WorldWideScience

Sample records for strict middling yellow

  1. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  2. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  3. 7 CFR 28.404 - Strict Low Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Color. 28.404 Section 28.404... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.404 Strict Low Middling Color. Strict Low Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United...

  4. 7 CFR 28.402 - Strict Middling Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Color. 28.402 Section 28.402... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.402 Strict Middling Color. Strict Middling Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the United States...

  5. 7 CFR 28.431 - Strict Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Tinged Color. 28.431 Section 28.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Tinged Color is color which is better than Middling Tinged Color. ...

  6. 7 CFR 28.433 - Strict Low Middling Tinged Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Tinged Color. 28.433 Section 28.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Tinged Color. Strict Low Middling Tinged Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  7. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  8. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  9. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  10. Formation of virions is strictly required for turnip yellows virus long-distance movement in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipper, Clémence; Monsion, Baptiste; Bortolamiol-Bécet, Diane; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-02-01

    Viral genomic RNA of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV; genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) is protected in virions formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and the minor component, the readthrough (RT*) protein. Long-distance transport, used commonly by viruses to systemically infect host plants, occurs in phloem sieve elements and two viral forms of transport have been described: virions and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. With regard to poleroviruses, virions have always been presumed to be the long-distance transport form, but the potential role of RNP complexes has not been investigated. Here, we examined the requirement of virions for polerovirus systemic movement by analysing CP-targeted mutants that were unable to form viral particles. We confirmed that TuYV mutants that cannot encapsidate into virions are not able to reach systemic leaves. To completely discard the possibility that the introduced mutations in CP simply blocked the formation or the movement of RNP complexes, we tested in trans complementation of TuYV CP mutants by providing WT CP expressed in transgenic plants. WT CP was able to facilitate systemic movement of TuYV CP mutants and this observation was always correlated with the formation of virions. This demonstrated clearly that virus particles are essential for polerovirus systemic movement.

  11. Classroom Management Strategies of Highly Effective Teachers in Diverse Middle Schools: Be Strict and Calm, Not Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Katheryne L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study investigated and identified the classroom management strategies of 12 highly effective middle school teachers who served diverse student populations at two different school sites. In addition, this research explored the beliefs and experiences of 305 diverse middle school students regarding their experiences with…

  12. Human impacts on runoff regime of middle and lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fang Sang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 54-year (1950 to 2003 monthly runoff series from February, April, August, and November, as well as the annual runoff series, measured at both Huayuankou and Lijin hydrological stations were chosen as representative data, and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT was applied to analyze the impacts of human activities on the runoff regime of the middle and lower Yellow River. A point of change in 1970 was first determined, and the observed series before 1970 were considered natural runoff while those after 1970 were restored according to linear trends. Then, the CWT was applied to both the observed and restored runoff series to reveal their variations at multi-temporal scales, including the five temporal ranges of 1–4, 6–8, 9–12, 16–22, and 22–30 years, and the trend at the temporal scale of 54 years. These analysis results are compared and discussed in detail. In conclusion, because of the impacts of human activities, there have been significant changes in the runoff regime in the middle and lower Yellow River since 1970. The decaying tendency of annual runoff has become more pronounced, and the inner-annual distribution of runoff has changed, but human activities have had little impact on the periodic characteristics of runoff.

  13. Variation of precipitation for the last 300 years over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Jingyun; HAO; Zhixin; GE; Quansheng

    2005-01-01

    The precipitation at 17 stations over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River is reconstructed during the period of 1736―1910, using the snow and rainfall records in the Qing Dynasty, together with the instrumental observation data of precipitation and farmland soil moisture content. The soil physics model related to rainfall infiltration and the surface water balance equation are taken as main reconstruction methodology. The field infiltration experiment by artificial rainfall is conducted to check the reliability. And the precipitation series over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and its 4 sub-regions are established, going back to 1736. Analysis of the time series indicates that the abrupt change of precipitation from high to low occurs around 1915 over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. During the three periods of 1791―1805, 1816―1830 and 1886―1895, the precipitation is markedly higher than the mean of the series. While both the periods of 1916―1945 and 1981―2000 are characterized by less precipitation. Three periodicities of 22―25a, 3.9a and 2.7a are shown in the precipitation fluctuation over the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. Moreover, the periodical signal of 22―25a becomes weaker and weaker since the abrupt change of 1915 and disappears in the late 1940s, and then the periodical signal of 35―40a appears instead.

