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Sample records for strip casting plant

  1. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  2. Initial solidification phenomena: Factors affecting heat transfer in strip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolli, Paolo

    In the last few years a few companies have announced the final stage of the commercial development of strip casting of steels. In strip casting heat extraction and productivity are limited by the thermal resistance at the interface between processed material and moving mold (rolls for twin-roll strip casters). Among many factors influencing interfacial heat transfer, films of various composition, either formed during casting or deposited before casting on the surface of the rolls, melt superheat and gas atmosphere composition can have a significantly positive or negative effect on the achieved heat transfer rate. From an industrial point view, methods to improve interfacial heat transfer rates must be found, in order to increase productivity. The objective of this research project is to assess if it is feasible to improve heat transfer rates during solidification of steel in direct contact with a copper mold: (1) by the application of thin coatings on the mold surface; (2) by adding a reactive gas species containing sulfur in the gas shrouding where casting is performed. To address the former, solidification experiments were performed with the mold surface either kept uncoated or coated with coatings of different compositions. To address the latter, the experiments were performed in gas shrouding atmospheres with or without sulphydric acid. It was observed that the resulting heat extraction rates were improved by the application of certain coatings and by the addition of H2S to the gas atmosphere. These findings prove that the application of coatings and the use of small amounts of reactive gaseous species containing sulfur may be methods to increase productivity in strip casting. The effect of superheat and the effect of naturally deposited oxides (Mn-oxide) were also evaluated experimentally. A numerical study of the effect of the critical undercooling on the productivity of a twin-roll strip caster showed that the maximum allowable casting speed can be increased

  3. Review of the continuous casting of steel by strip casting technology. Twin roll method system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarrondo, I.

    2008-01-01

    In order to compete in the future steel market and to maintain market share, the steel makers will need to use new efficient technologies capable of supplying steel strip products of high quality at low cost. In this way, the strip casting technology by twin rol method is one of the most important research are in the iron and steel industry today. This review makes a general description of the strip casting technology as well as its different steps, such us; metal delivery and casting, solidification process, hot rolling reduction step, etc. Through mathematical and physical models, the influence on microstructure texture surface quality and mechanical properties of the materials obtained by this method are described as a function of processing parameters, specially the roughness of the rolls. the manufacturing of carbon, stainless and electrical steels involves smaller capital and operating cost, lower gas emissions, and an opportunity to create new grades due to a faster solidification rate that leads to a different solidification structures. In sight of all this it is likely that Strip Casting technology will make a profound impact on the manufacturing landscape of the 21 s t century. (Author) 177 refs

  4. AIS/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Strip Casting: Anticipating New Routes To Steel Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Alan W. Camb; Prof. Anthony Rollett

    2001-08-31

    To determine the potential for strip casting in the steel industry and to develop the fundamental knowledge necessary to allow the role of strip casting in the modern steel industry to be understood. Based upon a study of carbon steel strip castings that were either produced for the program at British Steel or were received from a pre-commercial production machine, the following conclusions were made. Strip casting of carbon steels is technically feasible for sheet material from slightly less than 1 mm thick to 3 mm thick, and, assuming that it is economically viable, it will be first applied in carbon steel markets that do not require stringent surface quality or extensive forming. The potential of strip casting as a casting process to be developed for steel castings is very high as the cast strip has some very novel characteristics. Direct cast carbon strip has better surface quality, shape and profile than any other casting process currently available. The more rapidly solidified structure of direct cast strip tends to be strong with low ductility; however, with adequate thermal treatment, it is possible to develop a variety of properties from the same grade. The process is more amenable at this time to production tonnages per year of the order of 500,000 tons and as such will first find niche type applications. This technology is an additional technology for steel production and will be in addition to, rather than a replacement for, current casting machines.

  5. Direct strip casting of steel - historical perspective and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, P.A.; Hunter, A.; Ferry, M.

    2000-01-01

    The commercialisation of direct strip casting (DSC) of steel represents the realisation of a dream cherished by engineers for over one hundred and fifty years. The story of the global competition for DSC of steel, that has ingredients of romanticism of chasing of a dream, adventure and intrigue, is being played out across continents over dozens of decades with an interplay of setbacks and successes. At this stage, DSC is set to make a profound impact on the steelmaking landscape. This paper reviews the important milestones in this compelling story, presents the current status and then gazes into the crystal ball in an attempt to predict which turn the story may take in the near future. The constraints and critical challenges for the successful commercialisation of DSC are highlighted. Recent results are discussed relating the production process to quality control and properties of unalloyed, low carbon strip-cast steels. future metallurgical challenges include a better understanding of solidification mechanism during high-speed casting and secondary processing variables affecting the final microstructure of austenitic grains

  6. Influence of cooling rate on microstructure of NdFeB strip casting flakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binglin Guo; Bo Li; Dongling Wang; Xiaojun Yu [Central Iron and Steel Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China); Jifan Hu [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, flakes of NdFeB cast alloys were prepared by using the strip casting technique. Microstructure and composition of phases in NdFeB SC flakes were studied by SEM and energy spectra. Especially, the influences of cooling rate on the microstructure of SC flakes were discussed, helping us to master strip casting technology. The results show that the cooling rate plays an important role in obtaining the perfect microstructure of SC flakes, which thickness is supposed not less than 0.32mm in these studies. (orig.)

  7. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Yuqian; Yan, Yi; Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming; Jiang, Zhengyi

    2017-01-01

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing. - Highlights: • 4.5 wt% Si as-cast sheet with excellent workability was produced by strip casting. • Three 4.5 wt% Si thin sheets were effectively fabricated by warm and cold rolling. • The microstructure and macro-texture of the thin sheets were elucidated. • High magnetic inductions and low iron losses were achieved simultaneously.

  8. Fabrication and properties of strip casting 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Guoqing, E-mail: gz854@uowmail.edu.au [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zhang, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhao, Jingwei [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Yuqian [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yan, Yi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Li, Chengang; Cao, Guangming [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Zhengyi [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2017-02-15

    Three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with different thicknesses were efficiently fabricated by twin-roll strip casting, warm rolling and cold rolling followed by final annealing. A comprehensive investigation from the workability of the as-cast strip to the magnetic property of the produces was performed to illustrate the superiority of the new materials. The results show that the as-cast strip, which has a much lower Vickers hardness than that of the 6.5 wt% Si steel, is suitable for rolling processing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies confirm that no ordering phase exists in the as-cast strip. The cold-rolled thin sheets exhibit good surface quality without edge cracks. Furthermore, all the three 4.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets possess relative strong <100>//ND texture and present high magnetic inductions and low iron losses after finial annealing. - Highlights: • 4.5 wt% Si as-cast sheet with excellent workability was produced by strip casting. • Three 4.5 wt% Si thin sheets were effectively fabricated by warm and cold rolling. • The microstructure and macro-texture of the thin sheets were elucidated. • High magnetic inductions and low iron losses were achieved simultaneously.

  9. Effect of Casting Parameters on the Microstructural and Mechanical Behavior of Magnesium AZ31-B Alloy Strips Cast on a Single Belt Casting Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Changizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strips of magnesium alloy AZ31-B were cast on a simulator of a horizontal single belt caster incorporating a moving mold system. Mixtures of CO2 and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gases were used as protective atmosphere during melting and casting. The castability of the AZ31-B strips was investigated for a smooth, low carbon steel substrate, and six copper substrates with various textures and roughnesses. Graphite powder was used to coat the substrates. The correlation between strip thickness and heat flux was investigated. It was found that the heat flux from the forming strip to the copper substrate was higher than that to the steel substrate, while coated substrates registered lower heat fluxes than uncoated substrates. The highest heat flux from the strip was recorded for casting on macrotextured copper substrates with 0.15 mm grooves. As the thickness of the strip decreased, the net heat flux decreased. As the heat flux increased, the grain sizes of the strips were reduced, and the SDAS decreased. The mechanical properties were improved when the heat flux increased. The black layers which formed on the strips’ surfaces were analyzed and identified as nanoscale MgO particles. Nano-Scale particles act as light traps and appeared black.

  10. Adaptive neural network controller for the molten steel level control of strip casting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung Yi; Huang, Shiuh Jer

    2010-01-01

    The twin-roll strip casting process is a steel-strip production method which combines continuous casting and hot rolling processes. The production line from molten liquid steel to the final steel-strip is shortened and the production cost is reduced significantly as compared to conventional continuous casting. The quality of strip casting process depends on many process parameters, such as molten steel level in the pool, solidification position, and roll gap. Their relationships are complex and the strip casting process has the properties of nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics. It is difficult to establish an accurate process model for designing a model-based controller to monitor the strip quality. In this paper, a model-free adaptive neural network controller is developed to overcome this problem. The proposed control strategy is based on a neural network structure combined with a sliding-mode control scheme. An adaptive rule is employed to on-line adjust the weights of radial basis functions by using the reaching condition of a specified sliding surface. This surface has the on-line learning ability to respond to the system's nonlinear and time-varying behaviors. Since this model-free controller has a simple control structure and small number of control parameters, it is easy to implement. Simulation results, based on a semi experimental system dynamic model and parameters, are executed to show the control performance of the proposed intelligent controller. In addition, the control performance is compared with that of a traditional Pid controller

  11. Influence of Temperature and Rolling Speed on Twin Roll Cast Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, G.; Bohlen, J.; Stutz, L.; Letzig, D.; Kainer, K. U.

    Reducing vehicle weight and emissions by lightweight design is a major goal of the automotive industry. Magnesium as the lightest structural metal offers a significant weight saving potential compared to steel and aluminum. Cast magnesium components are widely used, e.g. as engine blocks or gear box housings. The application of magnesium sheets is currently hampered by the low formability of magnesium which means that a large number of rolling passes is required to roll a DC cast slab to final gauge sheet. This large number of rolling steps is the main reason for the high cost of magnesium sheets. An alternative, cost-efficient production route for magnesium sheets with improved properties is feedstock production by twin roll casting (TRC). In this paper we report the results of twin roll casting experiments on the magnesium alloy AZ31 (Mg-3Al-lZn-Mn) and discuss the influence of the process on the micro structure and texture of the strips.

  12. Method and apparatus for improved melt flow during continuous strip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstaedt, Donald W.; King, Edward L.; Schneider, Ken C.

    1991-11-12

    The continuous casting of metal strip using the melt overflow process is improved by controlling the weir conditions in the nozzle to provide a more uniform flow of molten metal across the width of the nozzle and reducing the tendency for freezing of metal along the interface with refractory surfaces. A weir design having a sloped rear wall and tapered sidewalls and critical gap controls beneath the weir has resulted in the drastic reduction in edge tearing and a significant improvement in strip uniformity. The floor of the container vessel is preferably sloped and the gap between the nozzle and the rotating substrate is critically controlled. The resulting flow patterns observed with the improved casting process have reduced thermal gradients in the bath, contained surface slag and eliminated undesirable solidification near the discharge area by increasing the flow rates at those points.

  13. Materials design of high nitrogen manganese austenitic stainless TWIP steels for strip casting

    OpenAIRE

    Mosecker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    High nitrogen manganese austenitic stainless TWIP steels achieve attractive mechanical properties and excellent strain hardening behavior. However, high nitrogen steel melting methods are generally associated with high pressures to enhance the nitrogen solubility in the melt. Thin strip casting offers an attractive option that not only shortens the process route but also allows the alloying with nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. In the present work, the materials design of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn...

  14. Adaptive fuzzy control design for the molten steel level in a strip casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the adaptive fuzzy control problem of the molten steel level for a class of twin roll strip casting systems. Based on fuzzy logic systems (FLSs and the mean value theorem, a novel adaptive tracking controller with parameter updated laws is effectively designed. It is proved that all the closed-loop signals are uniformly bounded and the system tracking errors can asymptotically converge to zero by using the Lyapunov stability analysis. Simulation results of semi-experimental system dynamic model and parameters are provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed adaptive fuzzy design approach.

  15. On the cooling rate of strip cast ingots for sintered NdFeB magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.Q. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: mse_yanmi@dial.zju.edu.cn; Wu, J.M. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, W. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, X.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ying, H.G. [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-04-30

    Effects of the cooling rate of strip cast ingots on magnetic properties of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It is found that the magnetic properties greatly depend on wheel speed due to different alloy microstructures, which affect readily the particle size distribution of powders obtained after the subsequent jet milling. At higher cooling rate, interlamellar spacing between Nd-rich platelets of the alloy was small, resulting in a lower saturated magnetization due to increased amounts of small particles after jet milling. With further decreasing cooling rate, the resultant larger interlamellar spacing led to too large particle sizes as well as a more irregular shape; thus deteriorated the magnetic properties of the final magnet. A model was developed to disclose the effects of particle sizes on the magnetic alignment process. In the current investigation, optimum magnetic properties of the final magnets were obtained with a cooling rate of 2.6 m/s for preparing the strip. The magnets made by conventionally cast ingot technique exhibited the lowest magnetic properties because of the slowest cooling rate.

  16. Metallurgical reactions in two industrially strip-cast aluminum-manganese alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, V.; Andersson, B.; Tibballs, J. E.; Gjønnes, J.

    1995-08-01

    Precipitation, phase transformation, subgrain growth, and recrystallization that occur during heat treatment of two strip-cast, cold-rolled, high manganese aluminum alloys have been studied mainly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloys differ in silicon content. The isothermal heat treatments have been performed in a salt bath at temperatures between 330 °C and 530 °C for times up to 1000 hours. Size distributions for each type of secondary particle have been determined. After short annealing times, small quasicrystals precipitated and subsequently transformed to α phase. The densities of these precipitates controlled dislocation movement and regulated subgrain sizes. Prolonged heating resulted in peritectoid reactions to Al6Mn or Al12Mn. Recrystallization, which is associated with the formation of Al12Mn, is advanced by increasing the silicon content; the nucleation and growth of Al12Mn occurs only at the expense of other phases that stabilize the subgrain network.

  17. Effect of deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase steel produced via strip casting simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Z.P.; Kostryzhev, A.G.; Stanford, N.E.; Pereloma, E.V.

    2016-01-01

    The strip casting is a recently appeared technology with a potential to significantly reduce energy consumption in steel production, compared to hot rolling and cold rolling. However, the quantitative dependences of the steel microstructure and mechanical properties on strip casting parameters are unknown and require investigation. In the present work we studied the effects of strain and interrupted cooling temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties in conventional dual phase steel (0.08C–0.81Si–1.47Mn–0.03Al wt%). The strip casting process was simulated using a Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The steel microstructures were studied using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were measured using microhardness and tensile testing. Microstructures consisting of 40–80% polygonal ferrite with remaining martensite, bainite and very small amount of Widmanstätten ferrite were produced. Deformation to 0.17–0.46 strain at 1050 °C refined the prior austenite grain size via static recrystallisation, which led to the acceleration of ferrite formation and the ferrite grain refinement. The yield stress and ultimate tensile strength increased with a decrease in ferrite fraction, while the total elongation decreased. The improvement of mechanical properties via deformation was ascribed to dislocation strengthening and grain boundary strengthening. - Highlights: • A processing route of strip casting was developed to produce dual phase steel. • The mechanical properties were comparable to cold rolled and hot rolled DP steels.

  18. Effect of deformation on microstructure and mechanical properties of dual phase steel produced via strip casting simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z.P., E-mail: zuileniwota@126.com [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Kostryzhev, A.G. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Stanford, N.E. [Institute of Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Pereloma, E.V. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2519 (Australia)

    2016-01-10

    The strip casting is a recently appeared technology with a potential to significantly reduce energy consumption in steel production, compared to hot rolling and cold rolling. However, the quantitative dependences of the steel microstructure and mechanical properties on strip casting parameters are unknown and require investigation. In the present work we studied the effects of strain and interrupted cooling temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties in conventional dual phase steel (0.08C–0.81Si–1.47Mn–0.03Al wt%). The strip casting process was simulated using a Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator. The steel microstructures were studied using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were measured using microhardness and tensile testing. Microstructures consisting of 40–80% polygonal ferrite with remaining martensite, bainite and very small amount of Widmanstätten ferrite were produced. Deformation to 0.17–0.46 strain at 1050 °C refined the prior austenite grain size via static recrystallisation, which led to the acceleration of ferrite formation and the ferrite grain refinement. The yield stress and ultimate tensile strength increased with a decrease in ferrite fraction, while the total elongation decreased. The improvement of mechanical properties via deformation was ascribed to dislocation strengthening and grain boundary strengthening. - Highlights: • A processing route of strip casting was developed to produce dual phase steel. • The mechanical properties were comparable to cold rolled and hot rolled DP steels.

  19. Transverse Crack Modeling of Continuously Casted Slabs through Finite Element Method in Roughing Rolling at Wide Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesin, A.; Salganik, V.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    In the pipe billet production at the wide strip mills of hot rolling big metal losses are caused by surface defects that affect most parts of the finished strips. The rolling surface defects are referred to the breach of steelmaking technology. Specialists mostly face defects of metal surface such as "scab" and "crack". The only area suffered from these defects is a slab edge. This area has the least surface temperature at the unbending of the continuous-casting machine, and together with deep buckles made by reciprocating motion of the crystallizer it is mostly subjected to transverse cracks that can be up to several millimeters. Each surface defect of the continuously casted slab will further turn into the surface defect of the strip bar. For some grade sets, mostly made of pipe steel grades the amount of strips with these defects can reach up to 60-70%. The area that is mostly prone to these defects is the edge of the strip. The work reveals investigation of the form change peculiarities in the transverse cracks of the continuously casted slab in roughing rolling in the horizontal rollers. The finite element method with software DEFORM 3D V6.1 has been applied in modeling. The work gives a form change mechanism of transverse cracks of slabs in deformation. Further crack growth in rolling is assessed due to Cockroft-Latham criteria.

  20. The Influence of Vanadium Microalloying on the Production of Thin Slab Casting and Direct Rolled Steel Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Milbourn, David

    Vanadium microalloying is highly effective in high strength strip steels produced by thin slab casting and direct rolled process. Because of the high solubility of V(C,N) in austenite, vanadium is likely to remain in solution during casting, equalisation and rolling. Vanadium microalloyed steels have better hot ductility and are less prone to transverse cracking than niobium containing steels. Despite a coarse as-cast austenite grain size before rolling, significant grain refinement can be achieved in vanadium microalloyed steels by repeated recrystallization during rolling, resulting in a fine uniform ferrite microstructure in final strip. Almost all vanadium present in microalloyed steels is available to precipitate in ferrite as very fine particles, contributing to precipitation strengthening. Vanadium microalloyed steels show less sensitivity to rolling process variables and exhibit excellent combination of strength and toughness.

  1. Modelling of solidification processing and continuous strip casting for copper-base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Jafar [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Processing

    2000-04-01

    An experimental and numerical study was carried out to investigate the solidification process in a copper continuous strip casting process. Heat flow and solidification process has been experimentally studied. Cooling curves during solidification were registered using a thermocouple of type K connected to a data acquisition system. Temperature measurements in the mould and cooling water were also performed. The numerical model considers a generalized set of mass, momentum and heat equations that is valid for the solid, liquid and solidification interval in the cast. A k-{epsilon} turbulence model, produced with the commercial program CFX, is used to analyse the solidification process of pure copper in the mould region of the caster. The fluid flow, temperature and heat flux distributions in the mould region of the caster were computed. The shape and location of the solidification front were also determined. The effects of the parameters such as heat transfer coefficient, casting speed, casting temperature, heat of fusion and specific heat on the shape and location of the solidification front and the heat transport at the mould-cast interface were investigated. The predicted temperature and heat flux distributions were compared with experimental measurements, and reasonable agreement was obtained. The solidification behaviour of pure copper and different copper base alloys has been studied. A series of solidification experiments using DTA furnace, mirror furnace and levitation technique were performed on different copper-base alloys. The undercooling, cooling rates of the liquid and the solid states, solidification times and temperatures were evaluated from the curves. The cooling curves for different samples were simulated using a FEM solidification program. It was found that the calculated values of the heat of fusion were much lower than the tabulated ones. The fraction of solid formed before quenching, in the DTA experiments, has been observed to be much higher

  2. Overburden stripping from deeply buried orebodies by controlled nuclear explosive casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saperstein, L.W.; Mishra, R.

    1970-01-01

    Previous schemes to strip the overburden from a deeply-buried orebody by nuclear explosives have been hampered by various constraints. These are the notions that surface topography should slope in the desired direction to facilitate casting; that the orebody should be stripped all at once, meaning that an unsafe and unnaturally high yield will be detonated; or that the overburden be broken and cast, in a manner akin to conventional blasting, with a series of explosions linked by milli-second delays, such delays being an unproven and, perhaps non-permissible technology; and, finally, that the schemes leave an excessive amount of overburden to be removed by conventional means. It is proposed that deep orebodies, idealized by a 250-ft. thick copper porphyry under 600 feet of cover, be stripped in successive rows, using available row-charge technology. A first row, of greater magnitude than those succeeding, is used to expose the orebody. The second row is placed so as to throw overburden into the void created by the first. All rows are placed so as not to damage the ore. Except for the first row, all rows utilize directed throwing. After a row is detonated, the ore beneath it would be removed by conventional means. The void thus created would provide space for the successive row to fire into. Further, the additional free-face provided by the void imparts a major direction to the ejecta. Because of the directed nature of the throw, ore removal does not have to proceed directly beneath the row slope. Advantages to this scheme are its adaptability to terrain; its reduction in overburden to be removed by conventional methods; its increased speed in uncovering ore; its reduction of unit costs; audits adaptability to production rates. An example, utilizing the idealized orebody shows that production of ore can begin within a year of project approval versus four or five years for the same orebody developed conventionally; that no more than eight percent of the overburden has

  3. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Yao, Sheng-Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, 264209 (China); Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, P.O. Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  4. Microstructure, texture and precipitate of grain-oriented 4.5 wt% Si steel by strip casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiang; Xu, Yun-bo; Fang, Feng; Zhang, Yuan-xiang; Wang, Yang; Jiao, Hai-tao; Cao, Guang-ming; Li, Cheng-gang; Yuan, Guo; Wang, Guo-dong

    2016-01-01

    A 0.23 mm grain-oriented 4.5 wt% Si steel sheet was prepared by strip casting, hot rolling, one-stage warm rolling, primary annealing and secondary annealing. A detailed study of microstructure, texture and precipitate was carried out by methods of OM, EBSD, XRD and TEM. It was found that the as-cast strip exhibited equaxied microstructure with random orientation, enabling the fine and homogeneous primary microstructure to be obtained after one-stage warm rolling. After hot rolling, weak Goss texture was observed, which could not act as Goss seed. In contrast, the Goss seed was found to originate within the shear bands in {111}〈112〉 grains during warm rolling. Another finding was that the precipitates was suppressed during strip casting due to the rapid solidification and subsequent cooling rate, and mainly precipitated during hot rolling. After secondary annealing, abnormal Goss grains evolved sufficiently, and showed prominent properties. The B 8 was 1.73 T, which was similar to 1.85 T for grain-oriented 3.0 wt% Si steel, and the core losses were low than the grain-oriented 3.0 wt% Si steel and non-oriented high silicon steel. - Highlights: • Grain-oriented 4.5wt% Si steel was successfully prepared by strip casting. • Goss seeds was originated during the warm rolling instead of hot rolling. • Finely distributed precipitates was obtained by strip casing and hot rolling. • Prominent magnetic properties were shown in comparison with 3.0wt% Si steel.

  5. Microstructure, texture and precipitate of grain-oriented 4.5 wt% Si steel by strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiang, E-mail: lx_neu@126.com; Xu, Yun-bo; Fang, Feng; Zhang, Yuan-xiang; Wang, Yang; Jiao, Hai-tao; Cao, Guang-ming; Li, Cheng-gang; Yuan, Guo; Wang, Guo-dong

    2016-04-15

    A 0.23 mm grain-oriented 4.5 wt% Si steel sheet was prepared by strip casting, hot rolling, one-stage warm rolling, primary annealing and secondary annealing. A detailed study of microstructure, texture and precipitate was carried out by methods of OM, EBSD, XRD and TEM. It was found that the as-cast strip exhibited equaxied microstructure with random orientation, enabling the fine and homogeneous primary microstructure to be obtained after one-stage warm rolling. After hot rolling, weak Goss texture was observed, which could not act as Goss seed. In contrast, the Goss seed was found to originate within the shear bands in {111}〈112〉 grains during warm rolling. Another finding was that the precipitates was suppressed during strip casting due to the rapid solidification and subsequent cooling rate, and mainly precipitated during hot rolling. After secondary annealing, abnormal Goss grains evolved sufficiently, and showed prominent properties. The B{sub 8} was 1.73 T, which was similar to 1.85 T for grain-oriented 3.0 wt% Si steel, and the core losses were low than the grain-oriented 3.0 wt% Si steel and non-oriented high silicon steel. - Highlights: • Grain-oriented 4.5wt% Si steel was successfully prepared by strip casting. • Goss seeds was originated during the warm rolling instead of hot rolling. • Finely distributed precipitates was obtained by strip casing and hot rolling. • Prominent magnetic properties were shown in comparison with 3.0wt% Si steel.

  6. Microstructure Formation in Strip-Cast RE-Fe-B Alloys for Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsuura, Masashi; Sugimoto, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of sintered NdFeB magnets, it is well known that the microstructure of the starting alloy has a strong influence on the processing and the magnetic properties of the product. In this study, we clarify the microstructure formation in strip-cast rare earth (R)-Fe-B alloys used to produce magnets. The microstructure of the alloy surface in contact with the cooling roll and its cross-section were observed using laser microscopy, field emission electron microprobe analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The orientations of crystal grains were determined by X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction analyses. Petal-shaped structures were found to cover the alloy surface in contact with the cooling roll, each consisting of a central nucleation region and radially grown Nd2Fe14B dendritic structures. The nucleation region, consisting of a "disc" and "predendrites", occurs in the super-cooled region of the contact area between the cooling roll and melt. In the disc region, spherical Nd2Fe14B particles in the thickness direction increase in volume. These discs and predendrites observed in the super-cooled area negatively influence the magnetic orientation and sinterability in the produced magnets. Therefore, it is important to avoid excessive super-cooling to obtain optimum magnetic properties.

  7. Effects of hot-rolling reduction on microstructure, texture and magnetic properties of high silicon steel produced by strip casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D. Y.; Xu, H. J.; Jiao, H. T.; Zhao, C. W.; Xiong, W.; Yang, J. P.; Qiu, W. Z.; Xu, Y. B.

    2017-01-01

    Non-oriented Fe-7.1wt.% Si as-cast strips were produced by twin-roll strip casting process. Then the as-cast strips were hot rolled with different reductions, followed by warm rolling and final annealing. The microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties were investigated in detail. The texture of hot rolled sheets with 40% reduction showed strongest {001} texture, whereas the dominated texture was turned into {110} and {110}as the reduction was increased to 56% and 68%. After warm rolling and annealing, the average grain size was decreased firstly and then increased with an increase in hot rolling reduction. In the case of 40% hot rolling reduction, the recrystallization texture was dominated by strong γ (//ND) texture. With an increase in hot rolling reduction, the γ texture was gradually weakened while α (//RD) texture was enhanced. In addition, relatively stronger {100} texture was presented in the sheet of 68% hot rolling reduction. The highest B50 value attained was 1.66 T and the lowest P10/400 was 24.26 W/kg at a reduction of 56%.

  8. Corn response as affected by planting distance from the center of strip-till fertilized rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Adee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till has been used at a large scale in east central Kansas as an alternative to earlier planting dates under a no-till system. To determine the effects of planting corn (Zea mays under previously established strip-tilled fertilized rows, experiments were conducted on an Osage silty clay loam soil in 2006 and 2008 and on a Woodson silt loam soil in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using three different planting distances from the strip-tilled fertilized rows (0, 10, 20, and 38 cm with a strip-till operation performed between 1 to 73 days before planting. The depth of the strip-till fertilizer application was 13 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Corn that was planted 10 cm from the fertilized row showed greater early season growth, higher plant population, and grain yield. Planting 20 and 38 cm from the center of the fertilized rows showed none of the benefits that are typically associated with strip-tillage system. Enough time should be allowed between the strip-till operation and planting to reach satisfactory soil conditions (e.g., moist and firm seedbed. Our results suggest that the best location for planting strip-tilled fertilized corn vary depending on soil and climatic conditions as well as the time between fertilizer application with the strip-till operation and planting. With fewer number of days, planting directly on the center of fertilized strip-till resulted in decreased plant population and lower grain yield. However the greatest yield benefit across different planting conditions was attained when planting within 10 cm of the strip.

  9. Headwater fish population responses to planting grass filter strips adjacent to channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the Midwestern United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment inputs into agricultural streams. Only a limited amount of information is available on the ecological effects of planting grass filter strips adjacent to channe...

