akin to conventional blasting, with a series of explosions linked by milli-second delays, such delays being an unproven and, perhaps non-permissible technology; and, finally, that the schemes leave an excessive amount of overburden to be removed by conventional means. It is proposed that deep orebodies, idealized by a 250-ft. thick copper porphyry under 600 feet of cover, be stripped in successive rows, using available row-charge technology. A first row, of greater magnitude than those succeeding, is used to expose the orebody. The second row is placed so as to throw overburden into the void created by the first. All rows are placed so as not to damage the ore. Except for the first row, all rows utilize directed throwing. After a row is detonated, the ore beneath it would be removed by conventional means. The void thus created would provide space for the successive row to fire into. Further, the additional free-face provided by the void imparts a major direction to the ejecta. Because of the directed nature of the throw, ore removal does not have to proceed directly beneath the row slope. Advantages to this scheme are its adaptability to terrain; its reduction in overburden to be removed by conventional methods; its increased speed in uncovering ore; its reduction of unit costs; audits adaptability to production rates. An example, utilizing the idealized orebody shows that production of ore can begin within a year of project approval versus four or five years for the same orebody developed conventionally; that no more than eight percent of the overburden has

  6. THz Wave Propagation on Strip Lines: Devices, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kadoya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the propagation characteristics of THz pulses on micro-strip-lines and coplanar strip-lines, in which low permittivity polymer materials are used as the dielectric layer or the substrate. As a result of the low attenuation and small dispersion in the devices, the spectral width up to 3 THz can be achieved even after the 1 mm propagation. Spectroscopic characterizations of liquid or powder specimens are demonstrated using the devices. We also show a possibility of realizing a very low attenuation using a quadrupole mode in three strip coplanar lines on the polymer substrate.

  7. Improved dielectric functions in metallic films obtained via template stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyuk Park, Jong; Nagpal, Prashant; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Norris, David J.

    2012-02-01

    We compare the dielectric functions of silver interfaces obtained via thermal evaporation with those obtained with template stripping. Ellipsometry measurements show that the smoother template-stripped surfaces exhibit effective dielectric functions with a more negative real component and a smaller imaginary component, implying higher conductivity and less energy loss, respectively. These results agree with the relation between dielectric function and surface roughness derived from combining the effective-medium model and the Drude-Lorentz model. The improvement in the effective dielectric properties shows that metallic films prepared via template stripping can be favorable for applications in electronics, nanophotonics, and plasmonics.

  8. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  9. Contractile profile of esophageal and gastric fundus strips in experimental doxorubicin-induced esophageal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Capeto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal atresia (EA is characterized by esophageal and gastric motility changes secondary to developmental and postsurgical damage. This study evaluated the in vitro contractile profile of the distal esophagus and gastric fundus in an experimental model of EA induced by doxorubicin (DOXO. Wistar pregnant rats received DOXO 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days. On day 21.5, fetuses were collected, sacrificed, and divided into groups: control, DOXO without EA (DOXO-EA, and DOXO with EA (DOXO+EA. Strips from the distal esophagus and gastric fundus were mounted on a wire myograph and isolated organ-bath system, respectively, and subjected to increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, CCh. The isolated esophagus was also stimulated with increasing concentrations of KCl. In esophagus, the concentration-effect curves were reduced in response to CCh in the DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA groups compared to the control group (P0.05. In response to KCl, the distal esophagus samples in the three groups were not statistically different with regard to Emax or EC50 values (P>0.05. No significant difference was noted for EC50 or Emax values in fundic strips stimulated with CCh (P>0.05. In conclusion, exposure of dams to DOXO during gestation inhibited the contractile behavior of esophageal strips from offspring in response to CCh but not KCl, regardless of EA induction. The gastric fundus of DOXO-exposed offspring did not have altered contractile responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation.

  10. Tidal stripping and the structure of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu

    2018-05-01

    The shallow faint-end slope of the galaxy mass function is usually reproduced in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) galaxy formation models by assuming that the fraction of baryons that turn into stars drops steeply with decreasing halo mass and essentially vanishes in haloes with maximum circular velocities Vmax value, unless they are small enough to probe only the rising part of the halo circular velocity curve (i.e. half-mass radii, r1/2 ≪ 1 kpc). Many dwarfs have properties in disagreement with this prediction: they are large enough to probe their halo Vmax but their characteristic velocities are well below 20 km s-1. These `cold faint giants' (an extreme example is the recently discovered Crater 2 Milky Way satellite) can only be reconciled with our ΛCDM models if they are the remnants of once massive objects heavily affected by tidal stripping. We examine this possibility using the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group. Assuming that low-velocity-dispersion satellites have been affected by stripping, we infer their progenitor masses, radii, and velocity dispersions, and find them in remarkable agreement with those of isolated dwarfs. Tidal stripping also explains the large scatter in the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation in the dwarf galaxy regime: tides remove preferentially dark matter from satellite galaxies, lowering their accelerations below the amin ˜ 10-11 m s-2 minimum expected for isolated dwarfs. In many cases, the resulting velocity dispersions are inconsistent with the predictions from Modified Newtonian Dynamics, a result that poses a possibly insurmountable challenge to that scenario.

  11. Comparison of agar dilution and antibiotic gradient strip test with broth microdilution for susceptibility testing of swine Brachyspira species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirajkar, Nandita S; Gebhart, Connie J

    2016-03-01

    Production-limiting diseases in swine caused by Brachyspira are characterized by mucohemorrhagic diarrhea (B. hyodysenteriae and "B. hampsonii") or mild colitis (B. pilosicoli), while B. murdochii is often isolated from healthy pigs. Emergence of novel pathogenic Brachyspira species and strains with reduced susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials has reinforced the need for standardized susceptibility testing. Two methods are currently used for Brachyspira susceptibility testing: agar dilution (AD) and broth microdilution (BMD). However, these tests have primarily been used for B. hyodysenteriae and rarely for B. pilosicoli. Information on the use of commercial susceptibility testing products such as antibiotic gradient strips is lacking. Our main objective was to validate and compare the susceptibility results, measured as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), of 6 antimicrobials for 4 Brachyspira species (B. hyodysenteriae, "B. hampsonii", B. pilosicoli, and B. murdochii) by BMD and AD (tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, tylosin, and carbadox) or antibiotic gradient strip (doxycycline) methods. In general, the results of a high percentage of all 4 Brachyspira species differed by ±1 log2 dilution or less by BMD and AD for tiamulin, valnemulin, lincomycin, and tylosin, and by BMD and antibiotic gradient strip for doxycycline. The carbadox MICs obtained by BMD were 1-5 doubling dilutions different than those obtained by AD. BMD for Brachyspira was quicker to perform with less ambiguous interpretation of results when compared with AD and antibiotic gradient strip methods, and the results confirm the utility of BMD in routine diagnostics. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  13. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  14. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  15. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  16. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R

    2004-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m 2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm 2

  17. Performance investigation of an innovative offset strip fin arrays in compact heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Hao; Ling, Xiang; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of fin pitch, length and bending distance on thermal performance were presented. • The corresponding Re C values at the j and f slope changes are in the range of 2000–2100. • The numerical results showed a good agreement with the experimental data. • Local high Nu values near the channel inlet, decreasing through the flow directions. - Abstract: Experimental and numerical studies on the flow and heat transfer characteristics for an innovative offset strip fins compact heat exchangers were performed. First, five fin schemes were investigated with various air flow velocities and a constant inlet steam pressure by experiments. The Reynolds number ranged from 500 to 5000 at the air side. The experimental results indicated that the fin pitch (P f ), fin length (L f ) and fin bending distance (C f ) have a significant influence on thermal performance of fins. The Colburn factor j, friction factor f and ‘point of transition’ were calculated from the experimental data. Then, the thermal–hydraulic performances of the novel offset strip fins were analyzed numerically. The simulation results obtained are in agreement with experimental data. Based on these simulations, the maximum values for local Nu number are at the channel inlet which is due to the thermal entrance effect. The longitudinal vortexes near the fin region will increase velocity gradient and reduce the thickness of boundary layer to improve heat transfer. The main conclusion draws from this work will be helpful for future development and design of a high-efficiency heat exchangers involving offset strip fin structures

  18. Reassessment of MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. typing worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Vanina; Ruybal, Paula; Lauthier, Juan José; Tomasini, Nicolás; Brihuega, Bibiana; Koval, Ariel; Caimi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST) methods have been developed for Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis. In this study we reassessed the most commonly used MLST schemes in a set of worldwide isolates, in order to select the loci that achieve the maximum power of discrimination for typing Leptospira spp. Global eBURST algorithm was used to detect clonal complexes among STs and phylogenetic relationships among concatenated and individual sequences were inferred through maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. The evaluation of 12 loci combined to type a subset of strains rendered 57 different STs. Seven of these loci were selected into a final scheme upon studying the number of alleles and polymorphisms, the typing efficiency, the discriminatory power and the ratio dN/dS per nucleotide site for each locus. This new 7-locus scheme was applied to a wider collection of worldwide strains. The ML tree constructed from concatenated sequences of the 7 loci identified 6 major clusters corresponding to 6 Leptospira species. Global eBURST established 8 CCs, which showed that genotypes were clearly related by geographic origin and host. ST52 and ST47, represented mostly by Argentinian isolates, grouped the higher number of isolates. These isolates were serotyped as serogroups Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae, showing a unidirectional correlation in which the isolates with the same ST belong to the same serogroup. In summary, this scheme combines the best loci from the most widely used MLST schemes for Leptospira spp. and supports worldwide strains classification. The Argentinian isolates exhibited congruence between allelic profile and serogroup, providing an alternative to serological methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  20. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries. The known alternative in such condition is ... Key words: Hollow mill, stripped screws, titanium locked plates ... used a locally manufactured stainless steel hollow mill, ... head ‑ plate hole” assembly as a mono‑block single unit. In.

  1. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  2. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Radicci, V; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Gill, K; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Jesus, A C A; Giassi, A; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed

  3. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  4. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallanes, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  5. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  6. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  7. A Coupled Model for Work Roll Thermal Contour with Subsectional Cooling in Aluminum Strip Cold Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Jian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little attention had been given to the evaluation of subsectional cooling control ability under complicated working conditions. In this paper, heat generation was calculated by using finite difference method. Strip hardening, work roll elastic deformation and elastic recovery of strip were taken into account. The mean coefficient of convective heat transfer on work roll surface was simulated by FLUENT. Calculation model had used the alternative finite difference scheme, which improved the model stability and computing speed. The simulation result shows that subsectional cooling control ability is different between different rolling passes. Positive and negative control abilities are roughly the same in the same pass. The increase of rolled length, working pressure of header and friction coefficient has positive effect on subsectional cooling control ability, and the rolling speed is on the contrary. On the beginning of the pass, when work roll surface has not reached the stable temperature, control ability of subsectional cooling is mainly affected by rolled length. The effect of mean coefficient of convective heat transfer and coefficient of friction is linear. When rolling speed is over 500 m/min, control ability of subsectional cooling becomes stable.

  8. High Pressure Water Stripping Using Multi-Orifice Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David

    1999-01-01

    The use of multi-orifice rotary nozzles greatly increases the speed and stripping effectiveness of high pressure water blasting systems, but also greatly increases the complexity of selecting and optimizing the operating parameters. The rotational speed of the nozzle must be coupled with its transverse velocity as it passes across the surface of the substrate being stripped. The radial and angular positions of each orifice must be included in the analysis of the nozzle configuration. Orifices at the outer edge of the nozzle head move at a faster rate than the orifices located near the center. The energy transmitted to the surface from the impact force of the water stream from an outer orifice is therefore spread over a larger area than energy from an inner orifice. Utilizing a larger diameter orifice in the outer radial positions increases the total energy transmitted from the outer orifice to compensate for the wider distribution of energy. The total flow rate from the combination of all orifices must be monitored and should be kept below the pump capacity while choosing orifice to insert in each position. The energy distribution from the orifice pattern is further complicated since the rotary path of all the orifices in the nozzle head pass through the center section. All orifices contribute to the stripping in the center of the path while only the outer most orifice contributes to the stripping at the edge of the nozzle. Additional orifices contribute to the stripping from the outer edge toward the center section. With all these parameters to configure and each parameter change affecting the others, a computer model was developed to track and coordinate these parameters. The computer simulation graphically indicates the cumulative affect from each parameter selected. The result from the proper choices in parameters is a well designed, highly efficient stripping system. A poorly chosen set of parameters will cause the nozzle to strip aggressively in some areas

  9. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  10. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  11. Optimising carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisiwamongkhol, K; Batchelor-McAuley, C; Sokolov, S; Holter, J; Young, N; Compton, R

    2017-01-01

    Different types of carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry are studied through the use of cyclic voltammetry. Capsaicin is utilised as a model compound for adsorptive stripping voltammetry using unmodified and modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG) electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon black or graphene nanoplatelets, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPE), carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrodes, and carbon paste electrodes....

  12. Modified Aggressive Packet Combining Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, a few schemes are presented to improve the performance of aggressive packet combining scheme (APC). To combat error in computer/data communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Several modifications to improve the performance of ARQ are suggested by recent research and are found in literature. The important modifications are majority packet combining scheme (MjPC proposed by Wicker), packet combining scheme (PC proposed by Chakraborty), modified packet combining scheme (MPC proposed by Bhunia), and packet reversed packet combining (PRPC proposed by Bhunia) scheme. These modifications are appropriate for improving throughput of conventional ARQ protocols. Leung proposed an idea of APC for error control in wireless networks with the basic objective of error control in uplink wireless data network. We suggest a few modifications of APC to improve its performance in terms of higher throughput, lower delay and higher error correction capability. (author)

  13. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  14. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  15. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, P.; Santinelli, M.

    1995-05-01

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  16. The development of drift-strip detectors based on CdZnTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gostilo, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan

    2002-01-01

    The design and technological development of a CdZnTe drift strip detector is described. The device is based on a monocrystal of dimensions 10 x 10 x 3 mm(3) and has a pitch of 200 mum and a strip width of 100 mum. The strip length is 9.5 mm. The distribution of the leakage currents of the strips...

