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Sample records for striga asiatica seeds

  1. Azide-based mutagenesis suppresses Striga hermonthica seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... The genus Striga in the family Scrophulariaceae is composed of some 50 species, all of which are holoparasites of tropical cereals or legumes. Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth and S. asiatica (L.) Kuntze are the species which cause the most economically significant damage to cereals (Butler, 1995). S.

  2. A simple staining method for observation of germinated Striga seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shusheng Long,; Lendzemo, V.W.; Kuyper, T.W.; Zhengsheng Kang,; Vierheilig, H.; Steinkellner, S.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro techniques are essential for Striga research and the development of appropriate control methods. In the laboratory, pre-screening of non-host or false-host plants of Striga for trap cropping or the screening of hosts for resistance involves visual evaluation of Striga seed germination that

  3. Striga hermonthica seed bank dynamics: process quantification and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: Weed control, integrated management, parasitic weed, population, sorghum, millet. This thesis presents a study on the quantification of seed bank dynamics of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. The main objectives were to quantify transition rates between different stages of the

  4. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.

    2009-01-01

    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  5. Striga seed-germination activity of root exudates and compounds present in stems of Striga host and nonhost (trap crop) plants is reduced due to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendzemo, V.W.; Kuyper, T.W.; Vierheilig, H.

    2009-01-01

    Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi reduces stimulation of seed germination of the plant parasite Striga (Orobanchaceae). This reduction can affect not only host plants for Striga, resulting in a lower parasite incidence, but also false hosts or trap crops, which induce suicidal

  6. Dose-response of seeds of the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche toward the synthetic germination stimulants GR24.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigchert, S.C.M.; Kuiper, E.; Boelhouwer, G.J.; Nefkens, G.H.L.; Verkley, J.A.C.; Zwanenburg, B.

    1999-01-01

    Striga and Orobanche seeds germinate in response to a host-derived germination stimulant. Dose-response curves of the synthetic strigolactone analogues GR 24 and Nijmegen 1 were determined, and their activities were compared to that of the naturally occurring stimulant sorgolactone. Typical

  7. Immunomodulatory activity of the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dan-Fei; Xie, Ming-Yong; Yin, Jun-Yi; Nie, Shao-Ping; Tang, Yong-Fu; Xie, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Chao

    2009-07-30

    The seeds of Plantago asiatica L. were often used as a traditional Chinese medicine for some immunologically weak patients suffering from chronic illness. These uses could be related to immunomodulatory properties of the plant. In this study, effects of extract of the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (ES-PL) were investigated on the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which play significant role in primary immune system. The phenotypes of DCs were analyzed by using flow cytometry while phagocytosis was assessed by the uptake of FITC-dextran. Antigen presenting ability to allogeneically naïve or syngeneically primed T lymphocytes was examined by the lymphocyte proliferation of mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). In addition, the level of chemokine receptor CCR7 mRNA was determined by RT-PCR. DCs treated with ES-PL expressed higher levels of MHC class II molecules and major costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86. Functional maturation of DCs treated with ES-PL was confirmed by decreased mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis and increased antigen presenting abilities to allogeneically naïve or syngeneically primed T lymphocytes. The CCR7 mRNA expression in DCs treated with ES-PL was also enhanced. These results indicated that ES-PL could induce the maturation of murine DCs.

  8. Longevity of Striga seeds reconsidered: results of a field study on purple witchweed (Striga hermonthica) in Benin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbehounou, G.; Pieterse, A.H.; Verkley, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Germination and longevity of purple witchweed seeds stored in nylon gauze bags in the soil in situ were tested in northern Bénin over a 2-yr period, covering the rainy seasons in 1994 and 1995. The seeds were collected at Ina Station in November 1993 from corn and sorghum fields. It appeared that

  9. N-Phthaloylglycine-derived strigol analogues. Influence of the D-ring on the seed germination activity of the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuring, J.W.J.F.; Bitter, J.H.; Kok, M.M.K. de; Nefkens, G.H.L.; Riel, A.M.D.A. van; Zwanenburg, B.

    1997-01-01

    Several strigol analogues with modifications in the D-ring were synthesized and assayed for germination stimulatory activity of seeds of Striga hermothica and Orobanche crenata. All of these D-ring analogues are derived from N-phthaloylglycine as the common ABC-fragment. It was concluded that the

  10. Bioguided isolation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fang; Yang, Li; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2010-07-01

    Ethanolic extract of the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. showed significant inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) determined by monitoring the transformation from a substrate hippuryl-histidyl-leucine (HHL) to the product hippuric acid (HA) in vitro using an UPLC-MS method. The bioguided fractionation of the extract resulted in the isolation of four ACE inhibitory active phenylpropanoid glycosides acteoside, isoacteoside, plantainoside D, and plantamajoside with IC(50) values of 2.69 mM, 2.46 mM, 2.17 mM, and 2.47 mM, respectively. Their structures were elucidated through the analysis of NMR, UV, IR and MS data. Our study is the first demonstration that Plantago asiatica L. and its major constituents have ACE inhibitory activity in vitro. It is assumed that the identified compounds contribute to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity of the extract.

  11. Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yi Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP. Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength.

  12. Effects of host plant genotype and seedbank density on Striga reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, J.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.; Ast, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Prevention of seed input to the seedbank of Striga hermonthica-infested fields is an important objective of Striga management. In three consecutive years of field experimentation in Mali, Striga reproduction was studied for 10 sorghum genotypes at infestation levels ranging from 30 000 to 200 000

  13. Differential activity of Striga hermonthica seed germination stimulants and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching factors in rice and their contribution to underground communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Cardoso

    Full Text Available Strigolactones (SLs trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. There is extensive structural variation in SLs and plants usually produce blends of different SLs. The structural variation among natural SLs has been shown to impact their biological activity as hyphal branching and parasitic plant seed germination stimulants. In this study, rice root exudates were fractioned by HPLC. The resulting fractions were analyzed by MRM-LC-MS to investigate the presence of SLs and tested using bioassays to assess their Striga hermonthica seed germination and Gigaspora rosea hyphal branching stimulatory activities. A substantial number of active fractions were revealed often with very different effect on seed germination and hyphal branching. Fractions containing (--orobanchol and ent-2'-epi-5-deoxystrigol contributed little to the induction of S. hermonthica seed germination but strongly stimulated AM fungal hyphal branching. Three SLs in one fraction, putative methoxy-5-deoxystrigol isomers, had moderate seed germination and hyphal branching inducing activity. Two fractions contained strong germination stimulants but displayed only modest hyphal branching activity. We provide evidence that these stimulants are likely SLs although no SL-representative masses could be detected using MRM-LC-MS. Our results show that seed germination and hyphal branching are induced to very different extents by the various SLs (or other stimulants present in rice root exudates. We propose that the development of rice varieties with different SL composition is a promising strategy to reduce parasitic plant infestation while maintaining symbiosis with AM fungi.

  14. Genetic variation and host-parasite specificity of Striga resistance and tolerance in rice: the need for predictive breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayongo, Nicholas; Dieng, Ibnou; Bisikwa, Jenipher; Irakiza, Runyambo; Masoka, Isaac; Midega, Charles A O; Scholes, Julie D

    2017-05-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause devastating yield losses to upland rice in Africa. Little is known about genetic variation in host resistance and tolerance across rice genotypes, in relation to virulence differences across Striga species and ecotypes. Diverse rice genotypes were phenotyped for the above traits in S. asiatica- (Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested fields (Kenya and Uganda) and under controlled conditions. New rice genotypes with either ecotype-specific or broad-spectrum resistance were identified. Resistance identified in the field was confirmed under controlled conditions, providing evidence that resistance was largely genetically determined. Striga-resistant genotypes contributed to yield security under Striga-infested conditions, although grain yield was also determined by the genotype-specific yield potential and tolerance. Tolerance, the physiological mechanism mitigating Striga effects on host growth and physiology, was unrelated to resistance, implying that any combination of high, medium or low levels of these traits can be found across rice genotypes. Striga virulence varies across species and ecotypes. The extent of Striga-induced host damage results from the interaction between parasite virulence and genetically determined levels of host-plant resistance and tolerance. These novel findings support the need for predictive breeding strategies based on knowledge of host resistance and parasite virulence. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Acetylation Modification Improves Immunoregulatory Effect of Polysaccharide from Seeds of Plantago asiatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Ming Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate effects of acetylated Plantago asiatica L. polysaccharides (Ac-PLCPs on their immunoregulatory activities in bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs model. Influences of natural Plantago asiatica L. crude polysaccharide (PLCP and Ac-PLCPs on inducing phenotypic and functional maturation on DCs were determined. The results showed that Ac-PLCPs with degree of substitution (DS from 0.06 to 0.1 could not only stimulate the expression of surface molecules major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II, cluster of differentiation 86 (CD86, and CD80 on DCs (P<0.01 but also increase the secretion of cytokine IL-12p70 (P<0.01. The endocytosis activity of DCs was attenuated by Ac-PLCPs treatment (P<0.01, while the mRNA expressions of chemokine receptors CCR7 and CXCR4 in DCs were significantly increased (P<0.01. Besides, DCs treated with the Ac-PLCPs showed extremely strong T cell proliferation stimulating activity (P<0.01. These data showed that Ac-PLCPs had higher maturation-stimulating activity on DCs than PLCP, which indicated that acetylation modification improved the immunoregulatory effect of PLCP.

  16. A new heteropolysaccharide from the seed husks of Plantago asiatica L. with its thermal and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuge; Li, Na; Alaxi, Sierkemideke; Huang, Guoren; Chen, Lei; Feng, Ziqian

    2017-12-13

    A new heteropolysaccharide (PMH) with a molecular weight of 1.4 × 10 3 kDa was isolated from the seed husks of Plantago asiatica L. The monosaccharide composition of PMH was determined as glucose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a molar ratio of 1.0 : 1.8 : 2.4 : 3.8 : 4.9 : 8.5. The backbone of PMH consisted of 1,4-β-d-GalpA with the side chains mainly composed of 1,3-α-d-Galp and 1,2-α-d-Galp which were attached to the O-3 of GlapA. The thermal analysis using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method revealed that PMH had an apparent activation energy (E a ) of 173.1 kJ mol -1 . PMH experienced a major decomposition during the heating process at a temperature of 91.1 °C with a dry weight loss of 31.1%. Moreover, PMH exhibited stronger antioxidant ability than commercial psyllium, partially due to its higher content of uronic acid. The results suggested that PMH could be used in functional foods due to its structural, thermal and antioxidant characteristics.

  17. A novel polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. induces dendritic cells maturation through toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Danfei; Nie, Shaoping; Jiang, Leming; Xie, Mingyong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a polysaccharide purified from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (PLP-2) on the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms. The results showed that PLP-2 increased the expression of maturation markers major histocompatibility complex II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 on DCs. Consistent with the changes in the phenotypic markers, functional assay for DCs maturation showed that PLP-2 decreased DCs endocytosis and increased intracellular interleukin (IL)-12 levels and allostimulatory activity. Furthermore, using a syngeneic T cell activation model, we found that PLP-2 treated DCs presented ovalbumin antigen to T cells more efficiently as demonstrated by increased T cell proliferation. In addition, the effects of PLP-2 on DCs were significantly impaired by treating the cells with anti-TLR4 antibody prior to PLP-2 treatment, implying direct interaction between PLP-2 and TLR4 on cell surface. These results suggested that PLP-2 may induce DCs maturation through TLR4. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating action of the polysaccharides from plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzioki, Henry S; Oyosi, Florence; Morris, Cindy E; Kaya, Eylul; Pilgeram, Alice L; Baker, Claire S; Sands, David C

    2016-01-01

    Striga hermonthica (witchweed) is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet, and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: (1) Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; (2) Training of smallholder farmers (85% women), to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; (3) Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but innocuous to maize

  19. Striga Biocontrol on a Toothpick: A Readily Deployable and Inexpensive Method for Smallholder Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chandler Sands

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Striga hermonthica (witchweed is a parasitic weed that attacks and significantly reduces the yields of maize, sorghum, millet and sugarcane throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Low cost management methods such as hand weeding, short crop rotations, trap cropping, or conventional biocontrol have not been effective. Likewise, Striga-tolerant or herbicide-resistant maize cultivars are higher yielding, but are often beyond the economic means of sustenance farmers. The fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae, has been the object of numerous studies to develop Striga biocontrol. Under experimental conditions this pathogen can reduce the incidence of Striga infestation but field use is not extensive, perhaps because it has not been sufficiently effective in restoring crop yield and reducing the soil Striga seed bank. Here we brought together Kenyan and US crop scientists with smallholder farmers to develop and validate an effective biocontrol strategy for management of Striga on smallholder farms. Key components of this research project were the following: 1. Development of a two-step method of fungal delivery, including laboratory coating of primary inoculum on toothpicks, followed by on-farm production of secondary field inoculum in boiled rice enabling delivery of vigorous, fresh inoculum directly to the seedbed; 2. Training of smallholder farmers (85% women, to produce the biocontrol agent and incorporate it into their maize plantings in Striga-infested soils and collect agronomic data. The field tests expanded from 30 smallholder farmers to a two-season, 500-farmer plot trial including paired plus and minus biocontrol plots with fertilizer and hybrid seed in both plots and; 3. Concerted selection of variants of the pathogen identified for enhanced virulence, as has been demonstrated in other host parasite systems were employed here on Striga via pathogen excretion of the amino acids L-leucine and L-tyrosine that are toxic to Striga but

  20. Performance of Maize Varieties Under Striga and Striga Free Environments in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odongo, O.M.; Abayo, G.

    1999-01-01

    In the study seven maize varieties, Rachar, Nyamula, KK Pop24, KSTP94, H662, H511 and H512, were compared for their reactions towards striga infestation for two seasons (1995 and 1996 long rains) at four locations. The trial was conducted in a randomised complete block design with four replications. Data were taken on striga count, ear height, striga effect and grain yield. The striga count for six of the varieties did not differ significantly at except for H512 which supported significantly higher sriga plants an indication of H512 being more striga stimulant producer and parasiterised than the rest of the varieties.T-test showed that the variety Nyamula had the least yield reduction caused by striga among the tested varieties. across location means for the two seasons suggested that the varieties Nyamula and KSTP94 are more tolerant to striga attack than the other test varieties and could be recommended commercial hybrids H622 (3269 kg ha -1 ) and H512 (3758 kg ha -1 ) under striga-free conditions. KSTP94 was developed for striga tolerance and Nyamula is a landrace in striga infested areas. This explains why the two are superior to the rest under striga infestation

  1. Management of Striga Hermonthica (Del.) Benth in Upland Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FARO 40 and WAB 56-50 did not support Striga emergence, and thus exhibited resistance to Striga hermonthica. FARO 48, a variety normally susceptible to S. hermonthica, supported delayed and low Striga emergence, exhibiting enhanced resistance. In spite of support for early and high Striga infestation, FARO 11 ...

  2. Striga: A Persistent Problem on Millets

    KAUST Repository

    Kountche, Boubacar Amadou

    2017-01-07

    Striga are obligate root-parasitic plants of the major agricultural cereal crops, including millets, in tropical and semi-arid regions of Africa, Middle East, Asia, and Australia. Consequently, they cause severe to even complete losses in crop grain yield. Though limited in their efficiency, the control strategies available today represent major progress toward combating Striga when compared with the absence of any means some years ago. Hence, efforts have led to the development of powerful approaches for understanding and exploiting the complex intricate host-parasitic plant interactions. It is widely agreed that genetic resistance is the most practical and economically feasible method for sustainable control of Striga. Hence, research efforts have been deployed over the past decades to identify resistance sources in certain millet crops, principally sorghum and pearl millet, to characterize the mechanisms underlying the resistance and to understand the genetic basis of the identified resistance phenotype. Furthermore, application of the modern breeding tools, such as molecular markers, has revolutionized the field of search for Striga resistance. Information thus generated have been extensively used to identify several sources of resistance to Striga and individual genes/QTLs conferring host-plant resistance have been deployed for improving Striga resistance in sorghum varieties. More interestingly, we are facing an accelerated progress in the genomic and biotechnological research that should soon provide important understanding of some crucial developmental mechanisms in both the parasite and their host plants, thereby enhancing the efficiency of breeding for Striga resistance in millets. In this paper we provide a detailed state-of-the-art account on the recent progress and perspectives for Striga research and management in millets.

  3. Klebsiella oxytoca '10mkr7\\' stimulates Striga suicidal germination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Striga species are obligate root parasitic plants. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria could enhance Striga suicidal germination. In screen-house studies we quantified the effect of bacterial inoculation with increasing maize plant density on the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. The design used was a randomized ...

  4. The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusova, R.; Rani, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Beale, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both

  5. The relationship between strigolactones and Striga hermonthica infection in cereals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cereal production in Africa is under increasing constraint due to the obligate, out-crossing, hemiparasitic weed Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth, a member of the Scrophulariaceae family. Striga parasitizes roots of cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, maize and upland rice. It

  6. Host-Parasite Interactions Throughout the Striga Life Cycle, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... wide international testing in several African countries. We hope to follow this pattern for each host-dependent step in the development of Striga plants, then pyramid the resulting resistance genes into a single genotype which should exhibit durable, broad-based resistance. Keywords: Host-parasite interactions, Striga ...

  7. Combining ability for grain yield, agronomic traits and Striga lutea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    striga endemic locations of Southwestern Nigeria under artificial infestation in 1998 growing seasons. The results showed ... than their parent inbreds for striga tolerance rating and maize grain yield under artificial infestation. General combining .... of leaves causing premature death or collapse of the host plants and no ear ...

  8. Integrated control of Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. in Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two-year field study investigated integrated management of Striga hermonthica on sorghum through host crop resistance, biocontrol (Fusarium oxysporum isolate 34-FO), and fertilizer application. The experiment was conducted in a field with natural Striga infestation at Kouaré Research Station in Fada N'Gourma, Burkina ...

  9. PLANT INDUCTION OF GERMINATION OF WITCH WEED SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche control using synthetic germination stimulants. Weed Research 16: 223-227. Kim, S.K. and Adetimirin, V.O. 1997. Striga hermonthica seed inoculum rate effects on maize hybrid tolerance and susceptibility expression. Crop Science 37:1066-1071. M'Boob, S.S. 1989. A regional program for. Striga control in West ...

  10. The Strigolactone Germination Stimulants of the Plant-Parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. Are Derived from the Carotenoid Pathway1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W.A.; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Beale, Michael H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation. PMID:16183851

  11. The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusova, Radoslava; Rani, Kumkum; Verstappen, Francel W A; Franssen, Maurice C R; Beale, Michael H; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2005-10-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both Orobanche and Striga spp. In most cases, the compounds were shown to be isoprenoid and belong to one chemical class, collectively called the strigolactones, and suggested by many authors to be sesquiterpene lactones. However, this classification was never proven; hence, the biosynthetic pathways of the germination stimulants are unknown. We have used carotenoid mutants of maize (Zea mays) and inhibitors of isoprenoid pathways on maize, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and assessed the effects on the root exudate-induced germination of Striga hermonthica and Orobanche crenata. Here, we show that for these three host and two parasitic plant species, the strigolactone germination stimulants are derived from the carotenoid pathway. Furthermore, we hypothesize how the germination stimulants are formed. We also discuss this finding as an explanation for some phenomena that have been observed for the host-parasitic plant interaction, such as the effect of mycorrhiza on S. hermonthica infestation.

  12. Centella asiatica in cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylka, Wiesława; Znajdek-Awiżeń, Paulina; Studzińska-Sroka, Elżbieta; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2013-02-01

    Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae.

  13. Centella asiatica in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znajdek-Awiżeń, Paulina; Studzińska-Sroka, Elżbieta; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae. PMID:24278045

  14. Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential responses of 15 cowpea genotypes to three Striga hot spots in Niger. M. SALIFOU1*, J. B. L. S. TIGNEGRE2, P. TONGOONA3, S. OFFEI3,. K. OFORI3 and E. DANQUAH3. 1National Agricultural Research Institute of Niger, Maradi Regional Research Centre, Niger. 2 The world Vegetable Centre, West and Central ...

  15. The larvicidal efficacy of aqueous extracts of Striga hermonthica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that S. hermonthica and M. scaber contain larvicidal properties that could be developed and used as natural larvicidal, for mosquito control. Keywords: Striga hermonthica, Mitracarpus scaber, mosquito larvae, aqueous extracts, Culex quinquefasciatus. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 32 [1] March ...

  16. markers linked to race-specific resistance to Striga gesnerioides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers linked to race-specific resistance to Striga gesnerioides in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ... a pair of sequence specific primers were designed and used to isolate identical and similar fragments from cowpea genomic DNA of different cowpea lines by ...

  17. Biosynthesis of germination stimulants of parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.

    2008-01-01

    My research focused on the biosynthetic origin of germination stimulants of the root parasitic plants, Striga spp. and Orobanche spp., which have an increasing impact on cereal and other economically important crops in many regions of the world. The traditional control methods are not sufficient and

  18. Crops with target-site herbicide resistance for Orobanche and Striga control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    It is necessary to control root parasitic weeds before or as they attach to the crop. This can only be easily achieved chemically with herbicides that are systemic, or with herbicides that are active in soil. Long-term control can only be attained if the crops do not metabolise the herbicide, i.e. have target-site resistance. Such target-site resistances have allowed foliar applications of herbicides inhibiting enol-pyruvylshikimate phosphate synthase (EPSPS) (glyphosate), acetolactate synthase (ALS) (e.g. chlorsulfuron, imazapyr) and dihydropteroate synthase (asulam) for Orobanche control in experimental conditions with various crops. Large-scale use of imazapyr as a seed dressing of imidazolinone-resistant maize has been commercialised for Striga control. Crops with two target-site resistances will be more resilient to the evolution of resistance in the parasite, if well managed.

  19. Xenognosin methylation is critical in defining the chemical potential gradient that regulates the potential distribution in Striga pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fate, G.D.; Lynn, D.G. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-20

    Striga asiatica (Scrophulariaceae) is a parasitic plant requiring a host-derived signal, xenognosin, to initiate a cascade of events necessary for the establishment of host contact. By attempting to model the distribution of the xenognosin around the host, the activity of the signal is shown to be strongly dependent on the presence of another component in the host exudate. Surprisingly this component, characterized as 4,6-dimethoxy-2-[(8`Z.11`Z)-8`,11`, -14`-pentadecatriene]resorcinol, is structurally related and shares the same biosynthetic pathway as the xenognosin. This compound is shown to function as an antioxidant and its ability to enhance the activity of the xenognosin is consistent with its ability to extend its lifetime in the exudate. This endogenous antioxidant activity is required to explain the spatial sensing in the establishment of the host-parasite interface and its characterization provides insight into how chemical potential may be regulated within and around plant tissues. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Induction of Haustorium Development by Sphaeropsidones in Radicles of the Parasitic Weeds Striga and Orobanche. A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Masi, Marco; Maddau, Lucia; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Marco; Rubiales, Diego; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-06-29

    Crop attack by parasitic weeds such as Striga and Orobanche occurs through developmental processes triggered by host chemodetection. Seeds of those weed species remain dormant in the soil until germination is triggered by host root exudates. The development of haustorium, a parasitic plant organ that invades the host to withdraw its nutrients, is also initiated in Orobanchaceae by host molecular cues. The induction of haustorium development by exogenous signals has previously been reported for Striga but not for Orobanche species. In this work, we demonstrate that sphaeropsidone and epi-sphaeropsidone, two phytotoxic cyclohexene oxides isolated from the fungus Diplodia cupressi, a causal agent of cypress canker, induce haustorium development in radicles of the parasitic weeds Striga hermonthica, Orobanche crenata, and Orobanche cumana. This is the first report of chemical stimulation of haustorium development in radicles of Orobanche in the absence of host. In addition, SAR studies were carried out by testing the haustorium-inducing activity of the natural cyclohexene oxides, seven already known and four new hemisynthetic derivatives, in O. cumana, O. crenata, and S. hermonthica, to find a molecular specificity model required for haustorium induction. The results suggested that the haustorium-inducing activity is due to the possibility to convert the natural sphaeropsidone and natural and hemisynthetic derivatives in the corresponding 3-methoxyquinone and that the stereochemistry at C-5 also seems to affect this activity.

  1. Cultural control measures to diminish sorghum yield loss and parasite success under Striga hermonthica infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Katile, S.

    2005-01-01

    Prospects of reducing Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. parasitism by means of cultural control measures were assessed. In a pot experiment, deep planting, the use of transplants and shallow soil-tillage, strongly delayed and reduced Striga infection of a sensitive and a tolerant sorghum cultivar.

  2. Confirmation and quantification of strigolactones, germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche, produced by cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Awad, Ayman A; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    The germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche produced by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were examined in detail. Seeds of cotton were germinated and grown on glass wool wetted with sterile distilled water in sterile filter units. The root exudate was collected daily and extracted with ethyl acetate. Each of these ethyl acetate extracts was analyzed directly by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results demonstrate that cotton roots exuded strigol and strigyl acetate, but no other known strigolactones such as orobanchol and alectrol. The production of strigol was detected even in the root exudate collected during the first 24 h of incubation and reached a maximum 5-7 days later. The average exudation of strigol and strigyl acetate during the incubation period was ca. 15 and 2 pg/plant/day, respectively, indicating that strigol mainly contributed to germination stimulation by the cotton root exudate.

  3. Antimicrobial constituents from buddleja asiatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.; Iqbal, M.; Naz, R.; Ali, I.; Malik, A.

    2011-01-01

    Seven compounds have been isolated for the first time from the chloroform soluble fraction of Buddleja asiatica namely, buddlejone (1), dihydrobuddledin-A (2), buddledone-B (3), ursolic acid (4), 2-phenylethyl-beta-D-glucoside (5), 7-deoxy-8-epiloganic acid (6) and scutellarin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their structures have been elucidated through spectroscopic studies. All the isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activity. (author)

  4. Effect of diammonium phosphate application on strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in three sorghum cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamil, M.; Mourik, van T.A.; Charnikova, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Striga hermonthica infection poses a major constraint to sorghum production in sub-Saharan Africa, and low soil fertility aggravates the S. hermonthica problem. Under mineral nutrient deficiency, the sorghum host secretes large quantities of strigolactones, signalling molecules, into the

  5. Updating Taenia asiatica in humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2016-11-01

    An epidemiological study on taeniasis and cysticercosis in northern India has recently updated the epidemiology of Taenia asiatica. Practically, all the detected cases of taeniasis were caused by T. asiatica, cited for the first time in humans in that country. The finding widens the geographical distribution of T. asiatica, a species wrongly considered an exclusive South-Eastern Asian parasite. Due to the introduction of molecular techniques in Taenia diagnosis, the species is slowly showing its true distribution. A human Taenia species with cosmopolitan hosts (the same as the other two Taenia species) but limited to a specific geographical area and not affected by globalisation would certainly be hard to believe. Regarding cysticercosis, there is a remarkable finding concerning T. asiatica pig cysticercosis, specifically the presence of the cysticercus of T. asiatica not only in the liver (its preferential infection site) but also in muscle. This is the first time that the cysticercus of T. asiatica has been found in muscle in a naturally infected pig. This fact is actually relevant since people are at a greater risk of becoming infected by T. asiatica than previously expected since the liver is no longer the only site of pig infection. The Taenia species causing Taenia saginata-like taeniasis around the world, as well as pig and human cysticercosis, should always be molecularly confirmed since T. asiatica could be involved.

  6. Triterpene composition and bioactivities of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Puziah; Sidek, Hamidah; Helan, Mohd Helme M; Sabery, Aidawati; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Ilham, Mohd

    2011-01-28

    Leaves of Centella asiatica (Centella) were analysed for their triterpene composition and bioactivity such as collagen enhancement, antioxidant, anticellulite and UV protection capacity properties. Triterpenes of Centella were measured using HPLC-PAD on an Excil ODS 5 mm (C18) column for the simultaneous determination of asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside. Centella was found to contain significant amounts of madecassoside (3.10 ± 4.58 mg/mL) and asiaticoside (1.97 ± 2.65 mg/mL), but was low in asiatic and madecassic acid. The highest collagen synthesis was found at 50 mg/mL of Centella extracts. The antioxidant activity of Centella (84%) was compared to grape seed extract (83%) and Vitamin C (88%). Its lipolytic activity was observed by the release of glycerol (115.9 µmol/L) at 0.02% concentration. Centella extracts exhibited similar UV protection effect to OMC at 10% concentration. In view of these results, the potential application of Centella in food and pharmaceutical industries is now widely open.

  7. Triterpene Composition and Bioactivities of Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Centella asiatica (Centella were analysed for their triterpene composition and bioactivity such as collagen enhancement, antioxidant, anticellulite and UV protection capacity properties. Triterpenes of Centella were measured using HPLC-PAD on an Excil ODS 5 mm (C18 column for the simultaneous determination of asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside. Centella was found to contain significant amounts of madecassoside (3.10 ± 4.58 mg/mL and asiaticoside (1.97 ± 2.65 mg/mL, but was low in asiatic and madecassic acid. The highest collagen synthesis was found at 50 mg/mL of Centella extracts. The antioxidant activity of Centella (84% was compared to grape seed extract (83% and Vitamin C (88%. Its lipolytic activity was observed by the release of glycerol (115.9 µmol/L at 0.02% concentration. Centella extracts exhibited similar UV protection effect to OMC at 10% concentration. In view of these results, the potential application of Centella in food and pharmaceutical industries is now widely open.

  8. Immunoblot patterns of Taenia asiatica taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2009-03-01

    Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and 21.5 kDa against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia saginata revealed 110-100, 66, 58-56, and 46 kDa immunoblot bands against T. asiatica infected sera. Antigens of adult Taenia solium also revealed 99-97, 68-66, and 46 kDa bands against T. asiatica infected sera. The immunoblot band of 21.5 kDa exhibited specificity to T. asiatica.

  9. Centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylka, Wiesława; Znajdek-Awiżeń, Paulina; Studzińska-Sroka, Elżbieta; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Brzezińska, Małgorzata

    2014-08-01

    Centella asiatica is a medicinal plant that was already used as a 'panacea' 3000 years ago. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecasosside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. We have conducted an overview to summarize current knowledge on the results of scientific in vitro and in vivo experiments focused on the improvement of the healing process of small wounds, hypertrophic scars and burns by C. asiatica. In this paper, we discuss the data on constituents, recommended preparations and the potential side effects of C. asiatica. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Immunoblot Patterns of Taenia asiatica Taeniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2009-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica infection from other human taeniases by serology has been tested. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) was applied to subjected human sera and tapeworm materials. Thirty-eight proteins reactive to serum IgG were observed between 121 and 10 kDa in adult worms, and more than 22 serum-reactive components between 97 kDa and 21.5 kDa were observed in eggs of T. asiatica. Antigens of adult T. asiatica revealed immunoblot bands between 120 and ...

  11. Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi of Sorghum Leads to Reduced Germination and Subsequent Attachment and Emergence of Striga hermonthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendzemo, V.W.; Kuyper, T.W.; Matusova, R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Ast, van A.

    2007-01-01

    Two sorghum cultivars: the Striga-tolerant S-35 and the Striga-sensitive CK60-B were grown with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and with or without phosphorus addition. At 24 and 45 days after sowing (DAS) of sorghum, root exudates were collected and tested for effects on germination

  12. Striga infestation of cereal crops - an unsolved problem in resource limited agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Julie D; Press, Malcolm C

    2008-04-01

    The parasitic weed Striga causes devastating losses in cereal yields in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasite lifecycle is intimately linked with its host via a complex interchange of signals. Understanding the molecular basis of these interactions and of host resistance to Striga is essential for the identification of genes for improving crop yield via biotechnological or marker assisted breeding strategies. Cloning and sequencing of ESTs from the 'model' parasite Triphysaria versicolor is facilitating the identification of parasitism genes. The identification of resistance to Striga in sorghum and rice germplasm is allowing molecular dissection of these traits using genomic platforms and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. QTL underlying different resistance phenotypes have been identified and the use of advanced backcross populations is allowing the exploitation of sources of resistance in wild relatives of cereals.

  13. [Molecular characters of Centella asiatica found with RAPD technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yuan; Mo, Rong-Hao; Li, Min; Huang, Liu-Qing; Luo, Yu; Li, Xiong-Ying; Zhou, Juan; Wu, Yao-Sheng

    2008-07-01

    To analyze the DNA molecular characters of Centella asiatica with RAPD technology. With the genomic DNA as templates extracted from various source of Centella asiatica samples, optimized RAPD PCR reaction systems had been used. The random promers had been screened to amplify the specific molecular fragments of Centella asiatica. The specific genetic bands of Centella asiatica species from various habitats were established which were highly stable and repeatable and obviously different from those of other families, genuses of plants such as Gynostemma pentaphylum, Tobacco, Cayratia japonica. The developed method of RAPD analysis for the genetic character bands of Centella asiatica could be applied to identify real Centella asiatica from its spurious breed plants. The genetic character bands of Centella asiatica amplified with the RAPD method show high homogeneous in several samples from different habitats.

  14. The role of infection time in the differential response of sorghum cultivars to Striga helmonthica infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2006-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is an important parasitic weed that severely reduces yields of sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. Pot experiments with the sensitive sorghum cultivar CK60-B and the tolerant Tiémarifing were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to investigate the role of infection time on the interaction

  15. Effect of different levels of Striga gesnerioides on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment was carried out at International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kano, Nigeria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of Striga infestation on the growth and yield of some varieties of cowpea. Four cowpea genotypes were selected for the study. The experiment was laid out in ...

  16. Effects of Striga gesnerioides on the Growth and Yield of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted at screen house of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Kano, Nigeria. Three cowpea varieties were used in the experiment, the experimental set up was completely randomized design with four treatment regimes; T1, vegetative stage of water stress with Striga infestation; T2, ...

  17. evaluation of striga-resistant early maize hybrids and test locations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    to evaluate selected Striga-resistant maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids for grain yield and stability of performance based on multiple ... infestation based on multiple traits than based on yield per se, suggesting that grain yield alone is not a precise predictor of ..... environment interaction components were not significant, there was ...

  18. The role of sorghum genotype in the interaction with the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, J.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Strigahermonthica , Sorghum bicolor , selection measures, resistance, tolerance, genotypes.This thesis presents a study on the interaction between the

  19. Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-02-01

    Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.

  20. Two New Triterpene Glycosides from Centella asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Centella asiatica resulted in the isolation and characterization of one new ursane type triterpene glycoside; asiaticoside G along with nine known compounds, that were characterized as ursane type triterpenes and /or their glycoside; asiatic acid (2), mad...

  1. Historical overview of Taenia asiatica in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Hong Kean; Ho, Chau-Mei; Chung, Wen-Cheng

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the epidemiological, biological, and clinical studies of Taenia and taeniasis in Taiwan for the past century is presented. The phenomenal observations that led to the discovery of Taenia asiatica as a new species, which differ from Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, are described. Parasitological surveys of the aborigines in Taiwan revealed a high prevalence of taeniasis, which might be due to the culture of eating raw liver of hunted wild boars. Chemotherapeutic deworming trials involving many patients with taeniasis were discussed. Praziquantel was found to be very effective, but sometimes complete worms could not be recovered from the feces after treatment, probably due to the dissolution of the proglottids. Atabrine, despite some side effects, can still be used, in properly controlled dosages, as the drug of choice for human T. asiatica infection if we need to recover the expelled worms for morphological examinations. Research results on the infection of T. asiatica eggs from Taiwan aborigines in experimental animals were also noted. Since the pig serve as the natural intermediate host of T. asiatica and the predilection site is the liver, a differential comparison of other parasitic pathogens that might cause apparently similar lesions is also presented.

  2. Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Crude extract of Buddleja asiatica Lour and its fractions, chloroform (F1), ethyl acetate (F2) and n- butanol (F3) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca++ antagonist activities. The antibacterial activity was performed against 11 types of bacteria. The crude extract and fractions F2.

  3. Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Kore...

  4. The tripartite interaction between sorghum, Striga hermonthica, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendzemo, V.W.

    2004-01-01

    Striga hermonthica is a major biological constraint to cereal production inAfrica. The

  5. Observations on the current status of Orobanche and Striga problems worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Chris

    2009-05-01

    Species of Orobanche and Striga are among the most damaging parasitic weed species worldwide, but there are few reliable statistics on the full extent of the economic losses they cause. The distribution, host range and economic importance of the major species of Orobanche and Striga are briefly summarised. A review of literature over the period since 1991 suggests that many million hectares are infested and that the losses amount to $ US billions annually. Unfortunately there are almost no fully reliable figures on which to base these figures precisely. Meanwhile, there is little evidence of any significant change in intensity, range or losses caused over this period. Any reduction in the importance of these damaging weeds is sporadic, and alleviation of the problems is mostly localised. Furthermore, while the importance of Orobanche species may be broadly static, Striga species on cereals continue to become more serious in many countries owing to continued loss of soil fertility. It is suggested that new techniques may be needed for measurement of the extent of losses caused by these genera and their economic impact. There is continued urgency to develop control measures appropriate to the farming systems involved, and to reduce the risk of spread of both groups of parasite to new areas.

  6. Therapeutic effect of praziquantel against Taeniasis asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Kenji; Sakamoto, Naoya; Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi

    2013-08-01

    Eight Japanese adult patients infected with Taenia asiatica were treated with a single 600 mg dose of praziquantel. The patients' body weights ranged from 47 to 87 kg (mean 67.1±12.7 kg). All patients expelled the strobila after taking praziquantel, and all of them were free from proglottids the day after praziquantel administration, hence all patients were considered to be cured. No side effects due to praziquantel were noted. Although the number of patients is small, our results indicate that praziquantel is a drug of choice for the treatment of taeniasis asiatica and that a single dose of 7-13 mg/kg (9.3±1.9 mg/kg) is effective. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Triterpene Composition and Bioactivities of Centella asiatica

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim, Puziah; Sidek, Hamidah; Helan, Mohd Helme M.; Sabery, Aidawati; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Ilham, Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Leaves of Centella asiatica (Centella) were analysed for their triterpene composition and bioactivity such as collagen enhancement, antioxidant, anticellulite and UV protection capacity properties. Triterpenes of Centella were measured using HPLC-PAD on an Excil ODS 5 mm (C18) column for the simultaneous determination of asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside. Centella was found to contain significant amounts of madecassoside (3.10 ± 4.58 mg/mL) and asiaticoside (1.97 ±...

  8. A Novel Triterpene from Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Gao

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel triterpene, 2α,3β,20,23-tetrahydroxyurs-28-oic acid (1, was isolated from the aerial part of Centella asiatica. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D-NMR spectra. It displayed no activity against Hela and A549 cell lines at concentrations of 10 and 30 μg/mL, respectively.

  9. seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    peptidohydrolase (8.0%) from mung bean seedlings. (Baumgartner and Chrispeels, 1977), EP-HG (4.5%) from horse gram seedlings ( Rajeswari, 1997), acidic protease (15%) from germinating winged-bean seeds. (Usha and Singh, 1996) and EP-1 (1.6%) from barley seedlings and GA3-induced cysteine protease (3.38%).

  10. Sequence variability between Plantago asiatica mosaic virus isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) was described four decades ago from the weedy species Plantago asiatica in the Russian Far East, but has also been reported from lilies (Lilium spp.) and primrose (Primula seiboldii) in Japan. More recently PlAMV has been reported in the Netherlands and elsewhe...

  11. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Centella Asiatica (L) Urb | Mutayabarwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water extract of whole plant of Centella asiatica is used by traditional healers in the Haya tribe in Bukoba Region in Tanzania, in the management of both insulin and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Centella asiatica administered orally at a dose of 2 g/kg and 4 g/kg body weight produced a significant ...

  12. Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of mature fruits and leaves from Toddalia asiatica was investigated to establish its bio-control potentiality under laboratory condition against fourth instars larvae of Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Hexane extract of fruits of T. asiatica ...

  13. [Population distribution and antimicrobial activities of endophytes in Toddalia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Benshou; Yang, Benshou; Miao, Cuiping; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Guoyin; Yang, De; Yu, Hong

    2014-03-04

    To study the population composition and antimicrobial activities of endophytes in medicinal plant Toddalia asiatica. Endophytes were isolated from T. asiatica by using an exterior sterilization method, in combination with adding antimicrobial agents. Endophytes were classified and identified by morphological and molecular characters. Antimicrobial activities of endophytes were measured by using paper disc diffusion method. Three strains of endophytic bacteria, one strain of endophytic actinomyces and 82 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from T. asiatica. Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, and Aspergillus were the dominant populations in T. asiatica. Antimicrobial activities of these endophytes were measured against 30 pathogenic microbes, and 18 strains possess substantial inhibitory activities, of which 16 strains were endophytic fungi belonging to 11 genera. Endophytic strains with antimicrobial activities were obtained to explore the application of endophytic resources from T. asiatica.

  14. Genotypic relationships between Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Dekumyoy, Paron; Waikagul, Jitra; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    Partial sequences of the DNA polymerase delta (pold) gene from Taenia saginata-like adult worms were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that pold gene sequences were clearly divided into two clades, differing from each other in five to seven nucleotides. There is little doubt that T. saginata and Taenia asiatica were once separated into two distinct taxa as has been concluded in previous studies. On the other hand, most of the adult worms, which were identified as T. asiatica using mitochondrial DNA, were homozygous for an allele that originated from the allele of T. saginata via single nucleotide substitution. These results indicate that most of the adult worms, which had been called T. asiatica, are not actually 'pure T. asiatica' but instead originated from the hybridization of 'pure T. saginata' and 'pure T. asiatica'.

  15. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-22

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver the preferential location of the cysts. Whether or not T. asiatica can cause human cysticercosis, as is the case for Taenia solium, remains unclear. Given the specific conditions needed to complete its life cycle, in particular the consumption of raw or poorly cooked pig liver, the transmission of T. asiatica shows an important ethno-geographical association. So far, T. asiatica has been identified in Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, south-central China, Vietnam, Japan and Nepal. Especially this last observation indicates that its distribution is not restricted to South-East-Asia, as was thought so far. Indeed, the molecular tools developed over the last 20 years have made it increasingly possible to differentiate T. asiatica from other taeniids. Such tools also indicated that T. asiatica is related more closely to T. saginata than to T. solium, feeding the debate on its taxonomic status as a separate species versus a subspecies of T. saginata. Furthermore, the genetic diversity within T. asiatica appears to be very minimal, indicating that this parasite may be on the verge of extinction. However, recent studies have identified potential hybrids between T. asiatica and T. saginata, reopening the debate on the genetic diversity of T. asiatica and its status as a separate species.

  16. Striga parasitizes transgenic hairy roots of Zea mays and provides a tool for studying plant-plant interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runo Steven

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Striga species are noxious root hemi-parasitic weeds that debilitate cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Control options for Striga are limited and developing Striga resistant crop germplasm is regarded as the best and most sustainable control measure. Efforts to improve germplasm for Striga resistance by a non-Genetic Modification (GM approach, for example by exploiting natural resistance, or by a GM approach are constrained by limited information on the biological processes underpinning host-parasite associations. Additionaly, a GM approach is stymied by lack of availability of candidate resistance genes for introduction into hosts and robust transformation methods to validate gene functions. Indeed, a majority of Striga hosts, the world’s most cultivated cereals, are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. In maize, the existing protocols for transformation and regeneration are tedious, lengthy, and highly genotype-specific with low efficiency of transformation. Results We used Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 carrying a reporter gene construct, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, to generate transgenic composite maize plants that were challenged with the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. Eighty five percent of maize plants produced transgenic hairy roots expressing GFP. Consistent with most hairy roots produced in other species, transformed maize roots exhibited a hairy root phenotype, the hallmark of A. rhizogenes mediated transformation. Transgenic hairy roots resulting from A. rhizogenes transformation were readily infected by S. hermonthica. There were no significant differences in the number and size of S. hermonthica individuals recovered from either transgenic or wild type roots. Conclusions This rapid, high throughput, transformation technique will advance our understanding of gene function in parasitic plant-host interactions.