  10. Research on plant of metal fuel fabrication using casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Yasuhide; Mori, Yukihide

    2003-12-01

    This document presents the plant concept of metal fuel fabrication system (38tHM/y) using casting process in electrolytic recycle, which based on recent studies of its equipment design and quality control system. And we estimate the cost of its construction and operation, including costs of maintenance, consumed hardware and management of waste. The content of this work is as follows. (1) Designing of fuel fabrication equipment: We make material flow diagrams of the fuel fabrication plant and rough designs of the injection casting furnace, demolder and inspection equipment. (2) Designing of resolution system of liquid waste, which comes from analytical process facility. Increased analytical items, we rearrange analytical process facility, estimate its chemicals and amount of waste. (3) Arrangement of equipments: We made a arrangement diagram of the metal fuel fabrication equipments in cells. (4) Estimation of cost data: We estimated cost to construct the facility and to operate it. (author)

  11. The effect of clustering on the mobility of dislocations during aging in Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels: In situ heating TEM observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Sachin L.; Xie, Kelvin Y.; Ringer, Simon P.; Carpenter, Kristin R.; Smith, David R.; Killmore, Chris R.; Cairney, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cluster-strengthened Nb-microalloyed strip cast steels are of interest as clustering during aging leads to an enhancement in strength without compromising ductility, resulting in desirable mechanical properties. However, the precise strengthening mechanism is not well understood. Using in situ heating transmission electron microscopy, clustering was found to impede the movement of dislocations during aging. The attractive combination of ductility and strength was attributed to the effects of recovery and the restricted movement of dislocations through clustering

  12. Identification of plant configurations maximizing radiation capture in relay strip cotton using a functional-structural plant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Lili; Zhang, Lizhen; Evers, J.B.; Henke, M.; Werf, van der W.; Liu, Shaodong; Zhang, Siping; Zhao, Xinhua; Wang, Baomin; Li, Zhaohu

    2016-01-01

    One of the key decisions in crop production is the choice of row distance and plant density. The choice of these planting pattern parameters is especially challenging in heterogeneous systems, such as systems containing alternating strips. Here we use functional-structural plant modelling to

  13. Textures in Strip-Cast Aluminum Alloys: Their On-Line Monitoring and Quantitative Effects on Formability. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Chi-Sing

    2003-07-27

    Aluminum sheets produced by continuous casting (CC) provide energy and economic savings of at least 25 and 14 percent, respectively, over sheets made from conventional direct chill (DC) ingot casting and rolling. As a result of the much simpler production route in continuous casting, however, the formability of CC aluminum alloys is often somewhat inferior to that of their DC counterparts. The mechanical properties of CC alloys can be improved by controlling their microstructure through optimal thermomechanical processing. Suitable annealing is an important means to improve the formability of CC aluminum alloy sheets. Recrystallization of deformed grains occurs during annealing, and it changes the crystallographic texture of the aluminum sheet. Laboratory tests in this project showed that this texture change can be detected by either laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy or resonance EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) spectroscopy, and that monitoring this change allows the degree of recrystallization or the ''recrystallized fraction'' in an annealed sheet to be ascertained. Through a plant trial conducted in May 2002, this project further demonstrated that it is feasible to monitor the recrystallized state of a continuous-cast aluminum sheet in-situ on the production line by using a laser-ultrasound sensor. When used in conjunction with inline annealing, inline monitoring of the recrystallized fraction by laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy offers the possibility of feed-back control that helps optimize processing parameters (e.g., annealing temperature), detect production anomalies, ensure product quality, and further reduce production costs of continuous-cast aluminum alloys. Crystallographic texture strongly affects the mechanical anisotropy/formability of metallic sheets. Clarification of the quantitative relationship between texture and anisotropy/formability of an aluminum alloy will render monitoring and control of its

  14. Stimulating R and D of industrial energy-efficient technology; the effect of government intervention on the development of strip casting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Blok, Kornelis

    2003-01-01

    Strip casting technology in steel-making is known as an innovative energy-efficient technology. Stimulating the development (R and D) of such industrial process technologies is an appealing government intervention strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we analyse (a) the R and D trajectory of strip casting technology and (b) the effect of government intervention on the development of this particular energy-efficient technology. For this purpose we made a detailed investigation of the networks within which the technology was developed. The huge capital cost advantages of strip casting technology were already notified back in the 19th century. However, only after 1975 a robust technology network emerged. There is no single, simple determinant explaining the slow emergence of the technology network: the innovative technology had to become a more incremental improvement to the conventional production facilities before R and D was seriously pursued. Once the technology network emerged, it proved to have a strong momentum of itself. Steel firms maintained their confidence in the strategic cost advantages of the technology and persistently invested in up-scaling the technology. The effect of government intervention was minimal, because the technology network had its own strong momentum. All in all, R and D was only loosely influenced by energy-efficiency considerations or by government intervention. The major policy lesson is that information on technology networks and its momentum--in addition to classic information on energy-efficiency improvements and investments costs--is required to improve the effect of government intervention in the field of industrial energy-efficiency R and D and innovation

  15. Influence of cold rolling direction on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties in strip-cast grain-oriented 3% silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, F., E-mail: fangfengdbdx@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, X.; Zhang, Y.X.; Wang, Y.; Jiao, H.T.; Cao, G.M.; Yuan, G.; Xu, Y.B. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, EL Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wang, G.D. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-02-15

    An unconventional cold rolling scheme (inclined rolling at 0°, 30°, 45°, 90° during second-stage cold rolling process) was adopted to process grain-oriented silicon steel based on strip casting process. The influences of inclination angles on microstructure, texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties were studied by a combination of EBSD, XRD and TEM. It was found that the α-fiber texture was weakened and γ-fiber was strengthened in cold rolled sheet with increase in inclination angle. The primary recrystallization sheet exhibited more homogeneous microstructure with relatively strong γ-fiber, medium α-fiber texture, weak λ-fiber texture and Goss component at high inclination angles. Fine and homogeneous inhibitors were obtained after primary annealing with increase in inclination angle from 0° to 90° because of more uniform deformation after inclined rolling. The grain-oriented silicon steel experienced completely secondary recrystallization at various inclination angles after final annealing process, with superior magnetic properties at 0° and 90°. Furthermore, Goss nuclei capable of final secondary recrystallization in strip casting process newly formed both in-grain shear bands and grain boundaries region during second-stage cold rolling and subsequent annealing process, which is different from the well-accepted results that Goss texture originated from the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet or during intermediate annealing process. In addition, the Goss texture that nucleated in-grain shear bands was weaker but more accurate as compared to that in grain boundaries region. - Highlights: • Inclined cold rolling was adopted to process strip-cast grain-oriented silicon steel. • Influence of inclination angles on texture, inhibitor and magnetic properties was studied. • The initial texture was changed with respect to the inclination angle. • Homogeneous inhibitors were obtained after primary annealing at various inclination angles.

  16. Soil Erosion and runoff response to plant-cover strips on semiarid slopes (SE Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Raya, A.; Duran Zuazo, V.H.; Francia-Martinez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Over a four-year period (1997-2000), soil loss and surface-runoff patterns were monitored in hillside erosion plots with almond trees under different plant-cover strips (thyme, barley and lentils) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada (Lanjaron) in south-eastern Spain. The erosion plots (580 m

  17. Microstructure and texture evolution of ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet fabricated using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yin-Ping; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2017-03-15

    A 0.1 mm-thick grain-oriented silicon steel sheet was successfully produced using strip casting and three-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution during the processing was briefly analyzed. It was found that Goss texture was absent in the hot rolled sheet because of the lack of shear deformation. After normalizing, a large number of dispersed MnS precipitates with the size range of 15–90 nm were produced. During first cold rolling, dense shear bands were generated in the deformed ferrite grains, resulting in the intense Goss texture after first intermediate annealing. The microstructure was further refined and homogenized during the subsequent cold rolling and annealing processes. After primary recrystallization annealing, a homogeneous microstructure consisting of fine and equiaxed grains was produced while the associated texture was characterized by a strong γ-fiber texture. Finally, a complete secondary recrystallization microstructure consisting of entirely large Goss grains was produced. The magnetic induction B{sub 8} and iron loss P{sub 10/400} was 1.79 T and 6.9 W/kg, respectively. - Highlights: • Ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel was produced by strip casting process. • Microstructure, texture and inhibitor evolution was briefly investigated. • Goss texture was absent in primary recrystallization annealed sheet. • MnS precipitates with a size range of 15–90 nm formed after normalizing. • A complete secondary recrystallization microstructure was produced.

  18. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  19. Reduced gaseous emissions from Corus strip products Ijmuiden sinter and pellet plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuwerink, T.; van der Panne, A. [Corus Iron Manufacturing IJmuiden, IJmuiden (Netherlands). Raw Materials and Agglomeration

    2001-07-01

    At Corus Strip Products IJmuiden (formerly Hoogovens Steel), the Netherlands, about 4.4 and 4.6 million tons of sinter and pellets respectively are produced per year. In the two blast furnaces, the sinter and pellets are converted to about 5.7 million tons of hot metal. The high temperature treatment which the iron ore is subjected to in the sinter and pellet plants gives rise to the formation of noxious compounds like SO{sub 2}, NOx, dust and dioxins. Like other integrated steel works, Corus Strip Products Ijmuiden is faced with stricter environmental regulations with respect to gaseous and aqueous emissions. This spurred the building of a flue gas recirculation system, a wet scrubber process and water treatment systems for these plants. This paper gives an overview of the results accomplished to date and outlines further emission reductions in the future. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Microstructural evolution in warm-rolled and cold-rolled strip cast 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets and its influence on magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianglong, E-mail: 215454278@qq.com; Liu, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn; Li, Haoze; Wang, Guodong

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The experimental materials used in the study are based on strip casting. • Magnetic properties between warm rolled and cold rolled sheets are investigated. • Cold rolled 6.5% Si sheet has better magnetic properties than warm rolled sheet. • The γ and λ-fiber recrystallization textures can be optimized after cold rolling. • Cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5% Si steel thin sheets. - Abstract: 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets were usually fabricated by warm rolling. In our previous work, 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets with good magnetic properties had been successfully fabricated by cold rolling based on strip casting. In the present work, the main purposes were to find out the influences of warm rolling and cold rolling on microstructures and magnetic properties of the thin sheets with the thickness of 0.2 mm, and to confirm which rolling method was more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets. The results showed that the cold rolled sheet could obtain good surface quality and flatness, while the warm rolled sheet could not. The intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture (<1 1 1>//ND) of cold rolled specimen was weaker than that of the warm rolled specimen, especially for the {1 1 1}<1 1 2> component at surface layer and {1 1 1}<1 1 0> component at center layer. After the same annealing treatment, the cold rolled specimen, which had higher stored energy and weaker intensity of γ-fiber rolling texture, could obtain smaller recrystallization grain size, weaker intensity of γ-fiber recrystallization texture and stronger intensity of λ-fiber recrystallization texture. Therefore, due to the good surface quality, smaller recrystallization grain size and optimum recrystallization texture, the cold rolled specimen possessed improved magnetic properties, and cold rolling should be more suitable for fabricating 6.5 wt% Si steel thin sheets.

  1. Properties of a large carbon steel casting used in French PWR nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamou, C.; Roux, F.; Nectoux, G.; Delorme, A.

    1980-09-01

    To introduce a large casting in a PWR nuclear plant migh appear detrimental to its safety when comparing with forgings or rollings. In this paper we would like to show the constant efforts of the founder in providing a product with reproducible and high quality. Furthermore a program test covering a complete investigation of a real channel head is presented; the three following aspects have been studied: characterisation of cast flaws by non destructive and destructive examination, homogeneity of casting and fatigue and use properties

  2. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  3. Energy and Technolgy Assessment of Zinc and Magnesium Casting Plants, Technical Report Close-out, August 25,2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twin City Die Castings Company; Tom Heider; North American Die Castings Association

    2006-08-25

    Twin City Die Castings Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, Twin City Die Castings Company was awarded project No. DE-FG36-05GO15097 to perform plant wide assessments of ten (10) die casting facilities that produce zinc and magnesium alloy castings in order to determine improvements and potential cost savings in energy use. Mr. Heider filled the role of team leader for the project and utilized the North American Die Casting Association (NADCA) to conduct audits at team participant plants so as to hold findings specific to each plant proprietary. The intended benefits of the project were to improve energy use through higher operational and process efficiency for the plants assessed. An improvement in energy efficiency of 5 – 15% was targeted. The primary objectives of the project was to: 1) Expand an energy and technology tool developed by the NADCA under a previous DOE project titled, “Energy and Technology Assessment for Die Casting Plants” for assessing aluminum die casting plants to be more specifically applicable to zinc and magnesium die casting facilities. 2) Conduct ten (10) assessments of zinc and magnesium die casting plants, within eight (8) companies, utilizing the assessment tool to identify, evaluate and recommend opportunities to enhance energy efficiency, minimize waste, and improve productivity. 3) Transfer the assessment tool to the die casting industry at large.

  4. Short and longer-term psychological consequences of Operation Cast Lead: documentation from a mental health program in the Gaza Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llosa Augusto E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition of the psychological impact of adversity associated with armed conflict on exposed civilian populations. Yet there is a paucity of evidence on the value of mental health programs in these contexts, and of the chronology of psychological sequelae, especially in prolonged conflicts with repeated cycles of extreme violence. Here, we describe changes in the psychological profile of new patients in a mental health program after the military offensive Cast Lead, in the context of the prolonged armed conflict involving the Gaza Strip. Methods This study analyses routinely collected program data from a Médecins Sans Frontières mental health program in the Gaza Strip spanning 2007–2011. Data consist of socio-demographic as well as clinical baseline and follow-up data on new patients entering the program. Comparisons were made through Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests, univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results PTSD, depression and other anxiety disorders were the most frequent psychopathologies, with 21% having multiple diagnoses. With a median of nine sessions, clinical improvement was recorded for 83% (1122/1357, and more common for those with separation anxiety, acute and posttraumatic disorders as principal diagnosis (855/1005, compared to depression (141/183, p Conclusion Evolving changes in patient volume, diagnoses and recall period to triggering events suggest a lengthy and durable effect of an intensified exposure to violence in a context of prolonged conflict. Our findings suggest that mental health related humanitarian relief in protracted conflicts might need to prepare for an increase in patients with changing profiles over an extended period following an acute flare-up in violence.

  5. Mortality among workers in a die-casting and electroplating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, M; Mirer, F; Kotelchuck, D; Silverstein, B; Bennett, M

    1981-01-01

    A proportional mortality and case-referent analysis of 238 deaths among hourly employees in an automobile hardware manufacturing plant was conducted. The major operations of the plant were zinc die casting and electroplating. Chemical exposure included die-casting emissions and mists from chrome and nickel plating. The chief proportional mortality finding was a significant excess of lung cancer among both white men and women. A case-referent analysis indicated a possible association between lung cancer and work in certain departments. The findings support the hypothesis of a work-related carcinogenic risk. Follow-up recommendations have been made.

  6. Inventory of pollution reduction options for an aluminium pressure die casting plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.A.F.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an overview of options aiming to reduce emissions to air, soil and water from an aluminium die casting plant located in Portugal. We identify eighteen pollution reduction options and then estimate their potential to reduce the pollution, and the costs associated with their

  7. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  8. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.A.F.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a model (MIKADO) to analyse options to reduce the environmental impact of aluminium die casting. This model will take a company perspective, so that it can be used as a decision-support tool for the environmental management of a plant. MIKADO can be used to perform scenario

  9. Radiation protection service for a nucleonic control system of continuous casting plant after events of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Santanu; Massand, O.P.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive use of nucleonic control systems like level controllers was observed during radiation protection surveys in industries such as refineries, steel plants etc., located in the eastern region of India. There were two accidents at continuous casting plant in 1995 which affected the nucleonic control system installed in 1992. The authorities contacted Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) for radiation protection surveys for the involved nucleonic gauges. The present paper describes the radiation protection services rendered by BARC during such accidents. (author)

  10. Effects of hand weeding strip and nitrogen fertilizer on corn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Renato Vaz; Martins, Dagoberto; Cardoso, Leonildo A; Carbonari, Caio Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate effects of different strip weed control associated with nitrogen fertilizer on corn applied after planting. The experiment was set and conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, and the hybrid planted was Dekalb 333-B. A completely randomized block design with four replications was used. Experimental plots were disposed as a factorial scheme 2 x 2 x 4, constituted by two types of weeding on row (with or without manual hoeing), two types of weeding on inter-row (with or without manual hoeing), and four nitrogen levels applied after planting (00, 60, 90, and 120 kg ha(-1)). Plots were composed by six rows with 5 m length. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at 35 days after emergence (d.a.e). For weed community it was evaluated: weed density, dominancy, frequency, and relative importance. The main weed species were: Brachiaria plantiginea, Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa, Cyperus rotunds, Brachiaria decumbens, Euphorbia heterofila, Oxalis latifolia, Acanthospermum hispidum, Commelina benghalensis. It was evaluated corn height at 40 and 100 d.a.e., first ear insertion height at 100 d.a.e., and final grain yield at harvesting. Plants and first ear insertion height were affected when nitrogen fertilizer was not applied. Treatments without weed control showed that weed interfered negatively with plants height. There were no correlation between weeds and nitrogen fertilizer for all parameters evaluated. Parcels without weed showed the highest ear weights and final grain production. Treatments that received nitrogen fertilizer, independently of studied arrangement, provided higher yields.

  11. Ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheet fabricated by a novel way: Twin-roll strip casting and two-stage cold rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Ping; Liu, Hai-Tao; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Jia-Xin; Shen, Hui-Ying; Jin, Yang; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2018-04-01

    0.05-0.15 mm-thick ultra-thin grain-oriented silicon steel sheets were successfully produced by a novel processing route including strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing and secondary recrystallization annealing. The evolutions of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing were briefly investigated. The results showed that the initial Goss orientation originated due to the heterogenous nucleation of δ-ferrite grains during solidification. Because of the lack of shear deformation, only a few Goss grains were observed in the hot rolled sheet. After the first cold rolling and intermediate annealing, Goss texture was enhanced and distributed in the whole thickness. A small number of Goss grains having a high fraction of high energy boundaries exhibited in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet. A large number of fine and dispersed MnS and AlN and a few co-precipitates MnS and AlN with the size range of 10-70 nm were also observed. Interestingly, a well-developed secondary recrystallization microstructure characterized by 10-60 mm grains and a sharp Goss texture were finally produced in the 0.05-0.15 mm-thick ultra-thin sheets. A magnetic induction B8 of 1.72-1.84 T was obtained. Another new finding was that a few {2 3 0}〈0 0 1〉 and {2 1 0}〈1 2 7〉 grains also can grow up abnormally because of the high fraction of high energy boundaries and the size and number advantage, respectively. These non-Goss grains finally deteriorated the magnetic properties of the ultra-thin sheets. In addition, low surface energies of {hk0} planes may also contribute to the abnormal growth of Goss, {2 3 0}〈0 0 1〉 and {2 1 0}〈1 2 7〉 grains.

  12. Salvaging of service exposed cast alloy 625 cracker tubes of ammonia based Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Misra, B.; Mahajan, M.P.; Mittra, J.; Sundararaman, M.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    In ammonia based heavy water plants, cracking of ammonia vapour, enriched in deuterium is carried out inside a cracker tube, packed with catalyst. These cracker tubes are made of alloy 625 (either wrought or cast) having dimensions of about 12.5 metres long, 88 mm outer diameter and 7.9 mm wall thickness. Seventy such tubes are housed in a typical ammonia cracker unit. The anticipated design life of such tube is 1,00,000 hrs. when operated at 720 degC based on creep as main degradation mechanism. Presently, these tubes are being operated at 680 degC skin temperature. Alloy 625 tubes are costly and normally not manufactured in India and are being imported. The cast alloy 625 cracker tubes have outlived their design life of 100,000 hrs. Therefore it has been decided to salvage the cast cracker tubes and extend the life further as it had already been done for wrought tubes. Similar to the earlier attempt of resolutionising of wrought alloy 625 tubes, efforts are in progress to salvage these cast tubes. In this study, cast tubes samples were subjected to solution-annealing treatment at two different temperatures, 1100degC and 1160degC respectively for two hrs. Mechanical properties along with the microstructure of the samples, which were resolutionized at 1160degC were comparable with that of virgin material. The 12.5 metres long cast alloy 625 cracker tubes will also be shortly solution-annealed in a specially designed resistance heating furnace after completing some more tests. (author)

  13. Decreasing Molybdenum Content in U3O8 of Bandar Abbas Uranium Plant by Stripping, Acidic Sodium Chloride Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam Fard, Z.; Vartanian, S.; Pur Hoseini, Zh.; Pakizvand, N.; Ghadiri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Molybdenum content in U 3 O 8 is one of the difficulties in uranium oxide production plant, as contaminant. Several methods have been proposed for reducing Molybdenum from U 3 O 8 process circuit. As a few changes in the process circuit of Bandar Abbas Uranium Plant were aimed, the loaded organic solvent containing uranium and molybdenum were stripped with acidic sodium chloride solution. The current 10% Sodium carbonate solution was substituted by 1.2 M NaCl + 0.02 M H 2 SO 4 as a new strip solution. This method decreases Mo contents from 96.94 to 4.17 percent. With the proceeding precipitation and the calcination stages, the Molybdenum amounts in U 3 O 8 was reduced from 6.4 to 0.14 percent.

  14. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: a scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Belmira; Kroeze, Carolien; Hordijk, Leen; Costa, Carlos; Pulles, Tinus

    2009-02-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze, C., Hordijk, L., Costa, C., 2008. Modelling the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting company and options for control. Environmental Modelling & Software 23 (2) 147-168] we included the model description and explored the model by applying it to a plant in which no reduction options are assumed to be implemented (so-called zero case, reflecting the current practice in the plant). Here, we perform a systematic analysis of reduction options. We analysed seven types of reduction strategies, assuming the simultaneous implementation of different reduction options. These strategies are analysed with respect to their potential to reduce emissions, environmental impact and costs associated with the implementation of options. These strategies were found to differ largely in their potential to reduce the environmental impact of the plant (10-87%), as well as in the costs associated with the implementation of options (-268 to +277keuro/year). We were able to define 11 strategies, reducing the overall environmental impact by more than 50%. Of these, two have net negative costs, indicating that the company may in fact earn money through their implementation.

  15. Microstructure evolution and large magnetocaloric effect of La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2 alloy prepared by strip-casting and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X. C.; Feng, X. L.; Huang, J. H.; Zhang, H.; Huang, Y. L.; Liu, Z. W.; Jiao, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure and magnetocaloric effect of the La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2 strip-cast flakes annealed between 1273K and 1423K for different time have been investigated. For the flakes annealed for 2h from 1273K to 1423K, the shape and distribution of α-Fe, La-rich and NaZn13-type 1:13 phases are quite sensitive to the annealing temperature. Especially, at a high annealing temperature of 1423K, the 1:13 phase began to decompose into macroscopic α-Fe conglomerations and La-rich dendrites. With the increase of annealing time from 0 to 12h at 1323K, the amount of 1:13 phase increased significantly and reached ˜93.50 wt.% at 12h. However, an overlong annealing time also led to 1:13 phase decomposition and influenced the magnetic performance. For the flakes annealed at 1323K for 12h, large magnetic entropy change value of 18.12Jkg-1K-1 at 5T has been obtained. The present results indicate that strip casting method can potentially be used in mass production of high performance magnetocaloric materials.

  16. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  17. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    OpenAIRE

    Р. Кавалла; В. Ю. Бажин

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling...

  18. Contributions of gopher mound and casting disturbances to plant community structure in a Cascade Range meadow complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Case; C.B. Halpern; S.A. Levin

    2013-01-01

    Pocket gophers (Geomyidae) are major agents of disturbance in North American grasslands. Gopher mounds bury existing plants and influence community structure through various mechanisms. However, in mountain meadows that experience winter snowpack, gophers also create winter castings, smaller tube-shaped deposits, previously ignored in studies of plant–gopher...

  19. Treatment seeking for posttraumatic stress in Israel Defense Forces veterans deployed in the Second Lebanon War (2006) and "Operation Cast Lead" in the Gaza Strip (2009): a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Ofir; Lubin, Gadi

    2018-01-04

    The goal of the study was to determine the long-term prevalence of combat-related treatment seeking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Israel's veterans deployed to the Second Lebanon War (2006) and "Operation Cast Lead" in the Gaza Strip (2009). The prevalence of treatment seeking and DSM-IV-TR diagnoses among Israel Defense Force (IDF) veterans was assessed using seven and five year's surveillance and records. The whereabouts and combat exposure of veterans during the war was determined based on the IDF's Operations Directorate records. Overall prevalence of treatment seeking was 1.32% and 0.38% in the Second Lebanon War and "Operation Cast Lead", respectively. The prevalence of treatment-seeking veterans from the Second Lebanon War and in "Operation Cast Lead" was significantly higher in soldiers deployed to high combat-exposure zones (2.19% and 3.1%, respectively), relative to low combat-exposure zones (0.24% and 0.06%, respectively), and relative to soldiers deployed elsewhere (0.26% and 0.02%, respectively). PTSD prevalence was similar among treatment-seeking veterans deployed in high combat-exposure zones in both combats. There is a gap of anywhere between 3% and 11% between treatment seeking by IDF veterans following war deployment and the actual prevalence of PTSD in this soldier population.

  20. Reduced gaseous emissions from Corus Strip products Ljmuiden sinter and pellet plants; Reduction des emissions gazeuses a l'usine de production d'agglomeres et de boulettes de Corus Strip Products a Ljmuiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuwerink, T.; Van Der Panne, A. [Corus Iron Manufacturing Ljmuiden Raw Materials and Agglomeration, Ljmuiden (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    At Corus Strip Products Ljmuiden (formerly Hoogovens Steel), the Netherlands, ca. 4.4 and 4.6 million tons of sinter and pellets respectively, are produced per year. In the two blast furnaces, the sinter and pellets are converted to ca. 5.7 million tons of hot metal. The high temperature treatment which the iron ore is subjected to in the sinter and pellet plants gives rise to the formation of noxious compounds like SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, dust and dioxins. Like other integrated steel works, Corus Strip Products Ljmuiden is faced with stricter environmental regulations with respect to gaseous and aqueous emissions. This spurred the building of a flue gas recirculation system (Emission Optimized Sintering), a wet scrubber process (Airfine) and water treatment systems for these plants. This paper gives an overview of the results accomplished to date and outlines further emission reductions in the future. (authors)

  1. Stripping Away the Soil : Plant Growth Promoting Microbiology Opportunities in Aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelme, Ryan P; Oyserman, Ben O; Blom, Jesse E; Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J; Newton, Ryan J

    2018-01-01

    As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and

  2. Structural and functional characteristics of buffer strip vegetation in an agricultural landscape - high potential for nutrient removal but low potential for plant biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Sandra; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Kronvang, Brian; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2018-07-01

    Vegetated buffer strips constitute a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and provide several ecosystem services. Buffer strips are often applied as a mitigation measure against diffuse pollution in agricultural areas, primarily because they may retain nutrients and in this way help protect the aquatic environment. Additionally, they can improve biodiversity in an otherwise homogenous landscape and may therefore have a value in their own right. In the present study, we characterized the structural and functional features of the vegetation in Danish buffer strips using a nationwide dataset to explore: i) their floristic quality in terms of species diversity and conservation value and ii) based on their functional characteristics, their potential to retain nutrients. Moreover, we analyzed how the structural and functional characteristics varied along gradients in the environmental features of the catchment. We found that the floristic quality of the buffer vegetation was generally low, exhibiting an average of only 3.3% of the number of species of conservation interest. Instead, Danish buffer strips were dominated by widespread and productive species that are tolerant of anthropogenic impacts in the catchment. The abundance of highly productive plant species was positively related to high intensity land use, whereas the abundance of stress-tolerant plant species was positively related to low intensity land use. The high productivity of the buffer strips implies a large bio-storage potential, and these areas might therefore offer an opportunity to remove nutrients by harvesting the plant biomass. We discuss how Danish buffer strips could be exploited via appropriate management (e.g. harvesting) to maximize nutrient retention and at the same time improve floristic quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stripping Away the Soil: Plant Growth Promoting Microbiology Opportunities in Aquaponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Bartelme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and drought, producing beneficial molecules, and supplying nutrients and trace metals to the plant rhizosphere. Previous studies of PGPMs have focused primarily on soil-based crops. In contrast, aquaponics is a water-based agricultural system, in which production relies upon internal nutrient recycling to co-cultivate plants with fish. This arrangement has management benefits compared to soil-based agriculture, as system components may be designed to directly harness microbial processes that make nutrients bioavailable to plants in downstream components. However, aquaponic systems also present unique management challenges. Microbes may compete with plants for certain micronutrients, such as iron, which makes exogenous supplementation necessary, adding production cost and process complexity, and limiting profitability and system sustainability. Research on PGPMs in aquaponic systems currently lags behind traditional agricultural systems, however, it is clear that certain parallels in nutrient use and plant-microbe interactions are retained from soil-based agricultural systems.

  4. Stripping Away the Soil: Plant Growth Promoting Microbiology Opportunities in Aquaponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelme, Ryan P; Oyserman, Ben O; Blom, Jesse E; Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J; Newton, Ryan J

    2018-01-01

    As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and drought, producing beneficial molecules, and supplying nutrients and trace metals to the plant rhizosphere. Previous studies of PGPMs have focused primarily on soil-based crops. In contrast, aquaponics is a water-based agricultural system, in which production relies upon internal nutrient recycling to co-cultivate plants with fish. This arrangement has management benefits compared to soil-based agriculture, as system components may be designed to directly harness microbial processes that make nutrients bioavailable to plants in downstream components. However, aquaponic systems also present unique management challenges. Microbes may compete with plants for certain micronutrients, such as iron, which makes exogenous supplementation necessary, adding production cost and process complexity, and limiting profitability and system sustainability. Research on PGPMs in aquaponic systems currently lags behind traditional agricultural systems, however, it is clear that certain parallels in nutrient use and plant-microbe interactions are retained from soil-based agricultural systems.

  5. Heavy steel casting components for power plants 'mega-components' made of high Cr-steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, Reinhold [voestalpine Giesserei Linz GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Steel castings of creep resistant steels play a key role in fossil fuel fired power plants for highly loaded components in the high and intermediate pressure section of the turbines. Inner and outer casings, valve casings, inlet connections and elbows are examples of such critical components. The most important characteristic in a power plant is the efficiency, which mainly drives the CO2-emission. As a consequence of steadily improving power plant efficiencies and ever stricter emission standards, steam parameters become more critical and the creep resistance of the cast materials must also be constantly improved. The foundries voestalpine Giesserei Linz and voestalpine Giesserei Traisen participated in the development of the new 9-10% Cr-steels for application up to 625 C/650 C and in the THERMIE project where Ni-base alloys for 700 C-power plants were developed. Beside the material development in the European research projects the commercial production had to be established for industrial processes and the newly developed materials have to be transferred from research into the commercial production of heavy cast components. After selecting the most promising alloy from the laboratory melts, welding tests were performed - mostly with matching electrodes also produced within COST/THERMIE. Base material and welds were investigated in respect of microstructure, creep resistance, mechanical properties and weldability. Heat treatment investigations were also necessary for optimization of the mechanical properties. Based on the results of these studies, pilot components and plates for testing welding processes were cast in order to verify the castability and weldability of larger parts and to make any necessary adjustments to chemical composition, heat treatment or welding parameters. Parallel to the ongoing creep tests within COST/THERMIE-program, the newly developed steel grades were introduced into the commercial production of large components. This involved finding

  6. Elastic strips

    OpenAIRE

    Chubelaschwili, David; Pinkall, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of finding an explicit description of a developable narrow Moebius strip of minimal bending energy, which was first formulated by M. Sadowsky in 1930, we will develop the theory of elastic strips. Recently E.L. Starostin and G.H.M. van der Heijden found a numerical description for an elastic Moebius strip, but did not give an integrable solution. We derive two conservation laws, which describe the equilibrium equations of elastic strips. In applying these laws we find...

  7. Cast Steels for Creep-resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Drotlew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium ironalloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  8. Cast Steels for Creep-Resistant Parts Used in Heat Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drotlew A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium iron alloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.

  9. Performance of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Gaza Strip Potential use of Wastewater and Sludge in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shomar, B.H.; Mueller, G.; Yahya, A.