  17. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry in lipophilic vitamins determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sýs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution was to check if adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry (AdSDPV is suitable tool for sensitive simultenous electrochemical detection of lipophilic vitamins. Retinol (vitamin A1, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, α-tocopherol (vitamin E and phylloquinone (vitamin K1 were selected as representatives. All electrochemical measurements were performed in two separate steps due to the lipophilic character of the analytes. In the first step, an accumulation of lipophilic vitamin on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE was done by immersing working electrode into the aqueous‑acetonitrile solutions (50%, v/v of each vitamin (50.0 µmol.L-1 at 400 rpm for 5 min. In the second one, differential pulse voltammetry of accumulated vitamins was performed in 0.01 mol.L-1 acetate (pH 4.5 buffer at potential step (Estep 5 mV, potential of amplitude (Eampl 25 mV, interval time (t 0.1 s and scan rate (ν 50 mV.s-1. It was observed that electrochemical behaviour of lipophilic vitamins adsorbed on surface of solid GCE in the aqueous electrolyte was very similar to those performed in organic/aqueous electrolyte in literature. Due to reversible electrochemical behaviour of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone/phyllohydroquinone redox couple, it was possible to detect all lipophilic vitamins only in one analysis. Observed values of peak potentials (Ep were sufficiently different for their recognition which was confirmed by the analysis of real sample. The results obtained in this study showed that simultaneous determination of some lipophilic vitamins is possible requiring further optimization study. For this reason, it is necessary to understand this work as an initial step in simultaneous determination of lipophilic vitamins without application of any chromatographic technique.

  18. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  19. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  20. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    . The first example covers countries with regional power markets that also regionalise their support schemes, the second countries with separate national power markets that regionalise their support schemes. The main findings indicate that the almost ideal situation exists if the region prior to regionalising...

  1. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a new nonlinear backward differentiation schemes for the numerical solution of nonlinear initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations. The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give ...

  2. Method of making steel strapping and strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Reilly

    2000-02-16

    The technical progress obtained for this time frame consisted of the awarding of two contracts for determination of metallurgical parameters for heat treatment of strapping and strip which are unavailable from current technology and/or published data in this field. The two contractors were Bricmont, Inc. and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Technological Institute of Northwestern University, Evanston, IL. Phase 1 of the two stage contract with Bricmont, Inc. which provided a computer analysis of the cooling rates of a typical range of thickness' of strapping was completed. This study was developed for the purpose of determining the time parameters for quenching low carbon steels to a martensitic microstructure within the time frame of the design of the proposed process. It also provides design criteria for cooling to ambient for the total process. This data is required for Phase 2 of the Bricmont proposal which completes the design and specifications of the total heat treating and cooling system for the process. This becomes the basis for developing the cost and space requirements for this component of the production line. The authors do not intend to award Phase 2 until the work done at Northwestern University discussed hereafter is completed. On or about May 1, 1999 a contract for a project entitled ``Effects of Steel Composition and Quench Rate on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Strapping'' to be performed at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering was awarded. The delay in initiating this project was due to the legal interpretation and final agreement of the intellectual provisions of the award by the author's attorneys, Northwestern's attorneys and the legal representative in the Chicago office of the DOE. The work to date includes rapid quenching of a number of different steel compositions and microstructure on an existing drop quench test apparatus. It was initially assumed that this

  3. One dimensional detector for X-ray diffraction with superior energy resolution based on silicon strip detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dąbrowski, W; Fiutowski, T; Wiącek, P; Fink, J; Krane, H-G

    2012-01-01

    1-D position sensitive X-ray detectors based on silicon strip detector technology have become standard instruments in X-ray diffraction and are available from several vendors. As these devices have been proven to be very useful and efficient further improvement of their performance is investigated. The silicon strip detectors in X-ray diffraction are primarily used as counting devices and the requirements concerning the spatial resolution, dynamic range and count rate capability are of primary importance. However, there are several experimental issues in which a good energy resolution is important. The energy resolution of silicon strip detectors is limited by the charge sharing effects in the sensor as well as by noise of the front-end electronics. The charge sharing effects in the sensor and various aspects of the electronics, including the baseline fluctuations, which affect the energy resolution, have been analyzed in detail and a new readout concept has been developed. A front-end ASIC with a novel scheme of baseline restoration and novel interstrip logic circuitry has been designed. The interstrip logic is used to reject the events resulting in significant charge sharing between neighboring strips. At the expense of rejecting small fraction of photons entering the detector one can obtain single strip energy spectra almost free of charge sharing effects. In the paper we present the design considerations and measured performance of the detector being developed. The electronic noise of the system at room temperature is typically of the order of 70 el rms for 17 mm long silicon strips and a peaking time of about 1 μs. The energy resolution of 600 eV FWHM has been achieved including the non-reducible charge sharing effects and the electronic noise. This energy resolution is sufficient to address a common problem in X-ray diffraction, i.e. electronic suppression of the fluorescence radiation from samples containing iron or cobalt while irradiated with 8.04 ke

  4. Impact of low-dose electron irradiation on n{sup +}p silicon strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-11

    The response of n{sup +}p silicon strip sensors to electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source was measured using a multi-channel read-out system with 25 ns sampling time. The measurements were performed over a period of several weeks, during which the operating conditions were varied. The sensors were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics on 200 μm thick float-zone and magnetic-Czochralski silicon. Their pitch was 80 μm, and both p-stop and p-spray isolation of the n{sup +} strips were studied. The electrons from the {sup 90}Sr source were collimated to a spot with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 2 mm at the sensor surface, and the dose rate in the SiO{sub 2} at the maximum was about 50 Gy(SiO{sub 2})/d. After only a few hours of making measurements, significant changes in charge collection and charge sharing were observed. Annealing studies, with temperatures up to 80 °C and annealing times of 18 h showed that the changes can only be partially annealed. The observations can be qualitatively explained by the increase of the positive oxide-charge density due to the ionization of the SiO{sub 2} by the radiation from the β source. TCAD simulations of the electric field in the sensor for different oxide-charge densities and different boundary conditions at the sensor surface support this explanation. The relevance of the measurements for the design of n{sup +}p strip sensors is discussed.

  5. Theoretical study of H- stripping with a wiggler magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The first step for injecting protons into the LAMPF Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at LANL is to strip a beam of 800-MeV H - ions to H 0 with a 1.8-T dipole magnet. Because of the finite lifetime of energetic H - ions in the magnetic field, their trajectories bend before stripping causing the angular spread of the beam, and therefore its emittance, to grow during the stripping process. In the case of the PSR, the horizontal beam emittance grows by a factor of roughly three during injection. As a consequence, beam losses in the ring are significantly greater than they would be if there were not emittance growth. A speculative technique is proposed in which the beam divergence growth and resulting emittance growth is reduced by stripping the H - in a wiggler magnet whose transverse field alternates in direction as a function of position along the beam axis. The wiggler field configuration is adjusted so that the angular beam spread introduced during passage through one unidirectional-field increment of path is relatively small and so that 99.99% of the beam is stripped after passing through the whole magnet. With careful field design the net added angular beam spread is reduced because the incremental angular spreads are painted back and forth over the same small range. In the hypothetical case described, the calculated emittance growth and beam loss increase are significantly smaller than those calculated for a conventional stripper magnet. 3 refs., 3 figs

  6. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resisitve strip Micromegas detectors behave discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as smaller detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100\\,kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolutions well below 100\\,$\\mu$m have been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3\\,m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1\\,m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility (CRF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. Segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6\\,mm x 95\\,mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by 11 95\\,mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips.\\\\ This allows for mapping of homogenity in pulse height and efficiency, deter...

  7. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors are discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 $\\mu$m has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm x 93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, d...

  8. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    control technique is done through simulations and ex control technique .... HYBRID MODULATION SCHEME FOR CASCADED H-BRIDGE INVERTER CELLS. C. I. Odeh ..... and OR operations. Referring to ... MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  9. [Resistance of the functional systems of the smooth muscle cells of isolated myometrium to long-term incubation in Ringer-Locke solution at 4 degrees C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshikov, V L; Tsirkin, V I; Burmistrova, T D; Bordunovskaia, V P

    1977-09-01

    Contractile effects of adrenaline, acethylcholine and hyperpotassium solution on the isolated myometrium strips (non-pregnent rats, and women; pregnant rabbits, cats, and women) are studied. The amplitudes of these contractile effects were seen decreasing if the strips were previously immersed in the Ringer-Lokk solution at 4 degrees C 5--9 days prior to observation.

  10. Impact of low-dose electron irradiation on n+p silicon strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W.; Dragicevic, M.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Hoch, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Alderweireldt, S.; Beaumont, W.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, Th.; Leonard, A.; Maerschalk, Th.; Mohammadi, A.; Pernie, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; De Bruyn, I.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Tavernier, S.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G.; Van Parijs, I.; Strom, D.A.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; De Callatay, B.; Delaere, C.; Pree, T.Du; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Michotte, D.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pagano, D.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Marono, M.Vidal; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G.H.; Harkonen, J.; Lampen, T.; Luukka, P.R.; Maenpaa, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuovinen, E.; Eerola, P.; Tuuva, T.; Beaulieu, G.; Boudoul, G.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Gallbit, G.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sabes, D.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Zoccarato, Y.; Agram, J.L.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.Ch.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bonnin, C.; Brom, J.M.; Chabert, E.; Charles, L.; Goetzmann, Ch.; Gross, L.; Hosselet, J.; Mathieu, C.; Richer, M.; Skovpen, K.; Autermann, C.; Edelhoff, M.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pierschel, G.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Schwering, G.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Zhukov, V.; Pistone, C.; Fluegge, G.; Kuensken, A.; Geisler, M.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Burgmeier, A.; Calligaris, L.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Fluke, G.; Garcia, J.Garay; Gizhko, A.; Hansen, K.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Maser, H.; Mittag, G.; Muhl, C.; Mussgiller, A.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Schroeder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Zuber, A.; Biskop, H.; Blobel, V.; Buhmann, P.; Centis-Vignali, M.; Draeger, A.R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Haller, J.; Henkel, Ch.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Lapsien, T.; Mattig, S.; Matysek, M.; Perieanu, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Scharf, Ch.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schuwalow, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Steinbruck, G.; Vormwald, B.; Wellhausen, J.; Barvich, T.; Barth, Ch.; Boegelspacher, F.; De Boer, W.; Butz, E.; Casele, M.; Colombo, F.; Dierlamm, A.; Eber, R.; Freund, B.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, Th.; Heindl, S.; Hoffmann, K.H.; Husemann, U.; Kornmeyer, A.; Mallows, S.; Muller, Th.; Nuernberg, A.; Printz, M.; Simonis, H.J.; Steck, P.; Weber, M.; Weiler, Th.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, A.; Ranjan, K.; Bakhshiansohl, H.; Behnamian, H.; Khakzad, M.; Naseri, M.; Cariola, P.; De Robertis, G.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Loddo, F.; Sala, G.; Silvestris, L.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Selvaggi, G.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Di Mattia, A.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M.A.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Brianzi, M.; Ciaranfi, R.; Civinini, C.; Gallo, E.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Ciulli, V.; D'Alessandro, R.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Scarlini, E.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Ferro, F.; Robutti, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Gennai, S.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Dinardo, M.; Fiorendi, S.; Manzoni, R.A.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Giubilato, P.; Pozzobon, N.; Tosi, M.; Zucchetta, A.; De Canio, F.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Nodari, B.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Comotti, D.; Ratti, L.; Bilei, G.M.; Bissi, L.; Checcucci, B.; Magalotti, D.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Servoli, L.; Storchi, L.; Biasini, M.; Conti, E.; Ciangottini, D.; Fano, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Placidi, P.; Salvatore, M.; Santocchia, A.; Solestizi, L.A.; Spiezia, A.; Demaria, N.; Rivetti, A.; Bellan, R.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Migliore, E.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Pacher, L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Solano, A.; Trapani, P.; Jaramillo Echeverria, R.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Moya, D.; F. Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Munoz Sanchez, F.J.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Abbaneo, D.; Ahmed, I.; Albert, E.; Auzinger, G.; Berruti, G.; Bianchi, G.; Blanchot, G.; Breuker, H.; Ceresa, D.; Christiansen, J.; Cichy, K.; Daguin, J.; D'Alfonso, M.; D'Auria, A.; Detraz, S.; De Visscher, S.; Deyrail, D.; Faccio, F.; Felici, D.; Frank, N.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Harris, P.; Honma, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M.; Kottelat, L.; Kovacs, M.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Marconi, S.; Martina, S.; Mersi, S.; Michelis, S.; Moll, M.; Onnela, A.; Pakulski, T.; Pavis, S.; Peisert, A.; Pernot, J.F.; Petagna, P.; Petrucciani, G.; Postema, H.; Rose, P.; Rzonca, M.; Stoye, M.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsirou, A.; Vasey, F.; Vichoudis, P.; Verlaat, B.; Zwalinski, L.; Bachmair, F.; Becker, R.; Bani, L.; di Calafiori, D.; Casal, B.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Dunser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Horisberger, U.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Perrozzi, L.; Roeser, U.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Wallny, R.; Amsler, C.; Bosiger, K.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Maier, R.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Taroni, S.; Yang, Y.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H.C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Chen, P.H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.S.; Lu, R.S.; Moya, M.; Wilken, R.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Jacob, J.; El Nasr-Storey, S.Seif; Cole, J.; Hobson, P.; Leggat, D.; Reid, I.D.; Teodorescu, L.; Bainbridge, R.; Dauncey, P.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Magnan, A.M.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D.M.; Uchida, K.; Coughlan, J.A.; Harder, K.; Ilic, J.; Tomalin, I.R.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Narain, M.; Nelson, J.; Sagir, S.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Tersegno, D.; Watson-Daniels, J.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Flores, C.; Lander, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Squires, M.; Thomson, J.; Yohay, R.; Burt, K.; Ellison, J.; Hanson, G.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo, M.; Cerati, G.; Sharma, V.; Vartak, A.; Yagil, A.; Della Porta, G.Zevi; Dutta, V.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Kyre, S.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S.; White, D.; Cumalat, J.P.; Ford, W.T.; Gaz, A.; Krohn, M.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S.R.; Baldin, B.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J.; Cheung, H.; Chramowicz, J.; Christian, D.; Cooper, W.E.; Deptuch, G.; Derylo, G.; Gingu, C.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Hoff, J.; Howell, J.; Hrycyk, M.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Jung, A.; Joshi, U.; Kahlid, F.; Lei, C.M.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Los, S.; Matulik, M.; Merkel, P.; Nahn, S.; Prosser, A.; Rivera, R.; Shenai, A.; Spiegel, L.; Tran, N.; Uplegger, L.; Voirin, E.; Yin, H.; Adams, M.R.; Berry, D.R.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C.E.; Hofman, D.J.; Kapustka, B.K.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, D.I.; Trauger, H.; Turner, P.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J., III; Bortoletto, D.; Bubna, M.; Hinton, N.; Jones, M.; Miller, D.H.; Shi, X.; Tan, P.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Gray, J.; Majumder, D.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Ivanov, A.; Makouski, M.; Skhirtladze, N.; Taylor, R.; Anderson, I.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Acosta, J.G.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Oliveros, S.; Perera, L.; Summers, D.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D.R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Hahn, K.; Sevova, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Bartz, E.; Duggan, D.; Halkiadakis, E.; Lath, A.; Park, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Walker, M.; Malik, S.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J.E.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Kaufman, G.; Mirman, N.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Winstrom, L.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K.M.; Nussbaum, T.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Demina, R.; Hindrichs, O.; Petrillo, G.; Eusebi, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Perloff, A.; Ulmer, K.A.; Delannoy, A.G.; D'Angelo, P.; Johns, W.