  17. Recent hybridization between Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Kanako; Suzuki, Yumi; Tachi, Eiko; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Nkouawa, Agathe; Yanagida, Testuya; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira; Sato, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2012-06-01

    Five Taenia tapeworms collected from humans in Tibetan Plateau, Sichuan, China, where three species of human Taenia are sympatrically endemic, were examined for the mitochondrial cox1 gene and two nuclear genes, ef1 and elp. Phylogenetic analyses of these genes revealed that two adult worms showed nuclear-mitochondrial discordance, suggesting that they originated from hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. One of two worms had T. asiatica-type mtDNA, whereas another worm had T. saginata-type mtDNA, indicating that reciprocal hybridization between T. saginata and T. asiatica could occur. The worm having T. asiatica-type mtDNA was heterozygous at both nuclear loci with T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles. In another worm, the ef1 locus was heterozygous with a T. saginata-type alleles and T. asiatica-type alleles, while the elp locus was homozygous with T. saginata-type alleles. Self-fertilization is the main reproductive method of the genus Taenia. Since self-fertilization represents a type of inbreeding, each locus in the offspring would become homozygous over generations with genetic drift. The fact that some nuclear loci are still heterozygous means that hybridization might have occurred recently. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is probably an ongoing event in many areas in which they are sympatrically endemic. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent Updates in Neuroprotective and Neuroregenerative Potential of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Omar, Norazzila; Ahmad Puzi, Nur Nabilah; Saim, Aminuddin; Hj Idrus, Ruszymah

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica, locally well known in Malaysia as pegaga, is a traditional herb that has been used widely in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and in the traditional medicine of other Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia. Although consumption of the plant is indicated for various illnesses, its potential neuroprotective properties have been well studied and documented. In addition to past studies, recent studies also discovered and/or reconfirmed that C. asiatica acts as an antioxidant, reducing the effect of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. At the in vitro level, C. asiatica promotes dendrite arborisation and elongation, and also protects the neurons from apoptosis. In vivo studies have shown that the whole extract and also individual compounds of C. asiatica have a protective effect against various neurological diseases. Most of the in vivo studies on neuroprotective effects have focused on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, learning and memory enhancement, neurotoxicity and other mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety, and epilepsy. Recent studies have embarked on finding the molecular mechanism of neuroprotection by C. asiatica extract. However, the capability of C. asiatica in enhancing neuroregeneration has not been studied much and is limited to the regeneration of crushed sciatic nerves and protection from neuronal injury in hypoxia conditions. More studies are still needed to identify the compounds and the mechanism of action of C. asiatica that are particularly involved in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Furthermore, the extraction method, biochemical profile and dosage information of the C. asiatica extract need to be standardised to enhance the economic value of this traditional herb and to accelerate the entry of C. asiatica extracts into modern medicine.

  19. Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-10-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries.

  20. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ale, Anita; Victor, Bjorn; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2014-01-01

    Taenia asiatica has made a remarkable journey through the scientific literature of the past 50 years, starting with the paradoxical observation of high prevalences of T. saginata-like tapeworms in non-beef consuming populations, to the full description of its mitochondrial genome. Experimental studies conducted in the 1980s and 1990s have made it clear that the life cycle of T. asiatica is comparable to that of T. saginata, except for pigs being the preferential intermediate host and liver th...

  1. Recent Updates in Neuroprotective and Neuroregenerative Potential of Centella asiatica

    OpenAIRE

    Lokanathan, Yogeswaran; Omar, Norazzila; Ahmad Puzi, Nur Nabilah; Saim, Aminuddin; Hj Idrus, Ruszymah

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica, locally well known in Malaysia as pegaga, is a traditional herb that has been used widely in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and in the traditional medicine of other Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia. Although consumption of the plant is indicated for various illnesses, its potential neuroprotective properties have been well studied and documented. In addition to past studies, recent studies also discovered and/or reconfirmed that C. asiatica ac...

  2. [Studies on fingerprints of Centella asiatica by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Li, Wan-hong; Hu, Shi-qiang

    2011-01-01

    To study the HPLC fingerprints and establish a sensitive and specific method for controlling the quality of Centella asiatica. HPLC gradient elution was applied for the fingerprints of Centella asiatica. All 16 samples are collected from different habitats of China. The columni was Alltech C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), mobile phase was acetonitrile-water, flow rate was 1.0 ml/min, wavelength was 205 nm. The fingerprint of Centella asiatica was established, 16 samples of different areas of Centella asiatica were detected. There were 15 common peaks in the HPLC fingerprints of Centella asiatica. By comparison with the reference standards and using LC-ESI-MS(n) to corroborate the structure, 5-10 peaks were identified as madecassoside, asiaticoside, quercetin, kaemperol, madecassic acid and asiatic acid respectively. After calculating the similarity of the HPLC fingerprints of 16 habitants, the similarity of different habitats has been bad quite. The method is accurate, reliable and good repeatability. This chromatographic fingerprint method can be used to controll the quality of Centella asiatica.

  3. Modulation of lipid metabolism by Centella asiatica in oxidative stress rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, M; Hamid, A A; Mohamad, S; Saari, N; Bakar, F; Dek, S P

    2009-03-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica leaf on lipid metabolism of oxidative stress rats. The rats were fed 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with either 0.3% (w/w) C. asiatica extract, 5%C. asiatica powder (w/w), or 0.3% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol for 25 wk. Results of the study showed that C. asiatica powder significantly (P asiatica-fed rats were also found to have significantly (P asiatica extract and powder was found to be significantly (P asiatica significantly decreased body and liver weights of the rats. Histological examinations revealed no obvious changes in all rats studied. Quantitative analysis of C. asiatica leaf revealed high concentration of total phenolic compounds, in particular, catechin, quercetin, and rutin.

  4. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    l (D-galactose. Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice.

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  6. Sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Waikagul, Jitra; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Muennoo, Chatree; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello O; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2007-09-01

    We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identified T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

  7. Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T.; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Waikagul, Jitra; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Muennoo, Chatree; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello O.; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2007-01-01

    We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identifi ed T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

  8. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica): Nutritional Properties and Plausible Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Udumalagala Gamage; Prasad Kumarab, Peramune A A S

    2015-01-01

    Centella asiatica L. (Gotu Kola) is a nutritionally important plant and a valued traditional medicine in South East Asia. In this review, the chemical composition, nutritional values, and health benefits of C. asiatica have been discussed in detail to emphasize its usage as traditional food and medicine. C. asiatica is one of the most commonly used green leafy vegetables (GLVs) in some countries including Sri Lanka due to its high amounts of medicinally important triterpenoids and beneficial carotenoids. It is consumed in the form of GLVs and in the preparation of juice, drink, and other food products. It is also known to contain vitamins B and C, proteins, important minerals, and some other phytonutrients such as flavonoids, volatile oils, tannins, and polyphenol. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown important health benefits like antidiabetic, wound-healing, antimicrobial, memory-enhancing, antioxidant, and neuroprotecting activities. However, detailed scientific approaches on clinical trials regarding health benefits and nutritional values of C. asiatica are limited, hindering the perception of its benefits, mechanisms, and toxicity in order to develop new drug prototypes. In vitro studies have shown that the method of processing C. asiatica has an impact on its nutritional values and health-related beneficial compounds. The composition of its compounds is influenced by different biotic and abiotic factors which need to be studied in detail to provide information to the public in order to maximize the usage of this valuable plant. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular responses of Lotus japonicus to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Yukihiro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Lotus japonicus genes responsive to parasitism by the compatible species Orobanche aegyptiaca and the incompatible species Striga hermonthica were isolated by using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) strategy. O. aegyptiaca and S. hermonthica parasitism specifically induced the expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and phytoalexin biosynthesis, respectively. Nodulation-related genes were almost exclusively found among the Orobanche-induced genes. Temporal gene expression analyses revealed that 19 out of the 48 Orobanche-induced genes and 5 out of the 48 Striga-induced genes were up-regulated at 1 dai. Four genes, including putative trypsin protease inhibitor genes, exhibited systemic up-regulation in the host plant parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. On the other hand, S. hermonthica attachment did not induce systemic gene expression.

  10. Molecular detection and characterization of a divergent isolate of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus inPlantago asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seungmo; Igori, Davaajargal; Zhao, Fumei; Do, Yun Su; Cho, In-Sook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-09-01

    Four samples of Plantago asiatica showing mottle or mottled yellowing symptoms were collected and three of them were confirmed to be infected with Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) by Illumina HiSeq 2500 paired-end RNA sequencing. Consequently, the complete genomic sequence of a Korean isolate of PlAMV (PlAMV isolate Gunwi) from P. asiatica was determined. The nucleotide sequence of PlAMV-Gunwi was most closely related to a Russian isolate of PlAMV (PlAMV-Ru) collected from P. asiatica but highly dissimilar (~23 %) to other isolates of PlAMV from other plant species. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the complete replicase protein and coat protein of PlAMV-Gunwi share 85.15-91.20 and 84.54-90.82 % amino acid sequence identities, respectively, to the corresponding proteins of other PlAMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the natural infection of P. asiatica by PlAMV in Korea, and the divergent PlAMV isolate Gunwi expands our understanding of the epidemiology of PlAMV.

  11. Mosquito Repellent Activity and Phytochemical Characterization of Essential Oils From Striga hermonthica, Hyptis spicigera and Ocimum basilicum Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gabi Baba; A.O. Lawal; Hauwa B. Sharif

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals and compare the mosquito repellent activities of essential oils from Hyptis spicigera, Striga hermonthica and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. The global threat of malaria to human race and the need to control its advances is on the focus. Mosquito is the target being the primary host in the spread of malaria. Alkaloids, saponnins, steroids, tannins and terpenoi...

  12. Hox genes from the tapeworm Taenia asiatica (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Heon; Lee, Yong Seok; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Chang-Bae; Eom, Keeseon S

    2007-04-01

    Hox genes are important in forming the anterior-posterior body axis pattern in the early developmental stage of animals. The conserved nature of the genomic organization of Hox genes is well known in diverse metazoans. To understand the Hox gene architecture in human-infecting Taenia tapeworms, we conducted a genomic survey of the Hox gene using degenerative polymerase chain reaction primers in Taenia asiatica. Six Hox gene orthologs from 276 clones were identified. Comparative analysis revealed that T. asiatica has six Hox orthologs, including two lab/Hox1, two Hox3, one Dfd/Hox4, and one Lox2/Lox4. The results suggest that Taenia Hox genes may have undergone independent gene duplication in two Hox paralogs. The failure to detect Post1/2 orthologs in T. asiatica may suggest that sequence divergence or the secondary loss of the posterior genes has occurred in the lineage leading to the cestode and trematode.

  13. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-07-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures.

  14. A Case of Taenia asiatica Infection Diagnosed by Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Up; Chung, Young-Bae

    2017-02-01

    A case of Taenia asiatica infection detected by small bowel series and colonoscopy is described. The patient was a 42-year-old Korean man accompanied by discharge of movable proglottids via anus. He used to eat raw pig liver but seldom ate beef. Small bowel series radiologic examinations showed flat tape-like filling defects on the ileum. By colonoscopy, a moving flat tapeworm was observed from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon. The tapeworm was identified as T. asiatica by mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The patient was prescribed with a single oral dose (16 mg/kg) of praziquantel.

  15. [Killing Effect of Carpesium abrotanoides on Taenia asiatica Cysticercus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Wang, Heng

    2015-06-01

    The cysticerci of Taenia asiatica were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of water decoction of Carpesium abrotanoides (20, 40, and 60 mg/ml). The killing effect of C. abrotanoides on T. asiatica and the morphological change of cysticerci were observed under microscope 24 hours post-culture. The water decoction of C. abrotanoides showed significant killing effect on the cysticerci. The mortality of the parasites(95.0%, 57/60) was highest in 60 mg/ml group. The dead body of cysticercus shows shrunken with the enlarged scolex, and sucker tissue degenerated.

  16. Trial Germination of Coastal Vegetation (Terminalia catappa, Calophyllum inophylum L., and Barringtonia asiatica in the Kima Atas Permanent Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Suryawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was estimated that North Sulawesi needs 9,870,093.33 coastal vegetation seeds to rehabilitate the damage of coastal ecosystems which reach 14,805.14 ha, where the largest area 13.884 ha located in other land use. This study aims to provide information of seed germination techniques in Permanent Nursery Kima Atas, Manado. Research was arranged in complete randomized design as factorial with three replications. Ketapang (Terminalia cattapa will obtain high viability in fluctuation of temperature and humidity, i.e used sand media, without wildlings and placed under 25% shade and rain. Keben (Baringtonia asiatica through the incision and decay that placed in the open location will obtain viability until 90% within 2 months. Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum requires shell splitting in order to improve the viability and it can be done by cracking and stripping.

  17. The Mechanisms of Centalla asiatica's Wound Healing Molecule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asiaticoside is a triterpene obtained from Centella asiatica and demonstrated to have healing potential against various wound models. Wounds are inflicted for constructive reasons even though more often they are results of accidents. This work aims at identifying molecular targets which account for the therapeutic results ...

  18. Larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition effect of Centella asiatica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extract of Centella asiatica leaves were evaluated for the larvicidal and adult emergence inhibition activity against mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus under five constant temperatures 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31°C in the laboratory. Toxicity of this extract increased with temperature. The 50% medium lethal concentrations ...

  19. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. O. Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya e-mail: nyahangat@yahoo.com; kamanguro@yahoo.com. MS received 30 July 2012; revised 19 March 2013; accepted 4 July 2013. Abstract. From the n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica root bark were iso- lated eight compounds (1–8) which were ...

  20. Differential diagnosis of Taenia asiatica using multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Kong, Yoon; Waikagul, Jitra; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2009-02-01

    Taenia asiatica and T. saginata are frequently confused tapeworms due to their morphological similarities and sympatric distribution in Asian regions. To resolve this problem, a high-resolution multiplex PCR assay was developed to distinguish T. asiatica infections from infection with other human Taenia tapeworms. For molecular characterization, the species specificity of all materials used was confirmed by sequencing of the cox1 gene. Fifty-two samples were analyzed in this study, comprising 20 samples of T. asiatica genomic DNA from China, Korea, and the Philippines; 24 samples of T. saginata from Belgium, Chile, China, Ethiopia, France, Indonesia, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Poland, Taiwan, Thailand, and Switzerland; and 10 samples of T. solium from Cape Verde, China, Honduras, and Korea. The diagnostic quality of the results obtained using PCR and species-specific primers designed from valine tRNA and NADH genes was equal to that based on the nucleotide sequencing of the cox1 gene. Using oligonucleotide primers Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915, the multiplex PCR assay was useful for the differentially diagnosing T. asiatica, T. saginata, and T. solium based on 706-, 629-, and 474-bp bands.

  1. Efficient in vitro regeneration protocol of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present communication reports an efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration protocol for endemic umbellifer Centella asiatica (L.) urban via callus mediated organogenesis from leaf and stem explants. The plant is pharmacologically very important and its consumption as underutilized green leafy vegetable affluent in ...

  2. Effect of Centella asiatica extract on nociception, experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the effect of Centella asiatica aqueous extract (CAEt) on nociception, experimental diabetes and hyperlipidemia in mice and rats. The extract was administered orally and the effects of different doses of the extract on nociception in mice, on blood glucose, glucose-6-phosphatase, and ...

  3. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From the -hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Toddalia asiatica root bark were isolated eight compounds (1-8) which were identified on the basis of both spectroscopic and physical data as well as comparison with already published results. The crude extracts and isolated compounds showed moderate in vitro ...

  4. Evidence of hybridization between Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakao, Minoru; Blair, David; Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Waikagul, Jitra; Ito, Akira

    2010-03-01

    There has long been a debate as to the specific status of the cestode Taenia asiatica, with some people regarding it as a distinct species and some preferring to recognize it as a strain of Taenia saginata. The balance of current opinion seems to be that T. asiatica is a distinct species. In this study we performed an allelic analysis to explore the possibility of gene exchange between these closely related taxa. In total, 38 taeniid tapeworms were collected from humans living in many localities including Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand where the two species are sympatric. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-based multiplex PCR tentatively identified those parasites as T. asiatica (n=20) and T. saginata (n=18). Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and two nuclear loci, for elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-like protein (elp), assigned all except two individual parasites to the species indicated by multiplex PCR. The two exceptional individuals, from Kanchanaburi Province, showed a discrepancy between the mtDNA and nuclear DNA phylogenies. In spite of their possession of sequences typical of the T. saginata cox1 gene, both were homozygous at the elp locus for one of the alleles found in T. asiatica. At the ef1 locus, one individual was homozygous for the allele found at high frequency in T. asiatica while the other was homozygous for the major allele in T. saginata. These findings are evidence of occasional hybridization between the two species, although the possibility of retention of ancestral polymorphism cannot be excluded. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytoremediation of iron from red soil of tropical region by using Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Irshad Ul Haq; Mauris, Eddma Nathan; Khanam, Zakia

    2016-09-01

    The accumulation and removal efficiency of Fe by Centella asiatica was carried out at various Fe concentrations in soil treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Fe/kg soil). Iron accumulation in different parts of C. asiatica (leaf, stem and root) was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and Duncan's test were used for data analyses. The results revealed that C. asiatica have the ability to uptake and accumulate Fe significantly (p asiatica (p asiatica as a metal hyperaccumulator plant, harvested for analysis, shows efficient accumulation of Fe at high concentration (p asiatica from the contaminated soil has been evaluated by bioconcentration factor and translocation factor, found to be >1 and <1, respectively, further supporting its metal hyperaccumulator properties.

  6. Optimation Of Ethanol Extract Of Centella Asiatica And Cresintia Cujete Composition As Natural Antioxidant Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustofa Ahda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengembangan antioksidan alami dalam pemanfaatan pegagan (Centella asiatica dan majapahit (Cresintia cujete merupakan potensi yang besar. Penelitian ini telah melakukan optimasi komposisi ekstrak etanol pegagan (Centella asiatica dan majapahit (Cresintia cujete sebagai sumber antioksidan dengan dilakukan uji aktifitas penangkapan radikal bebas terhadap DPPH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa baik ekstrak etanol pegagan (Centella asiatica dan majapahit (Cresintia cujete memiliki kandungan total fenol yang ditunjukkan dengan adanya kemampuan mereduksi reagen Folin Ciocalteu menjadi berwarna biru. Hasil optimasi komposisi ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica: majapahit (Cresintia cujete = 30:70 memiliki aktifitas penangkapan radikal bebas terhadap DPPH yang paling baik dibandingkan ekstraks etanol pegagan (Centella asiatica dan majapahit (Cresintia cujete. Nilai IC50 untuk komposisi ekstrak etanol pegagan (Centella asiatica: majapahit (Cresintia cujete = 30:70 sebesar 0,103 mg/mL.

  7. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine with Neuroprotective Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed,...

  8. Stimulative effect of the fungal biocontrol agent Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Striga on abundance of nitrifying prokaryotes in a maize rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyoki, Mary; Enowashu, Esther; Zimmermann, Judith; Muema, Esther; Wainright, Henry; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The integration of resistant crop varieties and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Foxy-2) strains as biological control agent (BCA) has shown to be an effective control of the weed Striga hermonthica which is parasitic to several cereals (e.g., maize) cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have examined the efficacy of the BCA and its interactions with host crops, while overlooking the interplay among key microorganisms in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Hence, we postulated that both Foxy-2 and Striga pose threats to the indigenous plant root-associated microbial communities involved in N cycling through direct or indirect competition for nutrients and that the application of high quality organic residues would compensate these effects. The primary objective of this study was thus to assess the potential impact of Foxy-2 on indigenous nitrifying prokaryotes in maize rhizosphere cultivated on two distinct soils (sandy Ferric Alisol versus clayey Humic Nitisol) obtained from Machanga and Embu, respectively, in central Kenya. These soils were treated with or without Foxy-2 and Striga; and in combination with high quality (i.e. CN ratio; 13, lignins, 8.9 % and polyphenols, 1.7 %) organic residues (i.e., Tithonia diversifolia) as N source. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we followed at three pre-defined sampling dates (14, 28 and 42 days after planting) the responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), total bacteria and archaea in four treatments of a rhizobox experiment: (i) Foxy-2 plus Striga (F+S), (ii) Striga only (C+S), (iii) Foxy-2 plus Striga plus Tithonia diversifolia residues (F+S+T), and (iv) a non-treated control (C). Overall, the treatment effects on soil microbial populations were, in comparison to the clayey Embu soil, more pronounced in the sandy Machanga soil. Contrary to our expectations, we observed a distinct stimulative, but no resource competition effect of Foxy-2 on the abundance of AOA, as well as

  9. Green Extraction: Enhanced Extraction Yield of Asiatic Acid from Centella asiatica (L.) Nanopowders

    OpenAIRE

    Borhan, M. Z.; Ahmad, R.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanopowders of Centella asiatica (L.) were produced using planetary ball mill in order to investigate the differences of water extraction yield of asiatic acid as compared to micropowders of Centella asiatica. Effect of extraction time (20–60 min) on extraction yield of asiatic acid from Centella asiatica was examined. Results showed that water extraction of asiatic acid using Centella asiatica nanopowders exhibits was almost 50% higher extraction yield with 7.09 mg/g as compared to the micro...

  10. Infection of Taenia asiatica in a Bai Person in Dali, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Zhang, Shaohua; Li, Hailong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-02-01

    We report here a human case of Taenia asiatica infection which was confirmed by genetic analyses in Dali, China. A patient was found to have symptoms of taeniasis with discharge of tapeworm proglottids. By sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, we observed nucleotide sequence identity of 99% with T. asiatica and 96% with T. saginata. Using the cytochrome b (cytb) gene, 99% identity with T. asiatica and 96% identity with T. saginata were found. Our findings suggest that taeniasis of people in Dali, China may be mainly caused by T. asiatica.

  11. Taenia asiatica: the most neglected human Taenia and the possibility of cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V

    2013-02-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asiatica (its definite geographic distribution and its ability to cause human cysticercosis), remain open, turning T. asiatica into the most neglected agent of human taeniasis-cysticercosis.

  12. Combining ability and heterotic grouping of early maturing provitamin A maize inbreds across Striga infested and optimal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Konate

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The development, deployment and production of stress tolerant provitamin A maize is crucial to the fight against vitamin A deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where maize is a major staple food crop. Fifteen early maturing provitamin A and two early normal yellow endosperm maize inbreds were crossed using the diallel mating design to generate 136 single-cross hybrids. The hybrids were evaluated during 2015 growing season at three locations under two Striga infested and three optimal growing environments in Nigeria. The objectives were to (i determine the combining ability and heterotic groups of early maturing provitamin A inbreds; (ii examine the performance of the inbreds in hybrid combinations across environments and (iii identify early maturing provitamin A inbred testers for use in tropical maize breeding programs. The general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA effects were significant for grain yield and most other traits indicating that additive and non-additive genetic effects were important in the inheritance of these characters. Inbreds TZEI 10, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 17 had significant positive GCA for grain yield. TZEIOR 108, TZEIOR 42, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for Striga damage while TZEIOR 122, TZEIOR 127, TZEIOR 108, and TZEI 10 had significant negative GCA for number of emerged Striga plants. The inbreds were classified based on heterotic groups’ SCA and GCA of grain yield (HSGCA, SCA and GCA of multiple traits (HGCAMT methods into four, three and five heterotic groups, respectively. The inbreds TZEIOR 108, TZEI 10 and TZEI 17 were identified as testers. Hybrids 8, 3, 5, 10 and 1 were identified as high yielding and most stable across environments.

  13. Traditional usages of ichthyotoxic plant Barringtonia asiatica (L. Kurz. by the Nicobari tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravikumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Barringtonia asiatica is a medium size tree commonly found in Car Nicobar Island known for its ichthyotoxic property. It grows on sandy and rocky shore areas and has lantern shaped seeds, locally called Kinyav used during the calm season in shallow and low tide waters for killing fishes, octopus, etc. At every successful operation they harvest about 1–3 kg and on the whole about 10–20 kg of fishes per trip. This method of fish catching was popular among the Car Nicobari tribes until massive tsunami of 26th December, 2004, which caused dislocation of tribes from their erstwhile coastal inhabitations to interior areas, damage of coral reefs, permanent water intrusion in the intertidal area and destruction of Kinyav trees. Hence, now-a-days the popularity of this fishing method among them has diminished. The study not only reveals the usefulness of seeds in harvesting of fishes but also the utilization of other parts of tree such as leaves for therapeutic purpose in fracture, wound, de-worming, pain relieving of human beings; log for construction of canoe, wooden houses, sitting stage, handicraft items, fire wood and whole tree for preventing the coastal erosion.

  14. Taenia saginata asiatica: epidemiology, infection, immunological and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C

    1998-06-01

    The taeniasis in East Asia has a special epidemiological pattern: people eat meat and/or viscera of pigs and acquire infection of Taenia saginata-like tapeworms. However, cysticercosis is more often found in pigs than cattles. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status of this parasite, we have conducted extensive field surveys, experimental infections, and morphological as well as immunological studies since 1981. After obtaining sufficient information from our studies, we finally came to the conclusion that the T. saginata-like tapeworm in Asia is a new subspecies of T. saginata and was named as T. saginata asiatica. The classical T. saginata was renamed as T. saginata saginata. In this paper, we provide the history of T. s. asiatica in Asia.

  15. Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'cho, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: rice; weed; weed management practices, adoption, impact, parasitic weeds; Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Striga asiatica; Striga hermonthica, double hurdle model; multivariate probit, productivity, stochastic frontier analysis, data envelopment

  16. Reaction of some maize genotyhpes to infestation with the witch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... STR-1-W) were found to be tolerant to Striga asiatica. The tolerant maize genotypes may be desirable for introduction to S. asiatica endemic regions of Southern Guinea Savanna. Key words: Maize genotype; artificial infestation; Striga asiatica, tolerance level. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research Vol.4(2) 2003: 210-217 ...

  17. Antiplasmodial and larvicidal compounds of Toddalia asiatica root ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.3 Extraction of T. asiatica root bark. One kilogram of the ground root bark was cold extracted ... extracts revealed that compounds extracted by n-hexane were also present in the ethyl acetate. Therefore, 15g ..... samples was determined by making serial dilutions of. 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 3.125 μg/ml and the bioassays.

  18. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction ...

  19. Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from the Medicinal Herb, Centella asiatica (L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Dubery

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica accumulates large quantities of pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, collectively known as centelloids. These terpenoids include asiaticoside, centelloside, madecassoside, brahmoside, brahminoside, thankuniside, sceffoleoside, centellose, asiatic-, brahmic-, centellic- and madecassic acids. The triterpene saponins are common secondary plant metabolites and are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway to produce a hydrophobic triterpenoid structure (aglycone containing a hydrophilic sugar chain (glycone. The biological activity of saponins has been attributed to these characteristics. In planta, the Centella triterpenoids can be regarded as phytoanticipins due to their antimicrobial activities and protective role against attempted pathogen infections. Preparations of C. asiatica are used in traditional and alternative medicine due to the wide spectrum of pharmacological activities associated with these secondary metabolites. Here, the biosynthesis of the centelloid triterpenoids is reviewed; the range of metabolites found in C. asiatica, together with their known biological activities and the chemotype variation in the production of these metabolites due to growth conditions are summarized. These plant-derived pharmacologically active compounds have complex structures, making chemical synthesis an economically uncompetitive option. Production of secondary metabolites by cultured cells provides a particularly important benefit to manipulate and improve the production of desired compounds; thus biotechnological approaches to increase the concentrations of the metabolites are discussed.

  20. [Infection of Mice with Normal Immune Function by Taenia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-yan; Guo, Guang-wu; Chen, Li-hong; Mo, Xing-ze; Yu, Yue-sheng

    2015-08-01

    The Taenia asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min, 6 min and 8 mins were subcutaneously injected into mice with normal immune function(groups Al-A3 respectively, n=20 in each) and mice with immunosuppression (groups B1-B3, n=20 in each). All groups of mice began to show body discomfort on day 5 after infection and develop lumps on the back about on day 15. In groups Al-A3, animal death occurred during days 7-15, with a same survival rate of 95.0%(19/20) and infection rate of 89.4%(17/19), 73.6%(14/19) and 47.3%(9/19) respectively. In groups B1-B3, animal death occurred during days 7-50, with survival rate of 60%(13/20), 55%(11/20)and 55%(11/20) and infection rate of 76.9% (10/13), 54.5% (6/11) and 45.4% (5/11) respectively. After the scolex of cysticercus was evaginated with 15% pig bile, four suckers, an apparent rostellum and two distinct hook-like puncta structures were seen. These results indicate that mice with normal immune function can be used as a replacement of immunosuppressive mice to establish a T. asiatica oncosphere infection model. In addition, the T. asiatica eggs pre-incubated with sodium hypochlorite solution for 4 min have the strongest infection ability.

  1. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit against oxidative stress in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K. V.; Sisodia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit which contains anthocyanin type cyanidin 3- glucoside, vitamin C, A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibers etc was studied. Materials and Methods: For study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups-1. Control (vehicle treated) 2. Grewia asiatica fruit treated (700 mg / Kg. b.wt / day for fifteen days), 3. Irradiated (5 Gy), 4. Grewia asiatica fruit + Irradiated and 5. Irradiated + Grewia asiatica fruit treated. Results: The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant depletion in the DNA and RNA level at all intervals studied viz 1-30 days in comparison to control group. Treatment of mice with Grewia asiatica fruit before and after irradiation caused a significant elevation in liver DNA and RNA level in comparison to irradiated mice. Photomicrograph of liver histology also showed that pre and post supplementation of Grewia asiatica fruit provides protection against radiation. Similarly counting of different type hepatocytes also showed that Grewia asiatica fruit protect the liver against radiation. Conclusion: Thus biochemical and histopathological results proves that Grewia asiatica fruit has the potential against radiation.

  2. Oxidative stress responses of submerged macrophyte Vallisneria asiatica to different concentrations of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Caixia; Kuba, Takahiro; Hao, Aimin; Iseri, Yasushi; Li, Chunjie; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2015-03-01

    In a 10-day aquarium experiment, this investigation examines macrophyte restoration in eutrophic Lake Taihu, the physiological effects of different plant biomass levels and of increasing natural cyanobacterial concentrations on a submerged macrophyte, Vallisneria asiatica. Cyanobacterial stress suppressed the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the plant's leaves and induced the catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities of its roots. The soluble protein content in V. asiatica decreased with an increase in natural cyanobacterial concentrations, whereas the malonaldehyde (MDA) increased significantly at chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations of 222 and 262 μg/L in water. V. asiatica adapted to the stress caused by cyanobacterial concentrations by adjusting its antioxidant defense system to remove the excessive reactive oxygen species when the algal Chl a concentration was >109 μg/L. Additionally, high biomass of V. asiatica (2 222 g FW/m2) can inhibit the reproduction of cyanobacteria more significantly than low biomass (1 111 g FW/m2). High biomass of V. asiatica increased the oxidative stress in an individual plant when the initial Chl a concentration in the water reached 222 and 262 μg/L, as expressed by the increased MDA in leaves, compared with low biomass of V. asiatica. This provides a basis for controlling cyanobacterial concentrations and V. asiatica biomass for the recovery of V. asiatica in eutrophic Lake Taihu.

  3. Activités insecticides de Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariaceae sur Callosobrichus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera : Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacoulma OG.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activities of Striga hermonthica (Del. Benth (Scrophulariacecae on Callobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleptera Bruchidae. This paper deals with insecticidal potentialities of Striga hermonthica (Del. (Scrophulariaceae in protection of cowpea Vigna unguculata (L. Walp against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae during storage. Crude acetone extract at 0,5% w/w (100 mg of extract for 20 g of grain exhibits 48% of ovicidal effect and then reduces by half emergence rate of adult beetles at the first generation. This extract shows a weak insecticide activity against adults of C. maculatus. Petroleum ether fraction (0,4% w/w of the crude extract reveals ovicidal (51% and larvicidal (72% effects which reduce the emergence rate of adults to only 9%. LD50 and LD90 are monitored during crude extract fractionation to follow ovicidal and larvicidal compounds and to evaluate their efficacy during the isolation procedure. One fraction, mainly composed of two triterpenoid compounds has been identified as responsible of the ovicidal activity of S. hermonthica while the origin of the larvicidal activity hasn’t been identified.

  4. Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Centella asiatica (L.) extract in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supkamonseni, Nattapon; Thinkratok, Aree; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Srisawat, Rungrudee

    2014-10-01

    In vitro study revealed that pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of C. asiatica extract was significantly higher than rutin but lower than orlistat, an anti-obesity drug. alpha-Amylase inhibitory activities of C. asiatica extract and rutin were significantly lower than acarbose, an anti-diabetic drug. Inhibition of alpha-glucosidase activity by C. asiatica extract, rutin, and acarbose was not different. The in vivo study substantiated the in vitro results. C. asiatica extract (1000 and 2000 mg/4 mL/kg), rutin (1000 mg/4 mL/kg), and orlistat (45 mg/4 mL/kg) significantly decreased plasma glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in lipid emulsion-induced hyperlipidemic rats at 3 h. However, plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels did not show significant change. The present work further supports that the C. asiatica extract and its bioactive rutin may help managing hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects.

  5. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine with Neuroprotective Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Google Scholar. According to the literature survey, C. asiatica (gotu kola) has been reported to have a comprehensive neuroprotection by different modes of action such as enzyme inhibition, prevention of amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease, dopamine neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease, and decreasing oxidative stress. Therefore, C. asiatica could be suggested to be a desired phytopharmaceutical with neuroprotective effect emerged from traditional medicine. PMID:22666298

  6. Differential diagnosis of Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica taeniasis through PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis Miguel; Montero, Estrella; Morakote, Nimit; Puente, Sabino; Díaz De Tuesta, Jose Luis; Serra, Teresa; López-Velez, Rogelio; McManus, Donald P; Harrison, Leslie J S; Parkhouse, R Michael E; Gárate, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    New multiplex-PCR and PCR-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism protocols, derived from Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, have been designed that allow the simultaneous and specific identification of T. saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica. Proglottids expelled from 20 different Spanish taeniasis patients, previously diagnosed as T. saginata by both morphological identification and multiplex HDP2-PCR, were also examined by the newly developed PCR protocols, and the original diagnosis of T. saginata infection was confirmed. All of the 20 T. saginata samples were negative in the T. saginata asiatica-specific PCR. Three authentic T. saginata asiatica samples were unambiguously identified as such in the T. saginata asiatica PCR. These new protocols have immediate potential for the specific, sensitive, and rapid identification of T. saginata asiatica and may assist in taxonomic studies.

  7. Centella asiatica (L. Urban: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine with Neuroprotective Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L. Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Google Scholar. According to the literature survey, C. asiatica (gotu kola has been reported to have a comprehensive neuroprotection by different modes of action such as enzyme inhibition, prevention of amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease, dopamine neurotoxicity in Parkinson’s disease, and decreasing oxidative stress. Therefore, C. asiatica could be suggested to be a desired phytopharmaceutical with neuroprotective effect emerged from traditional medicine.

  8. Efficacité de l'association des céréales et du niébé pour la production de grains et la lutte contre Striga hermonthica (Del.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lawane , Gilbert; Sougnabé , Souapibé Pabamé; Lendzemo , Vénasius; Gnokreo , F.; Djimasbeye , N.; Ndoutamia , G.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Les cultures faux-hôtes du striga et la limitation de la dissémination des graines de striga constituent les principales préoccupations de la recherche ces dernières années. La rotation et l'association des cultures céréalières avec des cultures faux-hôtes du striga diminuent dans une forte proportion le stock des graines de Striga hermonthica dans le sol, améliore la fertilité du sol, donc augmente leur rendement. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer l'efficacité d...

  9. Protective effects of Centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Joo; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Kim, Jae Min; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centella asiatica on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injury in rats. The rats in the treatment groups were treated with Centella asiatica at either 100 or 200 mg/kg in distilled water (D.W) or with silymarin (200 mg/kg in D.W) by oral administration for 5 days daily following intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg DMN. Centella asiatica significantly decreased the relative liver weights in the DMN-induced liver injury group, compared with the control. The assessment of liver histology showed that Centella asiatica significantly alleviated mass periportal ± bridging necrosis, intralobular degeneration and focal necrosis, with fibrosis of liver tissues. Additionally, Centella asiatica significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde, significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and may have provided protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. In addition, Centella asiatica significantly decreased inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. These results suggested that Centella asiatica had hepatoprotective effects through increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators in rats with DMN-induced liver injury. Therefore, Centella asiatica may be useful in preventing liver damage. PMID:27748812

  10. Neuritogenic effect of standardized extract of Centella asiatica ECa233 on human neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to gain insight into neuroprotective effects of ECa 233, a standardized extract of Centella asiatica, previously demonstrated in animal models of memory impairment induced by transient global ischemia or intracerebroventricular injection of β-amyloid, the effect of ECa 233 on neurite outgrowth of human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cell line was investigated. Methods Cells were seeded and incubated with various concentrations of ECa 233. Morphometric analysis was carried out by a measurement of the longest neurite growth of cells at 24 and 48 h. Contributing signaling pathways possibly involved were subsequently elucidated by western blot analysis. Results While ECa 233 had only limited effects on cell viability, it significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth of IMR-32 cells at the concentrations of 1–100 μg/ml. Western blot analysis revealed that ECa 233 significantly upregulated the level of activated ERK1/2 and Akt of the treated cells suggesting their involvement in the neuritogenic effect observed, which was subsequently verified by the finding that an addition of their respective inhibitors could reverse the effect of ECa 233 on these cells. Conclusions The present study clearly demonstrated neurite outgrowth promoting activity of ECa 233. ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways seemed to account for the neurotrophic effect observed. In conjunction with in vivo neuroprotective effect of ECa 233 previously reported, the results obtained support further development of ECa 233 for clinical use in neuronal injury or neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23915016

  11. Status dan Mekanisme Resistensi Biokimia Crocidolomia pavonana (F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae terhadap Insektisida Organofosfat serta Kepekaannya terhadap Insektisida Botani Ekstrak Biji Barringtonia asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAR DONO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An examination of insect resistance was determined by several steps, i.e. standard sensitivity, resistance diagnosis, and determination of resistance level. Each phase was tested with feeding and residue contact methods at glass tube. Resistance ratio (RR was determined by comparing LC50 value of field population with standard population. Field population of C. pavonana was classified resistant if it had RR 5 4. Biochemistry analysis of resistance was conducted to population of C. pavonana showing resistance to prophenophos insecticide. The activity analysis of acetylcholine esterase (ACHE, esterase, and Glutation Stransferase was done with spectrophotometer method. Insect which are resistant to prophenophos insecticide was tested for its sensitivity to Barringtonia asiatica seed extract. Result indicated that C. pavonana population from Pengalengan showed resistance to prophenophos synthetic insecticide. Using contact test, the highest resistance ratio value was 4.04, while by feeding assay the RR was 2.78. The study on biochemical resistance mechanisms of each field population of C. pavonana showed various activities of enzymatic detoxification. This could be due to the difference in the kind of insecticides exposed to each field population of C. pavonana. Since RR value from the contact test was higher than that of the feeding test, the resistance development of C. pavonana to synthetic insecticides was probably caused by physiological and biochemical changes in insect cuticle rather than the activity of detoxification enzyme. Methanolic seed extract of B. asiatica can be used as an alternative of resistance management of C. pavonana to prophenophos synthetic insecticide.

  12. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of fermented Centella asiatica herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Fazilah; Heong Chew, Shio; Bhupinder, Kaur; Karim, Alias A; Huda, Nurul

    2011-12-01

    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions. The optimum extraction efficiency of C. asiatica infusions was achieved at 100 °C after a 10 min brewing time, and decreased substantially after applying multiple brewing steeps. However, no significant different was found between the second and third infusions. The non-fermented C. asiatica (CANF) infusion had the highest antioxidant activity. Gallic acid, naringin, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and quercetin were identified to present. Luteolin and kaempferol were only found in 80% methanol extraction method. C. asiatica herbal teas should be prepared at 100 °C for 10 min to obtain the optimum antioxidant capacity. Multiple brewing steps in C. asiatica herbal tea are encouraged due to the certain amount of antioxidant obtained. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Grewia asiatica L., a Food Plant with Multiple Uses

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    Vincenzo De Feo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Grewia asiatica L., is a species native to south Asia from Pakistan, east to Cambodia, cultivated primarily for its edible fruit and well-reputed for its diverse medicinal uses. Fruits are a rich source of nutrients such as proteins, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals and contain various bioactive compounds, like anthocyanins, tannins, phenolics and flavonoids. Different parts of this plant possess different pharmacological properties. Leaves have antimicrobial, anticancer, antiplatelet and antiemetic activities; fruit possess anticancer, antioxidant, radioprotective and antihyperglycemic properties; while stem bark possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. This review focuses on the botanical description, phytochemistry, nutritional studies and pharmacological properties of this plant.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sillago asiatica (Perciformes: Sillaginidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiaguang; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang; Zhao, Yuhui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Sillago asiatica has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The complete mitochondrial genome is a circular molecule of 16,493 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA)), and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F, CSB-E and CSB-D), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3).

  15. Effects of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. on cognitive function and mood related outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttarak, Panupong; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Saokaew, Surasak; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Kongkaew, Chuenjid; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Chuthaputti, Anchalee; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-09-06

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. has been used as an herbal brain tonic for mental disorders and enhancing memory, but no review of the overall evidence of C. asiatica and cognitive function has been conducted. This study aims to determine the effects of C. asiatica on cognitive function and its related properties. The current systematic review includes five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica alone and six RCTs conducted to determine the effect of C. asiatica-containing products. Meta-analysis indicated that there are no significant differences in all cognitive function domains of C. asiatica when compared to placebo. However, it could improve mood by increasing alert scores [SMD: 0.71 (95% CI; 0.01 to 1.41); I 2  = 30.5%] and decreasing anger scores at 1 hour after treatment [SMD: -0.81 (95%CI; -1.51 to -0.09); I 2  = 36.6%]. None of the studies reported adverse effects of C. asiatica. In conclusion, there is not strong evidence to support the use of C. asiatica for cognitive function improvement in each cognitive domain. C. asiatica could improve alertness and relieve anger. However, some limitations should be aware including dose regimen, plant preparation, standardization, and product variation. Future well-designed clinical trials using suitable doses of standardized C. asiatica are still needed.

  16. Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella asiatica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Joseph, Lincy; Ramaswamy

    2009-07-03

    This study investigated antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effect of Centella asiatica extract in rats and anti-allergic in vitro using sheep (Capra hircus) serum method and compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation method, compared with standard drug ketotifen fumarate. In rats, extract of Centella asiatica administered orally was examined for anti-pruritic study and chlorpheniramine maleate was used as standard drug while carageenan paw induced inflammatory method was used for the antiinfammatory study. The results show that the extracts of Centella asiatica exhibited antiallergic, anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  17. Seasonal Variation of Triterpenes and Phenolic Compounds in Australian Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ali; Tongkao-on, Wannit; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Li, George Q

    2015-01-01

    Specific triterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Centella asiatica have been found to be bioactive. Harvesting the plant when these putative bioactive compounds are at their highest concentrations would provide consistency in their chemical profile, thus ensuring the quality and efficacy of derived medicinal products. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of harvesting time on the contents of major triterpenoid and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica. Australian C. asiatica was collected from a designated area in different months. The principal triterpenes (asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid), flavonoid compounds (rutin, quercetin and kaempferol) and chlorogenic acid were quantitatively determined by HPLC-DAD analysis. Triterpenoid, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid content showed significant variation (p asiatica in summer returns the highest yield of the target triterpenoids, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. First report of Nocardia asiatica olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent traveler returning to Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Eva; Valentin, Thomas; Hoenigl, Martin; Lanz, Philipp; Flick, Holger; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Grisold, Andrea J; Feierl, Gebhard; Krause, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Nocardia spp. are rarely isolated in extrapulmonary clinical specimens. We describe the first case of olecranon bursitis caused by Nocardia asiatica. The patient, a traveler returning from Thailand, was successfully treated with linezolid.

  19. Identification, expression, characterization, and immunolocalization of lactate dehydrogenase from Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Huang, Yan; Wu, Xuan; Du, Wuying; Yu, Xinbing; Hu, Xuchu

    2009-01-01

    From the expression sequence tags (ESTs) of Taenia asiatica, an EST containing a putative open reading frame of 993 bp was identified as lactate dehydrogenase (TaLDH) homologue. Recombinant TaLDH (rTaLDH) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21/DE3 and purified. rTaLDH had a specific LDH activity and could be recognized in serum from swine or patient infected with T. asiatica. TaLDH was immunolocalized on the tegument of T. asiatica adult and embryonic membrane of oncosphere. Our study suggested that TaLDH is a potential drug target and candidate antigen for immunodiagnosis and vaccine for taeniasis and viscero-cysticercosis caused by T. asiatica.

  20. Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata: genetic divergence estimated from their mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, H K; Eom, K S

    2006-05-01

    We conducted a differential identification of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, through the mapping of mitochondrial genomes and the sequencing of the cox1 and cob genes. The entire mitochondrial genomes of T. asiatica and T. saginata were amplified by long-extension PCR and cloned; each was approximately 14 kb in size. Restriction maps of T. asiatica and T. saginata mitochondrial genomes were then constructed using 13 restriction enzymes. The resulting restriction patterns enable us to estimate their genetic divergence at 4.8%. The actual sequence divergence was computed 4.5% from the cox1 gene, and 4.1% from the cob gene. These results support the designation of T. asiatica as a separate species from T. saginata.