    2003-07-01

    Twelve elements (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed in 120 composite samples of influent and effluent wastewater; the results revealed that domestic wastewater influent contains considerable amounts of heavy metals and the partially functional treatment plants of Gaza are able to remove 40-70% of most metals during the treatment process. Heavy metals in 31 industrial wastewater effluents are within the ranges of international standards. All industries of Gaza are light, despite that they have no treatment facilities, their effluents are being discharged to municipal sewerage system and the existing treatment plants are capable to absorb the industrial effluents with no significant impact on treatment bioprocesses. Thirty parameters were determined in 35 sludge samples; P, AOX, C, S, CaCO{sub 3}, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Li, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Cd, As, Hg, Ti, Se, Br, Rb, Th, Sr, Y, U, and Zr. Although there are no treatment facilities for sludge within the treatment plants, the results indicated that sludge in general is clean of heavy metals. Zinc and AOX only showed anomalous concentrations; more than 85% of sludge samples showed that averages of zinc and AOX are 2000 mg/kg and 550 mg Cl/kg, respectively, which exceed the standards of all industrial countries for sludge to be used in land application. (author)

  10. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  11. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  12. Effects of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on germination, growth and nutrient uptake of coastal dune plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Del Vecchio

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows play an important role in marine ecosystems. A part of seagrass production is also exported to adjacent coastal terrestrial systems, possibly influencing their functioning. In this work we experimentally analyzed the effect of Posidonia oceanica beach-cast on plant germination, growth, and nutrient uptake of two plant species (Cakile maritima and Elymus farctus that grow on upper beaches and fore dunes along the Mediterranean coasts. We compared plants growing in simple sand (control with those growing in a substrate enriched with P. oceanica wrack (treatment in laboratory. P. oceanica wrack doubled the N substrate pool and kept the substrate humid. Plants growing in the treated substrate grew faster, were twice as large as those growing in the control substrate, while tissues were enriched in N and P (Cakile by the 1.3 fold in N and 2.5 fold in P; Elymus by 1.5 fold in N and 2 fold in P. Our results suggest a positive effect of seagrass litter for the enhancing of dune species, highlighting its role for the conservation of coastal dune ecosystems.

  13. Thermal Aging Performance of Domestic Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels in Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengliang, Li; Xiaoyun, Deng; Zhiying, Yin; Yuangang, Duan

    The domestic cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) used for PWR main coolant lines face thermal aging phenomenon during long-term service at reactor operating temperatures in the range of 280-320°C. The accelerated thermal aging experiment of CASS at an elevated temperature of 400°C was carried out. The decrease regularity of absorbed energy of CASS at room temperature was obtained by Charpy impact test, and the variation trend of impacted specimen's fracture surfaces of CASS at different aging time was observed by scanning electron microscope. The experimental results show that: after 15,000 hours of accelerated thermal aging, the domestic CASS gradually reaches a thermal aging saturation, and its absorbed energy suffers a dramatic loss, dropping to almost 41-45% of the initial value, but still meets the assessment indicators for unaged state required by design specifications.

  14. Neurobehavioral testing of subjects exposed residentially to groundwater contaminated from an aluminum die-casting plant and local referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, K H; Warshaw, R H

    1993-08-01

    Residents adjoining a die-casting plant had excessive headaches, numbness of hands and feet, dizziness, blurred vision, staggering, sweating, abnormal heart rhythm, and depression, which led to measurements of neurobehavioral performance, affective status, and the frequency of symptoms. They had all been exposed via well water and proximity to the plant to volatile organic chemicals (VOC) and to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The 117 exposed women and men and 46 unexposed referents were studied together for simple and choice visual reaction time, body sway speed, blink reflex latency, color discrimination, Culture Fair (a nonverbal nonarithmetic intelligence test), recall of stories, figures, and numbers, cognitive and psychomotor control (slotted pegboard and trail making A and B), long-term memory, profile of mood states (POMS), and scores and frequencies of 34 symptoms. Choice reaction time, sway speed, and blink latency were impaired in both sexes of the exposed group and trail making B was impaired in exposed women. The POMS scores and frequencies of 30 of 34 symptoms were elevated in both sexes, compared to referents. Recall, long-term memory, psychomotor speed, and other cognitive function tests were reduced in exposed subjects and in the referents as compared to national referents. Neurophysiological impairment, and cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction and affective disorders, especially depression and excessive frequency of symptoms, were associated with the use of wells contaminated with VOCs, TCE and PCBs.

  15. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  16. Considerations for multivariable control of the twin-roller strip caster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazos, Alberto

    2006-04-01

    Twin-roller steel strip casters may offer advantages with respect to classical continuous casting hot rolling processes. Some works have reported control aspects of this process, however, the cross coupling elements have not been evaluated. In this work, the derivation of a 3 x 3 linearized multivariable model for process control purposes proposed in previous investigations is presented. The model was simplified to a 2 x 2 plant. The purpose of this work is to show that the process is highly interactive by performing an analysis of its multivariable characteristics. Some important considerations for process control design based on such multivariable characteristics of the process are discussed.

  17. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  18. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  19. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  20. Impact of as-cast structure on structure and properties of twin-roll cast AA8006 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamova, M.; Ocenasek, V. [Vyzkumny Ustav Kovu, Panenske Brezany (Czechoslovakia); Juricek, Z.

    2000-07-01

    Sheet production by twin-roll casting (TRC) process is a well established practice in the aluminium industry because it offers several advantages in comparison with DC casting and hot rolling, esp. lower production and investment costs. Thin strips exhibiting a combination of good strength and high ductility are required for various applications and for this reason alloys with higher Fe and Mn content such as AA 8006 displace AA 1xxx or AA 8011 alloys. However, TRC of AA 8006 strips involves several problems, e.g. casting conditions and subsequent treatment procedures need fine tuning. The results of an investigation of the effect of casting conditions on structure and properties of AA 8006 strips are presented. The influence of casting speed, grain refiner addition, molten metal level in the tundish, tip setback and roll separating force was investigated. The impact of imperfect as-cast structure on structure and properties of thin strips in H22 and O tempers was evaluated and compared with strips from good as-cast material. (orig.)

  1. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  2. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I....... At last a postprocessor will be included with facilities for statistical calculations and for plots and prints of the results.The project is divided into 7 tasks where the third is to be completed.This report has two aims. To give an introduction to the project of developing a strip theory module......-ship code available at the department. It will be structured as a general preprocessor mainly to determine the hydrodynamic mass and damping. A strip processor including three different theories: A linear frequency domain strip theory, a quadratic strip theory and a nonlinear time domain strip theory...

  3. Hair casts

    OpenAIRE

    Sweta S Parmar; Kirti S Parmar; Bela J Shah

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

  4. Bird community response to filter strips in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Dively, G.P.; Gill, D.E.; Rewa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Filter strips are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted along agricultural field margins adjacent to streams or wetlands and are designed to intercept sediment, nutrients, and agrichemicals. Roughly 16,000 ha of filter strips have been established in Maryland through the United States Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program. Filter strips often represent the only uncultivated herbaceous areas on farmland in Maryland and therefore may be important habitat for early-successional bird species. Most filter strips in Maryland are planted to either native warm-season grasses or cool-season grasses and range in width from 10.7 m to 91.4 m. From 2004 to 2007 we studied the breeding and wintering bird communities in filter strips adjacent to wooded edges and non-buffered field edges and the effect that grass type and width of filter strips had on bird community composition. We used 5 bird community metrics (total bird density, species richness, scrub-shrub bird density, grassland bird density, and total avian conservation value), species-specific densities, nest densities, and nest survival estimates to assess the habitat value of filter strips for birds. Breeding and wintering bird community metrics were greater in filter strips than in non-buffered field edges but did not differ between cool-season and warm-season grass filter strips. Most breeding bird community metrics were negatively related to the percent cover of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) in ???1 yr. Breeding bird density was greater in narrow (60 m) filter strips. Our results suggest that narrow filter strips adjacent to wooded edges can provide habitat for many bird species but that wide filter strips provide better habitat for grassland birds, particularly obligate grassland species. If bird conservation is an objective, avoid planting orchardgrass in filter strips and reduce or eliminate orchardgrass from filter strips through management practices. Copyright ?? 2011 The

  5. Determination of particle concentration rankings by spatial mapping of particle surface area, number, and mass concentrations in a restaurant and a die casting plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Young; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Olson, Gregory M

    2010-08-01

    Measurements using several exposure metrics were carried out in a restaurant and a die casting plant to compare the spatial distributions of particle surface area (SA), number, and mass concentrations and rank exposures in different areas by those metrics. The different exposure metrics for incidental nanoparticle and fine particle exposures were compared using the concentration rankings, statistical differences between areas, and concentration ratios between different areas. In the die casting plant, area concentration rankings and spatial distributions differed by the exposure metrics chosen. Surface area and fine particle number concentrations were greatest near incidental nanoparticle sources and were significantly different between three areas. However, mass and coarse particle number concentrations were similar throughout the facility, and rankings of the work areas based on these metrics were different from those of SA and fine number concentrations. In the restaurant, concentrations in the kitchen for all metrics except respirable mass concentration were significantly greater than in the serving area, although SA and fine particle number concentrations showed larger differences between the two areas than either the mass or coarse particle number concentrations. Thus, the choice of appropriate exposure metric has significant implications for exposure groupings in epidemiologic and occupational exposure studies.

  6. Solidification and casting

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Brian

    2002-01-01

    INDUSTRIAL PERSPECTIVEDirect chillcasting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of aluminium alloysContinuous casting of steelsCastings in the automotive industryCast aluminium-silicon piston alloysMODELLING AND SIMULATIONModelling direct chill castingMold filling simulation of die castingThe ten casting rulesGrain selection in single crystal superalloy castingsDefects in aluminium shape castingPattern formation during solidificationPeritectic solidificationSTRUCTURE AND DEFECTSHetergeneous nucleation in aluminium alloysCo

  7. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  8. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  9. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  10. Impact of Oscillation Parameters on Surface Quality of Cast Billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibulka J.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on impact of different oscillation parameters on surface quality of peritectic steel grades cast into billets 150x150 mm. Hydraulic oscillation used for this purpose was temporarily installed on one strand of the billet caster. Hydraulic oscillation enables, in comparison to ordinary used electromechanical oscillation, flexible set-up of basic parameters of the oscillation cycle (negative strip time and its ratio. Proper oscillation mode is capable to assure regular oscillation marks development, good lubrication in the mould and adequate compression of the solidifying shell. Impact of an oscillation mode providing negative strip time 0.085 s and its ratio -50 % on surface quality of cast billets is compared with standard oscillation mode applied on strands equipped with electromechanical oscillation characterized with variable negative strip time between 0.084 and 0.096 s and fixed negative strip ratio to -14 %.

  11. Quantum strips on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Krejcirik, David

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the theory of quantum waveguides, we investigate the spectrum of the Laplacian, subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions, in a curved strip of constant width that is defined as a tubular neighbourhood of an infinite curve in a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold. Under the assumption that the strip is asymptotically straight in a suitable sense, we localise the essential spectrum and find sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of geometrically induced bound states. I...

  12. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  13. Mechanical properties of homogenized twin-roll cast and conventionally cast AZ31 magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Zimina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of mechanical properties of magnesium alloys nowadays is very important, because of the variety of industrial applications. For this goal, the number of casting techniques and further treatments were developed. Among the continuous casting techniques, which allow producing long strips of the alloys, is twin-roll casting. Using this process one can get the magnesium alloy with finest microstructure and higher specific strength. In this paper the comparison of tensile properties of conventionally cast and twin-roll cast AZ31 magnesium alloys was made. Tensile tests were carried out with constant strain rate 10-3 s-1 at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 °C. Both materials were tested in as-cast state and after homogenization treatment at 450 °C for 10 hours. The investigation showed that there are no significant changes in ductility of AZ31 conventionally cast alloy even after heat treatment, while the ductility of twin-roll cast alloy increases.

  14. Cast irons

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Cast iron offers the design engineer a low-cost, high-strength material that can be easily melted and poured into a wide variety of useful, and sometimes complex, shapes. This latest handbook from ASM covers the entire spectrum of one of the most widely used and versatile of all engineered materials. The reader will find the basic, but vital, information on metallurgy, solidification characteristics, and properties. Extensive reviews are presented on the low-alloy gray, ductile, compacted graphite, and malleable irons. New and expanded material has been added covering high-alloy white irons used for abrasion resistance and high-alloy graphitic irons for heat and corrosion resistance. Also discussed are melting furnaces and foundry practices such as melting, inoculation, alloying, pouring, gating and rising, and molding. Heat treating practices including stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering, autempering (of ductile irons), and surface-hardening treatments are covered, too. ASM Spec...

  15. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  16. Effect of ferrite on the precipitation of σ phase in cast austenitic stainless steel used for primary coolant pipes of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Na, E-mail: wangyongqiang1124@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-15

    The effect of ferrite phase on the precipitation of σ phase in a Z3CN20.09M cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) used for primary coolant pipes of pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants was investigated by using isothermal heat-treatment, optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) techniques. The influence of different morphologies and volume fractions of ferrite in the σ phase formation mechanism was discussed. The amount of σ phase precipitated in all specimens with different microstructures increased with increasing of aging time, however, the precipitation rate is significant different. The formation of σ phase in specimens with the coarsest ferrite and the dispersively smallest ferrite is slowest. The lowest level Cr content in ferrite and fewest α/γ interfaces in specimen are the main reasons for the slowest σ precipitation due to they are unfavorable for the kinetics and thermodynamics of phase transformation respectively. By contraries, the fastest formation of σ phase takes place in specimens with narrow and long ferrite due to the most α/γ interfaces and higher Cr content in ferrite which are beneficial for preferential nucleation and formation thermodynamics of σ phase. (author)

  17. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  18. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  19. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  20. Special thermite cast irons

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. Zhiguts; I. Kurytnik

    2008-01-01

    The given paper deals with the problems of the synthesis of cast iron by metallothermy synthesis. On the basis of investigated method of calculations structures of charges have been arranged and cast iron has been synthesized further. Peculiarities metallothermic smelting were found, mechanical properties and structure of received cast iron were investigated and different technologies for cast iron receiving were worked out.

  1. Changing environment and urban identity following open-cast mining and thermic power plant in Turkey: case of Soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Arife

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a summary of a project changed into a book named by "Changing Environment, City and Identity in Soma with the Geographical Evaluations" issued on May 2005. In this research, Soma, which is one of the most remarkable districts in Manisa in the West Anatolia from the point of economical figures, is assessed with its physical environment potential, improving economical activities and changing socio-economical structure. Owing to the open coal basins in the northeast and southwest of the district where lignite is produced and the impact of the thermic power plant near the city centre, Soma has changed on a large scale. This change has introduced some environmental problems into the district such as the devastation of the forestry land; the infertility of farming land; and soil, water and air pollution. Even though the change under discussion has led to many problems to deal with, it has also influenced its socio-economical structure to a large extent and revealed new type of inhabitants having different life expectations and aims. In conclusion, in this article, changing environment and city structure after lignite processing and thermic station establishment in Soma are discussed through the effective geographical factors. The new city profile formed by the local dynamics in question is evaluated according to the data obtained by the studies made in the neighbourhood.

  2. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  3. The effect of cast-to-cast variations on the quality of thin section nickel alloy welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    The welding behaviour of 26 commercial casts of Alloy 800 has been quantified for mechanised, autogenous, full penetration, bead-on-strip tungsten inert gas welding tests. Weld front and back widths have been measured and correlated with minor element variations. Casts with similar welding responses have been sorted into groups. The behaviour of the weld pool, surface slags and arc have been compared and a convection controlled model has been used to account for differences between the groups of casts. The main factors governing laboratory process control variability have been identified and a statistical method has been used to identify all the components of weld variance. An optimum size of welding test matrix has been proposed to determine typical cast-to-cast variations at high significance levels. (author)

  4. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  5. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  6. Area Strip Mine Reclamation Using Dredged Material: A Field Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    reclamation of abandoned strip mine spoils.l1 Regraded areas can be seeded or planted with cuttings or seedlings ; however, most strip mine areas are...Helianthus petiolaris PLAINS THREE-AWN GRASS Aristida oligantha PRICKLEY LETTUCE Lactuca scariola QUACK GRASS Agropyron repens RED TOP Agrostis alba REED...Arctium minus FILD THISTLE Cirsiumn vlare BUL THISTLE Cirsiun aulgare A9’ COMMON SOW THISTLE Sonchus uliginosus PRICKLY LETTUCE Lactuca scariola A10

  7. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  8. Casting and Splinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    article /80165-technigue Self Evaluation Is injured extremity in desired position? »- Empty can position »- Wrist extension 20° );;>- MCP Oexion...periodically throughout the day If cast feels tight despite elevation seek medical assistance Do not scratch under cast; do not get cast wet Get

  9. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  10. Electronic rumble strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Donald R.; Lenz, James

    1997-02-01

    Single vehicle run-off-road accidents are responsible for significant numbers of injuries and fatalities, and significant property damage. This fact spurs interest in warning systems to alert drivers that vehicles are drifting towards the edge of the road, and that a run-off road accident is imminent. An early attempt at such a warning system is the use of machined grooves on the shoulder to create a rumble strip. Such a system only provides warning, however, as the vehicle actually leaves the traffic lane. More desirable is a system that warns in anticipation of such departure. Honeywell has under development a magnetic lateral guidance system that couples a sensitive magnetoresistive transducer with a magnetic traffic marking tape being developed by 3M. While this development was initially undertaken for use in automated highways, or for special tasks such as guiding snowplow owners, the system can provide an effective, all-weather warning system to provide alert of impending departure from the roadway. This electronic rumble strip is actually a simpler system than the baseline guidance system, and can monitor both distance from the traffic lane edge and the speed of approach to the edge with a low cost sensor.

  11. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  12. Stripping away the soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelme, Ryan P.; Oyserman, Ben O.; Blom, Jesse E.; Sepulveda-Villet, Osvaldo J.; Newton, Ryan J.

    2018-01-01

    As the processes facilitated by plant growth promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) become better characterized, it is evident that PGPMs may be critical for successful sustainable agricultural practices. Microbes enrich plant growth through various mechanisms, such as enhancing resistance to disease and

  13. Readout of silicon strip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, W

    2003-01-01

    Various architectural and technological options of readout electronics for silicon strip detectors in vertex and tracking applications are discussed briefly. The ABCD3T ASIC for the readout of silicon strip detectors in the ATLAS semiconductor tracker is presented. The architecture of the chip, some design issues and radiation effects are discussed.

  14. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Azzurri, P

    2005-01-01

    With over 200 square meters of sensitive Silicon and almost 10 million readout channels, the Silicon Strip Tracker of the CMS experiment at the LHC will be the largest Silicon strip detector ever built. The design, construction and expected performance of the CMS Tracker is reviewed in the following.

  15. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  16. Bismuth-based electrochemical stripping analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    2004-01-27

    Method and apparatus for trace metal detection and analysis using bismuth-coated electrodes and electrochemical stripping analysis. Both anodic stripping voltammetry and adsorptive stripping analysis may be employed.

  17. Expandable pattern casting research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The Expandable Pattern Casting (EPC) Process is a developing foundry technology that allows designers the opportunity to consolidate parts, reduce machining, and minimize assembly operations. An air gauging system was developed for measuring foam patterns; exact shrinkage depended on type and density of the foam. Compaction studies showed that maximum sand densities in cavities and under overhangs are achieved with vibrational amplitudes 0.001-0.004 in., and that sand moved most freely within a few inches of the top free surface. Key to complete mold filling while minimizing casting defects lies in removing the foam decomposition products. The most precise iron castings were made by EPC in four commercial EPC foundries, with attention paid to molding and compaction. EP cast 60-45-12 ductile iron had yield strengths, ultimate strengths, and elastic modulus similar to conventionally cast ductile iron cast from the same ladle.

  18. Advanced lost foam from casting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C. E.; Littleton, H. E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B. A.; Sheldon, D. S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects Task 4: Pattern Gating Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas in the period of October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers.

  19. Caste and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Dayabati

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the institution of caste and its operation in a micro-level village setting of West Bengal, an Indian state, where state politics at grass roots level is vibrant with functioning local self-government and entrenched political parties. This ethnographic study reveals that caste......–ideological field, the concept of caste-hierarchy seems to continue as an influencing factor, even in the operation of leftist politics....

  20. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  1. Evolution of halictine castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerer, Gerd

    1980-03-01

    Social halictine bees have female castes that range from species with no size differences to those with a discrete bimodality. Female caste differences are inversely correlated with the number of males produced in the first brood. It is proposed that the sexual dimorphism of solitary forms is being usurped by the female caste system of species in the process of turning social. Thus, caste differences and summer male suppression are greatest in the social species originating from solitary precursors with distinct sexual dimorphism, and are least in species evolving from solitary ancestors with a continuous sexual polymorphism.

  2. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1) the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc.), and (2) the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  3. ATLAS Strips Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the LHC at CERN around 2020 by about an order of magnitude (SLHC). The ATLAS experiment will require a new particle tracking system for SLHC operation in order to cope with the increase in background events by about one order of magnitude at the higher luminosity. , an all silicon detector with enhanced radiation hardness is being designed. A massive R&D programme, involving many particles physics groups and several leadings manufacturers of silicon detectors for particle physics, is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. In this framework new sensor materials like p-type silicon and the 3D technology are investigated. In parallel, the SCT commissioning experience has taught us to look into alternative module concepts, in which higher levels of integration are combined with the modularity of the SCT approach. We will report on the status of the R&D projects on radiation hard silicon strip detectors for particle physics, link...

  4. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  5. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  6. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  7. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast...

  8. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  9. Higher Education's Caste System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  10. Cool Cast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleeve to protect it in the bath or shower. A splint does the same thing as a cast: It keeps the broken or injured bone from moving so it can heal. It also usually has a soft layer of cotton inside. A splint can be made from the same materials as a cast or may be a pre- ...

  11. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  12. Caste in Itself, Caste and Class, or Caste in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the British conquered Bengal and eventually the whole of India,they set out to administer the colony. In this context they encountered two phenomena with which they were not familiar: (1 the relation of people to land for production (and not for revenue receiving, household living, etc., and (2 the caste system of India, viz. the jati strati?cation of society.

  13. Chemical corrosion in cast iron in soil-water medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, K; Panday, Y D

    2001-02-01

    Grey cast iron metal strips were allowed to rust in varying compositions of soil-water media under the controlled environment. The process of corrosion was monitored by non-electrochemical method. Assessment of the extent of corrosion was carried out, both visually and by the method of weight loss coupons. It was found that a 80:20 weight:volume percent (w/v%) composition caused the most severe case of corrosion over a period of seven days. It was also observed that the corrosion in cast iron obeyed the relation, D = ktn [10]. The value of 'n' increased as corrosion became more severe. Gravimetric analysis and evidence from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) proved that gamma-FeOOH was one of the intermediates of corrosion in grey cast iron in soil-water media. An attempt has also been made to propose a mechanism for the corrosion in cast iron strips in soil-water media. It was found to be consistent with the one proposed by McEnaney and Smith [11].

  14. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  15. Clean Metal Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  16. Symptomatic stent cast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, John

    2012-02-03

    Biliary stent occlusion is a major complication of endoscopic stent insertion and results in repeat procedures. Various theories as to the etiology have been proposed, the most frequently studied is the attachment of gram negative bacteria within the stent. Several studies have shown prolongation of stent patency with antibiotic prophylaxis. We report the case of stent occlusion from a cast of a previously inserted straight biliary stent; a "stent cast" in an 86-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice. This was retrieved with the lithotrypter and she made an uneventful recovery. This is the first reported case of a biliary stent cast.

  17. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Mišičko; Tibor Kvačkaj; Martin Vlado; Lucia Gulová; Miloslav Lupták; Jana Bidulská

    2009-01-01

    The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores) without filler (surface defects) and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects). First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D...

  18. HFIR Fuel Casting Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gibbs, Paul Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Process exploration for fuel production for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) using cast LEU-10wt.%Mo as an initial processing step has just begun. This project represents the first trials concerned with casting design and quality. The studies carried out over the course of this year and information contained in this report address the initial mold development to be used as a starting point for future operations. In broad terms, the final billet design is that of a solid rolling blank with an irregular octagonal cross section. The work covered here is a comprehensive view of the initial attempts to produce a sound casting. This report covers the efforts to simulate, predict, cast, inspect, and revise the initial mold design.

  19. Life cycle assessment as a method of limitation of a negative environment impact of castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casting production constitutes environmental problems going far beyond the foundry plant area. Applying a notion of the life cycle the input (suppliers side and output factors (clients side can be identified. The foundry plant activities for the environment hazard mitigation can be situated on various stages of the casting life cycle. The environment impact of motorisation castings made of different materials – during the whole life cycle of castings – are discussed in the paper. It starts from the charge material production, then follows via the casting process, car assembly, car exploitation and ends at the car breaking up for scrap.

  20. Family (oikos Evangelism for reaching forward caste Hindus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DW Fowlkes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the need for Church Planting Movements among the unreached peoples of India. Of particular concern to this study is the application of Church Planting Movement strategy to forward caste Hindus of India. It is shown that evangelizing households (family or �oikos� evangelism is a New Testament strategy and the most appropriate strategy for reaching forward caste Hindus. It is concluded that Christian disciples remaining within Hindu culture and familial systems hold the potential for the most indigenous approach to evangelizing forward caste Hindus.

  1. Optical strip waveguide: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusu, K; Kawakami, S; Nishida, S

    1979-03-15

    An analysis of the strip waveguide is presented with special emphasis on reflection and transmission of a wave obliquely incident on the side of a strip. Mode conversion and the contribution of radiation modes are taken into account in the formulation. The numerical results of the mode conversion and attenuation constant of the fundamental leaky mode are presented and compared with the results of other authors. The numerical accuracy of our analysis is also checked by two different procedures. It is found that the radiation modes have considerable effects on the waveguide characteristics.

  2. Prairie strips improve biodiversity and the delivery of multiple ecosystem services from corn-soybean croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Lisa A; Niemi, Jarad; Helmers, Matthew J; Liebman, Matt; Arbuckle, J Gordon; James, David E; Kolka, Randall K; O'Neal, Matthew E; Tomer, Mark D; Tyndall, John C; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Drobney, Pauline; Neal, Jeri; Van Ryswyk, Gary; Witte, Chris

    2017-10-17

    Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with catchments containing only crops, integrating prairie strips into cropland led to greater catchment-level insect taxa richness (2.6-fold), pollinator abundance (3.5-fold), native bird species richness (2.1-fold), and abundance of bird species of greatest conservation need (2.1-fold). Use of prairie strips also reduced total water runoff from catchments by 37%, resulting in retention of 20 times more soil and 4.3 times more phosphorus. Corn and soybean yields for catchments with prairie strips decreased only by the amount of the area taken out of crop production. Social survey results indicated demand among both farming and nonfarming populations for the environmental outcomes produced by prairie strips. If federal and state policies were aligned to promote prairie strips, the practice would be applicable to 3.9 million ha of cropland in Iowa alone.

  3. Prairie strips improve biodiversity and the delivery of multiple ecosystem services from corn–soybean croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmers, Matthew J.; Liebman, Matt; James, David E.; Kolka, Randall K.; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Tomer, Mark D.; Tyndall, John C.; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Drobney, Pauline; Neal, Jeri; Van Ryswyk, Gary; Witte, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland. In a catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Replacing 10% of cropland with prairie strips increased biodiversity and ecosystem services with minimal impacts on crop production. Compared with catchments containing only crops, integrating prairie strips into cropland led to greater catchment-level insect taxa richness (2.6-fold), pollinator abundance (3.5-fold), native bird species richness (2.1-fold), and abundance of bird species of greatest conservation need (2.1-fold). Use of prairie strips also reduced total water runoff from catchments by 37%, resulting in retention of 20 times more soil and 4.3 times more phosphorus. Corn and soybean yields for catchments with prairie strips decreased only by the amount of the area taken out of crop production. Social survey results indicated demand among both farming and nonfarming populations for the environmental outcomes produced by prairie strips. If federal and state policies were aligned to promote prairie strips, the practice would be applicable to 3.9 million ha of cropland in Iowa alone. PMID:28973922

  4. Buttock Lifting with Polypropylene Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballivian Rico, José; Esteche, Atilio; Hanke, Carlos José Ramírez; Ribeiro, Ricardo Cavalcanti

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of gluteal suspension with polypropylene strips. Ninety healthy female patients between the ages of 20 and 50 years (mean, 26 years), who wished to remodel their buttocks from December 2004 to February 2013 were studied retrospectively. All 90 patients were treated with 2 strips of polypropylene on each buttock using the following procedures: 27 (30 %) patients were suspended with polypropylene strips; 63 (70 %) patients were treated with tumescent liposuction in the sacral "V", lower back, supragluteal regions, and flanks to improve buttocks contour (aspirated volume of fat from 350 to 800 cc); 16 (18 %) patients underwent fat grafting in the subcutaneous and intramuscular layers (up to 300 cc in each buttock to increase volume); 5 (6 %) patients received implants to increase volume; and 4 (4.4 %) patients underwent removal and relocation of intramuscular gluteal implants to improve esthetics. Over an 8-year period, 90 female patients underwent gluteal suspension surgeries. Good esthetic results without complications were obtained in 75 of 90 (84 %) cases. Complications occurred in 15 of 90 (16.6 %) patients, including strip removal due to postoperative pain in 1 (1.1 %) patient, and seroma in both subgluteal sulci in 3 (3.3 %) patients. The results of this study performed in 90 patients over 8 years showed that the suspension with polypropylene strips performed as a single procedure or in combination with other cosmetic methods helps to enhance and lift ptosed gluteal and paragluteal areas. This journal requires that the authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  5. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kunte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4-28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy

  6. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  7. Comparison of marginal accuracy of castings fabricated by conventional casting technique and accelerated casting technique: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Srikanth; Revathi, Kakkirala; Reddy, S Kranthikumar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional casting technique is time consuming when compared to accelerated casting technique. In this study, marginal accuracy of castings fabricated using accelerated and conventional casting technique was compared. 20 wax patterns were fabricated and the marginal discrepancy between the die and patterns were measured using Optical stereomicroscope. Ten wax patterns were used for Conventional casting and the rest for Accelerated casting. A Nickel-Chromium alloy was used for the casting. The castings were measured for marginal discrepancies and compared. Castings fabricated using Conventional casting technique showed less vertical marginal discrepancy than the castings fabricated by Accelerated casting technique. The values were statistically highly significant. Conventional casting technique produced better marginal accuracy when compared to Accelerated casting. The vertical marginal discrepancy produced by the Accelerated casting technique was well within the maximum clinical tolerance limits. Accelerated casting technique can be used to save lab time to fabricate clinical crowns with acceptable vertical marginal discrepancy.

  8. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mišičko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  9. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Figure 55 Die casting machine. Shot sleeve at S, melt furnace at M, ladle preheat at L. Figure 56 Aluminum die casting top surface. Risers removed... ladle and transferred to the shot sleeve. Upon pouring the metal, the ram is actuated and the casting made. To test the mechanical operation of...mnui i .MI iiiiiuH ’ -84- Figure 55. Die casting machine. Shot sleeve at S, melt furnace at M, ladle preheat at L. ■ ■ wmmm*mm

  10. Segregation in cast products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    are also available (Moore 1984; Ohnaka 1988; Flemings 1990; Roy et al 1992; Ghosh. 1997). In addition, some recent research papers will also be referred to as required. Original references of earlier studies are omitted for the sake of brevity. The basic principles of formation of microsegregation in castings and ingots were.

  11. ToxCast Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ToxCast Dashboard helps users examine high-throughput assay data to inform chemical safety decisions. To date, it has data on over 9,000 chemicals and information from more than 1,000 high-throughput assay endpoint components.

