WorldWideScience

Sample records for stricted system evolution

  1. Mammalian evolution may not be strictly bifurcating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Björn M; Janke, Axel

    2010-12-01

    The massive amount of genomic sequence data that is now available for analyzing evolutionary relationships among 31 placental mammals reduces the stochastic error in phylogenetic analyses to virtually zero. One would expect that this would make it possible to finally resolve controversial branches in the placental mammalian tree. We analyzed a 2,863,797 nucleotide-long alignment (3,364 genes) from 31 placental mammals for reconstructing their evolution. Most placental mammalian relationships were resolved, and a consensus of their evolution is emerging. However, certain branches remain difficult or virtually impossible to resolve. These branches are characterized by short divergence times in the order of 1-4 million years. Computer simulations based on parameters from the real data show that as little as about 12,500 amino acid sites could be sufficient to confidently resolve short branches as old as about 90 million years ago (Ma). Thus, the amount of sequence data should no longer be a limiting factor in resolving the relationships among placental mammals. The timing of the early radiation of placental mammals coincides with a period of climate warming some 100-80 Ma and with continental fragmentation. These global processes may have triggered the rapid diversification of placental mammals. However, the rapid radiations of certain mammalian groups complicate phylogenetic analyses, possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting and introgression. These speciation-related processes led to a mosaic genome and conflicting phylogenetic signals. Split network methods are ideal for visualizing these problematic branches and can therefore depict data conflict and possibly the true evolutionary history better than strictly bifurcating trees. Given the timing of tectonics, of placental mammalian divergences, and the fossil record, a Laurasian rather than Gondwanan origin of placental mammals seems the most parsimonious explanation.

  2. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  3. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  4. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  5. Strict Host-Symbiont Cospeciation and Reductive Genome Evolution in Insect Gut Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2006-01-01

    Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via “symbiont capsule.” In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited specialized traits for capsule production. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plataspid symbionts constituted a distinct group in the γ-Proteobacteria, whose sister group was the aphid obligate endocellular symbionts Buchnera. Removal of the symbionts resulted in retarded growth, mortality, and sterility of the insects. The host phylogeny perfectly agreed with the symbiont phylogeny, indicating strict host-symbiont cospeciation despite the extracellular association. The symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition, accelerated molecular evolution, and reduced genome size, as has been observed in obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These findings suggest that not the endocellular conditions themselves but the population genetic attributes of the vertically transmitted symbionts are probably responsible for the peculiar genetic traits of these insect symbionts. We proposed the designation “Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata” for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont associations can be easily manipulated, provide a novel system that enables experimental approaches to previously untouched aspects of the insect-microbe mutualism. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the sister groups, the endocellular Buchnera and the extracellular Ishikawaella, would lead to insights into how the different symbiotic lifestyles have affected their genomic evolution. PMID:17032065

  6. Towards generalized synchronization of strictly different chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femat, R.; Kocarev, L.; Gerven, L. van; Monsivais-Perez, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of the generalized synchronization (GS) in different chaotic systems, and departs from chaotic systems in a triangular from, which can be derived from Lie derivatives. A state-feedback (full knowledge of both master and slave systems) scheme is designed, which achieves GS. The work includes illustrative examples; moreover an experimental setup is used to corroborate the obtained results

  7. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  8. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  9. Fuzzy Adaptive Decentralized Optimal Control for Strict Feedback Nonlinear Large-Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kangkang; Sui, Shuai; Tong, Shaocheng

    2018-04-01

    This paper considers the optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control design problem for a class of interconnected large-scale nonlinear systems in strict feedback form and with unknown nonlinear functions. The fuzzy logic systems are introduced to learn the unknown dynamics and cost functions, respectively, and a state estimator is developed. By applying the state estimator and the backstepping recursive design algorithm, a decentralized feedforward controller is established. By using the backstepping decentralized feedforward control scheme, the considered interconnected large-scale nonlinear system in strict feedback form is changed into an equivalent affine large-scale nonlinear system. Subsequently, an optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme is constructed. The whole optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive controller is composed of a decentralized feedforward control and an optimal decentralized control. It is proved that the developed optimal decentralized controller can ensure that all the variables of the control system are uniformly ultimately bounded, and the cost functions are the smallest. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the validity of the developed optimal decentralized fuzzy adaptive control scheme.

  10. Model-Based Adaptive Event-Triggered Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Xin; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered control problem of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form. By using the event-sampled neural network (NN) to approximate the unknown nonlinear function, an adaptive model and an associated event-triggered controller are designed by exploiting the backstepping method. In the proposed method, the feedback signals and the NN weights are aperiodically updated only when the event-triggered condition is violated. A positive lower bound on the minimum intersample time is guaranteed to avoid accumulation point. The closed-loop stability of the resulting nonlinear impulsive dynamical system is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis under an adaptive event sampling condition. In comparing with the traditional adaptive backstepping design with a fixed sample period, the event-triggered method samples the state and updates the NN weights only when it is necessary. Therefore, the number of transmissions can be significantly reduced. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  11. Strict confluent drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eppstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings, and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary.

  12. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  13. Event-Sampled Direct Adaptive NN Output- and State-Feedback Control of Uncertain Strict-Feedback System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Nathan; Narayanan, Vignesh; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2017-04-12

    In this paper, a novel event-triggered implementation of a tracking controller for an uncertain strict-feedback system is presented. Neural networks (NNs) are utilized in the backstepping approach to design a control input by approximating unknown dynamics of the strict-feedback nonlinear system with event-sampled inputs. The system state vector is assumed to be unknown and an NN observer is used to estimate the state vector. By using the estimated state vector and backstepping design approach, an event-sampled controller is introduced. As part of the controller design, first, input-to-state-like stability for a continuously sampled controller that has been injected with bounded measurement errors is demonstrated, and subsequently, an event-execution control law is derived, such that the measurement errors are guaranteed to remain bounded. Lyapunov theory is used to demonstrate that the tracking errors, the observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are locally uniformly ultimately bounded in the presence bounded disturbances, NN reconstruction errors, as well as errors introduced by event sampling. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  14. Composite Intelligent Learning Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Sun, Fuchun

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the dynamic surface control of uncertain nonlinear systems on the basis of composite intelligent learning and disturbance observer in presence of unknown system nonlinearity and time-varying disturbance. The serial-parallel estimation model with intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is built to obtain the prediction error and in this way the composite law for weights updating is constructed. The nonlinear disturbance observer is developed using intelligent approximation information while the disturbance estimation is guaranteed to converge to a bounded compact set. The highlight is that different from previous work directly toward asymptotic stability, the transparency of the intelligent approximation and disturbance estimation is included in the control scheme. The uniformly ultimate boundedness stability is analyzed via Lyapunov method. Through simulation verification, the composite intelligent learning with disturbance observer can efficiently estimate the effect caused by system nonlinearity and disturbance while the proposed approach obtains better performance with higher accuracy.

  15. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  16. Assessment of different management systems in an area of cerrado sensu strict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Nascimento de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of different management systems on the floristic composition and diversity of a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto vegetation located in Brasilândia de Minas (MG, eleven years after interventions. In 1997, 30 plots were installed in the study site, in a random block design, consisting of ten treatments with three replications: 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% removal of the basal area, involving 20% reduction and increase in the De Liocourt quotient value; clear cutting and control treatment. Prior to treatment installation, an inventory was compiled of original vegetation. In 2004 and 2008 further inventories were produced. It was observed that interventions in the relevant Cerrado area led to changes in the floristic composition and diversity of local vegetation, yet these changes were also observed in undisturbed areas which had not been subjected to management plans.

  17. Online Recorded Data-Based Composite Neural Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Application to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Daipeng; Shi, Zhongke; Pan, Yongping; Chen, Badong; Sun, Fuchun

    2017-09-25

    This paper investigates the online recorded data-based composite neural control of uncertain strict-feedback systems using the backstepping framework. In each step of the virtual control design, neural network (NN) is employed for uncertainty approximation. In previous works, most designs are directly toward system stability ignoring the fact how the NN is working as an approximator. In this paper, to enhance the learning ability, a novel prediction error signal is constructed to provide additional correction information for NN weight update using online recorded data. In this way, the neural approximation precision is highly improved, and the convergence speed can be faster. Furthermore, the sliding mode differentiator is employed to approximate the derivative of the virtual control signal, and thus, the complex analysis of the backstepping design can be avoided. The closed-loop stability is rigorously established, and the boundedness of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Through simulation of hypersonic flight dynamics, the proposed approach exhibits better tracking performance.

  18. Strictly convex renormings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moltó, A.; Orihuela, J.; Troyanski, S.; Zizler, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 3 (2007), s. 647-658 ISSN 0024-6107 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : strictly convex norms * lattice norm * quasi-diagonal sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.733, year: 2007

  19. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  20. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  1. Variability and Evolution in Systems of Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Botterweck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this position paper (1 we discuss two particular aspects of Systems of Systems, i.e., variability and evolution. (2 We argue that concepts from Product Line Engineering and Software Evolution are relevant to Systems of Systems Engineering. (3 Conversely, concepts from Systems of Systems Engineering can be helpful in Product Line Engineering and Software Evolution. Hence, we argue that an exchange of concepts between the disciplines would be beneficial.

  2. Evolution of semantic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Küppers, Bernd-Olaf; Artmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Complex systems in nature and society make use of information for the development of their internal organization and the control of their functional mechanisms. Alongside technical aspects of storing, transmitting and processing information, the various semantic aspects of information, such as meaning, sense, reference and function, play a decisive part in the analysis of such systems.With the aim of fostering a better understanding of semantic systems from an evolutionary and multidisciplinary perspective, this volume collects contributions by philosophers and natural scientists, linguists, i

  3. Evolution of information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    This article offers a dynamic view of continuously changes in a specific informational system illustrated through a case study in a small network company. Central aspects of the evolutionary process will be identified and framed in relation to the informational system change. It will be argued...... that an evolutionary transformation of informational systems are preferable for small network organisations because of their need to adapt rapidly and easily to new business conditions. The IS will only be flexible if both human and technology are prepared and willing/proper configured. Changes are due to altered...

  4. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell...

  5. Evolution of safeguards systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, J.P.; Christensen, E.L.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Safeguards systems play a vital detection and deterrence role in current nonproliferation policy. These safeguards systems have developed over the past three decades through the evolution of three essential components: the safeguards/process interface, safeguards performance criteria, and the technology necessary to support effective safeguards. This paper discusses the background and history of this evolutionary process, its major developments and status, and the future direction of safeguards system design

  6. SND DAQ system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanchkov, G. A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Tekutiev, A. I.; Usov, Yu V.

    2017-10-01

    The spherical neutral detector (SND) takes data at the e+e- collider VEPP-2000 in Novosibirsk. We present here recent upgrades of the SND DAQ system which are mainly aimed to handle the enhanced events rate load after the collider modernization. To maintain acceptable events selection quality the electronics throughput and computational power should be increased. These goals are achieved with the new fast digitizing electronics and distributed data taking. The data flow for the most congested detector subsystems is distributed and processed separately. We describe the new distributed SND DAQ software architecture, its computational and network infrastructure.

  7. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  8. A novel strictly anaerobic recovery and enrichment system incorporating lithium for detection of heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in pasteurized milk containing background microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, A F; Knabel, S J

    1994-11-01

    Heat-injured cells of Listeria monocytogenes were recovered from heated raw milk containing noninjured Enterococcus faecium by combining a simple method for obtaining strict anaerobiosis with a novel enrichment broth, Penn State University broth (PSU broth). Strictly anaerobic conditions were rapidly achieved by adding 0.5 g of filter-sterilized cysteine per liter to PSU broth and then purging the preparation with N2 gas. Little resuscitation or growth occurred in strictly anaerobic PSU broth without lithium chloride because of overgrowth by E. faecium. The growth of E. faecium decreased dramatically with increasing LiCl concentration; LiCl concentrations of 8 and 10 g/liter were completely bacteriostatic. The mechanism of inhibition by LiCl appeared to involve competition with the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. Heat-injured L. monocytogenes consistently recovered and grew rapidly in strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 4, 6, or 7 g of LiCl per liter. The use of strictly anaerobic PSU broth containing 7 g of LiCl per liter permitted detection of severely heat-injured L. monocytogenes in one simple recovery-enrichment step by eliminating oxygen toxicity and inhibiting the growth of background microflora, without preventing the resuscitation and subsequent growth of heat-injured L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes heated in raw milk at 62.8 degrees C for 10, 15, and 20 min could be consistently recovered from strictly anaerobic PSU broth enrichment cultures at 30 degrees C after 48, 96, and 144 h, respectively, and hence, use of PSU broth may result in better recovery of both injured and noninjured cells from foods than currently used U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration preenrichment procedures.

  9. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  10. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...... Relational Model (IRM) [2], a novel unsupervised machine learning method that learns multi-dimensional relations among concepts and features from loosely structured datasets. These methods are combined with a novel cognitive model, the Bayesian Model of Generalization (BMG) [3] that maps culturally...

  11. Manual communication systems: evolution and variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses issues in the evolution and typology of manual communication systems. From a language evolution point of view, sign languages are interesting because it has been suggested that oral language may have evolved from gestural (proto)language. As far as typology is concerned, two

  12. Dynamical evolution of spherical stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamical effect of heavy mass stars formed out of successive mergers among tidally captured binaries of evolution of spherical stellar systems is investigated. To maximize such effect assumed all tidally captured systems become mergers. Stellar evolution is simulated by computing mean age of mass group and applying death rate as function of mean age. For stellar systems with N = 10 5-6 , combined effect of three body binary heating among heavy mass stars and stellar evolution provides energy to drive post collapse expansion; long-term evolution is dominated by stellar evolution. Long-term behavior of clusters is similar to tidally captured binaries assuming no merger. Observed chemical inhomogeneities among stars in globular clusters may also be explained by stellar mergers. Three-body heating is important in small-N systems, while stellar evolution dominates evolution of large N systems. The effect of primordial degenerate stars is investigated in the second study. Very hard binaries composed of degenerate-normal pair form via tidal capture process and moderately hard degenerate-degenerate binaries form via three-body process. If initial degenerate population is large, initial core-collapse phase may be approximated as collapse of degenerate star. Three-body binaries among degenerate stars eventually provide enough energy to stop collapse and cause reexpansion

  13. Runaway selection for cooperation and strict-and-severe punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-03-07

    Punishing defectors is an important means of stabilizing cooperation. When levels of cooperation and punishment are continuous, individuals must employ suitable social standards for defining defectors and for determining punishment levels. Here we investigate the evolution of a social reaction norm, or psychological response function, for determining the punishment level meted out by individuals in dependence on the cooperation level exhibited by their neighbors in a lattice-structured population. We find that (1) cooperation and punishment can undergo runaway selection, with evolution towards enhanced cooperation and an ever more demanding punishment reaction norm mutually reinforcing each other; (2) this mechanism works best when punishment is strict, so that ambiguities in defining defectors are small; (3) when the strictness of punishment can adapt jointly with the threshold and severity of punishment, evolution favors the strict-and-severe punishment of individuals who offer slightly less than average cooperation levels; (4) strict-and-severe punishment naturally evolves and leads to much enhanced cooperation when cooperation without punishment would be weak and neither cooperation nor punishment are too costly; and (5) such evolutionary dynamics enable the bootstrapping of cooperation and punishment, through which defectors who never punish gradually and steadily evolve into cooperators who punish those they define as defectors.

  14. Evolution of the radiation protection system; L'evolution du systeme de protection radiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, R.H. [International Commission on Radiological Protection, Stockholm (Sweden); Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Brechignac, F. [CEA Cadarache, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2003-07-01

    The evolution of the system of radiological protection: justification for new ICRP recommendations, thoughts of the SFRP work group about the evolution of the system of radiation protection proposed by the ICRP, protection of environment against ionizing radiations seen by the ICRP are the three parts of this chapter. (N.C.)

  15. The ATLAS Production System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS-specific workflows, across more than a hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based upon many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kinds of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteer computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resource utilization is one of the major features of the system. The Production System has a sophisticated job fault recovery mechanism, which efficiently allows running multi-terabyte tasks without human intervention. We have implemented new features which allow automatic task submission and chaining of differe...

  16. Evolution of Linux operating system network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guanping; Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Haoqin

    2017-01-01

    Linux operating system (LOS) is a sophisticated man-made system and one of the most ubiquitous operating systems. However, there is little research on the structure and functionality evolution of LOS from the prospective of networks. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of the LOS network. 62 major releases of LOS ranging from versions 1.0 to 4.1 are modeled as directed networks in which functions are denoted by nodes and function calls are denoted by edges. It is found that the size of the LOS network grows almost linearly, while clustering coefficient monotonically decays. The degree distributions are almost the same: the out-degree follows an exponential distribution while both in-degree and undirected degree follow power-law distributions. We further explore the functionality evolution of the LOS network. It is observed that the evolution of functional modules is shown as a sequence of seven events (changes) succeeding each other, including continuing, growth, contraction, birth, splitting, death and merging events. By means of a statistical analysis of these events in the top 4 largest components (i.e., arch, drivers, fs and net), it is shown that continuing, growth and contraction events occupy more than 95% events. Our work exemplifies a better understanding and describing of the dynamics of LOS evolution.

  17. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  18. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  19. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  20. Evolution of genetic systems in filamentous ascomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    A great variety of genetic systems exist in filamentous ascomycetes. The transmission of genetic material does not only occur by (sexual or asexual) reproduction, but it can also follow vegetative fusion of different strains. In this thesis the evolution of this variability is studied,

  1. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  3. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  4. Tidal instability in exoplanetary systems evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gal P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new element is proposed to play a role in the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems: the tidal (or elliptical instability. It comes from a parametric resonance and takes place in any rotating fluid whose streamlines are (even slightly elliptically deformed. Based on theoretical, experimental and numerical works, we estimate the growth rate of the instability for hot-jupiter systems, when the rotation period of the star is known. We present the physical process, its application to stars, and preliminary results obtained on a few dozen systems, summarized in the form of a stability diagram. Most of the systems are trapped in the so-called "forbidden zone", where the instability cannot grow. In some systems, the tidal instability is able to grow, at short timescales compared to the system evolution. Implications are discussed in the framework of misaligned transiting systems, as the rotational axis of the star would be unstable in systems where this elliptical instability grows.

  5. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  6. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  7. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  9. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Convergence of GAOR Iterative Method with Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the convergence of GAOR method for linear systems with strictly diagonally dominant matrices. Moreover, we show that our results are better than ones of Darvishi and Hessari (2006, Tian et al. (2008 by using three numerical examples.

  11. Dynamic system evolution and markov chain approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick V. Nicholas Melnik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper computational aspects of the mathematical modelling of dynamic system evolution have been considered as a problem in information theory. The construction of mathematical models is treated as a decision making process with limited available information.The solution of the problem is associated with a computational model based on heuristics of a Markov Chain in a discrete space–time of events. A stable approximation of the chain has been derived and the limiting cases are discussed. An intrinsic interconnection of constructive, sequential, and evolutionary approaches in related optimization problems provides new challenges for future work.

  12. Controversies regarding evolution of Tax Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Gabriela DUȚĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Originally designed purely to meet the state's financial targets, which were subsequently added as a result of the evolution of human society, a series of economic and social objectives, the tax system is the result of thought, decision and action of the human factor, “expression of the political will of a organized human community, set in a particular territory and having sufficient autonomy to be able, through the bodies they represent, to equip itself with a whole series of legal rules and, in particular tax” .

  13. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Strictly convex functions on complete Finsler manifolds. YOE ITOKAWA KATSUHIRO SHIOHAMA BANKTESHWAR TIWARI. Research Article Volume 126 Issue 4 October 2016 pp 623-627 ...

  14. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  15. Brand Equity Evolution: a System Dynamics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Crescitelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in brand management lies in monitoring brand equity over time. This paper aimsto present a simulation model able to represent this evolution. The model was drawn on brand equity concepts developed by Aaker and Joachimsthaler (2000, using the system dynamics methodology. The use ofcomputational dynamic models aims to create new sources of information able to sensitize academics and managers alike to the dynamic implications of their brand management. As a result, an easily implementable model was generated, capable of executing continuous scenario simulations by surveying casual relations among the variables that explain brand equity. Moreover, the existence of a number of system modeling tools will allow extensive application of the concepts used in this study in practical situations, both in professional and educational settings

  16. Strict monandry in the ponerine army ant genus Simopelta suggests that colony size and complexity drive mating system evolution in social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; O'Donnell, Sean; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    Altruism in social insects has evolved between closely related full-siblings. It is therefore of considerable interest why some groups have secondarily evolved low within-colony relatedness, which in turn affects the relatedness incentives of within-colony cooperation and conflict. The highest qu...

  17. [Historic and functional biology: the inadequacy of a system theory of evolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelmann, J P

    1982-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century neo-Kantianism in a broad sense proved itself the main conceptual and methodological background of the central European biology. As such it contributed much to the victory on the typological, idealistic-morphological and psycho-vitalistic interpretations of life. On the other hand it could not give tools to the biologists for working out a strictly darwinian evolution theory. Kant's theory of organism was conceived without evolution as a theory of the internal functionality of the organism. There was only some 'play' with the evolutionary differentiation of the species. Since then the disputes around the work of August Weismann, a synthetical evolution theory which is now behind time, arose. This theory developed from coinciding claims, elaborated by geneticists, mathematicians, and by biologists studying development, natural history and systematics. This was done under a strong influence of marxist ideas. Through the interweaving of such different approaches it was possible for this evolutionary synthesis to influence successfully the development of evolution research during more than 40 years. Philosophically speaking modern evolution theory means therefore an aversion, even a positive abolition of Kantian positions. A number of biologists however--as L. von Bertalanffy--refused to adhere to a misinterpreted Kantian methodology and oriented themselves to an approach via system theory, which obtained a place in evolution research. In fact this is a Kantian approach as well. They only repeated the Kantian dilemma of the evolution which can also be found in Lamarck and Hegel. The system theory of the functionality of the organism never reaches to the level of the evolving species, but remains always on the level of epigenetic thinking, because of its philosophical origin. This paper points out the consequences of this still current dilemma. At the same time an all-enclosing reflection on the methodological, epistemological and

  18. Precambrian evolution of the climate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J C

    1990-01-01

    Climate is an important environmental parameter of the early Earth, likely to have affected the origin and evolution of life, the composition and mineralogy of sedimentary rocks, and stable isotope ratios in sedimentary minerals. There is little observational evidence constraining Precambrian climates. Most of our knowledge is at present theoretical. Factors that must have affected the climate include reduced solar luminosity, enhanced rotation rate of the Earth, an area of land that probably increased with time, and biological evolution, particularly as it affected the composition of the atmosphere and the greenhouse effect. Cloud cover is a major uncertainty about the early Earth. Carbon dioxide and its greenhouse effect are the factors that have been most extensively studied. This paper presents a new examination of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon as they may have changed between an Archean Earth deficient in land, sedimentary rocks, and biological activity, and a Proterozoic Earth much like the modern Earth, but lacking terrestrial life and carbonate-secreting plankton. Results of a numerical simulation of this transition show how increasing biological activity could have drawn down atmospheric carbon dioxide by extracting sedimentary organic carbon from the system. Increasing area of continents could further have drawn down carbon dioxide by encouraging the accumulation of carbonate sediments. An attempt to develop a numerical simulation of the carbon cycles of the Precambrian raises questions about sources and sinks of marine carbon and alkalinity on a world without continents. More information is needed about sea-floor weathering processes.

  19. Time evolution of a small reactive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Badiali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the irreversible evolution of a small system in which a chemical reaction takes place. We have two main goals: the first requires to find an equation to produce a time-irreversible behavior,the second consists in introducing a simple exactly solvable model in order to understand basic facts in chemical kinetics. Our basic tool is the transition function counting the number of paths joining two points in the reactive coordinates system. An exact quantum Smoluchowski equation is derived for the reactive system in vacuum, in presence of a solvent in equilibrium at any time with the reactive system a new Smoluchowski equation is obtained. The transition from a quantum regime to a classical one is discussed. The case of a reactive system not in equilibrium with its neighborhood is investigated in terms of path integral and via a partial differential function. Memory effects and closure assumptions are discussed. Using a simple potential model the chemical rate constant is calculated exactly and questions such as the meaning of the activation energy or the physical content of the so-called prefactor are investigated.

  20. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.

  1. Convergent evolution of neural systems in ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-02-15

    Neurons are defined as polarized secretory cells specializing in directional propagation of electrical signals leading to the release of extracellular messengers - features that enable them to transmit information, primarily chemical in nature, beyond their immediate neighbors without affecting all intervening cells en route. Multiple origins of neurons and synapses from different classes of ancestral secretory cells might have occurred more than once during ~600 million years of animal evolution with independent events of nervous system centralization from a common bilaterian/cnidarian ancestor without the bona fide central nervous system. Ctenophores, or comb jellies, represent an example of extensive parallel evolution in neural systems. First, recent genome analyses place ctenophores as a sister group to other animals. Second, ctenophores have a smaller complement of pan-animal genes controlling canonical neurogenic, synaptic, muscle and immune systems, and developmental pathways than most other metazoans. However, comb jellies are carnivorous marine animals with a complex neuromuscular organization and sophisticated patterns of behavior. To sustain these functions, they have evolved a number of unique molecular innovations supporting the hypothesis of massive homoplasies in the organization of integrative and locomotory systems. Third, many bilaterian/cnidarian neuron-specific genes and 'classical' neurotransmitter pathways are either absent or, if present, not expressed in ctenophore neurons (e.g. the bilaterian/cnidarian neurotransmitter, γ-amino butyric acid or GABA, is localized in muscles and presumed bilaterian neuron-specific RNA-binding protein Elav is found in non-neuronal cells). Finally, metabolomic and pharmacological data failed to detect either the presence or any physiological action of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, octopamine, acetylcholine or histamine - consistent with the hypothesis that ctenophore neural systems evolved

  2. Effect of intersubsystem couplings on the evolution of composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, X.X.; Cui, H.T.; Lin, Y.H.; Song, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intersubsystem coupling on the adiabaticity of composite systems and that of its subsystems is investigated. Similar to the adiabatic evolution defined for pure states, nontransitional evolution for mixed states is introduced; conditions for the nontransitional evolution are derived and discussed. An example that describes two coupled qubits is presented to detail the general presentation. The effects due to nonadiabatic evolution on the geometric phase are also presented and discussed

  3. Open system evolution and 'memory dressing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, Irena; Ferry, David K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to recent advances in quantum information, as well as in mesoscopic and nanoscale physics, the interest in the theory of open systems and decoherence has significantly increased. In this paper, we present an interesting approach to solving a time-convolutionless equation of motion for the open system reduced density matrix beyond the limit of weak coupling with the environment. Our approach is based on identifying an effective, memory-containing interaction in the equations of motion for the representation submatrices of the evolution operator (these submatices are written in a special basis, adapted for the 'partial-trace-free' approach, in the system+environment Liouville space). We then identify the 'memory dressing', a quantity crucial for solving the equation of motion for the reduced density matrix, which separates the effective from the real physical interaction. The memory dressing obeys a self-contained nonlinear equation of motion, which we solve exactly. The solution can be represented in a diagrammatic fashion after introducing an 'information exchange propagator', a quantity that describes the transfer of information to and from the system, so the cumulative effect of the information exchange results in the memory dressing. In the case of weak system-environment coupling, we present the expansion of the reduced density matrix in terms of the physical interaction up to the third order. However, our approach is capable of going beyond the weak-coupling limit, and we show how short-time behavior of an open system can be analyzed for arbitrary coupling strength. We illustrate the approach with a simple numerical example of single-particle level broadening for a two-particle interacting system on short time scales. Furthermore, we point out a way to identify the structure of decoherence-free subspaces using the present approach

  4. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    One of the main challenges facing radiological protection experts is how to integrate radiological protection within modern concepts of and approaches to risk governance. It is within this context that the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to develop new general recommendations to replace its Publication 60 recommendations of 1990. In the process of developing these new recommendations, the views of the ICRP have evolved significantly, largely due to stakeholder involvement that has been actively solicited by the ICRP. In this regard, it was upheld during the First Asian Regional Conference organised by the NEA in October 2002 that the implementation of the new system must allow for regional, societal and cultural differences. In order to ensure appropriate consideration of these differences, the NEA organised the Second Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection. Held in Tokyo on 28-29 July 2004, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological experts from Australia, China, Japan and Korea. Within their specific cultural and socio-political milieu, Asia-Pacific and western ways of thought on how to improve the current system of radiological protection were presented and discussed. These ways of thinking, along with a summary of the conference results, are described in these proceedings. (author)

  5. Intelligent system to study demographic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. de Fatima; Ramos, Carlos; Henriques, Pedro R.

    1999-02-01

    With three centuries of existence, the study of population's behavior implies the manipulation of large amounts of incomplete and imprecise data with high dimensionality. By virtue of its multidisciplinary character, the work in demography involves at least historicists, statisticians and computer scientists/programmers. Moreover, successful demographic analysis requires qualified experts, who have succeeded in analysing data through many views and relate different sources of information, including their personal knowledge of the epoch or regions under study. In this paper, we present an intelligent system to study demographic evolution (ISSDE). This system has a module based on on-line analytical processing (OLAP), which permits conducting multiple analysis, combining many data dimensions. It has a deductive database system, which allows the execution of elaborated queries through the database. It has another module for date treatment (generalization and/or reduction); and, at last, a data mining module to discover nontrivial relations hidden within data. We discover the data treatment procedure with two phases: data generalization and data reduction. In data generalization, utilizing knowledge about concept hierarchies and relevance of data, aggregation of attribute values is performed. In the data reduction phase, rough set theory is applied to compute the minimal attribute set. We highlight the advantages of combining attribute value generalization with rough set theory, to find a subset of attributes that lets the mining process discover more useful patterns, by providing results from the application of the C5.0 algorithm in a demographic relational database.

  6. Enterprise Framework for the Disciplined Evolution of Legacy Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergey, John

    1997-01-01

    .... This report describes an enterprise framework that characterizes the global environment in which system evolution takes place and provides insight into the activities, processes, and work products...

  7. The Evolution of the DARWIN System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joan D.; Filman, Robert E.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    DARWIN is a web-based system for presenting the results of wind-tunnel testing and computational model analyses to aerospace designers. DARWIN captures the data, maintains the information, and manages derived knowledge (e.g. visualizations, etc.) of large quantities of aerospace data. In addition, it provides tools and an environment for distributed collaborative engineering. We are currently constructing the third version of the DARWIN software system. DARWN's development history has, in some sense, tracked the development of web applications. The 1995 DARWIN reflected the latest web technologies--CGI scripts, Java applets and a three-layer architecture--available at that time. The 1997 version of DARWIN expanded on this base, making extensive use of a plethora of web technologies, including Java/JavaScript and Dynamic HTML. While more powerful, this multiplicity has proven to be a maintenance and development headache. The year 2000 version of DARWIN will provide a more stable and uniform foundation environment, composed primarily of Java mechanisms. In this paper, we discuss this evolution, comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the various architectural approaches and describing the lessons learned about building complex web applications.

  8. Strictness Analysis and Denotational Abstract Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    there and this sufices to make the framework applicable to strictness analysis for the lambda-calculus. This shows the possibility of a general theory for the analysis of functional programs and it gives more insight into the relative precision of the various analyses. In particular it is shown that a collecting (static......A theory of abstract interpretation () is developed for a typed lambda-calculus. The typed lambda-calculus may be viewed as the ''static'' part of a two-level denotational metalanguage for which abstract interpretation was developed by ). The present development relaxes a condition imposed...

  9. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  10. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  11. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The development of new radiological protection recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to be a strategically important undertaking, both nationally and internationally. With the growing recognition of the importance of stakeholder aspects in radiological protection decision making, regional and cultural aspects have also emerged as having potentially significant influence on how protection of the public, workers and the environment are viewed. Differing cultural aspects should therefore be considered by the ICRP in its development of new recommendations. Based on this assumption, the NEA organised the Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection to express and explore views from the Far East. Held in Tokyo on 24-25 October 2002, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological protection experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and Australia. The distinct views and needs of these countries were discussed in the context of their regional and cultural heritages. These views, along with a summary of the conference results, are presented in these proceedings. (author)

  12. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  13. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  14. Evolution of sexual systems, dispersal strategies and habitat selection in the liverwort genus Radula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Nicolas; Renner, Matt A M; Gradstein, Robbert; Shaw, A Jonathan; Laenen, Benjamin; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2011-10-01

    • Shifts in sexual systems are among the most common and important transitions in plants and are correlated with a suite of life-history traits. The evolution of sexual systems and their relationships to gametophyte size, sexual and asexual reproduction, and epiphytism are examined here in the liverwort genus Radula. • The sequence of trait acquisition and the phylogenetic correlations between those traits was investigated using comparative methods. • Shifts in sexual systems recurrently occurred from dioecy to monoecy within facultative epiphyte lineages. Production of specialized asexual gemmae was correlated to neither dioecy nor strict epiphytism. • The significant correlations among life-history traits related to sexual systems and habitat conditions suggest the existence of evolutionary trade-offs. Obligate epiphytes do not produce gemmae more frequently than facultative epiphytes and disperse by whole gametophyte fragments, presumably to avoid the sensitive protonemal stage in a habitat prone to rapid changes in moisture availability. As dispersal ranges correlate with diaspore size, this reinforces the notion that epiphytes experience strong dispersal limitations. Our results thus provide the evolutionary complement to metapopulation, metacommunity and experimental studies demonstrating trade-offs between dispersal distance, establishment ability, and life-history strategy, which may be central to the evolution of reproductive strategies in bryophytes. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. A distributed snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly. Elder

    2006-01-01

    SnowModel is a spatially distributed snow-evolution modeling system designed for application in landscapes, climates, and conditions where snow occurs. It is an aggregation of four submodels: MicroMet defines meteorological forcing conditions, EnBal calculates surface energy exchanges, SnowPack simulates snow depth and water-equivalent evolution, and SnowTran-3D...

  16. Geometrical optimization for strictly localized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yirong

    2003-07-01

    Recently we proposed the block localized wavefunction (BLW) approach which takes the advantages of valence bond theory and molecular orbital theory and defines the wavefunctions for resonance structures based on the assumption that all electrons and orbitals are partitioned into a few subgroups. In this work, we implement the geometrical optimization of the BLW method based on the algorithm proposed by Gianinetti and coworkers. Thus, we can study the conjugation effect on not only the molecular stability, but also the molecular geometry. With this capability, the π conjugation effect in trans-polyenes C2nH2n+2 (n=2-5) as well as in formamide and its analogs are studied by optimizing their delocalized and strictly localized forms with the 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. Although it has been well presumed that the π resonance shortens the single bonds and lengthens the double bonds with the delocalization of π electrons across the whole line in polyenes, our optimization of the strictly localized structures quantitatively shows that when the conjugation effect is "turned off," the double bond lengths will be identical to the CC bond length in ethylene and the single Csp2-Csp2 bond length will be about 1.513-1.517 Å. In agreement with the classical Hückel theory, the resonance energies in polyenes are approximately in proportion to the number of double bonds. Similarly, resonance is responsible not only for the planarity of formamide, thioformamide, and selenoformamide, but also for the lengthening of the CX (X=O,S,Se) double bond and the shortening of the CN bonds. Although it is assumed that the CX bond polarization decreases in the order of O>S>Se, the π electronic delocalization increases in the opposite order, i.e., formamide

  17. An analytic model for the evolution of a close binary system of neutron (degenerate) stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imshennik, V. S.; Popov, D. V.

    1998-03-01

    The evolution of a close binary system of neutron stars is studied in the point-mass approximation with allowance for gravitational radiation and mass exchange between the components of the system. The calculation of mass transfer from the low-mass component of the system based on the known approximations for the radii of the Roche lobe and the low-mass component provides the reliable determination of the characteristics of the system by the end of its evolution, which are virtually independent of the initial ratio of the component masses. The evolution of the system is accompanied by the mass loss from the low-mass component and ends in the explosion of this component at the time when its mass reaches the lower limit for neutron stars (close to 0.1 M_solar). After the explosion, the second component of the system leaves the supernova remnant with the speed and rotation period which are determined almost entirely by the total mass of the system M_t. The assumption about the explosion of the low-mass component and subsequent escape of the high-mass component (pulsar or black hole) from the system have been made in the recently proposed scenario of the explosion of collapsing supernovae with allowance for rotational effects (Imshennik 1992; Imshennik and Nadezhin 1992; Imshennik and Popov 1996). We formulate and substantiate an analytic model for the evolution of the system under consideration, in which virtually all mass exchange between the components occurs under the assumption of quasi-stationary circular orbits with significant energy and angular momentum losses related to gravitational radiation. Such character of the evolution persists until the time the mass of the low-mass component reaches the value of order ~ 0.15 M_solar. The remaining mass (~0.05 M_solar) is lost by this component in the dynamical regime and the given analytic model takes on, strictly speaking, the character of a crude estimate. On the basis of this model, the main features of

  18. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.; Gabbay, D.

    2001-01-01

    Evolution in societies of agents is a challenging phenomenon, both from a fundamental perspective and from an applied perspective. In the literature often genetic programming approaches are used and relatively simple agents are considered, which have no deliberate influence on the direction of the

  19. Conservation of the Type IV secretion system throughout Wolbachia evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichon, Samuel; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is an efficient pathway with which bacteria can mediate the transfer of DNA and/or proteins to eukaryotic cells. In Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally inherited obligate endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes, two operons of vir genes, virB3-B6 and virB8-D4......, encoding a T4SS were previously identified and characterized at two separate genomic loci. Using the largest data set of Wolbachia strains studied so far, we show that vir gene sequence and organization are strictly conserved among 37 Wolbachia strains inducing various phenotypes such as cytoplasmic...

  20. From Regular to Strictly Locally Testable Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Crespi Reghizzi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A classical result (often credited to Y. Medvedev states that every language recognized by a finite automaton is the homomorphic image of a local language, over a much larger so-called local alphabet, namely the alphabet of the edges of the transition graph. Local languages are characterized by the value k=2 of the sliding window width in the McNaughton and Papert's infinite hierarchy of strictly locally testable languages (k-slt. We generalize Medvedev's result in a new direction, studying the relationship between the width and the alphabetic ratio telling how much larger the local alphabet is. We prove that every regular language is the image of a k-slt language on an alphabet of doubled size, where the width logarithmically depends on the automaton size, and we exhibit regular languages for which any smaller alphabetic ratio is insufficient. More generally, we express the trade-off between alphabetic ratio and width as a mathematical relation derived from a careful encoding of the states. At last we mention some directions for theoretical development and application.

  1. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  2. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  3. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  4. Tent map as an abstract model of open system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usychenko, V. G.

    2011-06-01

    The irreversible equations of thermodynamic transport phenomena are changed to tent mapping. It is shown that a tent map may serve as a model of an open system capable of self-organization and evolution.

  5. The redshift number density evolution of Mg II absorption systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhi-Fu

    2013-01-01

    We make use of the recent large sample of 17 042 Mg II absorption systems from Quider et al. to analyze the evolution of the redshift number density. Regardless of the strength of the absorption line, we find that the evolution of the redshift number density can be clearly distinguished into three different phases. In the intermediate redshift epoch (0.6 ≲ z ≲ 1.6), the evolution of the redshift number density is consistent with the non-evolution curve, however, the non-evolution curve over-predicts the values of the redshift number density in the early (z ≲ 0.6) and late (z ≳ 1.6) epochs. Based on the invariant cross-section of the absorber, the lack of evolution in the redshift number density compared to the non-evolution curve implies the galaxy number density does not evolve during the middle epoch. The flat evolution of the redshift number density tends to correspond to a shallow evolution in the galaxy merger rate during the late epoch, and the steep decrease of the redshift number density might be ascribed to the small mass of halos during the early epoch.

  6. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  7. Earth evolution as a thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C.

    2014-12-01

    After fifty years of plate-tectonic theory, the reasons why earth sometime freezed as a snowball or sometime became lethally hot resulting in mass extinction remain enigmatic. This article proposes a new hypothesis on Earth evolution. The unbalance of heat between the input and output is considered as the driving force for the Earth evolution, the lithospheric expansion and associated uplift are the triggers, the self-organized progressive failure leading to collapse of the Earth are the amplifier, and the global scale response in terms of volcanism and magmatism is the globalizer. This shallow process of lithosphere may reach a critical state with a positive feedback loop, and result in the formation of no-plume original Large Igneous Provinces (NPOLIP) in a top-down pattern. Endothermic phase changes during de-compressive melting remove heat from and cool their surroundings, including the upper parts of the lithosphere. The huge loss of Earth's heat during eruption of LIPs, together with the endothermic cooling, may put the thermal cycle to an end and a new start of the cycle initiates. In summary, Earth drives itself to evolve in terms of thermal cycles. Global cooling and warming are the two stages of the many cycles during the Earth evolution. Glaciations are the extreme result of global cooling, whereas the LIPs, sometime accompanied with remarkable sea level dropping, are the extreme result of global warming, with a long recovering age, the interglacialstage, between them. They come and go as thermal cycle evolves, with climate warming, being caused by Earth itself rather than by external forces or human activities, as the most attractive prediction.

  8. Identification of bilinear systems using differential evolution algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, a novel identification method based on differential evolu- tion algorithm has been applied to bilinear systems and its performance has been compared to that of genetic algorithm. Box–Jenkins system and different type bilinear systems have been identified using differential evolution and genetic ...

  9. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  10. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Adaptive evolution of sexual systems in pedunculate barnacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusa, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Mai; Kitaura, Jun

    2012-01-01

    to mating in small groups. Within the pedunculate barnacle phylogeny, dwarf males and females have evolved repeatedly. Females are more likely to evolve in androdioecious than hermaphroditic populations, suggesting that evolution of dwarf males has preceded that of females in pedunculates. Both dwarf males...... and females are associated with a higher proportion of solitary individuals in the population, corroborating the hypothesis that limited mating opportunities have favoured evolution of these diverse sexual systems, which have puzzled biologists since Darwin....

  12. Tecnatom's operation system interfaces and their evolution in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, Pedro

    1998-01-01

    The author comments the evolution of operation system interfaces produced by the Tecnatom Company, notably for the support in the construction of the Spanish nuclear power plants. A system can typically be divided into a data acquisition system, a central processing system, and a graphical system. The author discusses and comments the main functional applications which are: real time data displays, data analysis functions, and other utilities (file management, data storing, file reloading)

  13. Nonlinear evolution of stellar spherical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyachenko, V.L. (AN SSSR, Irkutsk. Sibirskij Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln)

    1981-03-01

    A universal method for computer realization of collisionless models according to a given distribution function is suggested. By employing this method it is shown that the development of instabilities in spherically-symmetric systems with nearly radial trajectories of the system constituents leads to a distinct elliptical deformation of the system.

  14. Evolution of control systems for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley-Milling, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the development of control systems for accelerators. After an historical survey and a general introduction the hardware and software of such systems is described. As example the control system of the CERN SP5 is considered. Finally an outlook is given to future developments with special regards to the LEP storage ring. (HSI)

  15. Evolution paths of a general control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Large systems are built by teams of people who communicate through a set of design tools to produce an information model which describes the system. The model can be analyzed for consistency and completeness. A system building methodology based upon this information model can be used for the construction, operation, and maintenance of the system. Operational procedure knowledge derived from operating experience can be used for autonomous operation. Advancing computer technology is improving the engineering tools available in each of these areas. A unified set of such tools provides the maximum amount of computer assistance to the system builders

  16. Evolution of the LBT Telemetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, K.; Biddick, C.; De La Peña, M. D.; Summers, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Telescope Control System (TCS) records about 10GB of telemetry data per night. Additionally, the vibration monitoring system records about 9GB of telemetry data per night. Through 2013, we have amassed over 6TB of Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files and almost 9TB in a MySQL database of TCS and vibration data. The LBT telemetry system, in its third major revision since 2004, provides the mechanism to capture and store this data. The telemetry system has evolved from a simple HDF file system with MySQL stream definitions within the TCS, to a separate system using a MySQL database system for the definitions and data, and finally to no database use at all, using HDF5 files.