  1. Centella asiatica increases B-cell lymphoma 2 expression in rat prefrontal cortex

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    Kuswati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stress is one of the factors that cause apoptosis in neuronal cells. Centella asiatica has a neuroprotective effect that can inhibit apoptosis. This study aimed to examine the effect of Centella asiatica ethanol extract on B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on 34 brain tissue samples from male Sprague Dawley rats exposed to chronic restraint stress for 21 days. The samples were taken from following groups: non-stress group K, negative control group P1 (stress + arabic gum powder, P2 (stress + C.asiatica at 150 mg/kgBW, P3 (stress + C.asiatica at 300 mg/kg BW, P4 (stress + C.asiatica at 600 mg/kg body weight and positive control group P5 (stress + fluoxetine at 10 mg/kgBW. The samples were made into sections that were stained immunohistochemically using Bcl-2 antibody to determine the percentage of cells expressing Bcl-2. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA test followed by a post - hoc test. Results There were significant differences in mean Bcl-2 expression between the groups receiving Centella asiatica compared with the non-stress group and stress-only group (negative control group (p<0.05. The results were comparable to those of the fluoxetine treatment group. Conclusion The Centella asiatica ethanol extract was able to increase Bcl-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of Sprague Dawley rats exposed to restraint stress. This study suggests that Centella asiatica may be useful in the treatment of cerebral stress.

  2. Protective effects of Centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Myung-Joo; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Kim, Jae Min; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti-inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centell...

  3. Effect of Centella asiatica on arsenic induced oxidative stress and metal distribution in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Flora, S J S

    2006-01-01

    Concomitant oral supplementation of Centella asiatica (100, 200 or 300 mg kg(-1), orally once daily) during arsenic exposure (20 ppm in drinking water for 4 weeks) was investigated in rats for its protective value. The animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a marginal decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood. Hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) decreased, while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels increased significantly in the liver, kidney and brain. The activities of brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase decreased marginally on arsenic exposure. Concomitant administration of Centella asiatica showed a significant protective action on inhibited blood ALAD activity and restored the blood GSH level, whereas most of the other blood biochemical parameters remained unchanged on Centella asiatica supplementation. Interestingly, most of the hepatic biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress showed protection. There was, however, a significant protection observed in the altered kidney GSSG level and hepatic and brain TBARS. Only a marginal beneficial effect of Centella asiatica on blood and liver arsenic concentration was noted, particularly at the highest dose studies (300 mg kg(-1)). No effect of Centella asiatica on most of the altered renal biochemical parameters was noted. The results thus lead to the conclusion that simultaneous supplementation of Centella asiatica significantly protects against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but does not influence the arsenic concentration in these organs. It can thus be suggested that co-administration of Centella asiatica protects animals from arsenic-induced oxidative stress but exhibits no chelating property. Further studies are recommended for determining the effect of co-administration of Centella asiatica during chelation

  4. Taenia asiatica: the Most Neglected Human Taenia and the Possibility of Cysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gal?n-Puchades, M. Teresa; Fuentes, Mario V.

    2013-01-01

    Not only Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, but also Taenia asiatica infects humans. The last species is not included in the evaluation of the specificity of the immunodiagnostic techniques for taeniasis/cysticercosis. There is currently no specific immunodiagnostic method for T. asiatica available. Therefore, due to the fact that molecular techniques (the only tool to distinguish the 3 Taenia species) are normally not employed in routine diagnostic methods, the 2 questions concerning T. asia...

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two important memory enhancing medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, Hemant Kumar; Pandey, Pankaj; Arya, Mahesh Chand; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-01-01

    Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects. The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica. The antioxidant activity of these two medicinal plants was evaluated by measuring reducing ability, free radical scavenging activity by DPPH and hydrogen peroxide methods. The antioxidants compounds like ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also evaluated in these plants. Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica exhibited significant differences (PCentella asiatica. The antioxidant components viz. ascorbic acid, total phenols and tannins were also found in a higher concentration in Baccopa monnieri as compared to Centella asiatica. It can be concluded from the study that regular use of Baccopa monnieri as a supplement could be more helpful compared to Centella asiatica in treatment of neurological disorders caused by free radical damage.

  6. Aqueous extract of Centella asiatica promotes corneal epithelium wound healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszymah, Bt Hj Idrus; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Manan, Nur Azeanty Bt Abdul; Fong, Ooi Sew; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Saim, Aminuddin Bin

    2012-03-27

    Centella asiatica is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to have pharmacological effect on skin wound healing, and could be potential therapeutic agent for corneal epithelial wound healing. This study was done to evaluate the effects of Centella asiatica on the proliferation and migration of rabbit corneal epithelial (RCE) cells in the in vitro wound healing model. RCE cells were cultured with or without supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract. Viability and proliferation of the RCE cells was determined by MTT assay and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. In vitro re-epithelization was studied by scratch assay and migration rate was evaluated quantitatively by image analyzer. Expression of corneal specific differentiation markers, CK12 and connexin 43, were studied via RT-PCR. It was found that supplementation of Centella asiatica did not show any significant effect on the RCE cells proliferation at the concentration up to 500ppm, while at the concentration of 1000ppm significantly inhibited RCE cells proliferation (pCentella asiatica aqueous extract did not alter the expression of differentiation markers and cell cycle. In conclusion, supplementation of Centella asiatica aqueous extract at low concentrations could be useful to promote corneal epithelium wound healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasarao, Nelli; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day body weight (b.w) C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na+/K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1β) and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx) were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition. PMID:25161691

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M; Thenmozhi, S; Balakrishnan, B R

    2013-01-01

    Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  9. Observations on pathological and histochemical changes in piglet livers infected with Taenia saginata asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghu, Yan; Zhu, Wujun; Bao, Huai'en; Chen, Yan

    2007-07-01

    To study the pathological and histochemical characteristics of lesions in piglet livers infected with Taenia saginata asiatica (T. saginata asiatica) throughout the different stages, piglets were fed with eggs of T. saginata asiatica and raised in isolation in an animal center to establish the T. saginata asiatica infection model with normal piglets as control. The pathological changes in the piglet livers were observed after the infection using liver sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histochemical methods were used to check the changes in lipid, glycogen and protein content in the liver. The data collected by image analysis were analyzed statistically with Statistical Package for the Social Science. The results show that T. saginata asiatica-exposed piglets were indeed infected. Inflammatory reactions began on the fourth day and progressed rapidly. Kupffer cell hyperplasia, hepatic hydropic degeneration and ballooning degeneration were found in the 10th-20th days after infection. Hepatic central veins and hepatic sinusoids were dilated and congested. Spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. In the 40th-60th days, granulomatous reactions and mild hepatocirrhosis were the main lesions. In the 70th-80th days, hepatocirrhosis and bile duct proliferation were observed in the liver. In the different stages, lipid drops were increased while glycogen and protein levels were decreased to some degree. There was a significant difference in metabolism between the infected group and the control group (P asiatica and its infection can result in serious pathological and histochemical lesions in host organs.

  10. Daya Hambat Ekstrak Daun Pegagan (Centella asiatica yang Diambil di Batusangkar terhadap Pertumbuhan Kuman Vibrio cholerae secara In Vitro

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    Nelvita Sari Ramadhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPegagan (Centella asiatica merupakan salah satu tanaman yang digunakan sebagai obat. Salah satu manfaat yang bisa didapatkan dari pegagan (Centella asiatica adalah antibakterinya. Manfaat antibakterinya didapatkan karena pegagan (Centella asiatica mengandung zat antibakteri, diantaranya adalah saponin, tannin, alkaloid, dan flavonoid. Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang daya hambat ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholerae secara in vitro, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui daya hambat ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholera secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode eksperimental laboratorium dengan metode difusi (cakram, pada berbagai konsentrasi yaitu 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, dan100%, di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa ekstrak daun pegagan (Centella asiatica yang diambil di daerah Batusangkar, ternyata tidak dapat menghambat pertumbuhan kuman Vibrio cholerae secara in vitro, sedangkan tetrasiklin yang digunakan sebagai kontrol positif memberikan daya hambat yang baik terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholera, dengan zona hambat 16,3 mm. Ada atau tidaknya daya hambat ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio cholerae dalam penelitian ini bisa dipengaruhi oleh jenis bakteri yang digunakan, metode pembuatan ekstrak yang dipakai, dan sumber daun pegagan yang digunakan dalam penelitian.Kata kunci: efek antibakteri, ekstrak daun pegagan (Centella asiatica, Vibrio choleraeAbstractCentella asiatica is one of the plants used as medicine. One of the benefits that can be obtained from Centella asiatica is an antibacterial effect. Antibacterial effect obtained as Centella asiatica contains anti-bacterial substances, such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. This study was conducted to determine the inhibition of extracts of Centella asiatica on the growth of Vibrio cholerae in vitro

  11. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Centella asiatica (L) Urb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittella, Frederico; Dutra, Rafael C.; Junior, Dalton D.; Lopes, Miriam T. P.; Barbosa, Nádia R.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the phenolic (Folin-Dennis) and flavonoid (colorimetric assay) constituents, antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) assay] and cytotoxic activities of an aqueous extract (AE) of Centella asiatica leaves were investigated. The aqueous extract (50 g/L) was obtained by infusion followed by cold maceration for 24 h. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 2.86 g/100 g and 0.361 g/100 g, respectively. The AE showed elevated DPPH scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL. The AE had a promising activity against mouse melanoma (B16F1), human breast cancer (MDA MB-231) and rat glioma (C6) cell lines, with IC50 values of 698.0, 648.0 and 1000.0 μg/mL, respectively. A positive correlation was established between the level of flavonoids, antioxidant and antitumor activities. PMID:19865514

  12. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Centella asiatica (L Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Pittella

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the phenolic (Folin-Dennis and flavonoid (colorimetric assay constituents, antioxidant [2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay] and cytotoxic activities of an aqueous extract (AE of Centella asiatica leaves were investigated. The aqueous extract (50 g/L was obtained by infusion followed by cold maceration for 24 h. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 2.86 g/100 g and 0.361 g/100 g, respectively. The AE showed elevated DPPH scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 31.25 μg/mL. The AE had a promising activity against mouse melanoma (B16F1, human breast cancer (MDA MB-231 and rat glioma (C6 cell lines, with IC50 values of 698.0, 648.0 and 1000.0 μg/mL, respectively. A positive correlation was established between the level of flavonoids, antioxidant and antitumor activities.

  13. [Informatics analysis of malate dehydrogenase from Taenia saginata asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing; Bao, Huai-En; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Liao, Xing-Jiang

    2008-06-30

    Tools from bioinformatics websites such as NCBI, ExPaSy were used for the analysis. The malate dehydrogenase full-length gene from Taenia saginata asiatica was 1 212 bp in length, with a coding region of 30-1 028 bp and coding 332 amino acids. It was a complete and full-length gene compared with the homologues in GenBank. The protein showed no transmembrane region, with stable physical-chemical characteristics. Three major linear epitopes located aa95-aa100, aa322-aa327 and aa117-aa122, with certain distance from each other on the surface of spatial structure of malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The last one was the linear epitope of Taenia. This cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene is a potential antigen for diagnosis.

  14. Antihepatotoxic activity and chemical constituents of Buddleja asiatica Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Domiaty, Maher M; Wink, Michael; Abdel Aal, Mahmoud M; Abou-Hashem, Maged M; Abd-Alla, Rehab H

    2009-01-01

    A new natural compound, named 6-O-(3",4"-dimethoxycinnamoyl) catalpol, was isolated from the defatted alcoholic extract of the flowering parts of Buddleja asiatica Lour. (family Scrophulariaceae). Other separated known compounds included steroids (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-O-glucoside, beta-sitosterol-O-glucoside), iridoid glucosides (methyl catalpol, catalpol, aucubin), phenylpropanoids (isoacteoside and acteoside), a triterpene saponin (mimengoside A), flavonoids (diosmin and linarin) in addition to the free sugars mannitol and sucrose. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the polar fraction of the flowering parts and the roots showed substantial antihepatotoxic activity comparable to that of the lignan silymarin.

  15. Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mato, Lugkana; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyawatkul, Nawanant; Yimtae, Kwanchanok; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2011-01-01

    Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL). Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750 mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential. PMID:19880441

  16. Effect of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and elicitation on the asiaticoside production in cell cultures of Centella asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslan, Komar; Selfitri, Anggrahaeni Dewi; Bulan, Shella A.; Rukayadi, Yaya; Elfahmi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Apiaceae) is an important medicinal plant, and it has been using to prepare herbal medicines. The compounds responsible for the biological activity of C. asiatica are triterpenoids such as asiaticoside. Asiaticoside is also important as a marker for standardization of C. asiatica. Due to the low content, there is a need to enhance the production of asiaticoside of C. asiatica. The biotechnological approach is one of the methods that can be used to enhance its production. Objectives: This study was designed to enhance the production of asiaticoside from C. asiatica using A. rhizogenes and elicitation experiments. Materials and Methods: Callus cultures were initiated using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurin (BAP). All media were supplemented with 4% (w/w) sucrose and solidified with 0.9% agar. Elicitations were done using pectin, methyl jasmonate, and Cu2+ ions. Transformed hairy root cultures were performed using A. rhizogenes. Results: Callus culture of C. asiatica was successfully initiated. Enhancement of the production of asiaticoside in the callus culture by elicitors pectin was up to 31%; methyl jasmonate (50 μM) in cell suspension cultures at day 14 was up to 171% compared to explant and 494% compared to control callus; copper ion (25 μM) at day 21 was up to 144% compared to explant, and 676% compared to control cell suspension cultures. While enhancement by genetic transformation using A. rhizogenes was 166-172% compare to untransformed roots Conclusion: Elicitation and genetically transformed hairy root cultures of C. asiatica produced asiaticoside up to 172% higher than untreated callus. PMID:22701283

  17. Centella asiatica Improves Physical Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Elderly Volunteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugkana Mato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, oxidative stress has been reported to contribute an important role in the decline of physical function as age advances. Numerous antioxidants can improve both physical and psychological performances resulting in the increase of health-related quality of life (HQOL. Therefore, we hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a medicinal plant reputed for nerve tonic, strength improvement and antioxidant activity, could improve the physical performance and HQOL especially in the physical satisfaction aspect, of the healthy elderly volunteer. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was performed. Eighty healthy elderly were randomly assigned to receive placebo or standardized extract of C. asiatica at doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg once daily for 90 days. The subjects were evaluated to establish baseline data of physical performance using 30-s chair stand test, hand grip test and 6-min walk test. The health-related quality of life was assessed using SF-36. These assessments were repeated every month throughout the 3-month experimental period using the aforementioned parameters. Moreover, 1 month after the cessation of C. asiatica treatment, all subjects were also evaluated using these parameters again. The results showed that after 2 months of treatment, C. asiatica at doses of 500 and 750 mg per day increased lower extremity strength assessed via the 30-s chair stand test. In addition, the higher doses of C. asiatica could improve the life satisfaction subscale within the physical function subscale. Therefore, the results from this study appear to support the traditional reputation of C. asiatica on strength improvement, especially in the lower extremities of the elderly. C. asiatica also possesses the potential to be a natural resource for vigor and strength increase, in healthy elderly persons. However, further research is essential.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butler, LG. Vol 2, No 2 (1994) - Articles Screening of maize genotypes for low Striga Asiatica stimulant production using the 'agar gel technique' Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 2 (1993) - Articles Host-Parasite Interactions Throughout the Striga Life Cycle, and their Contributions to Striga Resistance Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 2 ...

  19. [Signal transduction in plant development: Chemical and biochemical approaches to receptor identification]. Progress report, [May 15, 1993--May 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Progress is reported on studies concerning NAD(P)H-2,6-DMBQ oxidoreductase of Striga asiatica aimed at elucidating basic biochemical parameters of Striga. Reported studies include characterization of the enzyme, development of Striga molecular genetics, and development of a redox model for germination control.

  20. Protective effects of ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. on ageing-induced deterioration in mouse oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeon, Hong Bae; Oh, Jeong Su

    2017-08-01

    Following ovulation, oocytes undergo a time-dependent deterioration in quality referred to as post-ovulatory ageing. Although various factors influence the post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes, oxidative stress is a key factor involved in deterioration of oocyte quality. Artemisia asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. has been widely used in East Asia as a food ingredient and traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, cancer, and microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that A. asiatica exhibits antioxidative effects. In this study, we investigated whether A. asiatica has the potential to attenuate deterioration in oocyte quality during post-ovulatory ageing. Freshly ovulated mouse oocytes were cultured with 0, 50, 100 or 200 μg/ml ethanol extracts of A. asiatica Nakai ex Pamp. After culture for up to 24 h, various ageing-induced oocyte abnormalities, including morphological changes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, apoptosis, chromosome and spindle defects, and mitochondrial aggregation were determined. Treatment of oocytes with A. asiatica extracts reduced ageing-induced morphological changes. Moreover, A. asiatica extracts decreased ROS generation and the onset of apoptosis by preventing elevation of the Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio during post-ovulatory ageing. Furthermore, A. asiatica extracts attenuated the ageing-induced abnormalities including spindle defects, chromosome misalignment and mitochondrial aggregation. Our results demonstrate that A. asiatica can relieve deterioration in oocyte quality and delay the onset of apoptosis during post-ovulatory ageing.

  1. Centella asiatica Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Cognitive Impairment, Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Atish; Dogra, Samrita

    2011-01-01

    D-galactose induced neurotoxicity is well known model for studying aging and related oxidative damage and memory impairment. Aging is a biological process, characterized by the gradual loss of physiological functions by unknown mechanism. Centella asiatica, Indian pennywort has been documented in the treatment of various neurological disorders including aging. Therefore, present study has been conducted in order to explore the possible role of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, oxidative and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. Chronic administration of D-galactose (100 mg/kg s.c.) for a period of six weeks significantly impaired cognitive task (both in both Morris water maze and elevated plus maze) and oxidative defense (Increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and non-protein thiols) and impaired mitochondrial complex (I, II and III) enzymes activities as compared to sham group. Six weeks Centella asiatica (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o) treatment significantly improved behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities as compared to contro l (D-galactose). Centella asiatica also attenuated enhanced acetylcholine esterase enzyme level in D-galactose senescence mice. Present study highlights the protective effect of Centella asiatica against D-galactose induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. PMID:21629743

  2. Field evaluation of in vitro-induced tetraploid and diploid Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong-On, Wachiraporn; Arimatsu, Panida; Pitiporn, Supaporn; Soonthornchareonnon, Noppamas; Prathanturarug, Sompop

    2014-04-01

    Centella asiatica-a medicinal plant that produces high-value active triterpenoids-is in increasing demand by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to field-test one induced tetraploid and three diploid C. asiatica lines for the selection of high-quality plants with high phytomass and triterpenoid content and to determine their optimal harvesting time. All tested C. asiatica were micropropagated using an established protocol. One-month-old plantlets were acclimatized for the field experiment. The plants were grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, ten plantlets per replication, and the experimental bed site was 0.6 × 1.0 m. Growth parameters, phytomass and the amounts of four active triterpenoids were evaluated. All lines exhibited the highest growth, yields and triterpenoids at 4 months after cultivation. The tetraploid line showed significantly better characteristics, i.e., larger leaf area, leaf width, petiole length, and greater yields, than diploid lines. Dry weight per cultivated area (77.53 ± 3.07 g/m(2)) and total triterpenoids (15.38 ± 0.76 % dry weight) were increased significantly in tetraploid plants of C. asiatica. Furthermore, the harvesting time had an effect on the yield and triterpenoid content (P asiatica.

  3. The centella asiatica juice effects on DNA damage, apoptosis and gene expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Faridah; Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Rahmat, Asmah; Othman, Fauziah; Akim, Abdah

    2014-01-20

    This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line. Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells. The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells. It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.

  4. Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells Is not Stimulated by Salicylic Acid Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, E N; Steenkamp, P A; Madala, N E; Dubery, I A

    2016-07-01

    Exogenous application of synthetic and natural elicitors of plant defence has been shown to result in mass production of secondary metabolites with nutraceuticals properties in cultured cells. In particular, salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been reported to induce the production of phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid derivatives bound to quinic acid (chlorogenic acids). Centella asiatica is an important medicinal plant with several therapeutic properties owing to its wide spectrum of secondary metabolites. We investigated the effect of SA on C. asiatica cells by monitoring perturbation of chlorogenic acids in particular. Different concentrations of SA were used to treat C. asiatica cells, and extracts from both treated and untreated cells were analysed using an optimised UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. Semi-targeted multivariate data analyses with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed a concentration-dependent metabolic response. Surprisingly, a range of chlorogenic acid derivatives were found to be downregulated as a consequence of SA treatment. Moreover, irbic acid (3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonilquinic acid) was found to be a dominant CGA in C. asiatica cells, although the SA treatment also had a negative effect on its concentration. Overall SA treatment was found to be an ineffective elicitor of CGA production in cultured C. asiatica cells.

  5. Moisturizing and Antiinflammatory Properties of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Centella asiatica Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz-Łyko, A; Arct, J; Pytkowska, K

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica extract is a rich source of natural bioactive substances, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenic steroids, amino acids and sugars. Thus, many scavenging free radicals, exhibit antiinflammatory activity and affect on the stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations (oil-in-water emulsion cream and hydrogel) containing different concentrations of Centella asiatica extract. The study was conducted over four weeks on a group of 25 volunteers after twice a day application of cosmetic formulations with Centella asiatica extract (2.5 and 5%, w/w) on their forearms. The measurement of basic skin parameters (stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function) was performed once a week. The in vivo antiinflammatory activity based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin was evaluated after four weeks application of tested formulations. In vivo tests formulations containing 5% of Centella asiatica extract showed the best efficacy in improving skin moisture by increase of skin surface hydration state and decrease in transepidermal water loss as well as exhibited antiinflammatory properties based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin. Comparative tests conducted by corneometer, tewameter and chromameter showed that cosmetic formulations containing Centella asiatica extract have the moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties.

  6. In vitro cytotoxic, antiviral and immunomodulatory effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Lien-Chai; Chiang, Wen; Chang, Mei-Yin; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2003-01-01

    Plantago major linn. and P. asiatica Linn. (Plantaginaceae) are commonly used as folk medicine in Taiwan for treating infectious diseases related to the respiratory, urinary and digestive tracts. In this study, we investigated the antiviral, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory activities of hot water extracts of these two species in vitro on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8 and ADV-11), and on various human leukemia, lymphoma and carcinoma cells with XTT, BrdU and IFN-gamma kits. Results showed that hot water extract of P. asiatica possessed significant inhibitory activity on the proliferation of lymphoma (U937) and carcinoma (bladder, bone, cervix, kidney, lung and stomach) cells and on viral infection (HSV-2 and ADV-11). P. major and P. asiatica both exhibited dual effects of immunodulatory activity, enhancing lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of interferon-gamma at low concentrations ( 50 microg/ml). The present study concludes that hot water extracts of P. major and P. asiatica possess abroad-spectrum of antileukemia, anticarcinoma and antiviral activities, as well as activities which modulate cell-mediated immunity. Further investigations to elucidate the active component(s) of P. asiatica and P. major and to evaluate their clinical application are warranted.

  7. Identification of Taenia asiatica in China: molecular, morphological, and epidemiological analysis of a Luzhai isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyung-Kyu; Kong, Yoon; Hwang, Ui Wook; Yang, Yichao; Li, Xueming; Xu, Longqi; Feng, Zheng; Pawlowski, Zbigniew S; Rim, Han-Jong

    2002-08-01

    Multiple analysis has characterized a recently described tapeworm of people, Taenia asiatica, in mainland China. Six adult tapeworms collected from people of the Zhuang minority residing in the southern part of China (Luzhai isolate) were comparatively analyzed with other tapeworms from people: T. asiatica (n = 2, South Korea), T. saginata (n = 1, Poland; n = 1, Korea), and T. solium (n = 1, People's Republic of China). Experimental infections with eggs from the Luzhai isolate in pigs and cattle produced cysticerci, each with a hookletless scolex and with wartlike formations on the external surface of the bladder wall. There were rostellar protrusions in the scolices of adult worms. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis using 3 arbitrary primers produced bands identical to those of the Korean T. asiatica. Conversely, T. saginata and T. solium exhibited different banding patterns. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from the complete nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 placed the Chinese tapeworms consistently within the T. asiatica clade by 96% bootstrapping value in the maximum likelihood analysis, 96% in maximum parsimony, and 100% in neighbor joining. These collective data demonstrate that T. asiatica is sympatrically distributed with the other 2 species of Taenia in the human host in mainland China.

  8. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, B N; Girish, T K; Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender; Rao, U J S Prasada; Rao, K S

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Protective effects of Centella asiatica leaf extract on dimethylnitrosamine‑induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Joo; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Kim, Jae Min; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti‑inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centella asiatica on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)‑induced liver injury in rats. The rats in the treatment groups were treated with Centella asiatica at either 100 or 200 mg/kg in distilled water (D.W) or with silymarin (200 mg/kg in D.W) by oral administration for 5 days daily following intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg DMN. Centella asiatica significantly decreased the relative liver weights in the DMN‑induced liver injury group, compared with the control. The assessment of liver histology showed that Centella asiatica significantly alleviated mass periportal ± bridging necrosis, intralobular degeneration and focal necrosis, with fibrosis of liver tissues. Additionally, Centella asiatica significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde, significantly increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and may have provided protection against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. In addition, Centella asiatica significantly decreased inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑2, IL‑6, IL‑10, IL‑12, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and granulocyte/macrophage colony‑stimulating factor. These results suggested that Centella asiatica had hepatoprotective effects through increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators in rats with DMN‑induced liver injury. Therefore, Centella asiatica may be useful

  10. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer′s disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer′s disease.

  11. Pycnogenol® and Centella Asiatica for asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Ippolito, E; Cesarone, M; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the nutritional supplements Pycnogenol and TECA (total triterpenic fraction of Centella Asiatica) on atherosclerosis progression in low-risk asymptomatic subjects with carotid or femoral non-stenosing plaques. This was an observational pilot substudy of the San Valentino epidemiological cardiovascular study. The study included 1363 subjects aged 45-60 without any conventional risk factors who had non stenosing atherosclerotic plaques (Centella Asiatica) 100 mg/day. There was a six monthly follow-up up to 30 months. Plaque progression was assessed using the ultrasonic arterial score based on the arterial wall morphology and the number of plaques that progressed from the non-stenotic to the stenotic group. A secondary endpoint was to evaluate the changes in oxidative stress at baseline and at 30 months. The ultrasonic score increased significantly in groups 1, 2 and 4 but not in groups 3, 5 and 6 suggesting a beneficial effect of Pycnogenol 100 mg. The percentage of plaques that progressed from class IV to class V was 8.4% in group 2, 5.3% in group 3, 4% in group 5 and 1.1% in group 6 (P<0.0001) compared with 16.6% in group 4 (aspirin) and 21.3% in the control group suggesting a beneficial effect of Pycnogenol. The lowest rate of progression was in group 6 (Pycnogenol plus TECA). At 30 months, the oxidative stress in all the Pycnogenol groups was less than in the control group. The oxidative stress was lower in the Pycnogenol 100 mg group than the Pycnogenol 50 mg group (P<0.0001). In the combined group of Pycnogenol and TECA the oxidative stress was less than the Pycnogenol alone (P<0.001). Pycnogenol and the combination of Pycnogenol+TECA appear to reduce the progression of subclinical arterial lesions in low-risk asymptomatic subjects. The reduction in plaque progression was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress. The results justify a large randomized controlled study to demonstrate the efficacy of the

  12. Microsatellite markers isolated from the wild medicinal plant Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) from an enriched genomic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotondralambo, Soaharin'ny Ony Raoseta; Lussert, Alexandra; Rivallan, Ronan; Danthu, Pascal; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2012-04-01

    Microsatellite markers for Centella asiatica, an important medicinal herb, were developed and characterized to promote genetic and molecular studies. A GA/GT-enriched genomic library was constructed from an accession from Madagascar. Roughly 75% of the 768 clones of the enriched library contained microsatellites. Eighty sequences containing microsatellites were obtained from 96 positive clones. Specific primers were designed for 20 loci, and 17 of them displayed polymorphism when screened across 17 C. asiatica accessions, with an average of 4.3 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values averaged 0.114 and 0.379, respectively. This is the first report constructing an enriched genomic library and identifying microsatellite markers from C. asiatica. These 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for this plant, applicable for diversity studies, pedigree analyses, and genetic mapping.

  13. [Total protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong

    2011-06-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus.

  14. Oncospheres of Taenia solium and T. saginata asiatica develop into metacestodes in normal and immunosuppressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I C; Ma, Y X; Guo, J X; Chung, W C; Lu, S C; Ito, A; Fan, P C

    1999-06-01

    Normal and immunosuppressed mice were infected with oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica and T. solium. Although normal ICR mice were not susceptible to these two parasites, cysticerci were recovered from the immunosuppressed ones following venous injection. For T. s. asiatica, immunosuppressed ICR mice had an infection rate of 12.5% and six cysticerci of this parasite were recovered from three males. After injection of T. solium oncospheres, a high infection rate of 57% was obtained and 23 cysticerci were collected from 13 male immunosuppressed ICR mice. The immunosuppressed C57 mice had the highest infection rate (100%) and cysticercus recovery rate (2.4%) for T. solium. The infection rate and cysticercus recovery rate in six normal C57 mice were 40% and 3% respectively. The immunosuppressed ICR, Balb/c and C3H mice were also susceptible to T. s. asiatica.

  15. [Prokaryotic expression, identification and histo-localization of the Taenia asiatica enolase gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wu-Ying; Dai, Jia-Ling; Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xin-Bing; Liao, Xing-Jiang; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    To express enolase gene of Taenia asiatica, investigate the immunoreactivity of the recombinant TaENO protein, and immuno-histo-localize the presence of the recombinant TaENO in adults of T. asiatica. The gene encoding enolase of T. asiatica (TaENO) was cloned by high throughput sequencing from the cDNA library of adult T. asiatica. The coding region of TaENO was amplified by PCR, and cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a (+). The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL-21/DE3 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The protein was purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography, and tested by SDS-PAGE. Its immunoreactivity was examined by Western blotting. The mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified TaENO formulated in Freund's adjuvant. Serum samples were collected and analyzed for specific antibodies by ELISA. The localization of TaENO in adult worms was demonstrated by immunofluorescent technique. The recombinant expression plasmid was identified by PCR, double endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The recombinant TaENO was about Mr 47 000 with a concentration of 0.37 mg/ml. It was recognized by antisera of SD rats immunized with TaENO, sera of taeniasis patients and sera of infected swine. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that TaENO immune serum located in the tegument of T. asiatica adult. The TaENO gene has been expressed with immunoreactivity, and the recombinant TaENO is immunolocalized in the tegument of T. asiatica adult.

  16. Complete sequence and characterization of mitochondrial DNA genome of Channa asiatica (Perciformes: Channidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Channa asiatica mitochondrial (mtDNA) genome was determined in this study. The genome sequence (GenBank accession number KJ930190) was 16,550 base pairs in length, and the gene content and organization on the mitochondrial genome were similar to the other Channa fishes. The overall base composition of C. asiatica mitogenome is 29.4% A, 26.3% T, 15.3% G, 29.0% C, with a high A + T content of 55.7%. The mitochondrial sequence could provide useful genetic information for studying the molecular identification, population genetics, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics.

  17. [Study on hepatocyte apoptosis of domestic pigs experimentally infected with Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Rong; Bao, Huai-En; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Jia-Hong; Lang, Shu-Yuan

    2012-10-30

    To investigate apoptosis in liver tissue of the domestic pigs infected with eggs of Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata. The adult worms of T. asiatica and T. saginata were collected and identified from the taeniasis patients in Dunyun and Congjiang districts, Guizhou province. Eggs were collected from gravid proglottids and prepared by washing and centrifugation. Nineteen 20-day hybrid domestic pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire-Landrace strain) were randomly divided into T. asiatica group (6 pigs), T. saginata group (8 pigs) and control group (5 pigs). Each animal of experimental groups was infected with 1.5 x 10(5) eggs by stomach injection. On day 15, 32, 46 and 74 after infection, animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for further experiments. The liver tissues were sliced for glass slides and prepared for ultrathin sections. The apoptosis of hepatocytes was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick and labeling. The morphological features of liver tissue were observed under transmission electron microscope. The infection rate of two experiment groups reached 100%. Better developed cysticerci were found in liver of T. asiatica group than that of T. saginata group, but the liver pathological changes caused by cysticerci were similar. On day 15 and 32 after infection, hydropic degeneration, obvious vacuolization and some balloon-like degeneration were found in hepatocytes, and focal hepatic necrosis was observed. On day 46, spotty necrosis occurred in some local liver tissues. On day 74, main damages were granulomatous reactions surrounding cysticercus and focal liver fibrosis. On day 46, apoptosis index in T. asiatica group [(15.07 +/- 3.42)6%] and T. saginata group [(17.13 +/- 1.62)5%] was considerably higher than that in the control [(9.53 +/- 1.06)%] (P asiatica group [(27.33 +/- 0.92)5%] and T. saginata group [(34.20 +/- 0.73)%] was higher than that in the control [(13.60 +/- 2.26)%] (P asiatica group (P asiatica and T

  18. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

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    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  19. Botanical pharmacognosy of stem of Gmelina asiatica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R; Prasant, K; Babu, U V

    2012-04-01

    Gmelina asiatica Linn (G. parvifolia Roxb.) is a large shrub or a small tree. Roots and aerial parts are used in Ayurvedic medicine and also have ethno-medical uses. Root is reported as adulterant to G. arborea roxb roots. Pharmacognostical characters of root were reported. Owing to the shortage of genuine drug and ever-increasing demands in market, it becomes necessary to search an alternative with equal efficacy without compromising the therapeutic value. Nowadays, it becomes a common practice of using stem. In case of roots phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of stem was reported. However, there is no report on the pharmacognostical characters of stem and to differentiate it from roots. The present report describes the botanical pharmacognostical characters of stem and a note to differentiate it from root. Hollow pith, faint annual rings in cut ends, alternatively arranged macrosclereids and bundle cap fibers, and presence of abundant starch grains and calcium oxalates in pith and in ray cells are the diagnostic microscopic characters of stem. Stem pieces can be differentiated from roots by absence of tylosis.

  20. [First discovery of Taenia saginata asiatica infection in Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Tao, H; Zhang, B; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Yang, J; Yang, B; Li, Y; Pang, Y; Zhang, H; Li, Y; Wu, Y

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the aetiology, species and epidemiological factors of Taenia infection in a pilot area of Lanping County, Yunnan Province. Two patients with taeniasis were treated with antiscolex capsule and praziquantel, respectively. Five local weaning pigs free from tapeworm infection were fed with gravid proglottids obtained from the patients. After 2-3 months, the pigs were necropsied to examine cysticerci. In addition, one pig naturally infected with Taenia was treated as well. Based on morphological characteristics of the scolex and gravid proglottid of four tapeworms obtained from the patients, the worms were similar to T. saginata. 23 cysticerci recovered from two experimentally infected pigs were found in the livers, omentum majus and mesenterium, and 3 cysticerci were found in the liver and omentum majus in a naturally infected pig as well. The protoscolex of mature Cysticercus had two rows of rudimentary hooklets, one rostellum and four acetabula resembling to C. cellulosae. According to morphological characteristics and the location of cysticerci, the tapeworm was identified as Taenia saginata asiatia. T. saginata asiatica infection was first reported in Yunnan Province.

  1. [Survey of the number of eggs in Taenia asiatica gravid proglottids in Dali Prefecture of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian-Mei; Fang, Wen; Liu, Hong-Kun

    2013-12-01

    To observe the number of eggs in the gravid proglottids of Taenia asiatica. Twenty gravid proglottids at each end of two adults of T. asiatica were digested by 1% pepsin. Then, the collected eggs were observed and counted by a microscope. The number of eggs in each gravid proglottid were not the same, with the maximum of 132 500, minimum of 44 180, and the average number of 90 051, and there was a significant difference among the different gravid proglottids (t = -3.487, P = 0.003). The number of eggs in different gravid proglottids of T. asiatica is evidently different.

  2. In vitro and in vivo modulation of cartilage degradation by a standardized Centella asiatica fraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, A.; Smit, H.F.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Hoijer, M.A.; Garssen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease in which focal cartilage destruction is one of the primary features. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of a Centella asiatica fraction on in vitro and in vivo cartilage degradation. Bovine cartilage explants and bovine chondrocytes

  3. The inductive effects of Centella asiatica on rat spermatogenic cell apoptosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mahnaz; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has been traditionally used for the treatment of various disease and as a food for thousands of years in various parts of the world including eastern Asia, China and India. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica aqueous leaf extract on the induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in male rats. After lethal dose (LD(50)) assessment of plant extract, rats were divided in five groups. The experimental groups received orally 10, 50, 80 and 100 mg/kg aqueous leaf extract daily for 60 days and the control group received just water. After 60 days, body and testis weight were measured and blood samples were taken from the heart. To evaluate apoptosis and histological changes, tissue samples obtained from rat testes were stained by TUNEL assay and hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results showed that the sperm count, motility, and viability and the number of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules were significantly decreased compared with the control group. The number of apoptotic germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross-section was significantly increased in the experimental group (18.11 ± 3.5) compared with the control group (8.7 ± 0.81) (P Centella asiatica has toxicological effects on the reproductive system in male rats and, therefore, it is suggested that leaf extracts of Centella asiatica possess antifertility effects in the male rat.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica against Intracerebroventricular Colchicine-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress

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    Anil Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress appears to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Colchicine (15 μg/5 μL was administered intracerebroventricularly in the lateral ventricle of male wistar rats. Morris water maze and plus-maze performance tests were used to assess memory performance tasks. Various biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, nitrite, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, acetylcholinesterase were also assessed. ICV colchicine resulted marked memory impairment and oxidative damage. Chronic treatment with Centella asiatica extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. for a period of 25 days, beginning 4 days prior to colchicine administration, significantly attenuated colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage. Besides, Centella asiatica significantly reversed colchicines administered increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus, present study indicates protective effect of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage.

  5. Decreasing α-synuclein aggregation by methanolic extract of Centella asiatica in zebrafish Parkinson's model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnul Khotimah

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: C. asiatica has a potential to be developed as an anti-Parkinson's disease treatment due to its capability for minimized the sign of Parkinson's such as α-synuclein aggregation and expression, increasing motility and dopamine as well.

  6. Wound-healing effect of electrospun gelatin nanofibres containing Centella asiatica extract in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun-Hsu; Yeh, Jen-Yu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Li, Ming-Hsien; Huang, Chiung-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Centella asiatica (CA) is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to exert pharmacological effects on wound healing. This study demonstrated that CA extract facilitates the wound-repair process by promoting fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis and exhibits antibacterial activity. Gelatin nanofibres containing C. asiatica extract were fabricated via electrospinning and were shown to exhibit dermal wound-healing activity in a rat model. The wound areas of rat skin treated with electrospun gelatin membranes containing C. asiatica (EGC) presented the highest recovery rate compared with those treated with gauze, neat gelatin membranes and commercial wound dressings. The results of the histopathological examination support the outcome of the wound models. Contact-angle and water-retention measurements confirmed that the addition of C. asiatica extract did not significantly affect the hydrophilicity of the EGC membranes. The measured weight loss revealed that the EGC membranes are biodegradable. The findings suggest that EGC membranes are a promising material for the treatment of skin wounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica against Intracerebroventricular Colchicine-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress appears to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Colchicine (15 μg/5 μL) was administered intracerebroventricularly in the lateral ventricle of male wistar rats. Morris water maze and plus-maze performance tests were used to assess memory performance tasks. Various biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, nitrite, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, acetylcholinesterase were also assessed. ICV colchicine resulted marked memory impairment and oxidative damage. Chronic treatment with Centella asiatica extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 25 days, beginning 4 days prior to colchicine administration, significantly attenuated colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage. Besides, Centella asiatica significantly reversed colchicines administered increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus, present study indicates protective effect of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage. PMID:20798885

  8. First Report of Septoria centellae Associated with Leaf Spot of Centella asiatica in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji-Hyun; Park, Mi-Jeong; Wolcan, Silvia; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Septoria centellae associated with leaf spot of Centella asiatica is reported for the first time in Korea. The fungus is described and illustrated in detail. It is also compared with related species of Septoria present on Centella and Hydrocotyle spp. with taxonomic comments. Two monoconidial isolates from Jeju and Wando were successfully cultured and have been deposited in the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection.

  9. In vitro and in vivo modulation of cartilage degradation by a standardized Centella asiatica fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Anita; Smit, H Friso; van der Kraan, Peter M; Hoijer, Maarten A; Garssen, Johan

    2009-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease in which focal cartilage destruction is one of the primary features. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of a Centella asiatica fraction on in vitro and in vivo cartilage degradation. Bovine cartilage explants and bovine chondrocytes cultured in alginate were stimulated with IL-1 beta in the presence or absence of different concentrations (2, 5 and 10 microg/ml) of a standardized Centella asiatica triterpenes (CAT) fraction. The CAT fraction inhibited the IL-1 beta-induced proteoglycan (PG) release and nitric oxide (NO) production by cartilage explants in a dose-dependent manner. The IL-1 beta-induced reduction in PG synthesis and proliferation of chondrocytes cultured in alginate were counteracted by the CAT fraction at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. In a zymosan-induced acute arthritis model, the CAT fraction inhibited PG depletion without modulating joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that the tested Centella asiatica fraction was able to inhibit the zymosan-induced cartilage degradation in vivo without affecting the zymosan-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and joint swelling. The in vitro data indicate that the cartilage protective activity might at least partially be induced by the inhibition of NO production. The overall results indicate a possible disease modifying osteoarthritic activity of the Centella asiatica fraction.

  10. Exophiala asiatica, a new species from a fatal case in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.M.; Li, R.Y.; de Hoog, G.S.; Wang, Y.X.; Wang, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new species, Exophiala asiatica, isolated from an infection of the pharynx in a 20-year-old, immunocompetent woman in Nanjing, China. The infection was initiated by a fishbone prick in the pharynx, soon developed with facial nodules but subsequently seemed to have disappeared. Tonsil

  11. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica life cycle and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius Vicent

    2013-07-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of two well-known species of the Taenia genus, Taenia solium (the pig tapeworm) and Taenia saginata (the cattle tapeworm). In the 1990s, a third species, Taenia asiatica, was discovered, sharing features with the other two since the adult morphology is similar to that of T. saginata, but its life cycle is like that of T. solium. Human taeniasis usually is asymptomatic or displays mild symptoms, and only T. solium can cause other sometimes serious disorders when humans accidentally ingest the eggs and develop the larval stage in different organs (cysticercosis). In this review, we expose what we currently know (lights) and what we do not yet know (shadows) about the life cycle and pathogenicity of T. asiatica. Concerning its life cycle, the main uncertainty is whether humans can act as intermediate hosts of this species. We also suggest that due to its small size and location in pigs, the cysticerci probably escape veterinary inspection becoming a silent parasite. Concerning pathogenicity, it is still not known if T. asiatica can cause human liver cysticercosis, taking into account its principal hepatic tropism in pigs. To answer all these questions it would be essential to perform sensitive as well as specific diagnostic techniques for T. asiatica in humans and pigs. Currently, only molecular methods are able to determine the Taenia species, since morphology and immunology are useless, but unfortunately although largely used in research those methods are not employed in routine diagnosis.

  12. Non-phenolic antioxidant compounds from Buddleja asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sayed, Mortada M; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Ahmed, Wafaa S; el-Wakil, Eman A

    2008-01-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Buddleja asiatica Lour. (Loganiaceae) showed antioxidant activity toward the well known in vitro antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, free radical scavenging activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (DPPH assay) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods. Due to the high scavenging activity of the n-butanol successive fraction toward DPPH and H2O2 (SC50 = 11.99 and 18.54 microg/ml, respectively), this extract was subjected to chromatographic separation and isolation. Four non-phenolic compounds were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analyses: 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxy-triaconta-3,12-dienoate)-glycerol (1), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (2), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3,23,28-triol (3), and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-acid-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (4). The four compounds were evaluated as antioxidant agents using the three antioxidant bioassay tests.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase, hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Neelesh Kumar; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra Kumar; Mukherjee, Pulok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a valuable herb described in Ayurveda, is used in the indigenous system of medicine as a tonic to treat skin diseases. Centella asiatica methanol extract and its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction, were subjected for the evaluation of skin care potential through the in vitro hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory assay. The C. asiatica plant was extracted with methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The enzymatic activities were evaluated using ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as standards. Isolate molecule asiaticoside was quantified in the crude extract and fractions through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and structural was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Isolated compound was also evaluated for in vitro enzyme assays. Extract exhibited anti-hyaluronidase and anti-elastase activity with IC₅₀ of 19.27 ± 0.37 and 14.54 ± 0.39 µg/mL, respectively, as compared to ursolic acid. Centella asiatica n-butanol fraction (CAnB) and isolated compound showed significant hyaluronidase (IC₅₀ = 27.00 ± 0.43 and 18.63 ± 0.33 µg/mL) and elastase (IC₅₀ = 29.15 ± 0.31 and 19.45 ± 0.25 µg/mL) inhibitory activities, respectively, and also showed significant MMP-1 inhibition (p asiatica may be a prospective agent for skin care.