  12. Strategies to evaluate goodness of reference strips for in-season, field scale, irrigated corn nitrogen sufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrogen (N) sufficiency approach to assess plant N status for in-season N management requires a non-N-limiting reference to make N recommendations. Use of reference strips in fields with spatially variable soils and the impact this variability has within N enriched reference strips are not we...

  13. Wear resistance of cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pietrowski; G. Gumienny

    2008-01-01

    In this paper investigations of abrasive and adhesive wear resistance of different cast iron grades have been presented. Examinations showed, that the most advantageous pair of materials is the cast iron – the hardened steel with low-tempered martensite. It was found, that martensitic nodular cast iron with carbides is the most resistant material.

  14. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  15. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  16. MUST, a set of strip detectors for studying radioactive beams induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Leven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Marechal, F.; Petizon, L.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Soulet, C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1996-01-01

    This report states the specificity of light particles elastic scattering, and the need of detecting recoil protons to improve angular resolution. Then the development of a specific MUST strip detector is detailed: 60 strips detectors with Si O sub 2 dielectric, that yield 500 ps time resolution, and Si (Li) detectors following next. A versatile data acquisition system has been developed too, with CAMAC interface to suit to any experimental plant. (D.L.)

  17. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  18. A fluorescent imaging assay of cast in renal disease based on graphene quantum dots and Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongneng; Ni, Danni; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Liqun; Liu, Linlin; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2016-02-15

    Renal disease has become a global public health problem. Cast is a useful disease marker of kidney injury and renal failure. Hence, a cast-targeted fluorescent imaging assay is developed for the laboratory diagnosis of renal disease. Firstly, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were stripped from graphene oxide sheets and amine-modified. Then, anti-human IgG antibody was conjugated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles to identify the cast in urine. Furthermore, the modified GQDs were linked onto the surface of Fe3O4/anti-IgG nanocomposites. Lastly, this Fe3O4/GQD fluorescent probe was added into the sample to detect the cast through fluorescent imaging. Preliminary application of this probe in clinical detection showed that the common types of casts in urine (including RBC, WBC, fatty and granular casts) could be detected by this fluorescent imaging assay. The method has the advantages of fast speed, high sensitivity (lowest detection limit to 2 casts/ml), good selectivity, and wide linear range (2-2000 casts/ml). Regression analysis also showed that there was a good linear relationship (y=0.9495×+10.974, R(2)=0.9879) between the fluorescent counts and the casts in urine. This cast-targeted fluorescent imaging assay may be a potential method for the laboratory diagnosis of renal disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cast iron - a predictable material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg C. Sturm

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available High strength compacted graphite iron (CGI or alloyed cast iron components are substituting previously used non-ferrous castings in automotive power train applications. The mechanical engineering industry has recognized the value in substituting forged or welded structures with stiff and light-weight cast iron castings. New products such as wind turbines have opened new markets for an entire suite of highly reliable ductile iron cast components. During the last 20 years, casting process simulation has developed from predicting hot spots and solidification to an integral assessment tool for foundries for the entire manufacturing route of castings. The support of the feeding related layout of the casting is still one of the most important duties for casting process simulation. Depending on the alloy poured, different feeding behaviors and self-feeding capabilities need to be considered to provide a defect free casting. Therefore, it is not enough to base the prediction of shrinkage defects solely on hot spots derived from temperature fields. To be able to quantitatively predict these defects, solidification simulation had to be combined with density and mass transport calculations, in order to evaluate the impact of the solidification morphology on the feeding behavior as well as to consider alloy dependent feeding ranges. For cast iron foundries, the use of casting process simulation has become an important instrument to predict the robustness and reliability of their processes, especially since the influence of alloying elements, melting practice and metallurgy need to be considered to quantify the special shrinkage and solidification behavior of cast iron. This allows the prediction of local structures, phases and ultimately the local mechanical properties of cast irons, to asses casting quality in the foundry but also to make use of this quantitative information during design of the casting. Casting quality issues related to thermally driven

  20. Melting and casting of FeAl-based cast alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilkening, D. [Columbia Falls Aluminum Co., Columbia Falls, MT (United States); Liebetrau, J.; Mackey, B. [AFFCO, L.L.C., Anaconda, MT (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The FeAl-based intermetallic alloys are of great interest because of their low density, low raw material cost, and excellent resistance to high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, and molten salts. The applications based on these unique properties of FeAl require methods to melt and cast these alloys into complex-shaped castings and centrifugal cast tubes. This paper addresses the melting-related issues and the effect of chemistry on the microstructure and hardness of castings. It is concluded that the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process for melting and the proper selection of the aluminum melt stock can result in porosity-free castings. The FeAl alloys can be melted and cast from the virgin and revert stock. A large variation in carbon content of the alloys is possible before the precipitation of graphite flakes occurs. Titanium is a very potent addition to refine the grain size of castings. A range of complex sand castings and two different sizes of centrifugal cast tubes of the alloy have already been cast.

  1. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  2. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  3. Diffraction by a finite strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    A new approach is presented to diffraction problems involving plane strip barriers or slit apertures. These are problems that display the effects of multiple interacting edges. The approach taken here provides exact, compact solutions. The theory is introduced through a series of examples that are, in fact, the 'standard' problems of the subject, diffraction of a plane oblique wave by a slit, for example. In each case, the solutions are found to depend explicitly on a single 'special' function and its Fourier transform. These fundamental functions are described, with the emphasis placed on practical computational methods. The example problems are all couched in the language of acoustics.

  4. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Xu, Shanqing; Wen, Guilin; Xie, Yi Min

    2018-01-01

    In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could stron...

  5. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  6. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  8. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  9. Cast Aluminum Structures Technology (CAST) Phase VI. Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    o Metal preparation o Ladle fill o Pouring 0 Mold shakeout o Casting cleanup o Inspection o Weld correction o Heat treatment and straightening o...presents a summary of foundry data for the 10 Hitchcock cast - ings. Included are the ladle chemistry and the pouring date, temperature, and time for each...properties, and full range stress- strain curves to failure for each specimen d. Chemistry of molten metal in ladle for each casting 3.4.3.2 The foundry

  10. Deep percolation in greenhouse-cultivated celery using the technique of subsurface film strips placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhida Du

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the deep percolation during greenhouse vegetable cultivation, the technique of subsurface film strips placement was tested. Four treatments with two kinds of cross-sections (flat and U-shaped and two different spacings (10 cm and 40 cm of subsurface film strips were arranged in a greenhouse before planting celery. At the same time, a non-film treatment was arranged for comparison. Soil water content was measured and irrigation time was adjusted according to the soil water content. Evapotranspiration of celery during growth was calculated by the method of energy balance and the deep percolation was calculated by the equation of water balance. Deep percolation was reduced in all experimental treatments. Greater reduction in deep percolation was observed when using U-shaped cross-section strips compared with that using the flat cross-section strips. In addition, greater reduction in deep percolation was observed when the spacing between the film strips was smaller. The results of this test showed that the technique of subsurface film strips placement can reduce deep percolation and conserve irrigation water for greenhouse vegetables cultivation. However, the optimal layout variables for the use of the technique of subsurface film strips placement need further experimental and numerical analysis.

  11. Dietary behaviours and dental fluorosis among Gaza Strip children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaloob, L; Abed, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of dental fluorosis has been identified among children in the Gaza Strip. This study aimed to determine the history of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours among children in the Gaza Strip and to examine potential associations with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. A cross-sectional study recruited a stratified cluster random sample of 350 children aged 12-18 years and their mothers. Data about dietary behaviours in the first 7 years of life were collected by interview questionnaire. Dental fluorosis was determined using the Thyllstrup-Fejerskov index. A majority of children were breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months (82.9%) but 98.1% were given tea in the first year of life. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 78.0%. Both intake of animal proteins and plant proteins were negatively associated with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Further studies to investigate fluoride intake is required to plan preventive interventions.

  12. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  13. Fracture Mechanisms in Steel Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski Z.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were inspired with the problem of cracking of steel castings during the production process. A single mechanism of decohesion - the intergranular one - occurs in the case of hot cracking, while a variety of structural factors is decisive for hot cracking initiation, depending on chemical composition of the cast steel. The low-carbon and low-alloyed steel castings crack due to the presence of the type II sulphides, the cause of cracking of the high-carbon tool cast steels is the net of secondary cementite and/or ledeburite precipitated along the boundaries of solidified grains. Also the brittle phosphor and carbide eutectics precipitated in the final stage solidification are responsible for cracking of castings made of Hadfield steel. The examination of mechanical properties at 1050°C revealed low or very low strength of high-carbon cast steels.

  14. Advanced lost foam casting technology. 1995 summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Askeland, D.; Griffin, J.; Miller, B.A.; Sheldon, D.S.

    1996-05-01

    Previous research made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional research was needed to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. The current project focused on five areas listed as follows: Task 1: Precision Pattern Production; Task 2: Pattern Coating Consistency; Task 3: Sand Fill and Compaction Effects; Task 4: Pattern Gating; and Task 5: Mechanical Properties of Castings. This report summarizes the work done under the current contract in all five areas. Twenty-eight (28) companies jointly participate in the project. These companies represent a variety of disciplines, including pattern designers, pattern producers, coating manufacturers, plant design companies, compaction equipment manufacturers, casting producers, and casting buyers. This report summarizes the work done in the past two years and the conclusions drawn from the work.

  15. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  16. LOST FOAM CASTING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Qingyou [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Sklad, Philip S [ORNL; Currie, Kenneth [Tennessee Technological University; Abdelrahman, Mohamed [Tennessee Technological University; Vondra, Fred [Tennessee Technological University; Walford, Graham [Walford Technologies; Nolan, Dennis J [Foseco-Morval

    2007-01-01

    The lost foam casting process has been successfully used for making aluminum and cast iron thin walled castings of complex geometries. Little work has been carried out on cast magnesium alloys using the lost foam process. The article describes the research activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Tennessee Technological University on lost foam casting of magnesium alloys. The work was focused on castings of simple geometries such as plate castings and window castings. The plate castings were designed to investigate the mold filling characteristics of magnesium and aluminum alloys using an infrared camera. The pate castings were then characterized for porosity distribution. The window castings were made to test the castability of the alloys under lost foam conditions. Significant differences between lost foam aluminum casting and lost foam magnesium casting have been observed.

  17. Steel Casting Requirements for Ordnance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel , *Castings, *Nondestructive testing , * Charpy impact tests , Tensile properties, Loads(Forces), Toughness, Hardness, Etching, Heat treatment, Microstructure, Shells(Structural forms), Economic analysis

  18. New strips of convergence for Dirichlet series

    OpenAIRE

    Defant, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this article we study the interplay of the theory of classical Dirichlet series in one complex variable with recent development on monomial expansions of holomorphic functions in infinitely many variables. For a given Dirichlet series we obtain new strips of convergence in the complex plane related to Bohr’s classical strips of uniform but non absolute convergence.

  19. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensive...

  20. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  1. Strip intercropping strategy for biomass to energy production while on the same time maintaining soil fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2009-01-01

    ICROFS (www.icrofs.org) project titled “BioConcens” www.bioconcens.elr.dk/uk/) one objective is to design and test a strip intercropping concept. Strip intercropping (IC) is based upon general IC principles focusing on the management of plant interactions to maximize productivity and resource......In contrast to energy technologies like solar and wind, energy in the form of biomass can be stored and bioenergy produced when needed using a wide range of technologies. However, a substantial rise in the use of biomass for energy is expected, which means additional pressure on farmland...... crop biomass production during the two years will be presented together with initial conclusion on the interspecific competitive interactions between strips. Is it possible at this stage to identify advantages and possible drawbacks? And is the inclusion of a perennial grass-clover strip sufficient...

  2. Strip intercropping strategy for biomass to energy production while on the same time maintaining soil fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2009-01-01

    sustainability. Organic agriculture (OA) is facing a big challenge producing bioenergy from local resources and on the same time maintaining soil fertility. There is a clear goal to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and thereby decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but the question is how to reach it? In a four year...... ICROFS (www.icrofs.org) project titled “BioConcens” www.bioconcens.elr.dk/uk/) one objective is to design and test a strip intercropping concept. Strip intercropping (IC) is based upon general IC principles focusing on the management of plant interactions to maximize productivity and resource...... utilizations (Willey, 1979). The crops are not necessarily sown and harvested at the same time, but the crops co-occur for a significant period of their growth. IC is a practice with crops grown in strips wide enough that each can be managed independently, yet narrow enough that the strip components can...

  3. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  4. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  5. Parcelamento e largura da faixa de aplicação da uréia na recuperação do nitrogênio pela planta de milho Splitting and width of strip urea applications and the recovery of nitrogen by maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lyra Villas Bôas

    1999-01-01

    (granular urea. The top dressing that was applied at two growth stages in 10, 20 or 40 cm width strips did not affect dry matter production, content, amount and recovery of N in the corn plant. Only when one urea application was made, the recovery of N from the corn plant was larger for the 10 cm of width in relation to 40 cm. The split application increased significantly dry matter production, content, amount and recovery of N in the corn plant in one single application.

  6. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - White Cast Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  7. Education and Caste in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  8. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron.Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron , uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditionalmaterials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  9. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  10. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in

  11. Caste, social stigma and identity processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2011-01-01

    Caste persists as an important socio-psychological phenomenon in many spheres of Indian social life and particularly within village contexts. It is argued that socio-psychological insights into caste identity and caste- based stigma may complement ongoing sociological and anthropological research into caste. Drawing upon identity process theory, this article explores the possible functions performed by caste-based stigma both for the higher caste groups (HCGs) and the ‘Scheduled Caste’ (SC) g...

  12. Aeroelastic deformation of a perforated strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, M.; Karimi, H. H.; Falcón, C.; Reis, P. M.

    2018-01-01

    We perform a combined experimental and numerical investigation into the static deformation of perforated elastic strips under uniform aerodynamic loading at high-Reynolds-number conditions. The static shape of the porous strips, clamped either horizontally or vertically, is quantified as they are deformed by wind loading, induced by a horizontal flow. The experimental profiles are compared to numerical simulations using a reduced model that takes into account the normal drag force on the deformed surface. For both configurations (vertical and horizontal clamping), we compute the drag coefficient of the strip, by fitting the experimental data to the model, and find that it decreases as a function of porosity. Surprisingly, we find that, for every value of porosity, the drag coefficients for the horizontal configuration are larger than those of the vertical configuration. For all data in both configurations, with the exception of the continuous strip clamped vertically, a linear relation is found between the porosity and drag. Making use of this linearity, we can rescale the drag coefficient in a way that it becomes constant as a function of the Cauchy number, which relates the force due to fluid loading on the elastic strip to its bending rigidity, independently of the material properties and porosity of the strip and the flow speed. Our findings on flexible strips are contrasted to previous work on rigid perforated plates. These results highlight some open questions regarding the usage of reduced models to describe the deformation of flexible structures subjected to aerodynamic loading.

  13. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  14. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  15. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  16. A video strip chart program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient

  17. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  18. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  19. Semi-solid twin-roll casting process of magnesium alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, H.; Davey, K.; Rasgado, M.T. Alonso; Haga, T.; Koga, N.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental approach has been performed to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid strip casting using a horizontal twin roll caster. The demand for light-weight products with high strength has grown recently due to the rapid development of automobile and aircraft technology. One key to such development has been utilization of magnesium alloys, which can potentially reduce the total product weight. However, the problems of utilizing magnesium alloys are still mainly related to high manufacturing cost. One of the solutions to this problem is to develop magnesium casting-rolling technology in order to produce magnesium sheet products at competitive cost for commercial applications. In this experiment, magnesium alloy AZ31B was used to ascertain the effectiveness of semi-solid roll strip casting for producing magnesium alloy sheets. The temperature of the molten magnesium, and the roll speeds of the upper and lower rolls, (which could be changed independently), were varied to find an appropriate manufacturing condition. Rolling and heat treatment conditions were changed to examine which condition would be appropriate for producing wrought magnesium alloys with good formability. Microscopic observation of the crystals of the manufactured wrought magnesium alloys was performed. It has been found that a limiting drawing ratio of 2.7 was possible in a warm deep drawing test of the cast magnesium alloy sheets after being hot rolled

  20. Thin Gauge Twin-Roll Casting, Process Capabilities and Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaland, O.; Espedal, A. B.; Nedreberg, M. L.; Alvestad, I.

    Traditionally industrial twin roll casters have been operated at gauges 6-10 mm, depending on the type of caster and the final product requirements. Over the past few years it has become apparent that a significant increase in productivity can be achieved when the casting gauge is reduced. Hydro Aluminium embarked on an extensive research and development, thin gauge casting programme, in the beginning of the 1990's and this paper presents some results from a five year lasting project (joint programme between Hydro Aluminium a.s. and Lauener Engineering). Based on more than 400 casting trials the major benefits and limitations of casting at reduced gauge and increased speed are outlined. Important aspects related to process development and product quality are discussed including: productivity and limitations, surface defects, microstructural characteristics, cooling rates and dendrite structure, segregation behaviour and mechanical properties after thermo-mechanical processing. Results for casting of several alloys are given. Additionally, numerical modelling results of the strip casting process are included.

  1. Prevention of Stripping under Chip Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Eighteen chip-sealed roadways in eight cities and counties in Minnesota were evaluated both in the field (for condition surveys and density tests) and in the laboratory (for permeability, stripping, tensile-strength ratio, asphalt film thickness, and...

  2. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  3. Temperature Profile of the Duracell Test Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viiri, Jouni; Kettunen, Lasse

    1996-01-01

    Presents the temperature profile of the Duracell Test Strip obtained using a Inframetrics 740 thermal imaging radiometer and ThermaGRAM95 software and compares this to the theoretical profile derived by Clark and Bonicamp. (JRH)

  4. Quantitative NDT structuroscopy of cast iron castings for vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skrbek, B.; Tomáš, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3-4 (2011), s. 293-305 ISSN 1741-8410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic method * structuroscopy * cast iron * clutch disks Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  6. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  7. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping system. 157.128 Section... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2...

  8. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-28

    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  9. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  10. NUMERICAL MODELING OF HARDENING OF UNINTERRUPTEDLY-CASTED BRONZE CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional numerical model for calculation of thermal fields during solidification of continuously casted bronze casting is developed. Coefficients of heat transfer on borders of calculation areas on the basis of the solution of inverse heat transfer conduction problem are determined. The analysis of thermal fields, depending on loop variables of drawing and the sizes of not cooled zone of crystallizer is curried out.

  11. Manufacturing of cast fittings for power machine building using improved CO2-process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuvalov, V.G.; Borodin, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Technique for manufacturing of rods for casting fittings for power machines of heat and nuclear power plants using liquid-glass mixtures solidified by CO 2 is described. Optimal composition of mixtures and their basic technological properties were determined

  12. Surface dosimetry for breast radiotherapy in the presence of immobilization cast material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Andrew; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Metcalfe, Peter; Cutajar, Dean; Quinn, Alexandra; Cardoso, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Foo, Kerwyn; Barlin, Sheree

    2011-01-01

    Curative breast radiotherapy typically leaves patients with varying degrees of cosmetic damage. One problem interfering with cosmetically acceptable breast radiotherapy is the external contour for large pendulous breasts which often results in high doses to skin folds. Thermoplastic casts are often employed to secure the breasts to maintain setup reproducibility and limit the presence of skin folds. This paper aims to determine changes in surface dose that can be attributed to the use of thermoplastic immobilization casts. Skin dose for a clinical hybrid conformal/IMRT breast plan was measured using radiochromic film and MOSFET detectors at a range of water equivalent depths representative of the different skin layers. The radiochromic film was used as an integrating dosimeter, while the MOSFETs were used for real-time dosimetry to isolate the contribution of skin dose from individual IMRT segments. Strips of film were placed at various locations on the breast and the MOSFETs were used to measure skin dose at 16 positions spaced along the film strips for comparison of data. The results showed an increase in skin dose in the presence of the immobilization cast of up to 45.7% and 62.3% of the skin dose without the immobilization cast present as measured with Gafchromic EBT film and MOSFETs, respectively. The increase in skin dose due to the immobilization cast varied with the angle of beam incidence and was greatest when the beam was normally incident on the phantom. The increase in surface dose with the immobilization cast was greater under entrance dose conditions compared to exit dose conditions.

  13. Surface dosimetry for breast radiotherapy in the presence of immobilization cast material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Andrew; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Metcalfe, Peter; Cutajar, Dean; Quinn, Alexandra; Cardoso, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Foo, Kerwyn [Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Barlin, Sheree, E-mail: anatoly@uow.edu.au [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2011-02-21

    Curative breast radiotherapy typically leaves patients with varying degrees of cosmetic damage. One problem interfering with cosmetically acceptable breast radiotherapy is the external contour for large pendulous breasts which often results in high doses to skin folds. Thermoplastic casts are often employed to secure the breasts to maintain setup reproducibility and limit the presence of skin folds. This paper aims to determine changes in surface dose that can be attributed to the use of thermoplastic immobilization casts. Skin dose for a clinical hybrid conformal/IMRT breast plan was measured using radiochromic film and MOSFET detectors at a range of water equivalent depths representative of the different skin layers. The radiochromic film was used as an integrating dosimeter, while the MOSFETs were used for real-time dosimetry to isolate the contribution of skin dose from individual IMRT segments. Strips of film were placed at various locations on the breast and the MOSFETs were used to measure skin dose at 16 positions spaced along the film strips for comparison of data. The results showed an increase in skin dose in the presence of the immobilization cast of up to 45.7% and 62.3% of the skin dose without the immobilization cast present as measured with Gafchromic EBT film and MOSFETs, respectively. The increase in skin dose due to the immobilization cast varied with the angle of beam incidence and was greatest when the beam was normally incident on the phantom. The increase in surface dose with the immobilization cast was greater under entrance dose conditions compared to exit dose conditions.

  14. Surface dosimetry for breast radiotherapy in the presence of immobilization cast material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Metcalfe, Peter; Cutajar, Dean; Quinn, Alexandra; Foo, Kerwyn; Cardoso, Michael; Barlin, Sheree; Rosenfeld, Anatoly

    2011-02-01

    Curative breast radiotherapy typically leaves patients with varying degrees of cosmetic damage. One problem interfering with cosmetically acceptable breast radiotherapy is the external contour for large pendulous breasts which often results in high doses to skin folds. Thermoplastic casts are often employed to secure the breasts to maintain setup reproducibility and limit the presence of skin folds. This paper aims to determine changes in surface dose that can be attributed to the use of thermoplastic immobilization casts. Skin dose for a clinical hybrid conformal/IMRT breast plan was measured using radiochromic film and MOSFET detectors at a range of water equivalent depths representative of the different skin layers. The radiochromic film was used as an integrating dosimeter, while the MOSFETs were used for real-time dosimetry to isolate the contribution of skin dose from individual IMRT segments. Strips of film were placed at various locations on the breast and the MOSFETs were used to measure skin dose at 16 positions spaced along the film strips for comparison of data. The results showed an increase in skin dose in the presence of the immobilization cast of up to 45.7% and 62.3% of the skin dose without the immobilization cast present as measured with Gafchromic EBT film and MOSFETs, respectively. The increase in skin dose due to the immobilization cast varied with the angle of beam incidence and was greatest when the beam was normally incident on the phantom. The increase in surface dose with the immobilization cast was greater under entrance dose conditions compared to exit dose conditions.

  15. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an

  16. Preventing cracks when casting steel slag ladles

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, M.; Shvetsov, V.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the improvement of large steel casting technology where slag ladle casting is taken as an example. The temperature measurement of the crystallization process of casting is held. The causes of the formation of cracks are reviewed. To prevent the formation of cracks the recommendations are developed to improve the casting technology.

  17. The CAST Time Projection Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Autiero, D.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Chesi, E.; Davenport, M.; Delattre, M.; Di Lella, L.; Formenti, F.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Hasinoff, M.; Lakic, B.; Luzon, G.; Morales, J.; Musa, L.; Ortiz, A.; Placci, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    One of the three X-ray detectors of the CAST experiment searching for solar axions is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) as a readout structure. Its design has been optimized to provide high sensitivity to the detection of the low intensity X-ray signal expected in the CAST experiment. A low hardware threshold of 0.8 keV is safely set during normal data taking periods, and the overall efficiency for the detection of photons coming from conversion of solar axions is 62 %. Shielding has been installed around the detector, lowering the background level to 4.10 x 10^-5 counts/cm^2/s/keV between 1 and 10 keV. During phase I of the CAST experiment the TPC has provided robust and stable operation, thus contributing with a competitive result to the overall CAST limit on axion-photon coupling and mass.

  18. Some Theoretical Considerations on Caste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Caste as a system of social stratification was an encompassing system in the past. There was reciprocal system of exchange goods and services. With time, occupation and mode of generation of livelihood of various caste groups changed, and the traditional form of jajmani system fizzled out. This paper provides an account of changing perspectives of caste relations in social science writing and political discourse. The discourse of caste has been shifted from ritual hierarchy and social discrimination to an instrument to mobilize people for economic and political gain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10437 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 51-86

  19. Nitrogen and carbon dynamics in prairie vegetation strips across topographical gradients in mixed Central Iowa agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlín Pérez-Suárez; Michael J. Castellano; Randall Kolka; Heidi Asbjornsen; Matthew. Helmers

    2014-01-01

    Reductions of nitrogen (N) export from agricultural lands because of changes in specific N stocks andfluxes by incorporation of small amounts of prairie vegetation strips (PVS) are poorly understood. Theprimary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the presence and topographical position of PVSon soil and plant carbon (C) and N stocks relative to annual...

  20. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alistair John; Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix

    2017-09-20

    Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., 'multi-functional' mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that 'multi-functional' flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  1. Inoculation of chromium white cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structureof castings. Castings after inoculation revealed a different structure with numerous grains. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  2. Use of aluminum strips to fabricate verification jig for an implant-supported fixed partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, S; Morgano, S M

    1998-03-01

    Verification of the accuracy of the master cast for an implant-supported fixed partial denture will reduce the chair time and laboratory costs of implant prosthodontic treatment. A wire is usually luted in the mouth to machined components that have been secured to the implants, and the luted assembly is then transferred to the cast to evaluate the positional accuracy of the implant analogs. Unless this wire is dead soft, inaccuracies as a result of elastic memory of the wire can occur. Also, if the wire is not completely rigid, it can be distorted during handling. This article describes a more reliable verification jig for an implant-supported fixed partial denture that can be fabricated with 1.5 mm thick aluminum strips that are luted to the implant components. The use of two aluminum strips creates a metal framework that is rigid and not easily distorted. Also the aluminum pieces do not have elastic memory because they were cut and not bent to shape.

  3. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  4. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  5. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  6. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U.

    2006-04-01

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  7. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  8. Untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharinin Artem Igorevich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Untouchable Castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined in this article. This region is one of the most populated in India. Also it is one of the most social mixed-composed in whole State. That’s why main conclusions which were made on this material can be extrapolated to all social space of country. The authors choose four ethno-caste groups, which represent the majority in untouchables and the three smallest in jaties. Their positions in regional hierarchy and economic specialization are analyzed in detail. There are a lot of information about their number, social structure, literacy rating, endogamy, day-to-day practices, customs and other features. Special accents were pointed on mind orientation of their elites toward integration in modern society or, conversely, toward the conservation of traditional forms of existence. The issues of origin and social evolution of untouchable castes of Uttar Pradesh are examined. There is assessment of castes’ sanskritization or other forms of social selfdevelopment. The quality of “scheduled” castes social environment is analyzed. As a marks of its positiveness the data about discrimination untouchables from other social groups and degree of political representativeness of “scheduled” castes, accessibility of education and labour were chosen. The conclusions were made about development degree of some castes. The factors that play role in positive changes in contemporary conditions were determined. The authors put forward their own hypothesis of future development of untouchable castes in Uttar Pradesh. Empiric base of this article was established on sources that have Indian origin and historical and social research of outstanding western indologies.

  9. Composition of organic matter in earthworm casts depending on litter quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, R. H.; Gerke, H. H.; Schrader, S.; Leue, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earthworms contribute to decomposition and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in soil. The digestion during intestinal passage inside worms may lead to a change in the composition of OM. It is largely unknown if and how the type of litter the earthworm is feeding on is affecting the OM composition in the casts. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used to determine the hydrophobic CH- (A) and the hydrophilic CO- (B) functional groups in OM. The objective was to compare the A/B- ratios of litter samples with that of (i) the corresponding casts of the primary decomposer Lumbricus terrestris and (ii) the water contact angles of ground cast samples and at intact cast surfaces. Litter from 10 different plant species including leaves of birch, beech, oak, spruce, pear, mustard and wheat straw (3 replicates) was offered separately to L. terrestris in microcosms containing a Luvisol soil. The OM composition of litter and that of casts, collected from the soil surface after 4-weeks was analyzed with FTIR (DRIFT technique). The A/B ratio of casts was generally increased as compared to that of the soil. For most litter types, the A/B ratio of cast was relatively similar except for casts from birch (Betula pendula) and pear (Pyrus communis) where the OM show a 3-times higher A/B ratio as compared to wheat (Triticum aestivum) or beech (Fagus sylvatica) casts. The higher A/B ratios seem to be related to the relative higher C/N ratios in the casts from Betula pendula and Pyrus communis feeding experiments. The results indicate that digestion of litter by the worm may change OM composition. The assumption that earthworm casts may enrich hydrophobic OM components could be verified only partly. However particulate and soluble OM fractions in the earthworm casts could have contributed to such differentiation.

  10. Floral Strips Attract Beneficial Insects but Do Not Enhance Yield in Cucumber Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N F; Brainard, D C; Szendrei, Z

    2017-04-01

    Natural enemies and pollinators require nutritional and habitat resources that are often not found in conventional agricultural fields. The addition of flowering plants within agroecosystems may provide the resources necessary to support beneficial insects at the local scale. We hypothesized that insect pollinator and natural enemy abundance would increase in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plots containing flower strips and that the effect would be greatest in the crop rows closest to the flower strips. Three flower treatments were tested: 1) buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), 2) yellow mustard (Brassica hirta), 3) sweet alyssum (Lobularia maritima), and cucumbers as a control. Flowers were planted within a commercial cucumber field in 20-m-long strips in a randomized complete block design with six replications in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Some floral treatments successfully attracted more beneficial insects than others, but the beneficials did not disperse out to the cucumber plants. Cucumber yield was unaffected by flowers with one exception: in 2015, cucumber yield in the sweet alyssum plots were greater than those in plots with no flowers. Our research indicates that adding flowers to cucumber fields to increase services from beneficial insects needs to be further investigated to better understand the effect of factors such as relative flowering strip size. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Instant Casting Movie Theater: The Future Cast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Akinobu; Wemler, Shuhei; Machida, Tamotsu; Takebayashi, Masao; Morishima, Shigeo

    We have developed a visual entertainment system called “Future Cast” which enables anyone to easily participate in a pre-recorded or pre-created film as an instant CG movie star. This system provides audiences with the amazing opportunity to join the cast of a movie in real-time. The Future Cast System can automatically perform all the processes required to make this possible, from capturing participants' facial characteristics to rendering them into the movie. Our system can also be applied to any movie created using the same production process. We conducted our first experimental trial demonstration of the Future Cast System at the Mitsui-Toshiba pavilion at the 2005 World Exposition in Aichi Japan.