  17. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  18. The evolution of a distributed operating system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Renesse, Robbert; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.; Mullender, Sape J.; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Wolfgang

    AMOEBA is a research project to build a true distributed operating system using the object model. Under the COST11-ter MANDIS project this work was extended to cover wide-area networks. Besides describing the system, this paper discusses the successive versions in the implementation of its model,

  19. Evolution, Complex Systems and the Dialectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Knapp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of large scale historical macro-theories is contested both in world-systems theory and in sociology as a whole. I distinguish three types of such dynamic models: evolutionary models, systems models and dialectical models. I define dialectical models as a family of complex systems models characterized by positive feedback (self-reinforcement or auto-catalysis. Such models lead to processes of accumulation and polarization, leading to system crisis. The games of Monopoly and Risk provide popular examples. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of three examples of such models: Myrdal's model of cumulative causation; Collins's models of Marxian transformations and geopolitics; and Chaso-Dunn and Hall's iterative model of world-systems transformations. A combination of evolutionary, complex systems and dialectical analyses has consideralble overlap with chaotic, far-from-equilibrium types of models and with analyses of complex adaptive systems. Such discontinuous, nonlinear dynamic models show great potential for solving problems of dynamic analysis both within world-systems theory and within sociology as a whole.

  20. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  1. Research on System Coherence Evolution of Different Environmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-Qi; Lu, Jing-Bin; Li, Hong; Liu, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Han; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Xiang-Yao

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we have studied the evolution curve of two-level atomic system that the initial state is excited state. At the different of environmental reservoir models, which include the single Lorentzian, ideal photon band-gap, double Lorentzian and square Lorentzian reservoir, we researched the influence of these environmental reservoir models on the evolution of energy level population. At static no modulation, comparing the four environmental models, the atomic energy level population oscillation of square Lorentzian reservoir model is fastest, and the atomic system decoherence is slowest. Under dynamic modulation, comparing the photon band-gap model with the single Lorentzian reservoir model, no matter what form of dynamic modulation, the time of atoms decay to the ground state is longer for the photonic band-gap model. These conclusions make the idea of using the environmental change to modulate the coherent evolution of atomic system become true.

  2. Solar System Evolution through Planetesmial Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Isabella; Laughlin, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Understanding planet formation is crucial to unraveling the history of our Solar System. Refining our theory of planet formation has become particularly important as the discovery of exoplanet systems through missions like Kepler have indicated that our system is incredibly unique. Compared to other systems around Sun-like stars, we are missing a significant amount of mass in the inner region of our solar system.A leading explanation for the low mass of the terrestrial planets is Jupiter’s Grand Tack. In this theory, the existence of the rocky planets is thought to be the result of the migration of Jupiter through the inner solar system. This migration could spark a collisional cascade of planetesimals, allowing planetesimals to drift inwards and shepherd an original set of massive planets into the Sun, thus explaining the absence of massive planets in our current system. The remnants of the planetesimals would them become the building blocks for a new generation of smaller, rocky planets.Using the N-body simulator REBOUND, we investigate the dynamics of the Grand Tack. We focus in particular on collisional cascades, which are thought to cause the inward planetesimal drift. We first modify the simulator to account for fragmentation outcomes in planetesimal collisions. Modeling disks of varying initial conditions, we then characterize the disk conditions needed to begin a cascade and shed light on the solar system’s dynamics just prior to the formation of the terrestrial planets.

  3. Trauma Systems: Origins, Evolution, and Current Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigneri, Danielle A; Beldowicz, Brian; Jurkovich, Gregory J

    2017-10-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death among patients 46 years or younger, and having a system in place for the care of the injured is of paramount importance to the health of a community. The growth and development of civilian trauma systems has not been an easy process. The concept of regionalized health care that the trauma system models has been emulated by other specialized and time-sensitive areas of medicine, notably stroke and acute cardiac events. Continued process improvement, public education, support and involvement, a sound infrastructure, and integrated technology should remain our focus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  5. The evolution of dopamine systems in chordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei eYamamoto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory-motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2 revealed new populations of DA synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g. teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates.

  6. Evolution of the racetrack microtron control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.R.; Schneider, C.M.; Martinez, V.A.; Trout, R.E.; Gritzo, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Ultimately, the true measure of a control system lies in how well initial decisions allow for exigencies, as the overall machine evolves and requirements solidify. Recognizing that advances in electronic technology virtually guarantee that any system will be technologically out of date by the time it is operational, the criteria really do not involve the state of the technological advancement, but instead legitimately ask whether the control-system design can adjust to the inevitable machine-design changes, whether the operators can use it to control the machine in a reasonable manner, whether it was built within budget constraints, or - in short - whether it works. On these bases, our initial decisions on the racetrack microtron (RTM) control system have been increasingly vindicated as the system has evolved, and we feel that our experiences have shed some light on just which criteria are of real importance, and which are merely a part of the lore of popular misinformation. Unless the basic requirements are met, technical elegance is no virtue, and when they are met, design simplicity is no vice

  7. Evolution of the racetrack microtron control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.R.; Schneider, C.M.; Martinez, V.A.; Trout, R.E.; Gritzo, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Ultimately, the true measure of a control system lies in how well initial decisions allow for exigencies, as the overall machine evolves and requirements solidify. Recognizing that advances in electronic technology virtually guarantee that any system will be technologically out of date by the time it is operational, the criteria really do not involve the state of the technological advancement, but instead legitimately ask whether the control-system design can adjust to the inevitable machine-design changes, whether the operators can use it to control the machine in a reasonable manner, whether it was built within budget constraints, or, in short, whether it works. On these bases, our initial decisions on the racetrack microtron (RTM) control system have been increasingly vindicated as the system has evolved, and we feel that our experiences have shed some light on just which criteria are of real importance, and which are merely a part of the lore of popular misinformation. Unless the basic requirements are met, technical elegance is no virtue, and when they are met, design simplicity is no vice

  8. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    CERN Document Server

    Undrus, A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Builds and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, test...

  9. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Makarova, Kira; H. Haft, Daniel; Barrangou, Rodolphe; J. J. Brouns, Stan; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Horvath, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain; J. M. Mojica, Francisco; I. Wolf, Yuri; Yakunin, Alexander F.; van der Oost, John; V. Koonin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of evolution for both the cas genes and the unique spacer content. Here, we provide an updated analysis of the evolutionary relationships between CRISPR–Cas systems and Cas proteins. Three major types of CRISPR–Cas system are delineated, with a further division into several subtypes and a few chimeric variants. Given the complexity of the genomic architectures and the extremely dynamic evolution of the CRISPR–Cas systems, a unified classification of these systems should be based on multiple criteria. Accordingly, we propose a `polythetic' classification that integrates the phylogenies of the most common cas genes, the sequence and organization of the CRISPR repeats and the architecture of the CRISPR–cas loci. PMID:21552286

  10. On Fixed Points of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    languages such as VHDL (see [1]) and SystemC (see [2]), modeling and simulation tools such as Simulink and LabVIEW, network simulation tools such as ns-2/ns...interesting direction for future 49 work. References [1] IEEE standard VHDL language reference manual. IEEE Std 1076-2000, pages i–290, 2000. [2] IEEE

  11. Communications and Tracking Distributed Systems Evolution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, William

    1990-01-01

    The Communications and Tracking (C & T) techniques and equipment to support evolutionary space station concepts are being analyzed. Evolutionary space station configurations and operational concepts are used to derive the results to date. A description of the C & T system based on future capability needs is presented. Included are the hooks and scars currently identified to support future growth.

  12. The evolution of Jefferson Lab's control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. S. White; M. Bickley; W. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's (Jefferson Lab) accelerator controls were initially implemented as a proprietary in-house system. During machine commissioning, problems were encountered leading to a decision to migrate to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Controls System (EPICS). Since then, the accelerator and all other laboratory controls have been successfully converted. In addition to implementing Jefferson Lab's controls using EPICS, new data visualization tools have been developed and existing programs have been enhanced with new capabilities. In order to provide a more generic interface for high level applications development, a device abstraction layer, called Common DEVice (CDEV), was implemented. These additions have been made available to other laboratories and are in use at many sites, including some that do not use EPICS. Control System development is not limited to computer scientists; operators, engineers and physicists frequently add capabilities using EPICS, CDEV, Tel/tk, and other tools. These contributions have tailored the control system for many different types of customers. For the future, the authors envision more intelligent processing and more capable tools for data storage, retrieval and visualization

  13. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undrus, A

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  14. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undrus, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Nightly Build System is a major component in the ATLAS collaborative software organization, validation, and code approval scheme. For over 10 years of development it has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The 50 multi-platform branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains 2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by about 1000 developers. Recent development was focused on the integration of ATLAS Nightly Build and Installation systems. The nightly releases are distributed and validated and some are transformed into stable releases used for data processing worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on a computing farm with 50 powerful multiprocessor nodes. NICOS provides the fully automated framework for the release builds, testing, and creation of distribution kits. The ATN testing framework of the Nightly System runs unit and integration tests in parallel suites, fully utilizing the resources of multi-core machines, and provides the first results even before compilations complete. The NICOS error detection system is based on several techniques and classifies the compilation and test errors according to their severity. It is periodically tuned to place greater emphasis on certain software defects by highlighting the problems on NICOS web pages and sending automatic e-mail notifications to responsible developers. These and other recent developments will be presented and future plans will be described.

  15. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  16. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  17. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  19. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  20. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  1. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  2. Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section

  3. Evolution of the ATLAS Nightly Build System

    CERN Document Server

    Undrus, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    For over 10 years of development the ATLAS Nightly Build System has evolved into a factory for automatic release production and grid distribution. The numerous branches of ATLAS releases provide vast opportunities for testing new packages, verification of patches to existing software, and migration to new platforms and compilers for ATLAS code that currently contains ~2200 packages with 4 million C++ and 1.4 million python scripting lines written by ~1000 developers. The nightly releases lead up to stable releases used for data processing and analysis worldwide. The ATLAS Nightly System is managed by the NICOS control tool on the ATLAS Build Farm. The ATN testing framework runs unit and integration tests for the nightly releases.

  4. The Evolution of an Online Acquisitions System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenko Lukac

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available About two years ago a home-grown online acquisitions system was developed and implemented at Pacific University. The program, written in BASIC for the Data General Nova Computer, perform sall the necessary functions such as ordering ,receiving, fund accounting, etc. Thisprogram was offered to the library community ,and about one hundred libraries from around the world have availed themselves of it.

  5. TMX-U computer system in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T.A.; Bell, H.; Brown, M.; Gorvad, M.; Jenkins, S.; Meyer, W.; Moller, J.; Perkins, D.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past three years, the total TMX-U diagnsotic data base has grown to exceed 10 megabytes from over 1300 channels; roughly triple the originally designed size. This acquisition and processing load has resulted in an experiment repetition rate exceeding 10 minutes per shot using the five original Hewlett-Packard HP-1000 computers with their shared disks. Our new diagnostics tend to be multichannel instruments, which, in our environment, can be more easily managed using local computers. For this purpose, we are using HP series 9000 computers for instrument control, data acquisition, and analysis. Fourteen such systems are operational with processed format output exchanged via a shared resource manager. We are presently implementing the necessary hardware and software changes to create a local area network allowing us to combine the data from these systems with our main data archive. The expansion of our diagnostic system using the paralled acquisition and processing concept allows us to increase our data base with a minimum of impact on the experimental repetition rate

  6. EIA systems in Nigeria: evolution, current practice and shortcomings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunba, Olusegun A.

    2004-01-01

    Amidst mounting criticism of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) carried out in Nigeria under the three independent EIA systems--the EIA Decree 86 (1992), the Town and Country Planning Decree 88 (1992) and the Petroleum Act (1969)--the paper traces the evolution of Nigeria's systems and appraises current practice and shortcomings. The path of development of the systems was traced within the framework of Gibson's model of EIA evolution [Impact Assess. Proj. Apprais., 20 (3) 2002, 151-159], while current practice and shortcomings were explored in random interview surveys of consultant firms, approval authorities and the academia. It was seen that Gibson's four-stage model is not exactly representative of the Nigerian situation, and a more appropriate six-stage model was developed. It was also established that the current practices of the three EIA systems were at different stages of evolution: one of the EIA schemes (the Town and Country Planning Decree) has not evolved satisfactorily, while the other two EIA systems have produced intricate legislations and guidelines, but fall short of first-rate practice. The other discovery was that the simultaneous use of three independent systems creates unnecessary duplication of EIA preparation with considerable time and money costs. The paper advises that Nigeria can make substantial progress along the evolutionary path through a correction of observed system shortcomings and a merger of the three systems

  7. Evolution of a Waste Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speed, D.

    2009-01-01

    Managing information has become a pervasive task in our society and business activities. This is especially true in the arena of government facilities and nuclear materials. Accomplishing the required tasks is not sufficient in the new millennium; plans are made, reviewed and approved, specifications for materials are developed, materials are procured and delivered, inspected, invoices are audited and paid. Activities are conducted to procedures with embedded quality checks and a final turn-over inspection is performed. In order to make the most efficient use of our human capital, we turn to machines to assist us in managing the information flood. How best to address this task? This is new territory - there was no prior art at this level. The challenge is to exercise an appropriate level of control, and at the same time, add value. The key to accomplishing this goal is having a good team with a carefully engineered processes applying an appropriate level of automation. At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), information is managed about the facility, its performance (environmental monitoring), mining operations, facility services, cyber security, human resources, business processes, and waste information. This paper addresses experience gained with the management of waste information over the first decade of operation. The WIPP Waste Information System (WWIS) was created to fill both a gatekeeper function to screen waste for disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the official record of the properties of the waste contained in the WIPP transuranic waste repository. The WWIS has been a very successful system as the monitor of waste acceptance criteria and data integrity; it is an integral part of the success of the WIPP operation. The WWIS is now in its thirteenth year of operation. This period has included close regulatory scrutiny as a part of determining facility readiness for initial waste acceptance, and more than 40 significant software revisions

  8. The plant vascular system: Evolution, development and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Lucas; Andrew Groover; Raffael Lichtenberger; Kaori Furuta; Shri-Ram Yadav; Yka Helariutta; Xin-Qiang He; Hiroo Fukuda; Julie Kang; Siobhan M. Brady; John W. Patrick; John Sperry; Akiko Yoshida; Ana-Flor Lopez-Millan; Michael A. Grusak; Pradeep Kachroo

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats. Recently, considerable progress has been made...

  9. The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan

    Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic

  10. Compact stars and the evolution of binary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Chandrasekhar limit is of key importance for the evolution of white dwarfs in binary systems and for the formation of neutron stars and black holes in binaries. Mass transfer can drive a white dwarf in a binary over the Chandrasekhar limit, which may lead to a Type Ia supernova (in case of a CO

  11. Cultural selection drives the evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Monica; Ellison, T Mark; Barr, Dale J; Fay, Nicolas

    2014-08-07

    Human communication systems evolve culturally, but the evolutionary mechanisms that drive this evolution are not well understood. Against a baseline that communication variants spread in a population following neutral evolutionary dynamics (also known as drift models), we tested the role of two cultural selection models: coordination- and content-biased. We constructed a parametrized mixed probabilistic model of the spread of communicative variants in four 8-person laboratory micro-societies engaged in a simple communication game. We found that selectionist models, working in combination, explain the majority of the empirical data. The best-fitting parameter setting includes an egocentric bias and a content bias, suggesting that participants retained their own previously used communicative variants unless they encountered a superior (content-biased) variant, in which case it was adopted. This novel pattern of results suggests that (i) a theory of the cultural evolution of human communication systems must integrate selectionist models and (ii) human communication systems are functionally adaptive complex systems.

  12. The Evolution and Challenges of the Danish Civil Service System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2013-01-01

    In this article a descriptive analysis of the evolution and current challenges of the Danish civil service system is given. The focus is on the state administration. Theories of path-dependency and the transnational diffusion of ideas inform the empirical analysis. The broad features of the long......-term history of the Danish civil service system are analyzed. The basic characteristics of the current internal labor market of the civil service are analyzed as well as some recent changes in the system. Issues of politicization of the civil service are discussed and public opinion concerning the civil...... service is examined. The Danish civil service system has been characterized by long-term gradual evolution and adoption of many of the prevailing institutions in medieval and modern European state administration. This adaptation to prevailing trends has been predominantly characterized by integration...

  13. Remote control systems evolution in the new open energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglioni, L.

    2001-01-01

    Considering new energy market in Italy, the new role of remote control applications is discussed. In the open market the whole electric process is managed by several different actors; common protocol scheme and additional sharing data policies are necessaries facing the increased communications requirements due to deregulation. Remote control systems evolution then will lead from process oriented to data management oriented systems; related methodologies and solutions are described [it

  14. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  15. Some problems of evolution of the solar system. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolczek, O.

    1974-01-01

    The size of the solar system and forces responsible for its evolution are discussed. Contemporary and primary distribution of matter in the solar system are described. Some pecularities of the process of organization of matter in the primary circumsolar nebula are mentioned. Formation of aggregates from dispersed matter are shown. Results of the recent experiments and investigations of surface material from the moon are presented. The role of solar wind and magnetic field in the early solar system and time of formation of planets are shown. Coupling between planetary masses and orbits and problem of longevity of planetary orbits and of the whole solar system are discussed. (author)

  16. Echinoderm systems for gene regulatory studies in evolution and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Maria Ina; Andrikou, Carmen; Annunziata, Rossella

    2016-08-01

    One of the main challenges in Evolutionary Developmental Biology is to understand to which extent developmental changes are driven by regulatory alterations in the genomic sequence. In the recent years, the focus of comparative developmental studies has moved towards a systems biology approach providing a better understanding of the evolution of gene interactions that form the so called Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN). Echinoderms provide a powerful system to reveal regulatory mechanisms and within the past decade, due to the latest technological innovations, a great number of studies have provided valuable information for comparative GRN analyses. In this review we describe recent advances in evolution of GRNs arising from echinoderm systems, focusing on the properties of conserved regulatory kernels, circuit co-option events and GRN topological rearrangements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  18. Strict monotonicity and unique continuation of the biharmonic operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Tsouli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the biharmonic operator holds if and only if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  19. Meta-Data Objects as the Basis for System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Estrella, Florida; Tóth, N; Kovács, Z; Le Goff, J M; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Toth, Norbert; Kovacs, Zsolt; Goff, Jean-Marie Le

    2001-01-01

    One of the main factors driving object-oriented software development in the Web- age is the need for systems to evolve as user requirements change. A crucial factor in the creation of adaptable systems dealing with changing requirements is the suitability of the underlying technology in allowing the evolution of the system. A reflective system utilizes an open architecture where implicit system aspects are reified to become explicit first-class (meta-data) objects. These implicit system aspects are often fundamental structures which are inaccessible and immutable, and their reification as meta-data objects can serve as the basis for changes and extensions to the system, making it self- describing. To address the evolvability issue, this paper proposes a reflective architecture based on two orthogonal abstractions - model abstraction and information abstraction. In this architecture the modeling abstractions allow for the separation of the description meta-data from the system aspects they represent so that th...

  20. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  1. Evolution of the mating system in colonizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, John R

    2015-05-01

    Colonization is likely to be more successful for species with an ability to self-fertilize and thus to establish new populations as single individuals. As a result, self-compatibility should be common among colonizing species. This idea, labelled 'Baker's law', has been influential in discussions of sexual-system and mating-system evolution. However, its generality has been questioned, because models of the evolution of dispersal and the mating system predict an association between high dispersal rates and outcrossing rather than selfing, and because of many apparent counter examples to the law. The contrasting predictions made by models invoking Baker's law versus those for the evolution of the mating system and dispersal urges a reassessment of how we should view both these traits. Here, I review the literature on the evolution of mating and dispersal in colonizing species, with a focus on conceptual issues. I argue for the importance of distinguishing between the selfing or outcrossing rate and a simple ability to self-fertilize, as well as for the need for a more nuanced consideration of dispersal. Colonizing species will be characterized by different phases in their life pattern: dispersal to new habitat, implying an ecological sieve on dispersal traits; establishment and a phase of growth following colonization, implying a sieve on reproductive traits; and a phase of demographic stasis at high density, during which new trait associations can evolve through local adaptation. This dynamic means that the sorting of mating-system and dispersal traits should change over time, making simple predictions difficult. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  3. Evolution of an open system as a continuous measurement of this system by its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensky, Michael B.

    2003-01-01

    The restricted-path-integral (RPI) description of a continuous quantum measurement is rederived starting from the description of an open system by the Feynman-Vernon influence functional. For this end the total evolution operator of the compound system consisting of the open system and its environment is decomposed into the sum of partial evolution operators. Accordingly, the influence functional of the open system is decomposed into the integral of partial influence functionals (PIF). If the partial evolution operators or PIF are chosen in such a way that they decohere (do not interfere with each other), then the formalism of RPI effectively arises. The evolution of the open system may then be interpreted as a continuous measurement of this system by its environment. This is possible if the environment is macroscopic or mesoscopic

  4. Quantifying adaptive evolution in the Drosophila immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Obbard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that a large proportion of amino acid substitutions in Drosophila have been fixed by natural selection, and as organisms are faced with an ever-changing array of pathogens and parasites to which they must adapt, we have investigated the role of parasite-mediated selection as a likely cause. To quantify the effect, and to identify which genes and pathways are most likely to be involved in the host-parasite arms race, we have re-sequenced population samples of 136 immunity and 287 position-matched non-immunity genes in two species of Drosophila. Using these data, and a new extension of the McDonald-Kreitman approach, we estimate that natural selection fixes advantageous amino acid changes in immunity genes at nearly double the rate of other genes. We find the rate of adaptive evolution in immunity genes is also more variable than other genes, with a small subset of immune genes evolving under intense selection. These genes, which are likely to represent hotspots of host-parasite coevolution, tend to share similar functions or belong to the same pathways, such as the antiviral RNAi pathway and the IMD signalling pathway. These patterns appear to be general features of immune system evolution in both species, as rates of adaptive evolution are correlated between the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. In summary, our data provide quantitative estimates of the elevated rate of adaptive evolution in immune system genes relative to the rest of the genome, and they suggest that adaptation to parasites is an important force driving molecular evolution.

  5. Time evolution of pore system in lime - Pozzolana composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleželová, Magdaléna; Čáchová, Monika; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Keppert, Martin

    2017-11-01

    The lime - pozzolana mortars and plasters are used in restoration works on building cultural heritage but these materials are also following the trend of energy - efficient solutions in civil engineering. Porosity and pore size distribution is one of crucial parameters influencing engineering properties of porous materials. The pore size distribution of lime based system is changing in time due to chemical processes occurring in the material. The present paper describes time evolution of pore system in lime - pozzolana composites; the obtained results are useful in prediction of performance of lime - pozzolana systems in building structures.

  6. A Generalized Evolution Criterion in Nonequilibrium Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Masakazu; Nisizima, Kunisuke

    1989-04-01

    A general evolution criterion, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and mass diffusion, is obtained as a direct version of the Le Chatelier-Braun principle for stationary states. The present theory is not based on any radical departure from the conventional one. The generalized theory is made determinate by proposing the balance equations for extensive thermodynamic variables which will reflect the character of convective systems under the assumption of local equilibrium. As a consequence of the introduction of source terms in the balance equations, there appear additional terms in the expression of the local entropy production, which are bilinear in terms of the intensive variables and the sources. In the present paper, we show that we can construct a dissipation function for such general cases, in which the premises of the Glansdorff-Prigogine theory are accumulated. The new dissipation function permits us to formulate a generalized evolution criterion for convective systems.

  7. Time evolution of a system of two alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baye, D.; Herschkowitz, D.

    1996-01-01

    Motivated by interpretations of a broad structure at 32.5 MeV in the 12 C( 12 C, 12 C(0 + 2 )) 12 C(0 + 2 ) doubly inelastic scattering cross sections in terms of linear chains of α particles, we study in a microscopic model with an exact account of antisymmetrization the time evolution of a system of two α clusters. The evolution of the system is obtained from a time-dependent variational principle and visualized with matter densities. Even in the most favourable case, an initial two-cluster structure completely disappears in less than 2.10 -22 s. This result casts doubts on the observability of longer α chains. (orig.)

  8. Formal Definitions of Unbounded Evolution and Innovation Reveal Universal Mechanisms for Open-Ended Evolution in Dynamical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alyssa; Zenil, Hector; Davies, Paul C W; Walker, Sara Imari

    2017-04-20

    Open-ended evolution (OEE) is relevant to a variety of biological, artificial and technological systems, but has been challenging to reproduce in silico. Most theoretical efforts focus on key aspects of open-ended evolution as it appears in biology. We recast the problem as a more general one in dynamical systems theory, providing simple criteria for open-ended evolution based on two hallmark features: unbounded evolution and innovation. We define unbounded evolution as patterns that are non-repeating within the expected Poincare recurrence time of an isolated system, and innovation as trajectories not observed in isolated systems. As a case study, we implement novel variants of cellular automata (CA) where the update rules are allowed to vary with time in three alternative ways. Each is capable of generating conditions for open-ended evolution, but vary in their ability to do so. We find that state-dependent dynamics, regarded as a hallmark of life, statistically out-performs other candidate mechanisms, and is the only mechanism to produce open-ended evolution in a scalable manner, essential to the notion of ongoing evolution. This analysis suggests a new framework for unifying mechanisms for generating OEE with features distinctive to life and its artifacts, with broad applicability to biological and artificial systems.

  9. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  10. Dynamical evolution of small bodies in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Seth A.

    2012-05-01

    This thesis explores the dynamical evolution of small bodies in the Solar System. It focuses on the asteroid population but parts of the theory can be applied to other systems such as comets or Kuiper Belt objects. Small is a relative term that refers to bodies whose dynamics can be significantly perturbed by non-gravitational forces and tidal torques on timescales less than their lifetimes (for instance the collisional timescale in the Main Belt asteroid population or the sun impact timescale for the near-Earth asteroid population). Non-gravitational torques such as the YORP effect can result in the active endogenous evolution of asteroid systems; something that was not considered more than twenty years ago. This thesis is divided into three independent studies. The first explores the dynamics of a binary systems immediately after formation from rotational fission. The rotational fission hypothesis states that a rotationally torqued asteroid will fission when the centrifugal accelerations across the body exceed gravitational attraction. Asteroids must have very little or no tensile strength for this to occur, and are often referred to as "rubble piles.'' A more complete description of the hypothesis and the ensuing dynamics is provided there. From that study a framework of asteroid evolution is assembled. It is determined that mass ratio is the most important factor for determining the outcome of a rotational fission event. Each observed binary morphology is tied to this evolutionary schema and the relevant timescales are assessed. In the second study, the role of non-gravitational and tidal torques in binary asteroid systems is explored. Understanding the competition between tides and the YORP effect provides insight into the relative abundances of the different binary morphologies and the effect of planetary flybys. The interplay between tides and the BYORP effect creates dramatic evolutionary pathways that lead to interesting end states including stranded

  11. The ecology and evolution of avian alarm call signaling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Alexis Chandon

    Communication is often set up as a simple dyadic exchange between one sender and one receiver. However, in reality, signaling systems have evolved and are used with many forms and types of information bombarding multiple senders, who in turn send multiple signals of different modalities, through various environmental spaces, finally reaching multiple receivers. In order to understand both the ecology and evolution of a signaling system, we must examine all the facets of the signaling system. My dissertation focused on the alarm call signaling system in birds. Alarm calls are acoustic signals given in response to danger or predators. My first two chapters examine how information about predators alters alarm calls. In chapter one I found that chickadees make distinctions between predators of different hunting strategies and appear to encode information about predators differently if they are heard instead of seen. In my second chapter, I test these findings more robustly in a non-model bird, the Steller's jay. I again found that predator species matters, but that how Steller's jays respond if they saw or heard the predator depends on the predator species. In my third chapter, I tested how habitat has influenced the evolution of mobbing call acoustic structure. I found that habitat is not a major contributor to the variation in acoustic structure seen across species and that other selective pressures such as body size may be more important. In my fourth chapter I present a new framework to understand the evolution of multimodal communication across species. I identify a unique constraint, the need for overlapping sensory systems, thresholds and cognitive abilities between sender and receiver in order for different forms of interspecific communication to evolve. Taken together, these chapters attempt to understand a signaling system from both an ecological and evolutionary perspective by examining each piece of the communication scheme.

  12. Long-term evolution and stability of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    This dissertation studies the dynamical evolution and stability of planetary systems over long time spans (10 8 -10 9 years). I investigated the dynamical evolution of few-planet systems by simulating ensembles of systems consisting of hundreds to thousands of randomly constructed members. I looked at ways to classify the systems according to their dynamical activity, and found the median Hill separation of an ensemble to be a sufficiently good criterion for separation into active (those exhibiting frequent planetary close encounters, collisions or ejections) and inactive ensembles. I examined the evolution of dynamical parameters in active systems. I found that in ensembles of dynamically active (initially unstable) systems the eccentricity distribution evolves towards the same equilibrium form, irrespective of the distribution it began with. Furthermore, this equilibrium distribution is indistinguishable, within observational errors, from the distribution found in extrasolar planets. This is to my knowledge the first successful detailed theoretical reproduction of the form of observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution. I further looked for quantities that can be used as indicators of long-term stability of planetary systems, specifically the angular momentum deficit (AMD) as originally proposed by Laskar. I found that the quantity Q , defined as the ratio of minimum AMD required for a planetary collision to occur in secular theory and the total AMD of the system, may be used to predict the likelihood of decay of a planetary system. Qualitatively, the decay in systems having Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 is highly probable, while systems with Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 were found to be stable. To conduct the above investigations, I developed a new integrator package (VENUS), and the HYBRID/EE integration scheme designed for nearly-symplectic long-term integrations. VENUS implements integration algorithms for few-body planetary system integrations

  13. Mosaic and concerted evolution in the visual system of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Moore, Bret A; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Corfield, Jeremy R; Krilow, Justin M; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Wylie, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Two main models have been proposed to explain how the relative size of neural structures varies through evolution. In the mosaic evolution model, individual brain structures vary in size independently of each other, whereas in the concerted evolution model developmental constraints result in different parts of the brain varying in size in a coordinated manner. Several studies have shown variation of the relative size of individual nuclei in the vertebrate brain, but it is currently not known if nuclei belonging to the same functional pathway vary independently of each other or in a concerted manner. The visual system of birds offers an ideal opportunity to specifically test which of the two models apply to an entire sensory pathway. Here, we examine the relative size of 9 different visual nuclei across 98 species of birds. This includes data on interspecific variation in the cytoarchitecture and relative size of the isthmal nuclei, which has not been previously reported. We also use a combination of statistical analyses, phylogenetically corrected principal component analysis and evolutionary rates of change on the absolute and relative size of the nine nuclei, to test if visual nuclei evolved in a concerted or mosaic manner. Our results strongly indicate a combination of mosaic and concerted evolution (in the relative size of nine nuclei) within the avian visual system. Specifically, the relative size of the isthmal nuclei and parts of the tectofugal pathway covary across species in a concerted fashion, whereas the relative volume of the other visual nuclei measured vary independently of one another, such as that predicted by the mosaic model. Our results suggest the covariation of different neural structures depends not only on the functional connectivity of each nucleus, but also on the diversity of afferents and efferents of each nucleus.

  14. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  15. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  16. INFLUENCE OF THE ENVIRONMENT CHARACTERISTICS ON INDUSTRY SYSTEM EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov L. S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the constructed evolutionary model in relation to branch of production of steam coals its structural transformation at taking note of various environmental characteristics is considered: endogenous competition, antimonopoly and anti-recessionary regulation. As an indicator of evolution of system it is offered to consider its structural change (Herfindahl-Hirschman index. The executed modeling showed that the speed of evolution of system, more intensive processes of concentration is in direct dependence on a price factor and in inverse relationship from rigidity of criteria of a dominant position. Frequency of transformation of system grows at increase in sensitivity of market price to a ratio of supply and demand and at cancellation of restrictions on the maximum volume, and decreases at liberalization of anti-recessionary regulation. It is shown that actions of antimonopoly and antirecessionary regulation can make sense in the short-term period, but in long-term prospect they lead to braking of development of system.

  17. Rapid evolution of manifold CRISPR systems for plant genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Qi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced CRISPR-Cas9 based technologies first validated in mammalian cell systems are quickly being adapted for use in plants. These new technologies increase CRISPR-Cas9’s utility and effectiveness by diversifying cellular capabilities through expression construct system evolution and enzyme orthogonality, as well as enhanced efficiency through delivery and expression mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of advanced CRISPR-Cas9 and Cpf1 capabilities in plants and cover the rapid evolution of these tools from first generation inducers of double strand breaks for basic genetic manipulations to second and third generation multiplexed systems with myriad functionalities, capabilities and specialized applications. We offer perspective on how to utilize these tools for currently untested research endeavors and analyze strengths and weaknesses of novel CRISPR systems in plants. Advanced CRISPR functionalities and delivery options demonstrated in plants are primarily reviewed but new technologies just coming to the forefront of CRISPR development, or those on the horizon, are briefly discussed. Topics covered are focused on the expansion of expression and delivery capabilities for CRISPR-Cas9 components and broadening targeting range through orthogonal Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins.

  18. Rapid Evolution of Manifold CRISPR Systems for Plant Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Levi; Malzahn, Aimee; Qi, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Advanced CRISPR-Cas9 based technologies first validated in mammalian cell systems are quickly being adapted for use in plants. These new technologies increase CRISPR-Cas9's utility and effectiveness by diversifying cellular capabilities through expression construct system evolution and enzyme orthogonality, as well as enhanced efficiency through delivery and expression mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of advanced CRISPR-Cas9 and Cpf1 capabilities in plants and cover the rapid evolution of these tools from first generation inducers of double strand breaks for basic genetic manipulations to second and third generation multiplexed systems with myriad functionalities, capabilities, and specialized applications. We offer perspective on how to utilize these tools for currently untested research endeavors and analyze strengths and weaknesses of novel CRISPR systems in plants. Advanced CRISPR functionalities and delivery options demonstrated in plants are primarily reviewed but new technologies just coming to the forefront of CRISPR development, or those on the horizon, are briefly discussed. Topics covered are focused on the expansion of expression and delivery capabilities for CRISPR-Cas9 components and broadening targeting range through orthogonal Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins.

  19. Observing the evolution of a quantum system that does not evolve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Liberato, Simone

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the problem of gathering information on the time evolution of a single metastable quantum system whose evolution is impeded by the quantum Zeno effect. It has been found it is in principle possible to obtain some information on the time evolution and, depending on the specific system, even to measure its average decay rate, even if the system does not undergo any evolution at all

  20. Detecting and Interpreting the Dynamical Evolution of Transiting Multiplanet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sean Martin

    The dynamical interactions of our Solar System have been studied in depth since Isaac Newton recognized that the planets may not be stable to each other's gravitational perturbations. Recently, the discovery of exoplanet systems, including approximately a thousand planet candidates in systems of more than two bodies, has opened an extremely vast and diverse laboratory for planetary dynamics. In this dissertation, I describe techniques for measuring the dynamical, post-Keplerian interactions of planetary systems. Such signals often require numerical N-body analysis and photodynamic techniques combined with Bayesian statistics to correctly determine the properties of the planetary systems causing them. By simultaneously fitting the entire lightcurve data set at once, I am able to extract low signal-to-noise effects such as the resonance dynamics of a very faint system (Kepler-223), the slow orbital precession of a giant planet system (Kepler-108), and transit timing variations among very small and low mass planets (Kepler-444). I use these analyses to gain physical insight into the system's history, such as Kepler-108's potentially chaotic, violent past. Kepler-223's present structure indicates a migration origin for at least some close-in, sub-Neptune planets, which I explore in terms of tidal dissipation, smooth and stochastic migration, and secular evolution. I also analyze circumbinary systems including the newly discovered KIC 10753734. Taken together, these results provide insight into planetary formation in a broad array of environments for planet from compact sub-Neptune systems to Jupiters and circumbinary planets.

  1. Cloud System Evolution in the Trades—CSET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, B. A.; Zuidema, P.; Bretherton, C. S.; Wood, R.; Ghate, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) study was designed to describe and explain the evolution of the boundary layer aerosol, cloud, and thermodynamic structures along trajectories within the north-Pacific trade-winds. The observational component of this study centered on 7 round-trips made by the NSF NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) between Sacramento, CA and Kona, Hawaii between 1 July and 15 August 2015. The CSET observing strategy used a Lagrangian approach to sample aerosol, cloud, and boundary layer properties upwind from the transition zone over the North Pacific and to resample these areas two days later. GFS forecast trajectories were used to plan the outbound flight to Hawaii and then updated forecast trajectories helped set the return flight plan two days later. Two key elements of the CSET observing system were the newly developed HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR) and the HIAPER Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). Together they provided unprecedented characterizations of aerosol, cloud and precipitation structures. A full suite of probes on the aircraft were used for in situ measurements of aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and turbulence properties during the low-level aircraft profiling portions of the flights. A wide range of boundary layer structures and aerosol, cloud, and precipitation conditions were observed during CSET. The cloud systems sampled included solid stratocumulus infused with smoke from Canadian wildfires, mesoscale (100-200 km) cloud-precipitation complexes, and patches of shallow cumuli in environments with accumulation mode aerosol concentrations of less than 50 cm-3. Ultra clean layers (UCLs with accumulation mode concentrations of less than 10 cm-3) were observed frequently near the top of the boundary layer and were often associated with shallow, gray (optically thin) layered clouds—features that are the subject of focused investigations by the CSET science team. The extent of aerosol, cloud, drizzle and boundary layer sampling that was

  2. Star-planet interactions and dynamical evolution of exoplanetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Cilia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical evolution of planetary systems, after the evaporation of the accretion disk, is the result of the competition between tidal dissipation and the net angular momentum loss of the system. The description of the diversity of orbital configurations, and correlations between parameters of the observed system (e.g. in the case of hot jupiters, is still limited by our understanding of the transport of angular momentum within the stars, and its effective loss by magnetic braking. After discussing the challenges of modelling tidal evolution for exoplanets, I will review recent results showing the importance of tidal interactions to test models of planetary formation. This kind of studies rely on the determination of stellar radii, masses and ages. Major advances will thus be obtained with the results of the PLATO 2.0 mission, selected as the next M-class mission of ESA’s Cosmic Vision plan, that will allow the complete characterisation of host stars using asteroseismology.

  3. Meteorites and the Evolution of Our Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The study of meteorites has long been of intense interest ever since these objects were discovered to be of extraterrestrial origin. Meteorite research contributes to unraveling the mysteries in understanding the formation and evolution processes of our solar system. Meteorites, of which there are a variety of widely diverse types of chemical and mineralogical compositions, are the most ancient of solar system objects that can be studied in the laboratory. They preserve a unique historical record of the astronomical and astrophysical events of our solar system. This record is being discerned by a host of ever evolving analytical laboratory methods. Recent discoveries of what are believed to be Martian meteorites, lunar meteorites, a meteorite containing indigenous water, and the recovery from the Cretaceous layer of a small meteorite fragment thought to be from the dinosaur-killing asteroid have fueled additional excitement for studying meteorites.

  4. Mann iteration with errors for strictly pseudo-contractive mappings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well known that any fixed point of a Lipschitzian strictly pseudo-contractive self mapping of a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset K of a Banach space X is unique [6] and may be norm approximated by an iterative procedure. In this paper, we show that Mann iteration with errors can be used to approximate the ...

  5. Dominated operators, absolutely summing operators and the strict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b(X;E) be the space of all E-valued bounded continuous functions on X, equipped with the strict topology β. We study dominated and absolutely summing operators T : Cb(X;E) → F. We derive that if X is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E ...

  6. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  7. Open System Models of Isotopic Evolution in Earth's Silicate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, S.; Paul, D.; Stracke, A.

    2016-12-01

    The present-day elemental and isotopic composition of Earth's terrestrial reservoirs can be used as geochemical constraints to study evolution of the crust-mantle system. A flexible open system evolutionary model of the Earth, comprising continental crust (CC), upper depleted mantle (UM) -source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB), and lower mantle (LM) reservoir with an isolated reservoir-source of ocean island basalts (OIB), and incorporating key radioactive isotope systematics (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Th-Pb), is solved numerically at 1 Ma time step for 4.55 Ga, the age of the Earth. The best possible model-derived solution is the one that produces the present-day concentrations as well as isotopic ratios in terrestrial reservoirs, constrained from published data. Various crustal growth scenarios (continuous versus episodic and early versus late) and its effect on the evolution of isotope systematics in the silicate reservoirs have been evaluated. Modeling results suggest that a whole mantle that is compositionally similar to the present-day MORB source is not consistent with observational constraints. However, a heterogeneous mantle model, in which the present-day UM is 60% of the total mantle mass and a lower non-chondritic mantle, reproduces the estimated isotopic ratios and abundances in Earth's silicate reservoirs. Our results shows that mode of crustal growth strongly affects isotopic evolution of silicate Earth; only an exponential crustal growth pattern satisfactorily explains the chemical and isotopic evolution of the crust-mantle system. One notable feature of successful models is an early depletion of incompatible elements (and a rapid decrease in Th/U ratio, κ, in the UM) by the initial 500 Ma, as a result of early formation of continental crust. Assuming a slightly younger age of the Earth (4.45 Ga), our model better satisfies the Pb-isotope systematics in the respective silicate reservoirs, particularly in the UM, and explains the origin of several OIBs

  8. The hydrothermal evolution of the Kawerau geothermal system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicich, S. D.; Chambefort, I.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Charlier, B. L. A.; Tepley, F. J.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrothermal alteration zoning and processes provide insights into the evolution of heat source(s) and fluid compositions associated with geothermal systems. Traditional petrological techniques, combined with hydrothermal alteration studies, stable isotope analyses and geochronology can resolve the nature of the fluids involved in hydrothermal processes and their changes through time. We report here new findings along with previous unpublished works on alteration patterns, fluid inclusion measurements and stable isotope data to provide insights into the thermal and chemical evolution of the Kawerau geothermal system, New Zealand. These data indicate the presence of two hydrothermal events that can be coupled with chronological data. The earlier period of hydrothermal activity was initiated at 400 ka, with the heat driving the hydrothermal system inferred to be from the magmatic system that gave rise to rhyolite lavas and sills of the Caxton Formation. Isotopic data fingerprint fluids attributed to this event as meteoric, indicating that the magma primarily served as a heat source driving fluid circulation, and was not releasing magmatic fluids in sufficient quantity to affect the rock mineralogy and thus inferred fluid compositions. The modern Kawerau system was initiated at 16 ka with hydrothermal eruptions linked to shallow intrusion of magma at the onset of activity that gave rise to the Putauaki andesite cone. Likely associated with this later event was a pulse of magmatic CO2, resulting in large-scale deposition of hydrothermal calcite enriched in 18O. Meteoric water-dominated fluids subsequently overwhelmed the magmatic fluids associated with this 18O-rich signature, and both the fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotope data reflect a change to the present-day fluid chemistry of low salinity, meteoric-dominated waters.

  9. Evolution and Structure of Neuromuscular Systems in Spiralian Meiofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkouche, Nicolas Tarik

    difficult to resolve and understand. The present thesis focuses on spiralian meiofauna to i) reconstruct the phylogeny of this clade using transcriptomics and place enigmatic meiofaunal taxa and ii) resolve the morphology of three important taxa, mainly employing confocal laser scanning microscopy...... representatives, that Gnathifera is the sister group of remaining Spiralia, that Gastrotricha+Platyhelminthes branches off next and that Lobatocerebrum is an Annelida. The morphological surveys of the musculature, nervous system, glands, and ciliation on three phylogenetically distinct taxa yield more insight...... such as the ciliary pattern or a system of pharyngeal canals of possible importance for future comparative approaches. These different studies show that information on rare and phylogenetically isolated animals with their unique combination of neural and muscular characters are necessary to understand the evolution...