  14. Complete sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of the human tapeworm, Taenia asiatica (Platyhelminthes; Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, H K; Lee, K H; Kim, K H; Hwang, U W; Eom, K S

    2005-06-01

    The complete Taenia asiatica mitochondrial genome was amplified by long extension polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) to yield overlapping fragments that were then completely sequenced. The whole mitochondrial genome was 13 703 bp long and contained 12 protein-encoding, 2 ribosomal RNA (small and large subunits), 22 transfer RNA genes and a short non-coding region. Thus, its gene contents are like those typically found in metazoan animal mitochondrial genomes (apart from the absence of atp8). All the genes were transcribed from the same strand. The 3' end 34 bp region of nad4L overlapped with the 5' end portion of nad4. The tRNA genes were 61-69 bp long, and the secondary structures of 18 tRNAs had typical clover-leaf shapes with paired DHU arms. However, trnC, trnS1, trnS2 and trnR had unpaired DHU arms that were 7-12 bp in length. The tRNAs that transferred serine lacked a DHU arm, as is also observed in a number of parasitic platyhelminths and metazoans. However, the trematode trnRs have paired DHU arms. The T. asiatica mtDNA non-coding region was like that in other cestodes since it was composed of a short non-coding region of 72 nucleotides and a long non-coding region of 176 nucleotides separated by a trnL1/, trnS2/, trnL2/, trnR/, nad5 gene cluster. The sequences of the cox1 genes between T. asiatica and T. saginata differ by 4.6%, while the T. asiatica cob gene differs by 4.1% and 12.9% from the cob genes of T. saginata and T. solium, respectively. In conclusion, the T. asiatica mitocondrial genome should provide a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of parasitic cestodes.

  15. Factors affecting the content of pentacyclic triterpenes in Centella asiatica raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttarak, P; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2012-12-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly, asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside are the active constituents of Centella asitica (L.) Urban. (Apiaceae). These compounds possess various pharmacological activities that have been shown to assist with wound healing and brain enrichment. Determination of these active pentacyclic triterpenes in extracts from the various parts of C. asiatica plants harvested at different times of the year and grown in different environments. The separate plant parts selected were leaves, stolons, petioles, flowers, fruits, and nodes with roots. Dried powder from each part was extracted with ethanol by microwave-assisted extraction and subjected to determination of their content of the four pentacyclic triterpenes using a HPLC method. The effects of the places of cultivation as well as harvesting periods on the content of the four pentacyclic triterpenes in the extracts were also determined. Among the various parts of C. asiatica, the leaves contained the highest amount of pentacyclic triterpenes with a total content of pentacyclic triterpenes of 19.5 mg/g dry powder. However, the contents of the pentacyclic triterpenes in C. asiatica varied according to the place of cultivation and the harvesting period. C. asiatica collected from Trang, Thailand gave the highest content of total pentacyclic triterpenes (37.2 mg/g dry powder) when harvested in March, while those collected from Songkhla, Thailand gave the highest value (37.4 mg/g dry powder) when collected in December. C. asiatica collected from Nakornsrithammarat and Ratchaburi, Thailand gave the lowest content of total pentacyclic triterpenes in all experimental harvesting periods.

  16. UJI AKTIVITAS TRAKEOSPASMOLITIK EKSTRAK ETANOL Centella asiatica (L. URB. PADA ORGAN TERPISAH TRAKEA MARMUT UNTUK MELIHAT EFEK ANTIASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Bachtiar Moerad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Asma merupakan penyakit inflamasi kronik saluran nafas yang ditandai dengan terjadinya hiperesponsif saluran nafas dan penyempitan saluran nafas secara reversibel. Asma hingga kini masih merupakan masalah kesehatan utama di dunia. Pemberian obat-obatan anti asma merupakan penatalaksanaan penyakit tersebut. Namun demikian terdapat masalah efek samping obat dan masalah biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk pembelian obat tersebut, apalagi asma merupakan penyakit kronis yang memerlukan pengobatan jangka panjang. Dengan demikian maka perlu pengembangan obat antiasma berbasis tumbuhan obat dengan biaya yang lebih terjangkau dan efek samping yang lebih sedikit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji potensi ekstrak etanol Centella asiatica (L. Urb. yang secara tradisional digunakan etnis Dayak sebagai obat batuk. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat aktivitas trakeospasmolitik ekstrak etanol C. asiatica pada organ terpisah trakea marmut untuk melihat efek antiasma. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ekstrak C. asiatica memiliki aktivitas trakeospasmolitik yang signifikan jika dibandingkan dengan kontrol negatif. Meskipun nilai E maks C. asiatica lebih rendah daripada aminofilin, namun nilai EC50 tidak jauh berbeda dengan aminofilin sebagai kontrol positif. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah ekstrak etanol C. asiatica memiliki efek antiasma berdasarkan aktivitas trakeospasmolitiknya.   Kata kunci: Centella asiatica, spasmolitik, organ terpisah trakea

  17. Genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica from Thailand and other geographical locations as revealed by cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj; Thaenkham, Urusa; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Phuphisut, Orawan; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pubampen, Somjit; Sanguankiat, Surapol

    2013-02-01

    Twelve 924 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mitochondrial DNA sequences from Taenia asiatica isolates from Thailand were aligned and compared with multiple sequence isolates from Thailand and 6 other countries from the GenBank database. The genetic divergence of T. asiatica was also compared with Taenia saginata database sequences from 6 different countries in Asia, including Thailand, and 3 countries from other continents. The results showed that there were minor genetic variations within T. asiatica species, while high intraspecies variation was found in T. saginata. There were only 2 haplotypes and 1 polymorphic site found in T. asiatica, but 8 haplotypes and 9 polymorphic sites in T. saginata. Haplotype diversity was very low, 0.067, in T. asiatica and high, 0.700, in T. saginata. The very low genetic diversity suggested that T. asiatica may be at a risk due to the loss of potential adaptive alleles, resulting in reduced viability and decreased responses to environmental changes, which may endanger the species.

  18. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  19. Synergistic combinations of five single drugs from Centella asiatica for neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinjin; Jiang, Hui; Ding, Xianting

    2017-01-01

    To identify alternatives of nerve growth factor, which could promote NF68 protein expression and contribute toward neuronal differentiation, five compounds namely: asiatic acid, madecassic, madecassoside, quercetin, and isoquercetin, obtained from Centella asiatica, were examined for their neuronal differentiation effects on PC12 cells. C. asiatica has been applied as an effective herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including depression. According to a statistical design of experiments, both single compound and compound combinations were evaluated. A further statistical analysis indicated quantitative interactions between these five single compounds and led to the identification of the optimal drug combinations. Asiatic acid and madecassic appeared to show profound synergistic effects on neurofilaments expression in vitro. The optimized drug combinations were significantly more potent than single drugs and further investigation suggested that the optimal drug combination could be an analogue of nerve growth factor and could represent a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Neuroprotective properties of Madecassoside from Centella asiatica after hypoxic-ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu Qing; Xie, Yong Sheng; Meng, Qing Wen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Madecassoside is one of increasingly used constituent of Centella asiatica, a frequently prescribed crude drug in South eastern Asia and China for wound healing. In the present experiment, it exposes the neuroprotective nature of Madecassoside in GT1-7 cell lines, further, which the antioxidant activities are performed. The cellular toxicity was assessed using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay with increased cell viability with IC 50 2.5µg/ml. the regulation of antioxidant levels showed changes in madecassoside treated cell lysate viz., SOD assay. Also, the antioxidative assays confirmed the negligible cellular damage caused to the GT1-7 cell lines. Hence, the results advocate that the current antioxidant and antitumor activity be justified by the high concentration of phenolic constituents, primarily the triterpene present in the C. asiatica.

  1. Evaluation of antiemetic activities of alcoholic extract of grewia asiatica in experimental model dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqeen, Z.; Shail, T.; Rahman, A.U.; Saleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The fruits of Grewia asiatica were evaluated for the antiemetic activity in the experimental model dogs, whereas, acute oral toxicity test was carried out in mice and rats. Maximum oral dose of 200 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of crude alcoholic extract was found non toxic in mice and rats. Oral dose of crude alcoholic extract (120 mg/kg body weight) caused antiemetic effect in dogs in 3 h and controlled emesis centrally induced by Apomorphine (0.044 mg/kg body weight). This activity of G asiatica was comparable with standard commercial anti-emctic drugs like Maxolon (Metoclopramide) and Largactil tablets 10 mg (Chlorpromazine) of M/s. Aventis Pharma., Pakistan. (author)

  2. The efficacy and side effects of oral Centella asiatica extract for wound healing promotion in diabetic wound patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paocharoen, Veeraya

    2010-12-01

    To study clinical efficacy and side effects of the oral Centella asiatica extract capsule in the diabetic wound healing. And to study the side effects of Centella asiatica extract capsule. This prospective randomized control study enrolled two hundred diabetic patients in the department of Surgery, Thammasat University Hospital. The exclusion criterion were low immune patients, oral steroid intake, age more than 80 year and less than 18 yeas, serum albumin less than 3.0 gm/dl, uncorrected peripheral arterial diseased patients, and uncontrolled infective wound. The termination criterion were patient refusal, wound infection, delayed primary sutured wound secondary healing wound. The patients were divided into two groups randomly, groupA was Centella asiatica extract capsule group and group B was placebo group. Centella asiatica extract capsule and placebo were prescribed in each group under the random sheet. The administration was 2 capsules after meal, three times a day (50 mg of extracted asiaticoside / capsule in group A). The general symptoms, wound characteristics, wound size and depth were examined at day 7, day 14 and day 21 by the same investigator. The demographic data of the sample were analyzed by student t test and comparative wound characteristics were analyzed by Pearson Chi-Square test. Wound contraction in the study group is better than placebo group but granulation tissue forming is better in the placebo group. No serious adverse reaction in both groups. Centella asiatica extract capsule is the Thai herb preparation capsule that effective in the wound healing promotion and also suppress the scar in diabetic wound patients. There was no demonstrable serious side effect of the Centella asiatica extract capsule group. Centella asiatica extract capsule can shorten the course of diabetic wound and can be prescribed to the diabetic patients safely.

  3. In vitro and In vivo Antioxidant, Anti-hyperlipidemic Properties and Chemical Characterization of Centella asiatica (L.) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sima; Deori, Meetali; Elancheran, R.; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds present in Centella asiatica (L.) (C. asiatica) extract and evaluate the respective antioxidant potential as well as its cholesterol-lowering effects in the experimental animal model. Herein, the antioxidant potential of extracts was assessed by its free radical scavenging activity such as 2, 2-diphenyl -1- picrylhydrazyl as well as reducing capability. The anti-hyperlipidemic effects of C. asiatica extract (CAE) were evaluated in high cholesterol-fed (HCF) rats for 4 weeks, where different concentrations of extracts (0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg/day) were orally administrated daily. Lipid and antioxidant profiles, including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), together with the indices of hepatic functions were also examined. C. asiatica revealed excellent free radical scavenging activity as revealed by 2-2- diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, with the IC50 values (9.62 ± 0.88 μg/mL). Furthermore, C. asiatica extracts and fenofibrate remarkably lowered the level of TC, TG, LDL-C, and showed elevated levels of HDL-C, SOD. The histopathological observations further demonstrated clear differentiation and structural changes in liver of HCF and CAE treated group. Furthermore, gulonic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, and asiatic acid were identified to be the major components which might be responsible for the antioxidant activity of the C. asiatica extract as evidenced from an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometer. Taken together, these results signifies the excellent antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic properties of C. asiatica leaf extracts, which might be useful for the treatment of oxidative-stress related diseases such as hyperlipidemia. PMID:27840607

  4. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant, anti-hyperlipidemic properties and chemical characterization of Centella asiatica (L. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Kumari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the phenolic compounds present in Centella asiatica (L. (C. asiatica extract and evaluate the respective antioxidant potential as well as its cholesterol-lowering effects in the experimental animal model. Herein, the antioxidant potential of extracts was assessed by its free radical scavenging activity such as 2, 2-diphenyl -1- picrylhydrazyl as well as reducing capability. The antihyperlipidemic effects of C. asiatica extract (CAE were evaluated in high cholesterol-fed (HCF rats for 4 weeks, where different concentrations of extracts (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/kg/day were orally administrated daily. Lipid and antioxidant profiles, including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and superoxide dismutase (SOD, together with the indices of hepatic functions were also examined. C. asiatica revealed excellent free radical scavenging activity as revealed by DPPH assay, with the IC50 values (9.62 ± 0.88 μg/mL. Furthermore, C. asiatica extracts and fenofibrate remarkably lowered the level of TC, TG, LDL-C, and showed elevated levels of HDL-C, SOD. The histopathological observations further demonstrated clear differentiation and structural changes in liver of HCF and CAE treated group. Furthermore, gulonic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, and asiatic acid were identified to be the major components which might be responsible for the antioxidant activity of the C. asiatica extract as evidenced from an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS. Taken together, these results signifies the excellent antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic properties of C. asiatica leaf extracts, which might be useful for the treatment of oxidative-stress related diseases such as hyperlipidemia.

  5. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Indian Pennywort Centella asiatica (L. Urban in Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Devi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the plant parasitic nematodes associated with Centella asiatica (L. Urban was conducted in different localities of Manipur. Twenty one species of plant parasitic nematodes belonging to 12 genera were found to occur. Tylenchorhynelms mashhoodi, Aphelenchus avenae and Helicotylenchus dihystera were predominant with absolute densities ranging from 338 - 498 per 500g soil. Basiria varians and T.mashhoodi were recorded with highest absolute frequency and absolute density respectively.

  6. An investigation of arsenic contamination in Peninsular Malaysia based on Centella asiatica and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, G H; Yap, C K; Maziah, M; Suhaimi, H; Tan, S G

    2013-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to provide data of arsenic (As) levels in Peninsular Malaysia based on soil samples and accumulation of As in Centella asiatica collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia. The second objective was to assess the accumulation of As in transplanted C. asiatica between control and semi-polluted or polluted sites. Four sites were selected which were UPM (clean site), Balakong (semi-polluted site), Seri Kembangan (semi-polluted site) and Juru (polluted site). The As concentrations of plant and soil samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The As levels ranged from 9.38 to 57.05 μg/g dw in soils, 0.21 to 4.33 μg/g dw in leaves, 0.18 to 1.83 μg/g dw in stems and 1.32-20.76 μg/g dw in roots. All sampling sites had As levels exceeding the CCME guideline (12 μg/g dw) except for Kelantan, P. Pauh, and Senawang with P. Klang having the highest As in soil (57.05 μg/g dw). In C. asiatica, As accumulation was highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. When the As level in soils were higher, the uptake of As in plants would also be increased. After the transplantation of plants to semi-polluted and polluted sites for 3 weeks, all concentration factors were greater than 50 % of the initial As level. The elimination factor was around 39 % when the plants were transplanted back to the clean sites for 3 weeks. The findings of the present study indicated that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are ideal biomonitors of As contamination. The present data results the most comprehensive data obtained on As levels in Malaysia.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of two important memory enhancing medicinal plants Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Harsahay; Pandey, Hemant Kumar; Pandey, Pankaj; Arya, Mahesh Chand; Ahmed, Zakwan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Free radicals or highly reactive oxygen species are capable of inducing oxidative damage to human body. Antioxidants are the compounds which terminate the attack of reactive species and reduce the risk of diseases. Both Baccopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are used in treatment of brain disorders in humans and have almost similar effects. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the antioxidant properties of two well-known memory enhancer medicinal plants Baccopa mon...

  8. Moisturizing and Antiinflammatory Properties of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Centella asiatica Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ratz-?yko, A.; Arct, J.; Pytkowska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica extract is a rich source of natural bioactive substances, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenic steroids, amino acids and sugars. Thus, many scavenging free radicals, exhibit antiinflammatory activity and affect on the stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations (oil-in-water emulsion cream and hydrogel) contain...

  9. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  10. Effect of Centella asiatica on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Shu, Ping; Zhang, Youzhi; Lin, Limin; Zhou, Haihong; Xu, Zhentian; Suo, Daqin; Xie, Anzhi; Jin, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3) of the ethanol extract (CAE) of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties.

  11. Effect of Centella asiatica on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Metabolism in Hyperlipidemic Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia and many other metabolic diseases are related to oxidative stress. Centella asiatica is a traditional Chinese medicine whose antioxidant effect in vitro has been reported. We are interested in whether it possesses this effect in vivo and hence modulates lipid metabolism. Therefore, experiments were carried out on mice and golden hamsters regarding its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect. We observed that a fraction (CAF3 of the ethanol extract (CAE of Centella asiatica had a cholesterol decrease of 79% and a triglyceride decrease of 95% in acute mice model, so CAF3 was further investigated in high-fat-fed hamster model. It was shown that CAF3 increased SOD and GSH-Px activities and decreased MDA level, and it also improved TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, AST, and ALT levels. L-CAT and SR-BI gene expression in hamsters were increased. Taken together, our data suggest that the CAF3 fraction of Centella asiatica has antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties.

  12. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Sung Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour. Spreng. (Lamiaceae and C. asiatica (L. Urban (Umbelliferae were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9% showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness.

  13. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness.

  14. Erosion and Soil Contamination Control Using Coconut Flakes And Plantation Of Centella Asiatica And Chrysopogon Zizanioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Rasyikin; Che Omar, Rohayu; Nor Zuliana Baharuddin, Intan; Zulkarnain, M. S.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Land degradation in Malaysia due to water erosion and water logging cause of loss of organic matter, biodiversity and slope instability but also land are contaminated with heavy metals. Various alternative such as physical remediation are use but it not showing the sustainability in term of environmental sustainable. Due to that, erosion and soil contamination control using coconut flakes and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides are use as alternative approach for aid of sophisticated green technology known as phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Soil from cabonaceous phyllite located near to Equine Park, Sri Kembangan are use for monitoring the effect of phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control. Five laboratory scale prototypes were designed to monitor the effect of different proportion of coconut flakes i.e. 10%, 25%, 50% & 100% and plantation of Centella asiatica and Chrysopogon zizanioides to reduce the top soil from eroding and reduce the soil contamination. Prototype have been observe started from first week and ends after 12 weeks. Centella asiatica planted on 10% coconut flakes with 90% soil and Chrysopogon zizanioides planted on 25% coconut flakes with 75% soil are selected proportion to be used as phytoremediation and mycoremediation in reducing soil contamination and biotechnology for erosion control.

  15. A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Nyuk Jet; Aziz, Zoriah

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to assess the efficacy of Centella asiatica for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). We searched 13 electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of Centella asiatica for CVI. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risks of bias of included studies and extracted data. The treatment effects of similar studies were pooled whenever appropriate. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooling of data of similar studies showed that Centella asiatica significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response. Three out of the eight studies did not provide quantitative data. However, these studies reported that patients treated with Centella asiatica showed significant improvement in CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. Our results show that Centella asiatica may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of CVI but this conclusion needs to be interpreted with caution as most of the studies were characterised by inadequate reporting and thus had unclear risks of bias, which may threaten the validity of the conclusions. PMID:23533507

  16. Centella asiatica and Its Fractions Reduces Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Quinolinic Acid and Sodium Nitroprusside in Rat Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Naiani Ferreira; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Froeder, Amanda L F; Busanello, Alcindo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix A A; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in several pathologies including neurological disorders. Centella asiatica is a popular medicinal plant which has long been used to treat neurological disturbances in Ayurvedic medicine. In the present study, we quantified of compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and examined the phenolic content of infusion, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, we analyzed the ability of the extracts from C. asiatica to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) radical as well as total antioxidant activity through the reduction of molybdenum (VI) (Mo(6+)) to molybdenum (V) (Mo(5+)). Finally, we examined the antioxidant effect of extracts against oxidant agents, quinolinic acid (QA) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), on homogenates of different brain regions (cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus). The HPLC analysis revealed that flavonoids, triterpene glycoside, tannins, phenolic acids were present in the extracts of C. asiatica and also the phenolic content assay demonstrated that ethyl acetate fraction is rich in these compounds. Besides, the ethyl acetate fraction presented the highest antioxidant effect by decreasing the lipid peroxidation in brain regions induced by QA. On the other hand, when the pro-oxidant agent was SNP, the potency of infusion, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions was equivalent. Ethyl acetate fraction from C. asiatica also protected against thiol oxidation induced by SNP and QA. Thus, the therapeutic potential of C. asiatica in neurological diseases could be associated to its antioxidant activity.

  17. Beneficial effects of Centella asiatica aqueous extract against arsenic-induced oxidative stress and essential metal status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, S J S; Gupta, Richa

    2007-10-01

    The efficacy of an aqueous extract of Centella asiatica (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days) was studied in the depletion of arsenic and in the recovery of a few altered biochemical variables in arsenic pre-exposed rats (20 ppm in drinking water for 5 weeks). Exposure to arsenic significantly depleted delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activity in red blood cells. Significant depletion of ALAD activity, GSH level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and catalase (CAT) activities and an increase in TBARS levels in liver tissues was also noted. There was a significant depletion of SOD, CAT and GPx activities in kidneys and an increased TBARS levels in kidney and brain accompanied by increased arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues. Treatment with aqueous extract of Centella asiatica provided significant protection against ALAD, GSH and TBARS levels, particularly at doses of 200 and 500 mg. Centella asiatica also provided significant recovery in the inhibited liver ALAD and G6PD activities. Arsenic concentration in blood and soft tissues remained uninfluenced after Centella asiatica administration. The present study thus suggests a beneficial effect of Centella asiatica against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but possesses no chelating property.

  18. Positive modulation of cognition and mood in the healthy elderly volunteer following the administration of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Mator, Lugkana; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Pasuriwong, Orapin; Piyawatkul, Nawanant; Yimtae, Kwanchanok; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Singkhoraard, Jintana

    2008-03-05

    Centella asiatica has a reputation to restore decline cognitive function in traditional medicine and in animal model. However, little evidence regarding the efficacy of Centella asiatica from systematized trials is available. Therefore, the present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of Centella asiatica on cognitive function of healthy elderly volunteer. Twenty-eight healthy elderly participants received the plant extract at various doses ranging 250, 500 and 750 mg once daily for 2 months. Cognitive performance was assessed using the computerized test battery and event-related potential whereas mood was assessed using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales prior to the trial and after single, 1 and 2 months after treatment. The results showed that the high dose of the plant extract enhanced working memory and increased N100 component amplitude of event-related potential. Improvements of self-rated mood were also found following the Centella asiatica treatment. Therefore, the present findings suggest the potential of Centella asiatica to attenuate the age-related decline in cognitive function and mood disorder in the healthy elderly. However, the precise mechanism(s) underlying these effects still require further investigation.

  19. A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyuk Jet Chong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess the efficacy of Centella asiatica for improvement of the signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. We searched 13 electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of Centella asiatica for CVI. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed the risks of bias of included studies and extracted data. The treatment effects of similar studies were pooled whenever appropriate. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooling of data of similar studies showed that Centella asiatica significantly improved microcirculatory parameters such as transcutaneous partial pressure of CO2 and O2, rate of ankle swelling and venoarteriolar response. Three out of the eight studies did not provide quantitative data. However, these studies reported that patients treated with Centella asiatica showed significant improvement in CVI signs such as leg heaviness, pain and oedema. Our results show that Centella asiatica may be beneficial for improving signs and symptoms of CVI but this conclusion needs to be interpreted with caution as most of the studies were characterised by inadequate reporting and thus had unclear risks of bias, which may threaten the validity of the conclusions.

  20. Effects of acute gamma irradiation on physiological traits and flavonoid accumulation of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Philip, Elizabeth

    2011-06-17

    In the present study, two accessions of Centella asiatica (CA03 and CA23) were subjected to gamma radiation to examine the response of these accessions in terms of survival rate, flavonoid contents, leaf gas exchange and leaf mass. Radiation Sensitivity Tests revealed that based on the survival rate, the LD(50) (gamma doses that killed 50% of the plantlets) of the plantlets were achieved at 60 Gy for CA03 and 40 Gy for CA23. The nodal segments were irradiated with gamma rays at does of 30 and 40 Gy for Centella asiatica accession 'CA03' and 20 and 30 Gy for accession 'CA23. The nodal segment response to the radiation was evaluated by recording the flavonoid content, leaf gas exchange and leaf biomass. The experiment was designed as RCBD with five replications. Results demonstrated that the irradiated plantlets exhibited greater total flavonoid contents (in eight weeks) significantly than the control where the control also exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents in the sixth week of growth; 2.64 ± 0.02 mg/g DW in CA03 and 8.94 ± 0.04 mg/g DW in CA23. The total flavonoid content was found to be highest after eight weeks of growth, and this, accordingly, stands as the best time for leaf harvest. Biochemical differentiation based on total flavonoid content revealed that irradiated plantlets in CA23 at 20 and 30 Gy after eight weeks contained the highest total flavonoid concentrations (16.827 ± 0.02; 16.837 ± 0.008 mg/g DW, respectively) whereas in CA03 exposed to 30 and 40 Gy was found to have the lowest total flavonid content (5.83 ± 0.11; 5.75 ± 0.03 mg/g DW). Based on the results gathered in this study, significant differences were found between irradiated accessions and control ones in relation to the leaf gas. The highest PN and gs were detected in CA23 as control followed by CA23 irradiated to 20Gy (CA23G20) and CA23G30 and the lowest PN and gs were observed in CA03 irradiated to 40Gy (CA03G40). Moreover, there were no significant differences in

  1. Effect of Centella asiatica Leaf Extract on the Dietary Supplementation in Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Faisal, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The role of Centella asiatica L. leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS) in the neurons. The leaf extract was prepared in acetone and was subjected to GC-MS analysis. C. asiatica extract at final concentration of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 μL/mL was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed feeding on it for 24 days. The effect of extract was studied on the climbing ability, activity pattern, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, glutathione content, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in the brains of transgenic Drosophila. The exposure of extract to PD model flies results in a significant delay in the loss of climbing ability and activity pattern and reduced the oxidative stress (P asiatica leaf extract is potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25538856

  2. Centella asiatica protects against UVB-induced HaCaT keratinocyte damage through microRNA expression changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan; Choe, Tae-Βoo; Kang, Sang-Μo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, In-Chul; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Su-Jae; Bae, Seunghee

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) against ultraviolet B (UVB) damage in human keratinocytes using microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling analysis. Titrated extract of C. asiatica (TECA) demonstrated low cytotoxicity in normal human HaCaT keratinocytes only at low doses (<5 µg/ml). UVB (50 mJ/cm2) irradiation significantly decreased cell viability, and TECA treatment decreased the UVB toxicity. By using miRNA microarrays, we determined that 72 miRNAs had an altered expression following TECA treatment in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (46 upregulated and 26 downregulated). Using an miRNA target gene prediction tool and Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, we determined that miRNAs with altered expression were functionally related with the inhibition of apoptosis and cell proliferation. Overall, these results provide meaningful information to facilitate the understanding of TECA-mediated UVB protection in human keratinocytes.

  3. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of malate dehydrogenase gene of Taenia saginata asiatica and immunogenicity analysis of the recombinant protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Wu, Xuan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xin-Bing; Bao, Huai-En; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Liao, Xing-Jiang

    2008-08-01

    To clone and express the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene of Taenia saginata asiatica and analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein. By screening the full length cDNA plasmid library, the coding region of LDH was amplified with PCR, and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a (+), then expressed in E. coli BL21 with IPTG induction. The recombinant protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography, and its immunogenicity was analyzed by Western blotting. PCR, double enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing confirmed that the recombinant expression plasmid was constructed. The expression products were obtained and purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography. Western blotting analysis of LDH recombinant protein testified that the recombinant protein could be recognized by sera of the Taenia saginata asiatica infected swine and the patient. The LDH gene of Taenia saginata asiatica has been cloned and expressed, and the purified protein has been confirmed with immunogenicity.

  4. Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID mice and its infectivity in human and alternative definitive hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S L; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M; Kanai, Y; Ooi, H K; Chung, W C; Oku, Y

    2005-05-01

    Development of Taenia saginata asiatica metacestodes in SCID mice, and its infectivity in humans, golden hamsters, and Mongolian gerbils as alternative definitive hosts, were investigated. Cysticerci were recovered from SCID mice that were subcutaneously injected with hatched oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. The morphological changes of metacestodes were observed. The recovered cysticerci were fed to gerbils, hamsters and humans, to check for their infectivity. Tapeworms were recovered from gerbils and hamsters fed with 20 to 45 week-old cysticerci, and proglottids excretions were observed in human volunteers fed with 45 week-old cysticerci. However, no tapeworms were recovered from gerbils fed with 10 week-old cysticerci. Our results suggest that T. s. asiatica oncospheres needed more than 20 weeks to develop to maturity in SCID mice to be infective to both their natural and alternative definitive hosts.

  5. Modulation of gamma radiation induced changes in the weight of spleen and thymus by centella asiatica pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Radha; Jaimala

    2003-01-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn) is a medicinal plant widely used in several Ayurvedic preparations. Pretreatment of swiss albino mice with Centella asiatica one hour before irradiation with a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight protected the animal from death by way of reducing the histopathological changes and loss of weight of the spleen and thymus against radiation. In irradiated animals (6 and 8 Gy) the reduction in the weight of spleen and thymus was significantly higher and recovery was slower in comparison to animals pretreated with Centella asiatica. It might be due to the increased cell population in the spleen and thymus of the animal pretreated with the plant extract or plant extract might have inhibited the cell death caused by radiation. (author)

  6. Global changes in gene expression during compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp., is one of the most important food and forage legumes in the semi-arid tropics. While most domesticated forms of cowpea are susceptible to the root parasitic weed Striga gesnerioides, several cultivars have been identified that show race-specific resistance. Cowpea cultivar B301 contains the RSG3-301 gene for resistance to S. gesnerioides race SG3, but is susceptible to race SG4z. When challenged by SG3, roots of cultivar B301 develop a strong resistance response characterized by a hypersensitive reaction and cell death at the site of parasite attachment. In contrast, no visible response occurs in B301 roots parasitized by SG4z. Results Gene expression in the roots of the cowpea cultivar B301 during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (resistant) interactions with S. gesnerioides races SG4z and SG3, respectively, were investigated at the early (6 days post-inoculation (dpi)) and late (13 dpi) stages of the resistance response using a Nimblegen custom design cowpea microarray. A total of 111 genes were differentially expressed in B301 roots at 6 dpi; this number increased to 2102 genes at 13 dpi. At 13 dpi, a total of 1944 genes were differentially expressed during compatible (susceptible) interactions of B301 with SG4z. Genes and pathways involved in signal transduction, programmed cell death and apoptosis, and defense response to biotic and abiotic stress were differentially expressed in the early resistance response; at the later time point, enrichment was primarily for defense-related gene expression, and genes encoding components of lignifications and secondary wall formation. In compatible interactions (B301 – SG4z), multiple defense pathways were repressed, including those involved in lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall modifications, while cellular transport processes for nitrogen and sulfur were increased. Conclusion Distinct changes in global gene expression profiles occur in host roots

  7. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Centella asiatica is partly mediated by carbohydrase inhibition and glucose-fiber binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ashraf Ul; Samad, Mehdi Bin; D'Costa, Ninadh Malrina; Akhter, Farjana; Ahmed, Arif; Hannan, J M A

    2014-01-18

    Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) was previously reported to have anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal diabetic model rats. However, its activity on organ and tissue level remains unstudied. Our study aims at exploring the possible effects, C. asiatica extract and insoluble fiber has on carbohydrate absorption, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization. For primary evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic activity, we measured Fasting Blood Glucose and performed Glucose Tolerance Test, in type 2 diabetic rats. To further study the pancreatic effect and glucose utilization, plasma insulin concentration, insulin secreted from isolated rat islets and liver glycogen were assayed. Effect on carbohydrate break down was assayed using intestinal disaccharidase enzyme, α-amylase inhibition assays and Six-Segment study of the GI tract. Effect of C. asiatica on glucose absorption was studied by an in-situ, perfused, intestinal model in rats and by glucose-fiber binding assay. Gastrointestinal motility was seen by a BaSO4 milk traverse test. Additionally, a complete lipid profile assay, after a chronic study, was conducted. C. asiatica showed no significant change in insulin secretion in-vivo and in isolated rat islets. Additionally, no effect of the extract was seen on liver glycogen deposition. Retarded glucose absorption was seen in the in-situ perfused rat intestinal model at a dose. The extract was also found to inhibit action of both intestinal disaccharidase and α-amylase. This was confirmed, yet again, via the Six Segment study, where sucrose digestion was found to be inhibited throughout the length of the GI Tract. Significant glucose-fiber binding was demonstrated in the in-vitro models. During the chronic study, body mass of C. asiatica treated Type 2 diabetic rats returned to normal and their polydipsic and polyphagic conditions were also improved. Chronic treatment of C. asiatica also improved subject's lipid profile. A combination of in-vitro, in

  8. Characterization of Nanoencapsulated Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale Extract Using Combination of Malto Dextrin and Gum Arabic as Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliana, Y.; Harmami, S. B.; Restu, W. K.

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated nanoencapsulation of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract. The encapsulated extract was used as a complex matrix of multi-layered interfacial membranes between malto dextrin and gum Arabic. Characterization of nanoencapsulation using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and BET surface area (SA) showed the morphology, functional group and cumulative adsorption in the surface area of pores. The TEM image of the nanoencapsulated powders of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract showed a nearly spherical shape with the particle size of 664 nm from its average radius.

  9. Effects of metal-contaminated soils on the accumulation of heavy metals in gotu kola (Centella asiatica) and the potential health risks: a study in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ghim Hock; Wong, Ling Shing; Tan, Ai Li; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica is a commonly used medicinal plant in Malaysia. As heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants which are highly consumed by human is a serious issue, thus the assessment of heavy metals in C. asiatica is important for the safety of consumers. In this study, the heavy metal accumulation in C. asiatica and the potential health risks were investigated. Samples of C. asiatica and surface soils were collected from nine different sites around Peninsular Malaysia. The concentration of six heavy metals namely Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined by air-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The degree of anthropogenic influence was assessed by calculating the enrichment factor (EF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The heavy metal uptake into the plant was estimated through the calculation of translocation factor (TF), bioconcentration factor (BCF) and correlation study. Estimated daily intakes (EDI) and target hazard quotients (THQ) were used to determine the potential health risk of consuming C. asiatica. The results showed that the overall surface soil was polluted by Cd, Cu and Pb, while the uptake of Zn and Ni by the plants was high. The value of EDI and THQ showed that the potential of Pb toxicity in C. asiatica was high as well. As heavy metal accumulation was confirmed in C. asiatica, daily consumption of the plant derived from polluted sites in Malaysia was not recommended.

  10. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of florfenicol for treatment of Francisella asiatica infection in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Endris, Richard G; Hawke, John P

    2010-11-01

    Francisella asiatica is a recently described, Gram-negative, facultative intracellular fish pathogen, known to be the causative agent of francisellosis in warm-water fish. Francisellosis outbreaks have increased in frequency among commercial aquaculture operations and have caused severe economic losses in every case reported. The lack of effective treatments for piscine francisellosis led us to investigate the potential efficacy of florfenicol for inhibition of F. asiatica in vitro and as an oral therapeutic agent in vivo. The MIC of florfenicol for F. asiatica, as determined by the broth dilution method, was 2 μg/ml, which indicates its potential efficacy as a therapeutic agent for treatment of francisellosis. The intracellular susceptibility of the bacterium to florfenicol in tilapia head kidney-derived macrophages (THKDM) was also investigated. Addition of florfenicol to the medium at 10 μg/ml was sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial loads in the THKDM in vitro. Cytotoxicity assays done in infected THKDM also demonstrated drug efficacy in vivo, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of LDH released from infected THKDM were significantly lower in macrophages treated with florfenicol (P florfenicol/kg of fish body weight for 10 days, and the feeding was initiated at either 1, 3, or 6 days postchallenge. Immersion challenges resulted in 30% mean percent survival in nontreated fish, and fish receiving medicated feed administered at 1 and 3 days postinfection showed higher mean percent survival (100% and 86.7%, respectively). A significant decrease (P florfenicol is administered during early stages of infection, it has the potential for effectively treating piscine francisellosis, including the capacity for intracellular penetration and bacterial clearance.

  11. Metabolic alteration in obese diabetes rats upon treatment with Centella asiatica extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidiani; Abas, F; Khatib, A; Perumal, V; Suppaiah, V; Ismail, A; Hamid, M; Shaari, K; Lajis, N H

    2016-03-02

    'Pegaga' is a traditional Malay remedy for a wide range of complaints. Among the 'pegaga', Centella asiatica has been used as a remedy for diabetes mellitus. Thus, we decided to validate this claim by evaluating the in vivo antidiabetic property of C. asiatica (CA) on T2DM rat model using the holistic (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach. In this study, an obese diabetic (mimic of T2DM condition) animal model was developed using Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat diet and induced into diabetic condition by the treatment of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The effect of C. asiatica extract on the experimental animals was followed based on the changes observed in the urinary and serum metabolites, measured by (1)H NMR of urine and blood samples collected over the test period. A long-term treatment of obese diabetic rats with CA extract could reverse the glucose and lipid levels, as well as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acid metabolic disorders, back towards normal states. Biochemical analysis also showed an increase of insulin production in diabetic rats upon treatment of CA extract. This study has provided evidence that clearly supported the traditional use of CA as a remedy for diabetes. NMR-based metabolomics was successfully applied to show that CA produced both anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects on a rat model. In addition to increasing the insulin secretion, the CA extract also ameliorates the metabolic pathways affected in the induced diabetic rats. This study further revealed the potential usage of CA extract in managing diabetes mellitus and the results of this work may contribute towards the further understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of this herbal remedy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Two new cholinesterase inhibitors asiatoates A and B from Buddleja asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Khan, Hidayat Ullah; Afzal, Masood; Samad, Abdul; Khan, Shafi Ullah; Ali, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    Two new benzoates, asiatoate A (1) and asiatoate B (2), have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Buddleja asiatica whole plant. Their structures were elucidated with the help of spectroscopic data. Both showed significant inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butylcholinesterase (BChE) in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of compounds 1-2 were 5.54 and 8.34 μM against AChE while 30.94 and 35.94 μM against BChE, respectively.

  13. Use of ex vitro composite plants to study the interaction of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) with the root parasitic angiosperm Striga gesnerioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important grain and forage legume grown throughout sub-Saharan Africa primarily by subsistence farmers on poor, drought prone soils. Genetic improvement of the crop is being actively pursued and numerous functional genomics studies are underway aimed at characterizing gene controlling key agronomic characteristics for disease and pest resistances. Unfortunately, similar to other legumes, efficient plant transformation technology is a rate-limiting step in analysis of gene function in cowpea. Results Here we describe an optimized protocol for the rapid generation of transformed hairy roots on ex vitro composite plants of cowpea using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We further demonstrate the applicability of cowpea composite plants to study gene expression involved in the resistance response of the plant roots to attack by the root parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides. The utility of the new system and critical parameters of the method are described and discussed herein. Conclusions Cowpea composite plants offer a rapid alternative to methods requiring stable transformation and whole plant regeneration for studying gene expression in resistance or susceptibility responses to parasitic weeds. Their use can likely be readily adapted to look at the effects of both ectopic gene overexpression as well as gene knockdown of root associated defense responses and to the study of a broader range of root associated physiological and aphysiological processes including root growth and differentiation as well as interactions with other root pests, parasites, and symbionts. PMID:22741546

  14. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  15. Protective role of Centella asiatica on lead-induced oxidative stress and suppressed reproductive health in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath, S B; Meena, R; Supriya, Ch; Reddy, K Pratap; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2011-09-01

    Centella asiatica has been mentioned in ancient ayurvedic text of the Indian system of medicine for its properties to promote intelligence. The objective of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effects of C. asiatica on lead-induced oxidative stress and suppressed reproductive performance in male rats. Significant decrease in the weights of testes and epididymis were observed in lead treated animals. Exposure to lead acetate significantly increased malondialdehyde levels with a significant decrease in the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the liver, brain, kidneys and testes of rats. Epididymal sperm count, viable sperms, motile sperms and HOS-tail coiled sperms decreased significantly in lead-exposed rats. Testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities also decreased significantly in lead-exposed rats. No significant changes in the selected reproductive variables were observed in the plant extract alone treated rats. Whereas, co-administration of aqueous extracts of C. asiatica to lead exposed rats showed a significant increase in the weights of reproductive organs, reduction in lead-induced oxidative stress in the tissues and improvement in selected reproductive parameters over lead-exposed rats indicating the beneficial role of C. asiatica to counteract lead-induced oxidative stress and to restore the suppressed reproduction in male rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Relative Toxicity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against Mosquito Vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Sekhar Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The larvicidal activity of different solvent leaf extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, and methanol of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against two geographically different strains of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was investigated. The extracts were tested against the late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, and larval mortality was observed after 24 hours of treatment. LC50 and LC90 were calculated. The LC50 values of hexane extract of Eucalyptus globulus against the late third instar larvae of the BSN and JPN strains of Aedes aegypti and the DLC and KNG strains of Anopheles stephensi were 225.2, 167.7, 118.8, and 192.8 ppm, while those of the hexane extract of Centella asiatica were 246.5, 268.7, 50.6, and 243.5 ppm, respectively. The LC50 values of diethyl ether extract of Centella asiatica were 339.6, 134.5, 241, and 14.7 ppm. The hexane extracts of both plants and the diethyl ether extract of C. asiatica presented the highest potential for the control of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The present findings also reveal the necessity of assaying multiple strains of a species to fully comprehend the larvicidal efficacy of a compound.

  17. Effects of dietary Centella asiatica (L.) Urban on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood composition in piglets vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneewan, Chamroon; Mekbungwan, Apichai; Charerntantanakul, Wasin; Yamauchi, Kohsho; Yamauchi, Koh-en

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of Centella asiatica (L.) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood composition in piglets, 32 nursery pigs were fed 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% dietary C. asiatica (L.) from 15 to 90 kg BW. At 30 kg BW, nutrient digestibility was measured and at 35 kg BW piglets were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Hematological parameters were checked at 40 and 80 kg BW. Compared with the control, growth performance was not affected. The ether extract, ash and calcium digestibility were lower at 0.5%, and dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, phosphorus and energy digestibility were lower at 1.0% (Phyopneumoniae did not differ except that at 40 kg the cholesterol of 0.5% was lower (Phyopneumoniae-specific antibodies tended to be higher with increasing levels of C. asiatica (L.) (Pmycoplasma immunity to M. hyopneumoniae might suggest that C. asiatica (L.) has no function to elevate body weight but has the potential to enhance innate immunity. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Enrichment and purification of madecassoside and asiaticoside from Centella asiatica extracts with macroporous resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guangtao; Lu, Xiuyang

    2008-06-06

    In present study, the performance and separation characteristics of five macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of asiaticoside and madecassoside from Centella asiatica extracts have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of total triterpene saponins (80% purity) on macroporous resins including HPD100, HPD300, X-5, AB-8 and D101 have been compared. According to our results, HPD100 offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for asiaticoside and madecassoside than other resins. Column packed with HPD100 resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize the separation process of asiaticoside and madecassoside from C. asiatica extracts. After the treatment with gradient elution on HPD100 resin, the content of madecassoside in the product increased from 3.9 to 39.7%, and the recovery yield was 70.4%; for asiaticoside the content increased from 2.0 to 21.5%, and the recovery yield was 72.0%. The results showed that HPD100 resin revealed a good ability to separate madecassoside and asiaticoside, and the method can be referenced for the separation of other triterpene saponins from herbal raw materials.