    2015-01-01

    The response of n+p silicon strip sensors to electrons from a Sr-90 source was measured using a multi-channel read-out system with 25 ns sampling time. The measurements were performed over a period of several weeks, during which the operating conditions were varied. The sensors were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. on 200 micrometer thick float-zone and magnetic-Czochralski silicon. Their pitch was 80 micrometer, and both p-stop and p-spray isolation of the n+ strips were studied. The electrons from the Sr-90 source were collimated to a spot with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 2 mm at the sensor surface, and the dose rate in the SiO2 at the maximum was about 50 Gy/d. After only a few hours of making measurements, significant changes in charge collection and charge sharing were observed. Annealing studies, with temperatures up to 80{\\deg}C and annealing times of 18 hours, showed that the changes can only be partially annealed. The observations can be qualitatively explained by the increase of the positi...

  11. Phonon thermal conductance of disordered graphene strips with armchair edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lipeng; Xiong Shijie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the model of lattice dynamics together with the transfer matrix technique, we investigate the thermal conductances of phonons in quasi-one-dimensional disordered graphene strips with armchair edges using Landauer formalism for thermal transport. It is found that the contributions to thermal conductance from the phonon transport near von Hove singularities is significantly suppressed by the presence of disorder, on the contrary to the effect of disorder on phonon modes in other frequency regions. Besides the magnitude, for different widths of the strips, the thermal conductance also shows different temperature dependence. At low temperatures, the thermal conductance displays quantized features of both pure and disordered graphene strips implying that the transmission of phonon modes at low frequencies are almost unaffected by the disorder

  12. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  13. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  14. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; 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Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  15. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  16. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  17. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  18. ISM stripping from cluster galaxies and inhomogeneities in cooling flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam; Bregman, Joel N.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of the x ray surface brightness profiles of cluster cooling flows suggest that the mass flow rate decreases towards the center of the cluster. It is often suggested that this decrease results from thermal instabilities, in which denser blobs of gas cool rapidly and drop below x ray emitting temperatures. If the seeds for the thermal instabilities are entropy perturbations, these perturbations must enter the flow already in the nonlinear regime. Otherwise, the blobs would take too long to cool. Here, researchers suggest that such nonlinear perturbations might start as blobs of interstellar gas which are stripped out of cluster galaxies. Assuming that most of the gas produced by stellar mass loss in cluster galaxies is stripped from the galaxies, the total rate of such stripping is roughly M sub Interstellar Matter (ISM) approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). It is interesting that the typical rates of cooling in cluster cooling flows are M sub cool approx. 100 solar mass yr(-1). Thus, it is possible that a substantial portion of the cooling gas originates as blobs of interstellar gas stripped from galaxies. The magnetic fields within and outside of the low entropy perturbations can help to maintain their identities, both by suppressing thermal conduction and through the dynamical effects of magnetic tension. One significant question concerning this scenario is: Why are cooling flows seen only in a fraction of clusters, although one would expect gas stripping to be very common. It may be that the density perturbations only survive and cool efficiently in clusters with a very high intracluster gas density and with the focusing effect of a central dominant galaxy. Inhomogeneities in the intracluster medium caused by the stripping of interstellar gas from galaxies can have a number of other effects on clusters. For example, these density fluctuations may disrupt the propagation of radio jets through the intracluster gas, and this may be one mechanism for producing Wide

  19. Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Hannah; Park, Kirsty; Minderman, Jeroen; Goulson, Dave

    2015-08-01

    Wild bees provide a free and potentially diverse ecosystem service to farmers growing pollination-dependent crops. While many crops benefit from insect pollination, soft fruit crops, including strawberries are highly dependent on this ecosystem service to produce viable fruit. However, as a result of intensive farming practices and declining pollinator populations, farmers are increasingly turning to commercially reared bees to ensure that crops are adequately pollinated throughout the season. Wildflower strips are a commonly used measure aimed at the conservation of wild pollinators. It has been suggested that commercial crops may also benefit from the presence of noncrop flowers; however, the efficacy and economic benefits of sowing flower strips for crops remain relatively unstudied. In a study system that utilizes both wild and commercial pollinators, we test whether wildflower strips increase the number of visits to adjacent commercial strawberry crops by pollinating insects. We quantified this by experimentally sowing wildflower strips approximately 20 meters away from the crop and recording the number of pollinator visits to crops with, and without, flower strips. Between June and August 2013, we walked 292 crop transects at six farms in Scotland, recording a total of 2826 pollinators. On average, the frequency of pollinator visits was 25% higher for crops with adjacent flower strips compared to those without, with a combination of wild and commercial bumblebees (Bombus spp.) accounting for 67% of all pollinators observed. This effect was independent of other confounding effects, such as the number of flowers on the crop, date, and temperature. Synthesis and applications. This study provides evidence that soft fruit farmers can increase the number of pollinators that visit their crops by sowing inexpensive flower seed mixes nearby. By investing in this management option, farmers have the potential to increase and sustain pollinator populations over time.

  20. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  1. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  2. Young tourists visiting strip clubs and paying for sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about young adults’ use of strip clubs and prostitution during their holidays abroad. This study examined this issue with a sample of 1125 Danish tourists between the ages of 16 and 34, and sought data about the frequency with which they paid for sex and attended strip clubs while...... with non-use of condoms with one or more sexual partners. The results of this study can be interpreted as part of a wider culture of commodified debauchery, which predominates many nightlife resorts....

  3. Design and development of equipment for laser wire stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    Three laser wire strippers have been built for the stripping of Kapton-insulated wire, the baseline wire of the space shuttle orbiter. The strippers are: (1) a bench-model stripper powered with a cw CO2 10.6-micron laser, (2) a hand-held stripper powered with a cw 1.06-micron Nd-YAG laser with an output of 5-7 watts, and (3) a hand-held stripper with a five-inch-long CO2 laser inside the stripping head.

  4. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  5. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable

  6. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  7. Optimum RA reactor fuelling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugar, P.; Nikolic, V.

    1965-10-01

    Ideal reactor refueling scheme can be achieved only by continuous fuel elements movement in the core, which is not possible, and thus approximations are applied. One of the possible approximations is discontinuous movement of fuel elements groups in radial direction. This enables higher burnup especially if axial exchange is possible. Analysis of refueling schemes in the RA reactor core and schemes with mixing the fresh and used fuel elements show that 30% higher burnup can be achieved by applying mixing, and even 40% if reactivity due to decrease in experimental space is taken into account. Up to now, mean burnup of 4400 MWd/t has been achieved, and the proposed fueling scheme with reduction of experimental space could achieve mean burnup of 6300 MWd/t which means about 25 Mwd/t per fuel channel [sr

  8. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  9. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so called

  10. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  11. Multilocus sequence typing scheme for the Mycobacterium abscessus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheras, Edouard; Konjek, Julie; Roux, Anne-Laure; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Bastian, Sylvaine; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Palaci, Moises; Sivadon-Tardy, Valérie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Richter, Elvira; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Pfyffer, Gaby E; Bodmer, Thomas; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Brisse, Sylvain; Caro, Valérie; Rastogi, Nalin; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Mycobacterium abscessus sensu lato, based on the partial sequencing of seven housekeeping genes: argH, cya, glpK, gnd, murC, pta and purH. This scheme was used to characterize a collection of 227 isolates recovered between 1994 and 2010 in France, Germany, Switzerland and Brazil. We identified 100 different sequence types (STs), which were distributed into three groups on the tree obtained by concatenating the sequences of the seven housekeeping gene fragments (3576bp): the M. abscessus sensu stricto group (44 STs), the "M. massiliense" group (31 STs) and the "M. bolletii" group (25 STs). SplitTree analysis showed a degree of intergroup lateral transfers. There was also evidence of lateral transfer events involving rpoB. The most prevalent STs in our collection were ST1 (CC5; 20 isolates) and ST23 (CC3; 31 isolates). Both STs were found in Europe and Brazil, and the latter was implicated in a large post-surgical procedure outbreak in Brazil. Respiratory isolates from patients with cystic fibrosis belonged to a large variety of STs; however, ST2 was predominant in this group of patients. Our MLST scheme, publicly available at www.pasteur.fr/mlst, offers investigators a valuable typing tool for M. abscessus sensu lato in future epidemiological studies throughout the world. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  13. Combined effect of bulk and surface damage on strip insulation properties of proton irradiated n$^{+}$-p silicon strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Dalal, R; Ranjan, K; Moll, M; Elliott-Peisert, A

    2014-01-01

    Silicon sensors in next generation hadron colliders willface a tremendously harsh radiation environment. Requirement tostudy rarest reaction channels with statistical constraints hasresulted in a huge increment in radiation flux, resulting in bothsurface damage and bulk damage. For sensors which are used in acharged hadron environment, both of these degrading processes takeplace simultaneously. Recently it has been observed in protonirradiated n$^{+}$-p Si strip sensors that n$^{+}$ strips had a goodinter-strip insulation with low values of p-spray and p-stop dopingdensities which is contrary to the expected behaviour from thecurrent understanding of radiation damage. In this work a simulationmodel has been devised incorporating radiation damage to understandand provide a possible explanation to the observed behaviour ofirradiated sensors.

  14. The decay scheme of 229Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.F.; Yuan, S.G.; Fang, K.M.; Shen, S.F.; Mou, W.T.; Zhang, X.Q.; Li, Z.Q.

    1997-01-01

    By bombarding the natural thorium targets with 14 MeV neutrons, 229 Ra was produced through the reaction 232 Th(n,α) 229 Ra. The radium activities were separated from the irradiated targets by coprecipitation with the BaCl 2 . A total of 18 new weak γ rays with energies of 14.5, 15.6, 18.8, 21.8, 22.5, 44.0, 47.5, 55.0, 63.0, 69.6, 93.6, 94.1, 98.5, 102.2, 104.5, 106.1, 161.1, and 171.5 keV which could be assigned to the decay of 229 Ra were observed in the isolated radium fractions employing high resolution HPGe detectors and γ(X)-γ coincidence methods. A decay scheme of 229 Ra based on these observations is proposed. (orig.). With 2 figs

  15. Paint stripping with high power flattened Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researchers present results on improved paint stripping performance with an intra-cavity generated Flattened Gaussian Beam (FGB). A resonator with suitable diffractive optical elements was designed in order to produce a single mode...

  16. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Arsenic Determination on Composite Gold Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Kopanica, M.; Krista, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 265-272 ISSN 0009-2223 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : arsenic determination * stripping voltammetry * composite gold electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2003

  17. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  18. Experience with the silicon strip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the ALICE Inner Track- ing System (ITS), connecting the TPC with the inner layers of the ITS. The SSD consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules, 95 μm pitch, distributed in two cylindrical bar- rels, whose radii are

  19. Advancements of floating strip Micromegas detectors for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitzner, Felix; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard [LS Schaile, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Magallanes, Lorena [LS Parodi, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany); Parodi, Katia [LS Parodi, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (Germany); Voss, Bernd [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Floating strip Micromegas have proven to be high-rate capable tracking detectors with excellent spatial and temporal resolution for particle fluxes up to 7 MHz/cm{sup 2}. To further increase the high-rate capability a Ne:CF{sub 4} 86:14 vol.% gas mixture has been used as detector gas. We present results from measurements with a seven detector system consisting of six low material budget floating strip Micromegas, a GEM detector and a scintillator based particle range telescope. The gaseous and the scintillation detectors were read out with APV25 frontend boards, allowing for single strip readout with pulse height and timing information. A two-dimensional readout anode for floating strip Micromegas has been tested for the first time. The Micromegas detectors were operated with minimal additional drift field, which significantly improves the timing resolution and also the spatial resolution for inclined tracks. We discuss the detector performance in high-rate carbon and proton beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and present radiographies of phantoms, acquired with the system.

  20. Cropland filter strip removal of cattle manure constituents in runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little scientifically-derived information available to help identify setback distances required to effectively reduce contaminants from incoming runoff on cropland areas. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cropland filter strip (CFS) length and runoff rate on concen...

  1. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  2. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.M.; Khan, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  3. Nutrient removal by prairie filter strips in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Zhou; M.J. Helmers; H. Asbjornsen; R. Kolka; M.D. Tomer; R.M. Cruse

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural landscapes have been identified as primary sources of excess nutrients in aquatic systems. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in removing nutrients from cropland runoff in 12 small watersheds in central Iowa. Four treatments with PFS of different spatial...

  4. Monitoring update on four listed plants on the Arizona Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Hughes

    2001-01-01

    Four listed plants on the Arizona Strip are being monitored for various population characteristics. Pediocactus sileri Engelm. L. Benson and P. bradyi L. Benson have been monitored since 1985-86, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren since 1989, and Cycladenia humilis Benth. var. jonesii Welsh & Atwood since 1993. The two pediocactus species were monitored in plots...