  10. Landforms of Romania – The system of geochronologic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The corroborationof geomorphological, tectonic and paleoclimatic data led to a geomorphological system with two stages and subdivis ions. The pre-Carpathian stage (Proterozoic-Lower Mesozoic, belonging to Vorland is characterized by: completing the platform units (E, S and the Paleozoic rigid geotectonic system of Northen Dobruja; levelling stages resulting in pe diplains which were subsequently fragmented and fossilized almost entirely (Central and Northen Dobruja sectors. The Carpathian stage is defined by: completing the Carpathian orogenic system (between Jurassic and Quaternary in labile edge sectors of the Eastern European plate in which the evolution of some regional rifts (in Jurassic – Cret aceous and the moving of some rigid blocks (Moessic, Pannonian and Transylvanian created sequ entially tectonic basins where the accumulated materials were folded, faulted and overt hrusted, or mountain systems resulted by lifting (the upper Cretaceous and Miocene; creating tectonic depressions filled with sedimentary formations; reactivating some deep fractures accomp anied by volcanic eruption phases and creating a specific relief; the tectonic movements in the upper Pliocene – Quaternary raised differently all geographic units representing the c urrent orostructural system by Carpathians’s emersion and join to the adjacent regions; the clim ate change from savanna (Paleogene to subtropical (Mio – Pliocene, then temperate and gl acial (late Pleistocene and so on, led to a succession of morphogenetic systems that have gener ated landforms among which the most representative were preserved mainly as steps, erosi on surfaces areas and levels, or terraces from many morphogenetic phases.

  11. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  12. The evolution of real-time control systems at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodyear, A.; Dorling, S.; Felton, R.

    2001-01-01

    Real-time feedback control of the JET experiment is based upon a collection of diagnostics providing signals which are processed by various controllers that manipulate actuator parameters for plasma current, shape and heating. The real-time data network (RTDN) connects the diagnostic, controller and actuator systems to form a flexible feedback and protection system for plasma monitoring and control. The controllers are mainly VME systems based on the Motorola 680X0 (68K) processor with some computationally intensive systems utilising Texas Instruments TMS320C40 (C40) digital signal processors (DSP), though lately there has been a move towards PowerPC 750 based processors. The majority of 68K VME systems use VxWorks, a hard real time operating system. There is an ongoing requirement to improve the efficiency of the real-time control systems at JET. This is driven by a desire to either add more input signals, reduce the feedback cycle time or increase algorithm complexity. New technology has a major role to play in the upgrade of the real-time control systems but the novel redeployment of existing equipment can also be used to enhance performance. This paper examines the configuration of existing systems, both hardware and software, and how new technology can be gradually integrated without jeopardising the current functionality. The adoption of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) as the connection medium for the RTDN is key to the evolutional development of the control systems. The ATM network is extremely flexible to configure and benefits from low message latency and deterministic delivery time, essential properties for a real-time network. (author)

  13. Formation and Evolution of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Saul; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of five types of interacting binary systems. Our main focus has been on developing a number of comprehensive population synthesis codes to study the following types of binary systems: (i) cataclysmic variables (#3, #8, #12, #15), (ii) low- and intermediate-mass X-ray binaries (#13, #20, #21), (iii) high-mass X-ray binaries (#14, #17, #22), (iv) recycled binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters (#5, #10, #ll), and (v) planetary nebulae which form in interacting binaries (#6, #9). The numbers in parentheses refer to papers published or in preparation that are listed in this paper. These codes take a new unified approach to population synthesis studies. The first step involves a Monte Carlo selection of the primordial binaries, including the constituent masses, and orbital separations and eccentricities. Next, a variety of analytic methods are used to evolve the primary star to the point where either a dynamical episode of mass transfer to the secondary occurs (the common envelope phase), or the system evolves down an alternate path. If the residual core of the primary is greater than 2.5 solar mass, it will evolve to Fe core collapse and the production of a neutron star and a supernova explosion. In the case of systems involving neutron stars, a kick velocity is chosen randomly from an appropriate distribution and added to the orbital dynamics which determine the state of the binary system after the supernova explosion. In the third step, all binaries which commence stable mass transfer from the donor star (the original secondary in the binary system) to the compact object, are followed with a detailed binary evolution code. Finally, we include all the relevant dynamics of the binary system. For example, in the case of LMXBs, the binary system, with its recoil velocity from the supernova explosion, is followed in time through its path in the Galactic potential. For our globular cluster

  14. Evolution Into Contact of the Low Mass Close Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, M. J.; Fedorova, A. V.

    1989-06-01

    We investigated the effect of mass accretion on the secondary components in close binomy systems (M total ≤ 2.5 M ⊙ M 2,0 ≤ 0.75 M ⊙) exchanging mass in the case A. The evolution of the low-mass close binary systems (M total ≤ 2.5 M ⊙) exchanging the mass in the case A depends on the three main factors: -the initial mass ratio (q 0 = M 2,0/M 1,0), which determines the rate of mass transfer between components; -the inital mass of the secondary component (M 2,0) and -the effectiveness of the heating of the photosphere of the secondary component, by infalling matter. The second factor allows to divide all systems into two essentially different groups: a) systems in which the secondary component is a star with a radiative envelope, or with a thin convection zone in the uppermost layers; b) and systems in which secondary component has a thick convective envelope or is fully convective. The systems from the first group evolve into contact in a characteristic time scale 105 107 years, and reach contact after transfering of 0.03 0.3 M ⊙. The mass exchange proceeds only in a thermal time scale. For the systems from the group b the effectiveness of the heating of the stellar surface is the most important. In the case when the entropy of the newly accreted matter is the same as the surface entropy of the secondary, a convective star should shrink upon accretion. Then contact binaries are not formed. In the case when the entropy of the infalling matter is greater then that on the surface, the reaction of the secondary is different. The radius of the secondary component grows rapidly in response to accretion, and the systems reaches contact after the 103 3 106 years, and after transfer of 0.002 0.2. M ⊙. The reaction of the secondary is determined by the formation of the temperature inversion layer below the stellar surface. Full references in: Sarna, M.J. and Fedorova, A.V. (1988) “Evolutionary status of W UMa-type Binaries — Evolution into contact

  15. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  16. Evolution of the Generic Lock System at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brian Bevins; Yves Roblin

    2003-01-01

    The Generic Lock system is a software framework that allows highly flexible feedback control of large distributed systems. It allows system operators to implement new feedback loops between arbitrary process variables quickly and with no disturbance to the underlying control system. Several different types of feedback loops are provided and more are being added. This paper describes the further evolution of the system since it was first presented at ICALEPCS 2001 and reports on two years of successful use in accelerator operations. The framework has been enhanced in several key ways. Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) lock types have been added for accelerator orbit and energy stabilization. The general purpose Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) locks can now be tuned automatically. The generic lock server now makes use of the Proxy IOC (PIOC) developed at Jefferson Lab to allow the locks to be monitored from any EPICS Channel Access aware client. (Previously clients had to be Cdev aware.) The dependency on the Qt XML parser has been replaced with the freely available Xerces DOM parser from the Apache project

  17. Rechtsgeschichte – Geschichte der Evolution eines sozialen Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Theres Fögen

    2002-01-01

    theories have barely been acknowledged to date. This is quite remarkable, given that history and evolution are fundamentally related through "time". "Evolutionary biology is a historical science" (Ernst Mayr. Perhaps it is also true to claim the opposite, that the science of history is also a science of evolution - not only of biological systems, but also of social systems. What might be the theoretical framework for a legal history that perceives itself as the history of a social system (5-10? What would be the consequences and the differences with regard to other forms of legal history (11-17? 5. Anyone wishing to examine the evolution of law has to decide which aspect item to observe. This might mean choosing between "dogmatics", "litigation", "lawyers", "legislation", "jurisprudence". Yet law is not just about "dogmatics" or "litigation", and to study "lawyers" in this way would mean entering the realms of the history of evolution of a certain as it applies to the human species - just as legislation would correspond to the field of politics or jurisprudence to the History of Science. What is more, there has been and there still is law without jurisprudence, even law without laws and without dogma and even without trained lawyers. What is needed, then, is a unit of "law" that is not dependent on historically changeable contingencies. 6. "Communication" that is geared towards the basic difference between right and wrong lends itself as such a unit. After all, law exists wherever there is communication about right and wrong, irrespective of whether there are court buildings or trained lawyers or jurisprudence. Communication is based on specific "information" selected from the general background cacophony of the world. In order to become communication, information has to be conveyed, either in the form of oral or written language, or through actions, gestures, sounds or images. Only once the message has reached others, and has been "understood" -- or even misunderstood

  18. Reconstruction of the evolution of microbial defense systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigbò, Pere; Makarova, Kira S; Kristensen, David M; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-04-04

    Evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes is a highly dynamic process that involves intensive loss of genes as well as gene gain via horizontal transfer, with a lesser contribution from gene duplication. The rates of these processes can be estimated by comparing genomes that are linked by an evolutionary tree. These estimated rates of genome dynamics events substantially differ for different functional classes of genes. The genes involved in defense against viruses and other invading DNA are among those that are gained and lost at the highest rates. We employed a stochastic birth-and-death model to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the rates of gain and loss of defense genes in 35 groups of closely related bacterial genomes and one group of archaeal genomes. We find that on average, the defense genes experience 1.4 fold higher flux than the rest of microbial genes. This excessive flux of defense genes over the genomic mean is consistent across diverse microbial groups. The few exceptions include intracellular parasites with small, degraded genomes that possess few defense systems which are more stable than in other microbes. Generally, defense genes follow the previously established pattern of genome dynamics, with gene family loss being about 3 times more common than gain and an order of magnitude more common than expansion or contraction of gene families. Case by case analysis of the evolutionary dynamics of defense genes indicates frequent multiple events in the same locus and widespread involvement of mobile elements in the gain and loss of defense genes. Evolution of microbial defense systems is highly dynamic but, notwithstanding the host-parasite arms race, generally follows the same trends that have been established for the rest of the genes. Apart from the paucity and the low flux of defense genes in parasitic bacteria with deteriorating genomes, there is no clear connection between the evolutionary regime of defense systems and microbial life style.

  19. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 3: EVA/Manned Systems/Fluid Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990 in Dallas, Texas. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 3 consists of the technology discipline sections for Extravehicular Activity/Manned Systems and the Fluid Management System. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  20. The evolution of the laser: A systems perspective on science, technology and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruiter, Willem

    The evolution of laser technology is addressed, and an attempt is made to correlate this evolution to the macrosociological theory of Juergen Habermas. The economic and social consequences of innovations are evaluated. Different laser applications are described. The evolution of the semiconductor laser is discussed. The evolution of optical telecommunication systems is outlined. The Habermas theory of communicative action, focussing on the theoretical distinction between 'system' and 'lifeworld,' is treated. The modified theory of Habermas is applied to the evolution of the laser. The embedding of a number of laser applications in the social context is discussed: laser isotope separation, compact disc players, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  1. Quantum brachistochrone evolution of systems of two identical particles: The role of entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borras, A.; Plastino, A. R.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.

    2008-11-01

    Entanglement plays a fundamental role in the brachistochrone evolution of composite quantum systems. In the case of composite systems with distinguishable subsystems quantum brachistochrone evolutions cannot be implemented without entanglement, excepting trivial cases in which only one of the subsystems evolves. Here we explore the connection between entanglement and time-optimal quantum evolution for systems of two identical particles, elucidating its dependence on the type of statistics obeyed by the particles.

  2. Evolution of conjugation and type IV secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmini, Julien; de la Cruz, Fernando; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2013-02-01

    Genetic exchange by conjugation is responsible for the spread of resistance, virulence, and social traits among prokaryotes. Recent works unraveled the functioning of the underlying type IV secretion systems (T4SS) and its distribution and recruitment for other biological processes (exaptation), notably pathogenesis. We analyzed the phylogeny of key conjugation proteins to infer the evolutionary history of conjugation and T4SS. We show that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) conjugation, while both based on a key AAA(+) ATPase, diverged before the last common ancestor of bacteria. The two key ATPases of ssDNA conjugation are monophyletic, having diverged at an early stage from dsDNA translocases. Our data suggest that ssDNA conjugation arose first in diderm bacteria, possibly Proteobacteria, and then spread to other bacterial phyla, including bacterial monoderms and Archaea. Identifiable T4SS fall within the eight monophyletic groups, determined by both taxonomy and structure of the cell envelope. Transfer to monoderms might have occurred only once, but followed diverse adaptive paths. Remarkably, some Firmicutes developed a new conjugation system based on an atypical relaxase and an ATPase derived from a dsDNA translocase. The observed evolutionary rates and patterns of presence/absence of specific T4SS proteins show that conjugation systems are often and independently exapted for other functions. This work brings a natural basis for the classification of all kinds of conjugative systems, thus tackling a problem that is growing as fast as genomic databases. Our analysis provides the first global picture of the evolution of conjugation and shows how a self-transferrable complex multiprotein system has adapted to different taxa and often been recruited by the host. As conjugation systems became specific to certain clades and cell envelopes, they may have biased the rate and direction of gene transfer by conjugation within prokaryotes.

  3. Short-term geomorphological evolution of proglacial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Heckmann, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Proglacial systems are amongst the most rapidly changing landscapes on Earth, as glacier mass loss, permafrost degradation and more episodes of intense rainfall progress with climate change. This review addresses the urgent need to quantitatively define proglacial systems not only in terms of spatial extent but also in terms of functional processes. It firstly provides a critical appraisal of prevailing conceptual models of proglacial systems, and uses this to justify compiling data on rates of landform change in terms of planform, horizontal motion, elevation changes and sediment budgets. These data permit us to produce novel summary conceptual diagrams that consider proglacial landscape evolution in terms of a balance of longitudinal and lateral water and sediment fluxes. Throughout, we give examples of newly emerging datasets and data processing methods because these have the potential to assist with the issues of: (i) a lack of knowledge of proglacial systems within high-mountain, arctic and polar regions, (ii) considerable inter- and intra-catchment variability in the geomorphology and functioning of proglacial systems, (iii) problems with the magnitude of short-term geomorphological changes being at the threshold of detection, (iv) separating short-term variability from longer-term trends, and (v) of the representativeness of plot-scale field measurements for regionalisation and for upscaling. We consider that understanding of future climate change effects on proglacial systems requires holistic process-based modelling to explicitly consider feedbacks and linkages, especially between hillslope and valley-floor components. Such modelling must be informed by a new generation of repeated distributed topographic surveys to detect and quantify short-term geomorphological changes.

  4. Role of system characteristics in evolution of pump hydraulic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, Mohinder; Misri, Vijay; Sharma, A.K.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    Primary heat transport (PHT) main circuit provides the means for transferring the heat produced in the fuel by circulating heavy water in the main circuit loop by primary coolant pumps (PCPs). The procurement specification of PCPs for 500 MWe pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) was prepared based upon the first order hydraulic analysis of the primary heat transport system and accordingly duty point was fixed. With this specification the manufacturer carried out model testing to arrive at optimum size of the impeller followed by determination of pump characteristics curves using full scale impeller during type testing. The duty point thus obtained was higher than specified necessitating the trimming of impeller. However, in order to make use of available higher duty point from system considerations, the duty point was redefined for production of subsequent pumps within specified tolerances governed by manufacturing limitations. PHT main system sizing (piping and feeders) was carried out based upon pump (delivering maximum flow) characteristics curve. Pressure profiles of PHT system at various operating modes were drawn and corresponding power drawn by motor was calculated. The interfacing of reactor coolant main system with hydraulic characteristics of PCP plays a significant role in establishing the requisite capability and capacity of PHT system in performing its intended functions. Therefore the paper traces the evolution of design parameters for PCP and subsequent generation of pressure profiles commensurate with the changes made in power profile including their impact on feeder sizing. The paper also highlights the scope of interaction between process designer and pump manufacturer in formulating a mutually acceptable and efficient hydraulic performance for PCP. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Evolution of the reproductive endocrine system in chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubokawa, Kaoru; Tando, Yukiko; Roy, Sonali

    2010-07-01

    The cephalochordate, amphioxus, is phylogenetically placed at the most primitive position in the chordate clade. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, definitive evidence has not been reported for the presence an endocrine system comparable to the pituitary-gonadal axis, which is important in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Recent genome analyses in the amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, showed that it does not have any pituitary hormone genes except the thyrostimulin gene. Thyrostimulin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone consisting of α and β subunits, and is present in various organs of vertebrates. Analyses of a phylogenetic tree and a synteny suggest that amphioxus' thyrostimulin is an ancestral type of the glycoprotein hormones in chordates. In addition, genes for sex steroidogenic enzymes belonging to the CYP family were found in the genome sequences. The conversion pathway of sex steroids from cholesterol to estrogen, androgen, and major sex steroids was also identified in the gonads of amphioxus in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of genes encoding thyrostimulin and sex steroidogenic enzymes by an in situ hybridization technique. Here, we discuss the evolution of hormones and reproductive functions in the neuroendocrine control system of chordates. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. The plant vascular system: evolution, development and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J; Groover, Andrew; Lichtenberger, Raffael; Furuta, Kaori; Yadav, Shri-Ram; Helariutta, Ykä; He, Xin-Qiang; Fukuda, Hiroo; Kang, Julie; Brady, Siobhan M; Patrick, John W; Sperry, John; Yoshida, Akiko; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Grusak, Michael A; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    The emergence of the tracheophyte-based vascular system of land plants had major impacts on the evolution of terrestrial biology, in general, through its role in facilitating the development of plants with increased stature, photosynthetic output, and ability to colonize a greatly expanded range of environmental habitats. Recently, considerable progress has been made in terms of our understanding of the developmental and physiological programs involved in the formation and function of the plant vascular system. In this review, we first examine the evolutionary events that gave rise to the tracheophytes, followed by analysis of the genetic and hormonal networks that cooperate to orchestrate vascular development in the gymnosperms and angiosperms. The two essential functions performed by the vascular system, namely the delivery of resources (water, essential mineral nutrients, sugars and amino acids) to the various plant organs and provision of mechanical support are next discussed. Here, we focus on critical questions relating to structural and physiological properties controlling the delivery of material through the xylem and phloem. Recent discoveries into the role of the vascular system as an effective long-distance communication system are next assessed in terms of the coordination of developmental, physiological and defense-related processes, at the whole-plant level. A concerted effort has been made to integrate all these new findings into a comprehensive picture of the state-of-the-art in the area of plant vascular biology. Finally, areas important for future research are highlighted in terms of their likely contribution both to basic knowledge and applications to primary industry. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. The Role and Evolution of NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the three strategic goals of NASA is to Advance understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet (NASA strategic plan 2014). NASA's Earth Science Data System (ESDS) Program directly supports this goal. NASA has been launching satellites for civilian Earth observations for over 40 years, and collecting data from various types of instruments. Especially since 1990, with the start of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program, which was a part of the Mission to Planet Earth, the observations have been significantly more extensive in their volumes, variety and velocity. Frequent, global observations are made in support of Earth system science. An open data policy has been in effect since 1990, with no period of exclusive access and non-discriminatory access to data, free of charge. NASA currently holds nearly 10 petabytes of Earth science data including satellite, air-borne, and ground-based measurements and derived geophysical parameter products in digital form. Millions of users around the world are using NASA data for Earth science research and applications. In 2014, over a billion data files were downloaded by users from NASAs EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a system with 12 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) across the U. S. As a core component of the ESDS Program, EOSDIS has been operating since 1994, and has been evolving continuously with advances in information technology. The ESDS Program influences as well as benefits from advances in Earth Science Informatics. The presentation will provide an overview of the role and evolution of NASAs ESDS Program.

  8. The origins and evolution of "controlled" drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allan S

    2008-12-18

    This paper describes the earliest days when the "controlled drug delivery" (CDD) field began, the pioneers who launched this exciting and important field, and the key people who came after them. It traces the evolution of the field from its origins in the 1960s to (a) the 1970s and 1980s, when numerous macroscopic "controlled" drug delivery (DD) devices and implants were designed for delivery as mucosal inserts (e.g., in the eye or vagina), as implants (e.g., sub-cutaneous or intra-muscular), as ingestible capsules (e.g., in the G-I tract), as topical patches (e.g., on the skin), and were approved for clinical use, to (b) the 1980s and 1990s when microscopic degradable polymer depot DD systems (DDS) were commercialized, and to (c) the currently very active and exciting nanoscopic era of targeted nano-carriers, in a sense bringing to life Ehrlich's imagined concept of the "Magic Bullet". The nanoscopic era began with systems proposed in the 1970s, that were first used in the clinic in the 1980s, and which came of age in the 1990s, and which are presently evolving into many exciting and clinically successful products in the 2000s. Most of these have succeeded because of the emergence of three key technologies: (1) PEGylation, (2) active targeting to specific cells by ligands conjugated to the DDS, or passive targeting to solid tumors via the EPR effect. The author has been personally involved in the origins and evolution of this field for the past 38 years (see below), and this review includes information that was provided to him by many researchers in this field about the history of various developments. Thus, this paper is based on his own personal involvements in the CDD field, along with many historical anecdotes provided by the key pioneers and researchers in the field. Because of the huge literature of scientific papers on CDD systems, this article attempts to limit examples to those that have been approved for clinical use, or are currently in clinical trials

  9. Fatal evolution of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEBLI Júlio M. Fonseca

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the case of a young Brazilian woman who was treated of ileocolonic Crohn's disease sparing rectum, as confirmed by colonoscopy and histopathological examination. After a 4-year course of sulfasalazine treatment, she presented with skin facial lesions in vespertilio, fever, arthralgias and high titers of anti-ANA and LE cells. A sulfasalazine-induced lupus syndrome was diagnosed, because after sulfasalazine withdrawal and a short course of prednisone, the clinical symptoms disappeared and the laboratory tests returned to normal. Mesalazine 3 g/day was started and the patient remained well for the next 3 years, when she was again admitted with fever, weakness, arthralgias, diplopy, strabismus and hypoaesthesia in both hands and feet, microhematuria, haematic casts, hypocomplementemia and high titers of autoimmune antibodies. A diagnosis of associated systemic lupus erythematosus was made. Although a pulsotherapy with methylprednisolone was started, no improvement was noticed. A cyclophosphamide trial was tried and again no positive results occurred. The patient evolved to severe clinical manifestations of general vasculitis affecting the central and peripheral nervous system and lungs, having a fatal evolution after 2 weeks. Although uncommon, the association of both disease may occur, and the authors call attention to this possibility, making a brief review of literature.

  10. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  11. The protection system of nuclear reactors. Example of a very high reliability system. Its evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.

    1980-06-01

    The present state of reactor protection is described and mention is made of certain evolutionary trends towards completely automated systems which either help the operator to take decisions in the event of an accident or take and execute these decisions for him. To do so, the use of models and recourse to complex data processing systems is necessary. This ensemble reflects an evolution of the reliability of the equipment towards that of the software [fr

  12. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  13. RelTime Rates Collapse to a Strict Clock When Estimating the Timeline of Animal Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Dos Reis, Mario; Donoghue, Philip C J; Pisani, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Establishing an accurate timescale for the history of life is crucial to understand evolutionary processes. For this purpose, relaxed molecular clock models implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework are generally used. However, these methods are time consuming. RelTime, a non-Bayesian method implementing a fast, ad hoc, algorithm for relative dating, was developed to overcome the computational inefficiencies of Bayesian software. RelTime was recently used to investigate the timing of origin of animals, yielding results consistent with early strict clock studies from the 1980s and 1990s, estimating metazoans to have a Mesoproterozoic origin-over a billion years ago. RelTime results are unexpected and disagree with the largest majority of modern, relaxed, Bayesian molecular clock analyses, which suggest animals originated in the Tonian-Cryogenian (less that 850 million years ago). Here, we demonstrate that RelTime-inferred divergence times for the origin of animals are spurious, a consequence of the inability of RelTime to relax the clock along the internal branches of the animal phylogeny. RelTime-inferred divergence times are comparable to strict-clock estimates because they are essentially inferred under a strict clock. Our results warn us of the danger of using ad hoc algorithms making implicit assumptions about rate changes along a tree. Our study roundly rejects a Mesoproterozoic origin of animals; metazoans emerged in the Tonian-Cryogenian, and diversified in the Ediacaran, in the immediate prelude to the routine fossilization of animals in the Cambrian associated with the emergence of readily preserved skeletons. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  15. Temporal Evolution of Design Principles in Engineering Systems: Analogies with Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Kalyanmoy; Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2012-01-01

    portray certain common design principles. In this paper, we consider a 14-variable bi-objective design optimization of a MEMS device and identify a number of such common design principles through a recently proposed automated innovization procedure. Although these design principles are found to exist...... among near-Paretooptimal solutions, the main crux of this paper lies in a demonstration of temporal evolution of these principles during the course of optimization. The results reveal that certain important design principles start to evolve early on, whereas some detailed design principles get...... constructed later during optimization. Interestingly, there exists a simile between evolution of design principles with that of human evolution. Such information about the hierarchy of key design principles should enable designers to have a deeper understanding of their problems....

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE BINARY FRACTION IN DENSE STELLAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregeau, John M.; Ivanova, Natalia; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2009-01-01

    Using our recently improved Monte Carlo evolution code, we study the evolution of the binary fraction in globular clusters. In agreement with previous N-body simulations, we find generally that the hard binary fraction in the core tends to increase with time over a range of initial cluster central densities for initial binary fractions ∼<90%. The dominant processes driving the evolution of the core binary fraction are mass segregation of binaries into the cluster core and preferential destruction of binaries there. On a global scale, these effects and the preferential tidal stripping of single stars tend to roughly balance, leading to overall cluster binary fractions that are roughly constant with time. Our findings suggest that the current hard binary fraction near the half-mass radius is a good indicator of the hard primordial binary fraction. However, the relationship between the true binary fraction and the fraction of main-sequence stars in binaries (which is typically what observers measure) is nonlinear and rather complicated. We also consider the importance of soft binaries, which not only modify the evolution of the binary fraction, but can also drastically change the evolution of the cluster as a whole. Finally, we briefly describe the recent addition of single and binary stellar evolution to our cluster evolution code.

  17. Evolution of the Mariana Convergent Plate Margin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Patricia

    1996-02-01

    The Mariana convergent plate margin system of the western Pacific provides opportunities for studying the tectonic and geochemical processes of intraoceanic plate subduction without the added complexities of continental geology. The system's relative geologic simplicity and the well-exposed sections of lithosphere in each of its tectonic provinces permit in situ examination of processes critical to understanding subduction tectonics. Its general history provides analogs to ancient convergent margin terranes exposed on land and helps to explain the chemical mass balance in convergent plate margins. The Mariana convergent margin's long history of sequential formation of volcanic arcs and extensional back arc basins has created a series of volcanic arcs at the eastern edge of the Philippine Sea plate. The trenchward edge of the overriding plate has a relatively sparse sediment cover. Rocks outcropping on the trench's inner slope are typical of the early formed suprasubduction zone's lithosphere and have been subjected to various processes related to its tectonic history. Pervasive forearc faulting has exposed crust and upper mantle lithosphere. Many large serpentinized peridotite seamounts are within 100 km of the trench axis. From these we can learn the history of regional metamorphism and observe and sample active venting of slab fluids. Ocean drilling recovered suprasubduction zone lava sequences erupted since the Eocene that suggest that the forearc region remains volcanologically dynamic. Seismic studies and seafloor mapping show evidence of deformation throughout forearc evolution. Large portions of uplifted southern forearc are exposed at the larger islands. Active volcanoes at the base of the eastern boundary fault of the Mariana Trough vary in size and composition along strike and record regional differences in source composition. Their locations along strike of the arc are controlled in part by cross-arc structures that also facilitate formation of submarine

  18. Tectono-thermal evolution of the Atlas system - SW Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, G.; Negro, F.; Babault, J.; Foeken, J.; Stuart, F.; Kober, F.; Ivy-Ochs, S.

    2009-04-01

    In Morocco, the High and Middle Atlas of Morocco are intra-continental fold-thrust belts situated in the southern foreland of the Rif orogen. The High Atlas and its eastern continuation in Algeria and Tunisia is an ENE-WSW to E-W trending belt about 2000kms long and 100kms wide. It is a key natural laboratory because it 1) is the southern and westernmost expression of Alpine-Himalayan orogeny, and 2) encompasses Pre-Cambrian to recent evolution of the region. Phases of shortening and exhumation of this orogen remain however ill constrained and the few available quantitative, data do not allow the present-day high topography (over 4000m) to be explained. In order to put constrains on the recent orogenic growth of the Atlas system, we investigated the temperature-time history of rocks combining extensive low-temperature thermochronological analysis (Fission tracks and (U-Th)/He on zircon and apatite), and sub-recent denudation rates using cosmogenic Neon and Beryllium analysis. The target area is a NE-SW oriented transect between Marrakech and Igherm crossing the different structural segments of the western Atlas away from present-day fault systems. Results are much contrasted from one domain to the other: Pre-Cambrian bedrocks from the Anti-Atlas domain yield old Fission-Track ages on zircon (380-300 Ma), apatite (180-120 Ma) but also U-Th/He (150-110 Ma) still on apatite that are discussed in another contribution. U-Th/He ages on apatite are many from the High-Atlas (#>20) and much younger ranging between ~35 and 5 Ma. We performed a detailed vertical profile in the axial zone of the High-Atlas. Age-elevation relationship suggests that exhumation increased towards 1.0 km/my by the Late Miocene (~13-12 Ma). Further, continental series of Cretaceous age from the adjacent Sub-Atlas domains indicate total resetting to temperatures greater than 80°C suggesting that a post Cretaceous sedimentary pile of at least 3 kilometres in thickness is missing. The timing of the

  19. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  20. Exact traveling wave solutions for system of nonlinear evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamruzzaman; Akbar, M Ali; Arnous, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    In this work, recently deduced generalized Kudryashov method is applied to the variant Boussinesq equations, and the (2 + 1)-dimensional breaking soliton equations. As a result a range of qualitative explicit exact traveling wave solutions are deduced for these equations, which motivates us to develop, in the near future, a new approach to obtain unsteady solutions of autonomous nonlinear evolution equations those arise in mathematical physics and engineering fields. It is uncomplicated to extend this method to higher-order nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. And it should be possible to apply the same method to nonlinear evolution equations having more general forms of nonlinearities by utilizing the traveling wave hypothesis.

  1. Functional pleiotropy and mating system evolution in plants: frequency-independent mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Otto, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Mutations that alter the morphology of floral displays (e.g., flower size) or plant development can change multiple functions simultaneously, such as pollen export and selfing rate. Given the effect of these various traits on fitness, pleiotropy may alter the evolution of both mating systems and floral displays, two characters with high diversity among angiosperms. The influence of viability selection on mating system evolution has not been studied theoretically. We model plant mating system evolution when a single locus simultaneously affects the selfing rate, pollen export, and viability. We assume frequency-independent mating, so our model characterizes prior selfing. Pleiotropy between increased viability and selfing rate reduces opportunities for the evolution of pure outcrossing, can favor complete selfing despite high inbreeding depression, and notably, can cause the evolution of mixed mating despite very high inbreeding depression. These results highlight the importance of pleiotropy for mating system evolution and suggest that selection by nonpollinating agents may help explain mixed mating, particularly in species with very high inbreeding depression. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuedong Xiong; Huadong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental pro...

  3. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  4. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  5. Designing a Resource Evolution Support System for Open Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Yu, Shengquan

    2015-01-01

    The continuous generation and evolution of digital learning resources is important for promoting open learning and meeting the personalized needs of learners. In the Web 2.0 era, open and collaborative authoring is becoming a popular method by which to create vast personalized learning resources in open knowledge communities (OKCs). However, the…

  6. On N. Chomsky’s strict subcategorization of verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Orešnik

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the so-called strict subcategorization rules, and the theory associated with them, in the transformational grammar of. Erigl·ish as proposed by Noarn Chomsky in his Aspects. The syntactic component of English transformational grammar consists of two mutually ordered parts, viz., the base and the transformational subcomponents. The initial part of the base are the so-called categorial rules, which are of almost exclusive interest to us here. Their primary task is to generate what are usually called basic sentence patterns, and will here, with Chomsky (Aspects, p.ll3, be designated with the expression, frames of category symbols.- The rules of the transformational subcomponent modify, in various ways, the frames generated by the base. For several reasons - one of them being that the correct work of the transformational subcomponent quite often depends on the kind of lexical items with which the syntactic positions in the frames of category symbols have been filled, the lexical items must be introduced from the lexicon into the empty positions in the frames before the rules of the transformational subcomponent can be allowed to modify the frames.

  7. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    with larger declines in V̇o2max). Furthermore, the systematic review revealed a gap in the knowledge about the cardiovascular response to extreme physical inactivity, particularly in older subjects and women of any age group. In addition to its relevance to spaceflight, this lack of data has significant....... Since 1949, 80 studies with a total of 949 participants (>90% men) have been published with data on strict bed rest and V̇o2max The studies were conducted mainly in young participants [median age (interquartile range) 24.5 (22.4-34.0) yr]. The duration of bed rest ranged from 1 to 90 days. V̇o2max...... declined linearly across bed rest duration. No statistical difference in the decline among studies reporting V̇o2max as l/min (-0.3% per day) compared with studies reporting V̇o2max normalized to body weight (ml·kg-1·min-1; -0.43% per day) was observed. Although both total body weight and lean body mass...

  8. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  9. Computation of a long-time evolution in a Schroedinger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, R.; Kroeger, H.; Labelle, P.; Bajzer, Z.

    1988-01-01

    We compare different techniques for the computation of a long-time evolution and the S matrix in a Schroedinger system. As an application we consider a two-nucleon system interacting via the Yamaguchi potential. We suggest computation of the time evolution for a very short time using Pade approximants, the long-time evolution being obtained by iterative squaring. Within the technique of strong approximation of Moller wave operators (SAM) we compare our calculation with computation of the time evolution in the eigenrepresentation of the Hamiltonian and with the standard Lippmann-Schwinger solution for the S matrix. We find numerical agreement between these alternative methods for time-evolution computation up to half the number of digits of internal machine precision, and fairly rapid convergence of both techniques towards the Lippmann-Schwinger solution

  10. Evolution of System Safety at NASA as Related to Defense-in-Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2015-01-01

    Presentation given at the Defense-in-Depth Inter-Agency Workshop on August 26, 2015 in Rockville, MD by Homayoon Dezfuli. The presentation addresses the evolution of system safety at NASA as related to Defense-in-Depth.

  11. Evolution of intelligent transportation systems for mobility management and coordination serving California's rural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the evolution, development, and lessons learned while attempting to identify, modify, and deploy Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and advanced technology tools to facilitate coordination of public transit and social (huma...

  12. Immune genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes in Daphnia pulex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McTaggart Seanna J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding which parts of the genome have been most influenced by adaptive evolution remains an unsolved puzzle. Some evidence suggests that selection has the greatest impact on regions of the genome that interact with other evolving genomes, including loci that are involved in host-parasite co-evolutionary processes. In this study, we used a population genetic approach to test this hypothesis by comparing DNA sequences of 30 putative immune system genes in the crustacean Daphnia pulex with 24 non-immune system genes. Results In support of the hypothesis, results from a multilocus extension of the McDonald-Kreitman (MK test indicate that immune system genes as a class have experienced more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes. However, not all immune system genes show evidence of adaptive evolution. Additionally, we apply single locus MK tests and calculate population genetic parameters at all loci in order to characterize the mode of selection (directional versus balancing in the genes that show the greatest deviation from neutral evolution. Conclusions Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that immune system genes undergo more adaptive evolution than non-immune system genes, possibly as a result of host-parasite arms races. The results of these analyses highlight several candidate loci undergoing adaptive evolution that could be targeted in future studies.

  13. Biological evolution of replicator systems: towards a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Osmel; Horvath, J E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study the features of a simple replicator chemical model of the relation between kinetic stability and entropy production under the action of external perturbations. We quantitatively explore the different paths leading to evolution in a toy model where two independent replicators compete for the same substrate. To do that, the same scenario described originally by Pross (J Phys Org Chem 17:312-316, 2004) is revised and new criteria to define the kinetic stability are proposed. Our results suggest that fast replicator populations are continually favored by the effects of strong stochastic environmental fluctuations capable to determine the global population, the former assumed to be the only acting evolution force. We demonstrate that the process is continually driven by strong perturbations only, and that population crashes may be useful proxies for these catastrophic environmental fluctuations. As expected, such behavior is particularly enhanced under very large scale perturbations, suggesting a likely dynamical footprint in the recovery patterns of new species after mass extinction events in the Earth's geological past. Furthermore, the hypothesis that natural selection always favors the faster processes may give theoretical support to different studies that claim the applicability of maximum principles like the Maximum Metabolic Flux (MMF) or Maximum Entropy Productions Principle (MEPP), seen as the main goal of biological evolution.

  14. A fuzzy simulated evolution algorithm for integrated manufacturing system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated cell formation and layout (CFLP is an extended application of the group technology philosophy in which machine cells and cell layout are addressed simultaneously. The aim of this technological innovation is to improve both productivity and flexibility in modern manufacturing industry. However, due to its combinatorial complexity, the cell formation and layout problem is best solved by heuristic and metaheuristic approaches. As CFLP is prevalent in manufacturing industry, developing robust and efficient solution methods for the problem is imperative. This study seeks to develop a fuzzy simulated evolution algorithm (FSEA that integrates fuzzy-set theoretic concepts and the philosophy of constructive perturbation and evolution. Deriving from the classical simulated evolution algorithm, the search efficiency of the major phases of the algorithm is enhanced, including initialization, evaluation, selection and reconstruction. Illustrative computational experiments based on existing problem instances from the literature demonstrate the utility and the strength of the FSEA algorithm developed in this study. It is anticipated in this study that the application of the algorithm can be extended to other complex combinatorial problems in industry.

  15. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  16. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  17. Evolution of the Chinese Industry-University-Research Collaborative Innovation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to reveal the mechanism of the Chinese industry-university-research collaborative innovation (IURCI and interactions between the elements in the system and find issues that exist in the collaborative innovation process. Based on the theoretical perspective of innovation and complexity science, we summarized the elements of the IURCI as innovation capability, research and development (R&D configuration, and knowledge transfer and established a theoretical model to describe the evolution of the IURCI system. We used simulation technology to determine the interactions among variables and the evolution trend of the system. The results showed that the R&D configuration can promote the evolution of innovation capability and knowledge transfer and that innovation capacity is the current dominant factor in the evolution of the Chinese IURCI system and is highly positively correlated with R&D configuration. The evolutionary trend of knowledge transfer was gentler, and its contribution to the evolution of the Chinese IURCI system was less than that of R&D configuration. When innovation, R&D configuration, and knowledge transfer are relatively balanced, the collaborative innovation system can achieve high speed and stable evolution.

  18. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  19. Nonlinear evolution equations and solving algebraic systems: the importance of computer algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Kostov, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the present paper we study the application of computer algebra to solve the nonlinear polynomial systems which arise in investigation of nonlinear evolution equations. We consider several systems which are obtained in classification of integrable nonlinear evolution equations with uniform rank. Other polynomial systems are related with the finding of algebraic curves for finite-gap elliptic potentials of Lame type and generalizations. All systems under consideration are solved using the method based on construction of the Groebner basis for corresponding polynomial ideals. The computations have been carried out using computer algebra systems. 20 refs

  20. Multi Groups Cooperation based Symbiotic Evolution for TSK-type Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Chang; Hsu, Yung-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Fuu

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a TSK-type neuro-fuzzy system with multi groups cooperation based symbiotic evolution method (TNFS-MGCSE) is proposed. The TNFS-MGCSE is developed from symbiotic evolution. The symbiotic evolution is different from traditional GAs (genetic algorithms) that each chromosome in symbiotic evolution represents a rule of fuzzy model. The MGCSE is different from the traditional symbiotic evolution; with a population in MGCSE is divided to several groups. Each group formed by a set of chromosomes represents a fuzzy rule and cooperate with other groups to generate the better chromosomes by using the proposed cooperation based crossover strategy (CCS). In this paper, the proposed TNFS-MGCSE is used to evaluate by numerical examples (Mackey-Glass chaotic time series and sunspot number forecasting). The performance of the TNFS-MGCSE achieves excellently with other existing models in the simulations.

  1. Sex-determination systems and their evolution: Mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado Garzon, Fredy A; Matta Camacho, Nubia E; Sanchez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Sex-determination methods are very diverse as they have become an enduring research field, understanding the causes of gonadal development and elucidating the main factors involved in sex-determination of offspring required relating information from far-ranging areas such as cytology, embryology, morphology, molecular biology and even ecology and evolution. This article presents an overview of sex-determination in placental mammals, encompassing several levels of biological organization. The importance of the underlying molecular tools in the context of sex-determination assays and their implications in conservation genetics is also discussed.

  2. Investigating Exoplanet Orbital Evolution Around Binary Star Systems with Mass Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid A. Rahoma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A planet revolving around binary star system is a familiar system. Studies of these systems are important because they provide precise knowledge of planet formation and orbit evolution. In this study, a method to determine the evolution of an exoplanet revolving around a binary star system using different rates of stellar mass loss will be introduced. Using a hierarchical triple body system, in which the outer body can be moved with the center of mass of the inner binary star as a two-body problem, the long period evolution of the exoplanet orbit is determined depending on a Hamiltonian formulation. The model is simulated by numerical integrations of the Hamiltonian equations for the system over a long time. As a conclusion, the behavior of the planet orbital elements is quite affected by the rate of the mass loss from the accompanying binary star.

  3. Issue Evolution and the Remaking of Partisan Alignments in a European Multiparty System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    Issue evolution has become a well-established theoretical perspective in the analysis of long-term electoral behavior and partisan alignments in the U.S. after the emergence of the cultural wars. Outside the U.S., however, this perspective has been rarely used to analyze electoral behavior...... and partisan (re-)alignments. This paper applies the issue evolution perspective to a European multiparty system. I find that the evolution of issues such as immigration or crime has reshaped partisan alignments in Denmark as polarization of new issues on the elite level reshapes partisan alignments. Unlike...

  4. Novel microsatellite DNA markers indicate strict parthenogenesis and few genotypes in the invasive willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, V; Norgate, M; Ede, F J; Nyman, T; Sunnucks, P

    2013-02-01

    Invasive organisms can have major impacts on the environment. Some invasive organisms are parthenogenetic in their invasive range and, therefore, exist as a number of asexual lineages (=clones). Determining the reproductive mode of invasive species has important implications for understanding the evolutionary genetics of such species, more especially, for management-relevant traits. The willow sawfly Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) has been introduced unintentionally into several countries in the Southern Hemisphere where it has subsequently become invasive. To assess the population expansion, reproductive mode and host-plant relationships of this insect, microsatellite markers were developed and applied to natural populations sampled from the native and expanded range, along with sequencing of the cytochrome-oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region. Other tenthredinids across a spectrum of taxonomic similarity to N. oligospilus and having a range of life strategies were also tested. Strict parthenogenesis was apparent within invasive N. oligospilus populations throughout the Southern Hemisphere, which comprised only a small number of genotypes. Sequences of mtDNA were identical for all individuals tested in the invasive range. The microsatellite markers were used successfully in several sawfly species, especially Nematus spp. and other genera of the Nematini tribe, with the degree of success inversely related to genetic divergence as estimated from COI sequences. The confirmation of parthenogenetic reproduction in N. oligospilus and the fact that it has a very limited pool of genotypes have important implications for understanding and managing this species and its biology, including in terms of phenotypic diversity, host relationships, implications for spread and future adaptive change. It would appear to be an excellent model study system for understanding evolution of invasive parthenogens that diverge without sexual reproduction and

  5. Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. II. Local evolution moves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höhn, Philipp A.