  12. Sustainable Shear Behaviour of 2-Span Continuous Reinforced Concrete T-Beams with CFRP Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Samad Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC structures are generally subjected to various load conditions and are susceptible to environmental impact. With time, most of these structures will be subjected to change in their usage. Unexpected increase in load changes may cause severe damage to the structural components, and eventual leading to various types of structural failure. It is noted that shear failure in nature is a sudden failure and should be avoided at all times. To increase its service life due to shear, structures can be strengthened or repaired using CFRP strips wrapped within the shear span (av of the beam. Hence, this paper presents an investigation on the sustainable behaviour of two span continuous RC T-beams strengthened and repaired by wrapping Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP strips at intervals along the shear span (av of the beam. The CFRP strips will be orientated in two directions either at 0°/90° or 45°/35°. Five beams, one control beam, two initially strengthened beams and two precracked and repaired beams were cast and cured in room temperature before testing. All T-beams were designed to fail in shear and are subjected to four-point bending test until failure. Upon completion of the test, all beam specimens shows good sustainable behaviour as the ultimate load and shear load shows an increase in capacity by up to 23% with improve ductile behaviour.

  13. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  14. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  15. Control of packed column fouling in the continuous fermentation and stripping of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F; Kurantz, M J; Goldberg, N; Craig, J C

    1996-07-05

    By recycling the contents of a 14 L fermentor through a stripping column to continuously remove ethanol and reduce product inhibition, continuous complete conversion of nutrient feed containing 600 g/L glucose was achieved in a small pilot plant. Ethanol was recovered from the carbon dioxide stripping gas in a refrigerated condenser, and the gas was reheated with steam and recycled by a blower. Productivity of ethanol in the fermentor as high as 15.8 g/L/h and condensate production of up to 10 L/day of almost 50% by volume ethanol were maintained for up to 60 days of continuous operation. Weekly washing of the column packing in situ was required to prevent loss of performance caused by attached growth of yeast cells, which restricts the gas flow rate through the stripping column. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Wokker. Notes on a Surrealist comic strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sabin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the creation and development of a British comic strip, Wokker (1971-1999, and its connections with the surrealist movement. Although the strip is remarkable for its content and formalist properties, it remains obscure both because of its publishing circumstances, and because it does not fit easily into a history of comics. Rather it can be argued that its conceptual roots can be traced to the artistic ferment that happened in Paris in the 1920s (with Breton as a key reference point, and that it represents a very English, and late-flowering, example of the surrealist idea.

  17. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  18. Silicon strip detectors for the LHCb experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkamp, O

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. Silicon micro-strip detectors are employed in a significant fraction of the tracking system. The Vertex Locator consists of 21 detector stations that operate inside the LHC beam pipe and are separated from the beam vacuum by a thin aluminium foil. The Silicon Tracker is a large-surface silicon micro-strip detector that covers the full acceptance of the experiment in a single tracking station upstream of the spectrometer magnet and the...

  19. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Boudoul, Gaelle

    2011-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) of the CMS experiment is, with 9.6 million readout channels, the largest strip tracker ever built. In order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded it needs to be precisely calibrated, thus ensuring that it fully contributes to the physics research program of the CMS experiment. In 2009 and 2010, the performance of the SST has been carefully studied using cosmic muons and tracks from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV and 7 TeV. In this paper, we present some results of the detector performance.

  20. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  1. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    OpenAIRE

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the di...

  2. CAST Physics Proposal to SPSC

    CERN Document Server

    CAST, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The CAST experiment has the potential to search for solar axions (dark matter particle candidates) or other particles with similar coupling. E.g., paraphtons (Hidden Sector), chameleons (dark energy), while considering the possibility whether CAST could be transformed to an antenna for relic axions with rest mass up to 0.1 to 1meV. While axion searches suggest detectors with lower background, paraphoton and chameleon searches require detectors with sub-keV threshold energy and the use of transparent windows in front of the Micromegas detectors, which cover 3 out of the 4 CAST magnet exits. Ongoing theoretical estimates and experimental investigations will define the priorities of the suggested 4 physics items of this proposal for the period 2012-2014.

  3. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  4. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology - Phase V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanliang Sun; Harry E. Littleton; Charles E. Bates

    2004-04-29

    Previous research, conducted under DOE Contracts DE-FC07-89ID12869, DE-FC07-93ID12230 and DE-FC07-95ID113358 made significant advances in understanding the Lost Foam Casting (LFC) Process and clearly identified areas where additional developments were needed to improve the process and make it more functional in industrial environments. The current project focused on eight tasks listed as follows: Task 1--Computational Model for the Process and Data Base to Support the Model; Task 2--Casting Dimensional Accuracy; Task 3--Pattern Production; Task 4--Improved Pattern Materials; Task 5--Coating Control; Task 6--In-Plant Case Studies; Task 7--Energy and the Environmental Data; and Task 8--Technology Transfer. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2004. The results obtained in each task and subtask are summarized in this Executive Summary and details are provided in subsequent sections of the report.

  5. Steel castings of valves for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Yutaka

    1975-01-01

    The manufacturing of the steel castings of valves for nuclear power plants is reported. The report is divided in six parts. The first part describes the reliability of the steel castings of valves for nuclear power plants. Particular attention must be paid to larger diameter and lower pressure rating for the valves in nuclear power plants than those in thermal power plants. The second part describes the characteristics of steel casting quality, defects and their cause. The defects that may be produced in steel castings are as follows: (a) cavities caused by the insufficient supply of molten steel, (b) sand bites caused by the mold destruction due to thermal shock, and (c) pinholes caused by the gas absorption of molten steel. The third part describes the clarification of quality level and the measures quality project. Gaseous defects and the indications detected by magnetic powder test are attributed to electric furnace steel making. In particular, the method to minimize gas content is important. The fourth part describes the quality control of manufacturing processes. In practice, thirteen semi-automatic testers using gamma radiation are employed. A full automatic inspection plant having capacity of 20,000 radiographs per month is under design. The fifth part describes a quality warrant system. A check sheet system concerning quality and safety is employed in all work shops. The reliability of all testers and measuring instruments as well as the skill of workmen are examined periodically. The seventh part deals with future problems. The manufacturing plan must be controlled so that non-destructive inspection becomes the main means for quality control. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  7. Trees for strip-mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hart; William R. Byrnes

    1960-01-01

    Open-pit or strip mining has become an important method of mining bituminous coal in Pennsylvania. In 1958 some 19.5 million tons of soft coal - 29 percent of the total bituminous production in the State - were produced by this method.

  8. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose is...... the social supervisory system of a mature market economy. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the knowledge about asset stripping by documenting and analysing the phenomenon in a mature market economy context.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... is to analyse why the asset-stripping schemes occurred in a mature market economy with a strong corporate governance system and a low level of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The research is conducted as a longitudinal single case study based on documentary research. Findings – The Danish case...

  9. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 6. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of Chromium (VI) using synthesized gold nanoparticles modified screen-printed electrode. Salamatu Aliyu Tukur Nor Azah Yusof Reza Hajian. Regular Articles Volume 127 Issue 6 June 2015 pp ...

  10. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  11. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  12. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair John Campbell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1 pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’; (2 natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’; or (3 both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix. Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers. Pollinator (e.g., bees and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation, and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  13. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  14. Laboratory testing of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report describes a laboratory evaluation of Alcoscan saliva-alcohol test strips. The objectives of this work were: (1) to determine the precision and accuracy of the Alcoscan strips; and (2) to determine what effect extreme ambient temperatures ...

  15. Imaging of Low Compressibility Strips in the Quantum Hall Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, G.; Glicofridis, P. I.; Tessmer, S. H.; Ashoori, R. C.; Melloch, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    Using Subsurface Charge Accumulation scanning microscopy we image strips of low compressibility corresponding to several integer Quantum Hall filling factors. We study in detail the strips at Landau level filling factors $\

  16. Neonicotinoid insecticide removal by prairie strips in row-cropped watersheds with historical seed coating use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Bradbury, Steven; Schulte, Lisa A.; Helmers, Matthew; Witte, Christopher; Kolpin, Dana W.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Harris, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoids are a widely used class of insecticides that are commonly applied as seed coatings for agricultural crops. Such neonicotinoid use may pose a risk to non-target insects, including pollinators and natural enemies of crop pests, and ecosystems. This study assessed neonicotinoid residues in groundwater, surface runoff water, soil, and native plants adjacent to corn and soybean crop fields with a history of being planted with neonicotinoid-treated seeds from 2008-2013. Data from six sites with the same crop management history, three with and three without in-field prairie strips, were collected in 2015-2016, 2-3 years after neonicotinoid (clothianidin and imidacloprid) seed treatments were last used. Three of the six neonicotinoids analyzed were detected in at least one environmental matrix: the two applied as seed coatings on the fields (clothianidin and imidacloprid) and another widely used neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam). Sites with prairie strips generally had lower concentrations of neonicotinoids: groundwater and footslope soil neonicotinoid concentrations were significantly lower in the sites with prairie strips than those without; mean concentrations for groundwater were 11 and 20 ng/L (p = 0.048) and <1 and 6 ng/g (p = 0.0004) for soil, respectively. Surface runoff water concentrations were not significantly (p = 0.38) different for control sites (44 ng/L) or sites with prairie strips (140 ng/L). Consistent with the decreased inputs of neonicotinoids, concentrations tended to decrease over the sampling timeframe. Two sites recorded concentration increases, however, potentially due to disturbance of previous applications or influence from nearby fields where use of seed treatments continued. There were no detections (limit of detection: 1 ng/g) of neonicotinoids in the foliage or roots of plants comprising prairie strips, indicating a low likelihood of exposure to pollinators and other insects visiting these plants following the cessation of seed

  17. Metal Casting--Industry of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-23

    This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies Metal Casting Industry of The Future; a partnership between the Department of Energy and the metal casting industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.

  18. CAST-IRONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of physical-mechanical characteristics of cast iron slugs, received by semicontinuos way of casting, at temperatures from 850 up to 1100^ С are given. 

  19. Cast Care: Do's and Don'ts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Cast care. In: Instructions for Sports Medicine Patients. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 25, 2018. Pfenninger JL, et al. Casts immobilization and upper extremity splinting. In: Pfenninger and Fowler's ...

  20. Dual Strip-Excited Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Strips for Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna concept utilizing rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA placed over dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane is presented. A dual strip excitation scheme is utilized and both excitation strips are connected together by means of a 50 Ω microstrip feed network placed over the substrate. The four vertical metallic parasitic strips are placed at corner of DRA each having a corresponding ground pad to provide a short/open circuit between the parasitic strip and antenna ground plane, through which a shift of 90° in antenna radiation pattern in elevation plane is achieved. A fractional bandwidth of approximately 40% at center frequency of 1.6 GHz is achieved. The DRA peak realized gain in whole frequency band of operation is found to be above 4 dB. The antenna configuration along with simulation and measured results are presented.

  1. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  2. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, A.; Heath, R. M.; Tanner, M. G.; Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Nappi, C.; Hadfield, R. H.

    2014-04-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events.

  3. WEAR-RESISTANCE OF CHROMIC CAST IRONS OF EUTECTIC COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Baranovskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Casting of wear-resistant chrome cast irons in combined molds and iron chills is studied. Application of these ways of casting results in blending of carbides and increasing of hardness of castings.

  4. Novel method for online monitoring of dissolved N2O concentrations through a gas stripping device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampaey, Kris E; van Dongen, Udo G J M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants are currently measured by online gas phase analysis or grab sampling from the liquid phase. In this study, a novel method is presented to monitor the liquid phase N2O concentration for aerated as well as non-aerated conditions/reactors, following variations both in time and in space. The monitoring method consists of a gas stripping device, of which the measurement principle is based on a continuous flow of reactor liquid through a stripping flask and subsequent analysis of the N2O concentration in the stripped gas phase. The method was theoretically and experimentally evaluated for its fit for use in the wastewater treatment context. Besides, the influence of design and operating variables on the performance of the gas stripping device was addressed. This method can easily be integrated with online off-gas measurements and allows to better investigate the origin of the gas emissions from the treatment plant. Liquid phase measurements of N2O are of use in mitigation of these emissions. The method can also be applied to measure other dissolved gasses, such as methane, being another important greenhouse gas.

  5. Electrical results of double-sided silicon strip modules for the ATLAS Upgrade Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Cadoux, F; Clark, A; Ferrere, D; Ikegami, Y; Hara, K; La Marra, D; Pelleriti, G; Pohl, M; Takubo, Y; Terada, S; Unno, Y; Weber, M

    2012-01-01

    A double-sided silicon strip module has been designed for the short-strip barrel region of the future ATLAS inner tracker for the High Luminosity LHC. University of Geneva and KEK have produced first module prototypes with common components and similar assembly procedures and jigs. This note reports on the electrical performance of the modules tested. The data acquisition system is described. Results from individual and combined module readout are shown.

  6. Developing technological process of obtaining giality casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Issagulov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the process of manufacturing castings using sand-resin forms and alloying furnace. Were the optimal technological parameters of manufacturing shell molds for the manufacture of castings of heating equipment. Using the same upon receipt of castings by casting in shell molds furnace alloying and deoxidation of the metal will provide consumers with quality products and have a positive impact on the economy in general engineering.

  7. Reducing the Incidence of Cast-related Skin Complications in Children Treated With Cast Immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difazio, Rachel L; Harris, Marie; Feldman, Lanna; Mahan, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Cast immobilization remains the mainstay of pediatric orthopaedic care, yet little is known about the incidence of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization. The purposes of this quality improvement project were to: (1) establish a baseline rate of cast-related skin complications in children treated with cast immobilization, (2) identify trends in children who experienced cast-related skin complications, (3) design an intervention aimed at decreasing the rate of cast-related skin complications, and (4) determine the effectiveness of the intervention. A prospective interrupted time-series design was used to determine the incidence of cast-related skin complications overtime and compare the rates of skin complications before and after an intervention designed to decrease the incidence of cast-related heel complications. All consecutive patients who were treated with cast immobilization from September 2012 to September 2014 were included. A cast-related skin complications data collection tool was used to capture all cast-related skin complications. A high rate of heel events was noted in our preliminary analysis and an intervention was designed to decrease the rate of cast-related skin complications, including the addition of padding during casting and respective provider education. The estimated cast-related skin events rate for all patients was 8.9 per 1000 casts applied. The rate for the total preintervention sample was 13.6 per 1000 casts which decreased to 6.6 in the postintervention sample. When examining the heel-only group, the rate was 17.1 per 1000 lower extremity casts applied in the preintervention group and 6.8 in the postintervention group. Incorporating padding to the heel of lower extremity cast was an effective intervention in decreasing the incidence of cast-related skin complications in patients treated with cast immobilization. Level II.

  8. Advanced Lost Foam Casting Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates; Harry E. Littleton; Don Askeland; Taras Molibog; Jason Hopper; Ben Vatankhah

    2000-11-30

    This report describes the research done under the six tasks to improve the process and make it more functional in an industrial environment. Task 1: Pattern Pyrolysis Products and Pattern Properties Task 2: Coating Quality Control Task 3: Fill and Solidification Code Task 4: Alternate Pattern Materials Task 5: Casting Distortion Task 6: Technology Transfer

  9. Inoculation Effects of Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a solidification sequence of graphite eutectic cells of A and D types, as well as globular and cementite eutectics. The morphology of eutectic cells in cast iron, the equations for their growth and the distances between the graphite precipitations in A and D eutectic types were analyzed. It is observed a critical eutectic growth rate at which one type of eutectic transformed into another. A mathematical formula was derived that combined the maximum degree of undercooling, the cooling rate of cast iron, eutectic cell count and the eutectic growth rate. One type of eutectic structure turned smoothly into the other at a particular transition rate, transformation temperature and transformational eutectic cell count. Inoculation of cast iron increased the number of eutectic cells with flake graphite and the graphite nodule count in ductile iron, while reducing the undercooling. An increase in intensity of inoculation caused a smooth transition from a cementite eutectic structure to a mixture of cementite and D type eutectic structure, then to a mixture of D and A types of eutectics up to the presence of only the A type of eutectic structure. Moreover, the mechanism of inoculation of cast iron was studied.

  10. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  11. Search for chameleons with CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anastassopoulos, V.; Arik, M.; Aune, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (βm) and to photons (βΥ) via the Primako eect. By reducing the X-ray detection...

  12. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  13. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  14. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  15. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of..., and tolerances X1 Fine Quality Straight Stripped. Heavy, ripe, firm, semielastic, normal strength and...

  16. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to indicate...

  17. Pressure distribution in centrifugal dental casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J P

    1978-02-01

    Equations are developed for liquid metal pressure in centrifugal dental casting, given the instantaneous rotational velocity, density, and certain dimensions of the casting machine and casting pattern. A "reference parabola" is introduced making the fluid pressure concept more understandable. A specially designed specimen demonstrates experimentally the reference parabola at freezing.

  18. 14 CFR 23.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 23.621 Section 23.621... Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) through (d... do not support structural loads. (b) Bearing stresses and surfaces. The casting factors specified in...

  19. A boxing procedure for corrected cast impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, I H

    1994-01-01

    This new method for boxing a corrected cast impression for a distal extension removable partial denture improves the procedure. The framework with its impression is seated on the remainder of the cast after anatomic ridges have been removed and luted with sticky wax, and the assembly is inserted into a previously formed thermoplastic box and poured to make a new corrected cast.

  20. When Your Child Needs a Cast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fractures, but can be used when limbs are healing after a surgery. There are many types of casts. The most common casts are: Short arm casts: placed from the knuckles of the hand to just below the elbow. These types of ...

  1. Determining casting defects in near-net shape casting aluminum parts by computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Oberdorfer, Bernd; Habe, Daniel; Schumacher, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Three types of near-net shape casting aluminum parts were investigated by computed tomography to determine casting defects and evaluate quality. The first, second, and third parts were produced by low-pressure die casting (Al-12Si-0.8Cu-0.5Fe-0.9Mg-0.7Ni-0.2Zn alloy), die casting (A356, Al-7Si-0.3Mg), and semi-solid casting (A356, Al-7Si-0.3Mg), respectively. Unlike die casting (second part), low-pressure die casting (first part) significantly reduced the formation of casting defects (i.e., porosity) due to its smooth filling and solidification under pressure. No significant casting defect was observed in the third part, and this absence of defects indicates that semi-solid casting could produce high-quality near-net shape casting aluminum parts. Moreover, casting defects were mostly distributed along the eutectic grain boundaries. This finding reveals that refinement of eutectic grains is necessary to optimize the distribution of casting defects and reduce their size. This investigation demonstrated that computed tomography is an efficient method to determine casting defects in near-net shape casting aluminum parts.

  2. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor has been constructed for determination of Cr(VI) with the lowest limit of detection (LOD) reported to date using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified screen-printed electrode (SPE). The modification of SPE by casting pure AuNPs increases the sensitivity for detection of.

  3. [Evaluation of clinical efficacy of casting pure titanium ring on reparation of subgingival residual root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Peng

    2013-10-01

    To explore treatment regime and curative effect of the casting pure titanium ring on reparation of subgingival residual root. Thirty-two teeth were selected for reparation of subgingival residual root after root canal therapy in our department during 2008-2010. The teeth were restored with casting pure titanium ring, glass fiber post and all-ceramic crown. The patients were recalled 12 and 24 months after placement of the pure titanium ring. Gingival crevicular fluid(GCF) samples were collected by filter paper strips. Then the weight of GCF was detected and the gingival index was recorded. The data was analyzed for paired samples t test by SPSS17.0 software package. There was no significant difference in the weight of GCF and the gingival index before and after placement of pure titanium ring (P<0.05). By using pure titanium ring, most subgingival residual root after root canal therapy can be rehabilitated and function well for long time.

  4. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  5. Ammonia recovery from anaerobically digested cattle manure by steam stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L; Mangan, C; Li, X

    2006-01-01

    Ammonia recovery from anaerobically digested cattle manure effluents through steam stripping was studied at a stripping tower temperature of 98-99 degrees C and a steam-water ratio approximately 56-72 g/L. The digested manure effluents were first treated by microfiltration and then the permeate was used as feed in steam stripping. The stripping performance was evaluated under different feed pH values, ammonia concentrations and temperatures. The increase of the initial feed pH does not significantly improve ammonia stripping efficiency due to the fact that the stripped effluent pH is increased during steam stripping. This suggests that steam stripping of anaerobically digested manure effluents for ammonia recovery may not need pre-raised pH. In contrast, the pH value of the synthetic ammonia wastewater containing NH4Cl dramatically decreases after steam stripping. Increasing the feed temperature slightly improves ammonia stripping efficiency, but reduces the concentration of the recovered ammonia in the condensate due to an increased condensate volume at a higher feed temperature. Therefore, the feed temperature should be controlled at an optimum point that can compromise the condensate ammonia concentration and the ammonia stripping efficiency. Experimental results indicate that recovery of ammonia from anaerobically digested cattle manure effluents as NH4OH is technically feasible.

  6. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  7. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  8. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  9. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  10. Strengthening Bridges with Prestressed CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwowski, Tomasz; Żółtowski, Piotr

    2012-06-01

    Limitation of bridge's carrying bearing capacity due to aging and deterioration is a common problem faced by road administration and drivers. Rehabilitation of bridges including strengthening may be applied in order to maintain or upgrade existing bridge parameters. The case studies of strengthening of two small bridges with high modulus prestressed CFRP strips have been presented in the paper. The first one - reinforced concrete slab bridge - and the other - composite steel-concrete girder bridge - have been successfully upgraded with quite new technology. In both cases the additional CFRP reinforcement let increasing of bridge carrying capacity from 15 till 40 metric tons. The CFRP strip prestressing system named Neoxe Prestressing System (NPS), developed by multi-disciplinary team and tested at full scale in Rzeszow University of Technology, has been also described in the paper.

  11. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  12. Emulsion based cast booster - a priming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.N.; Mishra, A.K. [National Institute of Rock Mechanics, KGF (India)

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the potential of emulsion based cast booster to be used as primer to initiate bulk delivered emulsion explosives used in mines. An attempt has been made for comparative study between conventional cast booster and emulsion based cast booster in terms of the initiation process developed and their capability to develop and maintain the stable detonation process in the column explosives. The study has been conducted using a continuous velocity of detonation (VOD) measuring instrument. During this study three blasts have been monitored. In each blast two holes have been selected for study, the first hole being initiated with conventional cast booster while the other one with emulsion based cast booster. The findings of the study advocates that emulsion based cast booster is capable of efficient priming of bulk delivered column explosive with stable detonation process in the column. Further, the booster had advantages over the conventional PETN/TNT based cast booster. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  13. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T [Albuquerque, NM; Payne, Jason A [Albuquerque, NM; Ottesen, Cory W [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  14. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  15. Neutralization of H- beams by magnetic stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.; Hudgings, D.W.; van Dyck, O.B.

    1981-01-01

    The stability of H - beams passing through strong magnetic fields has been relevant to accelerator transport problems and, recently, to neutral beam preparation techniques. The H - electron detachment rate was measured as a function of rest-frame electric field and provides parameters for a theoretical lifetime expression. The limitations imposed on H - transport by magnetic stripping, and neutral-beam preparation in emittance growth, magnetic fields, and beam energies are discussed. Application techniques are also briefly discussed

  16. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Köppen, J.; Palouš, Jan; Combes, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 693-703 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GP205/08/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : interstellar medium * clusters of galaxies * gas stripping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  17. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  18. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  19. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter; Hutto, William R.; Philips, Albert R.

    1989-09-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  20. Search for chameleons with CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassopoulos, V; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Christensen, F; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Desch, K; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Giomataris, I; Hailey, C; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hofmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakobsen, A; Jakovčić, K; Kaminski, J; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Krčmar, M; Krieger, C; Krüger, A; Lakić, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovarov, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Solanki, S K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J A; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K; Brax, P; Lavrentyev, I; Upadhye, A

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a search for (solar) chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter ($\\beta_{\\rm m}$) and to photons ($\\beta_{\\gamma}$) via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1$\\,$keV to 400$\\,$eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600$\\,$eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of $\\beta_{\\gamma}\\!\\lesssim\\!10^{11}$ for $1<\\beta_{\\rm m}<10^6$.

  1. Search for chameleons with CAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anastassopoulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a search for (solar chameleons with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST. This novel experimental technique, in the field of dark energy research, exploits both the chameleon coupling to matter (βm and to photons (βγ via the Primakoff effect. By reducing the X-ray detection energy threshold used for axions from 1 keV to 400 eV CAST became sensitive to the converted solar chameleon spectrum which peaks around 600 eV. Even though we have not observed any excess above background, we can provide a 95% C.L. limit for the coupling strength of chameleons to photons of βγ≲1011 for 1<βm<106.

  2. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  3. In situ air stripping using horizontal wells. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In-situ air stripping employs horizontal wells to inject or sparge air into the ground water and vacuum extract VOC'S from vadose zone soils. The horizontal wells provide better access to the subsurface contamination, and the air sparging eliminates the need for surface ground water treatment systems and treats the subsurface in-situ. A full-scale demonstration was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in an area polluted with trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. Results are described

  4. Corn and Soybeans in a Strip Intercropping System: Crop Growth Rates, Radiation Interception, and Grain Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Verdelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth rates (CGR, radiation interception (IPAR, yields, and their components were determined in two crops monocultures (using one corn and two soybean genotypes and in intercropped “strips,” during three growing seasons. Corn yield in the strips significantly increased in the three seasons (13–16% as compared to that in the monocultures. This response was due to increased yield in corn plants of the border rows of the strips, which was highly correlated to an increased IPAR, allowing high CGR at critical crop stages. As a result, more dry matter was partitioned to grain and also an increased number of ears per plant were generated. Conversely, yields of soybeans in the strips were 2 to 11% lower than that in the monocultures, with variable significance depending on soybean cultivar and/or year. Grain number per unit area was the yield component most closely associated to yield variation in both crops. We believe that if yield components of this system are more closely identified, more appropriate genotypes will fit into strip intercropping, thus contributing to the spread of this technique and thus to the sustainability of actual massive monocultured agricultural systems.

  5. Effect of cast steel production metallurgy on the emergence of casting defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čamek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents metallurgical possibilities of high alloy cast steel production in open induction medium frequency furnaces and an electric arc furnace in a gravity die casting foundry. The observation was focused on the emergence of gas defects in steel castings. The content of gases achieved during the metallurgical processes was evaluated for every unit of the production equipment and the casting ladle before casting into disposable sand moulds. The sand mould area was considered to be constant. The aim was to evaluate the current metallurgical possibilities of affecting the content of gases in high alloy cast steel in the current technical conditions of the foundry.

  6. Anti-carburizing Coating for Resin Sand Casting of Low Carbon Steel Based on Composite Silicate Powder Containing Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Chunyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the structure and properties of anticarburizing coating based on composite silicate powder containing zirconium by X-ray diffraction analyzer, thermal expansion tester, digital microscope and other equipment. It is introduced that the application example of the coating in the resin-sand casting of ZG1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel impeller. The anti-carburizing effect of the coating on the surface layer of the cast is studied by using direct reading spectrometer and spectrum analyzer. The change of the micro-structure of the coating after casting and cooling is observed by scanning electron microscope. The analysis of anti-carburizing mechanism of the coating is presented. The results indicate that the coating possesses excellent suspension property, brush ability, permeability, levelling property and crackresistance. The coating exhibits high strength and low gas evolution. Most of the coating could be automatically stripped off flakily when the casting was shaken out. The casting possesses excellent surface finish and antimetal penetration effect. The carburizing layer thickness of the stainless steel impeller casting with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is about 1mm and maximum carburizing rate is 23.6%. The anticarburizing effect of casting surface is greatly improved than that of zircon powder coating whose maximum carburizing rate is 67.9% and the carburizing layer thickness with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is greater than 2mm. The composite silicate powder containing zirconium coating substantially reduces the zircon powder which is expensive and radioactive and mainly dependent on imports. The coating can be used instead of pure zircon powder coating to effectively prevent metal-penetration and carburizing of resin-sand-casting surface of low carbon steel, significantly improve the foundry production environment and reduce the production costs.

  7. Marginal Accuracy of Castings Fabricated with Ringless Casting Investment System and Metal Ring Casting Investment System: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavathi, M; Sachin, Bhuvana; Prasanna, B G; Shreeharsha, T V; Praveen, B; Ragher, Mallikarjuna

    2016-02-01

    The thermal expansion of the investment can be restricted by the metal casting ring because the thermal expansion of the ring is less than that of the investment. The ringless casting procedure is in use in clinical dentistry, though there is little scientific data to support its use in fixed partial dentures. In this study, marginal discrepancy of castings produced with the ringless casting technique and the conventional technique using the metal rings were compared. A total of 30 wax patterns were fabricated directly on a metal die. Optical stereomicroscope was used to measure the marginal discrepancy between the metal die and wax patterns. A total of 15 castings were invested using Bellavest T phosphate-bonded investment with the ringless technique and 15 were invested with the same investment with a metal ring; 30 castings were produced using a nickel-chromium ceramo-metal alloy. The internal surface of the castings was not modified and seated with finger pressure. The vertical marginal discrepancy was measured using an optical stereomicroscope at a magnification of 100x. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using students t-test (paired t-test and unpaired t-test). The castings of the ringless technique provided less vertical marginal discrepancy (240.56 ± 45.81 μ) than the castings produced with the conventional metal ring technique (281.98± 53.05 μ). The difference was statistically significant. The ringless casting technique had produced better marginal accuracy compared with conventional casting technique. Ringless casting system can be used routinely for clinical purpose.

  8. The evaluation of working casts prepared from digital impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y C; Park, Y S; Kim, H K; Hong, Y S; Ahn, J S; Ryu, J J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reproducibility of working casts of a digital impression system by comparing them with the original, virtual, and rapid prototyping casts. A total of 54 cast sets in clinically stable occlusion were used. They were scanned by an iTero intraoral scanner and converted into STL format virtual casts. Rapid prototyping casts and polyurethane casts were fabricated from the iTero milling system based on the virtual casts. Several horizontal and vertical measurements were performed from the four types of casts, that is, original stone casts, virtual casts, rapid prototyping casts, and polyurethane casts of iTero. Measurement error, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and differences among the casts were calculated and compared. Casts from iTero milling machines exhibited greater dimensional differences and lower ICC values than did other casts. In addition, many of the measurements of the iTero working casts showed statistically significant differences in comparison to the three other types of casts. In contrast, there were no statistically significant differences between the virtual and original casts. Virtual casts made by the iTero intraoral scanner exhibited excellent reproducibility. However, the casts from the iTero milling machine showed greater dimensional differences and lower reproducibility compared to other types of casts.