  5. Silicon μ-strip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1994-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed and constructed for a fixed target experiment at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into Fastbus memory. Construction and performance during the actual data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  6. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  7. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric methods for determination of aripiprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Aşangil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anodic behavior of aripiprazole (ARP was studied using electrochemical methods. Charge transfer, diffusion and surface coverage coefficients of adsorbed molecules and the number of electrons transferred in electrode mechanisms were calculated for quasi-reversible and adsorption-controlled electrochemical oxidation of ARP at 1.15 V versus Ag/AgCl at pH 4.0 in Britton–Robinson buffer (BR on glassy carbon electrode. Voltammetric methods for direct determination of ARP in pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples were developed. Linearity range is found as from 11.4 μM (5.11 mg/L to 157 μM (70.41 mg/L without stripping mode and it is found as from 0.221 μM (0.10 mg/L to 13.6 μM (6.10 mg/L with stripping mode. Limit of detection (LOD was found to be 0.11 μM (0.05 mg/L in stripping voltammetry. Methods were successfully applied to assay the drug in tablets, human serum and human urine with good recoveries between 95.0% and 104.6% with relative standard deviation less than 10%. Keywords: Adsorptive stripping voltammetry, Aripiprazole, Electrochemical behavior, Human serum and urine, Pharmaceuticals

  8. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-06-29

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R² = 98.78%).

  9. Accuracy assessment of airborne laser scanning strips using planar features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudarissanane, S.S.; Van der Sande, C.J.; Khoshelham, K.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is widely used in many applications for its high measurement accuracy, fast acquisition capability, and large spatial coverage. Accuracy assessment of the ALS data usually relies on comparing corresponding tie elements, often points or lines, in the overlapping strips.

  10. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  11. The silicon strip detector at the Mark 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, R.; Golubev, V.; Lueth, V.; Barnett, B.; Dauncey, P.; Matthews, J.; Adolphsen, C.; Burchat, P.; Gratta, G.; King, M.; Labarga, L.; Litke, A.; Turala, M.; Zaccardelli, C.

    1990-04-01

    We have installed a Silicon Strip Vertex Detector in the Mark II detector at the Stanford Linear Collider. We report on the performance of the detector during a recent test run, including backgrounds, stability and charged particle tracking. 10 refs., 9 figs

  12. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. ... Predicting resonance frequency of plates is an important technological and scientific ... Ritz methods in a number of studies pertaining to control of flutter in aerospace ..... Bingham B, Atalla M J, Hagood N W 2001 Comparison of structural-acoustic ...

  13. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water.

  14. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  15. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  16. Effect of mass loss on the. beta. Cephei instability strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    In this paper we aim to suggest on a speculative basis that the existence of mass loss by stellar wind in massive stars (M > 10 Msub(sun)) may affect the properties of the ..beta.. Cephei instability strip, and remove some of the difficulties encountered in the interpretation of their pulsation.

  17. Visual method for detecting critical damage in railway contact strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judek, S.; Skibicki, J.

    2018-05-01

    Ensuring an uninterrupted supply of power in the electric traction is vital for the safety of this important transport system. For this purpose, monitoring and diagnostics of the technical condition of the vehicle’s power supply elements are becoming increasingly common. This paper presents a new visual method for detecting contact strip damage, based on measurement and analysis of the movement of the overhead contact line (OCL) wire. A measurement system configuration with a 2D camera was proposed. The experimental method has shown that contact strips damage can be detected by transverse displacement signal analysis. It has been proven that the velocity signal numerically established on that basis has a comparable level in the case of identical damage, regardless of its location on the surface of the contact strip. The proposed method belongs to the group of contact-less measurements, so it does not require interference with the structure of the catenary network nor the mounting of sensors in its vicinity. Measurement of displacements of the contact wire in 2D space makes it possible to combine the functions of existing diagnostic stands assessing the correctness of the mean contact force control adjustment of the current collector with the elements of the contact strip diagnostics, which involves detecting their damage which may result in overhead contact line rupture.

  18. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  19. Mechanistic modeling & effectiveness of buffer strips for pesticide regulatory frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative Filter Strips (VFS) have been used as an effective conservation practice in agricultural areas for controlling and mitigate the effect of sediment, nutrients and pesticides loads into water bodies. In addition to the agricultural sector, another important use of VFS for controlling plague...

  20. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  1. CENTERLINE RUMBLE STRIPS SAFETY IMPACT EVALUATION—PHASE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Centerline rumble strips are used by various states as a low-cost countermeasure for mitigating cross-over crashes on two-way highways. This study performs a safety impact evaluation using an empirical Bayesian analysis. The researchers obtained a cr...

  2. A Harmonic Algorithm for the 3D Strip Packing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); X. Han; K. Iwama; M. Sviridenko; G. Zhang (Guochuan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed

  3. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings on August 12-17, 2012, this presentation reports on laboratory tests of 20 currently available advanced power strip products, which reduce wasteful electricity use of miscellaneous electric loads in buildings.

  4. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1996-10-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  5. Development of the H1 backward silicon strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eick, W.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Bullough, M.A.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Newton, A.M.; Wilburn, C.D.; Horisberger, R.; Pitzl, D.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.

    1997-01-01

    The development and first results are described of a silicon strip detector telescope for the HERA experiment H1 designed to measure the polar angle of deep inelastic scattered electrons at small Bjorken x and low momentum transfers Q 2 . (orig.)

  6. The very young resolved stellar populations around stripped-envelope supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maund, Justyn R.

    2018-05-01

    The massive star origins for Type IIP supernovae (SNe) have been established through direct detection of their red supergiants progenitors in pre-explosion observations; however, there has been limited success in the detection of the progenitors of H-deficient SNe. The final fate of more massive stars, capable of undergoing a Wolf-Rayet phase, and the origins of Type Ibc SNe remain debated, including the relative importance of single massive star progenitors or lower mass stars stripped in binaries. We present an analysis of the ages and spatial distributions of massive stars around the sites of 23 stripped-envelope SNe, as observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, to probe the possible origins of the progenitors of these events. Using a Bayesian stellar populations analysis scheme, we find characteristic ages for the populations observed within 150 pc of the target Type IIb, Ib, and Ic SNe to be log (t) = 7.20, 7.05, and 6.57, respectively. The Type Ic SNe in the sample are nearly all observed within 100 pc of young, dense stellar populations. The environment around SN 2002ap is an important exception both in terms of age and spatial properties. These findings may support the hypothesis that stars with Minit > 30 M⊙ produce a relatively large proportion of Type Ibc SNe, and that these SN subtypes arise from progressively more massive progenitors. Significantly higher extinctions are derived towards the populations hosting these SNe than previously used in analysis of constraints from pre-explosion observations. The large initial masses inferred for the progenitors are in stark contrast with the low ejecta masses estimated from SN light curves.

  7. Computerized Decision Support Improves Medication Review Effectiveness : An Experiment Evaluating the STRIP Assistant's Usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, Michiel C; Spruit, Marco R; Drenth-van Maanen, A Clara; Numans, Mattijs E; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Jansen, Paul A F; Knol, Wilma

    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy poses threats to patients' health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  8. Computerized decision support improves medication review effectiveness: an experiment evaluating the STRIP Assistant’s usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulendijk, M.; Spruit, M.; Drenth-van Maanen, C.; Numans, M.; Brinkkemper, S.; Jansen, P.; Knol, W

    2015-01-01

    Background Polypharmacy poses threats to patients’ health. The Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) is a drug optimization process for conducting medication reviews in primary care. To effectively and efficiently incorporate this method into daily practice, the STRIP

  9. Distribution of electric field and charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of electric field in silicon strip detectors is analyzed in the case of dull depletion as well as for partial depletion. Influence of inhomogeneous electric fields on the charge collection and performances of silicon strip detectors is discussed

  10. Use of moisture induced stress testing to evaluate stripping potential of hot mix asphalt (HMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Stripping of hot mix asphalt (HMA) in the field is an ongoing issue for many Departments of Transportation : (DOTs). A leading cause of stripping is hydraulic scouring. The Moisture Induced Stress Tester (MIST) is a recently : developed technology th...

  11. Extraction and stripping of neodymium (III) and dysprosium (III) by TRUEX solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    McCabe-Thiele diagram for the extraction and stripping of Nd (III) and Dy (III) by TRUEX solvent has been constructed to determine the number of stages required for complete extraction and stripping. (author)

  12. Frequency Stabilizing Scheme for a Danish Island Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    of wind power is necessary to avoid unwanted power oscillations, which lead to uncontrolled oscillations in the power plant control. Since this might deteriorate power quality including frequency in an island grid, a frequency stabilizing control scheme or strategies using intelligent controller......This paper describes the development of frequency stabilizing control scheme for a small Danish island of Bornholm. The Bornholm power system is able to transit from interconnected operation with the Nordic power system to isolated islanding operation. During islanding operation the shedding...... with a battery energy storage system (BESS) has been proposed. The real-time models of distribution grids of Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the performance of centralized load frequency control as well as coordinated control scheme. Case study results show...

  13. Measures of the EU Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and their impacts on the visual acceptability of Finnish agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Liisa; Ihalainen, Marjut; Hietala-Koivu, Reija; Kolehmainen, Osmo; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Nousiainen, Ismo; Helenius, Juha

    2002-11-01

    As a member of the European Union, Finland has committed itself to creating an environmental policy for agriculture. The aims of this study were to evaluate visual impacts of the General Agri-Environmental Protection Scheme (GAEPS) and Supplementary Protection Scheme (SPS) and general attitudes towards some activities in those policies and furthermore to examine the suitability of the method of Alho et al. (2001) for the scenic beauty assessment. The study areas consisted of three original, untreated, and 15 modified rural landscapes representing a variety of different activities. The scenic beauty of the landscapes was evaluated through pairwise comparisons of the responses of 68 people. Furthermore, attitudes towards environmental values, water protection, buffer strips and subsidies to agriculture were obtained. The respondents found the maintained buffer strips more pleasing than unmaintained strips and considered that the quality of watercourses was increased by buffer strips along them. A suitable width for the buffer strip along main ditches, brooks and waterways was regarded, on average, to be wider than the current recommendations. Although the opinions of farmers were basically in line with the existing recommendations, farmers' opininons on the second and third most important effects of buffer strips, an increase in weeds and a decrease in cultivated land, clearly differed from those of the other respondents. Afforestation, lack of building maintenance and abandoned fields were considered to be the most important factors impacting rural landscapes. This study indicates that the Finnish Agri-Environmental Protection Schemes have had positive impacts on the visual quality of landscapes. Attitudes towards other impacts are contradictory. This study also showed the improvement of the Alho et al. (2001) method in these kinds of studies relative to other methods of pairwise comparisons.

  14. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  16. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Comparison of blood glucose test strips in the detection of neonatal hypoglycaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, B H; Kalra, D

    1982-01-01

    Blood glucose levels were estimated in 101 neonatal blood samples using three glucose test strip methods and the results compared with those from a laboratory. BM-test-glycemie 20-800 test strips and Reflotest-hypoglycemie test strips gave a rapid and reliable estimate of blood glucose level in the range 0-8 mmol/l (0-140 mg/100 ml). Dextrostix test strips tended to overestimate all blood glucose levels.

  18. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for Ureaplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Kong, Y; Feng, Y; Huang, J; Song, T; Ruan, Z; Song, J; Jiang, Y; Yu, Y; Xie, X

    2014-04-01

    Ureaplasma is a commensal of the human urogenital tract but is always associated with invasive diseases such as non-gonococcal urethritis and infertility adverse pregnancy outcomes. To better understand the molecular epidemiology and population structure of Ureaplasma, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on four housekeeping genes (ftsH, rpL22, valS, thrS) was developed and validated using 283 isolates, including 14 serovars of reference strains and 269 strains obtained from clinical patients. A total of 99 sequence types (STs) were revealed: the 14 type strains of the Ureaplasma serovars were assigned to 12 STs, and 87 novel and special STs appeared among the clinical isolates. ST1 and ST22 were the predominant STs, which contained 68 and 70 isolates, respectively. Two clonal lineages (CC1 and CC2) were shown by eBURST analysis, and linkage disequilibrium was revealed through a standardized index of association (I A (S)). The neighbor-joining tree results of 14 Ureaplasma serovars showed two genetically significantly distant clusters, which was highly congruent with the species taxonomy of ureaplasmas [Ureaplasma parvum (UPA) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UUR)]. Analysis of the biotypes of 269 clinical isolates revealed that all the isolates of CC1 were UPA and those of CC2 were UUR. Additionally, CC2 was found more often in symptomatic patients with vaginitis, tubal obstruction, and cervicitis. In conclusion, this MLST scheme is adequate for investigations of molecular epidemiology and population structure with highly discriminating capacity.

  19. Sediment removal by prairie filter strips in row-cropped ephemeral watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Xiaobo Zhou; Heidi Asbjornsen; Randy Kolka; Mark D. Tomer; Richard M. Cruse

    2012-01-01

    Twelve small watersheds in central Iowa were used to evaluate the eff ectiveness of prairie filter strips (PFS) in trapping sediment from agricultural runoff. Four treatments with PFS of different size and location (100% rowcrop, 10% PFS of total watershed area at footslope, 10% PFS at footslope and in contour strips, 20% PFS at footslope and in contour strips)...

  20. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty..., 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

  1. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The period of review (POR) is... Administrative Review: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the United Arab Emirates...

  2. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY: United States... and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  3. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to...

  4. Effect of Strip Mining on Water Quality in Small Streams in Eastern Kentucky, 1967-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Dyer; Willie R. Curtis

    1977-01-01

    Eight years of streamflow data are analyzed to show the effects of strip mining on chemical quality of water in six first-order streams in Breathitt County, Kentucky. All these watersheds were unmined in August, 1967, but five have since been strip mined. The accumulated data from this case history study indicate that strip mining causes large increases in the...

  5. 31 CFR 356.31 - How does the STRIPS program work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the STRIPS program work? 356.31 Section 356.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued...) Miscellaneous Provisions § 356.31 How does the STRIPS program work? (a) General. Notes or bonds may be “stripped...

  6. Significance of wave form parameters in stripping chronopotentiometric metal speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the significance of stripping chronopotentiometric (SCP) stripping peak parameters (peak potential, Ep, and peak half-width, w1/2) for determination of metal ion speciation. This study focuses on depletive SCP (low stripping current, I¿ constant), and considers the change

  7. A design aid for sizing filter strips using buffer area ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.G. Dosskey; M.J. Helmers; D.E. Eisenhauer

    2011-01-01

    Nonuniform field runoff can reduce the effectiveness of filter strips that are a uniform size along a field margin. Effectiveness can be improved by placing more filter strip where the runoff load is greater and less where the load is smaller. A modeling analysis was conducted of the relationship between pollutant trapping efficiency and the ratio of filter strip area...