    2014-01-01

    Several quantum gravity approaches and field theory on an evolving lattice involve a discretization changing dynamics generated by evolution moves. Local evolution moves in variational discrete systems (1) are a generalization of the Pachner evolution moves of simplicial gravity models, (2) update only a small subset of the dynamical data, (3) change the number of kinematical and physical degrees of freedom, and (4) generate a dynamical (or canonical) coarse graining or refining of the underlying discretization. To systematically explore such local moves and their implications in the quantum theory, this article suitably expands the quantum formalism for global evolution moves, constructed in Paper I [P. A. Höhn, “Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. I. Evolving Hilbert spaces,” J. Math. Phys. 55, 083508 (2014); e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1401.6062 [gr-qc

  6. Genuine tripartite entanglement in quantum brachistochrone evolution of a three-qubit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bao-Kui; Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2009-11-01

    We explore the connection between quantum brachistochrone (time-optimal) evolution of a three-qubit system and its residual entanglement called three-tangle. The result shows that the entanglement between two qubits is not required for some brachistochrone evolutions of a three-qubit system. However, the evolution between two distinct states cannot be implemented without its three-tangle, except for the trivial cases in which less than three qubits attend evolution. Although both the probability density function of the time-averaged three-tangle and that of the time-averaged squared concurrence between two subsystems become more and more uniform with the decrease in angles of separation between an initial state and a final state, the features of their most probable values exhibit a different trend.

  7. Is the Evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Linked to Restriction-Modification Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica bacteria are highly diverse foodborne pathogens that are subdivided into more than 1,500 serovars. The diversity is believed to result from mutational evolution, as well as intra- and interspecies recombination that potentially could be influenced by restriction-modification (RM) systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RM systems were linked to the evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. The study included 221 Salmonella enterica genomes, of which 68 were de novo sequenced and 153 were public available genomes from ENA. The data set covered 97 different serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and an additional five genomes from four other Salmonella subspecies as an outgroup for constructing the phylogenetic trees. The phylogenetic trees were constructed based on multiple alignment of core genes, as well as the presence or absence of pangenes. The topology of the trees was compared to the presence of RM systems, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs), and plasmid replicons. We did not observe any correlation between evolution and the RM systems in S. enterica subsp. enterica. However, sublineage correlations and serovar-specific patterns were observed. Additionally, we conclude that plasmid replicons, SPIs, and AMR were all better correlated to serovars than to RM systems. This study suggests a limited influence of RM systems on the evolution of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, which could be due to the conjugational mode of horizontal gene transfer in Salmonella. Thus, we conclude that other factors must be involved in shaping the evolution of bacteria. IMPORTANCE The evolution of bacterial pathogens, their plasticity and ability to rapidly change and adapt to new surroundings are crucial for understanding the epidemiology and public health. With the application of genomics, it became clear that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in

  8. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the DAACs, the DAACs have developed a

  9. Cosmological Evolution of the Universe Neutral Gas Mass Measured by Quasar Absorption Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Peroux, Celine; McMahon, Richard G.; Irwin, Mike; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.

    2001-01-01

    The cosmological evolution of neutral hydrogen is an efficient way of tracing structure formation with redshift. It indicates the rate of evolution of gas into stars and hence the gas consumption and rate star formation history of the Universe. In measuring HI, quasar absorbers have proven to be an ideal tool and we use observations from a recent survey for high-redshift quasar absorption systems together with data gathered from the literature to measure the cosmological comoving mass density...

  10. Biopharmaceutical Innovation System in China: System Evolution and Policy Transitions (Pre-1990s-2010s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Chung, Chao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: This article sets up the initial discussion of the evolution of biopharmaceutical innovation in China through the perspective of sectoral innovation system (SIS). Methods: Two data sources including archival documentary data and field interviews were used in this study. Archival documentary data was collected from China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). In addition, industrial practitioners and leading researchers in academia were interviewed. Results: Biopharmaceutical in China was established through international knowledge transfer. The firms played more active role in commercializing biopharmaceutical in China though universities and research institutes were starting to interact with local firms and make contribution to biopharmaceutical industrialization. The transition of the Chinese government’s policies continuously shapes the evolution of biopharmaceutical sector. Policies have been dramatic changes before and after 1980s to encourage developing biopharmaceutical as a competitive industry for China. Conclusion: A SIS for biopharmaceutical has been shaped in China. However, currently biopharmaceutical is still a small sector in China, and for the further growth of the industry more synthetic policies should be implemented. Not only the policy supports towards the research and innovation of biopharmaceuticals in the early stage of development should be attended, but also commercialization of biopharmaceutical products in the later stage of sales. PMID:26673466

  11. The evolution of a LIMS [laboratory information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the world and United Kingdom markets for nuclear fuels during the 1990s have prompted British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to maximise cost effectiveness in its Chemical and Metallurgical Services department. A laboratory information management system (LIMS) was introduced in order to keep records of analytical techniques and equipment up to date by coordinating various computer systems. Wherever possible automated systems have replaced traditional, labour intensive techniques. So successful has the LIMS system been, that the team now hopes to expand into expert systems. (UK)

  12. Dynamical effects of successive mergers on the evolution of spherical stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numerical investigations are carried out to study the dynamical effects of high-mass stars formed out of successive mergers among tidally captured binaries on the evolution of spherical stellar systems. It is assumed that all tidally captured systems become mergers in order to maximize these effects. Stellar systems with N greater than about 10 to the 7th are susceptible to merger instability which may lead to the formation of a central black hole. It is shown that globular clusters are likely to achieve postcollapse expansion due to three-body binary heating and stellar evolution, while galactic nuclei can easily be overcome by the merger instability in the core. 25 references

  13. Development of international organizations in the context of evolution of global political system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Kaverin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses general regularities of development of international organizations. Dynamics of international organizations is described with the equation of biological populations’ growth and is related to the evolution of international multilateral law and world development parameters. As the result of the research, the evolution of global political system is represented with the system of international governance based on the multilateral mechanisms and the model of social structures’ types. The transformations in the system of international organizations partially confirm the hypothesis of emerging World-organism.

  14. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  15. Stepwise Evolution of Nonliving to Living Chemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Paul A.

    2004-08-01

    Steps by which a nonliving chemical system could have transformed into a living system are described and discussed, assuming general features of Wächtershäuser's chemo-autotrophic surface theory of the origin of life. Environmental species such as CO2 and H2S are proposed to have reacted to form a quasi-steady state metal-bound intermediate (CH3-M) that slowly decayed into waste (CH4). Unpredictable dispersive reactions expanded the system to include surface-bound forms of the citric acid cycle intermediates (oxaloacetate --> citrate). Further reaction yielded an autocatalytic system in which raw materials are converted into the system at exponential rates. Combinatorial dispersive reactions that improved the performance of this system were automatically selected and incorporated into it. Systems evolved critical features of living systems (proteins, membranes, proteins, nucleic acids, etc.) using two related mechanisms called grafting and waste-conversion. Such living systems were transformed from less recognizable types (characterized by autocatalytic spreading, decentralization, poorly defined boundaries, etc.) into more recognizable ones (encapsulated by membranes, controlled by single-molecule genomes, etc.) that self-replicated by a cell division cycle and could evolve by the standard gene-based Darwinian mechanism. The resulting systems are viewed as having an autocatalytic network composed of three linked autocatalytic subreactions.

  16. The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of the Greening the Grid introduces the evolution of power system planning with high levels of variable renewable generation.

  17. Moessbauer spectroscopy of 57Fe and the evolution of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The article starts with a brief review of ideas on the origin of the solar system, with emphasis on the cosmic history of the element iron. Some examples of the application of Moessbauer spectroscopy to the study of iron compounds from various types of meteorites, which represent different stages of the evolution of the planetary system, then follow. (orig.)

  18. The Diplomatic System of the European Union: Evolution, Change and Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, M.; Keukeleire, S.; Vanhoonacker, S.M.R.L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past five years, the EU has established a new system of diplomacy centred on the European External Action Service (EEAS) and the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. This new system reflects a process of evolution in a changing context, and has been faced by major

  19. The evolution of educational information systems and nurse faculty roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ramona; Meyers, Linda; Rizzolo, Mary Anne; Rutar, Pamela; Proto, Marcia B; Newbold, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are purchasing and/or designing sophisticated administrative information systems to manage such functions as the application, admissions, and registration process, grants management, student records, and classroom scheduling. Although faculty also manage large amounts of data, few automated systems have been created to help faculty improve teaching and learning through the management of information related to individual students, the curriculum, educational programs, and program evaluation. This article highlights the potential benefits that comprehensive educational information systems offer nurse faculty.

  20. Marketing Management Support Systems: evolution, adoption and effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, Berend; Bruggen, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA Marketing Management Support Systems can be defined as any device combining (i) information technology, (ii) marketing data and/ or knowledge, and (iii) analytical capabilities, made available to one or more marketing decision-makers with the objective to improve the quality of marketing decision-making. In this paper we present a categorization scheme for marketing management support systems. Three types of MMSS, developed so far, can be identified: marketing information system...

  1. CWDM/GbE metro network system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Hsien; Sheu, Tien-Jey; Wang, Chi-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Fwu; Fang, Yih; Chien, Wei-Shyan; Chuang, Hsiu-Jung; Tsai, Fu-Yuan

    2002-08-01

    A laboratory experiment was evaluated on the CWDM/GbE Metro Network System. The system is configuration with the optical fiber Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) devices that are designed for Metropolitan and Access Area Network. CWDM devices can support 8 channels over a single fiber either a uni- directional or bi-directional mode, and can increase fiber capacity from 2 to 16 times transmission capacity. The system performance was evaluated using the network performance analyzer by measuring the characteristics of throughput and latency. The systems test results showed that this CWDM based Gigabits Ethernet have good transmission performance through the distance to 50 Km.

  2. Biological information systems: Evolution as cognition-based information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William B

    2018-05-01

    An alternative biological synthesis is presented that conceptualizes evolutionary biology as an epiphenomenon of integrated self-referential information management. Since all biological information has inherent ambiguity, the systematic assessment of information is required by living organisms to maintain self-identity and homeostatic equipoise in confrontation with environmental challenges. Through their self-referential attachment to information space, cells are the cornerstone of biological action. That individualized assessment of information space permits self-referential, self-organizing niche construction. That deployment of information and its subsequent selection enacted the dominant stable unicellular informational architectures whose biological expressions are the prokaryotic, archaeal, and eukaryotic unicellular forms. Multicellularity represents the collective appraisal of equivocal environmental information through a shared information space. This concerted action can be viewed as systematized information management to improve information quality for the maintenance of preferred homeostatic boundaries among the varied participants. When reiterated in successive scales, this same collaborative exchange of information yields macroscopic organisms as obligatory multicellular holobionts. Cognition-Based Evolution (CBE) upholds that assessment of information precedes biological action, and the deployment of information through integrative self-referential niche construction and natural cellular engineering antecedes selection. Therefore, evolutionary biology can be framed as a complex reciprocating interactome that consists of the assessment, communication, deployment and management of information by self-referential organisms at multiple scales in continuous confrontation with environmental stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of regulatory complexes: a many-body system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouemohammad, Armita; Laessig, Michael

    2013-03-01

    In eukaryotes, many genes have complex regulatory input, which is encoded by multiple transcription factor binding sites linked to a common function. Interactions between transcription factors and site complexes on DNA control the production of protein in cells. Here, we present a quantitative evolutionary analysis of binding site complexes in yeast. We show that these complexes have a joint binding phenotype, which is under substantial stabilizing selection and is well conserved within Saccharomyces paradoxus populations and between three species of Saccharomyces. At the same time, individual low-affinity sites evolve near-neutrally and show considerable affinity variation even within one population. Thus, functionality of and selection on regulatory complexes emerge from the entire cloud of sites, but cannot be pinned down to individual sites. Our method is based on a biophysical model, which determines site occupancies and establishes a joint affinity phenotype for binding site complexes. We infer a fitness landscape depending on this phenotype using yeast whole-genome polymorphism data and a new method of quantitative trait analysis. Our fitness landscape predicts the amount of binding phenotype conservation, as well as ubiquitous compensatory changes between sites in the cloud. Our results open a new avenue to understand the regulatory ``grammar'' of eukaryotic genomes based on quantitative evolution models. Carl-Icahn Laboratory, Washington Road, Princeton 08544 NJ

  4. Periodic Pattern of Genetic and Fitness Diversity during Evolution of an Artificial Cell-Like System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Aita, Takuyo; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Genetic and phenotypic diversity are the basis of evolution. Despite their importance, however, little is known about how they change over the course of evolution. In this study, we analyzed the dynamics of the adaptive evolution of a simple evolvable artificial cell-like system using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology that reads an entire single artificial genome. We found that the genomic RNA population increases in fitness intermittently, correlating with a periodic pattern of genetic and fitness diversity produced by repeated diversification and domination. In the diversification phase, a genomic RNA population spreads within a genetic space by accumulating mutations until mutants with higher fitness are generated, resulting in an increase in fitness diversity. In the domination phase, the mutants with higher fitness dominate, decreasing both the fitness and genetic diversity. This study reveals the dynamic nature of genetic and fitness diversity during adaptive evolution and demonstrates the utility of a simplified artificial cell-like system to study evolution at an unprecedented resolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT): The evolution of an intelligent tutoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeffrey E.; Wiederholt, Bradley J.; Johnson, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Microcomputer Intelligence for Technical Training (MITT) uses Intelligent Tutoring System (OTS) technology to deliver diagnostic training in a variety of complex technical domains. Over the past six years, MITT technology has been used to develop training systems for nuclear power plant diesel generator diagnosis, Space Shuttle fuel cell diagnosis, and message processing diagnosis for the Minuteman missile. Presented here is an overview of the MITT system, describing the evolution of the MITT software and the benefits of using the MITT system.

  6. A Novel Differential Evolution Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithm for Solving Nonlinear Equations Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the traditional numerical method to solve the nonlinear equations exist is sensitive to initial value and the higher accuracy of defects. This paper presents an invasive weed optimization (IWO algorithm which has population diversity with the heuristic global search of differential evolution (DE algorithm. In the iterative process, the global exploration ability of invasive weed optimization algorithm provides effective search area for differential evolution; at the same time, the heuristic search ability of differential evolution algorithm provides a reliable guide for invasive weed optimization. Based on the test of several typical nonlinear equations and a circle packing problem, the results show that the differential evolution invasive weed optimization (DEIWO algorithm has a higher accuracy and speed of convergence, which is an efficient and feasible algorithm for solving nonlinear systems of equations.

  7. Evaluation of a strict protocol approach in managing women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3. Respiratory system. Respiratory rate, lung sounds and oxygen saturation. If the respiratory rate was increased, the oxygen saturation decreased or lung sounds were abnormal, arterial blood gas measurement and a chest X-ray was performed. 4. The hepatic system was evaluated by examining for jaundice and signs of ...

  8. The Evolution of a distributed operating system (Amoeba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Renesse, Robbert; Tanenbaum, Andrew S.; Mullender, Sape J.

    1989-01-01

    AMOEBA is a research project to build a true distributed operating system using the object model. Under the COST11-ter MANDIS project this work was extended to cover wide-area networks. Besides describing the system, this paper discusses the successive versions in the implementation of its model,

  9. Evolution of uni- and bifactorial sexual compatibility systems in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.; Billiard, S.; Vuilleumier, S.; Petit, E.; Hood, M.E.; Giraud, T.

    2013-01-01

    Mating systems, that is, whether organisms give rise to progeny by selfing, inbreeding or outcrossing, strongly affect important ecological and evolutionary processes. Large variations in mating systems exist in fungi, allowing the study of their origin and consequences. In fungi, sexual

  10. Evolution and classification of the CRISPR-Cas systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarova, K.S.; Brouns, S.J.J.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are adaptive immunity systems that are present in many archaea and bacteria. These defence systems are encoded by operons that have an extraordinarily diverse architecture and a high rate of

  11. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-15

    Mar 15, 2014 ... pattern formation in biological systems, as well as being ap- plied to specific biological systems, either at the cell and tissue level or at much more macroscopic ecological scales. 3. Null models for the genesis of complex gene regulatory interactions. Let us now turn to some higher-level biological ...

  12. Trends Regarding the Evolution of the Romanian Pension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balteș Nicolae

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The pension system, together with the social assistance services form the social security system is recognized worldwide throughout the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for the purpose of insured person compensation for damages regarding some inherent risks as: permanent or temporary inability of work, old age or unemployment. The main objectives of a pension system are decreasing poverty regarding the lower income persons throughout the conditions of limitation of the working capacity which are financially vulnerable. In this article we provide a qualitative and quantitative overview regarding the Romanian pension system structure and mechanism. The conclusions of this article highlight the need for a more comprehensive reform of this system in order to strengthen it for the new challenges still to come in the near future.

  13. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2010-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  14. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Potekhin, M; Wenaus, T

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on PanDA design in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Important to meeting these and other requirements is a comprehensive monitoring system. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. We decided to migrat...

  15. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: an overview and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    LEE, CJ; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, AC; DARLEA, GL; KOROL, A; SCANNICCHIO, DA; TWOMEY, M; VALSAN, ML

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The system processes the direct data readout from ~100 million channels on the detector through three trigger levels, selecting interesting events for analysis with a factor of 10^7 reduction on the data rate with a latency of less than a few seconds. Most of the functionality is implemented on ~3000 servers composing the online farm. Due to the critical functionality of the system a sophisticated computing environment is maintained, covering the online farm and ATLAS control rooms, as well as a number of development and testing labs. The specificity of the system required the development of dedicated applications (e.g. ConfDB, BWM) for system configuration and maintenance; in parallel other Open Source tools (Puppet and Quattor) are used to centrally configure the operating systems. The health monitoring of the TDAQ system h...

  16. Evolution of an integrated public health surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Derek A; Ford, Nancy; Tlusty, Susan; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition in maternal and child health of the importance of social, behavioral, biological, and genetic factors across the entire life course. Unfortunately, most state maternal and child health surveillance systems are not designed to readily address longitudinal research questions or track and follow children across multiple programs over time. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recently integrated its birth defects registry, newborn hearing screening tracking and management system, and electronic birth certificate (EBC) into a robust, Web-based surveillance system called the Virginia Vital Events and Screening Tracking System (VVESTS). Completely redesigning the existing birth defects and newborn hearing screening system (the Virginia Infant Screening and Infant Tracking System--VISITS I) with minimal disruption of ongoing reporting presented a number of challenges. Because VVESTS had different requirements such as required fields and data validations, extensive data preparation was required to ensure that existing VISITS I data would be included in the new system (VISITS II). Efforts included record deduplication, conversion of free text fields into discrete variables, dealing with missing/invalid data, and linkage with birth certificate data. VISITS II serves multiple program needs; improves data quality and security; automates linkages within families, across programs, and over time; and improves the ability of VDH to provide children with birth defects and their families necessary follow-up services and enhanced care coordination.

  17. Mating system evolution and worker caste diversity in Pheidole ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming H; Wheeler, Diana E; Fjerdingstad, Else J

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of social groups is generally optimized by a division of labour, achieved through behavioural or morphological diversity of members. In social insects, colonies may increase the morphological diversity of workers by recruiting standing genetic variance for size and shape via multiply mated queens (polyandry) or multiple-breeding queens (polygyny). However, greater worker diversity in multi-lineage species may also have evolved due to mutual worker policing if there is worker reproduction. Such policing reduces the pressure on workers to maintain reproductive morphologies, allowing the evolution of greater developmental plasticity and the maintenance of more genetic variance for worker size and shape in populations. Pheidole ants vary greatly in the diversity of worker castes. Also, their workers lack ovaries and are thus invariably sterile regardless of the queen mating frequency and numbers of queens per colony. This allowed us to perform an across-species study examining the genetic effects of recruiting more patrilines on the developmental diversity of workers in the absence of confounding effects from worker policing. Using highly variable microsatellite markers, we found that the effective mating frequency of the soldier-polymorphic P. rhea (avg. meN = 2.65) was significantly higher than that of the dimorphic P. spadonia (avg. meN = 1.06), despite a significant paternity skew in P. rhea (avg. B = 0.10). Our findings support the idea that mating strategies of queens may co-evolve with selection to increase the diversity of workers. We also detected patriline bias in the production of different worker sizes, which provides direct evidence for a genetic component to worker polymorphism. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  19. The (R) evolution and future of banking system and commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Pinto, Daniel Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau. Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2016-2017 The aim of this paper is providing information giving an overview about a new age in the financial field. Financial Technology (Fintech) industry is growing faster than other industries and it is changing the way we know the financial markets, customer’s behavior, banking system, payments and, in general, the interaction between financial clients and the financial system. Banks are on...

  20. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) evolution for collaborative standards development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Baldwin, Rusty; Orlovsky, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Tim

    2017-04-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) a technical Open Systems Architecture standard in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a modular decomposition (defining functions and behaviors) and associated key interfaces (physical and logical) for common multi-purpose architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and Communications. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The modular decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender reusable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces. To this end, SOSA will leverage existing standards as much as possible and evolve the SOSA architecture through modification, reuse, and enhancements to achieve C4ISR goals. This paper will present accomplishments over the first year of SOSA initiative.

  1. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: an overview and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    LEE, CJ; The ATLAS collaboration; BOGDANCHIKOV, A; BRASOLIN, F; CONTESCU, AC; DARLEA, G-L; KOROL, A; SCANNICCHIO, DA; TWOMEY, M; VALSAN, ML

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The system processes the direct data readout from ~100 million channels on the detector through multiple trigger levels, selecting interesting events for analysis with a factor of $10^{7}$ reduction on the data rate with a latency of less than a few seconds. Most of the functionality is implemented on ~3000 servers composing the online farm. Due to the critical functionality of the system a sophisticated computing environment is maintained, covering the online farm and ATLAS control rooms, as well as a number of development and testing labs. The specificity of the system required the development of dedicated applications (e.g. ConfDB, BWM) for system configuration and maintenance; in parallel other Open Source tools (Puppet and Quattor) are used to centrally configure the operating systems. The health monitoring of the TDAQ s...

  2. High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Thomas C; Hammond, Robert L; Jenner, Ronald A; Zierold, Thorid; Hänfling, Bernd; Gómez, Africa

    2013-02-05

    Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy - where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations - is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual systems, including androdioecy. An understanding of the evolution of sexual systems in this group has been hampered by poor phylogenetic resolution and confounded by the widespread occurrence of cryptic species. Here we use a multigene supermatrix for 30 taxa to produce a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of Notostraca. Based on this phylogenetic reconstruction we use character mapping techniques to investigate the evolution of sexual systems. We also tested the hypothesis that reproductive assurance has driven the evolution of androdioecy in Notostraca. Character mapping analysis showed that sexual system is an extremely flexible trait within Notostraca, with repeated shifts between gonochorism and androdioecy, the latter having evolved a minimum of five times. In agreement with the reproductive assurance hypothesis androdioecious notostracans are found at significantly higher latitudes than gonochoric ones indicating that post glacial re-colonisation may have selected for the higher colonisation ability conferred by androdioecy. In contrast to their conserved morphology, sexual system in Notostraca is highly labile and the rare reproductive mode androdioecy has evolved repeatedly within the order. Furthermore, we conclude that this lability of sexual system has been maintained for at least 250 million years and may have contributed to the long term evolutionary persistence of Notostraca. Our results further our understanding of the evolution of androdioecy

  3. High lability of sexual system over 250 million years of evolution in morphologically conservative tadpole shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathers Thomas C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual system is a key factor affecting the genetic diversity, population structure, genome structure and the evolutionary potential of species. The sexual system androdioecy – where males and hermaphrodites coexist in populations – is extremely rare, yet is found in three crustacean groups, barnacles, a genus of clam shrimps Eulimnadia, and in the order Notostraca, the tadpole shrimps. In the ancient crustacean order Notostraca, high morphological conservatism contrasts with a wide diversity of sexual systems, including androdioecy. An understanding of the evolution of sexual systems in this group has been hampered by poor phylogenetic resolution and confounded by the widespread occurrence of cryptic species. Here we use a multigene supermatrix for 30 taxa to produce a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of Notostraca. Based on this phylogenetic reconstruction we use character mapping techniques to investigate the evolution of sexual systems. We also tested the hypothesis that reproductive assurance has driven the evolution of androdioecy in Notostraca. Results Character mapping analysis showed that sexual system is an extremely flexible trait within Notostraca, with repeated shifts between gonochorism and androdioecy, the latter having evolved a minimum of five times. In agreement with the reproductive assurance hypothesis androdioecious notostracans are found at significantly higher latitudes than gonochoric ones indicating that post glacial re-colonisation may have selected for the higher colonisation ability conferred by androdioecy. Conclusions In contrast to their conserved morphology, sexual system in Notostraca is highly labile and the rare reproductive mode androdioecy has evolved repeatedly within the order. Furthermore, we conclude that this lability of sexual system has been maintained for at least 250 million years and may have contributed to the long term evolutionary persistence of Notostraca. Our

  4. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration: evolution and re-design

    CERN Document Server

    Ballestrero, Sergio; The ATLAS collaboration; Brasolin, Franco; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Lee, Christopher Jon; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of $\\sim 3000$ servers, processing the data readout from $\\sim 100$ million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. The OS version has been upgraded to SLC6; for the largest part of the farm, which is composed by net booted nodes, this required a completely new design of the net booting system. In parallel, the migration to Puppet of the Configuration Management systems has been completed for both net booted and local booted hosts; the Post-Boot Scripts system and...

  5. The evolution of risk and bailout strategy in banking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caux, Robert; McGroarty, Frank; Brede, Markus

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyse the long-term costs and benefits of bailout strategies in models of networked banking systems. Unlike much of the current literature on financial contagion that focuses on systemic risk at one point in time, we consider adaptive banks that adjust risk taking in response to internal system dynamics and regulatory intervention, allowing us to analyse the potentially crucial moral hazard aspect associated with frequent bailouts. We demonstrate that whereas bailout generally serves as an effective tool to limit the size of bankruptcy cascades in the short term, inappropriate intervention strategies can encourage risk-taking and thus be inefficient and detrimental to long term system stability. We analyse points of long-term optimal bailout and discuss their dependence on the structure of the banking network. In the second part of the paper, we demonstrate that bailout efficiency can be improved by taking into account information about the topology of and risk allocation on the banking network, and demonstrate that finely tuned intervention strategies aimed at bailing out banks in configurations with some degree of anti-correlated risk have superior performance. These results demonstrate that a suitable intervention policy may be a useful tool for driving the banking system towards a more robust structure.

  6. Nuclear Power System Evolution: MARS Robotics Outposts to Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    NASA has been studying various architectures to explore Mars encompassing sample return; robotic outpost with extended range exploration and possibly leading to eventual human exploration missions. The more demanding missions with longer-range mobility, enhanced surface operations, high rate communications, propellant production, deep drilling at multiple sites, etc., will require larger and more robust power systems beyond the current capability of today's multi-hundred watt space nuclear power systems. The relatively low power levels of the current suite of Mars' missions are met by photovoltaic solar arrays. As the desire for continuous day and night operations, high latitude exploration and extended mission lifetimes increase, the power system designs will also have to change to meet these increased science demands. While future mission planning continues and requirements continue to evolve, one can assess several power system technologies to satisfy both mobile and stationary applications. Certain technologies tend to optimize at different power levels and lifetimes. While current landers require 100's of watts, a human mission could require 100's of kilowatts. The harsh environment of Mars (dust storms, temperature cycling, CO2 atmosphere, dust settling, wind, low atmospheric pressure, etc.) will also pose some significant design challenges to overcome. This paper will discuss the challenges facing solar, isotope and nuclear power systems.

  7. Experience from Tore Supra acquisition system and evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, B.; Buravand, Y.; Chatelier, E.; Leroux, F.

    2004-01-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak has been upgraded to explore long duration plasma discharges up to 1000s. Since summer 2001, the acquisition system operates in continuous mode apart of the data processing which is still done after the pulse. In the first part, we explore a few solutions to process continuously the data during the pulse, based on parallel processing on a Linux farm and then on a CONDOR system. The second part is devoted to the Web service exposing the Tore Supra operation. In the last part, the VME acquisition system has been redesigned to keep up with the high data rates required by a few diagnostics. The workflow is now distributed among a few computers. At the end, we give the current status of the realisation and the future planning

  8. Evolution of a heave control system for an amphibious hovercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, P. A. T.; Man, K. F.; Cheng, Y. N.; Osbourn, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A heave control system for amphibious hovercraft was designed and tested. The central element in the system being an axial flow, lift fan whose blade angles are continuously varied by means of feedback signals from a pressure transducer located in the front end of the hovercraft cushion and from an accelerometer measuring the heave acceleration are discussed. Results from experiments, conducted on the Cranfield Whirling-Arm facility, have shown that the system provides a rapid and effective means of controlling the heave acceleration, and, in addition, produces a valuable reduction in craft drag whilst traversing waves. An extensive parameter identification program, using a nonlinear optimization algorithm, was constructed and applied to the control subsystem, such that a full mathematical model of the controlled craft was obtained. This was then used to design an optimum control with particular reference to passenger ride comfort.

  9. Prediction Over the Evolution of the Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Ovidiu BABA

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The predictive analysis included in the present work begins with identifying the main areas of interest for the future situation of the public health system in Romania, or in any other European state for that matter; these areas of interest relate to the most arduously debated issues, either on a national level or in the proficient institutions of the European Union. However, as previously argued, we consider such an approach to be insufficient for an appropriate description of the potentialities existing at the level of the health systems; accordingly, we consider more relevant the approach of the prediction of future changes by using four variables that have to do, on the one hand, with all the problems of the national systems of public health, and on the other hand, with offering useful information to all states, irrespective of issues such as differences in giving funds, and/or inconsistencies related to the most prominent subjects.

  10. Evolution of the JPSS Ground Project Calibration and Validation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patrick; Chander, Gyanesh; Jain, Peyush

    2016-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) next-generation operational Earth observation Program that acquires and distributes global environmental data from multiple polar-orbiting satellites. The JPSS Program plays a critical role to NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in weather, climate, oceans, coasts, and space environments, which supports the Nation's economy and protection of lives and property. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is acquiring and implementing the JPSS, comprised of flight and ground systems, on behalf of NOAA. The JPSS satellites are planned to fly in the afternoon orbit and will provide operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. To support the JPSS Calibration and Validation (CalVal) node Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) services facilitate: Algorithm Integration and Checkout, Algorithm and Product Operational Tuning, Instrument Calibration, Product Validation, Algorithm Investigation, and Data Quality Support and Monitoring. GRAVITE is a mature, deployed system that currently supports the SNPP Mission and has been in operations since SNPP launch. This paper discusses the major re-architecture for Block 2.0 that incorporates SNPP lessons learned, architecture of the system, and demonstrates how GRAVITE has evolved as a system with increased performance. It is now a robust, stable, reliable, maintainable, scalable, and secure system that supports development, test, and production strings, replaces proprietary and custom software, uses open source software, and is compliant with NASA and NOAA standards.

  11. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON SINR IN LONG TERM EVOLUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Parikh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ongoing demands for high speed broadband communications, network providers are opting for the next generation of mobile technologies like LTE and LTE-Advanced. Standardized by 3GPP, these technologies aim to meet the requirements of higher data rates, low latency, and wider mobility, in varying environments without affecting the quality of service of a network. With higher mobility, the various network performance parameters like signal to interference to noise ratio, throughput, received signal strength indicator etc. get affected. This paper highlights the effect of mobility on signal to interference to noise ratio (SINR characteristics of an IMT-A system in various test environments like In-house (INH, Urban Micro (UMi, Urban Macro (UMa, Rural Macro (RMa, and Suburban Macro (SMa. Simulations have been carried out to obtain spatial plots and SINR vs CDF plots in various test environments, at different user equipment speeds, emphasizing the effects of user equipment speed on the fast fading channel gainsand SINR of the system. By varying the UE speeds from 0 km/hr to 360 km/hr there was an increase in the minimum SINR value required for acceptable performance in a system. It was observed that for given system parameters, the minimum SINR required in RMa environment increased from -5dB to 1dB, in SMa environment it increased from -6dB to -2dB, and in case of UMa environment it increased from -4dB to 1dB, when the UE speed was increased from 0km/hr to 360km/hr. To address the problem of poor SINR in high mobility systems, 3GPP has introduced the technique of Moving Relays. It is used to improve the SINR and hence the channel quality for UEs moving at high speeds in LTE systems.

  12. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  13. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B; Stillinger, Frank H; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤φ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. E 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and explicit construction of binary packings

  14. The Evolution of Software and Its Impact on Complex System Design in Robotic Spacecraft Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy

    2013-01-01

    The growth in computer hardware performance, coupled with reduced energy requirements, has led to a rapid expansion of the resources available to software systems, driving them towards greater logical abstraction, flexibility, and complexity. This shift in focus from compacting functionality into a limited field towards developing layered, multi-state architectures in a grand field has both driven and been driven by the history of embedded processor design in the robotic spacecraft industry.The combinatorial growth of interprocess conditions is accompanied by benefits (concurrent development, situational autonomy, and evolution of goals) and drawbacks (late integration, non-deterministic interactions, and multifaceted anomalies) in achieving mission success, as illustrated by the case of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Approaches to optimizing the benefits while mitigating the drawbacks have taken the form of the formalization of requirements, modular design practices, extensive system simulation, and spacecraft data trend analysis. The growth of hardware capability and software complexity can be expected to continue, with future directions including stackable commodity subsystems, computer-generated algorithms, runtime reconfigurable processors, and greater autonomy.

  15. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-09

    description languages such as VHDL (see [1]) and SystemC (see [2]), modeling and simulation tools such as Simulink and LabVIEW, network simulation tools such...context is another interesting direction for future work. References [1] IEEE standard VHDL language reference manual. IEEE Std 1076-2000, pages i–290, 2000

  16. Strict Slaves of Slogans: Response to ''The Social Work Cartel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, William M.

    2016-01-01

    The corruption of the social work enterprise is not simply episodic but systemic and long-standing including education, research, governance, and practice. Reform is unlikely since the constituency within the field and outside of it that wishes to change the situation is small and ineffective. The corruption of social work reflects the unfortunate…

  17. Echinoderm immunity and the evolution of the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, P S; Al-Sharif, W Z; Clow, L A; Smith, L C

    1999-01-01

    Our understanding of inflammatory responses in humans has its roots in the comparative approach to immunology. In the late 1900s, research on echinoderms provided the initial evidence for the importance of phagocytic cells in reactions to foreign material. Studies of allograft rejection kinetics have shown that echinoderms have a non-adaptive, activation type of immune response. Coelomocytes mediate the cellular responses to immune challenges through phagocytosis, encapsulation, cytotoxicity, and the production of antimicrobial agents. In addition, a variety of humoral factors found in the coelomic fluid, including lectins, agglutinins, and lysins, are important in host defense against pathogens and other foreign substances. Recently, a simple complement system has been identified in the purple sea urchin that is homologous to the alternative pathway in vertebrates. The sea urchin [corrected] homologue of C3, is inducible by challenge with lipopolysaccharide, which is known to activate coelomocytes. Complement components have been identified in all vertebrate classes, and now have been characterized in protochordates and echinoderms indicating the primordial nature of the complement system. Because it is thought that the complement system evolved from a few primordial genes by gene duplication and divergence, the origin of this system appears to have occurred within the common ancestor of the deuterostomes.

  18. An ensemble approach to the evolution of complex systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adaptive systems frequently incorporate complex structures which can arise spontaneously and which may be non-adaptive in the evolutionary sense. We give examples from phase transition and fractal growth to develop the themes of cooperative phenomena and pattern formation. We discuss RNA interference and ...

  19. Evolution of Turkish Higher Education System in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Deniz TEKNECİ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has witnessed a rapid massification in its higher education sector. The rate of total gross enrollment in Turkish higher education reached 79 percent in 2014 while it was 31 percent in 2004 and surpassed OECD averages. This study aims to depict the trends observed in the Turkish higher education sector. In this context, changes observed in enrolment rates, faculty and student compositions, expenditures and publication outputs of Turkish higher education institutions during the last decade are discussed. In addition, comparison with OECD averages are provided to understand the relative position of Turkey compared to other countries. Analyses have shown that Turkish higher education system performs very well in terms of higher education enrollment rates, female students, and female faculty members. Meanwhile, this study has revealed that it needs to improve its performance in terms of quantity of faculty members, doctorate students, and international students, funds received from abroad, participation of private sector, and quantity and quality of scientific publications. It is considered that issues which are exacerbated with the rapid expansion of Turkish higher education system can be handled effectively via deploying a comprehensive database regarding Turkish higher education system, promoting data based policy making, determining clear and measurable targets with associated costs in the national policy documents, and establishing a performance evaluation system for universities.

  20. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  1. ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM EVOLUTION AND BASEL II REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NICOLAU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 1989, Romanian Banking System was structured in the specific way of a centralized economy. Restructuring of the banking system took its first step at the end of 1990 when the newly- established bank, Banca Comercială Română, took over retail operations performed previously by the NBR. Simultaneously, some privately-owned banking companies were established and foreign banks’ branches were integrated into the domestic banking activity, the number of banks almost trebling. The unfriendly economic environment, the poor quality of bank managers and shareholders and cumbersome legal procedures led to an increase in tensions, the poor quality of credit portfolio representing the major difficulty of the banking sector. In the past years, NBR tried to control more thebanking activity by implementing international settlements. More over, since Romania is one of the European Union countries, it is absolutely necessary the harmonization of entire economic and financial system to EU regulations. The paper try to present the position of Romanian banking system in the framework of all these transformations.

  2. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimentov, A; Nevski, P; Wenaus, T; Potekhin, M

    2011-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  3. Developing Model Benchtop Systems for Microbial Experimental Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Wang, J.; Arismendi, D.; Alvarez, J.; Ouandji, C.; Blaich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how microbes impact an ecosystem has improved through advances of molecular and genetic tools, but creating complex systems that emulate natural biology goes beyond current technology. In fact, many chemical, biological, and metabolic pathways of even model organisms are still poorly characterized. Even then, standard laboratory techniques for testing microbial impact on environmental change can have many drawbacks; they are time-consuming, labor intensive, and are at risk of contamination. By having an automated process, many of these problems can be reduced or even eliminated. We are developing a benchtop system that can run for long periods of time without the need for human intervention, involve multiple environmental stressors at once, perform real-time adjustments of stressor exposure based on current state of the population, and minimize contamination risks. Our prototype device allows operators to generate an analogue of real world micro-scale ecosystems that can be used to model the effects of disruptive environmental change on microbial ecosystems. It comprises of electronics, mechatronics, and fluidics based systems to control, measure, and evaluate the before and after state of microbial cultures from exposure to environmental stressors. Currently, it uses four parallel growth chambers to perform tests on liquid cultures. To measure the population state, optical sensors (LED/photodiode) are used. Its primary selection pressure is UV-C radiation, a well-studied stressor known for its cell- and DNA- damaging effects and as a mutagen. Future work will involve improving the current growth chambers, as well as implementing additional sensors and environmental stressors into the system. Full integration of multiple culture testing will allow inter-culture comparisons. Besides the temperature and OD sensors, other types of sensors can be integrated such as conductivity, biomass, pH, and dissolved gasses such as CO2 and O2. Additional

  4. On the Tidal Evolution of the Earth-Moon System: A Cosmological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbab A. I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have presented a cosmological model for the tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system. We have found that the expansion of the universe has immense consequences on our local systems. The model can be compared with the present observational data. The close approach problem inflicting the known tidal theory is averted in this model. We have also shown that the astronomical and geological changes of our local systems are of the order of Hubble constant.

  5. Evolution of facility layout requirements and CAD [computer-aided design] system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.

    1990-06-01

    The overall configuration of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) including the infrastructure and land boundary requirements were developed using a computer-aided design (CAD) system. The evolution of the facility layout requirements and the use of the CAD system are discussed. The emphasis has been on minimizing the amount of input required and maximizing the speed by which the output may be obtained. The computer system used to store the data is also described

  6. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  7. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...

  8. Pechukas-Yukawa approach to the evolution of the quantum state of a parametrically perturbed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Mumnuna A.; Zhong, Johnny; Qureshi, Zihad; Mason, Peter; Betouras, Joseph J.; Zagoskin, Alexandre M.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the evolution of the quantum states of a Hamiltonian that is parametrically perturbed via a term proportional to the adiabatic parameter λ (t ) . Starting with the Pechukas-Yukawa mapping of the energy eigenvalue evolution in a generalized Calogero-Sutherland model of a one-dimensional classical gas, we consider the adiabatic approximation with two different expansions of the quantum state in powers of d λ /d t and compare them with a direct numerical simulation. We show that one of these expansions (Magnus series) is especially convenient for the description of nonadiabatic evolution of the system. Applying the expansion to the exact cover 3-satisfiability problem, we obtain the occupation dynamics, which provides insight into the population of states and sources of decoherence in a quantum system.

  9. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  10. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Originally the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) was proposed to integrate the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), operating since 1991, with the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), in services since 2003. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during 2010 and 2011, local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development. Until 2012 SASMEX better coverage includes 48 new field seismic sensors (FS) deployed over the seismic region of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan and Puebla, with someone enhancements over Guerrero and Oaxaca, to reach 97 FS. During 2013, 35 new FS has been proposed to SASMEX enhancements covering the Chiapas and Veracruz seismic regions. The SASMEX, with the support of the Mexico Valley Broadcasters Association (ARVM) since 1993, automatically issue Public and Preventive earthquake early warning signals in the Cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, and Oaxaca. The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Now the SASMEX warning time opportunity could be different to the 60 sec. average typically generated when SAS warned earthquake effects coming from Guerrero to Mexico City valley. Mexican EEW issued today reach: 16 Public and 62 Preventive Alert in Mexico City; 25 Public and 19 Preventive Alerts in Oaxaca City; also 14 Public and 4 Preventive Alerts in Acapulco; 14 Public and 5 Preventive Alerts in Chilpancingo. The earthquakes events registered by SASMEX FS until now reach 3448. With the support of private and Federal telecommunications infrastructure like, TELMEX, Federal Electric Commission, and the Mexican Security Ministry, it was developed a redundant communication system with pads to link the different

  11. Formation, evolution, and dynamics of young solar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gressel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    This book's interdisciplinary scope aims at bridging various communities: 1) cosmochemists, who study meteoritic samples from our own solar system, 2) (sub-) millimetre astronomers, who measure the distribution of dust and gas of star-forming regions and planet-forming discs, 3) disc modellers, who describe the complex photo-chemical structure of parametric discs to fit these to observation, 4) computational astrophysicists, who attempt to decipher the dynamical structure of magnetised gaseous discs, and the effects the resulting internal structure has on the aerodynamic re-distribution of embedded solids, 5) theoreticians in planet formation theory, who aim to piece it all together eventually arriving at a coherent holistic picture of the architectures of planetary systems discovered by 6) the exoplanet observers, who provide us with unprecedented samples of exoplanet worlds. Combining these diverse fields the book sheds light onto the riddles that research on planet formation is currently confronted with, a...

  12. Creativity Understandings, Evolution: from Genius to Creative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Černevičiūtė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of creativity in the social sciencies became more complex with the course of time. The concepts of creative individual, creative process and environment are discussed. Looking at the environment, distinction was made on three levels: macro, meso and micro. The impact of environments on creativity is analyzed, focusing attention on the collective creativity as the positive micro-environmental factor for innovations. Insights are gained about the tendency to move from an exclusive, elite, narrow concept of creativity, measured by the creation of products and their abundance, towards a broader, democratic concept of everyday creativity of the most people. The conclusion is that the creative industries of the exceptional creativity of genius or talent and mysticism are gradually transformed to broader creativity as the governed system, emphasizing creativity links with internal elements of the system and with the social context.

  13. Motorola cash management: The evolution of a global system

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, CP; Lockett, G; Richard, JM; Blackman, ID

    1993-01-01

    The set of interorganizational information systems used for global cash management in business markets is analyzed. A longitudinal case study of Motorola is presented. Their strategy has evolved from an internal cost saving focus to a cooperative one, yielding significant strategic benefits by the inclusion of trading partners. The financial aspects of Motorola's business relationships with trading partners and its principal bank have been transformed through a process of organizational learn...