  19. Anxiolytic effects of standardized extract of Centella asiatica (ECa 233) after chronic immobilization stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanasuntronwong, Aree; Tantisira, Mayuree H; Tantisira, Boonyong; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2012-09-28

    Centella asiatica has long been used for various neurological disturbances in Southeast Asian countries. The present study aims to demonstrate the anxiolytic effect of ECa 233, a standardized extract of C. asiatica containing triterpenoids not less than 80%, in comparison to diazepam. The test compound was given orally to non-stressed mice and mice subjected to chronic immobilization stress. Anxiolytic effect was assessed by an elevated plus maze (EPM), a dark-light box and an open-field tests. Anxiolytic effect of ECa 233 was clearly demonstrated in non-stressed mice subjected to acute stress in all behavioral tests employed. In the EPM test, chronically stressed mice showed significant decrease in the number of open arm entries, shortening the time spent in open arms and an increase of the latency to leave the central area, suggesting their release from the stress. In addition, ameliorating effect of ECa 233 was observed on the body weight and serum corticosterone which were adversely affected by immobilization stress. Madecassoside and asiaticoside, equal to their respective contents of the effective doses of ECa 233, exclusively presented anxiolytic effects in EPM, while no distinct effect was observed on the body weight and serum corticosterone. The present study demonstrated anxiolytic effect of ECa 233 in both acutely and chronically stressed animals. These effects could be mainly accounted by madecassoside and asiaticoside, suggesting a possible use of ECa 233 for the treatment of both acute and chronic anxiety in the pathological state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Centella asiatica Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Aβ-Exposed Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Jonathan A.; Matthews, Donald G.; Caruso, Maya; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2017-01-01

    Centella asiatica has been used for centuries to enhance memory. We have previously shown that a water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) protects against the deleterious effects of amyloid-β (Aβ) in neuroblastoma cells and attenuates Aβ-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Yet, the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW has yet to be thoroughly explored in neurons from these animals. This study investigates the effects of CAW on neuronal metabolism and oxidative stress in isolated Aβ-expressing neurons. Hippocampal neurons from amyloid precursor protein overexpressing Tg2576 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were treated with CAW. In both genotypes, CAW increased the expression of antioxidant response genes which attenuated the Aβ-induced elevations in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation in Tg2576 neurons. CAW also improved mitochondrial function in both genotypes and increased the expression of electron transport chain enzymes and mitochondrial labeling, suggesting an increase in mitochondrial content. These data show that CAW protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Aβ-exposed hippocampal neurons which could contribute to the beneficial effects of the extract observed in vivo. Since CAW also improved mitochondrial function in the absence of Aβ, these results suggest a broader utility for other conditions where neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction occurs. PMID:28883904

  1. Centella asiatica modulates antioxidant and mitochondrial pathways and improves cognitive function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E; Harris, Christopher J; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2016-03-02

    This study investigates the cognitive enhancing effects of the plant Centella asiatica which is widely used Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) on cognitive ability as well as mitochondrial and antioxidant response pathways in vivo. Old and young C57BL/6 mice were treated with CAW (2mg/mL) in their drinking water. Learning and memory was assessed using Morris Water Maze (MWM) and then tissue was collected and gene expression analyzed. CAW improved performance in the MWM in aged animals and had a modest effect on the performance of young animals. CAW also increased the expression of mitochondrial and antioxidant response genes in the brain and liver of both young and old animals. Expression of synaptic markers was also increased in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, but not in the cerebellum of CAW-treated animals. These data indicate a cognitive enhancing effect of CAW in healthy mice. The gene expression changes caused by CAW suggest a possible effect on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes could contribute to cognitive improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Histopatologi Ginjal Tikus Putih Akibat Pemberian Ekstrak Pegagan(Centella asiatica Peroral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Ratna Suhita

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan merupakan tanaman herbal  yang sering dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat Indonesia sebagai obat alternatif untuk mengobati berbagai macam penyakit. Penelitian tentang toksisitas tanaman pegagan pada ginjal belum pernah dilakukan.Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya perubahan histopatotogi pada ginjal tikus putih setelah pemberian ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica peroral.Tikus putih (Rattus norvegicussebanyak 30 ekordibagi secara acak menjadi lima kelompok, kelompok A sebagai control (placebo yang diberi aquades peroral; kelompok B yang diberikan ekstrak pegagan 100 mg/kg bb (0,2 ml/ekor; kelompok C yang diberikan ekstrak pegagan dosis 200 mg/kg bb (0,4 ml/ekor; kelompok D yang diberikan 300 mg/kg bb (0,6 ml/ekor; dan kelompok E yang diberikan ekstrak pegagan dosis 400 mg/kg bb (0,8 ml/ekor.Nekropsi untuk pengambilan organ ginjal dilakukan pada hari ke-9.Jaringan ginjal selanjutnya diproses untuk pembuatan preparat histopatologi dengan pewarnaan Hemaktosilin Eosin (HE.Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologi pada ginjal tikus putih yang diberikan ekstrak pegagan, tidak ditemukan adanya degenerasi melemak, degenerasi hidrofik, dan nekrosis baik pada kontrol (placebo maupun pemberian dosis 0,2  ml; 0,4 ml; 0,6 ml; 0,8 ml.Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwapemberian ekstrak pegagan (Centella asiatica dengan rentang dosis 100 mg/kg bb sampai dengan dosis 400 mg/kg bb selama 9 hari, tidak menyebabkan gangguan histopatologi pada organ ginjal tikus putih (Rattus novegicus.

  3. New phenomenon in early development of sporelings in Gracilaria asiatica Chang et Xia (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengjuan; Wang, Aihua; Liu, Jidong; Duan, Delin

    2006-12-01

    Study on the early development of sporelings from carpospores of Gracilaria asiatica Chang et Xia was conducted indoors under controlled culture conditions. Besides normal development of sporelings, a new developmental phenomenon of filamentous frond was observed. It was composed of one or two rows of cells, and took place from the outmost brim of the basal disc. During the early disc stage of germinated carpospores, one or two filamentous fronds formed on about 10% basal discs. Simultaneously, young fronds began to arch slightly from the centers of single and coalescent discs; lately more filamentous fronds up to 80% appeared on the brims of basal discs. Meanwhile one or more upright fronds protuberated on the basal discs. Generally, filamentous fronds exhibited in self-existence or co-existence forms with normal young sporelings on the same basal disc, and single cell detached from filamentous fronds developed into a new filamentous frond. This new phenomenon exhibited a unique differentiation pathway during the early development of G. asiatica, which would be potential for the application in artificial sporelings nursery.

  4. Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, K S; Rim, H J

    2001-12-01

    In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs. leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea.

  5. Infection of normal C3H/HeN mice with Taenia saginata asiatica oncospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shih-Yi; Chu, Tzu-Hui; Wang, I-Chuang; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Tsaihong, John Chin; Huang, Jason C; Fan, Ping-Chin

    2009-04-01

    Normal C3H/HeN female mice were used to develop an animal model of Taenia saginata asiatica oncosphere infection. The host cellular immune response in this model was analyzed by a cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cytokine ELISA) and flow cytometry. Tumor-like cysts containing cysticerci were recovered from the inoculation sites of female mice 7 weeks postinfection with the T. saginata asiatica oncospheres. A sharp increase and sustained elevation in the ability of spleen cells to produce interferon-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 revealed that cellular immunity played an important role during the infection. An immediate increase in the levels of IL-6 at 1 week postinfection indicated the induction of a local acute inflammatory response. However, no significant change in the levels of IL-10 indicated that Th2 cells were not involved in this immune response. The patterns of cell distribution revealed by flow cytometry also supported the same finding. These results suggested that Th1 cells played a major role in the immune response in C3H/HeN mice during the early stages of the oncosphere infection and that the Th2 response was not induced during the stage of cysticercus formation.

  6. Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N'cho, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: rice; weed; weed management practices, adoption, impact, parasitic weeds; Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Striga asiatica; Striga hermonthica, double hurdle model; multivariate probit, productivity, stochastic frontier analysis, data

  7. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production.

  8. The aphrodisiac effect and toxicity of combination Piper retrofractum L, Centella asiatica, and Curcuma domestica infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Rahmawati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum L merupakan salah satu tanaman yang diketahui memiliki efek stimulan pada tubuh. Dari penelitian pendahuluan diketahui bahwa dalam bentuk infusa, LD50 nya rendah dan termasuk bahan yang tidak toksik. Infusa pada tikus putih dengan dosis 2,1 mg/10 gram berat badan mempunyai efek androgenik dan anabolik. Alkaloid utama dalam buah cabe jawa yang diduga merupakan senyawa aktif berkhasiat afrodisiaka adalah piperin. Pegagan (Centella asiatica dan temulawak (Curcuma domestica berfungsi sebagai bahan tambahan pendukung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui toksisitas dan efek afrodisiaka infus ramuan buah cabe jawa, pegagan, dan temulawak pada tikus jantan. Metode: Parameter efek afrodisiaka dilihat dari frekuensi introduction, climbing, dan coitus tikus jantan dibandingkan kontrol serta kadar hormon testosteron sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Toksisitas subkronik ditentukan dari kadar SGOT, SGPT, ureum, dan kreatinin sebelum dan sesudah pemberian infusa ramuan selama 3 bulan.Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang signifi kan parameter frekuensi climbing dan coitus antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok yang diberi infusa ramuan (P=0,032. Sementara pemberian infusa ramuan Piper retrofractum L., Centella asiatica, dan Curcuma domestica tidak menyebabkan perbedaan yang signifi kan kadar hormon testosteron tikus jantan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Pemberian infusa ramuan dosis tinggi (5000 mg/200g BB menyebabkan perubahan yang signifi kan kadar SGOT, SGPT dan ureum tikus kelompok perlakuan.Kesimpulan: Infusa ramuan cabe jawa, pegagan, dan temulawak memiliki efek afrodisiaka pada libido tikus jantan galur SD dan pemberian ramuan dosis 5000mg/200g BB tikus setiap hari selama 3 bulan berturut-turut menyebabkan peningkatan yang signifi kan kadar SGOT, SGPT, dan ureum tikus. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:19-22 Kata kunci: afrodisiaka, toksisitas, Piper retrofractum LAbstractIntroduction: Piper retrofractum L

  9. Morphology of Leaves and Content of Secondary Metabolites Asiaticoside in Some Accession of Pegagan (Centella Asiatica L. Urban) in North Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Vinolina, Noverita Sprinse; Siregar, Luthfi A. M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to observe morphology of leaves and content of asiaticoside in some accessions of Centella asiatica of lowland Sumatera Utara, Medan and Pantai Labu Deli Serdang and the highlands of Sumatera Utara, Berastagi, Kabanjahe and Samosir. The study also examines the link between altitude grow with the content of asiaticoside of Centella asiatica. Domestication research include: exploration and collection. This activity is carried out to collect Centella asiatic...

  10. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez, Luis M; Bailo, Bego?a; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Garc?a, Maria D Fernandez; Harrison, Leslie JS; Parkhouse, Michael RE; McManus, Donald P; G?rate, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HD...

  11. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  12. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  13. Asiaticoside, a component of Centella asiatica, inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ku Jung; Bae, Seunghee; Kim, Karam; An, In Sook; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, Sungkwan; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2014-07-01

    Melanogenesis is the process of generating pigmentation via melanin synthesis and delivery. Three key enzymes, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1) and TRP2, metabolize melanin from L-tyrosine. Melanin synthesizing enzymes are regulated by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). The titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) contains the major components asiatic acid, asiaticoside and madecassic acid. The present study revealed that TECA reduces the melanin content in melanocytes. Moreover, the asiaticoside contained in TECA modulated melanogenesis by inhibiting tyrosinase mRNA expression. The decrease in tyrosinase mRNA levels was mediated through MITF. Uniquely, asiaticoside inhibited MITF by decreasing its DNA binding affinity. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that asiaticoside treatment may have beneficial effects in hyperpigmentation diseases or for skin whitening.

  14. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fresh Leaf Extract of Centella asiatica and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Le Dai; Luan, Nguyen Dinh Tung; Ngoc, Dao Duy Hong; Anh, Phan Tuan; Bao, Vo-Van Quoc

    The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. In the present study, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from fresh leaf extract of Centella asiatica (LEC). UV-Vis spectrum for silver colloids contains a strong plasmon band near 425nm, which confirms the formation of nanoparticles. The experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles are formed easily in the extract at ambient temperature. The resulting silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in the spherical form and the average size of the nanoparticles was in the range from 3nm to 30nm. From the above silver nanoparticles, we were taken up to investigate the effects of various concentrations of AgNPs on growth, development and yield of peanut plants. The results of the present experiment showed that the optimized concentration of AgNPs of the good germination, growth and pod yield of peanut plant is 5ppm.

  15. Chemical structures, production and enzymatic transformations of sapogenins and saponins from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerad, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal herb traditionally used in Asiatic countries for its multiple therapeutic properties, essentially due to its accumulation of specific pentacylic triterpenoid saponins, mainly asiaticoside and madecassoside and the corresponding sapogenins. This review summarizes the updated knowledge about the chemical structures of about forty centelloids, found as minor metabolites in Centella, and all derived from ursane and oleane ring patterns. Similarly, the most recent genetic and enzymatic features involved in their biosynthesis is reviewed, in relation with their biotechnological production developed, either from in vitro plant cultures or undifferentiated cells, in order to be independent of natural sources and to provide a continuous and reliable source of centelloids. Finally, a short survey of the biotransformations of some centelloids, either in animal, human or microorganisms is reviewed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. State of the art of Taenia solium as compared to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisser, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Three species of tapeworms infect humans in their adult stage (Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica). The 3 are flat, opaque white or yellowish, and exceptional long segmented parasites, measuring 1 to 12 m in their adult stage. In this review, the development of the knowledge regarding the first species, mainly focused on understanding how the larval stage or cysticercus is transmitted to humans, is described. The second species is a cosmopolitan parasite that only causes taeniosis and not cysticercosis; therefore, it will not be included. Information on the third species, which is presently being produced, since this species was recognized as such only at the end of the 20th century, will be discussed at the end of this review.

  17. Development of Taenia asiatica cysticerci to infective stage and adult stage in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S L; Ooi, H K; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M; Oku, Y

    2006-09-01

    The development of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia asiatica in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were observed. Cysticerci were recovered from gerbils subcutaneously injected with hatched oncospheres. The recovery rate ranged from 0.1 to 3.2%. No cysticerci were recovered from the orally inoculated gerbils. The infectivity of the cysticerci recovered at 48 weeks post-infection was evaluated. Tapeworms were recovered on day 14 post-infection from the small intestine of 5 of 11 gerbils, with a recovery rate of 27% (6 worms recovered/22 worms inoculated). Three and four adult worms were recovered from two human volunteers who ingested five cysticerci after 4 months post-infection. In worms recovered from gerbils, segmentation and genital primordia in the posterior proglottids and hooklets in the residual rostellum were observed. The results indicate that gerbils can serve as an alternative intermediate host and that partial development of the adult worm stage occurs in gerbils.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of fatty acids of buddleja asiatica by GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.; Ali, I.; Bibi, H.; Malik, A.

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the fatty acid contents of Buddleja asiatica Lour,both the non-volatile oil and fat obtained from the n-hexane soluble sub- fraction were subjected to GC/MS using BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifloroacetamide) derivatization. The oil showed the presence of six fatty acids including palmitic acid (46.75 %), linoleic acid (37.80 %), stearic acid (10.98 %), arachidic acid, margaric acid and lignoceric acid (< 3 %) . Analysis of the fat revealed nine fatty acids including lignoceric acid (43.12 %), behenic acid (26.39 %), arachidic acid (9.29 %) and stearic acid (5.3 %). Cerotic acid, montanic acid, melissic acid and palmitic acid were found in low amounts (< 5 %) while trycosylic acid (4.83 %) was the only fatty acid with odd number of carbon atoms. The oil showed a low thermal stability. (author)

  19. In vivo antinociceptive and muscle relaxant activity of leaf and bark of Buddleja asiatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkatullah, -; Ibrar, Muhammad; Ikram, Nazia; Rauf, Abdur; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Bawazeer, Saud; Khan, Haroon; Pervez, Samreen

    2016-09-01

    The current study was designed to assess the antinociceptive and skeleton muscle relaxant effect of leaves and barks of Buddleja asiatica in animal models. In acetic acid induced writhing test, pretreatment of ethanolic extract of leaves and barks evoked marked dose dependent antinociceptive effect with maximum of 70% and 67% pain relief at 300mg/kg i.p. respectively. In chimney test, the ethanolic extract of leaves and barks evoked maximum of 66.66% and 53.33% muscle relaxant effect after 90min of treatment at 300mg/kg i.p respectively. In traction test, the ethanolic extract of leaves and barks caused maximum of 60% and 73.33% muscle relaxant effect after 90min of treatment at 300mg/kg i.p respectively. In short, both leaves and barks demonstrated profound antinociceptive and skeleton muscle relaxant effects and thus the study provided natural healing agents for the treatment of said disorders.

  20. Stimulatory Effects of Acibenzolar-S-Methyl on Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Efficient N.; Steenkamp, Paul A.; Madala, Ntakadzeni E.; Dubery, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica is a perrenial herb that grows in tropical regions with numerous medicinal properties mostly attributed to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids. Interestingly, this plant also possess a significant amount of phenylpropanoid-derived chlorogenic acids (CGAs) that have recently been reported to confer neuroprotective properties. In a biotechnological attempt to increase the biosynthesis of CGA-derivatives in cultured Centella cells, acibenzolar-S-methyl was applied as a xenobiotic inducer in combination with quinic acid and shikimic acid as precursor molecules. Applying a semi-targeted metabolomics-based approach, time and concentration studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of the manipulation on cellular metabolism leading to CGA production. Phytochemical extracts were prepared using methanol and analyzed using a UHPLC-qTOF-MS platform. Data was processed and analyzed using multivariate data models. A total of four CGA-derivatives, annotated as trans-5-feruloylquinic acid, 3,5 di-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonylquinic acid (irbic acid) and 3-caffeoyl, 5-feruloylquinic acid, were found to be upregulated by the acibenzolar-S-methyl treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the induction of CGA derivatives in this species. Contrary to expectations, the effects of precursor molecules on the levels of the CGAs were insignificant. However, a total of 16 metabolites, including CGA derivatives, were up-regulated by precursor treatment. Therefore, this study shows potential to biotechnologically manipulate C. asiatica cells to increase the production of these health beneficial CGAs. PMID:27733862

  1. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Taenia saginata: comparison with T. solium and T. asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Eom, Keeseon S

    2007-09-01

    The complete sequence of the Taenia saginata mitochondrial genome was determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The mitochondrial genome was 13,670 bp long, contained 12 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, a small and a large subunit), and 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs). It did not encode the atp8 gene. Overlapping regions were found between nad4L and nad4, nad1 and trnN, and cox1 and trnT. The ATG initiation codon was used for 10 protein-coding genes, and the GTG initiation codon was used for the remaining 2 genes (nad4 and atp6). The size of the protein-coding genes of the three human Taenia tapeworms did not vary, except for Taenia solium nad1 (891 aa) and nad4 (1212 aa) and Taenia asiatica cox2 (576 aa). The tRNA genes were 57-75 bp long, and the predicted secondary structures of 18 of these genes had typical clover-leaf shapes with paired dihydrouridine (DHU) arms. The genes in all human Taenia tapeworms for the two mitochondrial rRNA subunits rrnL and rrnS are separated by trnC. The putative T. saginata rrnL and rrnS are 972 and 732 bp long, respectively. The non-coding regions of the mt genome of T. saginata consisted of 2 regions: a short non-coding region (SNR, 66 nucleotides) and a long non-coding region (LNR, 159 nucleotides). The overall sequence difference in the full mitochondrial genome between T. saginata and T. asiatica was 4.6%, while T. solium differed by 11%. In conclusion, the complete sequence of the T. saginata mitochondrial genome will serve as a resource for comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic studies of the parasitic cestodes.

  2. Stimulatory Effects of Acibenzolar-S-methyl on Chlorogenic Acids Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efficient N Ncube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica is a perennial herb that grows in tropical regions with numerous medicinal properties, mostly attributed to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids. Interestingly, this plant also possess a significant amount of phenylpropanoid-derived chlorogenic acids (CGAs that have recently been reported to confer neuroprotective properties. In a biotechnological attempt to increase the biosynthesis of CGA-derivatives in cultured Centella cells, acibenzolar-S-methyl was applied as a xenobiotic inducer in combination with quinic acid and shikimic acid as precursor molecules. Applying a semi-targeted metabolomics-based approach, time and concentration studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of the manipulation on cellular metabolism leading to CGA production. Phytochemical extracts were prepared using methanol and analysed using a UHPLC-qTOF-MS platform. Data was processed and analysed using multivariate data models. A total of four CGA-derivatives, annotated as trans-5-feruloylquinic acid, 3,5 di-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl-4-O-malonylquinic acid (irbic acid and 3-caffeoyl, 5-feruloylquinic acid, were found to be upregulated by the acibenzolar-S-methyl treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the induction of CGA derivatives in this species. Contrary to expectations, the precursor molecules had very little effects on the levels of the CGAs. However, a total of 16 metabolites, including CGA derivatives, were up-regulated by precursor treatment. Therefore, this study shows potential to biotechnologically manipulate C. asiatica cells to increase the production of these health beneficial CGAs.

  3. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Chloroform and Methanol Extracts of Centella asiatica Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guria, Tanmoy; Singha, Tanushree; Maity, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of active constituents with wide range of pharmacological actions have been reported with Centella asiatica. The present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its leaf extracts. Dried leaves were defatted with petroleum ether and extracted with chloroform and methanol. Both chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for analgesic activity through tail clip, tail flick, tail immersion, and writhing assay tests at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg using Swiss albino mice. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory assay was performed by carrageenan induced paw edema of methanol extract at 100 and 200 mg doses in Wistar albino rat. Dextropropoxyphene and indomethacin were employed as a standard for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. Our present study demonstrated that Centella asiatica bears significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in those models. PMID:24369507

  4. Hepatotoxicity associated with the ingestion of Centella asiatica Hepatotoxicidad asociada al consumo de Centella asiática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Jorge

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: hepatotoxicity due to herbal remedies is being increasingly recognized. Centella asiatica (Centella asiatica Linn Urban is commercialized for multiple conditions. Its active principles are pentacyclic triterpenic saponosides (asiaticoside, madecassoside. Clinical case studies: we present three women (61, 52 and 49 years old who developed jaundice after taking Centella asiatica for 30, 20 and 60 days. Respective laboratory tests: ALT: 1193, 1694 and 324 U/L; ALP: 503, 472 and 484 U/L; bilirubin: 4.23, 19.89 and 3.9 mg/dl. The first patient also had ASMA 1/160 and AMA 1/320. Respective pathological diagnoses: granulomatous hepatitis with marked necrosis and apoptosis; chronic hepatitis with cirrhotic transformation and intense necroinflammatory activity, and granulomatous hepatitis. All patients improved with Centella asiatica discontinuation, and ursodeoxycholic acid 10 mg/kg/day. The first patient took Centella asiatica again, with recurrence of the damage. The second one had taken this herb a year before. Conclusions: many plants synthesize hepatotoxic compounds. Germander, Skullcap and Glycyrrhizin contain di- or triterpenic active principles, which can produce hepatic injury by promoting apoptosis and altering cell membranes. We hypothesize that these mechanisms may have resulted in injuries associated with Centella asiatica. The presence of autoantibodies and granulomas also favors an immune-mediated mechanism. Ursodeoxycholic acid has anti-apoptotic properties, but we cannot rule out that Centella asiatica discontinuation alone may have resulted in patient improvement.Introducción: la hepatotoxicidad por hierbas medicinales es reconocida cada vez más frecuentemente. Centella asiática (Centella asiatica Linn Urban es comercializada para múltiples afecciones. Sus principios activos son saponósidos pentacíclicos triterpénicos (asiaticósido, madecasósido. Casos clínicos: presentamos 3 mujeres (61, 52 y 49 años que

  5. Piriformospora indica cell wall extract as the best elicitor for asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, evidenced by morphological, physiological and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jisha, S; Gouri, P R; Anith, K N; Sabu, K K

    2018-02-07

    Vascular plants synthesise a multitude of organic molecules or phytochemicals, referred to as "secondary metabolites". These molecules are involved in a variety of roles in the life span of plants, ranging from structural ones to protection. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has probably been used since prehistoric times and has been reported to have been used for various medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The plant contains several active constituents, of which the most important is asiaticoside, a triterpenoid. Asiaticoside content in C. asiatica can be enhanced by the use of biotic elicitors like Piriformospora indica. P. indica has been used as a model to study the mechanisms and evolution of mutualistic symbiosis. P. indica is similar to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in terms of plant growth promotional effects. The autoclaved fraction from P. indica (PiCWE) was found to be the most active fraction in promoting the plant biomass and asiaticoside content. To date, there are no reports on the potential role of PiCWE in enhancement of asiaticoside over the control and P. indica colonized plants, which was evidenced by the differential expression of key genes involved and final asiaticoside content along with the determination of phytohormones. Moreover, differential expression of selected miRNAs in PiCWE - C. asiatica root interactions over the control and P. indica treated C. asiatica leaf samples was also scrutinized. The important consequence of induction with PiCWE was the significant enhancement of asiaticoside in the PiCWE induced plants in comparison with the asiaticoside content in control and P. indica-C. asiatica interaction. In addition, the role of miRNAs in C. asiatica - PiCWE would enable more in-depth studies for deciphering the molecular and physiological mechanisms of the association and regulation of PiCWE - C. asiatica interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, their hybrids and other helminthic infections occurring in a neglected tropical diseases' highly endemic area in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marcello Otake; Sato, Megumi; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Waikagul, Jitra; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Sako, Yasuhito; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Yoonuan, Tipparayat; Kounnavang, Sengchanh; Kawai, Satoru; Ito, Akira; Okamoto, Munehiro; Moji, Kazuhiko

    2018-02-01

    Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%), Trichuris trichiura (27%), Ascaris spp. (14%), and Taenia spp. (4%) eggs. Serology for cysticercosis showed 6.8% positives with results varying from 3% to 14.3% in Ethnic School students and Kalouk Kao village respectively. Species-specific PCR targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 28 tapeworms, recovered from 16 patients, revealed T. solium (n = 2), T. saginata (n = 21), and T. asiatica (n = 5). Two patients were confirmed to be coinfected with T. saginata and T. asiatica, indicating the endemicity of the 3 human Taenia in Lao PDR. However, nucleotide sequencing of a nuclear DNA gene, DNA polymerase delta (pold) revealed that all the tapeworms identified as T. asiatica using mtDNA had T. saginata type allele at pold locus, demonstrating that they are not "pure T. asiatica" but the hybrid descendants between the two species, confirming the wide distribution of hybrids of T. saginata/ T. asiatica in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of several helminthic NTDs in east Savannakhet area even with conventional control measures indicates the importance to establish wide and multifaceted health programs to sustainably improve the quality of life of the populations living in these communities.

  7. Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia asiatica, their hybrids and other helminthic infections occurring in a neglected tropical diseases' highly endemic area in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Otake Sato

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most part of Southeast Asia is considered endemic for human-infecting Taenia tapeworms; Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica. However, until now there was no report of the occurrence of human cases of T. asiatica in Lao PDR. This study, conducted in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, microscopically examined a total of 470 fecal samples by Kato Katz method and found 86% of people harboring at least one helminth. Hookworms were detected in 56% of the samples besides Opisthorchis like eggs (42%, Trichuris trichiura (27%, Ascaris spp. (14%, and Taenia spp. (4% eggs. Serology for cysticercosis showed 6.8% positives with results varying from 3% to 14.3% in Ethnic School students and Kalouk Kao village respectively. Species-specific PCR targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of 28 tapeworms, recovered from 16 patients, revealed T. solium (n = 2, T. saginata (n = 21, and T. asiatica (n = 5. Two patients were confirmed to be coinfected with T. saginata and T. asiatica, indicating the endemicity of the 3 human Taenia in Lao PDR. However, nucleotide sequencing of a nuclear DNA gene, DNA polymerase delta (pold revealed that all the tapeworms identified as T. asiatica using mtDNA had T. saginata type allele at pold locus, demonstrating that they are not "pure T. asiatica" but the hybrid descendants between the two species, confirming the wide distribution of hybrids of T. saginata/ T. asiatica in Southeast Asia. The high prevalence of several helminthic NTDs in east Savannakhet area even with conventional control measures indicates the importance to establish wide and multifaceted health programs to sustainably improve the quality of life of the populations living in these communities.

  8. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene from Centella asiatica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Ratna; Patar, Lochana; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-09-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductases (HMGR) plays an important role in catalyzing the first committed step of isoprenoid biosynthesis in the mevelonic (MVA) pathway (catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to MVA) in plants. The present manuscript reports the full length cDNA cloning of HMGR (CaHMGR, GenBank accession number: KJ939450.2) and its characterization from Centella asiatica. Sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA was of 1965 bp, which had an open reading frame of 1617 bp and encoded a protein containing 539 amino-acids with a mol wt of 57.9 kDa. A BLASTp search against non-redundant (nr) protein sequence showed that C. asiatica HMGR (CaHMGR) has 65-81% identity with HMGRs from different plant species and multi-alignment comparison analysis showed the presence of two motif each corresponding to HMG-CoA-binding and NADP(H)-binding. The Conserved Domain Database analysis predicted that CaHMGR belongs to Class I hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Three-dimensional modeling confirmed the novelty of CaHMGR with a spatial structure similar to Homo sapiens (PDB id: 1IDQ8_A). Tissue Expression analysis indicates that CaHMGR is ubiquitous albeit differentially expressed among different tissues analysed, Strong expression was recorded in the nodes and leaves and low in the roots. The present investigation confirmed that nodes are vital to terpenoid synthesis in C. asiatica. Thus, the cloning of full length CDS, characterization and structure-function analysis of HMGR gene in Centella facilitate to understand the HMGR's functions and regulatory mechanisms involved in mevalonate pathway in C. asiatica at genetic level.

  9. Hemostatic chemical constituents from natural medicine Toddalia asiatica root bark by LC-ESI Q-TOF MSE

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Wenbo; Yang, Zhou; Liang, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Tang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Background Toddalia asiatica root bark as an effective hemostatic natural medicine or Chinese materia medica was applied in China for long history, its complex drug action mechanisms and unclear substance basis have been constraining the development of this drug. Results An intelligentized strategy by LC-ESI Q-TOF MSE was presented in this study for rapid identification of hemostatic chemical constituents from this natural medicine. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column (15...

  10. GC/MS analysis, antimicrobial and in vitro anti-cholinesterase activities of the essential oil from Buddleja asiatica

    OpenAIRE

    Farman Ali Khan; Abdul Khaliq Jan; Nasir Mehmood Khan; Nayab Ali Khan; Shahnaz Khan

    2015-01-01

    Buddleja asiatica essential oil from the leaves by hydrodistillation was subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometery analysis which revealed the presence of 17 constituents out of which 14 were identified as: four monoterpenes hydrocarbons, four oxygenated monoterpenes, one hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes and five oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major constituent being found was 1,8-cineole (38.1%) while β-sinensal, 1, 10-seco-1-hydroxy-calamenen-10-one and α-phellandrene were found to be in...

  11. Production of polyclonal antibody against madecassoside and development of immunoassay methods for analysis of triterpene glycosides in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassanawat, Patcharin; Putalun, Waraporn; Yusakul, Gorawit; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban consists of two major triterpene glycosides, asiaticoside (AS) and madecassoside (MA), as active components used for wound healing and enhancing memory. To produce a polyclonal antibody against madecassoside (MA-PAb) and develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Eastern blotting methods for quantitative analysis of triterpene glycosides in Centella asiatica. An ELISA method was developed using polyclonal antibody against MA. An Eastern blotting method on the PES membrane was established for determination of MA and AS. The immunoassays were validated for sensitivity, precision, specificity and accuracy. The prepared MA-PAb shows specificity to MA and AS. The measuring range of triterpene glycosides was 0.39-50 µg/mL using the ELISA method. An Eastern blotting method was developed for determining individual MA and AS, which could be detected in the range of 62.5-500 ng. The limit of detection for MA and AS was 31.25 ng. The two methods developed showed good specificity, precision, and accuracy, and also correlated with high-performance liquid chromatography. These immunoassays have several advantages that include high sensitivity as well as being rapid and facile for determination of the triterpene glycosides in C. asiatica. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Metabolomic analysis of methyl jasmonate-induced triterpenoid production in the medicinal herb Centella asiatica (L.) urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jacinda T; Tugizimana, Fidele; Steenkamp, Paul A; Dubery, Ian A

    2013-04-11

    Centella asiatica is an important source of biologically active pentacyclic triterpenoids. The enhancement of the biosynthesis of the centellosides by manipulation of associated metabolic pathways is receiving much attention. Jasmonates play critical roles in plant metabolism by up-regulating the expression of genes related to secondary metabolites. Here, we investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJa) in C. asiatica through targeted metabolomic profiling of asiaticoside and madecassoside as well as their aglycones, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. Cell suspensions were treated with 0.2 mM MeJa for 2, 4 and 6 days. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to explore induced changes in metabolite profiles, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Principal component analysis (PCA)-derived scores plots revealed clusters of sample replicates for control and treated samples at 2, 4 and 6 days while loading plots aided in identifying signatory biomarkers (asiatic acid and madecassic acid, as well as asiaticoside and madecassoside) that clearly demonstrate the variability between samples. In addition to increased biosynthesis of the targeted centelloids, other differential changes in the intracellular metabolite profiles reflected the response of the C. asiatica cells to the MeJa-treatment as a reprogramming of the metabolome.

  13. Effect of Centella asiatica Leaf Extract on the Dietary Supplementation in Transgenic Drosophila Model of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Centella asiatica L. leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS in the neurons. The leaf extract was prepared in acetone and was subjected to GC-MS analysis. C. asiatica extract at final concentration of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 μL/mL was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed feeding on it for 24 days. The effect of extract was studied on the climbing ability, activity pattern, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, glutathione content, and glutathione-S-transferase activity in the brains of transgenic Drosophila. The exposure of extract to PD model flies results in a significant delay in the loss of climbing ability and activity pattern and reduced the oxidative stress (P<0.05 in the brains of PD flies as compared to untreated PD flies. The results suggest that C. asiatica leaf extract is potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease.

  14. Metabolomic Analysis of Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Triterpenoid Production in the Medicinal Herb Centella asiatica (L. Urban

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    Ian A. Dubery

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica is an important source of biologically active pentacyclic triterpenoids. The enhancement of the biosynthesis of the centellosides by manipulation of associated metabolic pathways is receiving much attention. Jasmonates play critical roles in plant metabolism by up-regulating the expression of genes related to secondary metabolites. Here, we investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJa in C. asiatica through targeted metabolomic profiling of asiaticoside and madecassoside as well as their aglycones, asiatic acid and madecassic acid. Cell suspensions were treated with 0.2 mM MeJa for 2, 4 and 6 days. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS was used to explore induced changes in metabolite profiles, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Principal component analysis (PCA-derived scores plots revealed clusters of sample replicates for control and treated samples at 2, 4 and 6 days while loading plots aided in identifying signatory biomarkers (asiatic acid and madecassic acid, as well as asiaticoside and madecassoside that clearly demonstrate the variability between samples. In addition to increased biosynthesis of the targeted centelloids, other differential changes in the intracellular metabolite profiles reflected the response of the C. asiatica cells to the MeJa-treatment as a reprogramming of the metabolome.

  15. Seed ultrastructure and water absorption pathway of the root-parasitic plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Daniel M; Bar, Hilla; Mayer, Alfred M; Plakhine, Dina; Ziadne, Hammam; Westwood, James H; Welbaum, Gregory E

    2012-01-01

    Obligate root parasitic plants of the Orobanchaceae do not germinate unless they chemically detect a host plant nearby. Members of this family, like Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga, are noxious weeds that cause heavy damage to agriculture. In spite of their economic impact, only a few light microscopical studies of their minute seeds have been published, and there is no knowledge of their ultrastructure and of the role each tissue plays during the steps preceding germination. This paper describes the ultrastructure of Phelipanche seeds and contributes to our understanding of seed tissue function. Seeds of P. aegyptiaca were examined under light, scanning electron, transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy following various fixations and staining protocols. The results were interpreted with physiological data regarding mode of water absorption and germination stimulation. The endothelium, which is the inner layer of the testa, rapidly absorbs water. Its interconnected cells are filled with mucilage and contain labyrinthine walls, facilitating water accumulation for germination that starts after receiving germination stimuli. Swelling of the endothelium leads to opening of the micropyle. The perisperm cells underneath this opening mediate between the rhizosphere and the embryo and are likely to be the location for the receptors of germination stimuli. The other perisperm cells are loaded with lipids and protein bodies, as are the endosperm and parts of the embryo. In the endosperm, the oil bodies fuse with each other while they are intact in the embryo and perisperm. Plasmodesmata connect the perisperm cells to each other, and the cells near the micropyle tightly surround the emerging seedling. These perisperm cells, and also the proximal embryo cells, have dense cytoplasmic contents, and they seem to represent the two seed components that are actively involved in transfer of reserve nutrients to the developing seedling during germination.

  16. Ekstrak Pegagan Meningkatkan Titer Antibodi Mencit Setelah Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (CENTELLA ASIATICA EXTRACT INCREASE ANTIBODY TITER IN MICE AFTER SALMONELLA TYPHI INFECTION

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    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to find out the ability of Centella asiatica (C. asiatica in enhancing antibodyresponse of C. asiatica treated mice following Salmonella typhi (S. typhi infections. It is therefore expectedthat herbal drug such as  C. asiatica  can be used as an alternative medicine to prevent and to curesalmonellosis both in animals and human. Experimental laboratory studies were conducted usingCompletely Factorial Randomized Design. Mice were divided into four groups and they were treatedrespectively with destilated water (negative control, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg BW/day of  C. asiaticaextract. The treatment was conducted daily for two weeks  and the mice were inoculated with 105 cells/mlof  S. typhi. The antibody response were examined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAon first day, second week and fourth week  after S. typhi infections.  The result showed that treatment ofmice with C. asiatica extract significantly (p<0,05 enhanced antibody titer of Balb/c mice after S. typhiinfections. The highest antibody titer was observed at four weeks after S. typhi infections with 500 mg/kgBW/day (94,0370 ± 1,69 IU.

  17. PEMANFAATAN NAUNGAN DAN PUPUK KOTORAN SAPI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN KANDUNGAN TRITERPENOID PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica L.

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    Mustika Tripatmasari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gotu kola (Centella asiatica L. is one of the medicinal plants widespread in the tropics and subtropics. Gotu kola plant has long been used as traditional medicine to cure various diseases. One of the chemical constituent beneficial to this plant Centella asiatica is triterpenoids. The Objective of this research is to observe the effect of shade and cow manure on growth and triterpenoid content of gotu kola. The research was arranged using Split Plot Design with 2 replications. Main plot is shading level consists ie without shade (0% and shade of 30%. The subplot was the dosages of cow manure that is, without fertilizer, 20 tons/ha and 30 tons/ha. Components of growth and production observed at 4 plant selected of each plot treatment. Observations of growth include the number of leaves, number of stolon, petiole length per plant was observed at 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 and 124 days after transplanting (DAT and production components include leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight and content of triterpenoids were observed the end of the study (124 HST.  The results showed  there is interaction of shading level and cow manure with different doses on the number of leaves at the age of 84 HST observations (the highest value N0P0 = 609 leaves, stolon number of observations at age 14, 42, 56, 70, and 84 HST ( The highest value N1P0 = 49 stems, petiole length at the age of 70 HST observations (the highest value N0P0 = 14.8 cm, leaf area at the age of 124 HST observations (N1P2 = 3.92 cm2, the content of triterpenoids at the age of 124 HST observations (the highest value N0P2 = 18.00 mg / kg, but have no effect on the wet weight and dry weight. Treatment combinations reduced  number of stolon and leaves, but increased stem length and leaf area compared with control. Dosages of 30 tons / ha cow manure fertilizer gave a higher fresh weight than the other treatments.

  18. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan Campuran Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica terhadap Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemas R Notariza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radikal bebas, dalam kadar rendah atau menengah, mempunyai peran fisiologis bagi kehidupan sel tubuh. Pada konsentrasi tinggi, radikal-bebas dapat memicu stres oksidatif yang menjadi dasar patogenesis berbagai penyakit. Suplai antioksidan eksogen dibutuhkan untuk membantu kinerja antioksidan endogen dalam menangkal stres oksidatif. Ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica masing-masing diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica terhadap ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica. Kombinasi ekstrak diharapkan mampu meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan yang dihasilkan dan menurunkan dosis yang digunakan. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri melalui uji DPPH. Kandungan fitokimia ekstrak juga diuji secara kualitatif. Hasil uji kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica maupun campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica positif mengandung fitokimia berupa flavonoid dan steroid. Hasil pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa Vitamin C yang menjadi kontrol positif menunjukkan nilai EC50 sebesar 0,012 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica adalah 13,68 mg/mL, sedangkan nilai EC50 campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica adalah 39,65 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 yang lebih kecil mengindikasikan aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian, aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica.   Kata kunci: Acalypha indica; aktivitas antioksidan; Centella asiatica Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica

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    McManus Donald P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist.

  20. Characterization of the Taenia spp HDP2 sequence and development of a novel PCR-based assay for discrimination of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis M; Bailo, Begoña; Ferrer, Elizabeth; García, Maria D Fernandez; Harrison, Leslie Js; Parkhouse, Michael Re; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa

    2010-06-11

    A previously described Taenia saginata HDP2 DNA sequence, a 4-kb polymorphic fragment, was previously used as the basis for developing PCR diagnostic protocols for the species-specific discrimination of T. saginata from T. solium and for the differentiation of T. saginata from T. asiatica. The latter was shown subsequently to lack the required specificity, so we undertook genetic studies of the HDP2 sequence from T. saginata and T. asiatica to determine why, and to develop a novel HDP2-PCR protocol for the simultaneous unambiguous identification of human taeniids. Sequencing and further analysis of the HDP2 DNA fragments of 19 Asiatic isolates of T. saginata and T. asiatica indicated that the HDP2 sequences of both species exhibited clear genomic variability, due to polymorphic variable fragments, that could correspond to the non-transcribed region of ribosomal DNA. This newly observed polymorphism allowed us to develop a novel, reproducible and reliable HDP2-PCR protocol which permitted the simultaneous discrimination of all T. saginata and T. asiatica isolates examined. This species-specific identification was based on, and facilitated by, the clear size difference in amplicon profiles generated: fragments of 1300 bp, 600 bp and 300 bp were produced for T. asiatica, amplicons of 1300 bp and 300 bp being obtained for T. saginata. Control T. solium samples produced one amplicon of 600 bp with the HDP2-PCR protocol. The assay has the potential to prove useful as a diagnostic tool in areas such as South East Asia where T. saginata, T. asiatica and T. solium coexist.

  1. Development of spermatogenic cells and sperm quality after administration of pegagan extract (Centella asiatica

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    Solihati M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the development of spermatogenic cells and sperm quality after administration extracts of pegagan (Centella asiatica in various doses and duration of administration. The research was carried out with complete randomized design (CRD, consist of 16 combinations of dose and duration of treatment. Parameters measured consist of population of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, late spermatids and sperm quality (concentration, motility, abnormality. The data were processed using analysis of variance (ANOVA, and differences between treatments followed by Duncan test. The results show that both the dose and duration have very significantly (p < 0.01 affect on decreasing of late spermatid population, sperm motility and concentration, but not for population of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and sperm abnormalities. The decrease of population and quality may due to antifertility effect of pegagan, eventhough still in the normal range. It is concluded that spermatogenic cells development and sperm quality reduce after administration of pegagan extract, although infertility is not yet found up to the dose of 450 mg/kg BW for 49 days duration of administration.

  2. Pengaruh Pemberian Pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap Struktur Mikroskopis Hati Mencit Pasca Infeksi Salmonella typhi

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    Brahma Tusta Bhirawa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (pegagan merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yang memilikibanyak fungsi, salah satunya adalah sebagai imunostimulator, yang berarti dapatmerangsang tubuh untuk meningkatkan respon imun. Namun efek pegagan terhadapstruktur mikroskopis hati pasca diinfeksi Salmonella typhi (S.typhi belum pernahdilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak pegagan terhadapstruktur mikroskopis hati mencit yang diinfeksi S.typhi . Penelitian ini menggunakan 24ekor mencit jantan umur 8-12 minggu, yang dibagi menjadi 4 grup. P0 sebagai kontroldiberikan aquades, dan grup P1,P2, dan P3, masing-masing diberikan 125 mg/bb, 250kg/bb mg, 500 mg kg/bb. perlakuan diulang sebanyak 6 kali. Extrak pegagan diberikansecara oral selama 14 hari, pada hari ke 15 seluruh mencit diinfeksi dengan S.typhi,kemudian pada hari ke 14 semua mencit dinekropsi dan hati diambil untuk diprosespembuatan preparat dengan metode pewarnaan hematoxylin eosin (HE. Pengamatandilakukan terhadap gambaran mikroskopis berupa perdarahan, degenerasi vakuola, dannekrosis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan mencit yang tidak diberikan pegagan dengan mencityang diberikan pegagan dosis 125 mg/kg bb., memberikan hasil yang tidak berbeda nyataNamun mencit yang diberikan pegagan dosis 250 mg/kg bb, dan 500 mg/kg bb memberikangambaran mikroskopis yang berbeda nyata.