  8. Flexible Faraday Cage with a Twist: Surface Charge on a Mobius Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Once an intriguing topological novelty known only to mathematicians, the Mobius strip has become a source of fascination and inspiration to the layperson and artist alike. Principal among its features are the two strange properties that the Mobius strip is a surface with only one side and one edge. A Mobius strip is readily formed by taking a long…

  9. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  10. Capacity-achieving CPM schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Alberto; Tarable, Alberto; Benedetto, Sergio; Montorsi, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The pragmatic approach to coded continuous-phase modulation (CPM) is proposed as a capacity-achieving low-complexity alternative to the serially-concatenated CPM (SC-CPM) coding scheme. In this paper, we first perform a selection of the best spectrally-efficient CPM modulations to be embedded into SC-CPM schemes. Then, we consider the pragmatic capacity (a.k.a. BICM capacity) of CPM modulations and optimize it through a careful design of the mapping between input bits and CPM waveforms. The s...

  11. Removal of nitrogen from swine manure by ammonia stripping; Reduccion del contenido en nitrogeno amoniacal del purin procino mediante la tecnica de stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, M. D.; Alamo, J. del; Nunez, U.; Irusta, R. [Grupo de Tecnologia Ambiental . Laboratorio de Analisis y Estudios Medioambientales. Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Lab scale experiments were undertaken to investigate air stripping as method for removing ammonia from cattle effluents and, more concretely, from the liquid fraction of swine manure. The effects of packet size, influent pH, air to liquid flow ratio and liquid recirculation flow in the stripping tower were investigated. The high ammonia removal efficiency of the air stripping method indicates that it could provide an interim solution for current waste management problems in the swine industry. (Author) 5 refs.

  12. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  13. On 165Ho level scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisson, Claire; Ardisson, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A 165 Ho level scheme was constructed which led to the interpretation of sixty γ rays belonging to the decay of 165 Dy. A new 702.9keV level was identified to be the 5/2 - member of the 1/2 ) 7541{ Nilsson orbit. )] [fr

  14. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min; Ma, Guancong; Wu, Ying; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost

  15. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  16. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  17. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB and 1.74tlog2⁡m bit-per-pixel (bpp, respectively.

  18. Development and performance of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batignani, G.; Forti, F.; Moneta, L.; Triggiani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Focardi, E.; Giorgi, M.A.; Parrini, G.; Tonelli, G.

    1991-01-01

    Microstrip silicon detectors with orthogonal readout on opposite sides have been designed and fabricated. The active area of each device is 25 cm 2 and the strip pitch is 25 μm on the junction side and 50 μm on the opposite ohmic side. A space resolution of 15 μm on the junction side (100 μm readout pitch) and 24 μm on the ohmic side (200 μm readout pitch) has been measured. We also report on AC-coupling chips, designed and fabricated in order to allow AC connection of the strips to the amplifiers. These chips are 6.4x5.0 mm 2 and have 100 μm pitch. Both AC-couplers and detectors have been installed as part of the ALEPH minivertex. (orig.)

  19. Development of analysis methodology on turbulent thermal stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Geun Jong; Jeon, Won Dae; Han, Jin Woo; Gu, Byong Kook [Changwon National University, Changwon(Korea)

    2001-03-01

    For developing analysis methodology, important governing factors of thermal stripping phenomena are identified as geometric configuration and flow characteristics such as velocity. Along these factors, performance of turbulence models in existing analysis methodology are evaluated against experimental data. Status of DNS application is also accessed based on literature. Evaluation results are reflected in setting up the new analysis methodology. From the evaluation of existing analysis methodology, Full Reynolds Stress model is identified as best one among other turbulence models. And LES is found to be able to provide time dependent turbulence values. Further improvements in near-wall region and temperature variance equation are required for FRS and implementation of new sub-grid scale models is also required for LES. Through these improvements, new reliable analysis methodology for thermal stripping can be developed. 30 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  20. Slip Morphology of Elastic Strips on Frictional Rigid Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohiko G; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Wada, Hirofumi

    2017-04-28

    The morphology of an elastic strip subject to vertical compressive stress on a frictional rigid substrate is investigated by a combination of theory and experiment. We find a rich variety of morphologies, which-when the bending elasticity dominates over the effect of gravity-are classified into three distinct types of states: pinned, partially slipped, and completely slipped, depending on the magnitude of the vertical strain and the coefficient of static friction. We develop a theory of elastica under mixed clamped-hinged boundary conditions combined with the Coulomb-Amontons friction law and find excellent quantitative agreement with simulations and controlled physical experiments. We also discuss the effect of gravity in order to bridge the difference in the qualitative behaviors of stiff strips and flexible strings or ropes. Our study thus complements recent work on elastic rope coiling and takes a significant step towards establishing a unified understanding of how a thin elastic object interacts vertically with a solid surface.

  1. Feature curve extraction from point clouds via developable strip intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wah Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of computing smooth feature curves from CAD type point clouds models. The proposed method reconstructs feature curves from the intersections of developable strip pairs which approximate the regions along both sides of the features. The generation of developable surfaces is based on a linear approximation of the given point cloud through a variational shape approximation approach. A line segment sequencing algorithm is proposed for collecting feature line segments into different feature sequences as well as sequential groups of data points. A developable surface approximation procedure is employed to refine incident approximation planes of data points into developable strips. Some experimental results are included to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  2. Theoretical analysis of gold nano-strip gap plasmon resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, T; Jung, J; Bozhevolnyi, S I; Della Valle, G [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Oest (Denmark)], E-mail: ts@nano.aau.dk

    2008-10-15

    Gold gap plasmon resonators consisting of two nm-thin and sub-micron-wide gold strips separated by a nm-thin air or quartz gap are considered. Scattering resonances and resonant fields are related to a model of resonances being due to counter-propagating gap plasmon polaritons forming standing waves. A small gap ({approx}10 nm) is found to result in small resonance peaks in scattering spectra but large electric field magnitude enhancement ({approx}20), whereas a large gap ({approx}100 nm) is found to result in more pronounced scattering peaks but smaller field enhancement. Design curves are presented that allow construction of gap plasmon resonators with any desired resonance wavelength in the range from the visible to the infrared, including telecom wavelengths. The relation between resonance wavelength and resonator width is close to being linear. The field magnitude enhancement mid between the gold strips is systematically investigated versus gap size and wavelength.

  3. A new semicustom integrated bipolar amplifier for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1989-01-01

    The QPA02 is a four channel DC coupled two stage transimpedance amplifier designed at Fermilab on a semicustom linear array (Quickchip 2S) manufactured by Tektronix. The chip was developed as a silicon strip amplifier but may have other applications as well. Each channel consists of a preamplifier and a second stage amplifier/sharper with differential output which can directly drive a transmission line (90 to 140 ohms). External bypass capacitors are the only discrete components required. QPA02 has been tested and demonstrated to be an effective silicon strip amplifier. Other applications may exist which can use this amplifier or a modified version of this amplifier. For example, another design is now in progress for a wire chamber amplifier, QPA03, to be reported later. Only a relatively small effort was required to modify the design and layout for this application. 11 figs

  4. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  5. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T.

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  6. Optics. Observation of optical polarization Möbius strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Banzer, Peter; Karimi, Ebrahim; Orlov, Sergej; Rubano, Andrea; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico; Boyd, Robert W; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-02-27

    Möbius strips are three-dimensional geometrical structures, fascinating for their peculiar property of being surfaces with only one "side"—or, more technically, being "nonorientable" surfaces. Despite being easily realized artificially, the spontaneous emergence of these structures in nature is exceedingly rare. Here, we generate Möbius strips of optical polarization by tightly focusing the light beam emerging from a q-plate, a liquid crystal device that modifies the polarization of light in a space-variant manner. Using a recently developed method for the three-dimensional nanotomography of optical vector fields, we fully reconstruct the light polarization structure in the focal region, confirming the appearance of Möbius polarization structures. The preparation of such structured light modes may be important for complex light beam engineering and optical micro- and nanofabrication. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Infrared LED Array For Silicon Strip Detector Qualification

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkes, Guido; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Schwerdtfeger, Wolfgang; Waldschmitt, M; Weiler, K W; Weseler, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    The enormous amount of silicon strip detector modules for the CMS tracker requires a test-sytem to allow qualification of each individual detector module and its front-end electronics within minutes. The objective is to test the detector with a physical signal. Signals are generated in the detector by illumination with lightpulses emitted by a LED at 950~nm and with a rise time of 10~ns. In order to avoid a detector moving, an array of 64 LEDs is used, overlaping the complete detector width. The total length of an array is 15~cm. The spot size of an individual LED is controlled by apertures to illuminate about 25 strips. Furthermore it is possible to simulate the high leakage current of irradiated sensors by constant illumination of the sensor. This provides an effective mean to identfy pinholes on a sensor.

  8. Stripping of uranium from Dehpa/kerosene solvents by different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Stas, J.; Kassem, M.

    1998-01-01

    Stripping uranium from Dehpa/kerosene solvent is a crucial step in the recovery of uranium. Stripping was studied using different stripping media mainly ammonium carbonate, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Stripping was measured at different operating conditions such as aqueous concentrations, temperatures, and Dehpa/kerosene concentrations. The results obtained showed that stripping by acid media increases with the acid concentration and follows the order: HF > H 3 PO 4 > H 2 SO 4 > HCl > HNO 3 . To achieve higher stripping by phosphoric acid it was found necessary to increase the temperature to 50 deg C, the acid concentration to 5 mol/l and to reduce the uranium to U 4+ . Stripping by basic media was found to increase with increasing concentration of the stripping media and to follow the order: Na 2 CO 3 > (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 > NH 4 HCO 3 . Stripping by ammonium carbonate was found to increase with temperature and carbonate concentration. The stripping was optimized at 0.5 mol/l carbonate concentration and at a temperature of 50 deg C. Stripping was decreased by increasing concentration of Dehpa in kerosene and was depressed more by adding the synergant Topo to the Dehpa solvent especially at 1/4 mol/mol ratio. (author)

  9. Stripping of uranium from Dehpa/Kerosene solvents by different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Stas, J.; Kassem, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stripping uranium from Dehpa/kerosene solvent is a crucial step in the recovery of uranium. Stripping was studied using different stripping media mainly ammonium carbonate, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Stripping was measured at different operating conditions such as aqueous concentrations, temperatures, and Dehpa/kerosene concentrations. The results obtained showed that stripping by acid media increases with the acid concentration and follows the order: HF > H sub 3 Po sub 4 > H sub 2 S O sub 4 > HCl > HNO sub 3. To achieve higher stripping by phosphoric acid it was found necessary to increase the temperature to 50 deg C, the acid concentration to 5 mol/l and to reduce the uranium to U sup 4 sup +. Stripping by basic media was found to increase with increasing concentration of the stripping media and to follow the order: Na sub 2 CO sub 3 > (NH sub 4) sub 2 CO sub 3 > NH sub 4 HCO sub 3. Stripping by ammonium carbonate was found to increase with temperature and carbonate concentration. The stripping was optimized at 0.5 mol/l carbonate concentration and at a temperature of 50 deg C. Stripping was decreased by increasing concentration of Dehpa in kerosene and was depressed more by adding the synergant TOPO to the Dehpa solvent especially at 1/4 mol/mol ratio. (author)

  10. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle

  11. Gas stripping and recirculation process in heavy water separation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzer, D.B.; Thayer, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is stripped from hot effluent, in a heavy water separation plant of the dual temperature isotope separation type, by taking liquid effluent from the hot tower before passage through the humidifier, passing the liquid through one or more throttle devices to flash-off the H 2 S gas content, and feeding the gas into an absorption tower containing incoming feed water, for recycling of the gas through the process

  12. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Heung, L.K.

    1997-10-20

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented.

  13. Multi-strip Western blotting to increase quantitative data output

    OpenAIRE

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Hoek, Jan B.; Kholodenko, Boris; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurement of protein abundance and protein modification states are essential in understanding their role in diverse cellular processes. Traditional Western blotting technique, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. We propose a modified immunoblotting procedure, which is based on simultaneous transfer of proteins from multiple gel-strips onto the same membrane, and is compatible wi...

  14. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars

    OpenAIRE

    Lundkvist, M. S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Albrecht, S.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Huber, D.; Justesen, A. B.; Karoff, C.; Aguirre, V. Silva; Van Eylen, V.; Vang, C.; Arentoft, T.; Barclay, T.; Bedding, T. R.; Campante, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high...

  15. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  16. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  17. Sequential Triangle Strip Generator based on Hopfield Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Lněnička, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2009), s. 583-617 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2009

  18. Developing methods of strip cropping cucumbers with rye/vetch

    OpenAIRE

    Ogutu, Maurice Okendo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research carried out in 1998 and 1999 was to develop methods for strip cropping of cucumbers with rye/vetch and black plastic mulch. Effects of planting methods, weed control measures, and cover crop management techniques on pest and beneficial insects, petiole sap nitrate-nitrogen, soil moisture, yields and economic viability were assessed. Four treatments, namely cucumber direct seeded in black plastic mulch on tilled bare ground (conventional); cucumber d...

  19. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Dulinski, W.; Lounis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  20. Radiation damage status of the ATLAS silicon strip detectors (SCT)

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, Takahiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Silicon microstrip detector system (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at LHC has been working well for about 7 years since 2010. The innermost layer has already received a few times of 10**13 1-MeV neutron-equivalent fluences/cm2. The evolutions of the radiation damage effects on strip sensors such as leakage current and full depletion voltages will be presented.

  1. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.; Heung, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented

  2. Magazine for handling stripping foils in a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, A.J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Thin foils for stripping a particle beam are stored in a magazine that is operable remotely to display an individual foil, release it when it is spent, and repeat this process. The magazine is operable in the high-vacuum, high-radiation environment in the interior of a particle accelerator, and it uses the magnetic field of the accelerator to operate the display and dropping mechanism. (U.S.)

  3. Factors influencing the performances of micro-strips gas chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, V.; Brom, J.M.; Fang, R.; Fontaine, J.C.; Huss, D.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Kettunen, H.; Levy, J.M.; Pallares, A.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Cailleret, J.; Christophel, E.; Coffin, J.; Eberle, H.; Osswald, F.; Sigward, M.H.