  14. Characterization and Evolution of Salmonella CRISPR-Cas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes (Cady et al., 2011; Deltcheva et al., 2011). In the former, CRISPR-Cas has been linked to the regulation of...By compar- ison, in an active CRISPR-Cas system such as that of Streptococcus thermophilus, 77 % of spacers have viral protospacer matches (Horvath et...Boyaval, P., Romero, D. A., Horvath, P. & Moineau, S. (2008). Phage response to CRISPR-encoded resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus. J Bacteriol 190

  15. Evolution of biomolecular loadings along a major river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymond, Chantal V.; Kündig, Nicole; Stark, Courcelle; Peterse, Francien; Buggle, Björn; Lupker, Maarten; Plötze, Michael; Blattmann, Thomas M.; Filip, Florin; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport history and fate of organic carbon (OC) within river systems is crucial in order to constrain the dynamics and significance of land-ocean interactions as a component of the global carbon cycle. Fluvial export and burial of terrestrial OC in marine sediments influences atmospheric CO2 over a range of timescales, while river-dominated sedimentary sequences can provide valuable archives of paleoenvironmental information. While there is abundant evidence that the association of organic matter (OM) with minerals exerts an important influence on its stability as well as hydrodynamic behavior in aquatic systems, there is a paucity of information on where such associations form and how they evolve during fluvial transport. Here, we track total organic carbon (TOC) and terrestrial biomarker concentrations (plant wax-derived long-chain fatty acids (FA), branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) and lignin-derived phenols) in sediments collected along the entire course of the Danube River system in the context of sedimentological parameters. Mineral-specific surface area-normalized biomarker and TOC concentrations show a systematic decrease from the upper to the lower Danube basin. Changes in OM loading of the available mineral phase correspond to a net decrease of 70-80% of different biomolecular components. Ranges for biomarker loadings on Danube River sediments, corresponding to 0.4-1.5 μgFA/m2 for long-chain (n-C24-32) fatty acids and 17-71 ngbrGDGT/m2 for brGDGTs, are proposed as a benchmark for comparison with other systems. We propose that normalizing TOC as well as biomarker concentrations to mineral surface area provides valuable quantitative constraints on OM dynamics and organo-mineral interactions during fluvial transport from terrigenous source to oceanic sink.

  16. On the theory of evolution of particulate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyevich, Yuri A.; Alexandrov, Dmitri V.

    2017-04-01

    An analytical method for the description of particulate systems at sufficiently long times is developed. This method allows us to obtain very simple analytical expressions for the particle distribution function. The method under consideration can be applied to a number of practically important problems including evaporation of a polydisperse mist, dissolution of dispersed solids, combustion of dispersed propellants, physical and chemical transformation of powders and phase transitions in metastable materials.

  17. APRIL—The Evolution of a Long Term Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Barbara S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a computerized medical information system for long term care, which is relatively unexplored in automated medical record-keeping. APRIL* includes accounting, billing, census, payroll and elderly housing (HUD) systems as well, to enable a facility to use a single computer for all areas. The medical applications include physicians' orders, medication, treatment, restorative nursing care charts, functional and psychological assessments, patient care plans, utilization review summaries, and scheduling for certification of need for care, U.R. meetings, care planning, immunizations, doctor visits, clinic and consult visits, and laboratory, x-ray, EKG, and other tests and monitors. Current plans include production of R.N., L.P.N. and aide task lists, calculating of hours of care required based on problems and documented orders, procedures, and plans. The programs run on Digital's PDP 11's, including the Micro/J-11, and use the RSTS/E operating system, and the BASIC PLUS language. There are facilities in five (5) states using APRIL*, both batch and online, and several scheduled for in house installation before the end of 1983.

  18. Real-time evolution of quenched quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Detailed geometries in heterostructures allow for nonequilibrium transport measurements in correlated systems, pump-probe experiments for time-resolved study of many-body relaxation in molecules and solids and ultracold atom gases loaded onto optical lattices for high control of system parameters in real time. In all of these fields of research the nonequilibrium properties of a Fermi liquid can be relevant. A first approach to their understanding is the main content of this thesis. At the beginning I collect a variety of nonequilibrium phenomena and introduce to basic questions and concepts for their study. The key observation of this thesis, namely a characteristic mismatch of expectation values in equilibrium and nonequilibrium, is first illustrated for the squeezed oscillator. Afterwards, these observations are generalized to a larger class of one-particle models. Then the nonequilibrium behavior of a Fermi liquid is examined by analyzing the Fermi liquid phase of the Hubbard model in more than one dimension. After a sudden switch-on of a weak two-particle interaction to the noninteracting Fermi gas the relaxation of the many-body system is observed. For this purpose, the flow equation transformation is implemented for the Hubbard Hamiltonian. Then the discussion of the momentum distribution function and of the kinetic energy displays a three-step relaxation behavior of the Fermi liquid from the initial perturbation until thermalization is reached. In order to extend the study of sudden switching to arbitrary switching processes the calculation is repeated using the Keldysh perturbation theory. (orig.)

  19. Real-time evolution of quenched quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeckel, Michael

    2009-06-24

    Detailed geometries in heterostructures allow for nonequilibrium transport measurements in correlated systems, pump-probe experiments for time-resolved study of many-body relaxation in molecules and solids and ultracold atom gases loaded onto optical lattices for high control of system parameters in real time. In all of these fields of research the nonequilibrium properties of a Fermi liquid can be relevant. A first approach to their understanding is the main content of this thesis. At the beginning I collect a variety of nonequilibrium phenomena and introduce to basic questions and concepts for their study. The key observation of this thesis, namely a characteristic mismatch of expectation values in equilibrium and nonequilibrium, is first illustrated for the squeezed oscillator. Afterwards, these observations are generalized to a larger class of one-particle models. Then the nonequilibrium behavior of a Fermi liquid is examined by analyzing the Fermi liquid phase of the Hubbard model in more than one dimension. After a sudden switch-on of a weak two-particle interaction to the noninteracting Fermi gas the relaxation of the many-body system is observed. For this purpose, the flow equation transformation is implemented for the Hubbard Hamiltonian. Then the discussion of the momentum distribution function and of the kinetic energy displays a three-step relaxation behavior of the Fermi liquid from the initial perturbation until thermalization is reached. In order to extend the study of sudden switching to arbitrary switching processes the calculation is repeated using the Keldysh perturbation theory. (orig.)

  20. The effect of system modeling on the Fukushima accident evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Fontanet, J.; López, C.; Fernández, E.

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima accident is becoming both a unique opportunity and a huge challenge for severe accident analysis. The OECD-BSAF project has articulated a good part of the modeling efforts conducted so far. Inside this project, CIEMAT has conducted forensic analyses of the Fukushima accident in units 1 through 3 with MELCOR 2.1 and it has postulated a set of accident scenarios consistent with data. Beyond specific results, sensitivity analyses on safety systems performance and prevailing boundary conditions have highlighted the need of conducting uncertainty analyses when modeling NPPs severe accident scenarios. (Author)

  1. Black holes and neutron stars: evolution of binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of neutron stars and black holes in binary systems has been reviewed, and the following summarizes the current situation: (1) No statistically significant case has been made for the proposition that black holes and/or neutron stars contribute to the population of unseen companions of ordinary spectroscopic binaries; (2) Plausible evolutionary scenarios can be advanced that place compact X-ray sources into context as descendants of several common types of mass-exchange binaries. The collapse object may be a black hole, a neutron star, or a white dwarf, depending mostly on the mass of the original primary; (3) The rotating neutron star model for the pulsating X-ray sources Her X-1 and Cen X-3 is the simplest interpretation of these objects, but the idea that the pulsations result from the non-radial oscillations of a white dwarf cannot be altogether dismissed. The latter is particularly attractive in the case of Her X-1 because the total mass of the system is small; (4) The black hole picture for Cyg X-1 represents the simplest model that can presently be put forward to explain the observations. This does not insure its correctness, however. The picture depends on a long chain of inferences, some of which are by no means unassailable. (Auth.)

  2. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  3. Evolution of completion tools gravel pack systems for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Hightower, Chad; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Conventional gravel pack or frac pack completions typically require the use of wash pipe to act as a conduit for fluid returns as well as to carry a shifting mechanism to open or close a return port. Using properly sized wash pipe can enhance the placement of the gravel across the entire annular space and the formation. It can also be used in conjunction with a shifting mechanism and a sliding sleeve to force the fluid returns to pass through the bottom of the screen. It can allow a wash-down capability while running the assembly into an open hole. In specialty systems, it can even act as a pumping conduit for post-gravel pack stimulation. However, the use of wash pipe, especially in long horizontal wells, means the loss of valuable rig time due to make up and break out of the wash pipe, or recovery if the wash pipe is stuck. Economic considerations, along with completion efficiencies, are especially important on deep water completions. Not using wash pipe reduces rig time, generating significant cost savings, and also eliminates the risk of a fishing operation. This paper reviews conventional wash pipe applications and describes new systems that accomplish the same goal with a minimum amount of wash pipe or no wash pipe at all. (author)

  4. Evolution of the symbiotic binary system AG Dranconis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajewska, Joanna; Kenyon, Scott J; Mikolajewski, Maciej; Garcia, Michael R.; Polidan, Ronald S.

    1995-01-01

    We present an analysis of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic star AG Draconis. This binary has undergone several 1 - 3 mag optical and ultraviolet eruptions during the past 15 years. Our combination of optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data allow a more complete analysis of this system than in previous papers. AG Dra is composed of a K-type bright giant M(sub g) approximately 1.5 solar mass) and a hot, compact star M(sub h approximatelly 0.4 - 0.6 solar mass) embedded in a dense, low metallicity nebula. The hot component undergoes occasional thermonuclear runaways that produce 2 - 3 mag optical/ultraviolet eruptions. During these eruptions, the hot component develops a low velocity wind that quenches x-ray emission from the underlying hot white dwarf. The photoionized nebula changes its volume by a factor of 5 throughout an eruptin cycle. The K bright giant occults low ionization emission lines during superior conjunctions at all outburst phases but does not occult high ionization lines in outburst (and perhaps quiescence). This geometry and the component masses suggest a system inclination of i approximately 30 deg - 45 deg.

  5. Stardust in Laboratory & Evolution of Early Solar System f y S Sy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kkmarhas

    2008-09-13

    Sep 13, 2008 ... If a now-extinct nuclide was incorporated “live” into the first forming solids its fossil records can forming solids, its fossil records can be used to record the time of formation. 24Mg 25Mg 26Mg. 26Al 27Al. Presolar Grains &. Evolution of Early Solar System. Kuljeet K. Marhas. 13th September 2008. Physical ...

  6. Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The Short ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the short-lived nuclides, 26Al, ...

  7. The Evolution and Nature of School Accountability in the Singapore Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and examines the nature and evolution of school accountability in the Singapore Education System. In particular, the different facets of school accountability are examined through a theoretical framework comprising four relatively distinct concepts of accountability as performance reporting; as a technical process; as a…

  8. ANALYSIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF INSURANCE SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA - THE PAST FIVE YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURELIA PĂTRAȘCU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of insurance systems in Romania in the past five years. Unlike other European countries, it can be seen that Romania does not have a well-established insurance tradition. Insurance companies are constantly adapting to the realities of the financial situation and the market structure in Romania.

  9. Enabling System Evolution through Configuration Management on the Hardware/Software Boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikhaar, R.L.; Mosterman, W.; Veerman, N.P.; Verhoef, C.

    2009-01-01

    As the use of software and electronics in modern products is omnipresent and continuously increasing, companies in the embedded systems industry face increasing complexity in controlling and enabling the evolution of their IT-intensive products. Traditionally, product configurations and their

  10. Gradually Adaptive Frameworks: Reasonable Disagreement and the Evolution of Evaluative Systems in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "gradually adaptive frameworks" is introduced as a model with the potential to describe the evolution of belief evaluative systems through the consideration of reasonable arguments and evidence. This concept is demonstrated through an analysis of specific points of disagreement between David Elliott's praxial philosophy…

  11. Almost periodic evolution systems with impulse action at state-dependent moments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakl, Robert; Pinto, M.; Tkachenko, V.; Trofimchuk, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 446, č. 1 (2017), s. 1030-1045 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Wexler's almost periodic solution * evolution system * impulse action at variable times Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X16305273

  12. Evolution of Medication Administration Workflow in Implementing Electronic Health Record System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Han

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the clinical workflow evolutions when implementing the health information technology (HIT). The study especially emphasized on administrating medication when the electronic health record (EHR) systems were adopted at rural healthcare facilities. Mixed-mode research methods, such as survey, observation, and focus group, were…

  13. Planning Cultures and Histories: Influences on the Evolution of Planning Systems and Spatial Development Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stead, D.; de Vries, J.; Tasan-Kok, T.

    2015-01-01

    This special issue addresses the influences of planning cultures and histories on the evolution of planning systems and spatial development. As well as providing an international comparative perspective on these issues, the collection of articles also engages in a search for new conceptual

  14. Almost periodic evolution systems with impulse action at state-dependent moments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakl, Robert; Pinto, M.; Tkachenko, V.; Trofimchuk, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 446, č. 1 (2017), s. 1030-1045 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Wexler's almost periodic solution * evolution system * impulse action at variable times Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www. sciencedirect .com/science/article/pii/S0022247X16305273

  15. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  16. Evolution of invertebrate nervous systems: the Chaetognatha as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harzsch, S.; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2010-01-01

    Harzsch, S. and Wanninger, A. 2010. Evolution of invertebrate nervous systems: the Chaetognatha as a case study. —Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 35–43 Although recent molecular studies indicate that Chaetognatha may be one of the earliest Bilaterian offshoots, the phylogenetic position...

  17. Controls on evolution of gas-hydrate system in the Krishna-Godavari basin, offshore India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badesab, F.K.; Dewangan, P.; Usapkar, A.; Kocherla, M.; Peketi, A.; Mohite, K.; Sangode, S.J.; Deenadayalan, K.

    to constrain the evolution of gas hydrate system in marine environments.  2    1. Introduction Methane hydrate is the most common and natural form of gas hydrates, and is distributed worldwide along the oceanic and permafrost environments [Kvenvolden, 1993...

  18. Invariants and the evolution of nonstationary quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a detailed review of some new results in quantum mechanics and statistics obtained during the last decade and a half. The main point of principle on which the studies in the paper are based is the concept of time-dependent integrals of motion of a quantum system (in the Schroedinger picture). This concepts is significant for the problem of supersensitive measurements, e.g., for gravitational wave experiments.A new concept of correlated coherent states of a harmonic oscillator is introduced in connection with the generalized version of this relation. One paper is devoted mainly to a detailed investigation of this concept, as well as its contact with so-called squeezed states. The concepts of new classes of states of physical quantized fields (correlated light and sound) are also discussed

  19. Discussion on some problems in evolution of radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    2003-01-01

    In radiation protection practice in China, the appropriate simplification and better coordination for the existing radiation protection system are necessary. The human-based protective measures alone could not meet the requirements of the environmental protection in many circumstances. Protecting the environment from ionizing radiation would be implicated in radiation protection. Collective dose is an useful index, its applicable scope should be well defined. Using such an quantity can help increase radiation protection level, but applicable conditions should be defined, such as time and space. Natural radiation is the largest contributor of the radiation exposure to human. Occupational exposure from natural radiation should be controlled, such as to underground miners and air crew. Controlling both man-made and natural radiation exposure to pregnant women and children needs to be enhanced, especially radiological diagnosis and therapy

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  1. Evolution of the US Coast Guard's oil identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, M.S.; Reilly, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard, tasked with the development of open-quotes procedures and techniques to be employed in identifying ... oil and hazardous substances . . . open-quotes by the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), developed the Oil Identification System (OIS). The OIS was based on four analytical laboratory techniques: infrared (IR) and fluorescence (FL) spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), and thin- layer chromatography (TLC). A Central Oil Identification Laboratory (COIL) began operation in 1977, and field laboratories (FOILS) using two of the techniques (FL and TLC) were established in many Marine Safety Offices to screen possible sources. Development of the OIS was documented in two formal reports, in 1974 and 1977. The current implementation of the OIS at COIL is still based on a multimethod approach, but it incorporates today's state-of-the-art technology and responds to the current needs of the Coast Guard. One pervasive force for change has been the affordability of computers. The rapid development of computerized instruments has resulted in improvements in the performance, ruggedness, and prices of analytical laboratory equipment. All the instruments in the authors' laboratory at the present time are interfaced to or have internal computerized data-handling systems. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers (FTIR) have replaced older mechanically scanning, dispersive IR instruments. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has replaced TLC completely. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS), a room-size research tool in 1977, sits on a benchtop in the laboratory today, and a standard method for oil identification is being developed for this technique. Laboratory strategies are now based on finding the most efficient use of resources, as rapid response times are not necessary in all cases. It may also be possible in the near future to resume field testing

  2. SYSTEM-EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM AND MANAGEMENT OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna

    2012-12-01

    enterprises. Theoretical perception of the under-developed relationship between the government regulation of the economy and private self-regulation will contribute to the optimization of the economic mechanism functioning in the conditions of an economic crisis. Having specified different economic, social, political, and spiritual sub-systems, the author concentrates on identification of dialectical interactions between the economic and political sectors of the public life. The article does not only identify the relations between the business interests of the market players and the government administration activities; rather, it demonstrates how the state as the main element of the political sub-system may actively influence the economic activities. Having considered the essence of different models of regulation of economic phenomena, processes, activities and theories of A. Smith, J. Keynes and the concept of neo-conservatism, the author demonstrates the pattern of their influence produced on the present-day Russian economists. Some economists advocate the strengthening of the government regulation of the economy to be implemented by means of a systematic approach; others support self-regulation of enterprises. Having analyzed the above theoretical points through the example of the construction industry as a fund-generating and social-oriented branch, the author substantiates the idea that in the present-day economic environment of Russia, Keynes' and neoconservative models should not be neglected. On the contrary, they are to be dialectically conjoined as a combination of the government regulation of the economy and self-regulation of enterprises. At the end of the article, the author provides actions to improve the self-regulation of enterprises with regard to the construction industry as well as other branches of economy.

  3. The Effects of Stellar Dynamics on the Evolution of Young, Dense Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkus, H.; van Bever, J.; Vanbeveren, D.

    In this paper, we report on first results of a project in Brussels in which we study the effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems using 3 decades of expertise in massive-star evolution and our population (number and spectral) synthesis code. We highlight an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) for Wolf Rayet binaries and study the effects of a luminous blue variable-type instability wind mass-loss formalism on the formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  4. Evolution of the cellular communication system: An analysis in the Computational Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1995-03-01

    We discuss the problem of the evolution of the cellular communication system from the RNA world to progenote to the modern cell. Our method analyses syntactical structure of molecular fossils in the non-coding regions of DNA within the information-processing gene model developed earlier. We concluded that sequence-specific binding is an ancient communication process with its origin in the RNA world. Moreover, we illustrate our viewpoint using four evolution snapshots from the first RNA segments, some 4.1. billion years ago, to the first cell, 3.8 billion years ago. (author). 31 refs

  5. Molecular evolution of peptidergic signaling systems in bilaterians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabeau, Olivier; Joly, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Peptide hormones and their receptors are widespread in metazoans, but the knowledge we have of their evolutionary relationships remains unclear. Recently, accumulating genome sequences from many different species have offered the opportunity to reassess the relationships between protostomian and deuterostomian peptidergic systems (PSs). Here we used sequences of all human rhodopsin and secretin-type G protein-coupled receptors as bait to retrieve potential homologs in the genomes of 15 bilaterian species, including nonchordate deuterostomian and lophotrochozoan species. Our phylogenetic analysis of these receptors revealed 29 well-supported subtrees containing mixed sets of protostomian and deuterostomian sequences. This indicated that many vertebrate and arthropod PSs that were previously thought to be phyla specific are in fact of bilaterian origin. By screening sequence databases for potential peptides, we then reconstructed entire bilaterian peptide families and showed that protostomian and deuterostomian peptides that are ligands of orthologous receptors displayed some similarity at the level of their primary sequence, suggesting an ancient coevolution between peptide and receptor genes. In addition to shedding light on the function of human G protein-coupled receptor PSs, this work presents orthology markers to study ancestral neuron types that were probably present in the last common bilaterian ancestor. PMID:23671109

  6. Discussion on several problems in evolution of radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziqiang, P.

    2004-01-01

    As viewed from the standpoint of radiation protection practice, it is necessary that the current system of radiological protection should be made more simple and coherent. The human-based protective measures alone are far from having met the requirements of environmental protection in many circumstances. Protecting the environment from ionising radiation would be implicated in radiation protection. Collective dose is an useful indicator, of which applicable extent should be defined. Using such an quantity could help improve radiation protection level, but applicable conditions should be indicated, temporal or spatial. Natural radiation is the largest contributor to the radiation exposure of human. Occupational exposure from natural radiation should be controlled, for occupations such as underground miners and air crew. Controlling both man-made and natural radiation exposure of pregnant women and children needs to be enhanced, especially radiological diagnosis and treatment. China radiation protection community, as a whole, is paying considerable attention to the ICRP's new Recommendations. Prof. Clarke's article 'A Report on Progress towards New Recommendations', a communication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, has been translated into Chinese and published on Radiation Protection, the Official Journal of China Radiation Protection Society with a view of intensifying awareness of the new Recommendations within more radiation protection workers and people concerned. In addition, a special meeting was convened in early 2002 to address the comments on the new Recommendations. (author)

  7. Evolution of agricultural water use in India: a systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, T.; Basu, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater plays an important role in improving the resilience of agriculture practices by mitigating the risk associated with unreliable and seasonal rainfalls. This has been an important driver in satisfying the food demand for an ever increasing population across the world. However, the inability to manage this large but limited freshwater reserve has resulted in a sharp decline in water table levels, with India being at the forefront of this problem. This study looks at the temporal trajectory of groundwater extraction in India over a 40 year time span during which well irrigation has evolved to become a central component of agriculture there. Using a systems approach, we identify the regional hot-spots of unsustainable groundwater extraction and then analyze its relationship with the environmental, economic and social components of the region. Early results indicate that the state of Punjab has been overexploiting its groundwater resources since the early 1980's with a 22% jump in groundwater extraction after the introduction of a free electricity policy, with a concomitant reduction in the number of marginal farmers by 36%. This is in contrast with the state of Tamil Nadu, in which groundwater extraction is less severe, but the number of marginal farmers has increased.

  8. Evolution of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Pozo Astigarraga, M E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS is a Physics experiment that explores high-energy particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It uses tens of millions of electronics channels to capture the outcome of the particle bunches crossing each other every 25 ns. Since reading out and storing the complete information is not feasible (~100 TB/s), ATLAS makes use of a complex and highly distributed Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system, in charge of selecting only interesting data and transporting those to permanent mass storage (~1 GB/s) for later analysis. The data reduction is carried out in two stages: first, custom electronics performs an initial level of data rejection for each bunch crossing based on partial and localized information. Only data corresponding to collisions passing this stage of selection will be actually read-out from the on-detector electronics. Then, a large computer farm (~17 k cores) analyses these data in real-time and decides which ones are worth being stored for Physics analysis. A large network a...

  9. Evolution of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Pozo Astigarraga, M E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS is a Physics experiment that explores high-energy particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It uses tens of millions of electronics channels to capture the outcome of the particle bunches crossing each other every 25 ns. Since reading out and storing the complete information is not feasible (~100 TB/s), ATLAS makes use of a complex and highly distributed Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system, in charge of selecting only interesting data and transporting those to permanent mass storage (~1 GB/s) for later analysis. The data reduction is carried out in two stages: first, custom electronics performs an initial level of data rejection for each bunch crossing based on partial and localized information. Only data corresponding to collisions passing this stage of selection will be actually read-out from the on-detector electronics. Then, a large computer farm (~17 k cores) analyses these data in real-time and decides which ones are worth being stored for Physics analysis. A large network a...

  10. Maintaining a system subject to uncertain technological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.P.K.; Castanier, Bruno; Yeung, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance decisions can be directly affected by the introduction of a new asset on the market, especially when the new asset technology could increase the expected profit. However new technology has a high degree of uncertainty that must be considered such as, e.g., its appearance time on the market, the expected revenue and the purchase cost. In this way, maintenance optimization can be seen as an investment problem where the repair decision is an option for postponing a replacement decision in order to wait for a potential new asset. Technology investment decisions are usually based primarily on strategic parameters such as current probability and expected future benefits while maintenance decisions are based on “functional” parameters such as deterioration levels of the current system and associated maintenance costs. In this paper, we formulate a new combined mathematical optimization framework for taking into account both maintenance and replacement decisions when the new asset is subject to technological improvement. The decision problem is modelled as a non-stationary Markov decision process. Structural properties of the optimal policy and forecast horizon length are then derived in order to guarantee decision optimality and robustness over the infinite horizon. Finally, the performance of our model is highlighted through numerical examples

  11. Computer system evolution requirements for autonomous checkout of exploration vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tom; Sklar, Mike

    1991-01-01

    This study, now in its third year, has had the overall objective and challenge of determining the needed hooks and scars in the initial Space Station Freedom (SSF) system to assure that on-orbit assembly and refurbishment of lunar and Mars spacecraft can be accomplished with the maximum use of automation. In this study automation is all encompassing and includes physical tasks such as parts mating, tool operation, and human visual inspection, as well as non-physical tasks such as monitoring and diagnosis, planning and scheduling, and autonomous visual inspection. Potential tasks for automation include both extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) events. A number of specific techniques and tools have been developed to determine the ideal tasks to be automated, and the resulting timelines, changes in labor requirements and resources required. The Mars/Phobos exploratory mission developed in FY89, and the Lunar Assembly/Refurbishment mission developed in FY90 and depicted in the 90 Day Study as Option 5, have been analyzed in detailed in recent years. The complete methodology and results are presented in FY89 and FY90 final reports.

  12. The TWA 3 Young Triple System: Orbits, Disks, Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Kendra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Prato, L.; Avilez, I.; Wasserman, L. H.; Levine, S. E.; Bosh, A. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Ruíz-Rodríguez, D. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Guenther, E. W. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Neuhäuser, R. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, FSU Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird; Hinz, Phil; Males, Jared R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa, E-mail: kkellogg@uwo.ca, E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    We have characterized the spectroscopic orbit of the TWA 3A binary and provide preliminary families of probable solutions for the TWA 3A visual orbit, as well as for the wide TWA 3A–B orbit. TWA 3 is a hierarchical triple located at 34 pc in the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya association. The wide component separation is 1.″55; the close pair was first identified as a possible binary almost 20 years ago. We initially identified the 35-day period orbital solution using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy that angularly resolved the A and B components. We then refined the preliminary orbit by combining the infrared data with a reanalysis of our high-resolution optical spectroscopy. The orbital period from the combined spectroscopic solution is ∼35 days, the eccentricity is ∼0.63, and the mass ratio is ∼0.84; although this high mass ratio would suggest that optical spectroscopy alone should be sufficient to identify the orbital solution, the presence of the tertiary B component likely introduced confusion in the blended optical spectra. Using millimeter imaging from the literature, we also estimate the inclinations of the stellar orbital planes with respect to the TWA 3A circumbinary disk inclination and find that all three planes are likely misaligned by at least ∼30°. The TWA 3A spectroscopic binary components have spectral types of M4.0 and M4.5; TWA 3B is an M3. We speculate that the system formed as a triple, is bound, and that its properties were shaped by dynamical interactions between the inclined orbits and disk.

  13. Sexually transmitted disease and the evolution of mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Ranta, Esa; Ruxton, Graeme; Lundberg, Per

    2002-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been shown to increase the costs of multiple mating and therefore favor relatively monogamous mating strategies. We examine another way in which STDs can influence mating systems in species in which female choice is important. Because more popular males are more likely to become infected, STDs can counteract any selective pressure that generates strong mating skews. We build two models to investigate female mate choice when the sexual behavior of females determines the prevalence of infection in the population. The first model has no explicit social structure. The second model considers the spatial distribution of matings under social monogamy, when females mated to unattractive males seek extrapair fertilizations from attractive males. In both cases, the STD has the potential to drastically reduce the mating skew. However, this reduction does not always happen. If the per contact transmission probability is low, the disease dies out and is of no consequence. In contrast, if the transmission probability is very high, males are likely to be infected regardless of their attractiveness, and mating with the most attractive males imposes again no extra cost for the female. We also show that optimal female responses to the risk of STDs can buffer the prevalence of infection to remain constant, or even decrease, with increasing per contact transmission probabilities. In all cases considered, the feedback between mate choice strategies and STD prevalence creates frequency-dependent fitness benefits for the two alternative female phenotypes considered (choosy vs. randomly mating females or faithful vs. unfaithful females). This maintains mixed evolutionarily stable strategies or polymorphisms in female behavior. In this way, a sexually transmitted disease can stabilize the populationwide proportion of females that mate with the most attractive males or that seek extrapair copulations.

  14. Visual system evolution and the nature of the ancestral snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, B F; Sampaio, F L; Jared, C; Antoniazzi, M M; Loew, E R; Bowmaker, J K; Rodriguez, A; Hart, N S; Hunt, D M; Partridge, J C; Gower, D J

    2015-07-01

    The dominant hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of snakes from 'lizards' (non-snake squamates) is that stem snakes acquired many snake features while passing through a profound burrowing (fossorial) phase. To investigate this, we examined the visual pigments and their encoding opsin genes in a range of squamate reptiles, focusing on fossorial lizards and snakes. We sequenced opsin transcripts isolated from retinal cDNA and used microspectrophotometry to measure directly the spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor visual pigments in a subset of samples. In snakes, but not lizards, dedicated fossoriality (as in Scolecophidia and the alethinophidian Anilius scytale) corresponds with loss of all visual opsins other than RH1 (λmax 490-497 nm); all other snakes (including less dedicated burrowers) also have functional sws1 and lws opsin genes. In contrast, the retinas of all lizards sampled, even highly fossorial amphisbaenians with reduced eyes, express functional lws, sws1, sws2 and rh1 genes, and most also express rh2 (i.e. they express all five of the visual opsin genes present in the ancestral vertebrate). Our evidence of visual pigment complements suggests that the visual system of stem snakes was partly reduced, with two (RH2 and SWS2) of the ancestral vertebrate visual pigments being eliminated, but that this did not extend to the extreme additional loss of SWS1 and LWS that subsequently occurred (probably independently) in highly fossorial extant scolecophidians and A. scytale. We therefore consider it unlikely that the ancestral snake was as fossorial as extant scolecophidians, whether or not the latter are para- or monophyletic. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Flash signal evolution in Photinus fireflies: character displacement and signal exploitation in a visual communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lloyd, James E

    2015-03-01

    Animal communication is an intriguing topic in evolutionary biology. In this comprehensive study of visual signal evolution, we used a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of the flash communication system of North American fireflies. The North American firefly genus Photinus contains 35 described species with simple ON-OFF visual signals, and information on habitat types, sympatric congeners, and predators. This makes them an ideal study system to test hypotheses on the evolution of male and female visual signal traits. Our analysis of 34 Photinus species suggests two temporal pattern generators: one for flash duration and one for flash intervals. Reproductive character displacement was a main factor for signal divergence in male flash duration among sympatric Photinus species. Male flash pattern intervals (i.e., the duration of the dark periods between signals) were positively correlated with the number of sympatric Photuris fireflies, which include predators of Photinus. Females of different Photinus species differ in their response preferences to male traits. As in other communication systems, firefly male sexual signals seem to be a compromise between optimizing mating success (sexual selection) and minimizing predation risk (natural selection). An integrative model for Photinus signal evolution is proposed. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. The origin and evolution of the surfactant system in fish: insights into the evolution of lungs and swim bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher B; Orgeig, Sandra; Sullivan, Lucy C; Ling, Nicholas; Bennett, Michael B; Schürch, Samuel; Val, Adalberto Luis; Brauner, Colin J

    2004-01-01

    Several times throughout their radiation fish have evolved either lungs or swim bladders as gas-holding structures. Lungs and swim bladders have different ontogenetic origins and can be used either for buoyancy or as an accessory respiratory organ. Therefore, the presence of air-filled bladders or lungs in different groups of fishes is an example of convergent evolution. We propose that air breathing could not occur without the presence of a surfactant system and suggest that this system may have originated in epithelial cells lining the pharynx. Here we present new data on the surfactant system in swim bladders of three teleost fish (the air-breathing pirarucu Arapaima gigas and tarpon Megalops cyprinoides and the non-air-breathing New Zealand snapper Pagrus auratus). We determined the presence of surfactant using biochemical, biophysical, and morphological analyses and determined homology using immunohistochemical analysis of the surfactant proteins (SPs). We relate the presence and structure of the surfactant system to those previously described in the swim bladders of another teleost, the goldfish, and those of the air-breathing organs of the other members of the Osteichthyes, the more primitive air-breathing Actinopterygii and the Sarcopterygii. Snapper and tarpon swim bladders are lined with squamous and cuboidal epithelial cells, respectively, containing membrane-bound lamellar bodies. Phosphatidylcholine dominates the phospholipid (PL) profile of lavage material from all fish analyzed to date. The presence of the characteristic surfactant lipids in pirarucu and tarpon, lamellar bodies in tarpon and snapper, SP-B in tarpon and pirarucu lavage, and SPs (A, B, and D) in swim bladder tissue of the tarpon provide strong evidence that the surfactant system of teleosts is homologous with that of other fish and of tetrapods. This study is the first demonstration of the presence of SP-D in the air-breathing organs of nonmammalian species and SP-B in actinopterygian

  17. The operational performance of the ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system and its possible evolution

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation will give an overview of the operational performance of the DAQ system during 2011 and the first months of data taking in 2012. It will describe how the flexibility inherent in the design of the system has be exploited to meet the changing needs of ATLAS data taking and in some cases push performance beyond the original design performance specification. The experience accumulated in the ATLAS DAQ/HLT system operation during these years stimulated also interest to explore possible evolutions, despite the success of the current design. One attractive direction is to merge three systems - the se...

  18. Internal quality evolution of a large test system – an industrial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Attila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our empirical observations related to the evolution of a large automated test system. The system observed is used in the industry as a test tool for complex telecommunication systems, itself consisting of more than one million lines of source code. This study evaluates how different changes during the development have changed the number of observed Code Smells in the test system. We have monitored the development of the test scripts and measured the code quality characteristics over a five years period.

  19. Simulation models for the evolution of cloud systems. I. Introduction and preliminary simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, W.A.; Scalo, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of systems of interactings gas clouds is investigated, with application to protogalaxies in galaxy clusters, proto--globular clusters in galacies, and protostellar fragments in interstellar clouds. The evolution of these systems can be parameterized in terms of three dimensionless quantities: the number of clouds, the volume filling factor of clouds, and the fraction of the mass of the system in clouds. We discuss the range of parameter space in which direct cloud collisions, tidal encounters, interactions of clouds with ambient gas, cloud collapse, cloud orbital motion due to the gravitational acceleration of the rest of the system, and cumulative long-range gravitational scatterings are important. All of these processes except for long-range gravitational scattering and probably tidal encounters are competitive for the systems of interest. The evolution of the mass spectrum and velocity distribution of clouds in self-gravitating clouds should be dominated by direct collisions for high-mass clouds and by drag, accretion, or ablation for small-mass clouds. We tentatively identify the critical mass at which the collision time scale equals the collapse time scale with the low-mass turnovers observed in the mass spectrum of stars in open clusters, and predict that rich galaxy clusters should exhibit variations in the faint end of the luminosity function if these clusters form by fragmentation. If collisions perturb the attempted collapse of clouds, the low-mass ''stars'' should form before high-mass stars

  20. Diversity, evolution, and therapeutic applications of small RNAs in prokaryotic and eukaryotic immune systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Overstreet, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Recent evidence supports that prokaryotes exhibit adaptive immunity in the form of CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats) and Cas (CRISPR associated proteins). The CRISPR-Cas system confers resistance to exogenous genetic elements such as phages and plasmids by allowing for the recognition and silencing of these genetic elements. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas serves as a memory of past exposures. This suggests that the evolution of the immune system has counterparts among the prokaryotes, not exclusively among eukaryotes. Mathematical models have been proposed which simulate the evolutionary patterns of CRISPR, however large gaps in our understanding of CRISPR-Cas function and evolution still exist. The CRISPR-Cas system is analogous to small RNAs involved in resistance mechanisms throughout the tree of life, and a deeper understanding of the evolution of small RNA pathways is necessary before the relationship between these convergent systems is to be determined. Presented in this review are novel RNAi therapies based on CRISPR-Cas analogs and the potential for future therapies based on CRISPR-Cas system components.

  1. CLECOS_P: clinical evolution control system on Parkinsonian patients undergoing neural transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F; Molina, H; Cruz, N; Valladares, P; Muñoz, J; Ortega, I; Torres, O; Leon, M

    1995-01-01

    The CLECOS_P system was conceived for registering and automating the processing of clinical evaluations performed on patients with Parkinson's disease who undergo functional neurosurgery and/or neural transplant. CLECOS_P represents the first time a computerized system is able to offer--with high precision and considerable time-savings--an integral analysis of the evolutive behavior of the universe in integrated variables at the core assessment program for intracerebral transplantations (CAPIT). CAPIT is used internationally for the evaluation and follow-up of patients with this pathology who have undergone neural transplant. We used the so-called MEDSAC methodology for the preparation of this system. The methodology that was used for the design of an intelligent system aimed at medical decision-making was based on the quantitative analysis of the clinical evolution. At the present moment, there are 20 patients controlled by this system: 11 bilaterally transplanted, 9 unilaterally (registered in ranks of 3 months before operation up to 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after operation). The application of CLECOS_P to these patients permitted the evaluation of 400 clinical variables, where a better evolutive characterization of the patients was obtained, thus getting most favorable results with personalized therapeutic methods aimed at raising their quality of life. CLECOS_P is used in a multi-user environment on a local area network running Novell Netware version 3.11.

  2. Metabolic networks of Sodalis glossinidius: a systems biology approach to reductive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Eugeni; Silva, Francisco J; Peretó, Juli; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Genome reduction is a common evolutionary process affecting bacterial lineages that establish symbiotic or pathogenic associations with eukaryotic hosts. Such associations yield highly reduced genomes with greatly streamlined metabolic abilities shaped by the type of ecological association with the host. Sodalis glossinidius, the secondary endosymbiont of tsetse flies, represents one of the few complete genomes available of a bacterium at the initial stages of this process. In the present study, genome reduction is studied from a systems biology perspective through the reconstruction and functional analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks of S. glossinidius. The functional profile of ancestral and extant metabolic networks sheds light on the evolutionary events underlying transition to a host-dependent lifestyle. Meanwhile, reductive evolution simulations on the extant metabolic network can predict possible future evolution of S. glossinidius in the context of genome reduction. Finally, knockout simulations in different metabolic systems reveal a gradual decrease in network robustness to different mutational events for bacterial endosymbionts at different stages of the symbiotic association. Stoichiometric analysis reveals few gene inactivation events whose effects on the functionality of S. glossinidius metabolic systems are drastic enough to account for the ecological transition from a free-living to host-dependent lifestyle. The decrease in network robustness across different metabolic systems may be associated with the progressive integration in the more stable environment provided by the insect host. Finally, reductive evolution simulations reveal the strong influence that external conditions exert on the evolvability of metabolic systems.

  3. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. A new galactic chemical evolution model with dust: results for dwarf irregular galaxies and DLA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, L.; Matteucci, F.; Vladilo, G.; Calura, F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a galactic chemical evolution model which adopts updated prescriptions for all the main processes governing the dust cycle. We follow in detail the evolution of the abundances of several chemical species (C, O, S, Si, Fe and Zn) in the gas and dust of a typical dwarf irregular galaxy. The dwarf irregular galaxy is assumed to evolve with a low but continuous level of star formation and experience galactic winds triggered by supernova (SN) explosions. We predict the evolution of the gas to dust ratio in such a galaxy and discuss critically the main processes involving dust, such as dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II SNe, destruction and accretion (gas condensation in clouds). We then apply our model to damped Lyman α (DLA) systems which are believed to be dwarf irregulars, as witnessed by their abundance patterns. Our main conclusions are the following. (I) We can reproduce the observed gas to dust ratio in dwarf galaxies. (II) We find that the process of dust accretion plays a fundamental role in the evolution of dust and in certain cases it becomes the dominant process in the dust cycle. On the other hand, dust destruction seems to be a negligible process in irregulars. (III) Concerning DLA systems, we show that the observed gas-phase abundances of silicon, normalized to volatile elements (zinc and sulfur), are in agreement with our model. (IV) The abundances of iron and silicon in DLA systems suggest that the two elements undergo a different history of dust formation and evolution. Our work casts light on the nature of iron-rich dust: the observed depletion pattern of iron is well reproduced only when an additional source of iron dust is considered. Here we explore the possibility of a contribution from Type Ia SNe as well as an efficient accretion of iron nanoparticles.

  5. The Effect of Strict Segregation on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mansfeld, Rosa; de Vrankrijker, Angelica; Brimicombe, Roland; Heijerman, Harry; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Spitoni, Cristian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304625957; Grave, Sanne; van der Ent, Cornelis; Wolfs, Tom; Willems, Rob; Bonten, Marc

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Segregation of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented to prevent chronic infection with epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with presumed detrimental clinical effects, but its effectiveness has not been carefully evaluated. METHODS: The effect of strict segregation on

  6. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  7. Evolution of the axial system in craniates: morphology and function of the perivertebral musculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Nadja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The axial musculoskeletal system represents the plesiomorphic locomotor engine of the vertebrate body, playing a central role in locomotion. In craniates, the evolution of the postcranial skeleton is characterized by two major transformations. First, the axial skeleton became increasingly functionally and morphologically regionalized. Second, the axial-based locomotion plesiomorphic for craniates became progressively appendage-based with the evolution of extremities in tetrapods. These changes, together with the transition to land, caused increased complexity in the planes in which axial movements occur and moments act on the body and were accompanied by profound changes in axial muscle function. To increase our understanding of the evolutionary transformations of the structure and function of the perivertebral musculature, this review integrates recent anatomical and physiological data (e.g., muscle fiber types, activation patterns with gross-anatomical and kinematic findings for pivotal craniate taxa. This information is mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis to infer the putative character set of the last common ancestor of the respective taxa and to conjecture patterns of locomotor and muscular evolution. The increasing anatomical and functional complexity in the muscular arrangement during craniate evolution is associated with changes in fiber angulation and fiber-type distribution, i.e., increasing obliqueness in fiber orientation and segregation of fatigue-resistant fibers in deeper muscle regions. The loss of superficial fatigue-resistant fibers may be related to the profound gross anatomical reorganization of the axial musculature during the tetrapod evolution. The plesiomorphic function of the axial musculature -mobilization- is retained in all craniates. Along with the evolution of limbs and the subsequent transition to land, axial muscles additionally function to globally stabilize the trunk against inertial and extrinsic

  8. Static configurations and evolution of higher dimensional brane-dilaton black hole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakonieczna, Anna [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Nakonieczny, Łukasz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Moderski, Rafał [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences,ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Static configurations and a dynamical evolution of the system composed of a higher-dimensional spherically symmetric dilaton black hole and the Dirac-Goto-Nambu brane were investigated. The studies were conducted for three values of the dilaton coupling constant, describing the uncoupled case, the low-energy limit of the string theory and dimensionally reduced Klein-Kaluza theories. When the black hole is nonextremal, two types of static configurations are observed, a brane which intersects the black hole horizon and a brane not having any common points with the accompanying black hole. As the number of spacetime dimensions increases, the brane bend in the vicinity of the black hole disappears closer to its horizon. Dynamical evolution of the system results in an expulsion of the black hole from the brane. It proceeds faster for bigger values of the bulk spacetime dimension and thicker branes. The value of the dilatonic coupling constant does not influence neither the static configurations nor the dynamical behavior of the examined nonextremal system. In the extremal dilaton black hole case one obtains expulsion of the brane which is independent on the spacetime dimensionality and the value of the coupling constant. Dynamical studies of the configurations in the extremal case reveal that the course of evolution of the system is similar to the nonextremal one, except for a slightly earlier expulsion of the black hole from the brane.

  9. LES NOTES DU LIRHE " Marx, Schumpeter and Georgescu-Roegen : Three conceptions of the evolution of economic systems? "

    OpenAIRE

    Alcouffe, Alain; Ferrari, Sylvie; Hanusch, Horst

    2004-01-01

    working paper; The aim of this paper is to discuss three approaches of the evolution of economic systems. If Marx, Schumpeter and Georgescu-Roegen together criticised the mechanistic character of economic theory to learn about evolution, each proposed a particular analysis : Marx makes class struggle the driving force of evolution while Schumpeter’s concern is the factor endogenous to the economic sphere, and the one of Georgescu-Roegen is the relationship between economic activity and the na...