  9. Delamination wear mechanism in gray cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of the friction and sliding wear of gray cast iron against chromium plated cast irons was carried out on a newly constructed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The tests were the first to be done on the test rig under dry conditions and at the speed of 170 cm/min, and variable loads of 20-260 N for a duration of 15 min. to 3 hours. The gray cast iron surfaces worn by a process of plastic deformation at the subsurface, crack nucleation, and crack growth leading to formation of plate like debris and therefore the delamination theory applies. No evidence of adhesion was observed. This could be due to formation of oxides on the wear surface which prevent adhesion. channel type chromium plating ''picked'' up cast iron from the counter-body surfaces by mechanically trapping cast iron debris on and within the cracks. The removal of the plated chromium left a pitted surface on the cast iron

  10. Homogenity of Die Casting and Returning Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneity of die castings is influenced by wide range of technological parameters as piston velocity in filling chamber of die casting machine, filling time of mould cavity, temperature of cast alloy, temperature of the mould, temperature of filling chamber, surface pressure on alloy during mould filling, final pressure and others. Based on stated parameters it is clear, that main parameters of die casting are filling time of die mould cavity and velocity of the melt in the ingates. Filling time must ensure the complete filling of the mould cavity before solidification process can negatively influence it. Among technological parameters also belong the returning material, which ratio in charge must be constrained according to requirement on final homogeneity of die castings. With the ratio of returning material influenced are the mechanical properties of castings, inner homogeneity and chemical composition.

  11. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  12. Estimation of shell thickness in a continuously cast steel billet using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.; Pandey, J.C.; Kaur, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the continuous casting of steel, one of the factors which limits the rate of faster withdrawal of the casting from the mould is the thickness of the solid shell below the mould. If the shell can not contain the liquid pool, breakouts occur and process of casting disrupts. Estimates of shell thickness have been made on the basis of heat- transfer considerations. The shell thickness could also be delineated, to some extent, by adding radiotracers during casting and subsequently determining the dispersion of radioactivity by autoradiography. The paper presents the results of the estimation of shell thickness based on the heat-transfer model and validation of the model by plant trials using radiotracers. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Directional Solidification of Nodular Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Cerium enhances formation of graphite nodules. Preliminary experiments in directional solidification of cast iron shows quantitative correlation of graphite microstructure with growth rate and thermal gradient, with sufficient spheroidizing element to form spheroidal graphite under proper thermal conditions. Experimental approach enables use of directional solidification to study solidification of spheriodal-graphite cast iron in low gravity. Possible to form new structural materials from nodular cast iron.

  14. Theory of uniqueness of Indian Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Classical studies on pre-modern Indian social structure have suggested apparent differences between the Indian caste system and social stratification as one can discern in other parts of the world. However, one needs to question such dogmatic assertions that such vast differences really existed. An endeavor is made in this research paper to reflect on the nature of caste hierarchy in pre-modern India. The caste system forms the significant basis of pre-modern Indian social structure. Early wr...

  15. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  16. The CMS Si-Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC features the largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) ever build. This device is immersed in a 4T magnetic field and, in conjunction with a Pixel system, it allows the momentum of the charged particles to be measured and the heavy-flavour final states to be tagged despite the hostile radiation environment. The impact of operating conditions and physics requirements on the SST layout and design choices is discussed and the expected performances are reviewed. The SST collaboration is now facing the production of the ~15000 modules and their assembly into the SST substructures. A status is given.

  17. The CMS Si-strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sguazzoni, Giacomo

    2004-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at LHC features the largest Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) ever build. This device is immersed in a 4T magnetic field and, in conjunction with a Pixel system, it allows the momentum of the charged particles to be measured and the heavy-flavour final states to be tagged despite the hostile radiation environment. The impact of operating conditions and physics requirements on the SST layout and design choices is discussed and the expected performances are reviewed. The SST collaboration is now facing the production of the ~15000 modules and their assembly into the SST substructures. A status is given.

  18. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  19. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  20. Microstructured metal molds fabricated via investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Andrew H; King, William P

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an investment casting process to produce aluminum molds having integrated microstructures. Unlike conventional micromolding tools, the aluminum mold was large and had complex curved surfaces. The aluminum was cast from curved microstructured ceramic molds which were themselves cast from curved microstructured rubber. The aluminum microstructures had an aspect ratio of 1:1 and sizes ranging from 25 to 50 µm. Many structures were successfully cast into the aluminum with excellent replication fidelity, including circular, square and triangular holes. We demonstrate molding of large, curved surfaces having surface microstructures using the aluminum mold.

  1. Control of Cast Iron Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.; Lillybeck, N.; Franco, N.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of microgravity for industrial research in the processing of cast iron was investigated. Solidification experiments were conducted using the KC-135 and F-104 aircraft, and an experiment plan was developed for follow-on experiments using the Shuttle. Three areas of interest are identified: (1) measurement of thermophysical properties in the melt; (2) understanding of the relative roles of homogeneous nucleation, grain multiplication, and innocultants in forming the microstructure; and (3) exploring the possibility of obtaining an aligned graphite structure in hypereutectic Fe, Ni, and Co.

  2. Comparative study of corneal strip extensometry and inflation tests

    OpenAIRE

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Anderson, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Strip extensometry tests are usually considered less reliable than trephinate inflation tests in studying corneal biomechanics. In spite of the evident simplicity of strip extensometry tests, several earlier studies preferred inflation tests in determining the constitutive relationship of the cornea and its other material properties, such as Young's modulus and the hysteresis behaviour. In this research, the deficiencies of the strip tests are discussed and a mathematical procedure presented ...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF DEFORMATION STRIPS WHILE STRETCHING OF CYLINDRICAL SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vasilevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation strips have been experimentally revealed and described while stretching of cylindrical samples by means of computer thermography. It has been established that temperature of shift strip surface grows smoothly up to the stage of crack origin in material defect. Sharp growth of surface temperature occurs when tensile stresses reach tensile strength. Change in surface temperature occurs wavy after destruction (while cooling the sample. Processes of material destruction origin and development  characterize temperature changes in deformation strips.

  4. Feasibility of large volume casting cementation process for intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhuying; Chen Baisong; Zeng Jishu; Yu Chengze

    1988-01-01

    The recent tendency of radioactive waste treatment and disposal both in China and abroad is reviewed. The feasibility of the large volume casting cementation process for treating and disposing the intermediate level radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing plant in shallow land is assessed on the basis of the analyses of the experimental results (such as formulation study, solidified radioactive waste properties measurement ect.). It can be concluded large volume casting cementation process is a promising, safe and economic process. It is feasible to dispose the intermediate level radioactive waste from reprocessing plant it the disposal site chosen has resonable geological and geographical conditions and some additional effective protection means are taken

  5. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one’s profession became ‘hereditary,’ resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one’s caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violatio...

  6. Preferential dissolution behaviour in Ni–Cr dental cast alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ni–Cr–Mo dental alloy was fabricated by three different casting methods, viz. centrifugal casting, high frequency induction casting and vacuum pressure casting. The dependence of cast microstructure on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour was investigated using potentiodynamic cyclic and potentiostatic polarization ...

  7. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Hai

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The development and research of casting titanium alloy and its casting technology, especially its application in aeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of moulding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problem and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  8. Effects of AN Alfalfa (medicago Sativa) Buffer Strip on Leached δ15NNITRATE Values: Implications for Management of Hydrologic N Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. J.; Keller, C. K.; Smith, J. L.; Evans, R. D.; Harlow, B.

    2011-12-01

    Buffer strips are commonly used to decrease agricultural runoff with the objective of limiting sediment and agrochemicals fluxes to surface waters. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an alfalfa buffer strip on the magnitude and source(s) of leached nitrate from a dryland agricultural field. Previous research at the Cook Agronomy Farm has inferred two sources of nitrate in tile drain discharge, a high-discharge-season (January through May) synthetic fertilizer source, and a low-discharge-season (June through December) soil organic nitrogen source. This study examines how a change in management strategy and crop species alters the low discharge season nitrate source. In the spring of 2006 an alfalfa buffer strip approximately 20 m wide was planted running approximately north-south in the lowland portion of a 12 ha tile-drained field bordering a ditch that drains into Missouri Flat Creek. Three-year (2003 through 2005) average NO3--N flux prior to the planting of the alfalfa buffer strip was ~0.40 kg ha-1 year-1. After planting, the three-year (2006 through 2008) average NO3--N flux was ~0.38 kg ha-1 year-1. The lack of evident buffer-strip influence on the fluxes may be due in part to the large variation in precipitation amounts and timing that control water flows through the system. Three-year average δ15Nnitrate values for the tile drain pre and post planting of the alfalfa buffer strip were 6.9 ± 1.1 % and 4.2 ± 0.9 % respectively. We hypothesize that the significant difference indicates that the alfalfa strip affects the source of leached nitrate. Before planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the interpreted source of nitrate was mineralization of soil organic nitrogen from non-N2 fixing crops (spring and summer wheat varieties). After planting the alfalfa buffer strip, the source of nitrate was interpreted to be a mixture of mineralized soil organic nitrogen from N2 fixing alfalfa and non-N2 fixing crops. Further work is needed to test

  9. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  10. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, O.; Feigt, I.; Willig, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  11. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  12. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  13. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  14. The temperature gradient on section of casting in process of primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of defining in article was introduced the temperature gradient in process of primary crystallization during cooling the casting from chromium cast iron on basis of measurements of thermal field in test DTA-K3. Insert also the preliminary results of investigations of influence temperature gradient on structure of studied wear resistance chromium cast iron.

  15. Solute diffusion through stripped mouse duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Ham, M; Mizumori, M; Guth, P H; Engel, E; Kaunitz, J D; Akiba, Y

    2007-12-01

    We measured villous cell intracellular pH (pH(i)) and solute diffusion between the bathing media and the epithelial cells in stripped, chambered mouse duodenum. Apical perfusion of a high CO2 solution rapidly acidified the upper villous cells with recovery after its removal. Apical zoniporide (ZP) enhanced CO(2)-induced acidification. Serosal ZP, dimethylamiloride (DMA) or stilbene anion transport inhibitors failed to alter CO(2)-induced acidification, whereas serosal high CO(2) buffer acidified the upper villous cells. Serosal 5-hydroxytryptamine rapidly acidified the upper villous cells. All serosally-perfused fluorescent compounds stained the crypt area, but not the villi or villous cells. In contrast, intravenous carboxyfluorescein quickly diffused into the interstitial space of the entire mucosa, and mucosally perfused fluorescent compound rapidly penetrated the epithelial cell layer. In muscle-stripped duodenum mounted in a small-aperture perfusion chamber, serosal solutes can readily diffuse only to the crypt cell region, whereas access to the villous epithelial cells is diffusion-limited. In contrast, rapid villous cell responses to serosally applied solutes are best explained by neural reflexes. Limited viability of the villous cells and impaired structural stability of the villi further limit long-term, villous cell functional studies of mucosal preparations mounted in small aperture diffusion chambers.

  16. Low Loss Advanced Metallic Fuel Casting Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kihwan; Ko, Youngmo; Kim, Jonghwan; Song, Hoon; Lee Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of fuel slug casting, loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and the fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycles streams in the fabrication process. Recycle streams include fuel slug reworks, returned scraps, and fuel casting heels, which are a special concern in the counter gravity injection casting process because of the large masses involved. Large recycle and waste streams result in lowering the productivity and the economic efficiency of fuel production. To increase efficiency the fuel losses in the furnace chamber, crucible, and the mold, after casting a considerable amount of fuel alloy in the casting furnace, will be quantitatively evaluated. After evaluation the losses will be identified and minimized. It is expected that this study will contribute to the minimization of fuel losses and the wastes streams in the fabrication process of the fuel slugs. Also through this study the technical readiness level of the metallic fuel fabrication process will be further enhanced. In this study, U-Zr alloy system fuel slugs were fabricated by a gravity casting method. Metallic fuel slugs were successfully fabricated with 19 slugs/batch with diameter of 5mm and length of 300mm. Fuel losses was quantitatively evaluated in casting process for the fuel slugs. Fuel losses of the fuel slugs were so low, 0.1∼1.0%. Injection casting experiments have been performed to reduce the fuel loss and improve the casting method. U-Zr fuel slug having φ5.4-L250mm was soundly fabricated with 0.1% in fuel loss. The fuel losses could be minimized to 0.1%, which showed that casting technology of fuel slugs can be a feasible approach to reach the goal of the fuel losses of 0.1% or less in commercial scale

  17. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  18. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one's profession became 'hereditary,' resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one's caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual's status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a 'black sheep effect,' that is, when high caste individuals' group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is ' Caste norm consistent' (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa 'Caste norm inconsistent' condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the 'black sheep' effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society.

  19. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  20. Study of formation of aluminium billet in casting mold during continuous casting and forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stulov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium billet formation and solidified skin thickness distribution along casting mold walls at different levels of liquid metal were investigated. The casting mold consisted of two rotating inclined walls in its upper part and two reciprocating vertical walls. The reduction of skin of casting proceeded in the upper part of mold. Based on the experimental results obtained the influence of metal level in a casting mold on billet formation is determined> The reduction degree needed for continuous process of casting and forging is also defined. The change in skin thickness with billet length under various crystallization conditions is established

  1. Thin section casting program. Volume 2: Horizontal TSC (Thin-Section Casting) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In horizontal thin-section casting (HTSC), 1-inch-thick steel sections are produced at speeds up to 600 ipm or about 60 tons per hour per foot of width (tphf). Liquid steel is fed from the ladle, and flows through a specially designed tundish, then flows through a refractory feeding tube and nozzle, with approximately the same external dimensions as the cast section, into a near-horizontal rectangular mold whose all four sides are traveling in the same direction and speed as the steel casting. This report is the second of a six volume set on thin section casting. This volume covers the research on horizontal thin section casting (TSC).

  2. Energy use in selected metal casting facilities - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, Robert E. [Eppich Technologies, Syracuse, IN (United States)

    2004-05-01

    This report represents an energy benchmark for various metal casting processes. It describes process flows and energy use by fuel type and processes for selected casting operations. It also provides recommendations for improving energy efficiency in casting.

  3. Engineering design of centrifugal casting machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnowo, Roni; Gunara, Sophiadi

    2017-06-01

    Centrifugal casting is a metal casting process in which metal liquid is poured into a rotating mold at a specific temperature. Given round will generate a centrifugal force that will affect the outcome of the casting. Casting method is suitable in the manufacture of the casting cylinder to obtain better results. This research was performed to design a prototype machine by using the concept of centrifugal casting. The design method was a step-by-step systematic approach in the process of thinking to achieve the desired goal of realizing the idea and build bridges between idea and the product. Design process was commenced by the conceptual design phase and followed by the embodiment design stage and detailed design stage. With an engineering design process based on the method developed by G. E. Dieter, draft prototype of centrifugal casting machine with dimension of 550×450×400 mm, ¼ HP motor power, pulley and belt mechanism, diameter of 120-150mm, simultaneously with the characteristics of simple casting product, easy manufacture and maintenance, and relatively inexpensive, was generated.

  4. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jo; Scott, Fiona; Stott, Carol; Allison, Carrie; Bolton, Patrick; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test (CAST) is a parental questionnaire to screen for autism spectrum conditions. In this validation study, the CAST was distributed to 1925 children aged 5-11 in mainstream Cambridgeshire schools. A sample of participants received a full diagnostic assessment, conducted blind to screen status. The sensitivity of…

  5. 14 CFR 29.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 29.621 Section 29.621... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.621 Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section must be...

  6. 14 CFR 27.621 - Casting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Casting factors. 27.621 Section 27.621... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.621 Casting factors. (a) General. The factors, tests, and inspections specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section must be...

  7. Detection of Cast Shadows in Surveillance Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbou, Søren G.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarne Dissing; Stage, Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Cast shadows from moving objects reduce the general ability of robust classification and tracking of these objects, in outdoor surveillance applications. A method for segmentation of cast shadows is proposed, combining statistical features with a new similarity feature, derived from a physics...

  8. PRODUCTION OF SLIP CAST CALCIA HOLLOWWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.; Cowan, R.E.

    1963-12-31

    A method for producing slip cast calcia hollow ware in which a dense calcia grain is suspended in isobutyl acetate or a mixture of tertiary amyl alcohol and o-xylene is presented. A minor amount of triethanolamine and oleic acid is added to the suspension vehicle as viscosity adjusting agents and the suspension is cast in a plaster mold, dried, and fired. (AEC)

  9. Spatial Bimetallic Castings Manufactured from Iron Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cholewa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a conception for manufacturing method of skeleton castings with composite features was shown. Main application of such castings are the working organs of machines subjected to intensive abrasive and erosive wear. Skeleton geometry was based on three-dimensional cubic net consisting of circular connectors and nodes joining 6 connectors according to Cartesian co-ordinate system. Dimension of an elementary cell was equal to 10 mm and diameter of single connector was equal to 5 mm. For bimetallic castings preparation two Fe based alloys were used: L25SHMN cast steel for skeleton substrate and ZlCr15NiMo cast iron for working part of the casting. In presented work obtained structure was analyzed with indication of characteristic regions. Authors described phenomena occurring at the alloys interface and phases in transition zone. A thesis was formulated concerning localization of transition zone at the cast iron matrix – cast steel reinforcement interface. Direction of further studies were indicated.

  10. Model castings with composite surface layer - application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of usable properties of surface layers improvement of cast carbon steel 200–450, by put directly in foundingprocess a composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy. Technology of composite surface layer guarantee mainly increase inhardness and aberasive wear resistance of cast steel castings on machine elements. This technology can be competition for generallyapplied welding technology (surfacing by welding and thermal spraying. In range of studies was made cast steel test castings withcomposite surface layer, which usability for industrial applications was estimated by criterion of hardness and aberasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral and quality of joint cast steel – (Fe-Cr-C. Based on conducted studies a thesis, that composite surface layer arise from liquid state, was formulated. Moreover, possible is control of composite layer thickness and its hardness by suitable selection of parameters i.e. thickness of insert, pouring temperature and solidification modulus of casting. Possibility of technology application of composite surface layer in manufacture of cast steel slide bush for combined cutter loader is presented.

  11. Casting of electron field defining apertures: Casting with the metal mold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dea, D.; San Luis, E.

    1988-01-01

    Cerrobend alloy casts are made to define the desired electron field shapes. These custom casts are fabricated for the selected electron applicator size that has been chosen for the patient. When the cast is placed into that selected electron applicator, it will block out areas that are not to be treated. When an all metal mold assembly was used for the fabrication of these casts, the lip region of the cast which is used to accurately align the cast in the actual treatment applicator, had an irregular edge that prevented an accurate alignment of the cast. To eliminate the irregular edges on the lip region of the cast, the metal mold assembly was heated to approximately 80-85 degrees C before the molten cerrobend alloy was poured into it. The heating of the metal mold assembly helps eliminate the irregular edges on the lip region of the cast. Unfortunately it also created new flaws such as holes, dents, cracks and/or crystallization of the cast as it solidified. These flaws were controlled by cooling the metal mold assembly and the cast immediately after the pouring of the molten cerrobend alloy, evenly with water

  12. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  13. Cast iron repair method of stitching pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, In Sik; Yu, Yeong Chul; Kim, Steve S.; Reed, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    Many cast iron parts are welded and suffer from improper pre-heating and poor welding skills which destroy the castings due to new cracks, deformations etc. This is due mainly to the lack of understanding of the properties of cast iron. Welding, however impractical, was the only alternative for many years. Locks are used to add strength across a crack. Special drilling jigs are used to create a precise hole pattern that locks are driven into. Our locks have a unique ability to pull the sides of a crack together. Bottom locks are stacked or laminated to a depth of 80% of the casting thickness. Thicker surface locks finish off lock installation, allowing repairs in irregular shapes and contours. Installing products can be done quickly with pneumatic tools. Up to one inch of repair can be done in 5 minutes in 1/4 inch thick cast iron.

  14. Cast iron repair method of stitching pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, In Sik; Yu, Yeong Chul; Kim, Steve S.; Reed, Gary J.

    2003-01-01

    Many cast iron parts are welded and suffer from improper pre-heating and poor welding skills which destroy the casting due to new cracks, deformations etc. This is due mainly to the lack of understanding of the properties of cast iron. Welding, however impractical, was the only alternative for many years. Locks are used to add strength across a crack. Special drilling jigs are used to create a precise hole pattern that locks are driven into. Our locks have a unique ability to pull the sides of a crack together. Bottom locks are stacked or laminated to a depth of 80% of the casting thickness. Thicker surface locks finish off lock installation, allowing repairs in irregular shapes and contours. Installing products can be done quickly with pneumatic tools. Up to one inch of repair can be done in 5 minutes in 1/4 inches thick cast iron.

  15. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  16. The present status of dental titanium casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Toru; Ohkubo, Chikahiro; Watanabe, Ikuya; Okuno, Osamu; Takada, Yukyo

    1998-09-01

    Experimentation in all aspects of titanium casting at universities and industries throughout the world for the last 20 years has made titanium and titanium-alloy casting nearly feasible for fabricating sound cast dental prostheses, including crowns, inlays, and partial and complete dentures. Titanium casting in dentistry has now almost reached the stage where it can seriously be considered as a new method to compete with dental casting using conventional noble and base-metal alloys. More than anything else, the strength of titanium’s appeal lies in its excellent biocompatibility, coupled with its comparatively low price and abundant supply. Research efforts to overcome some problems associated with this method, including studies on the development of new titanium alloys suitable for dental use, will continue at many research sites internationally.

  17. The quality of the joint between alloy steel and unalloyed cast steel in bimetallic layered castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wróbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented technology of bimetallic layered castings based on founding method of layer coating directly in cast process so-called method of mould cavity preparation. Prepared castings consist two fundamental parts i.e. bearing part and working part (layer. The bearing part of bimetallic layered casting is typical foundry material i.e. ferritic-pearlitic unalloyed cast steel, whereas working part (layer is plate of austenitic alloy steel sort X2CrNi 18-9. The ratio of thickness between bearing and working part is 8:1. The aim of paper was assessed the quality of the joint between bearing and working part in dependence of pouring temperature and carbon concentration in cast steel. The quality of the joint in bimetallic layered castings was evaluated on the basis of ultrasonic non-destructive testing, structure and microhardness researches.

  18. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities Irr Inventory § 170.445 What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other...

  19. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available induced during roll compaction of titanium strips were measured for strips of different densities. The different densities were achieved by rolling two different particle size (100 and 325 mesh) titanium powders varying the roll gap (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm...

  20. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri‑implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 ...

  1. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective. Key words: Hollow mill, stripped screws, titanium locked.

  2. Great saphenous vein stripping using nasogastric tube | Ademola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method and result: We describe the use of nasogastric tube in the stripping of GSV. This simple technique has been successfully applied in three patients. Conclusion: There is a need to carry out a prospective study regarding the application of this technique of GSV stripping. Keywords: Great saphenous vein, crossectomy, ...

  3. Reforestation of strip-mined lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Spencer Potter; Sidney Weitzman; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1951-01-01

    The early 1940's witnessed a striking increase in strip-mining throughout the eastern coal region. West Virginia, with its extensive coal resources, naturally was caught in the full current of this shift in mining methods. Today the raw gash on the hillside - almost infallibly the mark of a strip-mine operation - is a familiar sight in the State.

  4. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  5. Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped haemolysates from the freshwater fishes Labeo capensis and Ciarias gariepinus. ... of the mudfish Labeo capensis and the catfish Clarias gariepinus, stripped by gel filtration chromatography and buffered at 23°C in 0,05 M Hepes (pH 7,48), were determined at ...

  6. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Slotved, H.-C.; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy ...

  7. Quality Tests of Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cambon, T; CERN. Geneva; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Lutz, Jean Robert; Pagès, P; Pozdniakov, S; Rami, F; Sparavec, K; Dulinski, W; Arnold, L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the SiO2 insulator (AC coupling between metal and implanted strips) of double-sided Silicon strip detectors has been studied by using a probe station. Some tests performed on 23 wafers are described and the results are discussed. Remark This note seems to cause problems with ghostview but it can be printed without any problem.

  8. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  9. Coiled sheet metal strip opens into tubular configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Copper alloy is converted into a spring material that can be rolled into a compact coil which will spontaneously open to form a tube in the long direction of the strip. The copper alloy is passed through a furnace at a prescribed temperature while restraining the strip in the desired tubular configuration.

  10. Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300/sup 0/C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability.

  11. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  12. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  13. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will extend its current physics program by increasing the peak luminosity by one order of magnitude. For ATLAS, one of the two general-purpose experiments of the LHC, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker due to the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. New radiation-hard prototype n-in-p silicon sensors have been produced for the short-strip region of the future ATLAS tracker. The sensors have been irradiated up to the fluences expected in the high-luminous LHC collider. This paper summarizes recent results on the performance of the irradiated n-in-p detectors.

  14. Dynamic underground stripping. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) is a combination of technologies targeted to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with organic compounds. DUS is effective both above and below the water table and is especially well suited for sites with interbedded sand and clay layers. The main technologies comprising DUS are steam injection at the periphery of a contaminated area to heat permeable subsurface areas, vaporize volatile compounds bound to the soil, and drive contaminants to centrally located vacuum extraction wells; electrical heating of less permeable sediments to vaporize contaminants and drive them into the steam zone; and underground imaging such as Electrical Resistance Tomography to delineate heated areas to ensure total cleanup and process control. A full-scale demonstration was conducted on a gasoline spill site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from November 1992 through December 1993

  15. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  16. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  17. Comparative study of corneal strip extensometry and inflation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Anderson, Kevin

    2005-06-22

    Strip extensometry tests are usually considered less reliable than trephinate inflation tests in studying corneal biomechanics. In spite of the evident simplicity of strip extensometry tests, several earlier studies preferred inflation tests in determining the constitutive relationship of the cornea and its other material properties, such as Young's modulus and the hysteresis behaviour. In this research, the deficiencies of the strip tests are discussed and a mathematical procedure presented to take account of these deficiencies when obtaining the corneal material properties. The study also involves testing 10 pairs of porcine corneas using both strip extensometry and trephinate inflation techniques and the results are subjected to mathematical back analysis in order to determine the stress-strain behaviour. The behaviour obtained from the strip extensometry tests and using the new mathematical analysis procedure is shown to match closely the inflation test results.

  18. Superconducting strip detectors as position sensitive particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherschel, M. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland) Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Finkbeiner, F. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Zhao, S.P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Jaggi, A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Maier, T. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Lerch, P. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Zehnder, A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland)); Ott, H.R. (Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland) Paul Scherrer Inst., Solid State Div., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1994-02-01

    The feasibility of using of current-biased superconducting strips for radiation detection is investigated. Narrow Ta strips are exposed to 5.5 MeV [alpha]-particle radiation and the rise-time of the induced voltage pulses is measured as function of temperature and bias current. The rise-time of the voltage signal strongly depends on the site on the strip which is hit by the [alpha]-particle. In order to determine the spatial resolution of a superconducting strip detector, position-sensitive measurements were performed. The maximum lateral resolution estimated so far is 25[mu]m in a 7[mu]m wide, 340 nm thick and 0.6 mm long Ta-strip. (orig.)

  19. Development and application of potentiometric stripping analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the voltammetric determination of lead, cadmium and zinc in water. Two ways of determining were investigated: individually and all three metals simultaneously. The experiments were performed using the Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (PSA. Determination of metals in real samples was preceded by preliminary tests. Preliminary investigations were performed in order to determine the optimal conditions of measurement. It was concluded that the process of determining was for most part influenced by: pH, time of metals extraction, stirring rate of the solution and the thickness of the mercury layer on the working electrode. The smallest concentrations of metals which can be determined using this method are: for lead 22.48 μg dm-3, for cadmium 16.23 μg dm-3 and for zinc 18.75 μg dm-3. The obtained results deviated from the actual 1.12% for lead, 1.91% for cadmium and 1.81% for zinc. All tests (individually and simultaneously were conducted from model solution with concentration as follows: 44.96 μg dm-3 for lead, 32.47 μg dm-3 for cadmium and 37.50 μg dm-3 for zinc. The results of individual measurements deviated by 1.02% lead, 1.90% for cadmium and 1.89% for zinc. Simultaneously the contents were lower than real for: -4.58% for lead, cadmium for -1.91% and -1.89% for zinc. For the conditions determined, except for lead, deviations did not exceed ±2% . This indicates that Potentiometric Stripping Analysis is a good way of individual and simultaneous determination of lead, cadmium and zinc and for determination of their concentrations in water (river and groundwater.

  20. Service behaviour of high speed steel rolling rolls used in hot strip mills; Comportamiento en servicio de los aceros rapidos utilizados en la fabricacion de los cilindros de trabajo de los trenes de bandas en caliente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziadi, A.; Belzunce, F. J.; Rodriguez, C.; Fernandez, I.

    2005-07-01

    Work rolls used in hot strip mills may be able to carry out severe actions: very high thermal stresses and wear, along with mechanical stresses due to normal rolling loads, which develop in the presence of cracks, produced by the former actions. The microstructure and the mechanical behaviour (strength and toughness) of high speed steels, which recently have been introduced in this applications, were studied in this work in comparison with high chromium cast irons. (Author) 7 refs.

  1. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  2. Effect of Some Parameters on the Cast Component Properties in Hot Chamber Die Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rupinder; Singh, Harvir

    2016-04-01

    Hot chamber die casting process is designed to achieve high dimensional accuracy for small products by forcing molten metal under high pressure into reusable moulds, called dies. The present research work is aimed at study of some parameters (as a case study of spring adjuster) on cast component properties in hot chamber die casting process. Three controllable factors of the hot chamber die casting process (namely: pressure at second phase, metal pouring temperature and die opening time) were studied at three levels each by Taguchi's parametric approach and single-response optimization was conducted to identify the main factors controlling surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the casting. Castings were produced using aluminium alloy, at recommended parameters through hot chamber die casting process. Analysis shows that in hot chamber die casting process the percentage contribution of second phase pressure, die opening time, metal pouring temperature for surface hardness is 82.48, 9.24 and 6.78 % respectively. While in the case of weight of cast component the contribution of second phase pressure is 94.03 %, followed by metal pouring temperature and die opening time (4.58 and 0.35 % respectively). Further for dimensional accuracy contribution of die opening time is 76.97 %, metal pouring temperature is 20.05 % and second phase pressure is 1.56 %. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface hardness, dimensional accuracy and weight of the castings were improved significantly.