    1995-01-01

    Damages to MSGCs (Micro-Strips Gas Chambers) induced by discharges have been investigated. Optimization of electrode shapes and/or deposition of a protective coating allows the potential difference between anode and cathode, thus increasing the gain. For prototypes of MSGCs made at the Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, each step of the manufacturing processes was carefully controlled. Results are presented on the influence of cleaning processes on the surface resistance of glass substrates. (author). 21 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Field oxide radiation damage measurements in silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M [Particle Detector Group, Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland); Singh, P; Shepard, P F [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Surface radiation damage in planar processed silicon detectors is caused by radiation generated holes being trapped in the silicon dioxide layers on the detector wafer. We have studied charge trapping in thick (field) oxide layers on detector wafers by irradiating FOXFET biased strip detectors and MOS test capacitors. Special emphasis was put on studying how a negative bias voltage across the oxide during irradiation affects hole trapping. In addition to FOXFET biased detectors, negatively biased field oxide layers may exist on the n-side of double-sided strip detectors with field plate based n-strip separation. The results indicate that charge trapping occurred both close to the Si-SiO[sub 2] interface and in the bulk of the oxide. The charge trapped in the bulk was found to modify the electric field in the oxide in a way that leads to saturation in the amount of charge trapped in the bulk when the flatband/threshold voltage shift equals the voltage applied over the oxide during irradiation. After irradiation only charge trapped close to the interface is annealed by electrons tunneling to the oxide from the n-type bulk. (orig.).

  5. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to 7.5E34 per second and cm2 corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb and hadron fluencies over 1E16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the ...

  6. Simulation studies for the ATLAS upgrade Strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jike; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    ATLAS is making extensive efforts towards preparing a detector upgrade for the High luminosity operations of the LHC (HL-LHC), which will commence operation in ~10 years. The current ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by a all-silicon tracker (comprising an inner Pixel tracker and outer Strip tracker). The software currently used for the new silicon tracker is broadly inherited from that used for the LHC Run 1 and 2, but many new developments have been made to better fulfil the future detector and operation requirements. One aspect in particular which will be highlighted is the simulation software for the Strip tracker. The available geometry description software (including the detailed description for all the sensitive elements, the services, etc.) did not allow for accurate modeling of the planned detector design. A range of sensors/layouts for the Strip tracker are being considered and must be studied in detailed simulations in order to assess the performance and ascertain that requirements are met. For...

  7. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to $7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and hadron fluencies over $2\\times10^{16}\\;\\mathrm{n}_{\\mathrm{eq}}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six disks on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector Technical Design R...

  8. The ATLAS tracker strip detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, Kyle James Read; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS upgrades for the High Luminsotiy LHC (HL-LHC) the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will be replaced by a new Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will consist of two main components: semi-conductor pixels at the innermost radii, and silicon strips covering larger radii out as far as the ATLAS solenoid magnet including the volume currently occupied by the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). The primary challenges faced by the ITk are the higher planned read out rate of ATLAS, the high density of charged particles in HL-LHC conditions for which tracks need to be resolved, and the corresponding high radiation doses that the detector and electronics will receive. The ITk strips community is currently working on designing and testing all aspects of the sensors, readout, mechanics, cooling and integration to meet these goals and a Technical Design Report is being prepared. This talk is an overview of the strip detector component of the ITk, highlighting the current status and the road ahead.

  9. The ATLAS tracker strip detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00512833; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS upgrades for the High Luminsotiy LHC (HL-LHC) the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will be replaced by a new Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will consist of two main components: semi-conductor pixels at the innermost radii, and silicon strips covering larger radii out as far as the ATLAS solenoid magnet including the volume currently occupied by the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). The primary challenges faced by the ITk are the higher planned read out rate of ATLAS, the high density of charged particles in HL-LHC conditions for which tracks need to be resolved, and the corresponding high radiation doses that the detector and electronics will receive. The ITk strips community is currently working on designing and testing all aspects of the sensors, readout, mechanics, cooling and integration to meet these goals and a Technical Design Report is being prepared. This talk is an overview of the strip detector component of the ITk, highlighting the current status and the road ahead.

  10. Fabrication of double-sided thallium bromide strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitomi, Keitaro, E-mail: keitaro.hitomi@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Nagano, Nobumichi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Onodera, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Intelligent Systems, Tohoku Institute of Technology, Sendai 982-8577 (Japan); Kim, Seong-Yun; Ito, Tatsuya; Ishii, Keizo [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided strip detectors were fabricated from thallium bromide (TlBr) crystals grown by the traveling-molten zone method using zone-purified materials. The detectors had three 3.4-mm-long strips with 1-mm widths and a surrounding electrode placed orthogonally on opposite surfaces of the crystals at approximately 6.5×6.5 mm{sup 2} in area and 5 mm in thickness. Excellent charge transport properties for both electrons and holes were observed from the TlBr crystals. The mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in the detector were measured to be ~3×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V and ~1×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V, respectively. The {sup 137}Cs spectra corresponding to the gamma-ray interaction position were obtained from the detector. An energy resolution of 3.4% of full width at half maximum for 662-keV gamma rays was obtained from one “pixel” (an intersection of the strips) of the detector at room temperature.

  11. Ram Pressure Stripping Made Easy: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, J.; Jáchym, P.; Taylor, R.; Palouš, J.

    2018-06-01

    The removal of gas by ram pressure stripping of galaxies is treated by a purely kinematic description. The solution has two asymptotic limits: if the duration of the ram pressure pulse exceeds the period of vertical oscillations perpendicular to the galactic plane, the commonly used quasi-static criterion of Gunn & Gott is obtained which uses the maximum ram pressure that the galaxy has experienced along its orbit. For shorter pulses the outcome depends on the time-integrated ram pressure. This parameter pair fully describes the gas mass fraction that is stripped from a given galaxy. This approach closely reproduces results from SPH simulations. We show that typical galaxies follow a very tight relation in this parameter space corresponding to a pressure pulse length of about 300 Myr. Thus, the Gunn & Gott criterion provides a good description for galaxies in larger clusters. Applying the analytic description to a sample of 232 Virgo galaxies from the GoldMine database, we show that the ICM provides indeed the ram pressures needed to explain the deficiencies. We also can distinguish current and past strippers, including objects whose stripping state was unknown.

  12. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  13. Science comic-strips on display at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Alix Marcastel

    2011-01-01

    To mark the publication of his new comic-strip "Les Vies de Marie Curie", the Genevan artist Fiami will be placing some of his previous creations on the theme "women and science" on display at CERN. The new comic-strip pays tribute to the illustrious Nobel prize-winner by taking a light-hearted look at the history of chemistry and how the role of women scientists in society has evolved through the ages.   It's no easy task,  presenting the history of science to the general public in a light-hearted way. As part of the various events organised in the Fête de la Science and the Europeans Researchers Night, CERN will be hosting an exhibition entirely devoted to the comic-strips created by Fiami. The artist describes his comics as "a relaxed way of looking at serious and apparently highly complex subjects."  Fiami's very latest creation, Les Vies de Marie Curie, published in June 2011, celebrates th...

  14. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, Harpal; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G.

    2010-01-01

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL -1 with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  15. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Seema, E-mail: seemanara@mnnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Mechanics (Biotechnology), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tripathi, Vinay [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal [Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shrivastav, Tulsidas G. [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2010-12-03

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL{sup -1} with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  16. MHD simulations of ram pressure stripping of a disc galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Martínez, Mariana; Gómez, Gilberto C.; Pérez-Villegas, Ángeles

    2018-05-01

    The removal of the interstellar medium (ISM) of disc galaxies through ram pressure stripping (RPS) has been extensively studied in numerous simulations. Nevertheless, the role of magnetic fields (MFs) on the gas dynamics in this process has been hardly studied, although the MF influence on the large-scale disc structure is well established. With this in mind, we present a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of face-on RPS of a disc galaxy to study the impact of the galactic MF in the gas stripping. The main effect of including a galactic MF is a flared disc. When the intracluster medium wind hits this flared disc, oblique shocks are produced at the interaction interface, where the ISM is compressed, generating a gas inflow from large radii towards the central regions of the galaxy. This inflow is observed for {˜ } 150 {Myr} and may supply the central parts of the galaxy with material for star formation while the outskirts of the disc are being stripped of gas, thus the oblique shocks can induce and enhance the star formation in the remaining disc. We also observed that the MF alters the shape and structure of the swept gas, giving a smooth appearance in the magnetized case and clumpier and filamentary-like morphology in the hydro case. Finally, we estimated the truncation radius expected for our models using the Gunn-Gott criterion and found that that is in agreement with the simulations.

  17. Sexy ladies sexing ladies: women as consumers in strip clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosick-Correa, Kassia R; Joseph, Lauren J

    2008-01-01

    Recent shifts in the consumer base of the sex industry have involved greater female attendance in strip clubs. This article examines how strip clubs and dancers incorporate female patrons into a sexualized space traditionally designed for men by identifying three interactional processes: passing over, sidestaging, and tailoring. We suggest dancers pass over women because they perceive female patron behavior to include resistance to "buying the game" and spending patterns that diverge from male customers. Drawing on Goffman's dramaturgical analysis, we suggest the dynamic relationship between dancer and female patron involves what we term sidestaging, which refers to both dancers' disclosure and how the club's spatial organization inhibits the construction of women as customers through sharing gendered spaces, such as the bathroom. We argue that when a dancer tailors her lap dance for a female patron, she succeeds in acknowledging the female customer's sexual subjectivity and potential same-sex desires by providing an individualized avenue for exploring an erotic experience. Finally, we discuss data implications for understanding how same-sex desire and sexual identity operate in an environment that eroticizes the female form, and how the strip club becomes a potential space for engaging in same-sex eroticism that includes elements of play.

  18. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  19. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  20. Modification of pure oxygen absorption equipment for concurrent stripping of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watten, B.J.; Sibrell, P.L.; Montgomery, G.A.; Tsukuda, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The high solubility of carbon dioxide precludes significant desorption within commercial oxygen absorption equipment. This operating characteristic of the equipment limits its application in recirculating water culture systems despite its ability to significantly increase allowable fish loading rates (kg/(L min)). Carbon dioxide (DC) is typically removed by air stripping. This process requires a significant energy input for forced air movement, air heating in cold climates and water pumping. We developed a modification for a spray tower that provides for carbon dioxide desorption as well as oxygen absorption. Elimination of the air-stripping step reduces pumping costs while allowing dissolved nitrogen to drop below saturation concentrations. This latter response provides for an improvement in oxygen absorption efficiency within the spray tower. DC desorption is achieved by directing head-space gases from the spray tower (O2, N2, CO2) through a sealed packed tower scrubber receiving a 2 N NaOH solution. Carbon dioxide is selectively removed from the gas stream, by chemical reaction, forming the product Na 2CO3. Scrubber off-gas, lean with regard to carbon dioxide but still rich with oxygen, is redirected through the spray tower for further stripping of DC and absorption of oxygen. Make-up NaOH is metered into the scrubbing solution sump on an as needed basis as directed by a feedback control loop programmed to maintain a scrubbing solution pH of 11.4-11.8. The spent NaOH solution is collected, then regenerated for reuse, in a batch process that requires relatively inexpensive hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2). A by-product of the regeneration step is an alkaline filter cake, which may have use in bio-solids stabilization. Given the enhanced gas transfer rates possible with chemical reaction, the required NaOH solution flow rate through the scrubber represents a fraction of the spray tower water flow rate. Further, isolation of the water being treated from the atmosphere (1

  1. Determination of altitude-dependence of standard spectra and stripping ratios for the GR820 Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heincke, Bjoern H.; Watson, Robin J.; Moeller, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    NGUs Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer system is used both for geological mapping, and for monitoring radioactive materials in the event of nuclear emergencies. Traditional methods of processing spectrometer data use channel windows around the radionuclides of interest; more advanced methods make use of the full spectra information. Such advanced methods require prior knowledge of the dependence of standard spectra with height. Height-dependent measurements have been made using concrete calibration pads, and polythene sheets to simulate the effects of altitude. The height-dependent standard spectra were determined using singular value decomposition and a global inversion scheme. Using the first two eigenimages, together with suitable scaling factors, we were able to recreate the measured height-dependent standard spectra. The height dependence of standard Th, U and K stripping ratios were also calculated from these standard spectra.(Au)

  2. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    , Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project...

  3. [PICS: pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morénas, J

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical inspection cooperation scheme (PICS) is a structure containing 34 participating authorities located worldwide (October 2008). It has been created in 1995 on the basis of the pharmaceutical inspection convention (PIC) settled by the European free trade association (EFTA) in1970. This scheme has different goals as to be an international recognised body in the field of good manufacturing practices (GMP), for training inspectors (by the way of an annual seminar and experts circles related notably to active pharmaceutical ingredients [API], quality risk management, computerized systems, useful for the writing of inspection's aide-memoires). PICS is also leading to high standards for GMP inspectorates (through regular crossed audits) and being a room for exchanges on technical matters between inspectors but also between inspectors and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  5. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators......At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular...

  6. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  7. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  8. Haalbaarheidsstudie terugwinning van mestnutriënten : Fase 1: Processchema en nutriëntenstromen = Feasibility study on nutrient recovery from animal manure : Phase 1: Process scheme and nutrient flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Melse, R.W.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for a new manure treatment system for pig and cattle manure was formulated which aims to produce manure nutrient flows with added value. The basic process behind the treatment system is fermentation of manure, which is preceded by both stripping ammonia and chemical digestion of the

  9. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  10. New schemes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors propose new schemes for realizing the v/sub p/xB accelerator, by using no plasma system for producing the strong longitudinal waves. The first method is to use a grating for obtaining extended interaction of an electron beam moving along the grating surface with light beam incident also along the surface. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely to the grating grooves for producing strong electric field, and the electron beam propagates in parallel to the light beam. The static magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the grating surface. In the present system, the beam interacts synchronously with the p-polarized wave which has the electric field be parallel to the grating surface. Another conventional scheme is to use a delay circuit. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely between a pair of array of conductor fins or slots. The phase velocity of the spatial harmonics in the y-direction (right angle to the array of slots) is slower than the speed of light. With the aid of powerful laser light or microwave source, it should be possible to miniaturise linacs by using the v/sub p/xB effect and schemes proposed here

  11. Development of a Single Locus Sequence Typing (SLST) Scheme for Typing Bacterial Species Directly from Complex Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Christian F P; Jensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The protocol describes a computational method to develop a Single Locus Sequence Typing (SLST) scheme for typing bacterial species. The resulting scheme can be used to type bacterial isolates as well as bacterial species directly from complex communities using next-generation sequencing technologies.