  10. Plant use in the medicinal practices known as "strict diets" in Chazuta valley (Peruvian Amazon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Biset, Jaume; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2011-09-01

    Strict diets are traditional medicinal practices where plant remedies are consumed with nearly fasting and with some sort of social seclusion. The aim of this work was to describe these practices of Chazuta and the use of plants within, as well as to analyse the possible functions of the last. The information was obtained through interviews to the 6.3% of the district rural adult population (140 individuals, 75% of which was considered Quechua). In total, 122 strict diets were recorded and 106 different plant species were reported to be used. Strict diets present a characteristic structure and plant use. The main effects reported in strict diets were antinflammatory, antiinfective, brain function alteration and depuration. Strict diets are well structured traditional medicinal practices, also with a symbolic significance in the life cycle of chazutian men. Plants used in strict diets can contribute to the main effects through antinflammation, antiinfective actions, psychoactivity and depurative related activities. The correlation between literature evidence of activity of most used plants and effects reported for the correspondent diet (i.e. in which the plant was used) are 36% for antinflammatory activity, 29% for antimicrobial activity, 18% for psychoactivity and 5% for depurative related activities. The percentages go to 77%, 64%, 73% and 32%, respectively, when literature evidences on related taxa are also considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju-Xia; Zhang Xiao-Juan; Zhang Xiu-Xing

    2015-01-01

    The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. (paper)

  12. From dust to life the origin and evolution of our solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, John

    2014-01-01

    The birth and evolution of our solar system is a tantalizing mystery that may one day provide answers to the question of human origins. This book tells the remarkable story of how the celestial objects that make up the solar system arose from common beginnings billions of years ago, and how scientists and philosophers have sought to unravel this mystery down through the centuries, piecing together the clues that enabled them to deduce the solar system's layout, its age, and the most likely way it formed. Drawing on the history of astronomy and the latest findings in astrophysics and the pla

  13. Identification of fractional-order systems via a switching differential evolution subject to noise perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wu; Fang, Jian-an; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Yulong

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, a differential evolution variant, called switching DE (SDE), has been employed to estimate the orders and parameters in incommensurate fractional-order chaotic systems. The proposed algorithm includes a switching population utilization strategy, where the population size is adjusted dynamically based on the solution-searching status. Thus, this adaptive control method realizes the identification of fractional-order Lorenz, Lü and Chen systems in both deterministic and stochastic environments, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided, where comparisons are made with five other State-of-the-Art evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. -- Highlights: ► Switching population utilization strategy is applied for differential evolution. ► The parameters are estimated in both deterministic and stochastic environments. ► Comparisons with five other EAs verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Coherence evolution in two-qubit system going through amplitude damping channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, MingJing; Ma, Teng; Ma, YuQuan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the evolution of quantum coherence in a two-qubit system going through the amplitude damping channel. After they have gone through this channel many times, we analyze the systems with respect to the coherence of their output states. When only one subsystem goes through the channel, frozen coherence occurs if and only if this subsystem is incoherent and an auxiliary condition is satisfied for the other subsystem. When two subsystems go through this quantum channel, quantum coherence can be frozen if and only if the two subsystems are both incoherent. We also investigate the evolution of coherence for maximally incoherent-coherent states and derive an equation for the output states after one or two subsystems have gone through the amplitude damping channel.

  15. A system for studying evolution of life-like virtual organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova Natalya N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fitness landscapes, the dependences of fitness on the genotype, are of critical importance for the evolution of living beings. Unfortunately, fitness landscapes that are relevant to the evolution of complex biological functions are very poorly known. As a result, the existing theory of evolution is mostly based on postulated fitness landscapes, which diminishes its usefulness. Attempts to deduce fitness landscapes from models of actual biological processes led, so far, to only limited success. Results We present a model system for studying the evolution of biological function, which makes it possible to attribute fitness to genotypes in a natural way. The system mimics a very simple cell and takes into account the basic properties of gene regulation and enzyme kinetics. A virtual cell contains only two small molecules, an organic nutrient A and an energy carrier X, and proteins of five types – two transcription factors, two enzymes, and a membrane transporter. The metabolism of the cell consists of importing A from the environment and utilizing it in order to produce X and an unspecified end product. The genome may carry an arbitrary number of genes, each one encoding a protein of one of the five types. Both major mutations that affect whole genes and minor mutations that affect individual characteristics of genes are possible. Fitness is determined by the ability of the cell to maintain homeostasis when its environment changes. The system has been implemented as a computer program, and several numerical experiments have been performed on it. Evolution of the virtual cells usually involves a rapid initial increase of fitness, which eventually slows down, until a fitness plateau is reached. The origin of a wide variety of genetic networks is routinely observed in independent experiments performed under the same conditions. These networks can have different, including very high, levels of complexity and often include large

  16. Dissipative Time Evolution of Observables in Non-equilibrium Statistical Quantum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nachbagauer, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    We discuss differential-- versus integral--equation based methods describing out--of thermal equilibrium systems and emphasize the importance of a well defined reduction to statistical observables. Applying the projection operator approach, we investigate on the time evolution of expectation values of linear and quadratic polynomials in position and momentum for a statistical anharmonic oscillator with quartic potential. Based on the exact integro-differential equations of motion, we study th...

  17. Next steps in the evolution of GridICE: a monitoring tool for grid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreozzi, S; Fattibene, E; Misurelli, G; Aiftimiei, C; Pra, S D; Fantinel, S; Cuscela, G; Donvito, G; Dudhalkar, V; Maggi, G; Pierro, A

    2008-01-01

    GridICE is a monitoring tool for Grid systems that support the operations and management activities of different types of users: site administrators, VO managers, Grid operators and end-users. The tool is designed to deal with the dynamics, diversity and geographical distribution of the observed resources. It is continuously evolved driven by user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the evolution strategy in order to solicit for a community feedback

  18. Jet Riemann-Lagrange Geometry Applied to Evolution DEs Systems from Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Neagu, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct a natural Riemann-Lagrange differential geometry on 1-jet spaces, in the sense of nonlinear connections, generalized Cartan connections, d-torsions, d-curvatures, jet electromagnetic fields and jet Yang-Mills energies, starting from some given non-linear evolution DEs systems modelling economic phenomena, like the Kaldor model of the bussines cycle or the Tobin-Benhabib-Miyao model regarding the role of money on economic growth.

  19. Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yu; Lou, Shang Ling; Liao, Wen Bo; Jehle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary\\ud force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of\\ud mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67\\ud species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes mass as an\\ud indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology\\ud ...

  20. Milk—A Nutrient System of Mammalian Evolution Promoting mTORC1-Dependent Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Bodo C. Melnik

    2015-01-01

    Based on own translational research of the biochemical and hormonal effects of cow’s milk consumption in humans, this review presents milk as a signaling system of mammalian evolution that activates the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the pivotal regulator of translation. Milk, a mammary gland-derived secretory product, is required for species-specific gene-nutrient interactions that promote appropriate growth and development of the newborn mammal...

  1. Evolution of Signaling in a Multi-Robot System: Categorization and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzis, Christos; Tuci, Elio; Trianni, Vito; Dorigo, Marco

    We use Evolutionary Robotics to design robot controllers in which decision-making mechanisms to switch from solitary to social behavior are integrated with the mechanisms that underpin the sensory-motor repertoire of the robots. In particular, we study the evolution of behavioral and communicative skills in a categorization task. The individual decision-making structures are based on the integration over time of sensory information. The mechanisms for switching from solitary to social behavior and the ways in which the robots can affect each other's behavior are not predetermined by the experimenter, but are aspects of our model designed by artificial evolution. Our results show that evolved robots manage to cooperate and collectively discriminate between different environments by developing a simple communication protocol based on sound signaling. Communication emerges in the absence of explicit selective pressure coded in the fitness function. The evolution of communication is neither trivial nor obvious; for a meaningful signaling system to evolve, evolution must produce both appropriate signals and appropriate reactions to signals. The use of communication proves to be adaptive for the group, even if, in principle, non-cooperating robots can be equally successful with cooperating robots.

  2. Benefits of a Recombination-Proficient Escherichia coli System for Adaptive Laboratory Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, George; Winkler, James; Fountain, Weston; Castro, David A.; Leiva-Aravena, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adaptive laboratory evolution typically involves the propagation of organisms asexually to select for mutants with the desired phenotypes. However, asexual evolution is prone to competition among beneficial mutations (clonal interference) and the accumulation of hitchhiking and neutral mutations. The benefits of horizontal gene transfer toward overcoming these known disadvantages of asexual evolution were characterized in a strain of Escherichia coli engineered for superior sexual recombination (genderless). Specifically, we experimentally validated the capacity of the genderless strain to reduce the mutational load and recombine beneficial mutations. We also confirmed that inclusion of multiple origins of transfer influences both the frequency of genetic exchange throughout the chromosome and the linkage of donor DNA. We built a simple kinetic model to estimate recombination frequency as a function of transfer size and relative genotype enrichment in batch transfers; the model output correlated well with the experimental data. Our results provide strong support for the advantages of utilizing the genderless strain over its asexual counterpart during adaptive laboratory evolution for generating beneficial mutants with reduced mutational load. IMPORTANCE Over 80 years ago Fisher and Muller began a debate on the origins of sexual recombination. Although many aspects of sexual recombination have been examined at length, experimental evidence behind the behaviors of recombination in many systems and the means to harness it remain elusive. In this study, we sought to experimentally validate some advantages of recombination in typically asexual Escherichia coli and determine if a sexual strain of E. coli can become an effective tool for strain development. PMID:27613685

  3. Constraints imposed by pollinator behaviour on the ecology and evolution of plant mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, C; Lepers, C; Porcher, E

    2014-07-01

    Most flowering plants rely on pollinators for their reproduction. Plant-pollinator interactions, although mutualistic, involve an inherent conflict of interest between both partners and may constrain plant mating systems at multiple levels: the immediate ecological plant selfing rates, their distribution in and contribution to pollination networks, and their evolution. Here, we review experimental evidence that pollinator behaviour influences plant selfing rates in pairs of interacting species, and that plants can modify pollinator behaviour through plastic and evolutionary changes in floral traits. We also examine how theoretical studies include pollinators, implicitly or explicitly, to investigate the role of their foraging behaviour in plant mating system evolution. In doing so, we call for more evolutionary models combining ecological and genetic factors, and additional experimental data, particularly to describe pollinator foraging behaviour. Finally, we show that recent developments in ecological network theory help clarify the impact of community-level interactions on plant selfing rates and their evolution and suggest new research avenues to expand the study of mating systems of animal-pollinated plant species to the level of the plant-pollinator networks. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of the time evolution of living multicellular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Artur; Neagu, Adrian; Sofonea, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic tissues and multicellular aggregates of adult cells mimic the behavior of highly viscous liquids. The liquid analogy helps to understand morphogenetic phenomena, such as cell sorting and tissue fusion, observed in developmental biology and tissue engineering. Tissue fusion is vital in tissue printing, an emergent technique based on computer-controlled deposition of tissue fragments and biocompatible materials. Computer simulations proved useful in predicting post-printing shape changes of tissue constructs. The simulation methods available to date, however, are unable to describe the time evolution of living systems made of millions of cells. The Lattice Boltzmann (LB) approach allows the implementation of interaction forces between the constituents of the system and yields time evolution in terms of distribution functions. With tissue engineering applications in mind, we have developed a finite difference Lattice Boltzmann model of a multicellular system and applied it to simulate the sidewise fusion of two contiguous cylinders made of cohesive cells and embedded in a medium (hydrogel). We have identified a biologically relevant range of model parameters. The proposed LB model may be extended to describe the time evolution of more complex multicellular structures such as sheets or tubes produced by tissue printing. © 2011 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  5. Towards evolution-guided microbial engineering - tools development and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper

    microbial vitamin uptake systems, ii)directed protein evolution to elucidate sequence-function relationships ofbacterial small molecule transport systems, and iii) perform sequencephenotypicanalysis of combinatorially engineered metabolic pathwaysresulting in significant productivity improvements......-performing microorganisms.However, an insufficient understanding of biological complexity currentlyrenders strict forward engineering approaches inadequate. Our success forthe development of useful biological systems is therefore largelydetermined by our abilities to generate microbial diversity and evaluate itsphenotypic...... of an early-stagethiamine cell factory. Additionally, this thesis presents two advancedgenetic engineering methods that enable rapid combinatorial engineering ofboth plasmid and chromosomal DNA.Overall, the results of this thesis illustrate the benefits of advancing theconstruction and screening toolbox...

  6. Strictly hyperbolic models of co-current three-phase flow withgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanes, Ruben; Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    2002-11-18

    We study the character of the equations in the traditional formulation of one-dimensional immiscible three-phase flow with gravity, in the limit of negligible capillarity. We restrict our analysis to co-current flow required for a displacement process; in cases of mixed co-current and counter-current flow, capillarity effects cannot be dropped from the formulation. The model makes use of the classical multiphase extension of Darcy's equation. It is well known that, if relative permeabilities are taken as fixed functions of saturations, the model yields regions in the saturation space where the system of equations is locally elliptic. We regard elliptic behavior as a nonphysical artifact of an incomplete formulation, and derive conditions on the relative permeabilities that ensure strict hyperbolicity of the governing equations. The key point is to acknowledge that a Darcy-type formulation is insufficient to capture all the physics of three-phase flow and that, consequently, the relative permeabilities are functionals that depend on the fluid viscosity ratio and the gravity number. The derived conditions are consistent with the type of displacements that take place in porous media. By means of an illustrative example, we show how elliptic behavior can be removed, even when using simplistic relative permeability models.

  7. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  8. The Evolution of Fangs, Venom, and Mimicry Systems in Blenny Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Visser, Jeroen C; Baumann, Kate; Dobson, James; Han, Han; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Morgan, Michael; Romilio, Anthony; Weisbecker, Vera; Mardon, Karine; Ali, Syed A; Debono, Jordan; Koludarov, Ivan; Que, Ivo; Bird, Gregory C; Cooke, Gavan M; Nouwens, Amanda; Hodgson, Wayne C; Wagstaff, Simon C; Cheney, Karen L; Vetter, Irina; van der Weerd, Louise; Richardson, Michael K; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-04-24

    Venom systems have evolved on multiple occasions across the animal kingdom, and they can act as key adaptations to protect animals from predators [1]. Consequently, venomous animals serve as models for a rich source of mimicry types, as non-venomous species benefit from reductions in predation risk by mimicking the coloration, body shape, and/or movement of toxic counterparts [2-5]. The frequent evolution of such deceitful imitations provides notable examples of phenotypic convergence and are often invoked as classic exemplars of evolution by natural selection. Here, we investigate the evolution of fangs, venom, and mimetic relationships in reef fishes from the tribe Nemophini (fangblennies). Comparative morphological analyses reveal that enlarged canine teeth (fangs) originated at the base of the Nemophini radiation and have enabled a micropredatory feeding strategy in non-venomous Plagiotremus spp. Subsequently, the evolution of deep anterior grooves and their coupling to venom secretory tissue provide Meiacanthus spp. with toxic venom that they effectively employ for defense. We find that fangblenny venom contains a number of toxic components that have been independently recruited into other animal venoms, some of which cause toxicity via interactions with opioid receptors, and result in a multifunctional biochemical phenotype that exerts potent hypotensive effects. The evolution of fangblenny venom has seemingly led to phenotypic convergence via the formation of a diverse array of mimetic relationships that provide protective (Batesian mimicry) and predatory (aggressive mimicry) benefits to other fishes [2, 6]. Our results further our understanding of how novel morphological and biochemical adaptations stimulate ecological interactions in the natural world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of Flux Mapping System (FMS) from 540 MWe to 700 MWe Indian PHWR: design perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavani, Manojkumar; Kelkar, M.G.; Singhvi, P.K.; Roy, S.; Ingle, V.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Flux Mapping System (FMS) of 700 MWe PHWR computes a detailed flux/power distribution of the reactor core using modal synthesis method and is also generate setback on different parameters by monitoring thermal neutron flux at more than 100 points inside the reactor core. These types of setbacks are introduced first time in Indian PHWRs. The paper brings out the Evolution of Flux Mapping System (FMS) from 540 MWe to 700 MWe and the overall design philosophy. The paper emphasizes on comparisons between 540 MWe and 700 MWe design, considerations for architectural design and setbacks for 700 MWe. (author)

  10. Studying energy evolution in the discharge chamber of a multichamber lightning protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, M. E.; Budin, A. V.; Kumkova, I. I.; Chusov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental data on the distribution of energy deposition along the discharge chamber of a multichamber lightning protection system at the initial stage of a discharge process modeling a lightning current pulse with 10 kA amplitude. The multichamber system comprised serially connected gas-discharge chambers. The breakdown between electrodes situated on the bottom of a channel in each chamber induces the formation of a shock wave. Subsequent energy evolution during the development of discharge proceeds in the entire volume bounded by the shock wave.

  11. The evolution of nervous system patterning: insights from sea urchin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, Lynne M.; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Angerer, Robert C.; Burke, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of the sea urchin embryo have elucidated the mechanisms that localize and pattern its nervous system. These studies have revealed the presence of two overlapping regions of neurogenic potential at the beginning of embryogenesis, each of which becomes progressively restricted by separate, yet linked, signals, including Wnt and subsequently Nodal and BMP. These signals act to specify and localize the embryonic neural fields – the anterior neuroectoderm and the more posterior ciliary band neuroectoderm – during development. Here, we review these conserved nervous system patterning signals and consider how the relationships between them might have changed during deuterostome evolution. PMID:21828090

  12. Tempo and mode of mating system evolution between incipient Clarkia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, James B; Moeller, David A

    2012-04-01

    Mating systems are among the most labile characteristics of flowering plants, with transitions frequently occurring among populations or in association with speciation. The frequency of mating system shifts has made it difficult to reconstruct historical evolutionary dynamics unless transitions have been very recent. Here, we examine molecular and phenotypic variation to determine the polarity, timescale, and causes of a transition between outcrossing and self-fertilization in sister subspecies of Clarkia xantiana. Phylogenetic analyses and coalescent-based estimates of the time to most recent common ancestor indicated that outcrossing is ancestral to selfing and that there has been a single origin of selfing. Estimates of divergence time between outcrossing and selfing subspecies were 10,000 (95% CI [credible interval]: 3169-66,889) and 65,000 years ago (95% CI: 33,035-151,448) based on two different methods, suggesting a recent and rapid evolutionary transition. Population genetic data indicated that the transition to selfing was associated with a 80% reduction in molecular diversity, which is much greater than the 50% reduction expected under a shift from obligate outcrossing to obligate self-fertilization alone. Our data also suggest that this severe loss of diversity was caused by colonization bottlenecks. Together with previous studies, evidence for reproductive assurance in C. xantiana now connects variation in plant-pollinator interactions in the field to phenotypic and molecular evolution. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Freek J.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Henkel, Christiaan V.; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Jansen, Hans J.; McCleary, Ryan J. R.; Kerkkamp, Harald M. E.; Vos, Rutger A.; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E.; Logan, Jessica M.; Harrison, Robert A.; Castoe, Todd A.; de Koning, A. P. Jason; Pollock, David D.; Yandell, Mark; Calderon, Diego; Renjifo, Camila; Currier, Rachel B.; Salgado, David; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Hyder, Asad S.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Arntzen, Jan W.; van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.; Boetzer, Marten; Pirovano, Walter; Dirks, Ron P.; Spaink, Herman P.; Duboule, Denis; McGlinn, Edwina; Kini, R. Manjunatha; Richardson, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from other vertebrates. In contrast to the platypus, the only other venomous vertebrate with a sequenced genome, we find that snake toxin genes evolve through several distinct co-option mechanisms and exhibit surprisingly variable levels of gene duplication and directional selection that correlate with their functional importance in prey capture. The enigmatic accessory venom gland shows a very different pattern of toxin gene expression from the main venom gland and seems to have recruited toxin-like lectin genes repeatedly for new nontoxic functions. In addition, tissue-specific microRNA analyses suggested the co-option of core genetic regulatory components of the venom secretory system from a pancreatic origin. Although the king cobra is limbless, we recovered coding sequences for all Hox genes involved in amniote limb development, with the exception of Hoxd12. Our results provide a unique view of the origin and evolution of snake venom and reveal multiple genome-level adaptive responses to natural selection in this complex biological weapon system. More generally, they provide insight into mechanisms of protein evolution under strong selection. PMID:24297900

  14. Dissipative time evolution of observables in non-equilibrium statistical quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, H.

    1999-03-01

    We discuss differential versus integral equation based methods describing out of thermal equilibrium systems and emphasize the importance of a well defined reduction to statistical observables. Applying the projection operator approach, we investigate on the time evolution of expectation values of linear and quadratic polynomials in position and momentum for a statistical anharmonic oscillator with quartic potential. Based on the exact integro-differential equations of motion, we study the first and naive second order approximation which breaks down at secular time-scales. A method is proposed to improve the expansion by a non perturbative resummation of all quadratic operator correlators consistent with energy conservation for all times. Motion cannot be described by an effective Hamiltonian local in time reflecting non-unitarity of the dissipative entropy generating evolution. We numerically integrate the consistently improved equations of motion for large times. We relate entropy to the uncertainty product, both being expressible in terms of the observables under consideration.

  15. Modeling the evolution of complex genetic systems: the gene network family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierst, Janna L; Phillips, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    In 1994 and 1996, Andreas Wagner introduced a novel model in two papers addressing the evolution of genetic regulatory networks. This work, and a suite of papers that followed using similar models, helped integrate network thinking into biology and motivate research focused on the evolution of genetic networks. The Wagner network has its mathematical roots in the Ising model, a statistical physics model describing the activity of atoms on a lattice, and in neural networks. These models have given rise to two branches of applications, one in physics and biology and one in artificial intelligence and machine learning. Here, we review development along these branches, outline similarities and differences between biological models of genetic regulatory circuits and neural circuits models used in machine learning, and identify ways in which these models can provide novel insights into biological systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evolution of an Early Illness Warning System to Monitor Frail Elders in Independent Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of an early illness warning system used by an interdisciplinary team composed of clinicians and engineers in an independent living facility. The early illness warning system consists of algorithms which analyze resident activity patterns obtained from sensors embedded in residents' apartments. The engineers designed an automated reasoning system to generate clinically relevant alerts which are sent to clinicians when significant changes occur in the sensor data, for example declining activity levels. During January 2010 through July 2010, clinicians and engineers conducted weekly iterative review cycles of the early illness warning system to discuss concerns about the functionality of the warning system, to recommend solutions for the concerns, and to evaluate the implementation of the solutions. A total of 45 concerns were reviewed during this period. Iterative reviews resulted in greater efficiencies and satisfaction for clinician users who were monitoring elder activity patterns.

  17. Time-dependent permeability evolution in compacting volcanic fracture systems and implications for gas overpressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Jamie I.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Heap, Michael J.; Baud, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    Volcanic eruptions are driven by the ascent of volatile-laden magma. The capacity of a volcano system to outgas these volatiles-its permeability-controls the explosive potential, and fractures at volcanic conduit margins play a crucial role in tempering eruption explosivity by acting as outgassing pathways. However, these fractures are often filled with hot volcanic debris that welds and compacts over time, meaning that these permeable pathways have a finite lifetime. While numerous studies emphasize that permeability evolution is important for regulating pressure in shallow volcanic systems, how and when this occurs remains an outstanding question in volcanology. In this contribution, we show that different pressure evolution regimes can be expected across a range of silicic systems as a function of the width and distribution of fractures in the system, the timescales over which they can outgas (a function of depth and temperature), and the permeability of the host material. We define outgassing, diffusive relaxation, and pressure increase regimes, which are distinguished by comparing the characteristic timescales over which they operate. Moreover, we define a critical permeability threshold, which determines (in concert with characteristic timescales of diffusive mass exchange between the pore and melt phases) whether systems fracture and outgas efficiently, or if a volcano will be prone to pressure increases, incomplete healing, and explosive failure.

  18. The Evolution of Confusion: soft systems methodology and social theory revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Houghton

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Soft Systems Methodology (SSM is a potentially powerful tool for improving the management of the complex social systems aspect of Information Systems. Yet if it is to be employed effectively IS managers need to understand the theory of social systems that makes SSM a meaningful practical approach. However finding out about that social theory is not straightforward. It is 20 years since the first discussions of the social reality implied by Soft Systems Methodology (SSM and the area has been given little attention since. Yet SSM itself has progressed dramatically since those first critiques of its underpinning social theory were first developed. This paper revisits the area in order to provide a contemporary perspective and foundation for future development. It reveals apparent weaknesses in the research debate about SSM and social theory, and shows how the evolution of SSM has apparently been affected by that debate. SSM is introduced and examined according to the primary literature and re-evaluated using Burrell and Morgan's four-paradigm matrix of social theory paradigms in order to understand the social reality implied by SSM. The paper examines criticisms of SSM, the recent evolution of SSM, and suggests future directions for development.

  19. Issue evolution and partisan polarization in a European multiparty system: Elite and mass repositioning in Denmark 1968–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Issue evolution is a well-established theoretical perspective in the analysis of long-term party competition and partisanship in the US. However, this perspective has rarely been used to analyze political elite effects on partisan polarization in European multiparty systems. Consequently, I apply...... the issue evolution perspective to polarization in a European multiparty system. I find an emergence of cultural issues in Denmark, where mass level polarization on cultural issues followed elite level polarization. Unlike two-party systems, niche parties drive issue evolution on the elite level, which...... is then followed by niche partisan polarization and, finally, mainstream party adaption. The findings illustrate the mechanisms of issue evolution in a European-style multiparty system and the role of niche parties....

  20. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, maximum entropy production and Earth-system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-01-13

    The present-day atmosphere is in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This uniqueness is for instance reflected in the high concentration of molecular oxygen and the low relative humidity in the atmosphere. Given that the concentration of atmospheric oxygen has likely increased throughout Earth-system history, we can ask whether this trend can be generalized to a trend of Earth-system evolution that is directed away from thermodynamic equilibrium, why we would expect such a trend to take place and what it would imply for Earth-system evolution as a whole. The justification for such a trend could be found in the proposed general principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), which states that non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems maintain steady states at which entropy production is maximized. Here, I justify and demonstrate this application of MEP to the Earth at the planetary scale. I first describe the non-equilibrium thermodynamic nature of Earth-system processes and distinguish processes that drive the system's state away from equilibrium from those that are directed towards equilibrium. I formulate the interactions among these processes from a thermodynamic perspective and then connect them to a holistic view of the planetary thermodynamic state of the Earth system. In conclusion, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and MEP have the potential to provide a simple and holistic theory of Earth-system functioning. This theory can be used to derive overall evolutionary trends of the Earth's past, identify the role that life plays in driving thermodynamic states far from equilibrium, identify habitability in other planetary environments and evaluate human impacts on Earth-system functioning. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  1. Cambrian to Devonian evolution of alluvial systems: The sedimentological impact of the earliest land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Neil S.; Gibling, Martin R.

    2010-02-01

    In present-day alluvial environments, the impact of vegetation on sedimentological processes and deposits is well known. A vegetated catchment may decrease sediment yield, sediment erodibility, Hortonian overland flow, aeolian winnowing of fines, the proportion of sediment transported as bedload, and may increase bank stability, infiltration into substrates, and bed roughness. Vegetation also promotes the production of chemically-weathered clays and soils and the adoption of a meandering style. It is generally understood that, prior to the evolution of terrestrial vegetation during the Early Palaeozoic, ancient alluvial systems were markedly different from modern systems, with many systems adopting a "sheet-braided" style. This understanding has previously informed the interpretations of many Precambrian pre-vegetation alluvial successions, but there has been relatively little work regarding Early Palaeozoic alluvial successions laid down prior to and during the initial colonization of the Earth's surface by plants. A comprehensive review of 144 Cambrian to Devonian alluvial successions documented in published literature was combined with original field data from 34 alluvial successions across Europe and North America. The study was designed to identify changes in alluvial style during the period that vegetation was evolving and first colonizing alluvial environments. An increase in mudrock proportion and sandstone maturity is apparent, along with a decrease in overall sand grain size through the Early Palaeozoic. These trends suggest that primitive vegetation cover promoted the production and preservation of muds from the mid Ordovician onwards and increased the residence time of sand-grade sediment in alluvial systems. The compilation also enables the first stratigraphic occurrence of certain vegetation-dependent sedimentary features to be pinpointed and related to the evolution of specific palaeobotanical adaptations. The first markedly heterolithic alluvial

  2. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  3. Insects as test systems for assessing the potential role of microgravity in biological development and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernós, I.; Carratalá, M.; González-Jurado, J.; Valverde, J. R.; Calleja, M.; Domingo, A.; Vinós, J.; Cervera, M.; Marco, R.

    Gravity and radiation are undoubtedly the two major environmental factors altered in space. Gravity is a weak force, which creates a permanent potential field acting on the mass of biological systems and their cellular components, strongly reduced in space flights. Developmental systems, particularly at very early stages, provide the larger cellular compartments known, where the effects of alterations in the size of the gravity vector on living organisms can be more effectively tested. The insects, one of the more highly evolved classes of animals in which early development occurs in a syncytial embryo, are systems particularly well suited to test these effects and the specific developmental mechanisms affected. Furthermore, they share some basic features such as small size, short life cycles, relatively high radio-resistance, etc. and show a diversity of developmental strategies and tempos advantageous in experiments of this type in space. Drosophila melanogaster, the current biological paradigm to study development, with so much genetic and evolutionary background available, is clearly the reference organism for these studies. The current evidence on the effects of the physical parameters altered in space flights on insect development indicate a surprising correlation between effects seen on the fast developing and relatively small Drosophila embryo and the more slowly developing and large Carausius morosus system. In relation to the issue of the importance of developmental and environmental constraints in biological evolution, still the missing link in current evolutionary thinking, insects and space facilities for long-term experiments could provide useful experimental settings where to critically assess how development and evolution may be interconnected. Finally, it has to be pointed out that since there are experimental data indicating a possible synergism between microgravity and space radiation, possible effects of space radiation should be taken into

  4. A Maple Package on Symbolic Computation of Conserved Densities for (1+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xudong; Ruan Hangyu; Lou Senyue

    2007-01-01

    A new algorithm for symbolic computation of polynomial-type conserved densities for nonlinear evolution systems is presented. The algorithm is implemented in Maple. The improved algorithm is more efficient not only in removing the redundant terms of the general form of the conserved densities but also in solving the conserved densities with the associated flux synchronously without using Euler operator. Furthermore, the program conslaw.mpl can be used to determine the preferences for a given parameterized nonlinear evolution systems. The code is tested on several well-known nonlinear evolution equations from the soliton theory.

  5. Survival and Evolution of CRISPR–Cas System in Prokaryotes and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad Abu Bakr; Hao, Haihong; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Hussain, Hafiz Iftikhar; Iqbal, Zahid; Ahmed, Saeed; Sattar, Adeel; Iqbal, Mujahid; Li, Jun; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotes have developed numerous innate immune mechanisms in order to fend off bacteriophage or plasmid attack. One of these immune systems is clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). CRISPR-associated proteins play a key role in survival of prokaryotes against invaders, as these systems cleave DNA of foreign genetic elements. Beyond providing immunity, these systems have significant impact in altering the bacterial physiology in term of its virulence and pathogenicity, as well as evolution. Also, due to their diverse nature of functionality, cas9 endoribonuclease can be easily reprogrammed with the help of guide RNAs, showing unprecedented potential and significance for gene editing in treating genetic diseases. Here, we also discuss the use of NgAgo–gDNA system in genome editing of human cells. PMID:27725818

  6. SURVIVAL AND EVOLUTION OF CRISPR-CAS SYSTEM IN PROKARYOTES AND ITS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes have developed numerous innate immune mechanisms in order to fend off bacteriophage or plasmid attack. One of these immune systems is Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR. CRISPR associated proteins play a key role in survival of prokaryotes against invaders, as these systems cleave DNA of foreign genetic elements. Beyond providing immunity, these systems have significant impact in altering the bacterial physiology in term of its virulence and pathogenicity, as well as evolution. Also, due to their diverse nature of functionality, cas9 endoribonuclease can be easily reprogrammed with the help of guide RNAs, showing unprecedented potential and significance for gene editing in treating genetic diseases. Here, we also discuss the use of NgAgo-gDNA system in genome editing of human cells.

  7. The evolution of the Trigger and Data Acquisition System in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment, aimed at recording the results of LHC proton-proton collisions, is upgrading its Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system during the current LHC first long shutdown. The purpose of the upgrade is to add robustness and flexibility to the selection and the conveyance of the physics data, simplify the maintenance of the infrastructure, exploit new technologies and, overall, make ATLAS data-taking capable of dealing with increasing event rates. The TDAQ system used to date is organised in a three-level selection scheme, including a hardware-based first-level trigger and second- and third-level triggers implemented as separate software systems distributed on separate, commodity hardware nodes. While this architecture was successfully operated well beyond the original design goals, the accumulated experience stimulated interest to explore possible evolutions. We will also be upgrading the hardware of the TDAQ system by introducing new elements to it. For the high-level trigger, the current p...

  8. Long-Period Planets in Open Clusters and the Evolution of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Samuel N.; White, Russel; Latham, David W.; Stefanik, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Recent discoveries of giant planets in open clusters confirm that they do form and migrate in relatively dense stellar groups, though overall occurrence rates are not yet well constrained because the small sample of giant planets discovered thus far predominantly have short periods. Moreover, planet formation rates and the architectures of planetary systems in clusters may vary significantly -- e.g., due to intercluster differences in the chemical properties that regulate the growth of planetary embryos or in the stellar space density and binary populations, which can influence the dynamical evolution of planetary systems. Constraints on the population of long-period Jovian planets -- those representing the reservoir from which many hot Jupiters likely form, and which are most vulnerable to intracluster dynamical interactions -- can help quantify how the birth environment affects formation and evolution, particularly through comparison of populations possessing a range of ages and chemical and dynamical properties. From our ongoing RV survey of open clusters, we present the discovery of several long-period planets and candidate substellar companions in the Praesepe, Coma Berenices, and Hyades open clusters. From these discoveries, we improve estimates of giant planet occurrence rates in clusters, and we note that high eccentricities in several of these systems support the prediction that the birth environment helps shape planetary system architectures.

  9. EARLY DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM: PINNING DOWN THE INITIAL CONDITIONS OF THE NICE MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, the 'Nice' model of solar system formation has attained an unprecedented level of success in reproducing much of the observed orbital architecture of the solar system by evolving the planets to their current locations from a more compact configuration. Within the context of this model, the formation of the classical Kuiper Belt requires a phase during which the ice giants have a high eccentricity. An outstanding question of this model is the initial configuration from which the solar system started out. Recent work has shown that multi-resonant initial conditions can serve as good candidates, as they naturally prevent vigorous type-II migration. In this paper, we use analytical arguments, as well as self-consistent numerical N-body simulations to identify fully resonant initial conditions, whose dynamical evolution is characterized by an eccentric phase of the ice giants, as well as planetary scattering. We find a total of eight such initial conditions. Four of these primordial states are compatible with the canonical 'Nice' model, while the others imply slightly different evolutions. The results presented here should prove useful in further development of a comprehensive model for solar system formation.

  10. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  11. Interactions between Vegetation and Land Surface Evolution in Arid and Semiarid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saco, P. M.; Willgoose, G.; Hancock, G.

    2004-12-01

    Ecological, hydrological and geomorphological processes are tightly coupled and the understanding of their complex interactions represents a research challenge that is at the heart of the emerging fields of ecohydrology and ecogeomorphology. The coupling between ecology and hydrology is particularly strong in drylands, in which water limited conditions are the main constraint for vegetation growth and survival. Arid and semiarid ecosystems comprise about 30% of the Earth's surface. Various forms of environmental perturbations like climate change and anthropogenic activities can lead to desertification or degradation of these ecosystems. The vegetation of water-limited ecosystems is commonly patterned, that is, arranged in a two phase mosaic composed of patches with high biomass cover interspersed within a low-cover or bare soil component. These patterns play an important role in controlling erosion. Human impacts or climate change may alter these systems, disrupting vegetation and triggering erosion. The resulting geomorphic changes are likely to have feedbacks including runaway desertification. Models that couple erosion and vegetation evolution can be used as a tool to understand the dynamics of arid and semi arid systems and the impact of climate change and human disturbance. However, the few existing models that explore the interactions between vegetation and sediment movement do not account for the feedbacks between ecohydrologic and geomorphic processes as is the objective of our research. A new modeling framework that couples the SIBERIA landform evolution model with a dynamic vegetation model for water limited ecosystems will be presented. The model explicitly accounts for the dynamics of runon-runoff areas that controls the evolution of the spatial distribution of vegetation in water limited ecosystems. The model reproduces the dynamics of banded vegetation patterns (tiger bush) characteristic of areas with mild slopes as well as more complex two

  12. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  13. Placement of the stemless humeral component in the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Ghislain F; van Riet, Roger P; Jansen, Nick; Declercq, Geert

    2010-12-01

    Humeral implant design in shoulder arthroplasty has evolved over the years. The third generation shoulder prostheses have an anatomic humeral stem that replicates the 3-dimensional parameters of the proximal humerus. The overall complication rate has decreased as a result of these changes in implant design. In contrast, the rate of periprosthetic humeral fractures has increased. To avoid stem-related complications while retaining the advantages of the third generation of shoulder implants, the stemless total evolutive shoulder system has been developed. The indications, the surgical technique, and the complications of this humeral implant in shoulder arthroplasty will be described.

  14. AMMA's contribution to the evolution of prediction and decision-making systems for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcher, Jan; Parker, Doug; Gaye, Amadou

    2010-05-01

    The AMMA project (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) has now been running for 5 years. The project set out to better understand the geophysical processes in the atmosphere, in the oceans and on land surfaces which govern the evolution of the monsoon. At the same time we studied the control exerted by weather and climate on agronomic production, water resources and public health and the potential for populations to adapt. The objective is to provide the underpinning science needed to improve prediction and decision-support systems in West Africa. AMMA has been a joint effort of the West African and international research communities. This presentation will provide an overview of the achievements of the project over the last 5 years. The observation strategy will be presented and in particular the effort undertaken by AMMA to demonstrate the value of improved observing networks. The new and unique data sets collected have allowed us to gain new knowledge in areas as diverse as the atmospheric processes governing the evolution of the monsoon, the contrasting behaviors of catchments in the Guinean and Sahelian zones and the perception farmers have of the constraint climate imposes on their livelihood. The talk will show how this new knowledge has allowed the project to demonstrate the progress which can be made in prediction and decision-making system. The presentation will conclude with an analysis of the difficulties which need to be overcome in order to implement operationally enhanced observing networks and forecasting systems for the benefit of West African societies.

  15. Breeding system evolution influenced the geographic expansion and diversification of the core Corvoidea (Aves: Passeriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marki, Petter Z; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Jønsson, Knud A; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon; Kennedy, Jonathan D

    2015-07-01

    Birds vary greatly in their life-history strategies, including their breeding systems, which range from brood parasitism to a system with multiple nonbreeding helpers at the nest. By far the most common arrangement, however, is where both parents participate in raising the young. The traits associated with parental care have been suggested to affect dispersal propensity and lineage diversification, but to date tests of this potential relationship at broad temporal and spatial scales have been limited. Here, using data from a globally distributed group of corvoid birds in concordance with state-dependent speciation and extinction models, we suggest that pair breeding is associated with elevated speciation rates. Estimates of transition between breeding systems imply that cooperative lineages frequently evolve biparental care, whereas pair breeders rarely become cooperative. We further highlight that these groups have differences in their spatial distributions, with pair breeders overrepresented on islands, and cooperative breeders mainly found on continents. Finally, we find that speciation rates appear to be significantly higher on islands compared to continents. These results imply that the transition from cooperative breeding to pair breeding was likely a significant contributing factor facilitating dispersal across tropical archipelagos, and subsequent world-wide phylogenetic expansion among the core Corvoidea. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. The Johnson Space Center Experimental Impact Lab: Contributions Toward Understanding the Evolution of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, T. H.; Montes, R.

    2012-01-01

    Impact is the most common and only weathering phenomenon affecting all the planetary bodies (e.g., planets, satellites, asteroids, comets, etc.) in the solar system. NASA Johnson Space Center s Experimental Impact Laboratory (EIL) includes three accelerators that are used in support of research into the effects of impact on the formation and evolution of the solar system. They permit researchers to study a wide variety of phenomena associated with high-velocity impacts into a wide range of geologic targets and materials relevant to astrobiological studies. By studying these processes, researchers can investigate the histories and evolution of planetary bodies and the solar system as a whole. While the majority of research conducted in the EIL addresses questions involving planetary impacts, work involving spacecraft components has been performed on occasion. An example of this is the aerogel collector material flown on the Stardust spacecraft that traveled to Comet Wild-2. This capture medium was tested and flight qualified using the 5 mm Light-Gas Gun located in the EIL.

  17. Exploiting Expert Knowledge of Protein-Protein Interactions in a Computational Evolution System for Detecting Epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattin, Kristine A.; Payne, Joshua L.; Hill, Douglas P.; Caldwell, Thomas; Fisher, Jonathan M.; Moore, Jason H.

    The etiology of common human disease often involves a complex genetic architecture, where numerous points of genetic variation interact to influence disease susceptibility. Automating the detection of such epistatic genetic risk factors poses a major computational challenge, as the number of possible gene-gene interactions increases combinatorially with the number of sequence variations. Previously, we addressed this challenge with the development of a computational evolution system (CES) that incorporates greater biological realism than traditional artificial evolution methods. Our results demonstrated that CES is capable of efficiently navigating these large and rugged epistatic landscapes toward the discovery of biologically meaningful genetic models of disease predisposition. Further, we have shown that the efficacy of CES is improved dramatically when the system is provided with statistical expert knowledge. We anticipate that biological expert knowledge, such as genetic regulatory or protein-protein interaction maps, will provide complementary information, and further improve the ability of CES to model the genetic architectures of common human disease. The goal of this study is to test this hypothesis, utilizing publicly available protein-protein interaction information. We show that by incorporating this source of expert knowledge, the system is able to identify functional interactions that represent more concise models of disease susceptibility with improved accuracy. Our ability to incorporate biological knowledge into learning algorithms is an essential step toward the routine use of methods such as CES for identifying genetic risk factors for common human diseases.

  18. The Influence of Wiring Economy on Nervous System Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Irving E; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2016-10-24

    The activity and maintenance of neurons requires substantial metabolic energy, resulting in selective pressure to decrease resource consumption by the nervous system. The wiring economy principle proposes that animals have evolved mechanisms that wire circuits efficiently by minimizing neurite length. Computational modeling of neuronal morphology, microcircuit organization, and neural networks reveals that wiring economy is a significant determinant of nervous system layout. The strategies for reducing wiring costs are shared across phyla and point to the possibility of generalizable rules that specify the development of efficient nervous systems. As the developmental mechanisms underpinning wiring economy are only now being elucidated, whether the molecular basis of this phenomenon is the result of conserved genetic programs or convergent evolution remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomimicry, Biofabrication, and Biohybrid Systems: The Emergence and Evolution of Biological Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Ritu; Bashir, Rashid

    2017-10-01

    The discipline of biological design has a relatively short history, but has undergone very rapid expansion and development over that time. This Progress Report outlines the evolution of this field from biomimicry to biofabrication to biohybrid systems' design, showcasing how each subfield incorporates bioinspired dynamic adaptation into engineered systems. Ethical implications of biological design are discussed, with an emphasis on establishing responsible practices for engineering non-natural or hypernatural functional behaviors in biohybrid systems. This report concludes with recommendations for implementing biological design into educational curricula, ensuring effective and responsible practices for the next generation of engineers and scientists. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A predator-2 prey fast-slow dynamical system for rapid predator evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltz, Sofia Helena; Veerman, Frits; Maini, Philip K.