  3. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  4. Microstructural research on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by a compact strip production line under different thermal histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hao; Chen Qixiang; Kang Yonglin; Sun Yi

    2005-01-01

    Coupons with the same composition and thickness (4.0 mm nominal gauge) obtained from hot strips of low carbon steel underwent a series of investigations to analyze the microstructural characteristics and mechanisms responsible for their differences in mechanical properties. Two different industrial technologies were adopted, although the strips used in this research were produced on the same Compact Strip Production (CSP) line. One of the strips was produced with a routine γ→α CSP thermal history, but the other with a γ→α→γ* conventional thermal history. The only difference between them was that one technology had a α→γ* thermal history. Different specimens of both types of strips were prepared for metallographic observation, tensile tests, electron back-scattered diffraction tests and positron annihilation technique tests. Experimental results showed that the differences in mechanical properties could be ascribed to dissimilarities not only in the grain size and textural components but also in dislocation density

  5. Study of pinholes genesis in iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elbel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study concerns the formation of pinholes in castings formed by reaction between a green foundry mould and lamellargraphite cast iron. Great numbers of works have been aimed at clarifying the causes of pinholes formation in iron castings. In spite of thisthere exists no united opinion on the pinholes formation (genesis and the authors of this contribution having studied this phenomenon incompacted graphite and spheroidal graphite iron castings were also aimed at lamellar graphite cast iron and they applied for it theirknowledge gained in study of reoxidation processes during casting of ferrous alloys.Methodology: Experiments were done on castings of stepped bars moulded in green bentonite mixtures with s graduated moisture and withuse of two types of carbonaceous matters. Metal was melted in a 100 kg induction furnace from the same charge. Inoculation was done ina ladle after pouring out from the furnace. Aluminium was dosed in the ladle in some cases and the inoculator kind was changed too.Results: Pinholes were present on castings as small flat pits; on horizontal surfaces sooner singly, on casting edges in clusters. Theformation of pinholes wasn’t caused by high moisture of moulds but the defect was sensitive to aluminium content in metal. In castingswith high aluminium content > 0.01 % the pinholes were present in great numbers, and namely both under low, and also high moi stures ofmoulding mixtures. In melts with low content of Al < 0.01 % the pinholes occurred less extensively only.Practical implications: Conclusions from literature about influence of Al on pinholes occurrence were confirmed in such a way. Study ofthe defect morphology has shown that the question is a oxidation reaction type of pinholes caused by oxidation of the residual meltbetween dendrites with formation of CO.

  6. Ponseti casting: a new soft option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, M B S; Gupta, M; Pattison, G T R; Dunn-van der Ploeg, I D

    2008-11-01

    We have modified the Ponseti casting technique by using a below-knee Softcast instead of an above-knee plaster of Paris cast. Treatment was initiated as soon as possible after birth and the Pirani score was recorded at each visit. Following the manipulation techniques of Ponseti, a below-knee Softcast was applied directly over a stockinette for a snug fit and particular attention was paid to creating a deep groove above the heel to prevent slippage. If necessary, a percutaneous Achilles tenotomy was performed and casting continued until the child was fitted with Denis Browne abduction boots. Between April 2003 and May 2007 we treated 51 consecutive babies with 80 idiopathic club feet with a mean age at presentation of 4.5 weeks (4 days to 62 weeks). The initial mean Pirani score was 5.5 (3 to 6). It took a mean of 8.5 weeks (4 to 53) of weekly manipulation and casting to reach the stage of percutaneous Achilles tenotomy. A total of 20 feet (25%) did not require a tenotomy and for the 60 that did, the mean Pirani score at time of operation was 2.5 (0.5 to 3). Denis Browne boots were applied at a mean of 10 weeks (4 to 56) after presentation. The mean time from tenotomy to boots was 3.3 weeks (2 to 10). We experienced one case of cast-slippage during a period of non-attendance, which prolonged the casting process. One case of prolonged casting required repeated tenotomy, and three feet required repeated tenotomy and casting after relapsing while in Denis Browne boots. We believe the use of a below-knee Softcast in conjunction with Ponseti manipulation techniques shows promising initial results which are comparable to those using above-knee plaster of Paris casts.

  7. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  8. CAST with its micromegas detector installed.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) uses a prototype LHC dipole magnet to search for very weakly interacting neutral particles called axions, which should originate in the core of the Sun. The magnet converts the solar axions to photons which are then detected by an X-ray detector based on Micromegas technology. CAST's Micromegas detector has now been installed. Photos 01 02: General view of the CAST experiment with the Micromegas detector in place. Photo 03: Close-up of the micromegas set-up.

  9. Sonic testing in assessment of casting quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Białobrzeski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study has been designing and putting in operation of a stand for sonic testing equipped with modern and readily available numerical devices and with the author’s own computer program, which enables recording and analysis of acoustic fields and of the frequency of free vibrations in selected castings made from Fe and Al alloys, and specifically also from magnesium alloys, and mastering the technique of making such tests along with their practical application in assessment of the quality of castings made from magnesium alloys and investment castings made from carbon steel.

  10. Cracks in high-manganese cast steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reasons which account for the formation of in service cracks in castings made from Hadfield steel were discussed. To explain the source of existence of the nuclei of brittle fractures, the properties of cast steel were examined within the range of solidification temperatures, remembering that feeding of this material is specially difficult, causing microporosity in hot spots. This creates conditions promoting the formation of microcracks which tend to propagate during service conditions involving high dynamic stresses, and explains why the cracks are mainly characterized by a brittle nature. The reason for crack formation in service are micro-porosities formed during casting solidification.

  11. Utilization of cast seaweed and waste from pectin production for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Christensen, Thomas Budde; Kjær, Tyge

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a preliminary study on the environmental consequences of realizing a biogas plant using locally available biomass fractions in Solrød, Denmark. The biomass, which will be used at the plant, will consist of: cast seaweed (app. 20,000 tons year-1), waste from pectin production...... and cast seaweed (winter sample): 118 ml CH4 g VS-1. The predicted annual biogas production of the plant was 5.4 million m3 CH4. An environmental assessment concluded that a biogas plant using the aforementioned organic materials will reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 25,000 tons CO2 year-1 and 40......,000 tons CO2 year-1 depending on the type of energy utilization. Reduction of nutrients in the coastal zone by removal of seaweed was found to be of high value....

  12. Anodic stripping voltammetry of mercury, zinc, cadmium, and lead in a rice farm ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mundo, F.R.; Vicente-Beckett, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Analytical procedures based on differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry were developed and applied to the analysis of some trace metals in a rice farm ecosystem. A gold wire served as working electrode for the analysis of mercury in 0.1M HNO 3 ; a hanging mercury drop electrode was used for the simultaneous analyses of zinc, cadmium, and lead in 0.1M sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5). Mercury was pre-concentrated for five minutes at + 0.20 V vs SCE. The area of the anodic stripping peaks varied linearly over the concentration range 3x10 -10 -2x10 -8 M Hg(II); the limit of detection was 0.06 ppb or 3x10 -10 M Hg(II). The simultaneous analytical method involved pre-electrolysis at -1.2 V vs SCE for ten minutes. The heights of the individual anodic stripping peaks varied linearly with concentration in a mixture of the ions over the concentration range 0.020-0.10 ppm for each ion; the limits of detection were 0.004 ppm, 0.01 ppm, and 0.01 ppm for Cd, Pb, Zn, respectively. The developed procedures were used to determine the baseline levels of these metals in soil, water, and rice plant samples from a one-hectare traditional rice farm in San Pedro, Laguna. (auth.). 26 refs.; 4 tabs.; 6 figs

  13. Membrane air stripping utilizing a plate and frame configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Membrane air stripping has recently been proposed as a possible method to remove volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and radon from drinking water supplies. Current and anticipated regulatory requirements, driven by health consequences, make the removal of these contaminants mandatory. This work examines the use of plate and frame membrane air stripping for the removal of VOCs and radon from a water supply. The theoretical basis of membrane air stripping and a literature review are included. The advantages of membrane air stripping versus other methods of removal, as well as the advantages of a plate and frame configuration versus a hollow fiber configuration for membrane air stripping are discussed. Multiple regression/correlation techniques are used to model mass transfer coefficients and fluid resistances. An economic evaluation is performed using the developed models. The costs of comparable membrane and packed tower air stripping systems are 4.86 cents per thousand gallons versus 4.36 cents per thousand gallons, respectively. This work indicates that plate and frame membrane air stripping may, in fact, prove to be an economical alternative to packed tower aeration and carbon adsorption for the removal of VOCs and radon

  14. Inadvertent Screw Stripping During Ankle Fracture Fixation in Elderly Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinah, A. Feroz; Mears, Simon C.; Knight, Trevor A.; Soin, Sandeep P.; Campbell, John T.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor screw purchase because of osteoporosis presents difficulties in ankle fracture fixation. The aim of our study was to determine if cortical thickness, unicortical versus bicortical purchase, and bone mineral density are predictors of inadvertent screw stripping and overtightening. Ten paired cadaver ankles (average donor age, 81.7 years; range, 50-97 years) were used for the study. Computed tomography scanning with phantoms of known density was used to determine the bone density along the distal fibula. A standard small-fragment, 7-hole, one-third tubular plate was applied to the lateral surface of the fibula, with 3 proximal bicortical cortical screws and 2 distal unicortical cancellous screws. A posterior plate, in which all 5 screws were cortical and achieved bicortical purchase, was subsequently applied to the same bones and positioned so that the screw holes did not overlap. A torque sensor was used to measure the torque of each screw during insertion (Ti) and then stripping (Ts). The effect of bone density, screw location, cortical thickness, and unicortical versus bicortical purchase on Ti and Ts was checked for significance (P screws were inadvertently stripped and 12% were overtightened. Despite 21% of the screws being stripped or being at risk for stripping, we found no significant predictors to warn of impending screw stripping. Additional work is needed to identify clinically useful predictors of screw stripping. PMID:23569675

  15. Assessment of the physical and mechanical properties of plaster of Paris bandage cast used as a splinting and casting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Parmar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the physical and mechanical properties of plaster of Paris (POP bandage cast used as a splinting and casting materials. Materials and Methods: POP casts were divided into three Groups A, B and C with 2, 3 and 8 layer for POP bandage, respectively (n=6 in each group. Handling characters, technical easiness or difficulties, setting time, weight, diameter and thickness of the casts were recorded for different groups. The casts were mounted on universal testing machine and axial load was applied @ 10 mm/min until failure. The load deflection graphs were plotted. The maximum force at which failure of the casts occurred was recorded. Stress, strain, modulus of elasticity (MOE and stiffness of casts were calculated. Result: Construction of POP bandage cast was messy and required 45-60 min for hardening. 8 layer POP cast was comparatively heavier in weight and thicker in cross section than 3 layer cast followed by 2 layer cast. Under axial compression, the load bearing capacity of 8 layer POP casts was more than 2 and 3 layer cast. Conclusion: The values of load bearing capacity, stress, stiffness and MOE of cast were the highest for 8 layer POP cast followed by 2 and 3 layer cast. Use if splints with POP cast is recommended due to its poor mechanical properties.

  16. Low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Xin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is one of the main failure forms of Al-Si-Cu-Mg aluminum alloys. To feature their mechanical aspect of fatigue behavior, the low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys at room temperature was investigated. The experimental results show that both permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys mainly exhibit cyclic strain hardening. At the same total strain amplitude, the die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy shows higher cyclic deformation resistance and longer fatigue life than does the permanent mold cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The relationship between both elastic and plastic strain amplitudes with reversals to failure shows a monotonic linear behavior, and can be described by the Basquin and Coffin-Manson equations, respectively.

  17. Direct Cast U-6Nb – 2017 Progress on Cylindrical Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikin, Jr., Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This report describes work to further develop a sound technical basis and best practices for mold design and process parameters for the Direct Casting of U-6wt%Nb components. One major challenge to the production of U-6Nb components is the propensity for niobium segregation during casting and solidification. This is especially true for cylindrical castings where the vertical side walls allow flotation of Nb resulting in severe inverse macrosegregation. In this work, a small (120 mm diameter by 180 mm tall) and large cylinder (250 mm diameter by 310 mm tall) are examined with a focus on reducing, or eliminating, niobium segregation. It is demonstrated that counter gravity casting (top-to-bottom solidification) can be used to minimize segregation in the small cylinder. Attempts to counter gravity cast the large cylinder were unsuccessful, in large part due to size limitations of the current furnace. A path forward for casting of the large cylinders is discussed.

  18. Casting directly from a computer model by using advanced simulation software FLOW-3D Cast ®

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sirviö; M. Woś

    2009-01-01

    ConiferRob - A patternless casting technique, originally conceived at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and furtherdeveloped at its spin-off company, Simtech Systems, offers up to 40% savings in product development costs, and up to two months shorterdevelopment times compared to conventional techniques. Savings of this order can be very valuable on today's highly competitivemarkets. Casting simulation is commonly used for designing of casting systems. However, most of the software are ...

  19. Gating Systems for Sizeable Castings from Al Alloys Cast into Ceramic Moulds

    OpenAIRE

    Stachovec I.; Horáček M.; Zemčík L.; Kolda V.; Horenský J.

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to casting to conventional non-reusable “sand” moulds, for which calculating technique for an optimum design of the gating system is comparatively well-developed, a trial-and-error method is applied mostly for casting to ceramic shell moulds made by the investment casting technology. A technologist selects from gating systems of several types (that are standardized by the foundry mostly) on the basis of experience. However, this approach is not sustainable with ever growing demand...

  20. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  1. The effects of different casting techniques on the hardness, energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of casting technique on the impact strength, energy absorbance and hardness of sand cast Pb-Sb-Cu alloys was studied following casting of the alloys using three techniques. Cooling of the alloys after casting was carried out in water, air and furnace in order to vary the micro-structure of the alloys produced.

  2. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a resilient...

  3. Land restoration after strip mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Recent legislation requires that lands surface mined for coal be returned to approximate original topography and vegetative cover be restored. Spoils provide poor rooting habitat because of extreme stoniness or excessive slope steepness which provide few niches for seeds to become lodged and also spoil may provide poor mineral nutrition, poor water retention and sometimes the spoil may even have chemical properties detrimental to plant growth (acidity, alkalinity or even unusually large amounts of toxic mineral elements i.e., copper, sodium). To provide a substrate better suited for plant growth, recommendations for restoration call for deep burial of unfavorable substrate components i.e., rocks and materials of unusual chemistry and the dressing of reshaped spoil with topsoil i.e., material with the most favorable properties for plant growth. Even though all the substrate requirements for healthy plant growth may be met, such as adding a form of available nitrogen as fertilizer, plants will not grow if weather conditions are extreme. For example, in very dry (desert) climates precipitation may be too scanty or too erratic to permit the successful establishment of many kinds of plants. Even under the most favorable conditions plant productivity averaged over a period of years is low. Also in very cold climates the growing season may be limited to only a few weeks in summer e.g., arctic and alpine tundra regions. This shortens the time available for photosynthesis and keeps plant productivity low.

  4. Solidification control in continuous casting of steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    /lubrication at solid–liquid interface, high temperature properties of the solidifying shell etc. is necessary to control the continuous casting process. The present paper elaborates upon the knowledge developed in the areas of initial shell ...

  5. Ambiguous chairs cast in fabric formed concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a specific experiment with a new casting technique for concrete structures, this paper discusses explorations of materiality as a way of generating discussion of the use of new technologies....

  6. Tailorable Porous Ceramics via Freeze Casting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Freeze casting of ceramics is a novel technique used to produce porous materials. The process involves solidifying a solvent in a ceramic slurry to produce a frozen...

  7. ToxCast/ToxRefDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ToxCast is used as a cost-effective approach for efficiently prioritizing the toxicity testing of thousands of chemicals. It uses data from state-of-the-art high...

  8. Caste in India, Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Donald H.

    1971-01-01

    Traced is the sociocultural framework for the system in Indian culture which emphasized duty and obligations rather than individual freedom and rights. Also discussed are contemporary changes in the caste system. (DB)

  9. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr......Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments...... of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led...... to background levels below 10−6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10−7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO...

  10. Last cast for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first major contract signed for the LHC is drawing to a close. Belgian firm Cockerill Sambre (a member of the Arcelor Group) has just completed production of 50,000 tonnes of steel sheets for the accelerator's superconducting magnet yokes, in what has proved to be an exemplary partnership with CERN. Philippe Lebrun, Head of the AT Department, Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader, and Lucio Rossi, Head of the AT-MAS Group, in front of the last batch of steel for the LHC at Cockerill Sambre. It was a bright red-letter day at the end of May, when Belgian firm Cockerill Sambre of the Arcelor Group marked the completion of one of the largest contracts for the LHC machine by casting the last batch of steel sheets for the LHC superconducting magnet yokes in the presence of LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans, AT Department Head Philippe Lebrun, Magnets and Superconductors (AT-MAS) Group Leader Lucio Rossi and Head of the AT-MAS Group's components centre Francesco Bertinelli. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the acc...

  11. Examination and Elimination of Defects in Cone Casting Made of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of existing cooperation with the Foundry of Cast Iron ZM “WSK Rzeszów” Ltd. there was carried out research work of microstructure and mechanical properties in the walls of a cone casting made of ductile cast iron. The particular attention was being put to the search of the potential brittle phases which have deleterious effect on ductility and dynamic properties of highly strained use of the casting prone to the potential risk of cracks during the highly strained use.

  12. Investigations of Protective Coatings for Castings of High-manganese Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When cast steel castings are made in moulding sands on matrices of high-silica sand, which has a low fire resistance the problem of theso-called chemical penetration is distinctly visible. Whereas this effect appears to a small degree only when moulding sand matrices are of chromite, zircon or olivine sands. Therefore in case of making castings of high-manganese cast steel (e.g. Hadfield steel sands not containing free silica should be applied (e.g. olivine sand or in case of a high-silica matrix protective coatings for moulds and cores should be used. Two protective coatings, magnesite alcoholic (marked as coating 1 and coating 2 originated from different producers and intended for moulds for castings of the Hadfield steel, were selected for investigations. Examinations of the basic properties were performed for these coatings: viscosity, thermal analysis, sedimentation properties, wear resistance. In order to estimate the effectiveness of protective coatings the experimental castings were prepared. When applying coating 1, the surface quality of the casting was worse and traces of interaction between the casting material (cast steel and the coating were seen. When protective coating 2 was used none interactions were seen and the surface quality was better.

  13. Investigations of Protective Coatings for Castings of High-Manganese Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available When cast steel castings are made in moulding sands on matrices of high-silica sand, which has a low fire resistance the problem of the so-called chemical penetration is distinctly visible. Whereas this effect appears to a small degree only when moulding sand matrices are of chromite, zircon or olivine sands. Therefore in case of making castings of high-manganese cast steel (e.g. Hadfield steel sands not containing free silica should be applied (e.g. olivine sand or in case of a high-silica matrix protective coatings for moulds and cores should be used. Two protective coatings, magnesite alcoholic (marked as coating 1 and coating 2 originated from different producers and intended for moulds for castings of the Hadfield steel, were selected for investigations. Examinations of the basic properties were performed for these coatings: viscosity, thermal analysis, sedimentation properties, wear resistance. In order to estimate the effectiveness of protective coatings the experimental castings were prepared. When applying coating 1, the surface quality of the casting was worse and traces of interaction between the casting material (cast steel and the coating were seen. When protective coating 2 was used none interactions were seen and the surface quality was better.

  14. Genetic structure of Rajaka caste and affinities with other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvatheesam, C; Babu, B V; Babu, M C

    1997-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the genetic structure in terms of distribution of a few genetic markers, viz., A1A2B0, Rh(D), G6PD deficiency and haemoglobin among the Rajaka caste population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The genetic relationships of the Rajaka caste with other Andhra caste populations were investigated in terms of genetic distance, i.e., Sq B (mn) of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. Relatively lesser distance was established between the Rajaka and two Panchama castes. Also, the pattern of genetic distance corroborates the hierarchical order of the Hindu varna system.

  15. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Kranc, M.; Garbacz-Klempka, A.; Kozana, J.; Piękoś, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup) and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2) formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameter...

  16. Maritime Cast Shop Integrated Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    driven, customer-responsive iron foundry specializing in prototype and low-to- medium volume production castings. SLF completed ISO 9001 :2000...completed ISO 9001 :2000 certification in November of 2002 and has in-house metallurgical testing capabilities using an in-house spectrograph and tensile...Maritime Cast Shop Integrated Improvement Plan Contract # SP4701-08-C-0026 Final Report Prepared for Defense Logistics Agency under the

  17. The cast glass-ceramic restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, K A; Grossman, D G

    1987-06-01

    The use of Dicor cast glass-ceramic material for fixed prosthodontic complete crowns has been described. The advantages of this material are chemical and physical uniformity, marginal accuracy, uncomplicated fabrication from wax-up to casting, ceramming, and coloring, ease of adjustment, excellent esthetics resulting from natural translucency, light absorption, light refraction, and natural color for the crown, and its inherent resistance to bacterial plaque.

  18. Ultrasonic maps of porosity in aluminum castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffari, Bita; Potter, Timothy J.; Mozurkewich, George

    2002-01-01

    The use of cast aluminum in the automotive industry has grown dramatically in recent years, leading to increased need for quantitative characterization of microporosity. As previously reported in the literature, the attenuation of ultrasound can be used to measure the porosity volume fraction and the mean pore size. An immersion ultrasound system has been built utilizing this technique to scan castings with high spatial resolution. Maps of attenuation are shown to locate areas of varying porosity readily and reliably

  19. ATLAS ITk short-strip stave prototypes with 130 nm chipset

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00116199; The ATLAS collaboration; Dopke, Jens; Sawyer, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS ITk Collaboration is working to deliver a new Inner Tracking detector for use at HL-LHC. The strip tracker community has recently constructed a partially loaded, double-sided demonstrator stave using the HCC / ABC130 chipset in 130 nm CMOS technology. Mindful of the need to maximise power efficiency whilst minimising the cost and material of associated cable plant, the system design includes the integration of a low-mass DC-DC converter and sensor bias (HV) switch within each module. This paper documents the first results from the demonstrator stave. The system concept is also outlined.

  20. ATLAS ITk Short-Strip Stave prototypes with 130nm chipset

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Peter William; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS ITk is working to deliver a new Inner Tracking detector for use at HL-LHC. The strip tracker community has recently constructed partially loaded, double sided demonstrator staves using the HCC / ABC130 chipset in 130nm CMOS technology. Mindful of the need to maximise power efficiency whilst minimising the cost and material of associated cable plant, the system design includes the integration of a low-mass DC-DC converter and sensor bias (HV) switch within each module. This paper documents the first results from the demonstrator staves. The system concept and the roadmap toward a full system test are also outlined.

  1. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  2. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Gotra, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module...

  3. An improved rolled strip pulse forming line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Qian, Bao-Liang; Yang, Han-Wu; Gao, Jing-Ming; Liu, Zhao-Xi

    2013-06-01

    The rolled strip pulse forming line (RSPFL) has advantages of compactness, portability, and long pulse achievability which could well meet the requirements of industrial application of the pulse power technology. In this paper, an improved RSPFL with an additional insulator between the grounded conductors is investigated numerically and experimentally. Results demonstrate that the jitter on the flat-top of the output voltage waveform is reduced to 3.8% due to the improved structure. Theoretical analysis shows that the electromagnetic coupling between the conductors of the RSPFL strongly influences the output voltage waveform. Therefore, the new structure was designed to minimize the detrimental effect of the electromagnetic coupling. Simulation results show that the electromagnetic coupling can be efficiently reduced in the improved RSPFL. Experimental results illustrate that the improved RSPFL, with dimensions and weight of Φ 290 × 250 mm and 16 kg, when used as a simple pulse forming line, could generate a well shaped quasi-square pulse with output power of hundreds of MW and pulse duration of 250 ns. Importantly, the improved RSPFL was successfully used as a Blumlein pulse forming line, and a 10.8 kV, 260 ns quasi-square pulse was obtained on a 2 Ω dummy load. Experiments show reasonable agreement with numerical analysis.

  4. Latest results of cast and future prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Vafeiadis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is currently the most sensitive axion helioscope designed to search for axions and axion-like particles produced in the Sun. CAST completed successfully the second part of CAST phase II where the magnet bores were lled with 3He gas at variable pressure scanning axion masses up to 1.2 eV In the absence of signal it has set the best experimental limit on the axion-photon coupling constant over a broad range of axion masses. In 2013 CAST has improved its sensitivity to solar axions with rest mass below 0.02 eV by upgrading the Micromegas detectors and it will continue in 2014 with the implementation of a second X-ray optic and a new type detector (InGRID). In addition, CAST has extended its sensitivity into the sub-keV energy range using a silicon detector (SDD), to search for solar chameleons. Thus, CAST also became sensitive to dark energy particles. A new generation axion helioscope (IAXO) aims to improve the current axion-photon coupling by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude. This wi...

  5. Reinforcement of Aluminum Castings with Dissimilar Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q

    2004-01-07

    The project ''Reinforcement of Aluminum Casting with Dissimilar Metal'' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cummins Inc. This project, technologies have been developed to reinforce aluminum castings with steel insert. Defect-free bond between the steel insert and the aluminum casting has been consistently obtained. The push-out experiment indicated that the bond strength is higher than that of the Al-Fin method. Two patents have been granted to the project team that is comprised of Cummins Inc. and ORNL. This report contains four sections: the coating of the steel pins, the cast-in method, microstructure characterization, and the bond strength. The section of the coating of the steel pins contains coating material selection, electro-plating technique for plating Cu and Ni on steel, and diffusion bonding of the coatings to the steel. The section of cast-in method deals with factors that affecting the quality of the metallurgical bond between the coated steel and the aluminum castings. The results of microstructure characteristics of the bonding are presented in the microstructure characterization section. A push-out experiment and the results obtained using this method is described in the section of bond strength/mechanical property.

  6. Vermicular graphite cast iron current state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, VSR; Seshan, S; Seshan, K

    1985-01-01

    Vermicular graphite cast iron is a new addition to the family of cast irons. Various methods for producing vermicular graphite cast iron are briefly discussed in this paper. The mechanical and physical properties of cast irons with vermicular graphite have been found to be intermediate between those of gray and ductile irons. Other properties such as casting characteristics, scaling resistance, damping capacity and machinability have been compared with those of gray and ductile irons. Probabl...

  7. Numerical modelling of the tilt casting processes of titanium alumindes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research has investigated the modelling and optimisation of the tilt casting process of Titanium Aluminides (TiAl). This study is carried out in parallel with the experimental research undertaken in IRC at the University of Birmingham. They propose to use tilt casting inside a vacuum chamber and attempt to combine this tilt casting process with Induction Skull Melting (ISM). A totally novel process is developing for investment casting, which is suitable for casting gamma TiAl.\\ud \\ud As ...

  8. The Multifaceted Role of Plaster Casts in Contemporary Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Moyeda, Alissa Ann

    2017-01-01

    Plaster casts typically based on well known artworks were displayed in European and American museums and galleries prior to the twentieth century. Though popular, these plaster casts were never seen to be equivalent in value to the original, authentic pieces. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in plaster casts and many museums collections have been pulling casts out of storage to put on display. Current usage of casts in European and American museums is overwhelmingly for...

  9. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  10. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...... (13 5, 327 and 564 mu m acrylamide/kg for 150, 170 and 190 degrees C, respectively). Potato strip immersion in citric acid solution of 10 g/L reduced much more the acrylamide formation after frying than the strip immersion in sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L (53% vs. 17%, respectively, average...

  11. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallanes, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Radicci, V; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Gill, K; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Jesus, A C A; Giassi, A; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed

  13. The Construction of the CMS Tracker Silicon Strip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Chiorboli, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    The procedures followed for the construction of the Silicon Strip Modules to be used in the CMS Tracker Detector are described. The steps of the production chain are described, and the results are given.

  14. Stability of flow over axisymmetric bodies with porous suction strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Reed, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Linear triple deck, closed form solutions for mean-flow quantities are developed for axisymmetric incompressible flow past a body with porous strips. The solutions account for upstream influence and are linear superpositions of the flow past the body without suction plus the perturbations due to the suction strips. Flow past the suctionless body is calculated using the Transition Analysis Program System, and a simple linear optimization scheme to determine number, spacing, and mass flow rate through the strips on an axisymmetric body is developed using the linear, triple-deck, closed-form solutions. The theory is demonstrated by predicting optimal strip distributions, and the effect of various adverse pressure-gradient situations on stability is studied.

  15. The New Silicon Strip Detectors for the CMS Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dragicevic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the ...

  16. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  17. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  18. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  19. High Pressure Water Stripping Using Multi-Orifice Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David

    1999-01-01

    The use of multi-orifice rotary nozzles greatly increases the speed and stripping effectiveness of high pressure water blasting systems, but also greatly increases the complexity of selecting and optimizing the operating parameters. The rotational speed of the nozzle must be coupled with its transverse velocity as it passes across the surface of the substrate being stripped. The radial and angular positions of each orifice must be included in the analysis of the nozzle configuration. Orifices at the outer edge of the nozzle head move at a faster rate than the orifices located near the center. The energy transmitted to the surface from the impact force of the water stream from an outer orifice is therefore spread over a larger area than energy from an inner orifice. Utilizing a larger diameter orifice in the outer radial positions increases the total energy transmitted from the outer orifice to compensate for the wider distribution of energy. The total flow rate from the combination of all orifices must be monitored and should be kept below the pump capacity while choosing orifice to insert in each position. The energy distribution from the orifice pattern is further complicated since the rotary path of all the orifices in the nozzle head pass through the center section. All orifices contribute to the stripping in the center of the path while only the outer most orifice contributes to the stripping at the edge of the nozzle. Additional orifices contribute to the stripping from the outer edge toward the center section. With all these parameters to configure and each parameter change affecting the others, a computer model was developed to track and coordinate these parameters. The computer simulation graphically indicates the cumulative affect from each parameter selected. The result from the proper choices in parameters is a well designed, highly efficient stripping system. A poorly chosen set of parameters will cause the nozzle to strip aggressively in some areas

  20. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker: Design and Production Status

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, A A

    2004-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) will be equipped with 15000 silicon micro-strip detector modules covering a surface of 200 m^2. This paper details the SST layout and updates the status of construction. Progress in the fabrication of module components is detailed, with focus on the front-end hybrid and silicon sensor production. The assembly of over 2200 modules using industrial methods is described; the quality assurance protocols have resulted in modules of extremely high mechanical and electrical quality.

  1. An analysis of stripping to isolated analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, E.F.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1983-04-01

    The Feshbach projection formalism is used to calculate the form factors for the (d,n) stripping process to isolated analog resonances. These are used in a standard DWBA stripping calculation in which the radial integration over all space is accomplished by including outerspace contributions evaluated along the complex contours of Vincent and Fortune. It turns out that the shape and magnitude of the predicted cross section is quite insensitive to the continuum proton wave emanating from the resonant residual state. (Author) [pt

  2. Optimising carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisiwamongkhol, K; Batchelor-McAuley, C; Sokolov, S; Holter, J; Young, N; Compton, R

    2017-01-01

    Different types of carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry are studied through the use of cyclic voltammetry. Capsaicin is utilised as a model compound for adsorptive stripping voltammetry using unmodified and modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG) electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon black or graphene nanoplatelets, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPE), carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrodes, and carbon paste electrodes....