  12. A Memory Efficient Network Encryption Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fotouh, Mohamed Abo; Diepold, Klaus

    In this paper, we studied the two widely used encryption schemes in network applications. Shortcomings have been found in both schemes, as these schemes consume either more memory to gain high throughput or low memory with low throughput. The need has aroused for a scheme that has low memory requirements and in the same time possesses high speed, as the number of the internet users increases each day. We used the SSM model [1], to construct an encryption scheme based on the AES. The proposed scheme possesses high throughput together with low memory requirements.

  13. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui-Ran; Luo Ming-Xing; Peng Dai-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks . (paper)

  14. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T

    2014-09-01

    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  15. A Single Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) Scheme for Seven Pathogenic Leptospira Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornchai, Premjit; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Bailey, Mark S.; Holden, Matthew T. G.; Zhang, Cuicai; Jiang, Xiugao; Koizumi, Nobuo; Taylor, Kyle; Galloway, Renee; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Craig, Scott; Smythe, Lee D.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Day, Nicholas P.; Chantratita, Narisara; Feil, Edward J.; Aanensen, David M.; Spratt, Brian G.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The available Leptospira multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme supported by a MLST website is limited to L. interrogans and L. kirschneri. Our aim was to broaden the utility of this scheme to incorporate a total of seven pathogenic species. Methodology and Findings We modified the existing scheme by replacing one of the seven MLST loci (fadD was changed to caiB), as the former gene did not appear to be present in some pathogenic species. Comparison of the original and modified schemes using data for L. interrogans and L. kirschneri demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the two schemes was not significantly different. The modified scheme was used to further characterize 325 isolates (L. alexanderi [n = 5], L. borgpetersenii [n = 34], L. interrogans [n = 222], L. kirschneri [n = 29], L. noguchii [n = 9], L. santarosai [n = 10], and L. weilii [n = 16]). Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated sequences of the 7 loci demonstrated that each species corresponded to a discrete clade, and that no strains were misclassified at the species level. Comparison between genotype and serovar was possible for 254 isolates. Of the 31 sequence types (STs) represented by at least two isolates, 18 STs included isolates assigned to two or three different serovars. Conversely, 14 serovars were identified that contained between 2 to 10 different STs. New observations were made on the global phylogeography of Leptospira spp., and the utility of MLST in making associations between human disease and specific maintenance hosts was demonstrated. Conclusion The new MLST scheme, supported by an updated MLST website, allows the characterization and species assignment of isolates of the seven major pathogenic species associated with leptospirosis. PMID:23359622

  16. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  17. Renormalization scheme-invariant perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, A.

    1983-01-01

    A complete solution to the problem of the renormalization scheme dependence of perturbative approximants to physical quantities is presented. An equation is derived which determines any physical quantity implicitly as a function of only scheme independent variables. (orig.)

  18. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  19. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  20. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  1. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  2. Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.

  3. Corrosion and Mechanical Properties of HANA-6 Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Kim, Jun Hwan; Park, Sang Yoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Yoon Ho; Chung, Jin Gon

    2007-01-01

    The Zircaloy-4, one of zirconium alloys, has been used as a nuclear fuel and structural material because it has a satisfactory mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. As in many plants it was attempted to increase their discharge burn-up and power level, the development of new zirconium alloys for a high burn-up fuel material has been required. In response to these needs, in 1997 KAERI started the development of some Zr-based new alloys, called HANA alloys, for high burn-up fuel cladding material and has tested the out-of-pile and in-pile performance of these HANA claddings after manufacturing the claddings with HANA alloys. The sample specimens of the HANA cladding tubes showed a good performance for both corrosion resistance and creep properties at an irradiation test up to 12GWD/MtU in Halden test reactor as well as at various out of- pile tests. It is also scheduled to start the verification test of the in-pile performance of the HANA claddings in a commercial reactor by the end of 2007. KAERI and KNFC are also trying to extend the applicability of these alloys to the spacer grid for PWR nuclear fuel. As one of these attempts, KAERI has tested the properties of HANA-6 strips of 241.3 mm in width, and both 0.457 and 0.667 mm in thickness manufactured with a larger scale in width than a laboratory scale. The same test is scheduled to carry out for HANA-4 strips with a time lag. This paper summarized the results of the corrosion test, tensile test and bending test for the HANA- 6 strips up to now

  4. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...

  5. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ABSTRACT. Various Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) schemes have been used to combat errors that befall in- formation transmitted in digital communication systems. Such schemes include simple ARQ, mixed mode ARQ and Hybrid ARQ (HARQ). In this study we introduce extended ARQ schemes and derive.

  6. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  7. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  8. Numerical analysis of edge effects in side illuminated strip detectors for digital radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Krizaj, D

    2000-01-01

    The influence of edge defects on side illuminated X-ray strip detectors for digital radiology is investigated by numerical device modeling. By assuming positive fixed oxide charges on side and top surfaces simulations have shown strong curvature of the equipotential lines in the edge region. A fraction of the edge generated current surpasses the edge guard-ring junction and is collected by the readout strips. As a consequence, strips cannot be placed close to the edge of the structure and collection efficiency is reduced. An n-on-n instead of a p-on-n strip detector is proposed enabling collection of edge generated carriers by a very narrow guard-ring junction and placement of the readout strip close to the edge without increase of the strip leakage current.

  9. Humor in elementary science: Development and evaluation of comic strips about sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Özdemir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Comic strips on newspapers, magazines and Internet are one of the most accessible materials that may be used in science classroom as instructional tool. However, it is sometimes difficult to find and adapt appropriate comic strips useful for instructional purposes, because most of them are irrelevant. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate instructional comic strips aiming to contribute learning about sound related concepts. In this study, a series of instructional comic strips were created and implemented to a group of seventh grade students. Students’ responses to a number of open-ended questions were evaluated through qualitative content analysis. According to results, most of the students believed that comic strips help learning through simplifying science concepts and making retention of them easier. In addition, comic strips seemed to contribute students’ enjoyment toward science and perception of success in science.

  10. Silicon strip detector system for Fermilab E706

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E Jr; Mani, S; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Wilkins, R [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Hossain, S [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    Fermilab Experiment E706 is an experiment to study direct photon production in hadron-hadron collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron II. A part of the charged particle spectrometer is a silicon strip detector system used to determine the position of interaction vertices in the production target and to provide angular formation about the secondary hadrons produced in a collision. We present some design criteria, as well as the results of tests of a wafer similar to those to be used in the experiment.

  11. Acceleration region influence on beam parameters on stripping foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, E.V.; Tomic, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some formulas describing the beam parameters on the stripping foil (SF) as a function of the radial amplitude of betatron oscillations and energy gain are derived. The results computed by these formulas are in good agreement with the results of the numerical calculations. Obtained results show that between the radial emittance and the energy spread exists parametric dependence via amplitude of radial betatron oscillations. This conclusion allows one to create a working diagram of expected beam parameters on SF. This diagram may be particularly useful for the extraction system designers since it gives relationship between parameters considered as the extraction system input parameters. (author)

  12. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented

  13. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1997-12-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron

  14. Furfural production by 'acidic steam stripping' of lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Lange, Jean-Paul; Espinosa Alonso, Leticia; Spiering, Wouter; Polmans, Rob F; Haan, Rene J

    2013-11-01

    Furfural and acetic acid are produced with approximately 60 and 90 mol % yield, respectively, upon stripping bagasse with a gaseous stream of HCl/steam and condensing the effluent to water/furfural/acetic acid. The reaction kinetics is 1(st)  order in furfural and 0.5(th)  order in HCl. A process concept with full recycling of the reaction effluents is proposed to reduce the energy demand to furfural-rich phase. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; 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D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; 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Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  16. Magnetoresistance of films and strips with the diffuse surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, A.G.

    1993-08-01

    Magnetoresistance of films in a parallel magnetic field and strips in a perpendicular field is considered. The temperature and magnetic field dependencies of magnetoconductance depend on the time evolution of the correlator of phases. This correlator has different behavior as the function of time: the ergodic behavior at small magnetic fields is changed on the nonergodic one at large magnetic fields in spite of the diffusion electron motion due to a diffuse scattering on boundaries. This leads to unusual temperature and magnetic field dependencies of magnetoresistance. The ergodic hypothesis is not applicable to mesoscopical fluctuations at such a large quasiclassical field. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  17. Web-Based Cathode Strip Chamber Data Display

    CERN Multimedia

    Firmansyah, M

    2013-01-01

    Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is a detector that uses gas and high electric field to detect particles. When a particle goes through CSC, it will ionize gas particles and generate electric signal in the anode and cathode of the detector. Analysis of the electric signal data can help physicists to reconstruct path of the particles and determine what happen inside the detector. Using data display, analysis of CSC data becomes easier. One can determine which data is interesting, unusual, or maybe only contain noise.\

  18. Performance of a Folded-Strip Toroidally Wound Induction Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Jack, Alan G.; Atkinson, Glynn J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the measured experimental results from a four-pole toroidally wound induction machine, where the stator is constructed as a pre-wound foldable strip. It shows that if the machine is axially restricted in length, the toroidally wound induction machine can have substantially...... shorter stator end-windings than conventionally wound induction machines, and hence that a toroidally wound induction machine can have lower losses and a higher efficiency. The paper also presents the employed construction method, which emphasizes manufacturability, and highlights the advantages...

  19. Soybean growth on fly ash-amended strip mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fail, Jr, J L; Wochok, Z S

    1977-01-01

    The use of fly ash as an amendment for strip mine soils has been studied under field conditions. Soils ranging in pH from 4.0 to 6.0 were tested. The addition of fly ash in all cases was effective as an acid soil neutralizer and substantially enhanced the growth and development of all experimental plants. The parameters used in growth analyses were plant height, dry weight, root/shoot ratios, nodulation, pod production, and nitrogen fixing capacity for legumes.

  20. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  1. Compressible Strips, Chiral Luttinger Liquids, and All That Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. H.

    1996-03-01

    When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic {\\em compressible strip} models for microscopic {chiral Luttinger liquid} models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems.

  2. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 μm) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1.1%

  3. Initial Beam Test of the Prototype Strip Line BPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Ryu, Jin Yeong; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) was developed which would be used for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) beam line. It is a strip line BPM which is commonly used one for the proton beam. The BPM cross section was designed with the SUPERFISH code and the matching section to the feed through was designed by the MWS code. The design parameters of the BPM are shown in Table 1. The designed BPM was fabricated to verify the manufacturing process and check its electrical performance. After the low power test at the test stand, the BPM was installed at the 20-MeV proton accelerator beam line as shown in Fig. 1

  4. Liquidity, Reconstitution, and the Value of U.S. Treasury Strips.

    OpenAIRE

    Daves, Phillip R; Ehrhardt, Michael C

    1993-01-01

    An apparent pricing anomaly exists in the market for U.S. Treasury strips: zero-coupon strips created from principal payments typically trade at significantly higher prices than otherwi se identical zero-coupon strips created from coupon payments. In additi on to documenting this phenomenon, this study demonstrates that differences in liquidity and differences in reconstitution characteristics explain much of this price variation. Copyright 1993 by American Finance Association.

  5. First results from a silicon-strip detector with VLSI readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Hyams, B.; Parker, S.; Breakstone, A.; Litke, A.M.; Walker, J.T.; Bingefors, N.

    1986-01-01

    A 256-strip silicon detector with 25 μm strip pitch, connected to two 128-channel NMOS VLSI chips (Microplex), has been tested using straight-through tracks from a ruthenium beta source. The readout channels have a pitch of 47.5 μm. A single multiplexed output provides voltages proportional to the integrated charge from each strip. The most probable signal height from the beta traversals is approximately 14 times the rms noise in any single channel. (orig.)

  6. Mobile Image Ratiometry: A New Method for Instantaneous Analysis of Rapid Test Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Cooper; Bryan Callahan; Phil Callahan; Lee Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe Mobile Image Ratiometry (MIR), a new method for the automated quantification of standardized rapid immunoassay strips using consumer-based mobile smartphone and tablet cameras. To demonstrate MIR we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE). We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three d...

  7. Coordinate determination of high energy charged particles by silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinate determination accuracy of minimum ionizing and short-range particles by silicon strip detectors has been considered. The charge collection on neighboring strips of the detector is studied and the influence of diffusion and the electric field distribution on the accuracy of the coordinate determination is analyzed. It has been shown that coordinates of both minimum ionizing and short-range particles can be determined with accuracy to a few microns using silicon strip detectors. 11 refs.; 8 figs

  8. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  9. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  10. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Makarov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal in the run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. The mathematical model takes into account heat generation due to the polymorphic γ → α transformation of supercooled austenite phase state and the influence of the chemical composition of the steel on the physical properties of the metal. The model allows calculation of modes of accelerated cooling strips on run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20°C for 98.5 % of strips of low-carbon and low-alloy steels

  11. Nuclear fuel element containing strips of an alloyed Zr, Ti, and Ni getter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Packard, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of strips and preferably the strips are positioned inside a helical member in the plenum. The position of the alloy strips permits gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact and react with the alloy strips. (U.S.)

  12. Transfer printing of graphene strip from the graphene grown on copper wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ching-Yuan; Fu Dongliang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Liu, Keng-Ku; Xu Yanping; Juang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Lain-Jong

    2011-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective and lithography-free fabrication of graphene strips for device applications is demonstrated. The graphene thin layers were directly grown on Cu wires, followed by Cu etching and transfer printing to arbitrary substrates by a PDMS stamp. The Cu wires can be arranged on the PDMS stamp in a desired pattern; hence, the substrates can receive graphene strips with the same pattern. Moreover, the preparation of graphene strips does not involve conventional lithography; therefore, the surface of the graphene strip is free of residual photoresists, which may be useful for studies requiring clean graphene surfaces.

  13. Effects of hydrostatic strain on eigenstates of Möbius strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the allowed energies and associate wave-functions for Möbius strips with varying thicknesses. We show that the induced strain in fabricating these Möbius strips will have an pronounced impact on the energies and wave-functions for thick strips, while f...... for thin strips the impact of strain is negligible. We furthermore, show that a simpler strain free approximate theory base on differential geometry is in excellent agreement with detailed finite element calculations. © 2011 IEEE....