    2017-01-01

    extremes at which the predator's diet is composed solely of one prey correspond to two branches of the three-branch critical manifold of the fast slow system. By calculating the points at which there is a fast transition between these two feeding choices (i.e., branches of the critical manifold), we prove......We consider adaptive change of diet of a predator population that switches its feeding between two prey populations. We develop a novel 1 fast-3 slow dynamical system to describe the dynamics of the three populations amidst continuous but rapid evolution of the predator's diet choice. The two...... that the system has a two-parameter family of periodic orbits for sufficiently large separation of the time scales between the evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Using numerical simulations, we show that these periodic orbits exist, and that their phase difference and oscillation patterns persist, when...

  1. The urban transition and the evolution of the medical care delivery system in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, P L; Bohland, J; Shumsky, N L

    1983-01-01

    This essay traces the evolution of the American urban medical care delivery system and examines the implications in terms of social and spatial variations in accessibility to medical care. It is suggested that the foundations of the present medical care delivery system were laid during the urban transformation which took place in the latter part of the nineteenth century, when changes in the division of labor, specialization, the role of the family, urban transportation technology and attitudes to social protectionism interacted with changes in science, medical technology and professional organization to produce radical changes in both the settings used to provide medical care and their relative accessibility to different sub-groups of the population. The medical care delivery system is thus interpreted largely as a product of the overall dynamic of urbanization rather than of scientific discovery, medical technology and the influence of key medical practitioners and professional organizations.

  2. CRISPR-Cas: evolution of an RNA-based adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Makarova, Kira S

    2013-05-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, CRISPR-associated genes) is an adaptive immunity system in bacteria and archaea that functions via a distinct self-non-self recognition mechanism that is partially analogous to the mechanism of eukaryotic RNA interference (RNAi). The CRISPR-Cas system incorporates fragments of virus or plasmid DNA into the CRISPR repeat cassettes and employs the processed transcripts of these spacers as guide RNAs to cleave the cognate foreign DNA or RNA. The Cas proteins, however, are not homologous to the proteins involved in RNAi and comprise numerous, highly diverged families. The majority of the Cas proteins contain diverse variants of the RNA recognition motif (RRM), a widespread RNA-binding domain. Despite the fast evolution that is typical of the cas genes, the presence of diverse versions of the RRM in most Cas proteins provides for a simple scenario for the evolution of the three distinct types of CRISPR-cas systems. In addition to several proteins that are directly implicated in the immune response, the cas genes encode a variety of proteins that are homologous to prokaryotic toxins that typically possess nuclease activity. The predicted toxins associated with CRISPR-Cas systems include the essential Cas2 protein, proteins of COG1517 that, in addition to a ligand-binding domain and a helix-turn-helix domain, typically contain different nuclease domains and several other predicted nucleases. The tight association of the CRISPR-Cas immunity systems with predicted toxins that, upon activation, would induce dormancy or cell death suggests that adaptive immunity and dormancy/suicide response are functionally coupled. Such coupling could manifest in the persistence state being induced and potentially providing conditions for more effective action of the immune system or in cell death being triggered when immunity fails.

  3. Protein secretion systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: an essay on diversity, evolution and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain eFILLOUX

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein secretion systems are molecular nanomachines used by Gram-negative bacteria to thrive within their environment. They are used to release enzymes that hydrolyze complex carbon sources into usable compounds, or to release proteins that capture essential ions such as iron. They are also used to colonize and survive within eukaryotic hosts, causing acute or chronic infections, subverting the host cell response and escaping the immune system. In this article, the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is used as a model to review the diversity of secretion systems that bacteria have evolved to achieve these goals. This diversity may result from a progressive transformation of cell envelope complexes that initially may not have been dedicated to secretion. The striking similarities between secretion systems and type IV pili, flagella, bacteriophage tail or efflux pumps is a nice illustration of this evolution. Differences are also needed since various secretion configurations calls for diversity. For example, some proteins are released in the extracellular medium while others are directly injected into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Some proteins are folded before being released and transit into the periplasm. Other proteins cross the whole cell envelope at once in an unfolded state. However, the secretion system requires conserved basic elements or features. For example, there is a need for an energy source or for an outer membrane channel. The structure of this review is thus quite unconventional. Instead of listing secretion types one after each other, it presents a melting pot of concepts indicating that secretion types are in constant evolution and use basic principles. In other words, emergence of new secretion systems could be predicted the way Mendeleïev had anticipated characteristics of yet unknown elements.

  4. Strict Monotonicity and Unique Continuation for the Third-Order Spectrum of Biharmonic Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Ben Haddouch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We will study the spectrum for the biharmonic operator involving the laplacian and the gradient of the laplacian with weight, which we call third-order spectrum. We will show that the strict monotonicity of the eigenvalues of the operator , where , holds if some unique continuation property is satisfied by the corresponding eigenfunctions.

  5. "Let the Master Respond": Should Schools Be Strictly Liable When Employees Sexually Abuse Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard; DeMitchell, Todd

    Although sexual abuse against children is a problem in the public schools, school officials have generally not acted aggressively to stop it. This paper argues for a strict liability standard--the assessment of liability without fault--against a school district in cases of student sexual abuse by a school employee. Part 1 explores the principle of…

  6. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  7. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  8. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  9. Analytic Study of Conflict between the Theory of Evolution and the Creation System from Keith Ward’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Forogh Rahimpoor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About the seventeenth century till nineteenth century, the world was witnessed the emersion of modern science, that challenged the principles of theism and prepare context of conflict between science and religion. In nineteenth century one of these scientific theories that inquietude the problem of belief in God, was Darwin’s theory of evolution. In this research we are trying to mention on philosophic issue of the theory of evolution and among this consecequent, we worked conflict between the theory of evolution and belief in God according to Argument from design and then from the perspective of contemporary of philopher “Keith Ward”, we investigate the cause and the salvation this conflict. In this subject Keith Ward as religious man who accepted theory of evolution tried to rectified perceive of religious people about the theory of evolution, specially the principle of Natural Selection and on the other hand, he wanted to show the mistake of biologist who imposed value of principle of evolution and with rectified of these mater, he try to solved the conflict between the theory of evolution and belief in God, more than any other theory, can prove the creation system based on theory of evolution.

  10. The evolution of the Japanese medical education system: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-03-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the "Galapagos Islands" for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tokyo International Research center.1 Japanese medical schools are currently working to increase their students' clinical hours or else these students may not be able to train in the United States for residencies. Knowing the history of the Japanese Medical education system is paramount to understanding the current system in place today. Studying the historical foundation of this system will also provide insight on how the system must change in order to produce better clinicians. This article provides a glimpse into the medical system of another nation that may encourage needed reflection on the state of current healthcare training in the United States.

  11. Chaos Enhanced Differential Evolution in the Task of Evolutionary Control of Selected Set of Discrete Chaotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Senkerik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary technique differential evolution (DE is used for the evolutionary tuning of controller parameters for the stabilization of set of different chaotic systems. The novelty of the approach is that the selected controlled discrete dissipative chaotic system is used also as the chaotic pseudorandom number generator to drive the mutation and crossover process in the DE. The idea was to utilize the hidden chaotic dynamics in pseudorandom sequences given by chaotic map to help differential evolution algorithm search for the best controller settings for the very same chaotic system. The optimizations were performed for three different chaotic systems, two types of case studies and developed cost functions.

  12. Compact Planetary Systems Perturbed by an Inclined Companion. II. Stellar Spin-Orbit Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Gwenaël; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-07-01

    The stellar spin orientation relative to the orbital planes of multiplanet systems is becoming accessible to observations. Here, we analyze and classify different types of spin-orbit evolution in compact multiplanet systems perturbed by an inclined outer companion. Our study is based on classical secular theory, using a vectorial approach developed in a separate paper. When planet-planet perturbations are truncated at the second order in eccentricity and mutual inclination, and the planet-companion perturbations are developed at the quadrupole order, the problem becomes integrable. The motion is composed of a uniform precession of the whole system around the total angular momentum, and in the rotating frame, the evolution is periodic. Here, we focus on the relative motion associated with the oscillations of the inclination between the planet system and the outer orbit and of the obliquities of the star with respect to the two orbital planes. The solution is obtained using a powerful geometric method. With this technique, we identify four different regimes characterized by the nutation amplitude of the stellar spin axis relative to the orbital plane of the planets. In particular, the obliquity of the star reaches its maximum when the system is in the Cassini regime where planets have more angular momentum than the star and where the precession rate of the star is similar to that of the planets induced by the companion. In that case, spin-orbit oscillations exceed twice the inclination between the planets and the companion. Even if the mutual inclination is only ~= 20°, this resonant case can cause the spin-orbit angle to oscillate between perfectly aligned and retrograde values.

  13. Big cats as a model system for the study of the evolution of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Natalia

    2017-08-01

    Currently, carnivores, and felids in particular, are vastly underrepresented in cognitive literature, despite being an ideal model system for tests of social and ecological intelligence hypotheses. Within Felidae, big cats (Panthera) are uniquely suited to studies investigating the evolutionary links between social, ecological, and cognitive complexity. Intelligence likely did not evolve in a unitary way but instead evolved as the result of mutually reinforcing feedback loops within the physical and social environments. The domain-specific social intelligence hypothesis proposes that social complexity drives only the evolution of cognitive abilities adapted only to social domains. The domain-general hypothesis proposes that the unique demands of social life serve as a bootstrap for the evolution of superior general cognition. Big cats are one of the few systems in which we can directly address conflicting predictions of the domain-general and domain-specific hypothesis by comparing cognition among closely related species that face roughly equivalent ecological complexity but vary considerably in social complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ontogeny and Evolution Through the Lens of the Developmental Systems Theory (DST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Dressino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Developmental Systems Theory (DST intends to make a conceptual summary that links ontogenic development to evolution. This theory’s background may be found in the works of Waddington and Bertalanffy, who provided the foundations for the canalization of development and the biological systems theory, respectively. The aim of this work is to make a preliminary conceptual analysis of DST as a theoretical framework for developmental biology in particular and for evolutionary biology in general. For that purpose, we will take into account some of the concepts and proposals that constitute this framework, and we will work with secondary data obtained from the bibliography. We conclude that: 1. DST is able to argue against the gene centrist vision about the explanations that try to justify biological and evolutionary development; 2. DST argues coherently in favor of the role of Epigenetics in ontogeny and evolution; 3. In connection to that, the role of natural selection is restricted to a secondary plane; 4. DST proposes that the nature/nurture dichotomy must be overcome; and 5. DST constitutes a possible methodological research program composed of a series of not necessarily related hypothesis, theories, and methods that may be confirmed in a relatively independent manner from the rest of the theoretical network.

  15. Evaluation of the long-term evolution of the groundwater system in the Mizunami area, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Takashi; Milodowski, Antoni E.; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for assessing the evolution of the long-term groundwater system, using fracture-filling calcite. Fracture-filling calcite mineralization in deep (to ca. 1000 m) granitic rocks in Mizunami area, Japan, was studied. Four generations (I to IV) of calcite precipitation can be differentiated based on their paragenetic relationships, morphological and isotopic characteristics. Carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios suggest that the Calcite I is of hydrothermal origin. On the other hand, Calcite II, IV and III were precipitated from freshwater and marine water, respectively. The Mizunami Group strata (Tertiary), which overly the basement Toki granite (Cretaceous), were initially deposited in a lacustrine environment but later became marine. Lacustrine conditions were re-established during the deposition of the upper Seto Group (Quaternary). It is suggested that both of deposition of the marine upper part of the Mizunami Group and the precipitation of Calcite III were possibly related to the same transgression event. This was followed by the precipitation of Calcite IV during subsequent fresh water flushing of the earlier marine groundwater. In summary, integrated morphological, mineralogical, microchemical and isotopic analysis of multilayered calcite fracture mineralization provides valuable information to evaluate the long-term evolution of groundwater system. (author)

  16. Evolution of sperm morphology in anurans: insights into the roles of mating system and spawning location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu; Lou, Shang Ling; Liao, Wen Bo; Jehle, Robert

    2014-05-15

    The degree of postcopulatory sexual selection, comprising variable degrees of sperm competition and cryptic female choice, is an important evolutionary force to influence sperm form and function. Here we investigated the effects of mating system and spawning location on the evolution of sperm morphology in 67 species of Chinese anurans. We also examined how relative testes size as an indicator of the level of sperm competition affected variation in sperm morphology across a subset of 29 species. We found a significant association of mating system and spawning location with sperm morphology. However, when removing the effects of body mass or absolute testes mass for species for which such data were available, this effect became non-significant. Consistent with predictions from sperm competition theory, we found a positive correlation between sperm morphology and relative testes size after taking phylogeny into account. Our findings suggest that sexual selection in Chinese anurans favors longer sperm when the level of sperm competition is high. Pre-copulatory male-male competition and spawning location, on the other hand, do not affect the evolution of sperm morphology after taking body mass and absolute testes mass into account.

  17. Introduction: CRevolution 2: origin and evolution of the Colorado River System II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Beard, L. Sue; House, P. Kyle; Young, Richard A.; Aslan, Andres; Billingsley, George; Pederson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    A 2010 Colorado River symposium held in Flagstaff, Arizona, in May 2010, had 70 participants who engaged in intense debate about the origin and evolution of the Colorado River system. This symposium, built on two previous decadal scientific meetings, focused on forging scientific consensus where possible, while also articulating continued controversies regarding the Cenozoic evolution of the Colorado River System and the landscapes of the Colorado Plateau–Rocky Mountain region that it drains. New developments involved hypotheses that Neogene mantle flow is driving plateau tilting and differential uplift, with consensus that multidisciplinary studies involving differential incision studies and additional geochronology and thermochronology are needed to test the relative importance of tectonic and geomorphic forcings in shaping the spectacular landscapes of the Colorado Plateau region. In addition to the scientific goals, the meeting participants emphasized the iconic status of Grand Canyon for geosciences, and the importance of good communication between the research community, the geoscience education/interpretation community, the public, and the media. Building on a century-long tradition, this region still provides a globally important natural laboratory for studies of the interactions of erosion and tectonism in the shaping landscape of elevated plateaus.

  18. Classification of polynomial integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Takayuki; Wolf, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We perform a classification of integrable systems of mixed scalar and vector evolution equations with respect to higher symmetries. We consider polynomial systems that are homogeneous under a suitable weighting of variables. This paper deals with the KdV weighting, the Burgers (or potential KdV or modified KdV) weighting, the Ibragimov-Shabat weighting and two unfamiliar weightings. The case of other weightings will be studied in a subsequent paper. Making an ansatz for undetermined coefficients and using a computer package for solving bilinear algebraic systems, we give the complete lists of second-order systems with a third-order or a fourth-order symmetry and third-order systems with a fifth-order symmetry. For all but a few systems in the lists, we show that the system (or, at least a subsystem of it) admits either a Lax representation or a linearizing transformation. A thorough comparison with recent work of Foursov and Olver is made

  19. On the evolution, over four generations of paraboloidal dish solar thermal electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneff, S.

    1993-01-01

    After a decade of supplying useful power, the White Cliffs Paraboloidal Dish Solar Thermal Power Station (1100 km west of Sydney) is still operational and has provided major lessons and experience for subsequent developments; particularly for the Molokai/Alburquerque unit built jointly with Power Kinetics Inc (of Troy, USA) for the US Department of Energy. This has, in turn, given valuable guidance for the third generation system now nearing completion in Canberra and employing new collector concepts refined for commercial production and viability. Unlike much dish-oriented R and D, we consider systems of dish arrays supplying central plant as a more attractive proposition than assemblies of dish/engine units, for all but very small systems (<2 MWe). Development has recently commerce on the fourth generation technology which result in a 2 MWe dish system within 2 years, expected to be followed closely by a system of 10 to 20 MWe, preparatory to still larger systems, as the technology evolves and experience is gained. The rationale in this progression in based on the achievement of commercial cost-effectiveness in competition with other energy sources. The direction of evolution is becoming clear and application of the technology to broader spheres than electricity generation is likely. Because of the nature of production methods employed and the ease of installation, system implementation can be rapid. (Author) 29 refs

  20. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for hypersonic flight vehicles with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Autonomous System for Experimental Evolution of Microbial Cultures: Test Results Using Ultraviolet-C Radiation and Escherichia Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouandji, Cynthia; Wang, Jonathan; Arismendi, Dillon; Lee, Alonzo; Blaich, Justin; Gentry, Diana

    2017-01-01

    At its core, the field of microbial experimental evolution seeks to elucidate the natural laws governing the history of microbial life by understanding its underlying driving mechanisms. However, observing evolution in nature is complex, as environmental conditions are difficult to control. Laboratory-based experiments for observing population evolution provide more control, but manually culturing and studying multiple generations of microorganisms can be time consuming, labor intensive, and prone to inconsistency. We have constructed a prototype, closed system device that automates the process of directed evolution experiments in microorganisms. It is compatible with any liquid microbial culture, including polycultures and field samples, provides flow control and adjustable agitation, continuously monitors optical density (OD), and can dynamically control environmental pressures such as ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation and temperature. Here, the results of the prototype are compared to iterative exposure and survival assays conducted using a traditional hood, UV-C lamp, and shutter system.

  2. Systems Thinking : Ancient Maya's Evolution of Consciousness and Contemporary Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere Lazanski, Tadeja

    2010-11-01

    Systems thinking as a modern approach for problem solving was revived after WWII even though it had been an ancient philosophy. We can track systems thinking back to antiquity. Making a distinction from Western rationalist traditions of philosophy, C. West Churchman often identified with the I Ching as a systems approach sharing a frame of reference similar to pre-Socratic philosophy and Heraclitus. In this paper, we will compare the evolutionary system of consciousness, which was presented in the Tun calendar of Mayan Indians and contemporary systems theory and systems thinking, which is nothing else but highly evolved human consciousness in society. We will present Mayan calendar systems to contemporary systems thinking principles and explain the answer to the Ackoff's judgment on four hundred years of analytical thinking as the dominant mode of society. We will use the methods of historical comparison and a method of a systems approach. We will point out the big picture and Mayan divine plan as main systems principles. The Mayan numerical system and long count units has been proven as one of the most accurate systems for describing the present and future of the civilization in which we have all evolved. We will also explain the Mayan nine-level pyramids system that represents the evolutionary system, i.e. the consciousness, which in our time shows the actual level of human consciousness. Deriving from all described, we will show the main systems principles, discussed by contemporary systems authors and Mayan systems principles, which differ only in one expression—they named "the big picture" as "the divine plan". The final results can be perfectly applied to the society we live in. Seeing the world from the big picture point of view is reaching a level of awareness, in which linear thinking is replaced by systems thinking. The Mayans explained that the civilization would achieve the system of conscious co-creation. We can claim that linear thinking guides us

  3. A method to visualize the evolution of multiple interacting spatial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Magnus; Hackl, Jürgen; Adey, Bryan T.; Iosifescu-Enescu, Ionut; Lam, Juan Carlos; Hurni, Lorenz

    2016-07-01

    Integrated modeling approaches are being increasingly used to simulate the behavior of, and the interaction between, several interdependent systems. They are becoming more and more important in many fields, including, but not being limited to, civil engineering, hydrology and climate impact research. It is beneficial when using these approaches to be able to visualize both, the intermediary and final results of scenario-based analyses that are conducted in both, space and time. This requires appropriate visualization techniques that enable to efficiently navigate between multiple such scenarios. In recent years, several innovative visualization techniques have been developed that allow for such navigation purposes. These techniques, however, are limited to the representation of one system at a time. Improvements are possible with respect to the ability to visualize the results related to multiple scenarios for multiple interdependent spatio-temporal systems. To address this issue, existing multi-scenario navigation techniques based on small multiples and line graphs are extended by multiple system representations and inter-system impact representations. This not only allows to understand the evolution of the systems under consideration but also eases identifying events where one system influences another system significantly. In addition, the concept of selective branching is described that allows to remove otherwise redundant information from the visualization by considering the logical and temporal dependencies between these systems. This visualization technique is applied to a risk assessment methodology that allows to determine how different environmental systems (i.e. precipitation, flooding, and landslides) influence each other as well as how their impact on civil infrastructure affects society. The results of this work are concepts for improved visualization techniques for multiple interacting spatial systems. The successful validation with domain experts of

  4. Universal and integrable nonlinear evolution systems of equations in 2+1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccari, A.

    1997-01-01

    Integrable systems of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are obtained from integrable equations in 2+1 dimensions, by means of a reduction method of broad applicability based on Fourier expansion and spatio endash temporal rescalings, which is asymptotically exact in the limit of weak nonlinearity. The integrability by the spectral transform is explicitly demonstrated, because the corresponding Lax pairs have been derived, applying the same reduction method to the Lax pair of the initial equation. These systems of nonlinear PDEs are likely to be of applicative relevance and have a open-quotes universalclose quotes character, inasmuch as they may be derived from a very large class of nonlinear evolution equations with a linear dispersive part. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. The ITER thermal shields for the magnet system: Design evolution and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, V.; Krasikov, Yu.; Grigoriev, S.; Komarov, V.; Krylov, V.; Labusov, A.; Pyrjaev, V.; Chiocchio, S.; Smirnov, V.; Sorin, V.; Tanchuk, V.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal shield (TS) system provides the required reduction of thermal loads to the cold structures operating at 4.5 K. This paper presents the rationale for the TS design evolution, details of the recent modifications that affect the TS cooling panels, the central TS ports and support system, interface labyrinths and TS structural joints. The modern results of thermal-hydraulic, thermal, seismic, static and dynamic structural analyses, that involve sub-modeling and sub-structuring finite element analysis techniques, are also reported. The modifications result in considerable reduction of TS mass, surface area and heat loads to/from the TS, simplification of TS assembly procedure and in-cryostat maintenance

  6. Non-Hermitian Quantum Systems and Time-Optimal Quantum Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Nesterov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Bender et al. have considered the quantum brachistochrone problem for the non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum system and have shown that the optimal time evolution required to transform a given initial state |ψ_i> into a specific final state |ψ_f> can be made arbitrarily small. Additionally, it has been shown that finding the shortest possible time requires only the solution of the two-dimensional problem for the quantum system governed by the effective Hamiltonian acting in the subspace spanned by |ψ_i> and |ψ_f>. In this paper, we study a similar problem for the generic non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, focusing our attention on the geometric aspects of the problem.

  7. Non-Hermitian Quantum Systems and Time-Optimal Quantum Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Alexander I.

    2009-07-01

    Recently, Bender et al. have considered the quantum brachistochrone problem for the non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum system and have shown that the optimal time evolution required to transform a given initial state |ψi> into a specific final state |ψf> can be made arbitrarily small. Additionally, it has been shown that finding the shortest possible time requires only the solution of the two-dimensional problem for the quantum system governed by the effective Hamiltonian acting in the subspace spanned by |ψi> and |ψf>. In this paper, we study a similar problem for the generic non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, focusing our attention on the geometric aspects of the problem.

  8. Time evolution of many-body localized systems with the flow equation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S. J.; Schiró, M.

    2018-02-01

    The interplay between interactions and quenched disorder can result in rich dynamical quantum phenomena far from equilibrium, particularly when many-body localization prevents the system from full thermalization. With the aim of tackling this interesting regime, here we develop a semianalytical flow equation approach to study the time evolution of strongly disordered interacting quantum systems. We apply this technique to a prototype model of interacting spinless fermions in a random on-site potential in both one and two dimensions. Key results include (i) an explicit construction of the local integrals of motion that characterize the many-body localized phase in one dimension, ultimately connecting the microscopic model to phenomenological descriptions, (ii) calculation of these quantities in two dimensions, and (iii) an investigation of the real-time dynamics in the localized phase which reveals the crucial role of l -bit interactions for enhancing dephasing and relaxation.

  9. Horizons and non-local time evolution of quantum mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    According to general relativity, trapping surfaces and horizons are classical causal structures that arise in systems with sharply defined energy and corresponding gravitational radius. The latter concept can be extended to a quantum mechanical matter state simply by means of the spectral decomposition, which allows one to define an associated ''horizon wave-function''. Since this auxiliary wave-function contains crucial information about the causal structure of space-time, a new proposal is formulated for the time evolution of quantum systems in order to account for the fundamental classical property that outer observers cannot receive signals from inside a horizon. The simple case of a massive free particle at rest is used throughout the paper as a toy model to illustrate the main ideas. (orig.)

  10. Response to the evolution of NDT: The laboratory for studying measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, F.; Georgel, B.; Jossinet, J.; Lebrun, A.

    1985-01-01

    The procedures used have been defined taking into account the work of other laboratories in this field and the choice of a reference probe has been particularly looked at. The equipment are controlled by a mini-computer and the users have at their disposal many types of programs, depending upon their needs and a lot of software for data processing. The results are summarized on paper or recorded on a mass memory. So the evolution of the characteristics of the systems is followed. The results on some NDT systems used in nuclear power plants, are presented and the last part of the paper deals with new developments in the field of characterization (how to apply some procedures in the plant itself) as well as in NDT methods (ultrasonic waves laser generation, dynamic focusing)

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE ON THE STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION OF THE OORT CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Alexia R.; Quinn, Thomas [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Kaib, Nathan A., E-mail: arlewis@astro.washington.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-2900 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We study the influence of outer solar system architecture on the structural evolution of the Oort Cloud (OC) and the flux of Earth-crossing comets. In particular, we seek to quantify the role of the giant planets as ''planetary protectors''. To do so, we have run simulations in each of four different planetary mass configurations to understand the significance of each of the giant planets. Because the outer planets modify the structure of the OC throughout its formation, we integrate each simulation over the full age of the solar system. Over this time, we follow the evolution of cometary orbits from their starting point in the protoplanetary disk to their injection into the OC to their possible re-entry into the inner planetary region. We find that the overall structure of the OC, including the location of boundaries and the relative number of comets in the inner and outer parts, does not change significantly between configurations; however, as planetary mass decreases, the trapping efficiency (TE) of comets into the OC and the flux of comets into the observable region increases. We determine that those comets that evolve onto Earth-crossing orbits come primarily from the inner OC but show no preference for initial protoplanetary disk location. We also find that systems that have at least a Saturn-mass object are effective at deflecting possible Earth-crossing comets but the difference in flux between systems with and without such a planet is less than an order of magnitude. We conclude by discussing the individual roles of the planets and the implications of incorporating more realistic planetary accretion and migration scenarios into simulations, particularly on existing discrepancies between low TE and the mass of the protoplanetary disk and on determining the structural boundaries of the OC.

  12. Cosmological evolution and Solar System consistency of massive scalar-tensor gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pirey Saint Alby, Thibaut Arnoulx; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-09-01

    The scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse recently gained some renewed interest because of its ability to suppress modifications to general relativity in the weak field, while introducing large corrections in the strong field of compact objects through a process called scalarization. A large sector of this theory that allows for scalarization, however, has been shown to be in conflict with Solar System observations when accounting for the cosmological evolution of the scalar field. We here study an extension of this theory by endowing the scalar field with a mass to determine whether this allows the theory to pass Solar System constraints upon cosmological evolution for a larger sector of coupling parameter space. We show that the cosmological scalar field goes first through a quiescent phase, similar to the behavior of a massless field, but then it enters an oscillatory phase, with an amplitude (and frequency) that decays (and grows) exponentially. We further show that after the field enters the oscillatory phase, its effective energy density and pressure are approximately those of dust, as expected from previous cosmological studies. Due to these oscillations, we show that the scalar field cannot be treated as static today on astrophysical scales, and so we use time-dependent perturbation theory to compute the scalar-field-induced modifications to Solar System observables. We find that these modifications are suppressed when the mass of the scalar field and the coupling parameter of the theory are in a wide range, allowing the theory to pass Solar System constraints, while in principle possibly still allowing for scalarization.

  13. THE LONG-TERM DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF DISK-FRAGMENTED MULTIPLE SYSTEMS IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yun [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Kouwenhoven, M. B. N. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, 111 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou Dushu Lake Science and Education Innovation District, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Stamatellos, D. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Simon P., E-mail: t.kouwenhoven@xjtlu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-10

    The origin of very low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, brown dwarfs (BDs), and planetary-mass objects (PMOs) at the low-mass end of the initial mass function is not yet fully understood. Gravitational fragmentation of circumstellar disks provides a possible mechanism for the formation of such low-mass objects. The kinematic and binary properties of very low-mass objects formed through disk fragmentation at early times (<10 Myr) were discussed in our previous paper. In this paper we extend the analysis by following the long-term evolution of disk-fragmented systems up to an age of 10 Gyr, covering the ages of the stellar and substellar populations in the Galactic field. We find that the systems continue to decay, although the rates at which companions escape or collide with each other are substantially lower than during the first 10 Myr, and that dynamical evolution is limited beyond 1 Gyr. By t = 10 Gyr, about one third of the host stars are single, and more than half have only one companion left. Most of the other systems have two companions left that orbit their host star in widely separated orbits. A small fraction of companions have formed binaries that orbit the host star in a hierarchical triple configuration. The majority of such double-companion systems have internal orbits that are retrograde with respect to their orbits around their host stars. Our simulations allow a comparison between the predicted outcomes of disk fragmentation with the observed low-mass hydrogen-burning stars, BDs, and PMOs in the solar neighborhood. Imaging and radial velocity surveys for faint binary companions among nearby stars are necessary for verification or rejection of the formation mechanism proposed in this paper.

  14. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung.

  15. Dermatology in the Darwin anniversary. Part 2: Evolution of the skin-associated immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Martin, Stefan; Emde, Matthias; Schempp, Christoph

    2009-10-01

    The present review highlights the evolution of the skin-associated immune system from the invertebrates to the vertebrates and man. In the invertebrates a non-specific humoral immune response dominates. It includes antimicrobial peptides, oxidases, lysozyme, agglutinins, coagulins and melanin. The cellular immune system initially consists of undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Later migrating phagocytes and natural killer cells occur. From the fishes on, dendritic cells are present, linking innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition to this unspecific but highly effective immune system, the specific immune response, based on genetic recombination, is present in the vertebrates starting with the chondral fishes. The adaptive immune system possesses unlimited numbers of highly specific antibodies and T-cell receptors, increasingly tissue specific MHC restriction, and cellular memory. Elements of the skin-associated adaptive immune system are first detectable in the teleost fishes in the form of intraepithelial IgM positive lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Moving up to mammals and man, the skin-associated immune system became more and more complex and effective.

  16. Intraspecific evolution of the intercellular signaling network underlying a robust developmental system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milloz, Josselin; Duveau, Fabien; Nuez, Isabelle; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2008-11-01

    Many biological systems produce an invariant output when faced with stochastic or environmental variation. This robustness of system output to variation affecting the underlying process may allow for "cryptic" genetic evolution within the system without change in output. We studied variation of cell fate patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans vulva precursors, a developmental system that relies on a simple intercellular signaling network and yields an invariant output of cell fates and lineages among C. elegans wild isolates. We first investigated the system's genetic variation in C. elegans by means of genetic tools and cell ablation to break down its buffering mechanisms. We uncovered distinct architectures of quantitative variation along the Ras signaling cascade, including compensatory variation, and differences in cell sensitivity to induction along the anteroposterior axis. In the unperturbed system, we further found variation between isolates in spatio-temporal dynamics of Ras pathway activity, which can explain the phenotypic differences revealed upon perturbation. Finally, the variation mostly affects the signaling pathways in a tissue-specific manner. We thus demonstrate and characterize microevolution of a developmental signaling network. In addition, our results suggest that the vulva genetic screens would have yielded a different mutation spectrum, especially for Wnt pathway mutations, had they been performed in another C. elegans genetic background.

  17. Evolution of the DeNOC-based dynamic modelling for multibody systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic modelling of a multibody system plays very essential role in its analyses. As a result, several methods for dynamic modelling have evolved over the years that allow one to analyse multibody systems in a very efficient manner. One such method of dynamic modelling is based on the concept of the Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement (DeNOC matrices. The DeNOC-based methodology for dynamics modelling, since its introduction in 1995, has been applied to a variety of multibody systems such as serial, parallel, general closed-loop, flexible, legged, cam-follower, and space robots. The methodology has also proven useful for modelling of proteins and hyper-degree-of-freedom systems like ropes, chains, etc. This paper captures the evolution of the DeNOC-based dynamic modelling applied to different type of systems, and its benefits over other existing methodologies. It is shown that the DeNOC-based modelling provides deeper understanding of the dynamics of a multibody system. The power of the DeNOC-based modelling has been illustrated using several numerical examples.

  18. DYNAMICAL EVOLUTION OF MULTI-RESONANT SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF GJ 876

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Deck, Katherine M. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Holman, Matthew J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The GJ 876 system was among the earliest multi-planetary detections outside of the Solar System, and has long been known to harbor a resonant pair of giant planets. Subsequent characterization of the system revealed the presence of an additional Neptune mass object on an external orbit, locked in a three body Laplace mean motion resonance with the previously known planets. While this system is currently the only known extrasolar example of a Laplace resonance, it differs from the Galilean satellites in that the orbital motion of the planets is known to be chaotic. In this work, we present a simple perturbative model that illuminates the origins of stochasticity inherent to this system and derive analytic estimates of the Lyapunov time as well as the chaotic diffusion coefficient. We then address the formation of the multi-resonant structure within a protoplanetary disk and show that modest turbulent forcing in addition to dissipative effects is required to reproduce the observed chaotic configuration. Accordingly, this work places important constraints on the typical formation environments of planetary systems and informs the attributes of representative orbital architectures that arise from extended disk-driven evolution.

  19. Multi-Objective Differential Evolution for Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow in Deregulated Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselyn, J. Preetha; Devaraj, D.; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar

    2013-11-01

    Voltage stability is an important issue in the planning and operation of deregulated power systems. The voltage stability problems is a most challenging one for the system operators in deregulated power systems because of the intense use of transmission line capabilities and poor regulation in market environment. This article addresses the congestion management problem avoiding offline transmission capacity limits related to voltage stability by considering Voltage Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (VSCOPF) problem in deregulated environment. This article presents the application of Multi Objective Differential Evolution (MODE) algorithm to solve the VSCOPF problem in new competitive power systems. The maximum of L-index of the load buses is taken as the indicator of voltage stability and is incorporated in the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The proposed method in hybrid power market which also gives solutions to voltage stability problems by considering the generation rescheduling cost and load shedding cost which relieves the congestion problem in deregulated environment. The buses for load shedding are selected based on the minimum eigen value of Jacobian with respect to the load shed. In the proposed approach, real power settings of generators in base case and contingency cases, generator bus voltage magnitudes, real and reactive power demands of selected load buses using sensitivity analysis are taken as the control variables and are represented as the combination of floating point numbers and integers. DE/randSF/1/bin strategy scheme of differential evolution with self-tuned parameter which employs binomial crossover and difference vector based mutation is used for the VSCOPF problem. A fuzzy based mechanism is employed to get the best compromise solution from the pareto front to aid the decision maker. The proposed VSCOPF planning model is implemented on IEEE 30-bus system, IEEE 57 bus practical system and IEEE 118 bus system. The pareto optimal

  20. EVOLUTION OF THE MOSS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR 32-BIT COMPUTER SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.J.; Oleson, Lyndon R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss the current status and plans regarding the 32-bit implementation of the Map Overly and Statistical System (MOSS) geographic information system. Increasing interest in this system is promoting significant expansion of its capabilities, but any such enhancements will require careful analysis and planning to ensure that the resulting system is functionally complete and efficient yet flexible enough to adapt to a variety of user requirements and systems. All enhancements must be coordinated among centers of development in order to ensure the continued viability of a single MOSS. A baseline software configuration must be defined, and procedures must be developed to ensure coordination of any modifications to the baseline. Finally, there is significant interest in maintaining the public-domain aspects of MOSS to promote its shared use in the Department of the Interior. For these reasons, coordination efforts such as those initiated by the IDCCC and the MOSS Users Workshop should be strongly supported by the MOSS user community.

  1. Water and the Earth System in the Anthropocene: Evolution of Socio-Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.; Bloeschl, G.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past century, hydrological science has evolved through distinct eras as judged by ideas, information sources, technological advances and societal influences: Empirical Era which was data based with little theory, Systems Era that focused on input-output relationships, Process Era with a focus on processes, and the Geosciences Era where hydrology was considered an Earth System science. We argue that as the human footprint on earth becomes increasingly dominant, we are moving into a Co-evolution Era. Co-evolution implies that the components of the Earth system are intimately intertwined at many time scales - fast scales of immediate feedbacks that translate into slow scale interdependencies and trends. These involve feedbacks between the atmosphere, biota, soils and landforms, mediated by water flow and transport processes. The human factor is becoming a key component of this coupled system. While there is a long tradition of considering effects of water on humans, and vice versa, the new thrust on socio-hydrology has a number of defining characteristics that sets it apart from traditional approaches: - Capturing feedbacks of human-natural water system in a dynamic way (slow and fast processes) to go beyond prescribing human factors as mere boundary conditions. These feedbacks will be essential to understand how the system may evolve in the future into new, perhaps previously unobserved, states. - Quantifying system dynamics in a generalizable way. So far, water resources assessment has been context dependent, tied to local conditions. While for immediate decision making this is undoubtedly essential, for more scientific inquiry, a more uniform knowledge base is indispensable. - Not necessarily predictive. The coupled human-nature system is inherently non-linear, which may prohibit predictability in the traditional sense. The socio-hydrologic approach may still be predictive in a statistical sense and, perhaps even more importantly, it may yet reveal

  2. Comparing genomes to computer operating systems in terms of the topology and evolution of their regulatory control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Fang, Gang; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Alexander, Roger P; Gerstein, Mark

    2010-05-18

    The genome has often been called the operating system (OS) for a living organism. A computer OS is described by a regulatory control network termed the call graph, which is analogous to the transcriptional regulatory network in a cell. To apply our firsthand knowledge of the architecture of software systems to understand cellular design principles, we present a comparison between the transcriptional regulatory network of a well-studied bacterium (Escherichia coli) and the call graph of a canonical OS (Linux) in terms of topology and evolution. We show that both networks have a fundamentally hierarchical layout, but there is a key difference: The transcriptional regulatory network possesses a few global regulators at the top and many targets at the bottom; conversely, the call graph has many regulators controlling a small set of generic functions. This top-heavy organization leads to highly overlapping functional modules in the call graph, in contrast to the relatively independent modules in the regulatory network. We further develop a way to measure evolutionary rates comparably between the two networks and explain this difference in terms of network evolution. The process of biological evolution via random mutation and subsequent selection tightly constrains the evolution of regulatory network hubs. The call graph, however, exhibits rapid evolution of its highly connected generic components, made possible by designers' continual fine-tuning. These findings stem from the design principles of the two systems: robustness for biological systems and cost effectiveness (reuse) for software systems.

  3. Comparing genomes to computer operating systems in terms of the topology and evolution of their regulatory control networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Fang, Gang; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Alexander, Roger P.; Gerstein, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The genome has often been called the operating system (OS) for a living organism. A computer OS is described by a regulatory control network termed the call graph, which is analogous to the transcriptional regulatory network in a cell. To apply our firsthand knowledge of the architecture of software systems to understand cellular design principles, we present a comparison between the transcriptional regulatory network of a well-studied bacterium (Escherichia coli) and the call graph of a canonical OS (Linux) in terms of topology and evolution. We show that both networks have a fundamentally hierarchical layout, but there is a key difference: The transcriptional regulatory network possesses a few global regulators at the top and many targets at the bottom; conversely, the call graph has many regulators controlling a small set of generic functions. This top-heavy organization leads to highly overlapping functional modules in the call graph, in contrast to the relatively independent modules in the regulatory network. We further develop a way to measure evolutionary rates comparably between the two networks and explain this difference in terms of network evolution. The process of biological evolution via random mutation and subsequent selection tightly constrains the evolution of regulatory network hubs. The call graph, however, exhibits rapid evolution of its highly connected generic components, made possible by designers’ continual fine-tuning. These findings stem from the design principles of the two systems: robustness for biological systems and cost effectiveness (reuse) for software systems. PMID:20439753

  4. Evolution and Mean Properties of Convective Systems in Southwestern Amazonia During TRMM-LBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickenbach, Thomas M.; Ferreira, Rosana Nieto; Halverson, Jeffrey B.; deSilvaDias, Maria A. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the wet season TRMM field campaign in Rondonia, Brazil, a variety of convective systems were sampled by radar, sounding, and geostationary satellite for a 60 day period in early 1999. Local variations in the local wind and humidity field have been attributed in part by this study to synoptic scale phenomena, most conspicuously the establishment of stationary frontal systems penetrating into the tropics. These baroclinic systems induced periodic episodes low level moist, westerly flow across Rondonia during the experiment. This flow feature may be an important component of the South American climate system by playing a role in maintaining the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, which was active during these local westerly wind events. It is therefore important to understand the differences in mesoscale properties of convective systems between the westerly wind periods and intervening easterly wind periods. Differences in shear and moisture characteristics (Halverson et al. 2000, this meeting) are compared to structural and life-cycle characteristics of convective systems in Rondonia. Data from ground based radar and geostationary satellite provide a view of the evolution of the vertical structure and horizontal morphology of several large mesoscale convective systems in each regime. Preliminary statistics on the diurnal variation of precipitation intensity, areal coverage, and cloud top area are presented. Results suggest that long-lived, shallow convective systems with a large stratiform component of precipitation are characteristic of the westerly wind periods. A goal of this study is to establish a basis for which to parameterize the mesoscale effects of convection on large scale features of the South American climate system.

  5. Day-to-day evolution of the traffic network with Advanced Traveler Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Linghui; Sun Huijun; Wu Jianjun; Zhu Chengjuan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We develop a dynamical system with Advanced Travelers Information System (ATIS). → We use the dynamical system to study stability of the traffic network with ATIS. → It is found that some periodic attractors appear in some cases. → A road pricing is implemented to alleviate the instability of the traffic network with ATIS. - Abstract: Since the notion of user equilibrium (UE) was proposed by Wardrop , it has become a cornerstone for traffic assignment analysis. But, it is not sufficient to only ask whether equilibrium exists or not; it is equally important to ask whether and how the system can achieve equilibrium. Meanwhile, stability is an important performance in the sense that if equilibrium is unsustainable, both the equilibrium and the trajectory are sensitive to disturbances, even a small perturbation will result in the system evolution away from the equilibrium point. These incentive a growing interest in day-to-day dynamics. In this paper, we develop a dynamical system with Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) and study the stability of the network with ATIS. A simple network is used to simulate the model, and the results show that there exist periodic attractors in the traffic network in some cases (for example, the market penetration level of ATIS is 0.25 and traffic demand is 2 unit). It is found that the logit parameter of the dynamical model and the traffic demand can also affect the stability of the traffic network. More periodic attractors appear in the system when the traffic demand is large and the low logit parameter can delay the appearance of periodic attractors. By simulation, it can be concluded that if the range of the periodic attractors' domain of the simple network is known, the road pricing based on the range of the attraction domain is effective to alleviate the instability of the system.

  6. Formation and evolution of Weiyuan-Anyue extension-erosion groove in Sinian system, Sichuan Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongquan

    2017-04-01

    Based on comprehensive analysis of deposition and structure, the horizontal and vertical characteristics of the Weiyuan-Anyue erosion-extension groove have been studied using outcrop, drilling, well logging and seismic data. According to the strata, lithology, structure and regional evolution, the Sinian system denuded thickness has been restored to show the development and evolution as well as transformation of the erosion-extension groove in the Tongwan orogeny. The Weiyuan-Anyue extension-erosion groove is distributed along the Penglai-Anyue-Rongchang in NW direction, with the west area steeper than the east in groove. According to the study of the Weiyuan-Longnüsi seismic profile across the middle area of erosion-extension groove, the formation of the Weiyuan-Anyue extension-erosion groove is the synthetic result of different geological processes from differential uplift, the denudation, erosion and dissolution in the Dengying Formation caused by multiple-phase episode grabon or horst movement of the Sinian basement fault. The formation of the Weiyuan-Anyue erosion-extension groove can be divided into three stages, and the erosion and dissolution can be calculated quantitatively by denudation recovery profile, its maximum can reach 600 m.