  3. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, W.J.; Barrett, J.R.; Springgate, M.E.; Shields, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3x improvement of detecting a 0.050x0.007 in 2 (1.270x0.178 mm 2 ) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large parts

  4. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  5. Efficient ozone, sulfate, and ammonium free resist stripping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Davide; Dietze, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, photomask resist strip and cleaning technology development was substantially driven by the industry's need to prevent surface haze formation through the elimination of sulfuric acid and ammonium hydroxide from these processes. As a result, conventional SPM (H2SO4 + H2O2) was replaced with Ozone water (DIO3) for resist stripping and organic removal to eliminate chemical haze formation [1, 2]. However, it has been shown that DIO3 basted strip and clean process causes oxidative degradation of photomask materials [3, 4]. Such material damage can affect optical properties of funcitional mask layers, causeing CD line-width, phase, transmission and reflection changes, adversely affecting image transfer during the Lithography process. To overcome Ozone induced surface damage, SUSS MicroTec successfully developed a highly efficient strip process, where photolysis of DIO3 is leading to highly reactive hydroxyl radical formation, as the main contribution to hydrocarbon removal without surface damage [5]. This technology has been further extended to a final clean process, which is utilizing pure DI water for residual organic material removal during final clean [6]. Recently, SUS MicroTec did also successfully release strip and clean processes which completely remove NH4OH, eliminating any chemicals known today to induce haze [7]. In this paper we show the benefits of these new technologies for highly efficient sulfate and ammonium free stripping and cleaning processes.

  6. RESOURCES-ECONOMY TECHNOLOGY OF CASTINGS PRODUCTION OF NICKEL-CONTAINING CAST-IRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of the cast-iron IChH28H2 alloying by means of insertion into burden composition of briquettes of dead nickel-chromic catalysts is developed. This technology allows to carry out recycling of expensive metals such as nickel, and in that way to decrease the cost price of castings

  7. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology] [comp.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  8. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Nathan G [Gettysburg, PA

    2011-11-01

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  9. Methods and apparatus for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-01-14

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  10. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  11. Cephalaria transsylvanica-Based Flower Strips as Potential Food Source for Bees during Dry Periods in European Mediterranean Basin Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Stefano; Desneux, Nicolas; Canale, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of sown wildflower strips favours the establishment of pollinator communities, with special reference to social Apoidea. Here, we evaluated the late summer flowering Cephalaria transsylvanica as suitable species for strips providing food for pollinators in paucity periods. C. transsylvanica showed no particular requirements in terms of seed germination and growth during summer. This plant had an excellent potential of self-seeding and competitiveness towards weed competitors. C. transsylvanica prevented from entomophilous pollination showed inbreeding depression, with a decrease in seed-set and accumulation of seed energy reserves. However, C. transsylvanica did not appear to be vulnerable in terms of pollination biology since it had a wide range of pollinators including bees, hoverflies and Lepidoptera. C. transsylvanica was visited mainly by honeybees and bumblebees and these latter pollinators increased their visits on C. transsylvanica flowers during early autumn. This plant may be useful as an abundant source of pollen during food paucity periods, such as autumn. We proposed C. transsylvanica for incorporation into flower strips to be planted in non-cropped farmlands in intensively managed agricultural areas as well as in proximity of beehives. The latter option may facilitate the honeybees collecting pollen and nectar for the colony, thereby ensuring robustness to overcome the winter season. PMID:24676345

  12. The influence of cooling parameters on the speed of continuous steel casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirian, G. O.; Gheorghiu, C. A.; Hepuţ, T.; Chioncel, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cooling parameters of the continuous casting speed. In the researches carried out we aimed to establish some correlation equations between the parameters characterizing the continuous casting process, the temperature of the steel at the entrance to the crystallizer, the superheating of the steel and the flow of the cooling water in the crystallizer and different zones of the secondary cooling. Parallel to these parameters were also the values for the casting speed. The research was made for the casting of round ϕ270mm semi-finished steel products. The steel was developed in an electric EBT furnace with a capacity of 100t, treated in L.F. (Ladle - Furnace) and VD (Vacuum-Degassing) and poured in a 5-wire continuous casting plant. The obtained data was processed in MATLAB using three types of correlation equations. The obtained results are presented both in the analytical and graphical form, each correlation being analyzed from the technological point of view, indicating the optimal values for the independent parameters monitored. In the analysis we present a comparison between the results obtained after the three types of equations for each correlation.

  13. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅲ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  14. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 5: White Cast Iron (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  15. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  16. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 4: Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  17. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2005-09-01

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to

  18. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅳ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  19. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 4: Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  20. Colour Metallography of Cast Iron - Chapter 3: Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron (Ⅰ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiyang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cast iron, as a traditional metal material, has advantages of low total cost, good castability and machinability, good wear resistance and low notch sensitivity, and is still facing tough challenge in quality, property and variety of types etc. Experts and engineers studying and producing iron castings all around world extremely concern this serious challenge. Over more than 30 years, a great of research work has been carried out on how to further improve its property, expand its application and combine cast iron technology with some hi-techs (for example, computer technology. Nevertheless, cast iron is a multi-element and multi-phase alloy and has complex and variety of structures and still has great development potential in structure and property. For further studying and developing cast iron, theoretical research work is important promise, and the study on solidification process and control mechanism of graphite morphology is fundamental for improving property of cast iron and developing new type of cast iron. Metallography of cast iron normally includes two sections: liquid phase transformation and solid phase transformation. The book, Colour Metallography of Cast Iron, uses colour metallography technique to study solidification structures of cast irons: graphite, carbides, austenite and eutectics; and focuses on solidification processes. With progress of modern solidification theory, the control of material solidification process becomes important measure for improving traditional materials and developing new materials. Solidification structure not only influences mechanical and physical properties of cast iron, but also affects its internal quality. The book uses a large amount of colour photos to describe the formation of solidification structures and their relations. Crystallization phenomena, which cannot be displayed with traditional metallography, are presented and more phase transformation information is obtained from these colour

  1. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macků

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to theproduction of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out whatdimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mouldproduction, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself.Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically.A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meetrequirements specified by a customer were the results.

  2. Analysis of the structure of castings made from chromium white cast iron resistant to abrasive wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that an addition of boron carbide and disintegrated steel scrap introduced as an inoculant to the chromium white cast iron changes the structure of castings. The said operation increases the number of crystallization nuclei for dendrites of the primary austenite. In this case, the iron particles act as substrates for the nucleation of primary austenite due to a similar crystallographic lattice. The more numerous are the dendrites of primary austenite and the structure more refined and the mechanical properties higher. Castings after B4C inoculation revealed a different structure of fine grained fracture. Primary precipitates of chromium carbide also appeared, reducing the mechanical properties of as-cast parts. Properly established heat treatment regime makes chromium iron castings regain their, originally high, mechanical properties.

  3. Mechanism and application of a newly developed pressure casting process: horizontal squeeze casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peijie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional high-pressure die casting (HPDC, horizontal squeeze casting (HSC is a more promising way to fabricate high-integrity castings, owing to a reduced number of gas and shrinkage porosities produced in the casting. In this paper, the differences between HSC and HPDC are assessed, through which it is shown that the cavity filling velocity and the size of the gating system to be the most notable differences. Equipment development and related applications are also reviewed. Furthermore, numerical simulation is used to analyze the three fundamental characteristics of HSC: slow cavity filling, squeeze feeding and slow sleeve filling. From this, a selection principle is given based on the three related critical casting parameters: cavity filling velocity, gate size and sleeve filling velocity. Finally, two specific applications of HSC are introduced, and the future direction of HSC development is discussed.

  4. Gating Systems for Sizeable Castings from Al Alloys Cast into Ceramic Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stachovec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to casting to conventional non-reusable “sand” moulds, for which calculating technique for an optimum design of the gating system is comparatively well-developed, a trial-and-error method is applied mostly for casting to ceramic shell moulds made by the investment casting technology. A technologist selects from gating systems of several types (that are standardized by the foundry mostly on the basis of experience. However, this approach is not sustainable with ever growing demands on quality of castings and also the economy of their fabrication as well as with new types of complex sizeable castings introduced to the production gradually (by new customers from the aircraft industry above all any more. The simulation software may be used as a possible tool for making the process of optimising gating systems more effective.

  5. Applying RP-FDM Technology to Produce Prototype Castings Using the Investment Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macků M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the production of prototype castings, which is mapped out starting from the drawing documentation up to the production of the casting itself. The FDM method was applied for the production of the 3D pattern. Its main objective was to find out what dimensional changes happened during individual production stages, starting from the 3D pattern printing through a silicon mould production, wax patterns casting, making shells, melting out wax from shells and drying, up to the production of the final casting itself. Five measurements of determined dimensions were made during the production, which were processed and evaluated mathematically. A determination of shrinkage and a proposal of measures to maintain the dimensional stability of the final casting so as to meet requirements specified by a customer were the results.

  6. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  7. MUST, a set of strip detectors for studying radioactive beams induced reactions; MUST, un ensemble de detecteurs a pistes pour l`etude des reactions induites par faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Leven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Marechal, F.; Petizon, L.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Soulet, C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Auger, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Sauvestre, J.E.; Bonnereau, B.; Champion, L.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Ethvignot, T.; Szmigiel, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This report states the specificity of light particles elastic scattering, and the need of detecting recoil protons to improve angular resolution. Then the development of a specific MUST strip detector is detailed: 60 strips detectors with Si O sub 2 dielectric, that yield 500 ps time resolution, and Si (Li) detectors following next. A versatile data acquisition system has been developed too, with CAMAC interface to suit to any experimental plant. (D.L.). 27 refs.

  8. Evaluation of porosity in Al alloy die castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Říhová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of an Al-alloy die casting depend significantly on its structural properties. Porosity in Al-alloy castings is one of the most frequent causes of waste castings. Gas pores are responsible for impaired mechanical-technological properties of cast materials. On the basis of a complex evaluation of experiments conducted on AlSi9Cu3 alloy samples taken from the upper engine block which was die- cast with and without local squeeze casting it can be said that castings manufactured without squeeze casting exhibit maximum porosity in the longitudinal section. The area without local squeeze casting exhibits a certain reduction in mechanical properties and porosity increased to as much as 5%. However, this still meets the norms set by SKODA AUTO a.s.

  9. The deformation of wax patterns and castings in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional accuracy of the final casting of Inconel alloy 738 LC is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of the casting of the rotor blades. Various approaches have been tested for cooling wax pattern. When wax models are cooling on the air, without clamping in jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm and most are in extreme positions of the model. When blade is cooled in fixing jig in water environment, the resulting deviations compared with cooling in air are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with usage of wax models, which have deviations from the ideal position smaller. Another deformation occurs when shell mould is produced around wax pattern and furthermore deformations emerge while casting of blade is cooling. This paper demonstrates first steps in describing complex process of deformations of Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results from thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010 and measurements from CNC scanning system Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems deformations of wax pattern and deformations of castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing entirely whole process of deformations will help increase precision of blade castings so that models at the beginning and blades in the end are the same.

  10. Selective Leaching of Gray Cast Iron: Electrochemical Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Eun Sub; Park, Young Sheop

    2010-01-01

    Currently, to keep step with increases in energy consumption, much attention has been paid to the construction of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to the continued operation of NPPs. For continued operation, the selective leaching of materials should be evaluated by visual inspections and hardness measurements as a part of One-Time Inspection Program according to the requirements of the guidelines for continued operation of pressured water reactors (PWRs) in Korea and license renewals in the United States, entitled the 'Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report.' However, the acceptance criteria for hardness have yet to be provided. Recently, USNRC released a new draft of the GALL report for comment and plans to publish its formal version by the end of 2010. In the new draft, the quantitative acceptance criteria for hardness are given at last: no more than a 20 percent decrease in hardness for gray cast iron and brass containing more than 15 percent zinc. Selective leaching is the preferential removal of one of the alloying elements from a solid alloy by corrosion processes, leaving behind a weakened spongy or porous residual structure. The materials susceptible to selective leaching include gray cast iron and brass, which are mainly used as pump casings and valve bodies in the fire protection systems of NPPs. Since selective leaching proceeds slowly during a long period of time and causes a decrease in strength without changing the overall dimensions of original material, it is difficult to identify. In the present work, the selective leaching of gray cast iron is investigated in terms of its electrochemical aspects as part of an ongoing research project to study the changes in metal properties by selective leaching

  11. Improvement of Artistic Cast Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.

  12. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  13. The x-ray telescope of CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuninger, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has been in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting x-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type x-ray mirror system. With the x-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders of magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} < 1 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}.

  14. Casting Development of Metallic Fuel for SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.; Kim, J.H.; Ko, Y.M.; Woo, Y.M.; Kim, K.H.; Lee, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D programme of Korea. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, the generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and a loss of volatile species should be minimised during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In this study, fuel slug fabrication method has been introduced to develop an innovative fabrication process of metal fuel of SFR for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am. Metal fuel slugs were fabricated with an improved injection casting method in KAERI. Volatile species can be retained through the use of a cover gas with over pressure and covered crucibles. Experimental results show that the Mn was not volatilized and conserved in inert gas conditions compared to the vacuum condition. The volatility of Mn can be controlled by changing the casting process, and minimal Mn (and Am) loss is possible. An improved casting method under an inert atmosphere is more effective in the prevention of vaporisation than casting under a vacuum and reduced atmosphere. In addition, improved casting under a reduced atmosphere shows a considerable effect in the prevention of vaporisation. (authors)

  15. CASTing light on dark matter particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN's CAST collaboration recently released first results from its search for solar axions, a candidate dark matter particle. Though they haven't found any axions yet, they have done much to narrow the hunt. The CAST experiment. Physicists think the universe is permeated with dark matter, particles that don't emit or absorb radiation and so are invisible to traditional telescopes. So far no one has found direct signs of dark matter. A different breed of telescope, however, may be able to see such particles. CERN's Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), currently the world's only working axion helioscope, is a superconducting test magnet from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that has been refurbished and outfitted with X-ray detectors, plus a focusing mirror system for X-rays that was recovered from the German space program. CAST stares into the sun in search of particles called axions, one of the leading candidates for dark matter. On 9 November, the CAST collaboration released the results of their first experimen...

  16. Grain refinement of Ca addition in a twin-roll-cast Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Bin, E-mail: jiangbinrong@cqu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liu Wenjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Qiu Dong; Zhang Mingxing [Division of Materials, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Pan Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain refinement of Ca addition in a twin-roll-cast Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of 0.08 wt% Ca into Mg melts can significantly reduce the grain size to 30 {mu}m from 100 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}Ca intermetallic particles have high potency to act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for {alpha}-Mg. - Abstract: Addition of 0.08 wt% Ca into AZ31 melts significantly reduces the average grain size of thin strips produced by twin-roll-cast to 30 {mu}m from 100 {mu}m. Like Zr, due to the high chemical activity, the Ca added into the melts reacts with Al and forms Al{sub 2}Ca intermetallic compound. X-ray diffraction result approves the existence of Al{sub 2}Ca in the thin strips, which formed in the melts. Crystallographic examination of relationship between Al{sub 2}Ca and Mg using the edge-to-edge matching model indicates that Al{sub 2}Ca particles are effective inoculants for heterogeneous nucleation of Mg. It is considered that Al{sub 2}Ca is a potential and effective grain refiner for Mg alloys and the grain refinement through addition of Ca in the AZ31 alloy is attributed to the inoculation effect of Al{sub 2}Ca particles formed in the melts.

  17. Remediation of MTBE from drinking water: air stripping followed by off-gas adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Balaji; Sorial, George A; Speth, Thomas F; Clark, Patrick; Zaffiro, Alan; Patterson, Craig; Hand, David W

    2004-05-01

    The widespread use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as an oxygenate in gasoline has resulted in the contamination of a large number of ground and surface water sources. Even though air stripping has been proven to be an effective treatment technology for MTBE removal, off-gas treatment often is required in conjunction with it. This study evaluated the combined treatment technologies of air stripping followed by off-gas adsorption on a pilot scale for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated water. The effect of air/water ratios on the treatment efficiency was studied, and the mass transfer coefficient was determined. Air/water ratios of 105:1, 151:1, 177:1, 190:1, 202:1, and 206:1 were used, and a treatment efficiency of >99% was achieved for all the runs conducted. The depth of packing required to achieve maximum treatment efficiency decreased with increasing air/water ratio. Relative humidity (RH) impacts on the MTBE adsorption capacity of a granular activated carbon (GAC) and carbonaceous resin were determined from pilot plant studies. Breakthrough profiles obtained from the pilot plant studies conducted at 20, 30, and 50% RH indicated that GAC has a higher adsorptive capacity than resin. The adsorptive capacity of GAC decreased with increasing RH, whereas RH did not impact the resin adsorptive capacity.

  18. Comparison of riparian plant communities under four land management systems in southwestern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, L.K.; Ribic, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian plant community composition is influenced by moisture, erosion, original native plant communities, and current and past land use. This study compared riparian plant communities under four types of management: woody buffer strip, grassy buffer strip, rotational grazing, and continuous grazing. Study sites were located along spring-fed streams in the unglaciated region of southwestern Wisconsin, USA. At each site, plant community surveys were conducted using a point transect method. Among the treatments, woody buffer strips, rotationally grazed and continuously grazed riparian areas had greater plant species richness than grassy buffer strips, and woody buffer strips had the greatest native plant species richness. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) was prevalent in grassy buffer strips (44% of all observations), common in woody buffer strips (15%), and rare in sites that were rotationally or continuously grazed (3 and 5%, respectively). Pasture sites had greater proportions of native grasses and grass relatives and moderate levels of overall native species richness. Considered a water quality best management practice, well-managed rotational grazing may be a reasonable alternative to buffer strips which can contribute to protection and enhancement of native vegetation biodiversity. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Thin wall ductile and austempered iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fraś

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that it is possible to produce thin wall castings made of ductile iron with wall thickness in the range of 1.2 to 2.9 mm(without chills, cold laps and misruns. Thin wall ductile iron castings can be lighter (380 g than their substitutes made of aluminium alloys (580g. The kinetics of austenitising transformation was studied in unalloyed ductile iron. The advance of transformations during austenitising was monitored by measurement the fraction of martensite and also by dilatometic studies. It has been shown that in thin wall ductile iron castings austenitising at 880 oC for 20 minutes is adequate to obtain the austenite matrix at the end of the first stage of austempering heat treatment cycle.

  20. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

  1. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  2. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  3. A new casting defect healing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, E.S.; Reddoch, T.W. [ForMat Industries, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Viswanathan, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A new technology is presented for healing of defects in 356 aluminium alloys that provides economic upgrading of these cast alloys. It uses pneumatic isostatic forging (PIF) to produce high quality Al alloys products with enhanced mechanical properties uniform throughout the part, allowing higher design allowables and increased usage of Al alloy castings. The fundamental mechanism underlying PIF is a single mode plastic deformation process that uses isostatic application of pressures for 10-30 seconds at temperature. The process can be integrated in-line with other production operations, i.e., using the latent heat from the previous casting step. Results of applying the PIF process indicate lower cost and significant improvement in mechanical properties that rival and often exceed corresponding properties of other technologies like hot isostatic pressing and related processes. This process offers many advantages that are described in this paper in addition to presenting case histories of property enhancement by PIF and the mechanism responsible for property enhancement.

  4. Induction Steel: Inclusion Content and Mechanical Properties of Reinforcing Bars Produced from Pencil Ingots and Continuously Cast Billets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A.; Kurny, A. S. W.

    2012-04-01

    In Bangladesh, most of the reinforcing bars are produced by rolling steel produced by melting scrap in induction furnaces. In many plants the molten steel is directly cast in vertical moulds into what are usually called `pencil ingots'. In some plants the molten steel is tapped into large ladles, taken to continuous casting machines and cast into continuous billets. In some cases the molten steel is refined in ladles (purged with nitrogen or argon) before casting into continuous billets. This investigation aims at a comparison of the inclusion content and resultant mechanical properties of reinforcing bars produced through these different routes. The samples for this study were collected from the process streams of a steel plant. The inclusion content was determined by direct measurement of inclusions on metallographic specimens and the mechanical properties were determined by using a universal tensile testing machine. Reinforcing bars produced by rolling ladle refined continuously cast billets have the lowest content of inclusion and the best mechanical (yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation, etc.) properties. The highest inclusion content and the worst properties were obtained in the pencil ingots.

  5. Diffusion of C and Cr During Creation of Surface Layer on Cast Steel Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szajnar J.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper a method of improvement in utility properties of unalloyed cast steel casting in result of diffusion of C and Cr in process of creation of surface layer is presented. The aim of paper was determination of diffusion range of basic elements of alloyed surface layer. Moreover a quantitative analysis of carbides phase strengthens alloyed surface layer of casting was carried out. The results of studies shown that important factors of surface layer creation are maximal temperature Tmax on granular insert – cast steel boundary dependent of pouring temperature, granularity Zw of Fe-Cr-C alloy insert and thickness of casting wall gśo. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that with increase of thickness of casting wall increases range of diffusion in solid state in Fe-Cr-C grains and in liquid state. Moreover the range of Tmax = 13001500oC favours creation of the proper alloyed surface layers on cast steel.

  6. Simultaneous Co-deposition of Zn-Mg Alloy Layers on Steel Strip by PVD Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Yeob [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of); Goodenough, Mark [Strategic Marketing, Tata Steel, Warwickshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    This is the first release of an interim report on the development of coating technology of Zn-Mg alloy layers on steel strip by EML-PVD (electromagnetic levitation - physical vapor deposition) process in an air-to-air type continuous PVD pilot plant. It intends to introduce a basic principle of the EML-PVD process together with the high speed PVD pilot plant built in Posco. Due to the agitation effect provided by the high frequency induction coil, simultaneous evaporation of Zn and Mg from a droplet could produce alloy coating layers with Mg content of 6% to 12% depending on the composition of the droplet inside the coil. For its superior corrosion resistance, Zn-Mg alloy coated steel would be a very promising material for automotive, electrical appliances, and construction applications.

  7. Simultaneous Co-deposition of Zn-Mg Alloy Layers on Steel Strip by PVD Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Yeob; Goodenough, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This is the first release of an interim report on the development of coating technology of Zn-Mg alloy layers on steel strip by EML-PVD (electromagnetic levitation - physical vapor deposition) process in an air-to-air type continuous PVD pilot plant. It intends to introduce a basic principle of the EML-PVD process together with the high speed PVD pilot plant built in Posco. Due to the agitation effect provided by the high frequency induction coil, simultaneous evaporation of Zn and Mg from a droplet could produce alloy coating layers with Mg content of 6% to 12% depending on the composition of the droplet inside the coil. For its superior corrosion resistance, Zn-Mg alloy coated steel would be a very promising material for automotive, electrical appliances, and construction applications

  8. Fatigue behaviour of synthetic nodular cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the influence of charge composition on microstructure, fatigue properties and failure micromechanisms of nodular cast irons. The additive of metallurgical silicon carbide (SiC in analysed specimens increases the content of ferrite in the matrix, decreases the size of graphite and increases the average count of graphitic nodules per unit of area. Consequently, the mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved. The best fatigue properties (fatigue strength were reached in the melt which was created by 60 % of steel scrap and 40 % of pig iron in the basic charge with SiC additive.

  9. Repair welding of cast iron coated electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Górka, J.; Dojka, R.; Czupryński, A.

    2017-08-01

    Welding cast iron is a complex production procedure. Repair welding was used to repair damaged or poorly made castings. This is due to a tendency to cracking of the material during welding as well as after it. Welding cast iron can be carried out on hot or on cold. Hot welding requires high heat material and the use of welding material in the form of cast iron. In the case of cold welding, it is possible to use different materials. Mostly used filler metals are nickel and copper based. The work shows the course of research concerning repairmen of ductile iron with arc welding method. For the reparation process four types of ESAB company coated electrodes dedicated for cast iron were used with diameter 3.2 and 4 mm: ES 18-8-6B (4mm), EB 150 (4mm), OK NiCl, EŻM. In the cast iron examined during the testing grooves were made using plasma methods, in order to simulate the removed casting flaws. Then the welding process with coated electrodes was executed. The process utilized low welding current row of 100A, so there would only be a small amount of heat delivered to the heat affected zone (HAZ). Short stitches were made, after welding it was hammered, in order to remove stresses. After the repair welding the part of studies commenced which purpose was finding surface defects using visual testing (VT) and penetration testing (PT). In the second part, a series of macro and microscopic studies were executed witch the purpose of disclosuring the structure. Then the hardness tests for welds cross sections were performed. An important aspect of welding cast iron is the colour of the padding weld after welding, more precisely the difference between the base material and padding weld, the use of different materials extra gives the extra ability to select the best variant. The research of four types of coated electrode was executed, based on the demands the best option in terms of aesthetic, strength and hardness.

  10. MACHINING ELIMINATION THROUGH APPLICATION OF THREAD FORMING FASTENERS IN NET SHAPED CAST HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, Ryan J; Cleaver, Todd H; Talbott, Richard

    2012-05-02

    The ultimate objective of this work was to eliminate approximately 30% of the machining performed in typical automotive engine and transmission plants by using thread forming fasteners in as-cast holes of aluminum and magnesium cast components. The primary issues at the source of engineers reluctance to implementing thread forming fasteners in lightweight castings are: * Little proof of consistency of clamp load vs. input torque in either aluminum or magnesium castings. * No known data to understand the effect on consistency of clamp load as casting dies wear. The clamp load consistency concern is founded in the fact that a portion of the input torque used to create clamp load is also used to create threads. The torque used for thread forming may not be consistent due to variations in casting material, hole size and shape due to tooling wear and process variation (thermal and mechanical). There is little data available to understand the magnitude of this concern or to form the basis of potential solutions if the range of clamp load variation is very high (> +/- 30%). The range of variation that can be expected in as-cast hole size and shape over the full life cycle of a high pressure die casting die was established in previous work completed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, (PNNL). This established range of variation was captured in a set of 12 cast bosses by designing core pins at the size and draft angles identified in the sited previous work. The cast bosses were cut into nuts that could be used in the Ford Fastener Laboratory test-cell to measure clamp load when a thread forming fastener was driven into a cast nut. There were two sets of experiments run. First, a series of cast aluminum nuts were made reflecting the range of shape and size variations to be expected over the life cycle of a die casting die. Taptite thread forming fasteners, (a widely used thread forming fastener suitable for aluminum applications), were driven into the various cored, as-cast

  11. Casting of microstructured shark skin surfaces and possible applications on aluminum casting parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Ivanov

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the project Functional Surfaces via Micro- and Nanoscaled Structures?which is part of the Cluster of Excellence 揑ntegrative Production Technology?established and financed by the German Research Foundation (DFG, an investment casting process to produce 3-dimensional functional surfaces down to a structural size of 1 μm on near-net-shape-casting parts has been developed. The common way to realize functional microstructures on metallic surfaces is to use laser ablation, electro discharge machining or micro milling. The handicap of these processes is their limited productivity. The approach of this project to raise the efficiency is to use the investment casting process to replicate microstructured surfaces by moulding from a laser-microstructured grand master pattern. The main research objective deals with the investigation of the single process steps of the investment casting process with regard to the moulding accuracy. Actual results concerning making of the wax pattern, suitability of ceramic mould and core materials for casting of an AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy as well as the knock-out behavior of the shells are presented. By using of the example of an intake manifold of a gasoline race car engine, a technical shark skin surface has been realized to reduce the drag of the intake air. The intake manifold consists of an air-restrictor with a defined inner diameter which is microstructured with technical shark skin riblets. For this reason the inner diameter cannot be drilled after casting and demands a very high accuracy of the casting part. A technology for the fabrication and demoulding of accurate microstructured castings are shown. Shrinkage factors of different moulding steps of the macroscopic casting part as well as the microscopic riblet structure have been examined as well.

  12. STRIPPED ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES AS PROBES OF ICM PHYSICS. I. TAILS, WAKES, AND FLOW PATTERNS IN AND AROUND STRIPPED ELLIPTICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roediger, E. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-4, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching, D-85741 (Germany); Kokotanekova, R., E-mail: eroediger@hs.uni-hamburg.de [AstroMundus Master Programme, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25/8, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-06-10

    Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.

  13. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide formation and changes in color of fried potato strips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 40 g...... water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10...... and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...

  14. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  15. Theoretical study of H- stripping with a wiggler magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The first step for injecting protons into the LAMPF Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at LANL is to strip a beam of 800-MeV H - ions to H 0 with a 1.8-T dipole magnet. Because of the finite lifetime of energetic H - ions in the magnetic field, their trajectories bend before stripping causing the angular spread of the beam, and therefore its emittance, to grow during the stripping process. In the case of the PSR, the horizontal beam emittance grows by a factor of roughly three during injection. As a consequence, beam losses in the ring are significantly greater than they would be if there were not emittance growth. A speculative technique is proposed in which the beam divergence growth and resulting emittance growth is reduced by stripping the H - in a wiggler magnet whose transverse field alternates in direction as a function of position along the beam axis. The wiggler field configuration is adjusted so that the angular beam spread introduced during passage through one unidirectional-field increment of path is relatively small and so that 99.99% of the beam is stripped after passing through the whole magnet. With careful field design the net added angular beam spread is reduced because the incremental angular spreads are painted back and forth over the same small range. In the hypothetical case described, the calculated emittance growth and beam loss increase are significantly smaller than those calculated for a conventional stripper magnet. 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5

  17. Optically pumped lasing in single crystals of organometal halide perovskites prepared by cast-capping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Van-Cao; Katsuki, Hiroyuki; Yanagi, Hisao, E-mail: yanagi@ms.naist.jp [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Sasaki, Fumio [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-06-27

    A simple “cast-capping” method is adopted to prepare single-crystal perovskites of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbBr{sub 3}). By capping a CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbBr{sub 3} solution casted on one substrate with another substrate such as glass, mica, and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), the slow evaporation of solvent enables large-size cubic crystals to grow between the two substrates. Under optical pumping, edge-emitting lasing is observed based on Fabry–Pérot resonation between parallel side facets of a strip-shaped crystal typically with a lateral cavity length of a few tens of μm. On the other hand, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasing (VCSEL) is obtained from a planar crystal grown between two DBRs with a cavity thickness of a few μm. Simultaneous detection of those edge- and surface-emissions reveals that the threshold excitation fluence of VCSEL is higher than that of the edge-emitting lasing due to thickness gradient in the planar crystal.

  18. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  19. Self-paired monoclonal antibody lateral flow immunoassay strip for rapid detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haijuan; Guo, Wenbo; Liang, Beibei; Li, Jianwu; Zhai, Xuzhao; Song, Chunmei; Zhao, Wenjun; Fan, Enguo; Liu, Qing

    2016-09-01

    We screened a highly specific monoclonal antibody (McAb), named 6D, against Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac). Single McAb 6D was used as both nanogold-labeled antibody and test antibody to develop a single self-paired colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strip (Sa-GICS). The detection limit achieved using the Sa-GICS approach was 10(5) CFU/mL, with a result that can be observed by the naked eye within 10 min. Moreover, Sa-GICS can detect eight strains of Aac and display no cross-reactions with other pathogenic plant microorganisms. Artificial contamination experiments demonstrated that Sa-GICS would not be affected by impurities in the leaves or stems of the plants and were consistent with the PCR results. This is the first report on the development of a colloidal gold immunoassay strip with self-paired single McAb for the rapid detection of Aac. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the test strip.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF CAST IRON MELTING IN CUPOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Lukashevich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of cast iron production in cupola-furnace using coke and anthracite in composition of fuel bed is examined. Using of anthracite provides raise of temperature of cast iron and economy of coke.