  14. Single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of a Bevalac experiment to measure the single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic (0.5 1 , and fully stripped, N 0 , ion beams emerging from the targets. Separate counters measured the number of ions in each charge state. The ratios N 1 /N 0 for different target thicknesses were fit to a simple growth curve to yield electron attachment and stripping cross sections. The data are compared to relativistic extrapolations of available theories. Clear evidence for two separate attachment processes, radiative and non-radiative, is found. Data are compared to a recently improved formulation for the stripping cross sections

  15. Quantum Secure Communication Scheme with W State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojng

    2007-01-01

    We present a quantum secure communication scheme using three-qubit W state. It is unnecessary for the present scheme to use alternative measurement or Bell basis measurement. Compared with the quantum secure direct communication scheme proposed by Cao et al. [H.J. Cao and H.S. Song, Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 290], in our scheme, the detection probability for an eavesdropper's attack increases from 8.3% to 25%. We also show that our scheme is secure for a noise quantum channel.

  16. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  17. Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudratullah; Muhammad, G; Saqib, M; Bilal, M Qamar

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD 50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API ® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jianmin; Cong Peng; Li Litao

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge. This gauge uses two-detector construction including penetrating ionization chamber and measuring ionization chamber. Standard magazine box is composed of three rotating plates driving by stepper motor, including 13 pieces of standard sample to build up 154 thickness value, obtaining standard sample curve covering thickness range of 0.1 mm to 5 mm. Automation system include Siemens S7-200 PLC as key controlling unit, embedded controlling system for data acquisition and computing, and PC as man-machine interface, and employ Ethernet (TCP/IP) or RS485/232 as communication protocol. Reversing Cold mill AGC closed-loop control operation test demonstrates that the gauge can adapt to the severe production environment, operate stably and reliably, measurement precision can reached to ±0.19%, reproducibility to ±0.09%, and stability to ±0.06%, response time range from 4 ms to 200 ms and be adjustable. So it can meet the high demanding of cold-rolled plate/strip production. (authors)

  19. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of uranium with cephradine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.M.; Ghandour, M.A.; Khodari, M.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium adsorbed with cephradine is reduced on a hanging mercury drop electrode. This property was exploited in developing a highly sensitive stripping voltammetric procedure for the determination of uranium. A detection limit 2 x 10 -9 mol I -1 (0.5 μg I -1 ) of uranium ion is obtained with an 180 s accumulation time. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the interfacial and redox behaviour. The effects of various parameters are discussed. Experimental conditions include the use of 5 x 10 -6 mol I -1 cephradine in 0.05 mol I -1 sodium perchlorate (pH ''approx ='' 6.5), an accumulation potential of 0.0 V versus SCE and a direct current stripping technique. The response is linear up to 5 x 10 -6 mol I -1 uranium and the relative standard deviation at 1 x 10 -7 mol I -1 ) UO 2+ is 4.4%. The effect of other metal ions was investigated. (author)

  20. Gold recovery from organic solvents using galvanic stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; O`Keefe, T.J. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-08-01

    A novel process using solid metals for the direct reduction of more noble metal ions from solvent extraction organics has been developed. Base metals recovery has been the principal focus of investigations to date but feasibility tests have now also been made on galvanically stripping selected precious metals. In this study gold (III) was loaded from an aqueous HAuCl{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O solution into a mixed organic 40 vol.% TBP, 10 vol.% D2EHPA in kerosene. The direct precipitation of metallic gold from the loaded organic phase using zinc powder and iron, aluminum and copper slabs at 70 C was successfully demonstrated. The gold reduction rates were relatively fast even though the conductivity of the organic solutions is very low. The reaction rates were studied as a function of the variables zinc particulate size, oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere, water content in the organic phase, organic ratios and temperature. The gold morphology was usually powdery or dendritic in nature but continuous films were obtained in some instances. Activation energies were calculated and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. In general, the results obtained were very promising and showed that gold can be successfully cemented from selected organic solvents by galvanic stripping using less noble solid metal reductants.

  1. Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey: Declination Strip 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, James; Harrison, Matthew F.; Finn, Rose, Dr.; APPSS Team, Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2018-01-01

    The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS) is an observing project by the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, aimed at determining the mass of the Pisces Perseus Supercluster through measurement of peculiar velocities from HI line detections. The survey targeted approximately 600 galaxies selected based on SDSS and GALEX photometry as likely to contain HI. We reduced Arecibo L-Band Wide observations for 90 galaxies near declination 25 degrees, 40 of which showed HI emission. 58% of those 40 galaxies were below 10,000 km/s recession velocity and thus will provide useful information to draw conclusions from. We determined the recession velocity, velocity width, and HI line flux for each detection. We discuss our results for APPSS galaxies and for ALFALFA detections near this declination strip. By combining results from all strips, APPSS will determine which galaxies are associated with the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster, and their peculiar velocities will be measured via the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  2. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. The left part of figure 1 shows the simulated layout for the ATLAS tracker upgrade to be installed in the volume taken up by the current ATLAS pixel, strip and transition radiation detectors. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The...

  3. Direct strip casting of steel - historical perspective and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, P.A.; Hunter, A.; Ferry, M.

    2000-01-01

    The commercialisation of direct strip casting (DSC) of steel represents the realisation of a dream cherished by engineers for over one hundred and fifty years. The story of the global competition for DSC of steel, that has ingredients of romanticism of chasing of a dream, adventure and intrigue, is being played out across continents over dozens of decades with an interplay of setbacks and successes. At this stage, DSC is set to make a profound impact on the steelmaking landscape. This paper reviews the important milestones in this compelling story, presents the current status and then gazes into the crystal ball in an attempt to predict which turn the story may take in the near future. The constraints and critical challenges for the successful commercialisation of DSC are highlighted. Recent results are discussed relating the production process to quality control and properties of unalloyed, low carbon strip-cast steels. future metallurgical challenges include a better understanding of solidification mechanism during high-speed casting and secondary processing variables affecting the final microstructure of austenitic grains

  4. Stripping voltammetric behavior of technetium at various chemically modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R.

    1990-09-01

    In monitoring of nuclear processing plants and storage facilities the necessity arises of assaying traces of the artificial radioactive element technetium. The oxidation states IV and VII are of particular interest. Stripping voltammetry is among the methods of assay which are suited for this purpose. It allows an enhanced selectivity to be achieved by preconcentration of the analyte and of an oxidation state of the analyte, respectively, at the electrode used. This specific enrichment is successful after appropriate chemical modification of the electrode through immobilization of a Tc-specific reagent. When various approaches of chemical modification of a glassy carbon electrode were examined, the tetraphenylarsonium chloride extractant, which is highly selective with respect to technetium, proved to be the best suited reagent, capable of fixation both by ionic and by covalent bonding on an electrodeposited polymer film. For ionic immobilization the reagent was reacted to m-sulfophenyltriphenyl arsonium and then bound to a copolymer of vinylferrocene and vinylpyridine, which had been provided with cations. It was possible to enrich Tc(VII) at such an electrode and to determine it by stripping voltammetry down to a concentration of 1x10 -8 M after 5 minutes enrichment time. (orig./EF) [de

  5. Petalet prototype for the ATLAS silicon strip detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperlich, Dennis [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Bloch, Ingo; Keller, John Stakely; Lohwasser, Kristin; Poley, Louise; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Diez Cornell, Sergio [DESY (Germany); Hauser, Marc Manuel; Mori, Riccardo; Kuehl, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich [Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve more precise measurements and to search new physics phenomena, the luminosity at the LHC is expected to be increased during a series of upgrades in the next years. The latest scheduled upgrade, called the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is proposed to provide instantaneous luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}. The increased luminosity and the radiation damage will affect the current Inner Tracker. In order to cope with the higher radiation dose and occupancy, the ATLAS experiment plans to replace the current Inner Detector with a new all-silicon tracker consisting of ∝8 m{sup 2} pixel and ∝192 m{sup 2} strip detectors. In response to the needs, highly modular structures will be used for the strip system, called Staves for the barrel region and Petals for the end-caps region. A small-scaled prototype for the Petal, the Petalet, is built to study some specialties of this complex wedge-shaped structures. The Petalet consists of one large and two small sized sensors. This report focuses on the recent progress in the prototyping of the Petalet and their electrical performances.

  6. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  7. Magnetic properties of strip-like Josephson-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.-X; Moreno, J.J.; Hernando, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2000-01-01

    Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetic properties of strip-like Josephson-junction (JJ) arrays with very strong demagnetizing effects are calculated from basic laws. Similar to slab-like JJ arrays without considering demagnetizing effects, a vortex state evolves to a critical state (CS) with increasing maximum JJ currents in the ZFC case, and a vortex state always remains with a negative low-field susceptibility in the FC case. However, the strong demagnetizing effects cause qualitative changes in the CS, where the overall feature of the field and current profiles turns out to be similar to that in type-II superconducting strips, but not like the ordinary Bean CS in slab-like JJ arrays, the CS current profile is never flat and the critical current is no longer a step function of the maximum JJ current as in slab-like JJ arrays. The calculated results of different types of JJ arrays indicate that although the intergranular CS in granular superconductors may have a common origin, the discovered paramagnetic Meissner effect in them is still difficult to explain. (author)

  8. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  9. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  10. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  11. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  12. Yellow light for green scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2004-01-01

    The article asserts that there could be an investment boom for wind, hydro and bio power in a common Norwegian-Swedish market scheme for green certificates. The Swedish authorities are ready, and the Norwegian government is preparing a report to the Norwegian Parliament. What are the ambitions of Norway, and will hydro power be included? A green certificate market common to more countries have never before been established and requires the solution of many challenging problems. In Sweden, certificate support is expected to promote primarily bioenergy, wind power and small-scale hydro power. In Norway there is an evident potential for wind power, and more hydro power can be developed if desired

  13. Pomeranchuk conjecture and symmetry schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, A.; Morales, A.; Ruegg, H. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1963-01-15

    Pomeranchuk has conjectured that the cross-sections for charge-exchange processes vanish asymptotically as the energy tends to infinity. (By ''charge'' it is meant any internal quantum number, like electric charge, hypercharge, .. . ). It has been stated by several people that this conjecture implies equalities among the total cross-sections whenever any symmetry scheme is invoked for the strong interactions. But to our knowledge no explicit general proof of this statement has been given so far. We want to give this proof for any compact Lie group. We also prove, under certain assumptions, that the equality of the total cross-sections implies that s{sup -l} times the charge-exchange forward scattering absorptive amplitudes tend to zero as s -> ∞.

  14. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  15. Neonicotinoid-contaminated pollinator strips adjacent to cropland reduce honey bee nutritional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L.; Lundgren, Jonathan G.

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide pollinator declines are attributed to a number of factors, including pesticide exposures. Neonicotinoid insecticides specifically have been detected in surface waters, non-target vegetation, and bee products, but the risks posed by environmental exposures are still not well understood. Pollinator strips were tested for clothianidin contamination in plant tissues, and the risks to honey bees assessed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantified clothianidin in leaf, nectar, honey, and bee bread at organic and seed-treated farms. Total glycogen, lipids, and protein from honey bee workers were quantified. The proportion of plants testing positive for clothianidin were the same between treatments. Leaf tissue and honey had similar concentrations of clothianidin between organic and seed-treated farms. Honey (mean±SE: 6.61 ± 0.88 ppb clothianidin per hive) had seven times greater concentrations than nectar collected by bees (0.94 ± 0.09 ppb). Bee bread collected from organic sites (25.8 ± 3.0 ppb) had significantly less clothianidin than those at seed treated locations (41.6 ± 2.9 ppb). Increasing concentrations of clothianidin in bee bread were correlated with decreased glycogen, lipid, and protein in workers. This study shows that small, isolated areas set aside for conservation do not provide spatial or temporal relief from neonicotinoid exposures in agricultural regions where their use is largely prophylactic.

  16. Anodic stripping voltammetry of gold nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes and its application in immunochromatographic strip tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Wicaksono, Wiyogo P; Saepudin, Endang; Rismetov, Bakhadir; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-03-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of colloidal gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in 50 mM HClO4. A deposition time of 300 s at-0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was fixed as the condition for the ASV. The voltammograms showed oxidation peaks that could be attributed to the oxidation of gold. These oxidation peaks were then investigated for potential application in immunochromatographic strip tests for the selective and quantitative detection of melamine, in which AuNPs were used as the label for the antibody of melamine. Linear regression of the oxidation peak currents appeared in the concentration range from 0.05-0.6 μg/mL melamine standard, with an estimated LOD of 0.069 μg/mL and an average relative standard deviation of 8.0%. This indicated that the method could be considered as an alternative method for selective and quantitative immunochromatographic applications. The validity was examined by the measurements of melamine injected into milk samples, which showed good recovery percentages during the measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  18. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  19. A security-awareness virtual machine management scheme based on Chinese wall policy in cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Si; Gui, Xiaolin; Lin, Jiancai; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Jianqiang; Dai, Min

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing gets increasing attention for its capacity to leverage developers from infrastructure management tasks. However, recent works reveal that side channel attacks can lead to privacy leakage in the cloud. Enhancing isolation between users is an effective solution to eliminate the attack. In this paper, to eliminate side channel attacks, we investigate the isolation enhancement scheme from the aspect of virtual machine (VM) management. The security-awareness VMs management scheme (SVMS), a VMs isolation enhancement scheme to defend against side channel attacks, is proposed. First, we use the aggressive conflict of interest relation (ACIR) and aggressive in ally with relation (AIAR) to describe user constraint relations. Second, based on the Chinese wall policy, we put forward four isolation rules. Third, the VMs placement and migration algorithms are designed to enforce VMs isolation between the conflict users. Finally, based on the normal distribution, we conduct a series of experiments to evaluate SVMS. The experimental results show that SVMS is efficient in guaranteeing isolation between VMs owned by conflict users, while the resource utilization rate decreases but not by much.

  20. Comparison of two biochemical methods for identifying Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Belén; Gómez-Gascón, Lidia; Vela, Ana I; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; Casamayor, Almudena; Tarradas, Carmen; Maldonado, Alfonso

    2013-06-01

    The biochemical pattern of Cowan and Steel (BPCS) was compared with a commercial biochemical strip for the identification of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from small ruminants. On 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 40/78 coryneform isolates from the lymph nodes of sheep and goats with lesions resembling caseous lymphadenitis were identified as C. pseudotuberculosis. The sensitivities of the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip relative to 16S rRNA sequencing were 80% and 85%, and their specificities were 92.1% and 94.7%, respectively; the level of agreement between the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip was high (κ=0.82). Likelihood ratios for positive and negative results were 10.0 and 0.22 for the BPCS, and 16.0 and 0.16 for the commercial biochemical strip, respectively. These results indicate that the BPCS and the commercial biochemical strip are both useful for identifying C. pseudotuberculosis in veterinary microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.