  3. Pengaruh Pemberian Pegagan (Centella asiatica Terhadap Gambaran Mikroskopis Ginjal Mencit yang Diinfeksi Salmonella typhi

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    Komang Ariya Hendrayana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian mengenai pengaruh pemberian pegagan (Centella asiatica terhadap gambaran mikroskopis ginjal mencit yang telah diinfeksi  Salmonella typhi. Penelitian menggunakan 24 ekor  mencit jantan berumur 8 – 12 minggu, dengan berat badan 20 – 35 gram, dibagi menjadi empat perlakuan dengan enam kali ulangan, yaitu kelompok P0 dengan pemberian aquades steril, kelompok P1 dengan pemberian pegagan 125 mg/kg bb, kelompok P2 dengan pemberian pegagan 250 mg/kg bb, dan kelompok P3 dengan pemberian 500 mg/kg bb. Setelah 14 hari seluruh mencit diinfeksi dengan S. typhi. Pada hari ke 15 dilakukan nekropsi untuk pengambilan sampel berupa ginjal dan dibuat preparat histologi. Selanjutnya dilakukan pengamatan terhadap gambaran mikroskopis yang meliputi perubahan : infiltrasi sel radang, perdarahan, degenerasi vakuola dan nekrosis. Metode pewarnaan menggunakan Haematoxylin dan Eosin (HE. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan P0 berbeda nyata dengan P1, P2, dan P3. Demikian juga dengan derajat kerusakan ginjal tersebut. Semakin tinggi dosis pegagan yang diberikan semakin berpengaruh terhadap perbaikan struktur mikroskopis ginjal.

  4. Production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells in bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of some culture conditions on production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells cultured in 5-L bioreactor. The centell cell suspension culture was conducted in 5-L bioreactor to investigate the growth and asiaticoside accumulation under various conditions. Asiaticoside content was determined by HPLC analysis. The results showed that the cell growth and asiaticoside accumulation peaked after 24 d of culture at an agitation speed of 150 r/min and aeration rate of 2.5 L/min. The cell biomass reached a maximum value of 302.45 g fresh weight (31.45 g dry weight) and growth index of 3.03 with inoculum size of 100 g. However, asiaticoside content was the highest (60.08 mg/g dry weight) when culture was initiated with an inoculum size of 50 g. The present study found the suitable conditions for growth of centella cells and their asiaticoside production in bioreactor. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Centella asiatica Leaf Extract Protects Against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-Mei; Choi, Myung-Joo; Kim, Jae Min; Cha, Kyung Hoi; Lee, Kye Wan; Park, Yu Hwa; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of Centella asiatica (gotu kola) leaf extract (CAE) against indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gastric mucosal injury was induced by the oral administration of IND to the rats after a 24 h fast. CAE (50 or 250 mg/kg) or lansoprazole (a reference drug) was orally administrated 30 min before the IND administration, and 5 h later, the stomachs were removed to quantify the lesions. Orally administered CAE significantly reduced IND-induced gastric injury. The histopathological observations (hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining) confirmed the protection against gastric mucosal injury. Also, CAE decreased the malondialdehyde content compared to the control group. Moreover, pretreatment with CAE resulted in a significant reduction in the elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor, Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggested that CAE possesses gastroprotective effects against IND-induced gastric mucosal injury, which could be attributed to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and stimulate gastric mucus secretion in the rat gastric mucosa.

  6. Centella asiatica attenuates β-amyloid-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E.; Sampath, Harini; Zweig, Jonathan A.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) attenuates β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Yet the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW is unknown. Objective The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by CAW using in vitro models of Aβ toxicity. Methods The effects of CAW on aberrations in antioxidant response, calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function induced by Aβ were evaluated in MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Results CAW decreased intracellular ROS and calcium levels elevated in response to Aβ, and induced the expression of antioxidant response genes in both cell lines. In SH-SY5Y cells, CAW increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption without altering spare capacity, and attenuated Aβ-induced decreases in mitochondrial respiration. CAW also prevented Aβ –induced decreases in ATP and induced the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins in both cell types. Caffeoylquinic acids from CAW were shown to have a similar effect on antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Primary rat hippocampal neurons treated with CAW also showed an increase in mitochondrial and antioxidant gene expression. Conclusions These data suggest an effect of CAW on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against Aβ toxicity. PMID:25633675

  7. Centella asiatica Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E; Sampath, Harini; Zweig, Jonathan A; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) attenuates amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Yet the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW is unknown. The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by CAW using in vitro models of Aβ toxicity. The effects of CAW on aberrations in antioxidant response, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial function induced by Aβ were evaluated in MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. CAW decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium levels elevated in response to Aβ, and induced the expression of antioxidant response genes in both cell lines. In SH-SY5Y cells, CAW increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption without altering spare capacity, and attenuated Aβ-induced decreases in mitochondrial respiration. CAW also prevented Aβ-induced decreases in ATP and induced the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins in both cell types. Caffeoylquinic acids from CAW were shown to have a similar effect on antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Primary rat hippocampal neurons treated with CAW also showed an increase in mitochondrial and antioxidant gene expression. These data suggest an effect of CAW on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against Aβ toxicity.

  8. Nutritional and toxicological evaluation of grewia asiatica (phalsa) powder used as a summer drink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.; Imran, H.; Saleem, N.; Rauf, M.; Yaqeen, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) is indigenous to Pakistan and is most commonly used in summer season, but it could not be kept for long. For this reason dried phalsa powder was prepared and its nutritional value was investigated to assess the numerous potential of this plant fruit. The results exhibited that the dried powder contains nutritional value (carbohydrates, protein, fat, fiber, minerals and energy) four times as compared to phalsa fruit. For acute oral toxicity test, the dried phalsa powder was tested on healthy laboratory animals in a dose of 0.45g/kg body weight and 0.90g/kg body weight and compared with the standard marketed product Tang (orange) in recommended dose. The test drink passed acute oral toxicity test showing no sign of toxicity within 72 hours claimed period. The gross behavioral observation of animals showed that the drink is energizing and CNS stimulant and no mortality was recorded during experimental period. Autopsy findings showed no gross changes. All vital organs i.e. heart, liver, spleen, lungs and kidneys were found normal as a result of which it can be concluded that during processing of fresh fruit in dried powder and addition of preservatives no hazardous material like toxins were produced. So it can be used safely. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the free radical scavenging activity and radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Krishna V; Sisodia, Rashmi [Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan-302055 (India)], E-mail: rashsisodia@yahoo.co.in

    2009-09-01

    The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (GAE) which contains anthocyanin-type cyanidin 3-glucoside, vitamins C and A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibre was studied. For the study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: (1) control (vehicle treated); (2) GAE treated (700 mg kg{sup -1} day{sup -1} for 15 days); (3) irradiated (5 Gy); (4) GAE+irradiated and (5) irradiated+GAE treated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and depletion in glutathione (GSH) and protein levels at all intervals studied, namely 1-30 days, in comparison to the control group. Treatment of mice with GAE before and after irradiation caused a significant depletion in TBARS content followed by a significant elevation in GSH and protein concentration in the intestine and testis of mice at all post-irradiation autopsy intervals in comparison to irradiated mice. Significant protection of DNA and RNA in testis was also noticed. GAE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH{sup *}) and O{sub 2}{sup -} assays and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity in protein carbonyl assay in a dose-dependent manner. The above results prove the radioprotective efficacy of GAE.

  10. Endophytic fungi from leaves of Centella asiatica: occurrence and potential interactions within leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, E F; Munaut, F; Decock, C; Randriamampionona, D; Andriambololoniaina, M; Rakotomalala, T; Rakotonirina, E J; Rabemanantsoa, C; Cheuk, K; Ratsimamanga, S U; Mahillon, J; El-Jaziri, M; Quetin-Leclercq, J; Corbisier, A M

    2008-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from leaves of Centella asiatica (Apiaceae) collected at Mangoro (middle eastern region of Madagascar, 200 km from Antananarivo). Forty- five different taxa were recovered. The overall foliar colonization rate was 78%. The most common endophytes were the non-sporulating species 1 (isolation frequency IF 19.2%) followed by Colletotrichum sp.1 (IF 13.2%), Guignardia sp. (IF 8.5%), Glomerella sp. (IF 7.7%), an unidentified ascomycete (IF 7.2%), the non-sporulating species 2 (IF 3.7%) and Phialophora sp. (IF 3.5%). Using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, major endophytes (IF > 7%) were identified as xylariaceous taxa or as Colletotrichum higginsianum, Guignardia mangiferae and Glomerella cingulata. Results from in vitro fungal disk experiments showed a strong inhibitory activity of the xylariaceous non-sporulating species 1 against G. mangiferae and C. higginsianum and of C. higginsianum against G. mangiferae. This can be explained by antagonism between dominant taxa.

  11. Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Metanol Daun Pegagan (Centella Asiatica L. Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusran Yusran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants gotu kola (Centella Asiatica L .Urban is a wild plant that efficacious as remedies traditional cure disease tuberculosis (TB.TB is disease contagious infection caused by bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis. Research aims to understand the ability extract methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green and determines the concentration optimal extract methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green and to know the comparison between extract methanol leaves gotu kola red with an extract methanol leaves gotu kola green in inhibits the activity of mycobacterium tuberculosis.Extraction done with the methods maceration use methanol and continued with evaporation until obtained extract viscous .Testing antibacterial activity done in a microscopic observation drug susceptibility ( mods use plate petri dish 24 hole with the variation of concentration ie 20%,40%, 60%, 80% and 100%.The results of testing show that extracts methanol leaves gotu kola red and leaves gotu kola green positive capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis with inhibition optimal in concentration 80 % and 100 % characterized by the absence of growth bacteria colonies which are (- or 0 %.Extract methanol leaves gotu kola green capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis better than extract methanol leaves gotu kola red seen in concentration 40% and 60%.

  12. Seed lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, I A

    1966-12-02

    Many of the newly discovered seedoil acids have reactive or unusual functional groups or other facets of molecular structure that permit their ready differentiation from oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and the other most prevalent saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. The recognition and availability of the new acids, coupled with methods that make detection and determination easy, will help studies of lipid biosynthesis in the plant and of lipid metabolism and utilization in animals, and will stimulate more studies in depth on the fine points of seedlipid structure. Correlations of structural patterns in seed lipids of particular groups of plants with classical taxonomic categories will permit clarifications, raise needed questions concerning classifications, and accelerate research in chemotaxonomy and phylogenetics. Seed lipids are particularly well suited for establishing relationships among plants because of their great variety in structure compared to the more limited structural types of amino acids, sugars, purines, and many other plant substances. The newly characterized seed oils are potentially important industrial raw materials whenever they come from agronomically promising plant species. The molecular structures of seed triglycerides have major influence on their physical properties and therefore advances in knowledge in that sphere have practical implications. For example, the unusual characteristics of cocoa butter that make it so valuable for food and confectionery use are attributed to the specific arrangement of fatty acids it its triglycerides. The glycerides are almost all 2-oleic-1,3-disaturated acid triglycerides. The physical characteristics of lard are advantageously changed by catalytically rearranging fatty acyl groups among the glycerides initially in the fat to achieve a more nearly random distribution, followed sometimes by further fractionation to remove more saturated glycerides. Through this change of glyceride structures a

  13. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  14. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Florfenicol for Treatment of Francisella asiatica Infection in Tilapia ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Endris, Richard G.; Hawke, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Francisella asiatica is a recently described, Gram-negative, facultative intracellular fish pathogen, known to be the causative agent of francisellosis in warm-water fish. Francisellosis outbreaks have increased in frequency among commercial aquaculture operations and have caused severe economic losses in every case reported. The lack of effective treatments for piscine francisellosis led us to investigate the potential efficacy of florfenicol for inhibition of F. asiatica in vitro and as an oral therapeutic agent in vivo. The MIC of florfenicol for F. asiatica, as determined by the broth dilution method, was 2 μg/ml, which indicates its potential efficacy as a therapeutic agent for treatment of francisellosis. The intracellular susceptibility of the bacterium to florfenicol in tilapia head kidney-derived macrophages (THKDM) was also investigated. Addition of florfenicol to the medium at 10 μg/ml was sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial loads in the THKDM in vitro. Cytotoxicity assays done in infected THKDM also demonstrated drug efficacy in vivo, as determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Levels of LDH released from infected THKDM were significantly lower in macrophages treated with florfenicol (P florfenicol/kg of fish body weight for 10 days, and the feeding was initiated at either 1, 3, or 6 days postchallenge. Immersion challenges resulted in 30% mean percent survival in nontreated fish, and fish receiving medicated feed administered at 1 and 3 days postinfection showed higher mean percent survival (100% and 86.7%, respectively). A significant decrease (P florfenicol is administered during early stages of infection, it has the potential for effectively treating piscine francisellosis, including the capacity for intracellular penetration and bacterial clearance. PMID:20713674

  16. Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1) untreated; (2) NSS-; (3) Tween 20®- (vehicle control); (4) hexane extract-; (5) ethyl acetate extract-; (6) methanol extract-; and (7) aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation. Results On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®), but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents β-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to be the most active

  17. Anti-quorum sensing activity of flavonoid-rich fraction from Centella asiatica L. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavi, H S; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of quorum sensing (QS), a cell-density dependent regulation of gene expression in bacteria by autoinducers is an attractive strategy for the development of antipathogenic agents. In this study, the anti-QS activity of the ethanolic extract of the traditional herb Centella asiatica was investigated by the biosensor bioassay using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. The effect of ethyl acetate fraction (CEA) from the bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanol extract on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility, and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were evaluated. Possible mechanism of QS-inhibitory action on autoinducer activity was determined by measuring the acyl homoserine lactone using C. violaceum ATCC31532. Anti-QS compounds in the CEA fraction were identified using thin layer chromatography biosensor overlay assay. Ethanol extract of C. asiatica showed QS inhibition in C. violaceum CV026. Bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanol extract revealed that CEA was four times more active than the ethanol extract. CEA, at 400 μg/mL, completely inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 without significantly affecting growth. CEA also showed inhibition of QS-regulated phenotypes, namely, pyocyanin production, elastolytic and proteolytic activities, swarming motility, and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Thin layer chromatography of CEA with biosensor overlay showed anti-QS spot with an Rf value that corresponded with that of standard kaempferol. The anti-QS nature of C. asiatica herb can be further exploited for the formulation of drugs targeting bacterial infections where pathogenicity is mediated through QS. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Wound healing activities of different extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and burn wound models: an experimental animal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somboonwong Juraiporn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of Centella asiatica for incision and burn wounds are not fully understood. Here, we report the wound healing activities of sequential hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Centella asiatica in incision and partial-thickness burn wound models in rats. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into incision and burn wound groups. Each group was stratified into seven subgroups: (1 untreated; (2 NSS-; (3 Tween 20®- (vehicle control; (4 hexane extract-; (5 ethyl acetate extract-; (6 methanol extract-; and (7 aqueous extract-treated groups. The test substances were applied topically once daily. The tensile strength of the incision wound was measured on the seventh day after wound infliction. The general appearance and degree of wound healing of the burn wound were assessed on Days 3, 7, 10 and 14 after burn injury and prior to histopathological evaluation. Results On the seventh day after wound infliction, the tensile strength of incision wound in all extract-treated groups was significantly higher than that of the vehicle control (Tween 20®, but comparable to the NSS-treated group. The degrees of healing in the burn wound with the four extracts were significantly higher than that of the control on Days 3, 10 and 14. Histopathological findings on Day 14 after burn injury revealed prominent fibrinoid necrosis and incomplete epithelialization in the control and untreated groups, whereas fully developed epithelialization and keratinization were observed in all extract-treated groups. Analysis by thin layer chromatography demonstrated that the phyto-constituents β-sitosterol, asiatic acid, and asiaticoside and madecassocide were present in the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions All extracts of Centella asiatica facilitate the wound healing process in both incision and burn wounds. Asiatic acid in the ethyl acetate extract seemed to

  19. DETERMINATION OF MICROBE CONTAMINANT IN CENTELLA ASIATICA SIMPLISIA AND EXTRACT BEFORE AND AFTER GAMMA-RAYS PASTEURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriawan Rismana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of microbe content in the Centella asiatica simplisia and extractbefore and after pasteurization process by Gamma-rays with variation of dose has been evaluated. The radiation process into the simplisia and extract significantly decreased of microbe content from > 104 to < 10 - 100 colonies. For the various radiation dose at 2.5 – 10.0 kGy, the decreased microbe content in the extract to < 10 colonies. The result showedthat the radiation to extract was more effectively than to simplisia, in the decrease of microbe contaminant. The result of TLC analysis showed that the radiation was not affected to the active compound in extract.

  20. Producción de saponinas triterpénicas en cultivos in vitro de "Centella asiatica"

    OpenAIRE

    Mangas Alonso, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Centella asiatica es una planta medicinal usada fundamentalmente para el tratamiento de afecciones de la piel como la cicatrización de heridas, tratamiento de la dermatitis o celulitis, etc. Problemas de índole geopolíticos y alteraciones en su hábitat han provocado un desabastecimiento del mercado de esta planta. Por todo ello, es necesario el desarrollo de procesos alternativos como los sistemas biotecnológicos, para conseguir la producción in vitro de centellósidos. En esta tesis se ha des...

  1. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii , Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Dutta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are naturally occurring substances that combat oxidative damage in biological entities. An antioxidant achieves this by slowing or preventing the oxidation process that can damage cells in the body. It does this by getting oxidized itself in place of the cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of four herbs viz. Trigonella foenum-graecum L, Murraya koenigii, Coriandrum sativum and Centella asiatica which have frequent use in Indian cuisine. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts have shown significant amount reducing power. Both aqueous and 95% methanol leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum had significant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.21± 0.3 mg/L and 0.176 ± 0.008 mg/L respectively. The aqueous leaf extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L showed low scavenging activity. Among all the leaf extracts, the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica has exhibited significantly high NO radical scavenging activity (80% with IC50 value of 0.11 ± 0.17 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples have showed significantly high superoxide radical scavenging activity. The activity was maximum for the aqueous leaf extract of Centella asiatica, IC50 value is 4.36 ± 0.41 mg/L. anti lipid peroxide activities were very high ( 90 % for aqueous leaf extracts of Coriandrum sativum (IC50 = 0.064 ± 0.85 mg/L and Centella asiatica (IC50 = 0.066 ± 0.9mg/L at a concentration of 0.16 mg/L. The aqueous leaf extracts of the samples were found to contain large amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exhibited high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These in vitro assays indicate that these plant extracts are significant source of natural antioxidants which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses.

  2. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  3. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  4. Plant–plant interactions mediate the plastic and genotypic response of Plantago asiatica to CO2: an experiment with plant populations from naturally high CO2 areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Marloes P.; Rietkerk, Max; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hikosaka, Kouki; Ueda, Miki U.; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) is a ubiquitous selective force that may strongly impact species distribution and vegetation functioning. Plant–plant interactions could mediate the trajectory of vegetation responses to elevated [CO2], because some plants may benefit more from [CO2] elevation than others. The relative contribution of plastic (within the plant’s lifetime) and genotypic (over several generations) responses to elevated [CO2] on plant performance was investigated and how these patterns are modified by plant–plant interactions was analysed. Methods Plantago asiatica seeds originating from natural CO2 springs and from ambient [CO2] sites were grown in mono stands of each one of the two origins as well as mixtures of both origins. In total, 1944 plants were grown in [CO2]-controlled walk-in climate rooms, under a [CO2] of 270, 450 and 750 ppm. A model was used for upscaling from leaf to whole-plant photosynthesis and for quantifying the influence of plastic and genotypic responses. Key Results It was shown that changes in canopy photosynthesis, specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal conductance in response to changes in growth [CO2] were mainly determined by plastic and not by genotypic responses. We further found that plants originating from high [CO2] habitats performed better in terms of whole-plant photosynthesis, biomass and leaf area, than those from ambient [CO2] habitats at elevated [CO2] only when both genotypes competed. Similarly, plants from ambient [CO2] habitats performed better at low [CO2], also only when both genotypes competed. No difference in performance was found in mono stands. Conclusion The results indicate that natural selection under increasing [CO2] will be mainly driven by competitive interactions. This supports the notion that plant–plant interactions have an important influence on future vegetation functioning and species distribution. Furthermore, plant performance was mainly

  5. Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against β-amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E.; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S.; Stevens, Jan F.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of Aβ accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of Aβ toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect, and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced Aβ-induced cell death and attenuated Aβ-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from Aβ-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated Aβ-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate Aβ-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability and dosing. PMID:24448790

  6. Pemberian Antanan (Centella asiatica dan Vitamin C Sebagai Upaya Mengatasi Efek Cekaman Panas pada Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusnadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available High environmental temperatures may cause heat stress in poultry. This may increase water consumption, decrease feed consumption and in turn, decrease production level. In addition, high temperature contributes to oxidative stress, a condition where oxidant activity (free radicals exceeds antioxidant activity. In this research, antanan (Centella asiatica and vitamin C were utilized as anti heat-stress agents for heat stressed broilers. The research used 120 male broilers of 2 – 6 weeks of age, kept at 31.98 ± 1.94oC poultry house temperatures during the day and 27.36 ± 1.31oC at night. The data colected were analyzed with a factorial in completely randomized design of 2 x 3 (2 levels of vitamin C, 3 levels of antanan and 4 replications and continued with contrast-orthogonal test when necessary. The result indicated that the treatments of 5% antanan (A5, 10% antanan (A10, combination of A5C, and A10C significantly (P<0.05 increased the plasma triiodothyronine hormone from 101 ng/dL to 113, 110, 121, 119 and 126 ng/dL respectively; carcass protein from 16.5% to 17.8%, 19.1%, 19.2%, 17.3% and 18.1%; feed consumption from 2711 g to 3026, 3071, 2883, 3156 and 2935 g and body weight gain from 1181 g to 1297, 1347, 1254, 1376 and 1330 g. It could be concluded that the combination of addition 5% antanan and vitamin C 600 ppm is the most effective as anti heat-stress agent in broilers.

  7. Centella asiatica attenuates Aβ-induced neurodegenerative spine loss and dendritic simplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E; Zweig, Jonathan A; Murchison, Charles; Caruso, Maya; Matthews, Donald G; Kawamoto, Colleen; Harris, Christopher J; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2017-04-12

    The medicinal plant Centella asiatica has long been used to improve memory and cognitive function. We have previously shown that a water extract from the plant (CAW) is neuroprotective against the deleterious cognitive effects of amyloid-β (Aβ) exposure in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, and improves learning and memory in healthy aged mice as well. This study explores the physiological underpinnings of those effects by examining how CAW, as well as chemical compounds found within the extract, modulate synaptic health in Aβ-exposed neurons. Hippocampal neurons from amyloid precursor protein over-expressing Tg2576 mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were used to investigate the effect of CAW and various compounds found within the extract on Aβ-induced dendritic simplification and synaptic loss. CAW enhanced arborization and spine densities in WT neurons and prevented the diminished outgrowth of dendrites and loss of spines caused by Aβ exposure in Tg2576 neurons. Triterpene compounds present in CAW were found to similarly improve arborization although they did not affect spine density. In contrast caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) compounds from CAW were able to modulate both of these endpoints, although there was specificity as to which CQAs mediated which effect. These data suggest that CAW, and several of the compounds found therein, can improve dendritic arborization and synaptic differentiation in the context of Aβ exposure which may underlie the cognitive improvement observed in response to the extract in vivo. Additionally, since CAW, and its constituent compounds, also improved these endpoints in WT neurons, these results may point to a broader therapeutic utility of the extract beyond Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of a Standardized Extract of Centella asiatica ECa 233 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukunwithaya, Tosapol; Tantisira, Mayuree H; Tantisira, Boonyong; Khemawoot, Phisit

    2017-05-01

    ECa 233, a standardized extract of Centella asiatica , has been found to exhibit various positive neurological effects and to have a good safety profile. The present study aimed to explore the disposition kinetics of ECa 233, containing madecassoside (53.1 %) and asiaticoside (32.3 %), in rats. The extract was intravenously or orally administered at doses from 50 to 200 mg/kg. Plasma, tissues, urine, and feces were collected at time points from 0 to 48 h after dosing. The levels of madecassoside and asiaticoside, as well as their postulated triterpenic metabolites, madecassic acid and asiatic acid, in biological samples, were simultaneously measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that all animals had a good tolerability for ECa 233, whereas madecassic and asiatic acids were found in negligible amounts after pharmacokinetic assessment. Madecassoside and asiaticoside demonstrated rather similar absorption and tissue distribution profiles. They were rapidly absorbed, reaching maximum levels within 5-15 min after oral administration, but they had poor oral bioavailability, less than 1 %. Both triterpenoids were extensively distributed in the brain, stomach, and skin within 1 h and remained there for at least 4 h after dosing. Madecassoside and asiaticoside in ECa 233 were mainly excreted as an unchanged form after being injected, and exclusively as triterpenic acid metabolites in feces after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic results obtained could provide some guidance for an appropriate dosing regimen of ECa 233 in future studies. This study also provided the first evidence demonstrating the presence of madecassoside and asiaticoside in their target tissues. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Caffeoylquinic acids in Centella asiatica protect against amyloid-β toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nora E; Morré, Jeff; Kelley, Jeremiah; Maier, Claudia S; Stevens, Jan F; Quinn, Joseph F; Soumyanath, Amala

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and is known to result in neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. We previously demonstrated that treatment with the water extract of Centella asiatica (CAW) improves learning and memory deficits in Tg2576 mice, an animal model of Aβ accumulation. However the active compounds in CAW remain unknown. Here we used two in vitro models of Aβ toxicity to confirm this neuroprotective effect and identify several active constituents of the CAW extract. CAW reduced Aβ-induced cell death and attenuated Aβ-induced changes in tau expression and phosphorylation in both the MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines. We confirmed and quantified the presence of several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in CAW using chromatographic separation coupled to mass spectrometry and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Multiple dicaffeoylquinic acids showed efficacy in protecting MC65 cells against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Isochlorogenic acid A and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were found to be the most abundant CQAs in CAW, and the most active in protecting MC65 cells from Aβ-induced cell death. Both compounds showed neuroprotective activity in MC65 and SH-SY5Y cells at concentrations comparable to their levels in CAW. Each compound not only mitigated Aβ-induced cell death, but was able to attenuate Aβ-induced alterations in tau expression and phosphorylation in both cell lines, as seen with CAW. These data suggest that CQAs are active neuroprotective components in CAW, and therefore are important markers for future studies on CAW standardization, bioavailability, and dosing.

  10. Accelerated Stability Studies on Dried Extracts of Centella asiatica Through Chemical, HPLC, HPTLC, and Biological Activity Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ishtdeep; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Bansal, Yogita; Bansal, Gulshan

    2016-10-01

    Regulatory guidelines recommend systematic stability studies on a herbal product to establish its shelf life. In the present study, commercial extracts (Types I and II) and freshly prepared extract (Type III) of Centella asiatica were subjected to accelerated stability testing for 6 months. Control and stability samples were evaluated for organoleptics, pH, moisture, total phenolic content (TPC), asiatic acid, kaempherol, and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints, and for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Markers and TPC and both the activities of each extract decreased in stability samples with respect to control. These losses were maximum in Type I extract and minimum in Type III extract. Higher stability of Type III extract than others might be attributed to the additional phytoconstituents and/or preservatives in it. Pearson correlation analysis of the results suggested that TPC, asiatic acid, and kaempferol can be taken as chemical markers to assess chemical and therapeutic shelf lives of herbal products containing Centella asiatica. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. [Simultaneous determination of madecassoside, asiaticoside and their aglycones in Centella asiatica (L.) urban extracts by RP-HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qian; Yu, Lu-shan; Zhou, Hui; Zeng, Su

    2014-03-01

    To establish a HPLC method for simultaneous determination of four major constituents (madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid and asiatic acid) in Centella asiatica (L.) urban extracts. The analysis was performed on an Agilent 1100 HPLC system with a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5μm). The four major constituents were separated with gradient mobile phase that consists of 1mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate and acetonitrile at the detection wavelength of 205 nm. The four major constituents all had good linear response in the determination ranges (R(2)≥0.9998). The average recoveries (n=9) were 97.4%, 93.7%, 97.5% and 99.8% with RSDs of 3.4%, 1.4%, 4.7% and 4.4%, respectively. The developed method is sensitive and has good reproducibility, which can be used as a reference for quality control of Centella asiatica (L.) urban extracts.

  12. Optimization extraction conditions for improving phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwal, Tarun; Dhyani, Praveen; Bhatt, Indra D; Rawal, Ranbeer Singh; Pande, Veena

    2016-09-15

    This study for the first time designed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of Berberis asiatica fruits using response surface methodology (RSM). Solvent selection was done based on the preliminary experiments and a five-factors-three-level, Central Composite Design (CCD). Extraction temperature (X1), sample to solvent ratio (X3) and solvent concentration (X5) significantly affect response variables. The quadratic model well fitted for all the responses. Under optimal extraction conditions, the dried fruit sample mixed with 80% methanol having 3.0 pH in a ratio of 1:50 and the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min; the measured parameters was found in accordance with the predicted values. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis at optimized condition reveals 6 phenolic compounds. The results suggest that optimization of the extraction conditions is critical for accurate quantification of phenolics and antioxidants in Berberis asiatica fruits, which may further be utilized for industrial extraction procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Anantaphruti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%, followed by haplotype B (21.9%. Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima’s D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu’s Fs values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species.

  14. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication.

  15. Rodent model for long-term maintenance and development of the viable cysticerci of Taenia saginata asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I C; Chung, W C; Lu, S C; Fan, P C

    2000-12-01

    Although oncospheres of Taenia saginata asiatica can develop into cysticerci in immunodeficiency, immunosuppressed, and normal mice, no detailed information on the development features of these cysticerci from SCID mice is available. In the present study, the tumor-like cyst was found in the subcutaneous tissues of each of 10 SCID mice after 38-244 days inoculation with 39,000 oncospheres of T. s. asiatica. These cysts weighed 2.0-9.6 gm and were 1.5-4.3 cm in diameter. The number of cysticerci were collected from these cysts ranged from 125 to 1,794 and the cysticercus recovery rate from 0.3% to 4.6%. All cysticerci were viable with a diameter of 1-6 mm and 9 abnormal ones each with 2 evaginated protoscoleces were also found. The mean length and width of scolex, protoscolex, and bladder were 477 x 558, 756 x 727, and 1,586 x 1,615 microns, respectively. The diameters of suckers and rostellum were 220 microns and 70 microns, respectively. All cysticerci had two rows of rostellar hooks. These findings suggest that the SCID mouse model can be employed as a tool for long-term maintenance of the biological materials for advanced studies of immunodiagnosis, vaccine development, and evaluation of cestocidal drugs which would be most benefit for the good health of the livestocks.

  16. Studies on abnormality of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata asiatica in rodents and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P C; Wan, I C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J

    2001-01-01

    Abnormalities are not uncommon in Taenia saginata and T. solium. After examining 328 mature proglottids from 2 adult worms from two experimentally infected hamsters, 13 (4.0%) were found to have no genital pore but with numerous testes and several vas efferents; 1 (0.3%) one genital pore with one reproductive system; 12 (3.7%) one on each side with two sets of reproductive system; 17 (5.2%) two on one side with 2 sets of reproductive system; 8 (2.4%) one on one side and two on the other side with 3 sets of reproductive system; 2 (0.6%) two on each side with 4 sets of reproductive system; 4 (1.2%) three on one side with 3 sets of reproductive system, and 4 one on one side and three on the other side with 4 sets of reproductive system. Nine evaginated abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from three experimentally infected SCID mice each had two protoscoleces and a big bladder. From two experimentally infected pigs, one abnormal cysticercus was observed to have two invaginated canals each in one end. Another one had a neck-band behind the scolex and a big bladder. This paper is not only the first report of abnormality of T. solium from hamster but also the first one of abnormal cysticerci of T. s. asiatica from pigs and mice.

  17. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species.

  18. Enhancement of the skin-protective activities of Centella asiatica L. Urban by a nano-encapsulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min Chul; Choi, Woon Yong; Seo, Yong Chang; Kim, Ji Seon; Yoon, Chang Soon; Lim, Hye Won; Kim, Hack Soo; Ahn, Ju hee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of Centella asiatica L. Urban were encapsulated by an edible biopolymer, gelatin, which has no effect on their cosmetic activities. The nanoparticles were w/o-type spherical liposomes that had an average diameter of 115.0nm. The encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be approximately 67%, which was relatively high for these aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles showed lower cytotoxicity (10%) in human skin fibroblast cells than the unencapsulated crude extract (15%) at 1.0mg/ml, this was possibly because a smaller amount of the extract was present in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles efficiently reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in UV-irradiated cells from 136.1% to 77.6% (UV-irradiated control) and inhibited hyaluronidase expression (>60%) at a concentration of 0.5mg/ml, which was higher than the levels produced by the unencapsulated crude extracts. The nanoparticles had a very high flux through mouse skin and also remained at relatively large concentrations in the derma when compared to the unencapsulated crude extracts. These results clearly indicate that the skin-protective activities of C. asiatica were significantly improved through the nano-encapsulation process. These findings also imply that a crude extract can be used and have the same efficacy as purified compounds, which should reduce the purification process and production costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo disposition and metabolism of madecassoside, a major bioactive constituent in Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Dan-dan; Han, Wen-jing; Rui, Yao; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2013-11-25

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. herb is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine for many indications, such as traumatic injuries, keloid and scar. Madecassoside is the main active ingredient of this herb drug with higher content than other triterpenoid constituents. Understandings of pharmacokinetic profiles of madecassoside should be beneficial for its development as a therapeutic agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously and orally administered madecassoside (100 mg/kg), respectively. Plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, bile, urine and feces were collected at the designed time points. Madecassoside concentrations in biological samples were determined by a sensitive and well-validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method. A liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) method was established to identify its major metabolites in feces. To further pursue the disposition characteristics of madecassoside in rats, the involvement of the hepatobiliary efflux transporters in biliary elimination were studied by combination with digoxin (P-glycoprotein inhibitor) or probenecid (multidrug resistance-associated protein inhibitor). A linked-rat model was also used to assess the role of enterohepatic circulation in the pharmacokinetics of madecassoside. After a single oral dosing, madecassoside was widely distributed in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of rats, and the levels of madecassoside in liver and kidney were relatively higher than other organs. The excretions of madecassoside in bile, urine and feces were 7.16% (0-12 h), 0.25% (0-72 h) and 24.68% (0-72 h), respectively. The findings suggested that madecassoside might excrete mainly by metabolites. The combination with either digoxin or probenecid significantly attenuated the excretion of madecassoside as parent from bile, indicating that P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein might contribute

  20. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient

  1. De novo sequencing and assembly of Centella asiatica leaf transcriptome for mapping of structural, functional and regulatory genes with special reference to secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Rajender S; Tripathi, Sandhya; Singh, Jyoti; Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-08-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is an important medicinal plant and has been used since ancient times in traditional systems of medicine. C. asiatica mainly contains ursane skeleton based triterpenoid sapogenins and saponins predominantly in its leaves. This investigation employed Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS) strategy on a pool of three cDNAs from expanding leaf of C. asiatica and developed an assembled transcriptome sequence resource of the plant. The short transcript reads (STRs) generated and assembled into contigs and singletons, representing majority of the genes expressed in C. asiatica, were termed as 'tentative unique transcripts' (TUTs). The TUT dataset was analyzed with the objectives of (i) development of a transcriptome assembly of C. asiatica, and (ii) classification/characterization of the genes into categories like structural, functional, regulatory etc. based on their function. Overall, 68.49% of the 46,171,131 reads generated in the NGS process could be assembled into a total of 79,041 contigs. Gene ontology and functional annotation of sequences resulted into the identification of genes related to different sets of cellular functions including identification of genes related to primary and secondary metabolism. The wet lab validation of seventeen assembled gene sequences identified to be involved in secondary metabolic pathways and control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was established by semi-quantitative and real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validation also included sequencing/size matching of a set of semi-quantitative PCR amplicons with their in silico assembled contig/gene. This confirmed the appropriateness of assembling the reads and contigs. Thus, the present study constitutes the largest report to date on C. asiatica transcriptome based gene resource that may contribute substantially to the understanding of the basal biological functions and biochemical pathways of secondary metabolites as well as the transcriptional regulatory

  2. [Epidemiological investigation of Taenia saginata asiatica in Duyun, Guizhou and detection of amino acids and elements of adult worms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Bao, Huai-en; Li, Jin-fu; Lang, Shu-yuan; Qiu, Xue-li; Huang, Jiang; Wu, Yuan-ming; Zhang, Chao-yun

    2003-01-01

    To study epidemiological factors of taeniasis and to detect amino acid and element components of adult worms in Duyun of Guizhou Province. 1. Traditional methods were used for epidemiological investigation. 2. Automatic amino acid analyzer and bioassay were applied for the detection. Among 70 persons with clinical symptoms, 25 patients (24 men and 1 woman) were found to have adult taenia worms in their faeces after taking Areca catechu L. and other drugs. Sixteen amino acids and 12 elements were determined in adult worms. Duyun area in Guizhou is a highly endemic area of taeniasis. The pathogenic parasite is identified as Taenia saginata asiatica. Its clinical symptoms are similar to that of Taenia saginata saginata.

  3. GC/MS analysis, antimicrobial and in vitro anti-cholinesterase activities of the essential oil from Buddleja asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali Khan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buddleja asiatica essential oil from the leaves by hydrodistillation was subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometery analysis which revealed the presence of 17 constituents out of which 14 were identified as: four monoterpenes hydrocarbons, four oxygenated monoterpenes, one hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes and five oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major constituent being found was 1,8-cineole (38.1% while β-sinensal, 1, 10-seco-1-hydroxy-calamenen-10-one and α-phellandrene were found to be in 11.8%, 10.2% and 5.8%, respectively. The essential oil exhibited 66% strong antibacterial activity against Shigella boydii while in fungicidal assay, it revealed an outstanding 79% inhibition against Aspergillus flavus. The essential oil showed outstanding acetylcholinesterase (IC50 5.2 μM and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory effect (IC50 27.9 μM as compared to standard drugs respectively.

  4. TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Maquart, F-X; Scoccianti, M; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Cesarone, M R; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Feragalli, B

    2011-09-01

    Plant-derived elements used for pharmacological applications constitute an increasing research field. Centella asiatica is widely used mainly as an extract (TECA). Triterpenic fractions, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica, produce a wide range of preventive and therapeutic effects. The modulation of collagen production and deposition in wound healing is of primary importance. TECA is also used to treat several microcirculatory problems, inflammatory skin conditions (leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and also intestinal problems, fever, amenorrhea and genitourinary conditions. Cognitive functions, anxiety and mental impairment may be also affected by TECA administration. New applications in neurology include nerve growth factor enhancement and applications in neurological degenerative conditions. Interaction with other products is also indicated in this document. The multiplicity of actions of TECA is associated to six important mechanisms, all inter-connected and modulating each other: 1) edema - and capillary filtration - control; 2) a strong antioxidant power, effective on several forms of oxidative stress associated to inflammation or infections and synergic with other antioxidant products; 3) an anti-inflammatory action; 4) a modulation of the collagen production avoiding slower scarring or faster, hyperthrophic scarring and cheloids; 5) a modulating action of local growth factors; 6) a modulation of angiogenesis. This "status" paper - resulting from an expert meeting held in Cobham, Surrey, indicates most of the therapeutic potential of TECA, still to be explored in further studies. The status paper constitutes the basis for a consensus document on TECA to be developed in the next future. This "status" paper opens a new window on an ancient but still partially unexplored product that may become an important value in prevention and treatment of several pre-clinical and risk conditions and in clinically significant

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Titrated Extract of Centella asiatica in Phthalic Anhydride-Induced Allergic Dermatitis Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Ho; Choi, Ji Yeon; Son, Dong Ju; Park, Eun Kyung; Song, Min Jong; Hellström, Mats; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-03-30

    Centella asiatica has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-dermatitic effect has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-dermatitic effects of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in a phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) animal model as well as in vitro model. An AD-like lesion was induced by the topical application of five percent PA to the dorsal skin or ear of Hos:HR-1 mouse. After AD induction, 100 μL of 0.2% and 0.4% of TECA (40 μg or 80 μg/cm²) was spread on the dorsum of the ear or back skin three times a week for four weeks. We evaluated dermatitis severity, histopathological changes and changes in protein expression by Western blotting for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and NF-κB activity, which were determined by electromobility shift assay (EMSA). We also measured TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IgE concentration in the blood of AD mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TECA treatment attenuated the development of PA-induced atopic dermatitis. Histological analysis showed that TECA inhibited hyperkeratosis, mast cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. TECA treatment inhibited expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB activity as well as the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IgE. In addition, TECA (1, 2, 5 μg/mL) potently inhibited Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 μg/mL)-induced NO production, expression of iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κB DNA binding activities in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Our data demonstrated that TECA could be a promising agent for AD by inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  6. From Plant Extract to a cDNA Encoding a Glucosyltransferase Candidate: Proteomics and Transcriptomics as Tools to Help Elucidate Saponin Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Fernanda; Barber, Carla J S; Reed, Darwin W; Covello, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a small annual plant that grows in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and other parts of Asia, is well-known as a medicinal herb with a long history of therapeutic uses. The bioactive compounds present in C. asiatica leaves include ursane-type triterpene sapogenins and saponins-asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. Various bioactivities have been shown for these compounds, although most of the steps in the biosynthesis of triterpene saponins, including glycosylation, remain uncharacterized at the molecular level. This chapter describes an approach that integrates partial enzyme purification, proteomics methods, and transcriptomics, with the aim of reducing the number of cDNA candidates encoding for a glucosyltransferase involved in saponin biosynthesis and facilitating the elucidation of the pathway in this medicinal plant.

  7. Epidemiology of Taenia solium in Nepal: is it influenced by the social characteristics of the population and the presence of Taenia asiatica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aryal, Arjun; Joshi, Durga Datt; Rijal, Suman; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The transmission of the zoonotic pork tapeworms Taenia solium and T. asiatica depends on a combination of specific risk factors, such as open defecation, backyard pig raising and the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and viscera. A community-based survey was conducted among 289 households in south-eastern Nepal to study the heterogeneity of these risk factor frequencies as a function of the social composition of the population. The frequency of open defecation, backyard pig raising and pork consumption differed significantly (P asiatica, a species thus far not known to occur in South Asia. These results can help to understand the epidemiology of T. solium in Nepal, which appears to be more complex than thought so far. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Investigation of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 Interactions of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in Human Liver Microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-05-01

    Withania somnifera is commonly used as a rejuvenator, whereas Centella asiatica is well known for its anxiolytic and nootropic effects. The present study aims at investigating the effect of crude extracts and principal phytoconstituents of both the medicinal plants with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes (HLM). Phytoconstituents were quantified in the crude extracts of both the medicinal plants using reverse phase HPLC. Crude extracts and phytoconstituents of W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes in HLM. Of the crude extracts of C. asiatica screened in vitro, methanolic extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP3A4 enzyme (Ki-64.36 ± 1.82 µg/mL), whereas ethanol solution extract showed potent noncompetitive inhibition of only CYP2D6 enzyme (Ki-36.3 ± 0.44 µg/mL). The flavonoids, quercetin, and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 100 μM) inhibition of CYP3A4 activity, whereas quercetin alone showed potent inhibition of CYP2D6 activity in HLM. Because methanolic extract of C. asiatica showed a relatively high percentage content of quercetin and kaempferol than ethanol solution extract, the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract on CYP3A4 enzyme activity could be attributed to the flavonoids. Thus, co-administration of the alcoholic extracts of C. asiatica with drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes may lead to undesirable herb-drug interactions in humans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Artemisia asiatica essential oil against some common respiratory infection causing bacterial strains and its mechanism of action in Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiehui; Qian, Chao; Xu, Hongjie; Huang, Yanjie

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia asiatica together with investigating the antibacterial effects it exerts on several common respiratory infection causing bacteria including Haemophilus influenzae. Its mechanism of action was studied using various state-of-the-art assays like scanning electron microscopy, DNA, RNA and protein leakage assays, growth curve assays etc. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of A. asiatica by supercritical CO 2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 6 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane and scanning electronmicroscope (SEM). Gas chromatographic analysis of the A. asiatica essential oil led to the identification of 16 chemical constituents accounting for 97.2% of the total oil composition. The major components were found to be Piperitone, (z)-davanone, p-cymene and 1, 8-cineole. The essential oil showed maximum growth inhibition against Haemophilus influenzae with a zone of inhibition of 24.5 mm and MIC/MBC values of 1.9/4.5 mg/mL respectively. Bacteria treated with the essential oil led to a rapid decrease in the number of viable cells. On adding the essential oil of A. asiatica to the bacterial culture, the constituents of the bacterial cell got released into the medium and this cell constituent release increased with increasing doses of the essential oil. SEM showed that the bacterial cells treated with the essential oil showed damaged cell wall, deformed cell morphology and shrunken cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies.