  7. System risk evolution analysis and risk critical event identification based on event sequence diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Pengcheng; Hu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    During system operation, the environmental, operational and usage conditions are time-varying, which causes the fluctuations of the system state variables (SSVs). These fluctuations change the accidents’ probabilities and then result in the system risk evolution (SRE). This inherent relation makes it feasible to realize risk control by monitoring the SSVs in real time, herein, the quantitative analysis of SRE is essential. Besides, some events in the process of SRE are critical to system risk, because they act like the “demarcative points” of safety and accident, and this characteristic makes each of them a key point of risk control. Therefore, analysis of SRE and identification of risk critical events (RCEs) are remarkably meaningful to ensure the system to operate safely. In this context, an event sequence diagram (ESD) based method of SRE analysis and the related Monte Carlo solution are presented; RCE and risk sensitive variable (RSV) are defined, and the corresponding identification methods are also proposed. Finally, the proposed approaches are exemplified with an accident scenario of an aircraft getting into the icing region

  8. Safeguards evolution towards unattended c/s (containment and surveillance) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, Lucia I.; Saavedra, Analia D.; Castro, Laura B.; Maceiras, Elena; Llacer, Carlos D.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Mairal, Maria L.; Fernandez Moreno, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows the development and evolution of safeguards towards the use of different containment and surveillance (C/S) systems, which involve the possibility of working unattended. They are designed to transmit safeguards relevant data remotely. It is believed that they would increase safeguards efficiency while maintaining or even enhancing their effectiveness. At present, unattended C/S systems with or without remote transmission are in place at several installations. In addition, some other possible applications are being tested. One of these is the Remote Monitoring Systems (RMS) field trial at Embalse nuclear power plant to cover the transfers of spent fuel from the ponds to the dry storage. Some of the matters to be addressed are of general nature (i.e. applicable to any unattended/remote system) while others depend on the specific application in a nuclear installation. Among others, the following are particularly important: -) Sharing of data with the SSAC; -) Impact of a failure of the RMS on the operator, IAEA and the SSAC; -) Provision of relevant operational and accounting information; -) Review of the current safeguard approach for the selected installation; -) RMS cost-effectiveness assessment. This paper describes the status of the RMS field trial as well as the current C/S system in place at Embalse nuclear power plant. (authors)

  9. Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ellen B; Matson, Pamela A

    2016-04-26

    Knowledge systems-networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action-have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, a region often described as the home of the green revolution for wheat, tracing changes in the functions of critical knowledge system participants, information flows, and research priorities. Most of the knowledge system's key players have been in place for many decades, although their roles have changed in response to exogenous and endogenous shocks and trends (e.g., drought, policy shifts, and price trends). The system has been agile and able to respond to challenges, in part because of the diversity of players (evolving roles of actors spanning research-decision maker boundaries) and also because of the strong and consistent role of innovative farmers. Although the agricultural research agenda in the Valley is primarily controlled from within the agricultural sector, outside voices have become an important influence in broadening development- and production-oriented perspectives to sustainability perspectives.

  10. Emergence, evolution, and control of multistability in a hybrid topological quantum/classical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglei; Xu, Hongya; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel class of nonlinear dynamical systems—a hybrid of relativistic quantum and classical systems and demonstrate that multistability is ubiquitous. A representative setting is coupled systems of a topological insulator and an insulating ferromagnet, where the former possesses an insulating bulk with topologically protected, dissipationless, and conducting surface electronic states governed by the relativistic quantum Dirac Hamiltonian and the latter is described by the nonlinear classical evolution of its magnetization vector. The interactions between the two are essentially the spin transfer torque from the topological insulator to the ferromagnet and the local proximity induced exchange coupling in the opposite direction. The hybrid system exhibits a rich variety of nonlinear dynamical phenomena besides multistability such as bifurcations, chaos, and phase synchronization. The degree of multistability can be controlled by an external voltage. In the case of two coexisting states, the system is effectively binary, opening a door to exploitation for developing spintronic memory devices. Because of the dissipationless and spin-momentum locking nature of the surface currents of the topological insulator, little power is needed for generating a significant current, making the system appealing for potential applications in next generation of low power memory devices.

  11. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: a framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Coletti, Janaine Z; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W; Valensini, Fiona J; Brookes, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchmentmanagement, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientistsand policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are requiredthat are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiplestressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this chal-lenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observationnetworks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions.The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensornetworks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model isassessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinarynature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and inte-grate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to modelassessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore thetheory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry,and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  12. Health system responsiveness after health sector evolution plan (HSEP): An inpatient survey in Kermanshah in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Farid; Karami-Matin, Behzad; Rezaei, Satar; Rajabi-Gilan, Nader; Soofi, Moslem

    2016-01-01

    Responsiveness is one of the three main goals of the health system introduced by World Health Organization. This study aimed at examining health system responsiveness after Health Sector Evolution Plan in Kermanshah, Western Iran. A sample of 335 hospitalized patients was selected using proportionate allocation to population size method in the city of Kermanshah (Iran) in 2015. World Health Survey (WHS) questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis by STATA 12. The overall health system responsiveness score was 72.6. The best and worst performance for domains of dignity and autonomy were 82.2 and 62.5, respectively. Socio-demographic variables of the patients had no significant effect on the total health system responsiveness score. The principal component analysis findings indicated that 68% of the variance of the overall responsiveness score was explained by four components. The overall responsiveness score of each of the domains was higher than that of other similar previous studies in Iran. Although it is difficult to reach a conclusion, our findings may show better responsiveness of the health system compared to the previous reports.

  13. Multiobjective differential evolution algorithm-based sizing of a standalone photovoltaic water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhsen, Dhiaa Halboot; Ghazali, Abu Bakar; Khatib, Tamer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multiobjective optimization algorithm is used to optimize the size of PVPS. • The aggregated objective function composes of technical and economic objectives. • A wide range sets of weights of objective functions are tested. - Abstract: In this paper, a differential evolution based multiobjective optimization algorithm is proposed to optimally size a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVPS). Three weighted individual objectives are aggregated by a single function to optimize the configuration of PVPS. Loss of load probability, life cycle cost and the volume of excess water are considered as three individual objective functions. The proposed pumping system is supposed to provide a daily water volume of 30 m 3 with a static head of 20 m. The complexity of the initializing of the weights for each individual objective function is overcome by testing a wide range sets of weights. The performance of the system is tested based on hourly meteorological data. The performance results of the proposed system show that the loss of load probability and the average hourly water flow rate over a year time are around 0.5% and 3.297 m 3 /h, respectively. The life cycle cost, water deficit, and cost of water unit of the system are 9911 USD, 55.015 m 3 , and 0.045 USD/m 3 , respectively.

  14. Predicting the resilience and recovery of aquatic systems: A framework for model evolution within environmental observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipsey, Matthew R.; Hamilton, David P.; Hanson, Paul C.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Coletti, Janaine Z.; Read, Jordan S.; Ibelings, Bas W.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Brookes, Justin D.

    2015-09-01

    Maintaining the health of aquatic systems is an essential component of sustainable catchment management, however, degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat continues to challenge scientists and policy-makers. To support management and restoration efforts aquatic system models are required that are able to capture the often complex trajectories that these systems display in response to multiple stressors. This paper explores the abilities and limitations of current model approaches in meeting this challenge, and outlines a strategy based on integration of flexible model libraries and data from observation networks, within a learning framework, as a means to improve the accuracy and scope of model predictions. The framework is comprised of a data assimilation component that utilizes diverse data streams from sensor networks, and a second component whereby model structural evolution can occur once the model is assessed against theoretically relevant metrics of system function. Given the scale and transdisciplinary nature of the prediction challenge, network science initiatives are identified as a means to develop and integrate diverse model libraries and workflows, and to obtain consensus on diagnostic approaches to model assessment that can guide model adaptation. We outline how such a framework can help us explore the theory of how aquatic systems respond to change by bridging bottom-up and top-down lines of enquiry, and, in doing so, also advance the role of prediction in aquatic ecosystem management.

  15. Atmospheric reaction systems as null-models to identify structural traces of evolution in metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Holme

    Full Text Available The metabolism is the motor behind the biological complexity of an organism. One problem of characterizing its large-scale structure is that it is hard to know what to compare it to. All chemical reaction systems are shaped by the same physics that gives molecules their stability and affinity to react. These fundamental factors cannot be captured by standard null-models based on randomization. The unique property of organismal metabolism is that it is controlled, to some extent, by an enzymatic machinery that is subject to evolution. In this paper, we explore the possibility that reaction systems of planetary atmospheres can serve as a null-model against which we can define metabolic structure and trace the influence of evolution. We find that the two types of data can be distinguished by their respective degree distributions. This is especially clear when looking at the degree distribution of the reaction network (of reaction connected to each other if they involve the same molecular species. For the Earth's atmospheric network and the human metabolic network, we look into more detail for an underlying explanation of this deviation. However, we cannot pinpoint a single cause of the difference, rather there are several concurrent factors. By examining quantities relating to the modular-functional organization of the metabolism, we confirm that metabolic networks have a more complex modular organization than the atmospheric networks, but not much more. We interpret the more variegated modular arrangement of metabolism as a trace of evolved functionality. On the other hand, it is quite remarkable how similar the structures of these two types of networks are, which emphasizes that the constraints from the chemical properties of the molecules has a larger influence in shaping the reaction system than does natural selection.

  16. A Criterium for the Strict Positivity of the Density of the Law of a Poisson Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léandre Rémi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We translate in semigroup theory our result (Léandre, 1990 giving a necessary condition so that the law of a Markov process with jumps could have a strictly positive density. This result express, that we have to jump in a finite number of jumps in a "submersive" way from the starting point to the end point if the density of the jump process is strictly positive in . We use the Malliavin Calculus of Bismut type of (Léandre, (2008;2010 translated in semi-group theory as a tool, and the interpretation in semi-group theory of some classical results of the stochastic analysis for Poisson process as, for instance, the formula giving the law of a compound Poisson process.

  17. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga

    2016-01-01

    in the levels of GLP-1 and Glucagon. Bed rest led to a mean loss of 2.4 kg of fat-free mass, and induced insulin resistance evaluated by the Matsuda index, but did not affect the incretin effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated......Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest...... affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile...

  18. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-09-15

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated......The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...

  20. Evolution of a test article handling system for the SP-100 ground engineering system test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, E.J.; Schweiger, L.J.; Miller, W.C.; Gluck, R.; Devies, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    A simulated space environment test of a flight prototypic SP-100 reactor, control system, and flight shield will be conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The flight prototypic components and the supporting primary heat removal system are collectively known as the Nuclear Assembly Test Article (TA). The unique configuration and materials of fabrication for the Test Article require a specialized handling facility to support installation, maintenance, and final disposal operations. Westinghouse Hanford Company, the Test Site Operator, working in conjunction with General Electric Company, the Test Article supplier, developed and evaluated several handling concepts resulting in the selection of a reference Test Article Handling System. The development of the reference concept for the handling system is presented

  1. Multiple-Set Split Feasibility Problems for κ-Strictly Pseudononspreading Mapping in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Quan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove some weak and strong convergence theorems for solving the multiple-set split feasibility problems for κ-strictly pseudononspreading mapping in infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces by using the proposed iterative method. The main results presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Xu et al. (2006, of Osilike et al. (2011, and of many other authors.

  2. Multiobjective Optimization for the Forecasting Models on the Base of the Strictly Binary Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Astakhova; Liliya Demidova; Evgeny Nikulchev

    2016-01-01

    The optimization problem dealing with the development of the forecasting models on the base of strictly binary trees has been considered. The aim of paper is the comparative analysis of two optimization variants which are applied for the development of the forecasting models. Herewith the first optimization variant assumes the application of one quality indicator of the forecasting model named as the affinity indicator and the second variant realizes the application of two quality indicators ...

  3. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. © 2015 ASCPT.

  4. Examination of the PCICE method in the nearly incompressible, as well as strictly incompressible, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)

  5. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  6. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  7. Temporary Strict Maternal Avoidance of Cow’s Milk and Infantile Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Infant colic is a common problem characterized by excessive crying and fussing. We examined whether colic symptoms of exclusively breast-milk-fed infants would be improved by temporary strict maternal avoidance of cows milk. This study is analytic and experimental. Sixty-six subjects were recruited during winter of 2006 from a clinic in Isfahan, Iran. Breast-milk-fed in-fants with "colic", age 3-6 months and to be in otherwise good health were referred by pediatri-cians. The intervention was 1 week period of strict maternal avoidance of cows milk while they continued exclusive breast-milk-feeding. All infants showed improvement in distressed behavior (crying and fussing during intervention. The total recorded crying and fussing time was reduced by an average of 31%. A significant difference was found in cry and fuss time between first and last 2 days of intervention (P = 0.000. Cows milk proteins may play an etiologic role in colic. We propose that a brief intervention with strict maternal avoidance of cows milk may be an effective treatment for colic in some breast-milk-fed infants.

  8. The nervous and visual systems of onychophorans and tardigrades: learning about arthropod evolution from their closest relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christine; Gross, Vladimir; Hering, Lars; Tepper, Benjamin; Jahn, Henry; de Sena Oliveira, Ivo; Stevenson, Paul Anthony; Mayer, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of arthropods requires examining their closest outgroups, the tardigrades (water bears) and onychophorans (velvet worms). Despite the rise of molecular techniques, the phylogenetic positions of tardigrades and onychophorans in the panarthropod tree (onychophorans + tardigrades + arthropods) remain unresolved. Hence, these methods alone are currently insufficient for clarifying the panarthropod topology. Therefore, the evolution of different morphological traits, such as one of the most intriguing features of panarthropods-their nervous system-becomes essential for shedding light on the origin and evolution of arthropods and their relatives within the Panarthropoda. In this review, we summarise current knowledge of the evolution of panarthropod nervous and visual systems. In particular, we focus on the evolution of segmental ganglia, the segmental identity of brain regions, and the visual system from morphological and developmental perspectives. In so doing, we address some of the many controversies surrounding these topics, such as the homology of the onychophoran eyes to those of arthropods as well as the segmentation of the tardigrade brain. Finally, we attempt to reconstruct the most likely state of these systems in the last common ancestors of arthropods and panarthropods based on what is currently known about tardigrades and onychophorans.

  9. Criteria for the emergence and evolution of life in the solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oró, J; Rewers, K; Odom, D

    1982-09-01

    During the past years we have explored most of the bodies of the solar system by means of the Apollo, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and other space missions. We are now in a better position to be able to compare the conditions of other planets and satellites with those of the Earth in order to determine what is unique about our planet which permitted the emergence and evolution of life on it. On the basis of this and other available scientific information we have arrived at the conclusion that there are at least some twentyfive specific conditions or requirements which have to be fulfilled in order for life as we know it to appear and evolve in a planetary system such as ours. Most of these necessary conditions or requirements are mutually interdependent, but in order to discuss their role in depth they have been divided into five major general areas which are discussed in some detail herein. Planetary criteria, which relate to the physical properties of the planet as it is formed and as it becomes a differentiated cosmic body and potential abode of life. The mass, orbital characteristics and energetic relationships with the central star as well as the discrete separation of gas, liquid and solid phases of the planet are of utmost importance. Chemical criteria, which are concerned with the composition, availability of effective energy sources, and chemical constraints (solvent, pH range, redox potential) of the environment(s) where reactions take place for the prebiological formation of biochemical compounds. Protobiological criteria, which relate to the prebiologically synthesized oligomeric and polymeric biomolecules, how they interact cooperatively to form protobiological structures and functions (replication, catalysis, information transfer, etc.) and self-assemble to give rise to a living system. Evolutionary criteria, which are concerned with the processes responsible for the increase in complexity of organisms by genomic multiplication, symbiotic integration and

  10. Ecology and Evolution in the RNA World Dynamics and Stability of Prebiotic Replicator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Szilágyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As of today, the most credible scientific paradigm pertaining to the origin of life on Earth is undoubtedly the RNA World scenario. It is built on the assumption that catalytically active replicators (most probably RNA-like macromolecules may have been responsible for booting up life almost four billion years ago. The many different incarnations of nucleotide sequence (string replicator models proposed recently are all attempts to explain on this basis how the genetic information transfer and the functional diversity of prebiotic replicator systems may have emerged, persisted and evolved into the first living cell. We have postulated three necessary conditions for an RNA World model system to be a dynamically feasible representation of prebiotic chemical evolution: (1 it must maintain and transfer a sufficient diversity of information reliably and indefinitely, (2 it must be ecologically stable and (3 it must be evolutionarily stable. In this review, we discuss the best-known prebiotic scenarios and the corresponding models of string-replicator dynamics and assess them against these criteria. We suggest that the most popular of prebiotic replicator systems, the hypercycle, is probably the worst performer in almost all of these respects, whereas a few other model concepts (parabolic replicator, open chaotic flows, stochastic corrector, metabolically coupled replicator system are promising candidates for development into coherent models that may become experimentally accessible in the future.

  11. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin

  12. The Evolution of the Cryogenic System of the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hees, W.; Arnold, Ph; Fydrych, J.; Jurns, J.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is an intergovernmental project building a multidisciplinary research laboratory based upon the world's most powerful neutron source to be built in Lund, Sweden. The ESS will use a superconducting linear accelerator which will deliver protons with 5 MW of power to the target at 2.0 GeV with a nominal current of 62.5 mA. A cryomodule test stand will be supplied with helium for the site acceptance tests. The target will have two moderators using supercritical hydrogen to cool down the neutrons. The neutron instruments and the experiments’ sample environment will use liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to cool detectors and samples. The ESS cryogenic system is designed to deliver cryogenic cooling capacity to all three client system. A first concept of the ESS cryogenic system was developed in 2010 and 2011 with a limited amount of input from the clients as well as from site infrastructure (i.e. buildings and utilities). The design had to be flexible enough to accommodate future changes in scope, schedule and available infrastructure. Over the following years the design has evolved together with these parameters to achieve a maturity today which allowed us to order the accelerator cryoplant and to start procurement of many of the other parts of the ESS cryogenic system. This paper presents the evolution of the design throughout the years and the factors influencing certain design choices.

  13. Moon formation and orbital evolution in extrasolar planetary systems - A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available With over 450 extrasolar planets detected, the possibility of searching for moons of these planets is starting to be investigated. In order to make efficient use of limited observing resources, it would be useful if the types of moons that a given planet is likely to host was known prior to detection. Fortunately, informed by simulations of moon formation in our own solar system, as well as more general theoretical investigations of moon orbital evolution, such information is now available. I present a review of literature results concerning the likely physical and orbital properties of extra-solar moons, and how these properties are predicted to vary with the properties of their host planet.

  14. Diurnal evolution of wind structure and data availability measured by the DOE prototype radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Brian D.; Schroeder, John L.; Guynes, Jerry G.

    2017-11-01

    A new Doppler radar prototype has been developed and deployed at Texas Tech University with a focus on enhancing the technologies’ capability to contribute to wind plant relevant complex flow measurements. In particular, improvements in data availability, total data coverage, and autonomous operation were targeted to enable contributions to a wider range of wind energy applications. Doppler radar offers rapid scan speeds, extended maximum range and excellent along-beam range resolution allowing for the simultaneous measurement of various wind phenomena ranging from regional and wind plant scales to inflow and wake flow assessment for an individual turbine. Data examples and performance improvements relative to a previous edition of the technology are presented, including insights into the influence of diurnal atmospheric stability evolution of wind structure and system performance.

  15. Dating thrust systems on Mercury: new clues on the thermal evolution of the planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Ferrari, Sabrina; Zagato, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The global tectonic scenario of Mercury is dominated by contractional features mainly represented by lobate scarps. These structures are the expression of surface-breaking thrust faults and are linear or arcuate features widely distributed on Mercury. Since they display a broad distribution of orientations, lobate scarps are thought to be related to a global contractional strain, associated to planetary cooling (Watters et al., 1998, Geology, 26, 991-994). The age determination of these features will contribute to better constrain whether limits could be placed on when the contraction occurred. For these reasons we dated two thrust systems, located in different regions of Mercury. The first system is located at the edge between Kuiper and Beethoven quadrangle (latitude 9°20'N-23°42'S and longitude 72°73'-59°52'W). These 1500-long thrust system is constituted by several lobate scarps with a NNE-SSW orientation. The second thrust system considered in this work is the Enterprise Rupes, a 820 km-long scarp system that cuts the Rembrandt basin. We dated the activity of these systems through the buffered crater counting technique, which is used to derive absolute model ages of linear landforms (e.g. Fassett and Head, 2008, Icarus, 198, 37-56; Giacomini, et al, 2015, GSL, 401, 291-311). The results gave comparable ages for the two systems and suggest that the activity along major rupes all around planet Mercury have most probably begun before 3.5 Ga. This will give us new clues to better understanding the thermal evolution of the planet.

  16. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects.; Le regime international de responsabilite civile nucleaire. Perspectives d`evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyners, P. [Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-10-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs.

  17. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Naoji; Kawahito, Shinji; Soga, Tomohiro; Takaishi, Kazumi; Kitahata, Hiroshi; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M; Tanaka, Katsuya

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a closed-loop system (STG-55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), a type of artificial endocrine pancreas for the continuous monitoring and control of intraoperative blood glucose, for preventing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Glucose concentrations were controlled with either a manual injection of insulin based on a commonly used sliding scale (manual insulin group, n = 19) or the programmed infusion of insulin determined by the control algorithm of the artificial endocrine pancreas (programmed insulin group, n = 19). After the induction of anesthesia, a 20-G intravenous catheter was inserted into the peripheral forearm vein of patients in the programmed insulin group and connected to an artificial endocrine pancreas (STG-55). The target range for glucose concentrations was set to 100-150 mg/dL. The mean serum creatinine concentrations of preoperative, postoperative 24 and 48 h were 0.72, 0.78, and 0.79 mg/dL in the programmed insulin group, and 0.81, 0.95, and 1.03 mg/dL in the manual insulin group, respectively. Elevations in serum creatinine concentrations postoperative 48 h were significantly suppressed in the programmed insulin group. The STG-55 closed-loop system was effective for maintaining strict blood glucose control during hepatectomy with minimal variability in blood glucose concentrations and for suppressing elevations in serum creatinine concentrations. Strict blood glucose control by an artificial endocrine pancreas during hepatectomy may prevent postoperative AKI.

  18. Revolution evolution: tracing angular momentum during star and planetary system formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Claire Louise

    2015-04-01

    disc to expand. I used spatially resolved submillimetre detections of the dust and gas components of protoplanetary discs, gathered from the literature, to measure the radial extent of discs around low-mass pre-main sequence stars of ∼ 1-10 Myr and probe their viscous evolution. I find no clear observational evidence for the radial expansion of the dust component. However, I find tentative evidence for the expansion ofthe gas component. This suggests that the evolution of the gas and dust components of protoplanetary discs are likely governed by different astrophysical processes. Observations of jets and outflows emanating from protostars and pre-main sequence stars highlight that it may also be possible to remove angular momentum from the circumstellar material. Using the sample of spatially resolved protoplanetary discs, I find no evidence for angular momentum removal during disc evolution. I also use the spatially resolved debris discs from the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 Observations of Nearby Stars survey to constrain the amount of angular momentum retained within planetary systems. This sample is compared to the protoplanetary disc angular momenta and to the angular momentum contained within pre-stellar cores. I find that significant quantities of angular momentum must be removed during disc formation and disc dispersal. This likely occurs via magnetic braking during the formation of the disc, via the launching of a disc or photo-evaporative wind, and/or via ejection of planetary material following dynamical interactions.

  19. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class space nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 space nuclear power system have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the baseline concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the backup concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the naseline concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The growth concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The growth concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the baseline concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness

  20. Mating systems, sperm competition, and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P O; Whittingham, L A; Pitcher, T E

    2001-01-01

    Comparative analyses suggest that a variety of factors influence the evolution of sexual dimorphism in birds. We analyzed the relative importance of social mating system and sperm competition to sexual differences in plumage and body size (mass and tail and wing length) of more than 1,000 species of birds from throughout the world. In these analyses we controlled for phylogeny and a variety of ecological and life-history variables. We used testis size (corrected for total body mass) as an index of sperm competition in each species, because testis size is correlated with levels of extrapair paternity and is available for a large number of species. In contrast to recent studies, we found strong and consistent effects of social mating system on most forms of dimorphism. Social mating system strongly influenced dimorphism in plumage, body mass, and wing length and had some effect on dimorphism in tail length. Sexual dimorphism was relatively greater in species with polygynous or lekking than monogamous mating systems. This was true when we used both species and phylogenetically independent contrasts for analysis. Relative testis size was also related positively to dimorphism in tail and wing length, but in most analyses it was a poorer predictor of plumage dimorphism than social mating system. There was no association between relative testis size and mass dimorphism. Geographic region and life history were also associated with the four types of dimorphism, although their influence varied between the different types of dimorphism. Although there is much interest in the effects of sperm competition on sexual dimorphism, we suggest that traditional explanations based on social mating systems are better predictors of dimorphism in birds.

  1. Why language really is not a communication system: a cognitive view of language evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Anne C.

    2015-01-01

    While most evolutionary scenarios for language see it as a communication system with consequences on the language-ready brain, there are major difficulties for such a view. First, language has a core combination of features—semanticity, discrete infinity, and decoupling—that makes it unique among communication systems and that raise deep problems for the view that it evolved for communication. Second, extant models of communication systems—the code model of communication (Millikan, 2005) and the ostensive model of communication (Scott-Phillips, 2015) cannot account for language evolution. I propose an alternative view, according to which language first evolved as a cognitive tool, following Fodor’s (1975, 2008) Language of Thought Hypothesis, and was then exapted (externalized) for communication. On this view, a language-ready brain is a brain profoundly reorganized in terms of connectivity, allowing the human conceptual system to emerge, triggering the emergence of syntax. Language as used in communication inherited its core combination of features from the Language of Thought. PMID:26441802

  2. Requirements Evolution and Reuse Using the Systems Engineering Process Activities (SEPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Suzanne Barber

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available As more organizations attempt to reuse previous development efforts and incorporate legacy systems, typical software development activities have transitioned from unique ground-up coding efforts to the integration of new code, legacy code, and COTS implementations. This transition has brought on a whole new set of development issues, including resolving mismatches between integrated components and tracing legacy and COTS components to requirements. This paper presents the Systems Engineering Process Activities (SEPA methodology, developed to address these and other issues in current software development practices. SEPA aids the reuse and integration process by focusing on requirements integration and evolution, while maintaining traceability to requirements gathered from domain experts and end users. The SEPA methodology supports the development process by promoting requirements analysis prior to design, separation of domain-based and application-based (i.e. implementation-specific requirements, and evaluating system component suitability in terms of domain and application requirements. The paper also presents an example illustrating the application of SEPA in the emergency incident response domain to facilitate requirements management and foster requirements reuse.

  3. The Acoculco caldera magmas: genesis, evolution and relation with the Acoculco geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Ceballos, G.; Macías, J. L.; Avellán, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Acoculco Caldera Complex (ACC) is located at the eastern part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt; México. This caldera complex have been active since 2.7 Ma through reactivations of the system or associated magmatism. Therefore the ACC is an excellent case scenario to investigate the relation between the magmatic heat supply and the evolution processes that modified magmatic reservoirs in a potential geothermal field. We investigated the origin and the magmatic processes (magma mixing, assimilation and crystallization) that modified the ACC rocks by petrography, major oxides-trace element geochemistry, and isotopic analysis. Magma mixing is considered as the heat supply that maintain active the magmatic system, whereas assimilation yielded insights about the depth at which processes occurred. In addition, we performed a series of hydrothermal experiments in order to constrain the storage depth for the magma tapped during the caldera collapse. Rocks from the ACC were catalogued as pre, syn and post caldera. The post caldera rocks are peralkaline rhyolites, in contrast to all other rocks that are subalkaline. Our investigation is focus to investigate if the collapse modified the plumbing system and the depth at which magmas stagnate and recorded the magmatic processes.

  4. Plasma effects in the formation, evolution and present configuration of the Saturnian ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 observations of the fine structure of the Saturnian ring system demonstrate the importance of electric forces in controlling the dynamics of fine (charged) dust in the rings. A new theory ('gravito-electrodynamics') which combines the electric and the gravitational forces on these grains leads to natural explanations of a number of observed ring phenomena. If plasma processes play a significant role in the dynamics of the ring system at the present time, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they also played an important and perhaps crucial role at cosmogonic times during the emplacement and subsequent condensation of the initial dusty plasma. It is suggested that the Saturnian ring system represents a 'time-capsule' containing vital clues about the physical processes operating during the early stages of its formation. It is shown that both its overall structure as well as its fine structure, as determined by Voyagers 1 and 2, indicate the crucial importance of plasma processes in its formation and subsequent evolution

  5. Coogoon Valles, western Arabia Terra: Hydrological evolution of a complex Martian channel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Antonio; López, Iván; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Fernández-Remolar, David; de Pablo, Miguel Ángel; Gómez, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Coogoon Valles is an intricate fluvial system, and its main channel was formed during the Noachian period through the erosion of the clay-bearing basement of the Western Arabia Terra. This region is characterized by a thinner crust compared to the rest of the highlands and by the occurrence of massive phyllosilicate-bearing materials. The origin of this region is still under discussion. Its surface has been exposed to a large-scale volcanism, and several episodes of extensive denudation were primarily controlled by fluvial activity. In this regard, the study of the oldest channels in Arabia Terra is crucial for understanding the global geological evolution of early Mars. The reactivation of the hydrological system by sapping followed by aeolian erosion had reshaped the channel, as well as exposed ancient materials and landforms. The examination of the bed deposits suggests an old episode of detrital sedimentation covering the Noachian basement followed by an erosive event that formed the current Coogoon Valles configuration. A complex system of deltas and alluvial fans is situated at the termination of this channel, which has been proposed as a landing site for the upcoming ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions.

  6. Stochastic dynamics of complex systems: from glasses to evolution (series on complexity science)

    CERN Document Server

    Sibani, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical evolution over long time scales is a prominent feature of all the systems we intuitively think of as complex - for example, ecosystems, the brain or the economy. In physics, the term ageing is used for this type of slow change, occurring over time scales much longer than the patience, or indeed the lifetime, of the observer. The main focus of this book is on the stochastic processes which cause ageing, and the surprising fact that the ageing dynamics of systems which are very different at the microscopic level can be treated in similar ways. The first part of this book provides the necessary mathematical and computational tools and the second part describes the intuition needed to deal with these systems. Some of the first few chapters have been covered in several other books, but the emphasis and selection of the topics reflect both the authors' interests and the overall theme of the book. The second part contains an introduction to the scientific literature and deals in some detail with the desc...

  7. Characterization of the opossum immune genome provides insights into the evolution of the mammalian immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Katherine; Sanderson, Claire E; Deakin, Janine E; Wong, Emily S W; Assange, Daniel; McColl, Kaighin A; Gout, Alex; de Bono, Bernard; Barrow, Alexander D; Speed, Terence P; Trowsdale, John; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2007-07-01

    The availability of the first marsupial genome sequence has allowed us to characterize the immunome of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Here we report the identification of key immune genes, including the highly divergent chemokines, defensins, cathelicidins, and Natural Killer cell receptors. It appears that the increase in complexity of the mammalian immune system occurred prior to the divergence of the marsupial and eutherian lineages approximately 180 million years ago. Genomes of ancestral mammals most likely contained all of the key mammalian immune gene families, with evolution on different continents, in the presence of different pathogens leading to lineage specific expansions and contractions, resulting in some minor differences in gene number and composition between different mammalian lineages. Gene expansion and extensive heterogeneity in opossum antimicrobial peptide genes may have evolved as a consequence of the newborn young needing to survive without an adaptive immune system in a pathogen laden environment. Given the similarities in the genomic architecture of the marsupial and eutherian immune systems, we propose that marsupials are ideal model organisms for the study of developmental immunology.

  8. An analytical process of the spatio-temporal evolution of urban systems based on allometric and fractal ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yanguang [Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: chenyg@pku.edu.cn; Jiang Shiguo [Department of Geography, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents a computer-based analytical framework for the spatio-temporal evolution of urban systems using the ideas from the allometric growth associated with fractals. Both cities as systems and systems of cities follow the law of allometric growth, and the scaling factors of the allometric relations can compose the matrix equations as eigenfunctions. The fractal dimension arrays are just the eigenvectors of the scaling factor matrices while the numbers of variables are the greatest eigenvalues. The solutions of matrix equations can be employed to analyse city systems and evaluate relative levels of urban development. The method is applied to Hangzhou urban system of China. The results reveal clearly an urbanization process characterized as population concentration and an industrialization process characterized as industrial diffusion. The computation results are consistent with the reality, which indicate that the method is available for analyzing the spatio-temporal evolution of complex systems such as cities.

  9. A transformation theory of stochastic evolution in Red Moon methodology to time evolution of chemical reaction process in the full atomistic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuichi; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2017-05-28

    Atomistic information of a whole chemical reaction system, e.g., instantaneous microscopic molecular structures and orientations, offers important and deeper insight into clearly understanding unknown chemical phenomena. In accordance with the progress of a number of simultaneous chemical reactions, the Red Moon method (a hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics reaction method) is capable of simulating atomistically the chemical reaction process from an initial state to the final one of complex chemical reaction systems. In the present study, we have proposed a transformation theory to interpret the chemical reaction process of the Red Moon methodology as the time evolution process in harmony with the chemical kinetics. For the demonstration of the theory, we have chosen the gas reaction system in which the reversible second-order reaction H 2 + I 2  ⇌ 2HI occurs. First, the chemical reaction process was simulated from the initial configurational arrangement containing a number of H 2 and I 2 molecules, each at 300 K, 500 K, and 700 K. To reproduce the chemical equilibrium for the system, the collision frequencies for the reactions were taken into consideration in the theoretical treatment. As a result, the calculated equilibrium concentrations [H 2 ] eq and equilibrium constants K eq at all the temperatures were in good agreement with their corresponding experimental values. Further, we applied the theoretical treatment for the time transformation to the system and have shown that the calculated half-life τ's of [H 2 ] reproduce very well the analytical ones at all the temperatures. It is, therefore, concluded that the application of the present theoretical treatment with the Red Moon method makes it possible to analyze reasonably the time evolution of complex chemical reaction systems to chemical equilibrium at the atomistic level.

  10. Fitting evolution of matrix protein 1 from influenza A virus using analytical solution of system of differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaomin; Li, Zhenchong; Wu, Guang

    2010-04-01

    The understanding of evolutionary mechanism is important, and equally important is to describe the evolutionary process. If so, we would know where the biological evolution will go. At species level, we would know whether and when a species will extinct or be prosperous. At protein level, we would know when a protein family will mutate more. In our previous study, we explored the possibility of using the differential equation to describe the evolution of protein family from influenza A virus based on the assumption that the mutation process is the exchange of entropy between protein family and its environment. In this study, we use the analytical solution of system of differential equations to fit the evolution of matrix protein 1 family from influenza A virus. Because the evolutionary process goes along the time course, it can be described by differential equation. The results show that the evolution of a protein family can be fitted by the analytical solution. With the obtained fitted parameters, we may predict the evolution of matrix protein 1 family from influenza A virus. Our model would be the first step towards the systematical modeling of biological evolution and paves the way for further modeling.

  11. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  12. Syn-Rift Systems of East Godavari Sub Basin: Its Evolution and Hydrocarbon Prospectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, J., Jr.; Zaman, B.

    2014-12-01

    Krishna Godavari (K.G.) basin is a passive margin basin developed along the Eastern coast of India. This basin has a polyhistoric evolution with multiple rift systems. Rift basin exploration has provided the oil and gas industry with almost one third of discovered global hydrocarbon resources. Understanding synrift sequences, their evolution, depositional styles and hydrocarbon prospectivity has become important with recent discovery of the wells, G-4-6,YS-AF and KG-8 in the K.G. offshore basin. The East Godavari subbasin is a hydrocarbon producing basin from synrift and pre-rift sediments, and hence this was selected as the study area for this research. The study has been carried out by utilizing data of around 58 wells (w1-w58) drilled in the study area 25 of which are hydrocarbon bearing with organic thickness varying from 200 m to 600 m. Age data generated by palaentology and palynology studies have been utilized for calibration of key well logs to differentiate between formations within prerift and synrift sediments. The electrologs of wells like resistivity, gamma ray, neutron, density and sonic logs have been utilized for correlation of different formations in all the drilled wells. The individual thicknesses of sand, shale and coal in the formations have been calculated and tabulated. For Golapalli formation, the isopach and isolith maps were generated which revealed that there were four depocentres with input from the north direction. Schematic geological cross sections were prepared using the well data and seismic data to understand the facies variation across the basin. The sedimentological and petrophysical analysis reports and electro log suites were referred to decipher the environment of deposition, the reservoir characteristics, and play types. The geochemical reports [w4 (Tmax)= 455-468 °C; w1 (Tmax) = 467-514 °C; w4(VRO)= 0.65-0.85; w1(VRO)= 0.83-1.13] revealed the source facies, its maturation and migration timings i.e. the petroleum systems

  13. A coupled petrological-geodynamical model to investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B. J. P.; Rummel, L.; White, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of crustal magmatic systems can be analyzed from different physical and chemical perspectives. Most previous work focus either on the petrological side (considering thermal effects and ignoring mechanics), or on the mechanical evolution (assuming a fixed melt chemistry). Here, we consider both by combining a 2D finite element code, MVEP2, with a thermodynamic modelling approach (Perple_X). Density, melt fraction and the chemical composition of the liquid and solid phase are computed for different starting rock compositions and the evolving chemistry is tracked on markers via 10 main oxides (SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Cr2O3-MgO-FeO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-H2O). As soon as the local chemistry changes due to melt extraction, new phase diagrams are computed based on the residual solid chemistry for the deflated magma chamber or on the liquid chemistry for newly generated magma filled fractures. To investigate the chemical evolution in magma chambers and magma filled fractures, we inject mafic sills periodically at varying depth levels into the continental crust. The initial sill injections are focused in either one or two main zones in the crust and may interact with each other. The formation of magma filled fractures from this partially molten zone is tracked with a semi analytical dike initiation algorithm that forms new dikes as a function of the local stress field above the partially molten region and subsequently depletes and compacts the magma source region. Dike generation is thus affected by the background strain rate, amount and depth of melt accumulations as well as parameters that control the plastic and viscous behaviour of the crust (e.g. cohesion, viscous creep flow low etc.). Results show that magma filled fractures triggered by sill injections preferentially form under extensional conditions, particularly within the middle crust (in ca. 25 km depth). Magma chambers in the lower continental crust, on the other hand, are stable over a longer period of time due a

  14. The tectonometamorphic evolution of the Apuseni Mountains (Romania): Geodynamic constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    New structural, thermobarometric and geochronological data allow integrating kinematics, timing and intensity of tectonic phases into a geodynamic model of the Apuseni Mountain, which provides new constraints for the evolution of the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaride system of orogens. Strong differences in terms of deformation directions between Early and Late Cretaceous events provide new constraints on the regional geodynamic evolution during the Cretaceous. Geochronological and structural data evidence a Late Jurassic emplacement of the South Apuseni Ophiolites on top of the Biharia Nappe System (Dacia Mega-Unit), situated in an external position at the European margin. Following the emplacement of the ophiolites, three compressive deformation phases affected the Apuseni Mountains during Alpine orogeny: a) NE-directed in-sequence nappe stacking and regional metamorphic overprinting under amphibolite-facies conditions during the Early Cretaceous ("Austrian Phase"), b) NW-directed thrusting and folding, associated with greenschist-facies overprinting, during the early Late Cretaceous ("Turonian Phase") and c) E-W internal folding together with brittle thrusting during the latest Cretaceous ("Laramian Phase"). Major tectonic unroofing and exhumation at the transition from Early to Late Cretaceous times is documented through new Sm-Nd Grt, Ar-Ar Ms and Rb-Sr Bt ages from the study area and resulted in a complex thermal structure with strong lateral and vertical thermal gradients. Nappe stacking and medium-grade metamorphic overprinting during the Early Cretaceous exhibits striking parallels between the evolution of the Tisza-Dacia Mega-Units and the Austroalpine Nappes (ALCAPA Mega-Unit) and evidences a close connection. However, Late Cretaceous tectonic events in the study area exhibit strong similarities with the Dinarides. Thus, the Apuseni Mountains represent the "missing link" between the Early Cretaceous Meliata subduction (associated with obduction of ophiolites

  15. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  16. Climatic Evolution and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets: Perspectives from Coupled Atmosphere-Mantle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Sarkar, D.; Moore, W. B.

    2016-12-01

    A multitude of factors including the distance from the host star and the stage of planetary evolution affect planetary climate and habitability. The complex interactions between the atmosphere and dynamics of the deep interior of the planets along with stellar fluxes present a formidable challenge. This work employs simplified approaches to address these complex issues in a systematic way. To be specific, we are investigating the coupled evolution of atmosphere and mantle dynamics. The overarching goal here is to simulate the evolutionary history of the terrestrial planets, for example Venus, Earth and Mars. This research also aims at deciphering the history of Venus-like runaway greenhouse and thus explore the possibility of cataclysmic shifts in climate of Earth-like planets. We focus on volatile cycling within the solid planets to understand the role of carbon/water in climatic and tectonic outcomes of such planets. In doing so, we are considering the feedbacks in the coupled mantle-atmosphere system. The primary feedback between the atmosphere and mantle is the surface temperature established by the greenhouse effect, which regulates the temperature gradient that drives the mantle convection and controls the rate at which volatiles are exchanged through weathering. We start our models with different initial assumptions to determine the final climate outcomes within a reasonable parameter space. Currently, there are very few planetary examples, to sample the climate outcomes, however this will soon change as exoplanets are discovered and examined. Therefore, we will be able to work with a significant number of potential candidates to answer questions like this one: For every Earth is there one Venus? ten? a thousand?

  17. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R&D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  18. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, S

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R and D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  19. Mobile Genetic Elements and Evolution of CRISPR-Cas Systems: All the Way There and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Kira S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems of bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity show multifaceted evolutionary relationships with at least five classes of mobile genetic elements (MGE). First, the adaptation module of CRISPR-Cas that is responsible for the formation of the immune memory apparently evolved from a Casposon, a self-synthesizing transposon that employs the Cas1 protein as the integrase and might have brought additional cas genes to the emerging immunity loci. Second, a large subset of type III CRISPR-Cas systems recruited a reverse transcriptase from a Group II intron, providing for spacer acquisition from RNA. Third, effector nucleases of Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems that are responsible for the recognition and cleavage of the target DNA were derived from transposon-encoded TnpB nucleases, most likely, on several independent occasions. Fourth, accessory nucleases in some variants of types I and III toxin and type VI effectors RNases appear to be ultimately derived from toxin nucleases of microbial toxin–antitoxin modules. Fifth, the opposite direction of evolution is manifested in the recruitment of CRISPR-Cas systems by a distinct family of Tn7-like transposons that probably exploit the capacity of CRISPR-Cas to recognize unique DNA sites to facilitate transposition as well as by bacteriophages that employ them to cope with host defense. Additionally, individual Cas proteins, such as the Cas4 nuclease, were recruited by bacteriophages and transposons. The two-sided evolutionary connection between CRISPR-Cas and MGE fits the “guns for hire” paradigm whereby homologous enzymatic machineries, in particular nucleases, are shuttled between MGE and defense systems and are used alternately as means of offense or defense. PMID:28985291

  20. Benefits of a Recombination-Proficient Escherichia coli System for Adaptive Laboratory Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peabody, George; Winkler, James; Fountain, Weston; Castro, David A.; Leiva-Aravena, Enzo; Kao, Katy C.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution typically involves the propagation of organisms asexually to select for mutants with the desired phenotypes. However, asexual evolution is prone to competition among beneficial mutations (clonal interference) and the accumulation of hitchhiking and neutral mutations. The benefits of horizontal gene transfer toward overcoming these known disadvantages of asexual evolution were characterized in a strain of Escherichia coli engineered for superior sexual recombinati...