  11. Regeneration of Centella asiatica plants from non-embryogenic cell lines and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of regenerated calli and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The threatened plant Centella asiatica L. is traditionallyused for a number of remedies. In vitro plant propagation and enhanced metabolite production of active metabolites through biotechnological approaches has gained attention in recent years. Results Present study reveals that 6-benzyladenine (BA) either alone or in combination with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) supplemented in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at different concentrations produced good quality callus from leaf explants of C. asiatica. The calli produced on different plant growth regulators at different concentrations were mostly embryogenic and green. Highest shoot regeneration efficiency; 10 shoots per callus explant, from non-embryogenic callus was observed on 4.42 μM BA with 5.37 μM NAA. Best rooting response was observed at 5.37 and 10.74 μM NAA with 20 average number of roots per explant. Calli and regenerated plants extracts inhibited bacterial growth with mean zone of inhibition 9-13 mm diameter when tested against six bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Agar tube dilution method for antifungal assay showed 3.2-76% growth inhibition of Mucor species, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium moliniformes. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that non-embryogenic callus can be turned into embryos and plantlets if cultured on appropriate medium. Furthermore, callus from leaf explant of C. asiatica can be a good source for production of antimicrobial compounds through bioreactor. PMID:21989222

  12. Molecular cloning of an ester-forming triterpenoid: UDP-glucose 28-O-glucosyltransferase involved in saponin biosynthesis from the medicinal plant Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Fernanda; Barber, Carla J S; Kim, Yeon-Bok; Reed, Darwin W; Zhang, Haixia; Fett-Neto, Arthur G; Covello, Patrick S

    2017-09-01

    Triterpene saponins include bioactive compounds with structures consisting of triterpene aglycones (sapogenins) and one or more sugar moieties linked through acetal or ester glycosidic linkages at one or more sites. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is a medicinal plant that contains bioactive ursane-type saponins, such as madecassoside and asiaticoside. In this work, glucosylation of triterpenoids in C. asiatica was investigated starting with plant extracts. An enzyme capable of glucosylating asiatic and madecassic acids was partially purified. Proteomics methods and cDNA sequence data were employed as tools to obtain a full-length cDNA clone encoding a glucosyltransferase. The recombinant gene product, UGT73AD1, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal-affinity chromatography. Purified recombinant UGT73AD1 was found to have a narrow specificity, glucosylating asiatic and madecassic acids at the C28 carboxyl. mRNA accumulated in all tissues tested (leaves, stems, roots and flowers), with highest expression in leaves. Thus, UGT73AD1 was identified as a triterpenoid carboxylic acid: UDP-glucose 28-O-glucosyltransferase that appears to be involved in saponin biosynthesis in C. asiatica. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regeneration of Centella asiatica plants from non-embryogenic cell lines and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of regenerated calli and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Darima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The threatened plant Centella asiatica L. is traditionallyused for a number of remedies. In vitro plant propagation and enhanced metabolite production of active metabolites through biotechnological approaches has gained attention in recent years. Results Present study reveals that 6-benzyladenine (BA either alone or in combination with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA supplemented in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium at different concentrations produced good quality callus from leaf explants of C. asiatica. The calli produced on different plant growth regulators at different concentrations were mostly embryogenic and green. Highest shoot regeneration efficiency; 10 shoots per callus explant, from non-embryogenic callus was observed on 4.42 μM BA with 5.37 μM NAA. Best rooting response was observed at 5.37 and 10.74 μM NAA with 20 average number of roots per explant. Calli and regenerated plants extracts inhibited bacterial growth with mean zone of inhibition 9-13 mm diameter when tested against six bacterial strains using agar well diffusion method. Agar tube dilution method for antifungal assay showed 3.2-76% growth inhibition of Mucor species, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium moliniformes. Conclusions The present investigation reveals that non-embryogenic callus can be turned into embryos and plantlets if cultured on appropriate medium. Furthermore, callus from leaf explant of C. asiatica can be a good source for production of antimicrobial compounds through bioreactor.

  14. Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed.

  15. In vitro assessment of CYP1A2 and 2C9 inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savai, Jay; Varghese, Alice; Pandita, Nancy; Chintamaneni, Meena

    2015-06-01

    Several herbal drugs and allopathic medicines when co-administered can lead to severe herb-drug interactions. Hence, this study was undertaken in order to assess the in vitro inhibition potential of Withania somnifera and Centella asiatica with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 and 2C9 enzyme using human liver microsomes. Inhibitory potential of crude extracts of both the medicinal plants along with their principal phytoconstituents were investigated using selective probe substrate technique. IC50, Ki values and mode of inhibition were determined. The results of the study revealed that W. somnifera showed no significant interaction with both the isoforms of CYP. However, ethanolic extract of C. asiatica significantly inhibited both CYP1A2 (IC50 value - 42.23±3.65 μg/mL/Ki value - 14.93±4.59 μg/mL) and 2C9 enzyme (IC50 value - 48.41±4.64 μg/mL/Ki value - 23.89±3.14 μg/mL) in a competitive manner. The flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol showed potent (IC50 values less than 10 μM) inhibition of CYP1A2 activity with no significant inhibition of CYP2C9 enzyme. Thus, these findings of the study might be helpful for safe and effective use of C. asiatica in clinical practice. However, its in vivo interaction study in humans is still warranted.

  16. Genetic variability of the 18 kDa/HP6 protective antigen in Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica: implications for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis M; Ramiro, Raquel; García, Luz; Parkhouse, R Michael E; McManus, Donald P; Gárate, Teresa

    2011-04-01

    Genomic characterization of the genes encoding the Taenia 18 kDa/HP6 protective antigens was carried out for Taenia saginata and T. asiatica using 42 taeniid isolates comprising 23 samples of T. saginata, 13 samples of T. asiatica and 6 samples of T. solium. The corresponding sequences from all taeniid isolates were PCR-amplified with specific primers and then sequenced. All the genes, and other described taeniid gene homologues, had the same genomic structure. Surprisingly, the T. saginata TSA18 gene showed nucleotide variability within the 23 samples analyzed. This resulted in two distinct genotypes with 96% DNA sequence similarity and deduced amino acid sequences with 21 substitutions, mainly located in the second exon which contains the fibronectin type III domain. In regards to T. asiatica, the 18 kDa gene (TASI18) was very similar to the T. saginata antigen homologues, both at the DNA and deduced amino acid sequence levels, and the TSOL18 gene was conserved among T. solium isolates as previously described. The implications of these findings on the future development of taeniid vaccines are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The evolution of seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkies, Ada; Graeber, Kai; Knight, Charles; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that determine seed size. We complement this with a special emphasis on the evolution of dormancy, the characteristic of seeds that allows for long 'distance' time travel. Answering the 'why' question involves proposed hypotheses of how natural selection has operated to favor the seed life-history phenomenon. The recent flurry of research describing the comparative biology of seeds is discussed. The review will be divided into sections dealing with: (1) the development and anatomy of seeds; (2) the endosperm; (3) dormancy; (4) early seed-like structures and the transition to seeds; and (5) the evolution of seed size (mass). In many cases, a special distinction is made between angiosperm and gymnosperm seeds. Finally, we make some recommendations for future research in seed biology.

  18. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  19. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  20. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. ... ancient Aztec diet. The seeds of a related plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by ...

  1. PENGARUH NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP EKSPLAN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L. Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. representing one of theplant which good of as drug. Plantof pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. good of  to launch the urine, degrading blood pressure and quicken to heal the hurt. Ready of the seed for the crop of drug which require to be paid attention by quality from itself seed. One of the alternative to get the uniform seed and a flash in the pan is with the technique of tissue culture. Tissue culturelaboratory research was conducted Researchand Development Center for Medicinal Plantsand Traditional MedicineTawangmangu. Research Method use the Random Device of Complete Group at MS (Murashige Skoog media with the treatment ofplant growth regulator the NAA concentration 0, 1, 3 and 5 mg / l and BAP concentration 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg / l. Result of research show the combination of  giving of NAA 1 until 3 mg / l and BAP 1 until 5 mg / l of is condition of explan experience of the change become the callus. Treatment of combination NAA 3 mg / l and BAP 4 mg / l give the best result to callus forming with the quicker callus forming time that is 25 day. Keywords : Pegagan, Centella asiática (L. Urb., tissue culture, NAA, BAP

  2. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The ab- dominal sternite is cream-white. The femur of the hind leg is thick. The compound eyes are black. This study showed that the larvae developed within the shells, on surface of the seeds, rotten. Infestation by Megaselia rufipes Meigen on germinated oil palm seeds ... 29. Fig. 5: Cracked seeds infested with maggots.

  3. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  4. E-microsatellite markers for Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) genome: validation and cross-transferability in Apiaceae family for plant omics research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Devi, Kamalakshi; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sen, Priyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centella asiatica (Gotu Kola) is a plant that grows in tropical swampy regions of the world and has important medicinal and culinary use. It is often considered as part of Ayurvedic medicine, traditional African medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine. The unavailability of genomics resources is significantly impeding its genetic improvement. To date, no attempt has been made to develop Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers (eSSRs) from the Centella genome. Hence, the present study aimed to develop eSSRs and their further experimental validation and cross-transferability of these markers in different genera of the Apiaceae family to which Centella belongs. An in-house pipeline was developed for the entire analyses by combining bioinformatics tools and perl scripts. A total of 4443 C. asiatica EST sequences from dbEST were processed, which generated 2617 nonredundant high quality EST sequences consisting 441 contigs and 2176 singletons. Out of 1776.5 kb of examined sequences, 417 (15.9%) ESTs containing 686 SSRs were detected with a density of one SSR per 2.59 kb. The gene ontology study revealed 282 functional domains involved in various processes, components, and functions, out of which 64 ESTs were found to have both SSRs and functional domains. Out of 603 designed EST-SSR primers, 18 pairs of primers were selected for validation based on the optimum parameter value. Reproducible amplification was obtained for six primer pairs in C. asiatica that were further tested for cross-transferability in nine other important genera/species of the Apiaceae family. Cross-transferability of the EST-SSR markers among the species were examined and Centella javanica showed highest transferability (83.3%). The study revealed six highly polymorphic EST-SSR primers with an average PIC value of 0.95. In conclusion, these EST-SSR markers hold a big promise for the genomics analysis of Centella asiatica, to facilitate comparative

  5. Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics to Identify a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Inhibitor from Alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, R; Sumitha, Rajendrarao; Doss, C George Priya; Rajasekaran, C; Babu, S; Seenivasan, R; Siva, R

    2015-10-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an immunosuppressive disease. Over the past decades, it has plagued human health due to the grave consequences in its harness. For this reason, anti-HIV agents are imperative, and the search for the same from natural resources would assure the safety. In this investigation we have performed molecular docking, molecular property prediction, drug-likeness score, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to develop a novel anti-HIV drug. We have screened 12 alkaloids from a medicinal plant Toddalia asiatica for its probabilistic binding with the active site of the HIV-1-reverse transcriptase (HIV-1-RT) domain (the major contributor to the onset of the disease). The docking results were evaluated based on free energies of binding (ΔG), and the results suggested toddanol, toddanone, and toddalenone to be potent inhibitors of HIV-1-RT. In addition, the alkaloids were subjected to molecular property prediction analysis. Toddanol and toddanone with more rotatable bonds were found to have a drug-likeness score of 0.23 and 0.11, respectively. These scores were comparable with the standard anti-HIV drug zidovudine with a model score 0.28. Finally, two characteristic protein-ligand complexes were exposed to MD simulation to determine the stability of the predicted conformations. The toddanol-RT complex showed higher stability and stronger H-bonds than toddanone-RT complex. Based on these observations, we firmly believe that the alkaloid toddanol could aid in efficient HIV-1 drug discovery. In the present study, the molecular docking and MD simulations are performed to explore the possible binding mode of HIV 1 RT with 12 alkaloids of T. asiatica. Molecular docking by AutoDock4 revealed three alkaloids toddanol, toddanone, and toddalenone with highest binding affinity towards HIV 1 RT. The drug likeness model score revealed a positive score for toddanol and toddanone which is comparable to the drug

  6. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  7. Centella asiatica Extract Improves Behavioral Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Investigation of a Possible Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amala Soumyanath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (CA, commonly named gotu kola, is an Ayurvedic herb used to enhance memory and nerve function. To investigate the potential use of CA in Alzheimer's disease (AD, we examined the effects of a water extract of CA (GKW in the Tg2576 mouse, a murine model of AD with high β-amyloid burden. Orally administered GKW attenuated β-amyloid-associated behavioral abnormalities in these mice. In vitro, GKW protected SH-SY5Y cells and MC65 human neuroblastoma cells from toxicity induced by exogenously added and endogenously generated β-amyloid, respectively. GKW prevented intracellular β-amyloid aggregate formation in MC65 cells. GKW did not show anticholinesterase activity or protect neurons from oxidative damage and glutamate toxicity, mechanisms of current AD therapies. GKW is rich in phenolic compounds and does not contain asiatic acid, a known CA neuroprotective triterpene. CA thus offers a unique therapeutic mechanism and novel active compounds of potential relevance to the treatment of AD.

  8. Study of ameliorating effects of ethanolic extract of Centella asiatica on learning and memory deficit in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doknark, Saowalak; Mingmalairak, Salin; Vattanajun, Anusara; Tantisira, Boonyong; Tantisira, Mayuree H

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Centella asiatica ethanolic extract (CE) on learning and memoly imnpairment induced by either transient bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (T2 VO) or an intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine in mice. CE (100, 300, 1000 or 1500 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to learning and memory impaired mice once daily for 8 consecutive days. Learning and memory performance were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance (PA) test. Changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain were determined by lipid peroxidation assay. T2 VO mice exhibited learning and memory impairment in the MWM and PA tests. Treatment with CE ameliorated the learning and memory impairment of T2VO mice. Furthermore, CE significantly reduced MDA level in the brain of T2VO mice. On the other hand, administration of CE did not attenuate learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine in mice. The present study demonstrated ameliorating effect of CE on learning and memory impairment in T2VO mice. Furthermore, it is likely that the positive effect of CE observed could be, at least partly, accounted by its antioxidative property. Thus, CE might be beneficial for memory impairment in which oxidative stress is an underlying cause.

  9. Evaluation of the topical spray containing Centella asiatica extract and its efficacy on excision wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Choochuay, Kanuengnit; Chanthorn, Wirot; Srichana, Teerapol

    2016-06-01

    Centella asiatica was extracted by methanol. The assay content of triterpenes in the extract was 0.12 % asiatic acid, 0.54 % madecassic acid, 0.25 % asiaticoside and 1.02 % madecassoside. The extract was complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and formulated with Eudragit E100, glycerol, PEG 400, copovidone, ethanol and purified water. A clear yellowish solution (F1-F8) was obtained. The formulations had a pH of 5.5-6.0 with viscosity in the range of 20-60 mPa s, surface tension 20.3-24.6 mN m-1 and contact angle less than 20°. The amount of PEG 400 and copovidone affected the film and spreadability. The content of triterpenes in the spray formulation was close to 100 % compared to triterpenes in the extract. The skin irritation study indicated that the formulation was non-irritating in a rat model. An in vivo excision wound healing model showed that wound excision was completely healed after 14 days.

  10. Characterization of the Asiatic Acid Glucosyltransferase, UGT73AH1, Involved in Asiaticoside Biosynthesis in Centella asiatica (L.) Urban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mei Lan; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban contains two ursane-type triterpene saponins, asiaticoside and madecassoside, as major secondary metabolites. In order to select candidate genes encoding UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in asiaticoside biosynthesis, we performed transcriptomic analysis of leaves elicited by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Among the unigenes, 120 isotigs and 13 singletons of unique sequences were annotated as UGTs, including 37 putative full-length cDNAs, and 15 of the putative UGT genes were named according to the UGT committee nomenclature protocols. One of them, UGT73AH1, was characterized by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. After induction with IPTG, a total protein extract was assayed with UDP-glucose and asiatic acid. UPLC-QTOF/MS analysis showed that UGT73AH1 catalyzes the glycosylation of asiatic acid to its monoglucoside. It remains unclear whether glycosylation occurs on the triterpene C-2α, C-3β, C-23, or C-28 position. However, it is very likely that UGT73AH1 glucosylates the C-28 position, because only C-28 bears a glucose moiety in the final pathway product of asiatic acid, while C-2α, C-3β, and C-23 remain un-conjugated. PMID:29210992

  11. Morphological, chemical and molecular characterization of Centella asiatica germplasms for commercial cultivation in the Indo-Gangetic plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Archana; Dhawan, Sunita S; Mathur, Ajay K; Prakash, Om; Gupta, Madan M; Verma, Ram K; Lal, Raj K; Mathur, Archana

    2014-06-01

    Centella asiatica germplasm collected from north, north-eastern and southern parts of India was compared for biomass and centellosides productivity under uniform agro-climatic conditions of the Indo-Gangetic plains at Lucknow. The highest biomass accumulation (411.9 g FW/m2 area) was recorded in accession A from north India, followed by 284.0, 135.7 and 29.2 g FW/m2 in accessions M, B and E from southern, eastern and north-eastern regions, respectively. Accession M possessed the highest asiaticoside content (52.1 mg/gDW) that was 1.58, 2.34 and 21.7 folds more than accessions A, B and E, respectively. The madecassoside level in leaves of accessions B and M was comparable (28.9 and 25.7 mg/gDW) and two folds more than accession A (13.9 mg/gDW). The madecassic and asiatic acid content in leaf tissue of all four accessions remained low in Lucknow. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis with 23 primers yielded 696 fragments, 563 of which were polymorphic. Accession M out-grouped with genetic dissimilarity indices of 83, 85 and 95% from accessions A, E and B, respectively. Commercial cultivation of accessions M and A through a four months growth cycle (June to September) in agro-climatic conditions of the Indo-Gangetic plains is suggested.

  12. Evaluation of the topical spray containing Centella asiatica extract and its efficacy on excision wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawatdee Somchai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica was extracted by methanol. The assay content of triterpenes in the extract was 0.12 % asiatic acid, 0.54 % madecassic acid, 0.25 % asiaticoside and 1.02 % madecassoside. The extract was complexed with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD and formulated with Eudragit E100, glycerol, PEG 400, copovidone, ethanol and purified water. A clear yellowish solution (F1-F8 was obtained. The formulations had a pH of 5.5–6.0 with viscosity in the range of 20–60 mPa s, surface tension 20.3–24.6 mN m–1 and contact angle less than 20°. The amount of PEG 400 and copovidone affected the film and spreadability. The content of triterpenes in the spray formulation was close to 100 % compared to triterpenes in the extract. The skin irritation study indicated that the formulation was non-irritating in a rat model. An in vivo excision wound healing model showed that wound excision was completely healed after 14 days.

  13. Attenuation of collagen induced arthritis by Centella asiatica methanol fraction via modulation of cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Gupta, Ritu; Thakur, Sonu Chand

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-arthritic effects of Centella asiatica methanolfraction (CaME) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis was induced in female wistar rats by immunization with porcine type II collagen. The CIA rats were treated orally with CaME (50, 150, and 250 mg/kg/day) for 15 d (beginning on day 21 of the experimental period). The clinical, histological, biochemical, and immunological parameters were assessed. CaME treatment (150 and 250 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the severity of CIA and reduced the synovial inflammation, cartilage erosion, and bone erosion as evident from both histological and radiographic data. The escalated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 alongwith nitric oxide in CIA rats decreased significantly on CaME treatment. The serum levels of type-II collagen antibody were significantly lower in rats of CaME (150 and 250 mg/kg) treated group than those in the arthritic group. Furthermore, by inhibiting the above mediators, CaME also contributed towards the reversal of the disturbed antioxidant levels and peroxidative damage. Our results clearly indicate that oral administration of CaME suppresses joint inflammation, cytokine expression as well as antioxidant imbalance, thereby contributing to an amelioration of arthritis severity in CIA rats. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L Urban TERHADAP FERTILITAS TIKUS PUTIH BETINA (Rattus norvegicus GALUR WISTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Mariyam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan merupakan salah satu tanaman obat yang banyak dimanfaatkan sebagai obat tradisional. Pegagan mengandung sejumlah bahan aktif golongan triterpenoid yang diduga mampu mempengaruhi organ-organ reproduksi betina. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh pemberian ekstrak daun pegagan terhadap fertilitas tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus betina galur wistar, yang meliputi persentase implantasi, persentase kehilangan gestasi dan persentase kematian pasca implantasi.   Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap terhadap tikus betina dengan berat 200-240 gram. Sampel terdiri dari 30 ekor tikus yang dibagi 5 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol, kelompok perlakuan diberikan ekstrak daun pegagan. Analisis data menggunakan One way Anova dan dilanjutkan dengan Post Hoc Test. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan pemberian ekstrak daun pegagan dosis 125 mg dapat menurunkan persentase implantasi, meningkatkan persentase kehilangan gestasi dan meningkatkan kematian pasca implantasi namun tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol sedangkan dosis 200 mg, 275 mg dan 350 mg dapat menurunkan persentase implantasi, meningkatkan kehilangan gestasi dan meningkatkan kematian pascaimplantasi. Dari hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan ekstrak daun pegagan (Centella asiatica (L urban dapat menurunkan fertilitas tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus betina.

  15. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  16. Centelloside accumulation in leaves of Centella asiatica is determined by resource partitioning between primary and secondary metabolism while influenced by supply levels of either nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viola; Lankes, Christa; Zimmermann, Benno F; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate the relevance of either N, P or K supply for herb and leaf yield and for centelloside concentrations in Centella asiatica L. Urban leaves. In this regard, we elucidated the causal relationship between assimilation rate, leaf N, P and K concentrations, herb and leaf production, and centelloside accumulation. The experiments were conducted consecutively in a greenhouse where C. asiatica was grown in hydroponic culture and fertigated with nutrient solutions at either 0, 30, 60, 100 or 150% of the N, P or K amount in a standard Hoagland solution. In general, the increase in N, P or K supply enhanced assimilation rate and herb and leaf yield. However, exceeding specific thresholds, the high availability of one single nutrient caused lower leaf N concentrations and a decline in assimilation rate and plant growth. Irrespective of N, P and K supply, the leaf centelloside concentrations were negatively associated with herb and leaf yield, which is in accordance with the assumptions of the carbon/nutrient balance and the growth differentiation balance hypotheses. Moreover, we found strong negative correlations between saponins and leaf N concentrations, while the respective sapogenins were negatively correlated with K concentrations. Using C. asiatica as model system, our experiments reveal for the first time that the accumulation of saponins and sapogenins is affected by resource allocation between primary and secondary metabolism and that besides carbon, also nutrient availability is relevant for the regulation of the centelloside synthesis. Finally, our results highlight the huge potential of optimized and carefully controlled mineral nutrition of medicinal plants for steering the bio-production of high-quality natural products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic diversity of Centella asiatica in China analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers: combination analysis with chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Han, Ting; He, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Lei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Centella asiatica is an important plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine. To help the efficient use and conservation of this species, the genetic diversity of C. asiatica populations in China was investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Fourteen natural populations comprising 162 individuals were included to estimate genetic diversity. At the species level, genetic diversity was relatively high (P = 66.33%, H = 0.2183, I = 0.3305). At the population level, the genetic diversity of JH (Jinhua, Zhejiang Province, China) and JJ (Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province, China) populations was relatively high (P = 43.88%, 38.78%, H = 0.1610, 0.1301, I = 0.2376, 0.1957, respectively), whereas the genetic diversity of GA (Guang'an, Sichuan Province, China) and EM (E'mei, Sichuan Province, China) was relatively low (P = 10.2%, 5.1%, H = 0.0383, 0.0211, I = 0.0570, 0.0309, respectively). On the basis of Nei's G(st) value, more genetic differentiation among populations was determined (G(st) = 0.6573). In addition, the 14 populations were clustered into four groups in view of abundant ISSR data, which further defined the genetic relationship among populations. Interestingly, the genetic clustering result was similar to previous chemical clustering results based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data, which would also classify the 14 populations into four groups. Thus, we combined the clustering results and compared their difference. The combined analysis and genetic diversity data provide a scientific basis for conserving populations of relatively high genetic diversity such as JH and JJ populations and establishing good agricultural practices (GAP) for C. asiatica.

  18. Optimization of an efficient semi-solid culture protocol for sterilization and plant regeneration of Centella asiatica (L.) as a medicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa Binti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah Bt; Philip, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different concentrations, as well as type of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and medium (MS, Duchefa) on the growth and development of Centella asiatica in semi-solid culture. In addition, a protocol for successful sterilization of C.asiatica explants prepared from field-grown plants highly exposed to fungal and bacterial contamination was determined. Results for sterilization treatments revealed that applying HgCl₂ and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM) with cetrimide, bavistin and trimethoprim which were included after washing with tap water, followed by the addition of PPM in the medium, produced a very satisfactory result (clean culture 90 ± 1.33%) and TS5 (decon + cetrimide 1% + bavistin 150 mg/L + trimethoprim 50 mg/L + HgCl₂0.1% + PPM 2% soak and 2 mL/L in medium) was hence chosen as the best method of sterilization for C.asiatica. The synergistic combination of 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in concentrations of 2 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, in Duchefa medium compared with MS induced the most optimal percentage of sprouted shoots (93 ± 0.667), number of shoots (5.2 ± 0.079) and nodes (4 ± 0.067) per explant, leaf per explant (14 ± 0.107) and shoot length (4.1 ± 0.67 cm). Furthermore, optimum rooting frequency (95.2 ± 0.81%), the number of roots/shoot (7.5 ± 0.107) and the mean root length (4.5 ± 0.133 cm) occurred for shoots that were cultured on full-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). In this study, the acclimatized plantlets were successfully established with almost 85% survival. The findings of this study have proven an efficient medium and PGR concentration for the mass propagation of C.asiatica. These findings would be useful in micropropagation and ex situ conservation of this plant.

  19. Optimization of an Efficient Semi-Solid Culture Protocol for Sterilization and Plant Regeneration of Centella asiatica (L. as a Medicinal Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheran Abdul Aziz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of different concentrations, as well as type of plant growth regulators (PGRs and medium (MS, Duchefa on the growth and development of Centella asiatica in semi-solid culture. In addition, a protocol for successful sterilization of C.asiatica explants prepared from field-grown plants highly exposed to fungal and bacterial contamination was determined. Results for sterilization treatments revealed that applying HgCl2 and Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM with cetrimide, bavistin and trimethoprim which were included after washing with tap water, followed by the addition of PPM in the medium, produced a very satisfactory result (clean culture 90 ± 1.33% and TS5 (decon + cetrimide 1% + bavistin 150 mg/L + trimethoprim 50 mg/L + HgCl2 0.1% + PPM 2% soak and 2 mL/L in medium was hence chosen as the best method of sterilization for C.asiatica. The synergistic combination of 6 benzylaminopurine (BAP and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA in concentrations of 2 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, in Duchefa medium compared with MS induced the most optimal percentage of sprouted shoots (93 ± 0.667, number of shoots (5.2 ± 0.079 and nodes (4 ± 0.067 per explant, leaf per explant (14 ± 0.107 and shoot length (4.1 ± 0.67 cm. Furthermore, optimum rooting frequency (95.2 ± 0.81%, the number of roots/shoot (7.5 ± 0.107 and the mean root length (4.5 ± 0.133 cm occurred for shoots that were cultured on full-strength MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. In this study, the acclimatized plantlets were successfully established with almost 85% survival. The findings of this study have proven an efficient medium and PGR concentration for the mass propagation of C.asiatica. These findings would be useful in micropropagation and ex situ conservation of this plant.

  20. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  2. (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lenovo

    2013-08-19

    Aug 19, 2013 ... Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds cultivated in the ... Key words: Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Apiaceae, seed, fatty acids composition, petroselinic acid, maturation. ..... atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorder, diabetes and other diseases.

  3. 12 - 17 Hayatu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    human welfare than any other parasitic angiosperms because their hosts are subsistence crops in areas marginal for agriculture (Singh 2000). As a parasite,. Striga is entirely dependent on its host. An exudates from roots of the crop plants stimulate germination of. Striga seed. The sprouting seeds attach themselves to.

  4. Neutron irradiation of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Neutrons are a valuable type of ionizing radiation for seed irradiation and radiobiological studies and for inducing mutations in crop plants. In experiments where neutrons are used in research reactors for seed irradiation it is difficult to measure the dose accurately and therefore to establish significant comparisons between experimental results obtained in various reactors and between repeated experiments in the same reactor. A further obstacle lies in the nature and response of the seeds themselves and the variety of ways in which they are exposed in reactors. The International Atomic Energy Agency decided to initiate international efforts to improve and standardize methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and of measuring and reporting the neutron dose. For this purpose, an International Neutron Seed Irradiation Programme has been established. The present report aims to give a brief but comprehensive picture of the work so far done in this programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  6. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...

  7. Carotid plaque stabilization induced by the supplement association Pycnogenol® and centella asiatica (Centellicum®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Roberta; Belcaro, Gianni; Ippolito, Edmondo

    2016-12-01

    Aim of this registry study was the evaluation of the stability of carotid plaques by ultrasound in asymptomatic subjects with high oxidative stress following supplementation with a combination of the extract from bark of Pinus pinaster, Pycnogenol®, with an extract from Centella asiatica leaves, Centellicum®. 50 patients, mean age 61.5 years, with carotid plaques (<50% stenosis) and high oxidative stress were included in this 3 months registry study. 26 patients received the combination of Pycnogenol® and Centellicum® and standard management, a control group received standard management only. The 2 groups were comparable. The combination of Pycnogenol® and Centellicum® reduced significantly (p<0.05) plaque height and length as well as the number of plaques relative to controls. The plaque stability index, based on the echogenicity in the ultrasound picture of the "white" components of the plaque, increased significantly (p<0.01) in the verum group, no changes were observed in the controls. Plasma free radicals were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by the combination product, whereas the levels of plasma free radicals remained unchanged in the control group. No unwanted effects or abnormal laboratory tests were recorded. This registry study revealed a significant increase in stability of plaques, indicated by an enhanced density of the plaques, following supplementation with the combination of Pycnogenol® and Centellicum®. As size and number of plaques was simultaneously reduced, the combination of the two plant extracts could be a safe option for prevention of cardiovascular events for patients with carotid plaques.

  8. Mechanical properties and in vivo healing evaluation of a novel Centella asiatica-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Giu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Yousaf, Abid Mehmood; Kim, Dong Wuk; Jang, Sun Woo; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Young Hun; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-07-25

    To develop a novel sodium alginate based Centella asiatica (CA)-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing (HCD) providing excellent mechanical properties and improved wound healing, numerous CA-loaded HCDs were prepared with various ingredients using the hot melting method. The effect of sodium alginate, styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer (SIS) and petroleum hydrocarbon resin (PHR) on the mechanical properties of CA-loaded HCDs was investigated. The effect of disintegrants on swelling and drug release was assessed. Moreover, the in vivo wound healing potentials of the selected CA-loaded HCD in various wound models such as abrasion, excision and infection were evaluated in comparison with the commercial product. Polyisobutylene and SIS hardly affected the mechanical properties, but PHR improved the tensile strength and elongation at break. Disintegrants such as croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone improved the swelling ratio of the CA-loaded HCD. Furthermore, the CA-loaded HCD without croscarmellose sodium poorly released the drug, but that with 2% croscarmellose sodium showed about 27% drug release in 24h. In particular, the CA-loaded HCD composed of CA/polyisobutylene/SIS/PHR/liquid paraffin/sodium alginate/croscarmellose sodium at the weight ratio of 1/8/25/25/12/27/2 furnished excellent mechanical properties and drug release. As compared with the commercial product, it offered improved healing effects in excision, infection and abrasion type wounds in rats. Thus, this novel CA-loaded HCD could be a potential candidate for the treatment of various wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal-Centella asiatica-extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikareepaisan, Panprung [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Suksamrarn, Apichart [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Ramkhamhaeng Road, Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); Supaphol, Pitt [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-01-09

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, {approx}180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

  10. Centella asiatica (L. Leaf Extract Treatment During the Growth Spurt Period Enhances Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Mohandas Rao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (CeA is a creeping plant growing in damp places in India and other Asian countries. The leaves of CeA are used for memory enhancement in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternative system of medicine in India. In this study, we have investigated the effect during the rat growth spurt period of CeA fresh leaf extract treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions of the brain concerned with learning and memory. Neonatal rat pups (7 days old were fed with 2, 4 or 6 ml kg−1 body weight of fresh leaf extract of CeA for 2, 4 or 6 weeks. After the treatment period the rats were killed, their brains were removed and the hippocampal neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using a camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization and intersections (a measure of dendritic length were quantified. These data were compared with data for age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in the dendritic length (intersections and dendritic branching points along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in rats treated with 4 and 6 ml kg−1 body weight per day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks. We conclude that the constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf extract have a neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence, the extract can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and neurodegenerative and memory disorders.

  11. Enhancement of Amygdaloid Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Fresh Leaf Juice of Centella asiatica (Linn during Growth Spurt Period in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Mohandas Rao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (CeA is a creeping herb, growing in moist places in India and other Asian Countries. Ayurvedic system of medicine, an alternate system of medicine in India, uses leaves of CeA for memory enhancement. Here, we have investigated the role of CeA fresh leaf juice treatment during growth spurt period of rats on dendritic morphology of amygdaloid neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. The present study was conducted on neonatal rat pups. The rat pups (7-days-old were fed with 2, 4 and 6 ml/kg body of fresh leaf juice of CeA for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were killed, brains removed and amygdaloid neurons impregnated with Silver nitrate (Golgi staining. Amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization and intersections (a measure dendritic length quantified. These data were compared with those of age-matched control rats. The results showed a significant increase in dendritic length (intersections and dendritic branching points along the length of dendrites of the amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 4 and 6 ml/kg body weight/day of CeA for longer periods of time (i.e. 4 and 6 weeks. We conclude that constituents/active principles present in CeA fresh leaf juice has neuronal dendritic growth stimulating property; hence it can be used for enhancing neuronal dendrites in stress and other neurodegenerative and memory disorders.

  12. An Investigation of the Differential Effects of Ursane Triterpenoids from Centella asiatica, and Their Semisynthetic Analogues, on GABAA Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Kaiser; Ng, Irene; Tallapragada, Vikram J; Váradi, Linda; Hibbs, David E; Hanrahan, Jane; Groundwater, Paul W

    2016-09-01

    The ursane triterpenoids, asiatic acid 1 and madecassic acid 2, are the major pharmacological constituents of Centella asiatica, commonly known as Gotu Kola, which is used traditionally for the treatment of anxiety and for the improvement of cognition and memory. Using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, these triterpenes, and some semisynthetic derivatives, were found to exhibit selective negative modulation of different subtypes of the GABAA receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Despite differing by only one hydroxyl group, asiatic acid 1 was found to be a negative modulator of the GABA-induced current at α1 β2 γ2L, α2 β2 γ2L and α5 β3 γ2L GABAA receptors, while madecassic acid 2 was not. Asiatic acid 1 exhibited the greatest effect at α1 β2 γ2L (IC50 37.05 μm), followed by α5 β3 γ2L (IC50 64.05 μm) then α2 β2 γ2L (IC50 427.2 μm) receptors. Conversion of the carboxylic acid group of asiatic acid 1 to a carboxamide group (2α,3β,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-amide 5) resulted in enhanced inhibition at both the α1 β2 γ2L (IC50 14.07 μm) and α2 β2 γ2L receptor subtypes (IC50 28.41 μm). The results of this study, and the involvement of α5 -containing GABAA receptors in cognition and memory, suggest that asiatic acid 1 may be a lead compound for the enhancement of cognition and memory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Vaccination trials against Taenia solium eggs in pigs injected with frozen oncospheres of T. solium or Taenia saginata asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ping-Chin; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Chun-Yun; Wu, Chin-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    In this study, 12 Small-Ear-Miniature pigs aged 142 to 185 days were used to determine whether pigs injected with nonviable oncospheres of Taenia solium or Taenia saginata asiatica can become resistant to the challenge of viable eggs of T. solium. The 12 pigs were equally divided into 4 groups: 3 experimental groups in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with a mixture of 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant and 10(4)/0.2 mL nonviable Taiwan/Asian Taenia, Indonesia Taenia, or T. solium oncospheres, and 1 control group in which each pig was injected subcutaneously with 0.2 mL phosphate buffer solution and 0.2 mL complete Freund's adjuvant. Each pig was orally inoculated with 10000 viable T. solium eggs 1 month later. The infection rates were 100% (2/2), 100% (3/3), 33% (1/3), and 100% (3/3) and cysticerci recovery rates were 1.3% (254/20000), 1.2% (371/30000), 0.01% (4/30000), and 8.6% (2,577/30000), respectively. Except for the location of 72 cysticerci located in the viscera, 3134 cysticerci were recovered from the muscles. In the experimental groups, 4 cysticerci recovered were viable and the remaining 625 were either calcified or degenerated. However, 2567 cysticerci recovered from the control group remained viable and only 10 were calcified or degenerated. The results indicate that in addition to the vaccine of T. solium, those of Taiwan Taenia and Indonesia Taenia can also induce high-crossing immunologic reactions against T. solium infection.

  14. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal-Centella asiatica-extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikareepaisan, Panprung; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ∼180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed

  15. [Near-infrared spectroscopy technology for online monitoring of the column separation and purification process of active components of Centella asiatica L. Urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Ye, Xiao-Lan; Yang, Guang; Qi, Yun-Peng; Fan, Guo-Rong

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is to study and develop a method for online monitoring of the column separation and purification process of active components that are madecassoside and asiaticoside of Centella asiatica L. Urban using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology. After collecting 50%-ethanol eluant, we detected their NIR spectra and developed the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay method of active components. Then, partial least square (PLS) was used to develop linear correlation between their NIR spectra and contents. During modeling, correlation coefficient (R2) and root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) were regarded as the indexes to select optimal wavenumbers and preprocessing methods. The optimal wavenumbers of madecassoside and asiaticoside were in the range of 12 000.8-7 499.8 cm(-1) and 12 000.8-9 750.3 cm(-1), respectively; R2 were 96.44 and 96.07, respectively, and RMSECV were 0.084 80 and 0.000 99, respectively. The above developed model was used for online monitoring of the contents of madecassoside and asiaticoside during the column separation and purification process of Centella asiatica L. Urban. The predicted results were satisfactory. This method was proved to be fast, convenient and precise. It can be used in online monitoring and quality control of the manufacturing of madecassoside and asiaticoside.

  16. The Inhibitory Action of the Extracts of Adathoda vasica, Eclipta alba, and Centella asiatica on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid Medium: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shyamala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inhibitive action of the extracts of Adathoda vasica, Eclipta alba, and Centella asiatica on the corrosion of mild steel in 1N HCl has been studied using weight loss method, electrochemical methods, and hydrogen permeation method. Polarization method indicates that the plant extracts are under mixed control, that is, promoting retardation of both anodic and cathodic reactions. The impedance method reveals that charge-transfer process controls the corrosion of mild steel. The plant extracts obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Theoretical fitting of the corrosion data to the kinetic-thermodynamic model was tested to show the nature of adsorption. Physisorption mechanism has been proposed for the inhibition action of these plant extracts. The protective film formed on the surface was confirmed by SEM. From hydrogen permeation method, all the plant extracts were able to reduce the permeation current. Results obtained in all three methods were very much in good agreement in the order Eclipta alba > Adathoda vasica > Centella asiatica, and, among the three plant extracts studied, the maximum inhibition efficiency was found in Eclipta alba which showed 99.6% inhibition efficiency at 8.0% v/v concentration of the extract.

  17. Centella asiatica extract protects against amyloid β1–40-induced neurotoxicity in neuronal cells by activating the antioxidative defence system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Li Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica (雷公根 léi gōng gēn is a traditional medicinal herb with high antioxidant activity, which decreases amyloid-β (Aβ deposition in the brain. At the same time, aggregated Aβ-induced oxidative stress is the trigger in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Here, we investigated the ability of C. asiatica ethanol extract (CAE to protect PC12 and IMR32 cells from Aβ1–40-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and concomitant neurotoxicity. Aggregated Aβ1–40 treatment resulted in reduced cell viability, which can be reversed by cotreatment with 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL CAE. Moreover, CAE eliminated the Aβ1–40-mediated increase in ROS production. Thus, CAE-mediated protection against aggregated Aβ1–40-induced neurotoxicity is attributable to modulation of the antioxidative defense system in cells, including the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and levels of glutathione and glutathione disulfide by CAE. This emphasizes the potential therapeutic and preventive value of CAE in the treatment of AD.

  18. Long-term follow-up of oral administration of flavonoids, Centella asiatica and Melilotus, for diabetic cystoid macular edema without macular thickening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Raimondo; Cennamo, Gilda; Bonavolontà, Paola; Pascotto, Arduino; de Crecchio, Giuseppe; Cennamo, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate long-term follow-up of the orally administered combination of flavonoids with Centella asiatica and Melilotus for treatment of diabetic cystoid macular edema (CME) without macular thickening. Seventy consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes and CME without macular thickening at optical coherence tomography (OCT) were prospectively and randomly enrolled in two groups of 35 subjects each (treatment and control groups). Patients in the treatment group were treated with an oral combination of diosmin (300 mg/day), with C. asiatica (15 mg/day) and Melilotus (160 mg/day). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, OCT (Spectralis HRA-OCT), and central microperimetry (SD-SLO/OCT) at baseline, month 3, month 6, month 12, month 24, and month 36. No differences in HbAc1 percentage, blood pressure, microalbuminuria, visual acuity, mean central retinal thickness, and stability of fixation were present between the two groups during follow up (p>0.05). Retinal sensitivity reduced in the control group only from month 6 until month 36 (pasiatica and Melilotus, in patients with CME without macular thickening provided preservation of retinal sensitivity during 36 months of follow up when compared with untreated patients.

  19. The influence of certain taxonomic and environmental parameters on biomass production and triterpenoid content in the leaves of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Raoseta, Soaharin'ny Ony Rakotondralambo; Roger, Edmond; Razafindrazaka, Harena; Pirotais, Sarah; Boucher, Marie; Danthu, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    Centella asiatica (Apiaceae family; Talapetraka in Malagasy) is a tropical and subtropical plant with leaves containing glycotriterpenoids (asiaticosides) used in traditional and modern medicine. C. asiatica is collected exclusively in natural stands. It is Madagascar's second most important indigenous plant export. The objective in this study is to provide data which will make it possible to optimize the harvest and thus effectively develop this resource. Two foliar morphotypes were identified: morphotype A with small reniform leaves (leaf area ca. 4.5 cm(2) ), found in the east of Madagascar, and morphotype B with large round leaves (up to 7.5 cm(2) ) found in the west, with sympatric zones in the central part of the island. Morphotype A produces a higher biomass, and is twice as rich in asiaticosides as morphotype B. Significant variations in biomass yield and asiaticoside content are observed depending on the date of collection: higher during the rainy season (December to April) and lower during the dry season (June to August). Inter-annual variations are also observed. Populations located at around 800-1400 m altitude on the eastern side of Madagascar, in a sub-humid climate, appeared to be more productive. These results provide more precise information to the economic sector, which confirms the empirical choices made by collectors. They represent the first elements towards sustainable management of the resource, and maybe even domestication. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Plantago asiatica leaf extract and their application for the cyanation of aldehydes using K4Fe(CN)6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Momeni, Seyedeh Samaneh; Sajadi, S Mohammad

    2017-11-15

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were synthesized via a green method by using of Plantago asiatica leaf extract as natural solvent and reaction biomedia under environmentally benign reaction conditions. It was observed that use of Plantago asiatica leaf extract makes a simple, eco-friendly and cost effective method for the preparation of the Cu NPs and can reduce copper ions into Cu(0) within 5min of reaction time without using any stabilizer or surfactant agent. The progress of the reaction was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Polyphenolics could be adsorbed on the surface of Cu NPs, possibly by interaction through π-electrons interaction in the absence of other strong ligating agents. The catalytic activity of the Cu NPs was evaluated by cyanation of aldehydes in the extract as a green solvent. This method provided several advantages such as cleaner easy work-up, shorter reaction time and higher yield. Cu NPs were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, TEM, X-ray diffraction and the synthesized products were characterized by FT-IR and 1 H NMR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of Centella asiatica, vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixtures preparations in stimulating collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human skin fibroblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Puziah

    2014-03-01

    Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban is well known in promoting wound healing and provides significant benefits in skin care and therapeutic products formulation. Glycolic acid and vitamins also play a role in the enhancement of collagen and fibronectin synthesis. Here, we evaluate the specific effect of Centella asiatica (CA), vitamins, glycolic acid and their mixture preparations to stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in cultured human fibroblast cells. The fibroblast cells are incubated with CA, glycolic acid, vitamins and their mixture preparations for 48 h. The cell lysates were analyzed for protein content and collagen synthesis by direct binding enzyme immunoassay. The fibronectin of the cultured supernatant was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E and C significantly stimulate collagen and fibronectin synthesis in the fibroblast. Addition of glycolic acid and vitamins to CA further increased the levels of collagen and fibronectin synthesis to 8.55 and 23.75 μg/100 μg, respectively. CA, glycolic acid, vitamins A, E, and C, and their mixtures demonstrated stimulatory effect on both extra-cellular matrix synthesis of collagen and fibronectin in in vitro studies on human foreskin fibroblasts, which is beneficial to skin care and therapeutic products formulation.

  2. PENGARUH TRITERPEN TOTAL PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L Urban TERHADAP FUNGSI KOGNITIF BELAJAR DAN MENGINGAT PADA MENCIT JANTAN ALBINO (Mus musculus YANG DIHAMBAT DENGAN SKOPOLAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban has been described to posses CNS effects such as improving cognitive function, learning and memory. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of total triterpen’s pegagan extract on cognitive functions as the learning and memory performance in male albino mice (Mus musculus inhibited by scopolamine. The research design was Complete Randomized Design (RAL – factorial on thirty six mice divided into 4 groups. One control group received only aquabidest (negative control. Three treatment groups received total triterpen 16 mg/kg BW, 32 mg/kg BW orally and piracetam 500 mg/kg BW by intra peritoneally (positive control for 21 days. Data indicating learning and memory process of all subjects were obtained from one-trial passive avoidance test. Data were analyzed by two way ANOVA and BNT (p0,05. In conclusion, total triterpen from pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban improved learning ability and memory of male albino mice (Mus musculus even though, it was inhibited by scopolamine.

  3. Effect of seed invigoration by osmopriming on seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence of osmopriming techniques on seed lots of three Capsicum species. The seeds were primed using seven different solutions for three different priming durations. Primed seed lots were evaluated for seed germination, seedling vigour index, seedling emergence and ...

  4. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  5. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds from each harvest were subjected to different seed quality tests and data generated were analyzed. Seed quality traits were considerably affected by the genotypes and growing conditions i.e. plant population and cropping seasons. Genotypes with superior seed quality were prevalent at 166.667 and 266.667 plants ...

  6. Parasitic weed incidence and related economic losses in rice in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Demont, Matty; Zwart, Sander J.; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic weeds pose increasing threats to rain-fed rice production in Africa. Most important species are Striga asiatica, S. aspera and S. hermonthica in rain-fed uplands, and Rhamphicarpa fistulosa in rain-fed lowlands. Information on the regional spread and economic importance of parasitic weeds

  7. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...... and increase seed production. Planted seed orchards aim at capturing large genetic variation and are planted in a design that facilitates genetic evaluation and promotes outbred seed production. Good seed production relies upon success of the whole range of reproductive events from flower differentiation...

  8. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help improve cardiovascular risk factors such as lowering cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. However, there are not ... ground or whole chia seeds on cereal, rice, yogurt or vegetables. In Mexico, a dish called chia ...

  9. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-10-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  11. Tree Seed Technology Training Course - Instructor's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.T. Bonner; John A. Vozzo; W.W. Elam; S.B. Land

    1994-01-01

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but it can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses. The manual covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling, seed-quality...

  12. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  13. Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMC) hydrogel-filled 3-D scaffold: Preliminary study through a 3-D antiproliferative activity of Centella asiatica extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizad, Syazwan; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of using the water extract from Centella asiatica on the mortality of human lung cancer cells (A549) with the use of novel 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel. A biodegradable polymer, poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was used in this study as 3-D scaffolds, with some modifications made by introducing the gel structure on its pore, which provides a great biomimetic microenvironment for cells to grow apart from increasing the interaction between the cells and cell-bioactive extracts. The CMC showed a good hydrophilic characteristic with mean contact angle of 24.30 ± 22.03°. To ensure the CMC gel had good attachments with the scaffolds, a surface treatment was made before the CMC gel was infused into the scaffolds. The results showed that these modified scaffolds contained 42.41 ± 0.14% w/w of CMC gel, which indicated that the gel had already filled up the entire pore of 3-D scaffolds. Besides, the infused hydrogel scaffolds took only 24 hours to be saturated when absorbing the water. The viability of cancer cells by MTS assay after being treated with Centella asiatica showed that the scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel had the cell viability of 46.89 ± 1.20% followed by porous 3-D model with 57.30 ± 1.60% of cell viability, and the 2-D model with 67.10 ± 1.10% of cell viability. The inhibitory activity in cell viability between 2-D and 3-D models did not differ significantly (p>0.05) due to the limitation of time in incubating the extract with the cell in the 3-D model microenvironment. In conclusion, with the application of 3-D scaffolds infused with CMC hydrogel, the extracts of Centella asiatica has been proven to have the ability to kill cancer cells and have a great potential to become one of the alternative methods in treating cancer patients.

  14. Molecular physiology of seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2014-05-01

    Plant development is well described. However, full understanding of the regulation of processes associated with plant development is still missing. Present Dr.Sc. thesis advances our understanding of the regulation of plant development by quantitative proteomics analyses of seed development of soybean, canola, castor, flax, and model plant arabidopsis in control and environmentally challenged environments. The analysis of greenhouse-grown soybean, canola, castor, and arabidospis provided complex characterization of metabolic processes during seed development, for instance, of carbon assimilation into fatty acids. Furthermore, the analyses of soybean and flax grown in Chernobyl area provided in-depth characterization of seed development in radio-contaminated environment. Soybean and flax were altered by radio-contaminated environment in different way. However, these alterations resulted into modifications in seed oil content. Further analyses showed that soybean and flax possess alterations of carbon metabolism in cytoplasm and plastids along with increased activity of photosynthetic apparatus. Our present experiments are focused on further characterization of molecular bases that might be responsible for alterations of seed oil content in Chernobyl grown plants. (author)

  15. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  16. Titrated extract of Centella asiatica increases hair inductive property through inhibition of STAT signaling pathway in three-dimensional spheroid cultured human dermal papilla cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeong Min; An, Sungkwan; Lee, Junwoo; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Nam; Kim, Young Sam; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Bae, Seunghee

    2017-12-01

    Dermal papilla (DP) is a pivotal part of hair follicle, and the smaller size of the DP is related with the hair loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) on hair growth inductive property on 3D spheroid cultured human DP cells (HDP cells). Significantly increased effect of TECA on cell viability was only shown in 3D sphered HPD cells, not in 2D cultured HDP cells. Also, TECA treatment increased the sphere size of HDP cells. The luciferase activity of STAT reporter genes and the expression of STAT-targeted genes, SOCS1 and SOCS3, were significantly decreased. Also, TECA treatment increased the expression of the hair growth-related signature genes in 3D sphered HDP cells. Furthermore, TECA led to downregulation of the level of phosphorylated STAT proteins in 3D sphered HDP cells. Overall, TECA activates the potential of hair inductive capacity in HDP cells.

  17. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important development issue. This study deals with the impact different types of regulation have on how farmers access seed.  I have analysed current regulatory frameworks in terms of their impact on differ...

  18. Control of seed borne diseasees in organic seed propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The key control measure of plant diseases in organic agriculture is crop rotation, mixed cropping and moderate fertilization. A wide range of plant diseases can be controlled or minimized in this way. However, at least one group of plant diseases, the seed borne diseases, cannot. The seed borne diseases are not transmitted through the soil, and crop rotation is therefore an insufficient tool. Mixed cropping is impractical in seed propagation, where seed purity according to the...

  19. variation in maize tolerance to striga lutea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-03-30

    Mar 30, 2012 ... 26: 125-137. Morris, L.M. (1994). Assessing the benefits of international maize breeding research: An overview of the global maize impact study. CIMMYT maize research impacts survey. Pp 29-34. Norman, J.R. and Hooker, J.E. (2000). Sporulation of Phytophthora fragariae shows a greater stimulation by.

  20. Cytotoxic constituents of Alectra and Striga species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    and the related Alectra vogelii has now resulted in the isolation of eight iridoid glucosides (mussaenosidic acid, mussaenoside, gardoside methyl ester, bartsioside, isoaucubin, melittoside, aucubin and eurostoside), two caffeoyl phenylethyl glycosides (calceolarioside A and verbascoside) as well as shikimic acid...

  1. Cytotoxic constituents of Alectra and Striga species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2004-01-01

    and trigonelline, all identified by NMR spectroscopy. The iridoids are potent cytotoxins and probably represent an anti-herbivore defence system common to Scrophulariaceae (sensu lato). This has the potential to explain differences in tolerance apparent for contrasting host taxa and cultivars. The nature...... of the iridoids present also provides additional validation of the recent transferral of parasitic Scrophulariaceae (s.l.) to Orobanchaceae....

  2. Asiatic acid isolated from Centella asiatica inhibits TGF-β1-induced collagen expression in human keloid fibroblasts via PPAR-γ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Difei; Zhang, Jizhou; Wu, Xin; Dou, Yannong; Yang, Yan; Tan, Qian; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Dai, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Keloids are fibroproliferative disorders characterized by exuberant extracellular matrix deposition and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad pathway plays a pivotal role in keloid pathogenesis. Centella asiatica extract has been applied in scar management for ages. As one of its major components, asiatic acid (AA) has been recently reported to inhibit liver fibrosis by blocking TGF-β/Smad pathway. However, its effect on keloid remains unknown. In order to investigate the effects of AA on cell proliferation, invasion and collagen synthesis, normal and keloid fibroblasts were exposed to TGF-β1 with or without AA. Relevant experiments including 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay, Transwell invasion assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA interference assay were conducted. As a result, keloid fibroblasts showed higher responsiveness to TGF-β1 stimulation than normal fibroblasts in terms of invasion and collagen synthesis. AA could suppress TGF-β1-induced expression of collagen type I, inhibit Smad 2/3 phosphorylation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression, while elevate Smad 7 protein level. Noteworthy, the effects of AA on keloid fibroblasts could be abrogated by PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 and by silencing of PPAR-γ. The present study demonstrated that AA inhibited TGF-β1-induced collagen and PAI-1 expression in keloid fibroblasts through PPAR-γ activation, which suggested that AA was one of the active constituents of C. asiatica responsible for keloid management, and could be included in the arsenal for combating against keloid.

  3. Artificial neural network-based model for the prediction of optimal growth and culture conditions for maximum biomass accumulation in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Archana; Prakash, Om; Mehrotra, Shakti; Khan, Feroz; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Mathur, Archana

    2017-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling approach is used to determine the synergistic effect of five major components of growth medium (Mg, Cu, Zn, nitrate and sucrose) on improved in vitro biomass yield in multiple shoot cultures of Centella asiatica. The back propagation neural network (BPNN) was employed to predict optimal biomass accumulation in terms of growth index over a defined culture duration of 35 days. The four variable concentrations of five media components, i.e. MgSO 4 (0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0 mM), ZnSO 4 (0, 15, 30, 60 μM), CuSO 4 (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 μM), NO 3 (20, 30, 40, 60 mM) and sucrose (1, 3, 5, 7 %, w/v) were taken as inputs for the ANN model. The designed model was evaluated by performing three different sets of validation experiments that indicated a greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset. The results of the modelling experiment suggested that 1.5 mM Mg, 30 μM Zn, 0.1 μM Cu, 40 mM NO 3 and 6 % (w/v) sucrose were the respective optimal concentrations of the tested medium components for achieving maximum growth index of 1654.46 with high centelloside yield (62.37 mg DW/culture) in the cultured multiple shoots. This study can facilitate the generation of higher biomass of uniform, clean, good quality C. asiatica herb that can efficiently be utilized by pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen genetically diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes were grown under three diverse .... genetic line. GenotypiC differences in the quality of seed provide an opportunity for employing. genotypiC selection as a method of improving seed quality (Adebisi,. 2004). ...... Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seed vigour ...

  5. genetics and inheritance of seed dormancy inflicted by seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. The study was undertaken to investigate the genetic mode of inheritance of dormancy imposed by the hull (seed coat) in rice seeds. Freshly harvested seeds of parents, F1 and F2 populations of a cross between a dormant cultivar Kisegese and non-dormant strain K2004 were used. Germination test of the ...

  6. Cowpea seed coat chemical analysis in relation to storage seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field emergence of stored cowpea seeds in the tropical environment is a major limitation to its production, particularly in cultivars with unpigmented seed coats. To determine the storage potential of cowpea, seeds of five cultivars comprising two pigmented and three unpigmented ones were subjected to controlled ...

  7. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  8. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  9. Seed drill depth control system for precision seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Lamandé, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    An adequate and uniform seeding depth is crucial for the homogeneous development of a crop, as it affects time of emergence and germination rate. The considerable depth variations observed during seeding operations - even for modern seed drills - are mainly caused by variability in soil resistanc...

  10. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Low seed quality was observed in ... Seed quality did not vary between cultivars. Regardless of the fermentation process and cultivars used, the best seed and seedling qualities were observed when the amount of rainfall during the experiment ..... wet (Bouaziz and Hicks, 1990; Evans and Etherington.

  11. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  12. Utility of avocado pear seed ( Persea Americana ), mango seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximate composition and amino acid profile of three plant materials, Avocado pear seed (Persea americana), mango seed (Magifera indica) and bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris) were determined. Crude protein varied from 2.0 ± 0.06% in Magifera indica to 3.73 ± 0.08% in Persea americana. Generally, the amino ...

  13. Lower seed rates favor seed multiplication ratio with minimal impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in split plot design of three replications to determine effects of four sowing rates (50, 75, 100, 125 kg ha-1) and three row spacing (10, 20, 30 cm) on seed multiplication ratio, seed yield, and seed quality of wheat at Kulumsa and Assasa from 2012 to 2014. Results indicated that ...

  14. The importance of good seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  15. Seed dormancy in alpine species

    OpenAIRE

    Schwienbacher, Erich; Navarro-Cano, Jose Antonio; Neuner, Gilbert; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2011-01-01

    In alpine species the classification of the various mechanisms underlying seed dormancy has been rather questionable and controversial. Thus, we investigated 28 alpine species to evaluate the prevailing types of dormancy. Embryo type and water impermeability of seed coats gave an indication of the potential seed dormancy class. To ascertain the actual dormancy class and level, we performed germination experiments comparing the behavior of seeds without storage, after cold-dry storage, after c...

  16. Seed coat sculpturing in Halophila

    OpenAIRE

    Japar, Sidik Bujang; Muta, Harah Zakaria; Suzalina, Akma Awing; Nojima, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao

    2006-01-01

    This study furnishes information on external morphology of the seed coats of selected Halophila. Fruiting plants of Halophila beccarii, H. ovalis, H. decipiens, Halophila sp. were collected from various locations around Malaysia and including Halophila stipulacea from Mauritus. Seeds extracted from mature fruits were fixed in 2.5% glutaradehyde. Fixed seeds were washed in 0.1M Sodium cacodylate buffer at 4℃ for 10 minutes. The washing procedure was repeated three times. The seeds were dehydra...

  17. Nest-mediated seed dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Warren; Jason P. Love; Mark A. Bradford

    2017-01-01

    Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to...

  18. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  19. Sexual reproduction, seeds, and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter T. McDonough

    1985-01-01

    Natural genetic interchange and extensive colonization of aspen by seed strongly depends upon favorable climatic and microclimatic conditions and upon human intervention. At times, in regions with the right combination of environmental conditions, there is significant L, reproduction by seed; elsewhere such establishment is rare. Seed production generally is profuse;...

  20. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  1. (Lupinus albus) SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... In the Middle East, lupin seeds are consumed as a snack after they are soaked in water, scalded and ... used as roasted bean 'kolo' and to prepare local alcoholic drink 'katikala' and other food products .... Switzerland), followed 15 min cooling under running tap water and finally centrifuged at 2000 x g for ...

  2. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  3. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  4. Managing Stress. Project Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Donna; Wilk, Jan

    One of eight papers from Project Seed, this paper describes a stress management project undertaken with high school sophomores. Managing Stress is described as an interactive workshop that offers young people an opportunity to examine specific areas of stress in their lives and to learn effective ways to deal with them. The program described…

  5. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  6. Seed for change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassena Beko, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia is an agrarian country where agriculture dominates the economy, and thus agriculture is considered as an engine of growth by the government. Seed as one of the agricultural technologies, in fact, a carrier of many technologies, is critical to increasing production, but the use of quality

  7. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    When seed producers and seed users are geographically or functionally separated, seeds are transferred from producers to users. In market-oriented systems, transfer includes the pricing of seed, which reflects the procurement cost and seed quality. Physiological quality is documented via the seed...

  8. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed, if...

  9. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed...

  10. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche control using synthetic germination stimulants. Weed Research 16: 223-227. Kim, S.K. and Adetimirin, V0. 1997. Striga hermonthica seed inoculum rate effects on maize hybrid tolerance and susceptibility expression. Crop Science 3711066-1071. M'Boob, 8.8. 1989. A regional program for. Striga control in West ...

  12. [Effects of seed priming on vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xiu; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Wang, Yan-Ru

    2008-03-01

    To select an effective way to enhance vigor of Prunella vulgaris seeds. Three population seeds were treated at the 20 degrees C and dark enviroment. Priming with 20% - 30% PEG and 200 - 400 mg x L(-1) GA3 could enhance seeds germination and vigor. Germination percentage of three population seeds treated with 0. 6% - 3.0% NaCl reduced, but they started to germinate in advance. Treated with 0.6% - 2.4% KNO3-KH2PO4, germination rate and vigor of seeds in Zijinshan and Pan' an both increased and the one in Bozhou decreased. Vigor of P. vulgaris seed treated with PEG and GA3 under proper concentration increases, while treated with KNO3-KH2PO, and NaCl low vigor seeds germination rate reduces.

  13. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical harvesting of pumpkin seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sito, Stjepan; Ivančan, Stjepan; Barković, Edi; Mucalo, Ana

    2009-01-01

    One of the key problems in production technology of pumpkin seed for oil production is mechanized harvesting and losses of seed during mechanical harvesting. The losses of pumpkin seed during mechanical harvesting at peripheral velocity of 1.57 m/s (optimally adjusted machine) were 4.4% for Gleisdorf species, 5.2% for Slovenska species and 7.8% for pumpkin with husk. The higher average losses of pumpkin seed with husk were caused by tight connection of seed and pumpkin fruit.

  15. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required under...

  16. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  17. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  18. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  19. Penurunan Kerusakan Jaringan Paru Terinfeksi Tuberkulosis oleh Ekstrak Pegagan Melalui Peningkatan Ekspresi Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 (SUPLEMENTATION OF EFFECT ANILYSIS OF CENTELLA ASIATICA EXTRACT IN REDUCE LUNG TUBERCULOSIS TISSUE D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Mustika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica is a medicinal plant used for wound healing through increasing of collagen synthesis.This evidence generates a new expectation that it could be used for therapy of tuberculosis infection,especially for healing lung tissue damage. Until now, the effects and mechanisms onC. asiatica to cure thelung tissue damage due to M. tuberculosis infection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to prove theeffect and mechanism of ethanol extract of C. asiatica to repair the rats lung tissue damaged throughexpression of the enzimmatrix metalloproteinase-1(MMP-1danenzimtissue inhibitor of matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1. The study was conducted in male rats. Twenty four rats were infected withM. tuberculosis through intratrachea and randomly divided into four groups. Group 1, 2 and 3 were thetreatment groups that they were given the ethanol extract of C. asiatica at dose 375mg/kgbw, 750 mg /kgbw, and 1500 mg / kgbw, orally and once a day for fourteen days. The fourth group was a control groupthat given distilled water. On day 15 rats were euthanized and lungs tissue have been taken. Evaluationof lungs tissue damage were assessed by the Dorman’s score in Hematoxylin Eosin and evaluation of the expression of MMP - 1 and TIMP 1 were performed by immunohistochemistry. Data of TIMP-1 wereanalyzed with ANOVA and data of lung tissue damage and MMP–1 were analyzed with Mann WhitneyU (á = 0.05. The results showed that there was a significant differences in the lungs tissue damagebetween the dose groups of 375 mg / kgbw and controls (p = 0.006, the dose groups at dose 750 mg / kgbwand controls (p = 0.004 , the dose groups of 1500 mg / kgbw and controls (p = 0.043. There wasn’t asignificant difference between the treatment groups and control in the expression of MMP-1. In the expressionof TIMP – 1, there was a significant difference between the treatment group at dose of 750 mg / kg andcontrol. The conclusion of the study is the ethanol

  20. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  1. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  2. Sunflower seed allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  4. Centella asiatica modulates cancer cachexia associated inflammatory cytokines and cell death in leukaemic THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Dhaneshree Bestinee; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Guruprasad, Kanive Parashiva; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Sewram, Vikash

    2017-08-01

    Cancer cachexia is associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Centella asiatica (C. asiatica) possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour potential. We investigated the modulation of antioxidants, cytokines and cell death by C. asiatica ethanolic leaf extract (C LE ) in leukaemic THP-1 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's). Cytotoxcity of C LE was determined at 24 and 72 h (h). Oxidant scavenging activity of C LE was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Glutathione (GSH) levels, caspase (-8, -9, -3/7) activities and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (Luminometry) were then assayed. The levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and IL-10 were also assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. C LE decreased PBMC viability between 33.25-74.55% (24 h: 0.2-0.8 mg/ml C LE and 72 h: 0.4-0.8 mg/ml C LE ) and THP-1 viability by 28.404% (72 h: 0.8 mg/ml C LE ) (p < 0.0001). Oxidant scavenging activity was increased by C LE (0.05-0.8 mg/ml) (p < 0.0001). PBMC TNF-α and IL-10 levels were decreased by C LE (0.05-0.8 mg/ml) (p < 0.0001). However, PBMC IL-6 and IL-1β concentrations were increased at 0.05-0.2 mg/ml C LE but decreased at 0.4 mg/ml C LE (p < 0.0001). In THP-1 cells, C LE (0.2-0.8 mg/ml) decreased IL-1β and IL-6 whereas increased IL-10 levels (p < 0.0001). In both cell lines, C LE (0.05-0.2 mg/ml, 24 and 72 h) increased GSH concentrations (p < 0.0001). At 24 h, caspase (-9, -3/7) activities was increased by C LE (0.05-0.8 mg/ml) in PBMC's whereas decreased by C LE (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) in THP-1 cells (p < 0.0001). At 72 h, C LE (0.05-0.8 mg/ml) decreased caspase (-9, -3/7) activities and ATP levels in both cell lines (p < 0.0001). In PBMC's and THP-1 cells, C LE proved to effectively modulate antioxidant activity, inflammatory cytokines and cell death. In THP-1 cells, C LE decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels

  5. Seed storage behavior of forest tree species seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of five forest species were classified according to their physiological storage behavior. Seeds of Casearia sylvestris Swart (Salicaceae, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. (Meliaceae, Eremanthus incanus Less. (Asteraceae, Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae were collected and taken to the laboratory, where they were processed and submitted to both rapid and slow drying, storage and assayed for viability. After physiological classification regarding storage behavior, it was observed that seeds of C. sylvestris and E. incanus presented orthodox behavior. Seeds of G. kunthiana and P. heptaphyllum were classified as recalcitrant and Q. grandiflora as an intermediate, which did not tolerate low moisture content.

  6. Flavonoid and leaf gas exchange responses of Centella asiatica to acute gamma irradiation and carbon dioxide enrichment under controlled environment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa Binti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah Bt; Philip, Elizabeth

    2011-10-25

    The study was couducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and CO₂ on flavonoid content and leaf gas exchange in C.asiatica. For flavonoid determination, the design was a split split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). For other parameters, the designs were split plots. Statistical tests revealed significant differences in flavonoid contents of Centella asiatica leaves between different growth stages and various CO₂ treatments. CO₂ 400, G20 (400 = ambient CO₂; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy) showed 82.90% higher total flavonoid content (TFC) in the 5th week than CO₂ 400 as control at its best harvest time (4th week). Increasing the concentration of CO₂ from 400 to 800 μmol/mol had significant effects on TFC and harvesting time. In fact, 800 μmol/mol resulted in 171.1% and 66.62% increases in TFC for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Moreover, increasing CO₂ concentration reduced the harvesting time to three and four weeks for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Enhancing CO₂ to 800 µmol/mol resulted in a 193.30% (CO₂ 800) increase in leaf biomass compared to 400 µmol/mol and 226.34% enhancement in irradiated plants (CO₂ 800, G20) [800 = Ambient CO₂; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy] than CO₂ 400, G20. In addition, the CO₂ 800, G20 had the highest amount of flavonoid*biomass in the 4th week. The results of this study indicated that all elevated CO₂ treatments had higher PN than the ambient ones. The findings showed that when CO₂ level increased from 400 to 800 µmol/mol, stomatal conductance, leaf intercellular CO₂ and transpiration rate had the tendency to decrease. However, water use efficiency increased in response to elevated CO₂ concentration. Returning to the findings of this study, it is now possible to state that the proposed method (combined CO₂ and gamma irradiation) has the potential to increase the product value by reducing the time to harvest, increasing the yield

  7. Flavonoid and Leaf Gas Exchange Responses of Centella asiatica to Acute Gamma Irradiation and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Controlled Environment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Binti Jaafar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was couducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and CO2 on flavonoid content and leaf gas exchange in C.asiatica. For flavonoid determination, the design was a split split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD. For other parameters, the designs were split plots. Statistical tests revealed significant differences in flavonoid contents of Centella asiatica leaves between different growth stages and various CO2 treatments. CO2 400, G20 (400 = ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy showed 82.90% higher total flavonoid content (TFC in the 5th week than CO2 400 as control at its best harvest time (4th week. Increasing the concentration of CO2 from 400 to 800 μmol/mol had significant effects on TFC and harvesting time. In fact, 800 μmol/mol resulted in 171.1% and 66.62% increases in TFC for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Moreover, increasing CO2 concentration reduced the harvesting time to three and four weeks for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Enhancing CO2 to 800 µmol/mol resulted in a 193.30% (CO2 800 increase in leaf biomass compared to 400 µmol/mol and 226.34% enhancement in irradiated plants (CO2 800, G20 [800 = Ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy] than CO2 400, G20. In addition, the CO2 800, G20 had the highest amount of flavonoid*biomass in the 4th week. The results of this study indicated that all elevated CO2 treatments had higher PN than the ambient ones. The findings showed that when CO2 level increased from 400 to 800 µmol/mol, stomatal conductance, leaf intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate had the tendency to decrease. However, water use efficiency increased in response to elevated CO2 concentration. Returning to the findings of this study, it is now possible to state that the proposed method (combined CO2 and gamma irradiation has the potential to increase the product value by reducing the time to harvest, increasing the yield per unit area via

  8. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  9. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  10. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  11. Chapter 24. Seed collection, cleaning, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent R. Jorgensen; Richard Stevens

    2004-01-01

    Acquisition of quality seed in the quantity needed is essential for successful restoration and revegetation programs. Seed is grown and harvested as a crop, or collected from native stands. In the past, when native species were seeded, it was either collect the seed yourself, or go without. Now, there are dealers who supply seed of many native species on a regular...

  12. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules and...

  13. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  14. Seed mucilage from Ipomoea dasysperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Pandey, M; Srivastava, A; Srivastava, V

    2007-04-01

    A non-ionic water-soluble galactomannan, having galactose and mannose in 1:6 molar ratio, was isolated from endosperm of the seeds of Ipomoea dasysperma. The seed mucilage was found to have a structure having a linear chain of beta (1-->4) linked mannopyranosyl units with D-galactose side chains attached through alpha (1-->6) linkage to the main chain. I. dasysperma seed gum possesses non-ionic characteristics of commercial seed gums and has potential to be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  16. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading 1005.10...

  17. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... This study was conducted to evaluate the response of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seeds under accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test was carried out at three different temperatures: 41, 43 and 45°C with four duration periods of 48, 72, 96, 144 and a relative humidity of 100%. The two seed lots of F.

  18. Genetic variation in Pinus brutia Ten. seed stands and seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... have been completed and progeny tests have been esta- blished on multiple sites to evaluate the genetic merits of the selected trees. There are also well distributed clonal seed orchards established to represent the breeding zones of the species. Some of these seed orchards, how- ever, are still too young ...

  19. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... the effect of seed priming with 5 g/L NaCl on germination and seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to five salinity levels ... Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling ..... Beneficial effects of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress.

  20. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.; Cueff, G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Rajjou, L.; Bentsink, L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  1. Effect of Seed Density on Splash Cup Seed Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigger, Patrick; Pepper, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    Splash cup plants are plants that utilize a small, mm-sized cup filled with seeds as a method of seed dispersal. The cup uses kinetic energy of an incident raindrop in order to project the seeds away from the plant up to 1 meter. The dispersal distance is important to ensure the offspring are not clustered too tightly to the parent plant. It has previously been found that a cup angle of 40 degrees to the horizontal is optimal for maximum dispersal of water from cups with no seeds. In this study we examine if the 40 degree cup is optimal for cups containing seeds with varying densities. We released uniform water drops above 5.0 mm 3D printed models of splash cups, using 1.0 mm plastic and glass microspheres of varying densities to simulate seeds. We observed the dispersal characteristics of each bead type by measuring the final seed locations after each splash, and by recording high speed video to determine the angle and velocity of the seeds as they exited the cup.

  2. Ash ( Fraxinus excelsior ) seed quality in relation to seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the response of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) seeds under accelerated aging test. The accelerated aging test was carried out at three different temperatures: 41, 43 and 45°C with four duration periods of 48, 72, 96, 144 and a relative humidity of 100%. The two seed lots of F. excelsior were ...

  3. Seed production and quality of pinus durangensis mart., from seed areas and a seed stand in durango, mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, V.B.; Ruiz, J.A.P.; Parra, A.C.; Zagoya, R.A.; Rodriguez, H.G

    2014-01-01

    Seed productive potential, production efficiency and seed quality of seed areas of P. durangensis Mart. from La Florida and La Campana, and from a Pericos seed stand, located in Durango state, Mexico were investigated. The productive potential, developed seeds, upper and lower infertile ovules, and aborted ovules during the first and second year of seed formation were determined. X-ray scanning was used to determine the percentage of seeds that were filled, emptied, malformed, or damaged by insects. Seed production efficiency was also determined. Speed, value and percentage of germination were determined under laboratory conditions. The Pericos seed stand had the greatest seed productive potential, in terms of number of developed seeds per cone (100.3) and filled seeds (79.7), and in the percentage of filled seeds (73.4%) and seed germination (53.8%). The Pericos seed stand had the highest seed production efficiency (57.6%); this low efficiency reflects problems of damage caused by insects and deficient management. The highest ovule abortion during the first year was observed at La Campana seed area, due to self-pollination or damage by the seedbug Leptoglossus occidentalis in the early stages of seed development. (author)

  4. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Saasveld Forestry Research Centre, George. Many species of Cape Proteaceae have seeds dispersed by ants. Ants may reduce seed predation by rapidly transporting and burying seeds in their nests. Three field experiments using ant and ...

  5. Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide Modulatory Mechanisms in the Neuroprotective Effect of Centella asiatica Against Sleep Deprivation Induced Anxiety Like Behaviour, Oxidative Damage and Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Priyanka; Kumar, Anil

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an experience of inadequate or poor quality of sleep that may produce significant alterations in multiple neural systems. Centella asiatica (CA) is a psychoactive medicinal herb with immense therapeutic potential. The present study was designed to explore the possible nitric oxide (NO) modulatory mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of CA against SD induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation. Male laca mice were sleep deprived for 72 h, and CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) was administered alone and in combination with NO modulators for 8 days, starting five days before 72-h SD exposure. Various behavioural (locomotor activity, elevated plus maze) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, catalase, nitrite levels and superoxide dismutase activity), neuroinflammation marker (TNF-alpha) were assessed subsequently. CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) treatment for 8 days significantly improved locomotor activity, anti-anxiety like effect and attenuated oxidative damage and TNF α level as compared to sleep-deprived 72-h group. Also while the neuroprotective effect of CA was increased by NO antagonists, it was diminished by NO agonists. The present study suggests that NO modulatory mechanism could be involved in the protective effect of CA against SD-induced anxiety-like behaviour, oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics between madecassoside and asiaticoside presented in a standardised extract of Centella asiatica, ECa 233 and their respective pure compound given separately in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengjumrut, Patcharaporn; Anukunwithaya, Tosapol; Tantisira, Mayuree H; Tantisira, Boonyong; Khemawoot, Phisit

    2018-01-01

    1. ECa 233, the standardised extract of Centella asiatica, contains not less than 80% triterpenoid glycosides, in a madecassoside:asiaticoside ratio of 1.5 (±0.5):1. 2. The pharmacokinetic comparison of madecassoside and asiaticoside was performed in rats following intravenous and oral administration of ECa 233, or an equivalent dose of the individual compounds. Blood, tissues, urine and faeces were collected after dosing to determine drug and metabolite levels using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 3. Our study demonstrated that plasma levels of madecassoside, and to a lesser extent asiaticoside, were higher after administration of ECa 233 than the corresponding values for the pure compounds. There was a bidirectional interconversion between asiaticoside and madecassoside consistent with the increased exposure of madecassoside and asiaticoside in ECa 233. 4. Both madecassoside and asiaticoside appeared to be widely distributed in several organs and metabolized extensively; following intravenous administration of either compound, approximately 80-90% of the dose was recovered as madecassic acid and asiatic acid in the faeces.

  7. Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-10-05

    We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2013-10-10

    Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitoprotective effect of Centella asiatica against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats: possible relevance to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptosis mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Atish; Kumar, Anil

    2013-08-01

    Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress has been well documented in various cognitive-related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal that may be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative processes. The antioxidant and memory enhancing effects of Centella asiatica (CA) are well known in the last few decades. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective effect of CA on chronic aluminum exposure induced mitochondrial enzyme alteration, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in rat. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and CA (150 and 300 mg/kg) were administered daily for a period of 6 weeks in male Wistar rats. Various behavioral, biochemical and cellular estimations and aluminum concentration were assessed. Chronic aluminum administration resulted in memory impairment and caused marked oxidative damage associated with mitochondria impairment. It also caused a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, acetylcholine esterase activity and aluminum concentration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rat brain. Chronic administration of CA significantly improved memory performance, oxidative defense decreased aluminum concentration, caspase-3, acetylcholinestrease activity and reversal of mitochondrial enzyme activity as compared to aluminum-treated animals. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of CA against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and mito- oxidative damage.

  10. Molecular structure, stability and cytotoxicity of natural green colorants produced from Centella asiatica L. leaves treated by steaming and metal complexations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2017-10-01

    Stability of extracts from Centella asiatica L. leaves treated by steaming and metal-chlorophylls complexations against combined acid-heat was compared with that from untreated leaves and synthetic colorant. Formation of metal-chlorophylls complexes was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Molecular structure changes during stability test and cytotoxicity of the extracts against Vero cells were evaluated. Utilization of the extracts as colorant was also assessed in selected beverage ingredient and food. Copper-chlorophylls extracts exhibited similar green hue to those from untreated and steamed leaves, while zinc-chlorophylls extracts exhibited yellow-green color. Metal-chlorophylls extracts possessed higher stability against combined acid-heat than those from untreated and steamed leaves. Use of metal-chlorophylls extracts in beverage ingredient led to increased hue value due to their structural rearrangement, which was confirmed by changes in Q band of VIS spectra. Cytotoxicity of zinc- and copper-chlorophylls extracts was slightly different and higher than those of extracts from untreated/steamed leaves and synthetic colorant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  12. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  13. Storage of Water Tupelo Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner; H. E. Kennedy

    1973-01-01

    Water tupelo seeds can be stored for at least 30 months without significant losses in viability. Moisture contents of 20 percent or lower and polyethylene bags with walls 4 mils thick gave the best results at 38F. At 14F, seed moisture must be below 10 percent.

  14. on germination of chickpea seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patience

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... electric field (by varying voltage) on the water absorption and germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. Chickpea seeds were exposed to the electric field (by varying voltage from zero to 1300 V) for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). The present study was conducted to find ...

  15. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  16. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  17. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  18. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  19. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  20. Centella asiatica Fraction-3 Suppresses the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Anti-Oxidant Pathway and Enhances Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cell Death in Cancerous Lung A549 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Dhaneshree Bestinee; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Anand, Krishnan; Sewram, Vikash; Chuturgoon, Anil Amichund

    2017-10-01

    Centella asiatica is a tropical medicinal plant that is commonly used in traditional medicine. Medicinal properties of C. asiatica include anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. We investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects of a semi-purified fraction of C. asiatica ethanolic leaf extract (C3) in cancerous lung A549 cells. C3 was obtained by silica column fractionation and identified by using thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of C3 in A549 cells was evaluated (cell viability assay-WST-1; 24 h; [0.2-3 mg/mL]) to determine an inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (IROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (flow cytometry), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (spectrophotometry), glutathione (GSH), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), adenosine triphosphate levels, caspase activity (luminometry), and DNA damage (comet assay) were evaluated. Protein expression (Nrf-2, p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and HSP-70) and gene expression (Nrf-2, GPx, SOD, CAT, c-myc, and OGG-1) were quantified by western blotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. C3 dose dependently decreased A549 cell viability. The IC 50 of C3 increased MDA, IROS, mitochondrial depolarization, LDH, caspase (-8, -9, -3/7) activity, DNA damage, GSH levels, Nrf-2 protein expression, HSP-70 protein expression, and OGG-1 gene expression (P < .05). GSSG levels, anti-oxidant (Nrf-2, GPx, SOD) gene expression, p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein expression were decreased by C3 (P < .02). C3 diminished the anti-oxidant gene expression and induced anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects in A549 cells.

  1. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  2. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides

  3. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  4. effect of neem seed husk ash em seed husk ash em seed husk ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    therefore can be used for non-structural and mass concrete application structural and ... ilable material with minor. Waste materials can concrete if they are not term properties of. Neem seed husk ash (NSHA) the waste husk obtained during the ex from neem seed. ... strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was designed using.

  5. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  6. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  7. Laser treatment of radish seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartalov, P.; Nidal, T.

    1987-01-01

    Trials were conducted in unheated plastic greenhouses in 1985-1986 to test the effect of laser treatment on radish seed. Seed of cv Saxia was irradiated with helio-neon laser of 632.8 Nm wave length at: 2-, 4- and 6-fold irradiation. Results showed that plants of all variants emerged almost simultaneously. The root mass was greatest for plants obtained from 4-fold irradiated seed. Treatment enhanced root production in 1985, and in 1986 4-fold irradiation boosted yield by 15%

  8. Analysis of seed quality in NS sunflower hybrid seed processed between 2010 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the processed seed of five sunflower hybrid seed developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The cultivars were Rimi PR, Duško, NS Dukat, Sumo 1 PR and Sremac. The analysis was conducted on seed lots processed between 2010 and 2014 and involved the following parameters: seed purity percentage, 1000-seed weight, germination energy, germination, seed moisture, number of weed seeds per 1000 grams of seed. The results of the study produced the following average values: seed purity - 99.72%, 1000-seed weight - 67.59g, germination energy - 88.2%, germination - 91.8%, seed moisture - 8.3%. There were not found weeds seeds as well as pathogens on the seed samples, these values are all within the legally prescribed limits.

  9. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  10. Seed cryopreservation of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Università

    2013-04-17

    control) and liquid nitrogen-treated seeds were .... 76.0 ± 4.0 (NT in GA3), with an intermediary value of 70.0. ± 5.0% (Cryo seeds in water .... in November, suggesting a loss of dormancy during seed maturation. Furthermore, seed ...

  11. Chloroxyanion residue on seeds and sprouts after chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and on the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and in alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20000 ppm cal...

  12. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  13. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. EFFECT OF ANTANAN (CENTELLA ASIATICA AND VITAMIN C ON THE BURSA OF FABRICIUS, LIVER MALONALDEHIDE AND PERFORMANCE OF HEAT-STRESSED BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REVIANY WlDJAJAKUSUMA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available High environmental temperatures may cause heat stress in poultry. This may increase water consumption, decrease feed consumption and in rum, decrease productivity level. In addition, high temperature contributes to oxidative stress, a condition where oxidant activity (free radica ls exceeds antioxidant activity. In our research, antanan (Centelta asiatica and vitamin C were utilized as anti heat-stress agents for heat-stressed broilers. We used 120 male broilers 2 - 6 weeks old, kept at 31.98 ± 1.94 °C during the day and 27.36 ± 1.31 °C at night. The data collected were analyzed with a completely randomized factorial design of 2 x 3 (2 levels of vitamin C, 3 levels of antanan at 4 replications and continued with the contrast-orthogonal test when significantly different. The results indicate that the treatments of 5 and 10% of antanan with or without 500 ppm of vitamin C and vitamin C alone significantly (P<0.05 decreased the heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L ratio and liver malonaldchydc (MDA. These treatments, however, significantly (P<0.05 increased the bursa of Fabricius weight, feed consumption and body weight gain. It could be concluded that basal ration administered with 5% antanan and 500 ppm vitamin C could effectively prevent broilers from heat stress. The results support the conclusion that a ba sal ration supplemented with 5% antanan and 500 ppm of vitamin C or their combinations, effectiv elly reduces heat stress in broilers.

  15. Asiatic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene in Centella asiatica, attenuates glutamate-induced cognitive deficits in mice and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-fang; Xiong, Yu-yun; Liu, Jian-kang; Qian, Jin-jun; Zhu, Li; Gao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpene in Centella asiatica, exerted neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo, and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used for in vitro study. Cell viability was determined with the MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry were used to examine the apoptosis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using fluorescent dye. PGC-1α and Sirt1 levels were examined using Western blotting. Neonatal mice were given monosodium glutamate (2.5 mg/g) subcutaneously at the neck from postnatal day (PD) 7 to 13, and orally administered with AA on PD 14 daily for 30 d. The learning and memory of the mice were evaluated with the Morris water maze test. HE staining was used to analyze the pyramidal layer structure in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Results: Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with AA (0.1–100 nmol/L) attenuated toxicity induced by 10 mmol/L glutamate in a concentration-dependent manner. AA 10 nmol/L significantly decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS), stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and promoted the expression of PGC-1α and Sirt1. In the mice models, oral administration of AA (100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test, and restored lipid peroxidation and glutathione and the activity of SOD in the hippocampus and cortex to the control levels. AA (50 and 100 mg/kg) also attenuated neuronal damage of the pyramidal layer in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Conclusion: AA attenuates glutamate-induced cognitive deficits of mice and protects SH-SY5Y cells against glutamate-induced apoptosis in vitro. PMID:22447225

  16. AKTIVITAS KOMBINASI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. DAN DAUN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica L.Urb TERHADAP KELARUTAN KALSIUM BATU GINJAL SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Swintari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soursop (Annona muricata L. and gotu kola (Centella asiatica L.Urb is a plant that can be used as a laxative medicine kidney stones. This is because of the content of bioactive compounds including flavonoids, especially the leaf section. The use of a combination of soursop leaf extract and gotu kola can improve their effectiveness in order to remove calcium kidney stones. Therefore, this study aims to determine the activity and to determine dose combination soursop leaf ethanol extract (SS and gotu kola leaf (GK which is effective for dissolving potassium kidney stones. Extracts prepared by maceration method using ethanol 96% then subsequently tested phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography profiles on each extract. Results chromatogram showed the extract containing flavonoids. Testing the activity of the combination of soursop and gotu kola extract performed using seven treatments, combination 1 (SS 1% + GK 7.5% , a combination of 2 (SS  0.5% + GK 3.75%, the combination of 3 (SS 0, 25% + GK 1.875%, single soursop leaf extract (1%, single gotu kola extract (7.5%, negative control (aquadest and positive control (Batugin elixir. Kidney stones are then put as much as 100 mg in each treatment and incubated for 6 hours (37 ℃. Results filtrate then didestruksi and dissolved calcium levels measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed the combination soursop leaf ethanol extract and gotu kola leaf extract with a combination of 2 (SS 0.5% + GK 3.75% is an effective combination of the ability to dissolve calcium kidney stones in vitro.

  17. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  18. Mucilage in Yellow Mustard (Brassica Hirta) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, I. R.; Yiu, S. H.; Jones, J. D.; Kalab, M.

    1986-01-01

    Release of mucilage from yellow mustard (brassica hirta, also known as Sinapis alba) seed coats (hulls) was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs were obtained of the mucilage which had exuded from briefly moistened seeds and dried subsequently in the form of small droplets on the seed surface. The mucilage collected from the seed surface and mucilage isolated on a larger scale from seed hulls was hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid and the hydrolyzates were analyzed f...

  19. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Saez-Aguayo; Corinne Rondeau-Mouro; Audrey Macquet; Ilkka Kronholm; Marie-Christine Ralet; Adeline Berger; Christine Sallé; Damien Poulain; Fabienne Granier; Lucy Botran; Olivier Loudet; Juliette de Meaux; Annie Marion-Poll; Helen M North

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was mod...

  20. Local Evolution of Seed Flotation in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Saez Aguayo, S.; Rondeau Mouro, C.; Macquet, A.; Kronholm, I.; Ralet, M.C.; Berger, A.; Sallé, C.; Poulain, D.; Granier, F.; Botran, L.; Loudet, O.; De Meaux, J.; Marion-Poll, A.; North, H.; Botran, L.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was mod...