  14. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

  15. Statistical Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Middle Reaches area of the Yellow River During 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the hourly TBB and cloud images of FY-2E, meteorological observation data, and NCEP reanalysis data with 1°×1° spatial resolution from May to October during 2005-2014, the climatic characteristics of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River were analyzed, including mesoscale convective complex (MCC), persistent elongated convective systems (PECS), meso-βscale MCC (MβCCS) and Meso-βscale PECS (MβECS). The results are as follows: (1) MCS tended to occur over the middle and south of Gansu, the middle and south of Shanxi, the middle and north of Shaanxi, and the border of Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. MCS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River formed in May to October, and was easy to develop the mature in summer. MCC and MβECS were main MCS causing precipitation in summer. (2) The daily variation of MCS was obvious, and usually formed and matured in the afternoon and the evening to early morning of the next day. Most MCS generated fast and dissipated slowly, and were mainly move to the easterly and southeasterly, but the moving of round shape MCS was less than the elongated shape's. (3) The average TBB for the round shape MCS was lower than the elongated shape MCS. The development of MCC was most vigorous and strong, and it was the strongest in August, while that of MβECS wasn't obviously influenced by the seasonal change. The average eccentricity of the mature MCC and PECS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River was greater than that in USA, and the former was greater than in the lower reaches area of the Yellow River, while the latter was smaller. (4) The characteristics of rainfall caused by MCS were complex over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, and there were obvious regional difference. There was wider, stronger and longer precipitation when the multiple MCS merged. The rainfall in the center of cloud area was obviously greater than in other region of cloud area. The

  16. Middle Holocene Organic Carbon and Biomarker Records from the South Yellow Sea: Relationship to the East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liang; Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Dou, Yanguang; Xie, Luhua; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    The East Asian monsoon system influences the sedimentation and transport of organic matter in East Asian marginal seas that is derived from both terrestrial and marine sources. In this study, we determined organic carbon (OC) isotope values, concentrations of marine biomarkers, and levels of OC and total nitrogen (TN) in core YSC-1 from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS). Our objectives were to trace the sources of OC and variations in palaeoproductivity since the middle Holocene, and their relationships with the East Asian monsoon system. The relative contributions of terrestrial versus marine organic matter in core sediments were estimated using a two-end-member mixing model of OC isotopes. Results show that marine organic matter has been the main sediment constituent since the middle Holocene. The variation of terrestrial organic carbon concentration (OCter) is similar to the EASM history. However, the variation of marine organic carbon concentration (OCmar) is opposite to that of the EASM curve, suggesting OCmar is distinctly influenced by terrestrial material input. Inputs of terrestrial nutrients into the SYS occur in the form of fluvial and aeolian dust, while concentrations of nutrients in surface water are derived mainly from bottom water via the Yellow Sea circulation system, which is controlled by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Variations in palaeoproductivity represented by marine organic matter and biomarker records are, in general, consistent with the recent EAWM intensity studies, thus, compared with EASM, EAWM may play the main role to control the marine productivity variations in the SYS.

  17. Sedimentary and hydrological studies of the Holocene palaeofloods in the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge of the middle Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Ma, Yugai

    2015-01-01

    Holocene slackwater deposits along the river channels were used to study the magnitude and frequency of the palaeofloods that occurred prior to gauged and historical data sets all over the world. Palaeohydrological investigations along the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge of the middle Yellow River, China, identified palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) at several sites along the cliffs bordering the river channel. The SWDs are intercalated within Holocene eolian loess-soil profiles and clastic slope deposits. The palaeoflood SWDs were differentiated from eolian loess and soil by the sedimentary criteria and analytical results including magnetic susceptibility and particle-size distribution, similar to the flood SWDs in 2012, which indicated that these well-sorted palaeoflood SWD beds were deposited from the suspended sediment load in floodwaters. They have recorded the extraordinary palaeoflood events which occurred between 3200 and 3000 a BP as dated by the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with pedostratigraphic correlations with the previously studied Holocene pedo-stratigraphy in the Yellow River drainage basin. Manning slope-area calculations estimate the peak discharged for these palaeoflood events to range from 43,290 to 49,830 m3/s. The drainage area of the study site is 489,900 km2. It is 2.0-2.5 times the largest gauged flood (21,000 m3/s) that has ever occurred since 1934. These events also occurred on Yellow River tributaries, including the Weihe, Jinghe and Qishuihe Rivers. These flood events are therefore considered to be a regional expression of known climatic events in the northern hemisphere and demonstrate Holocene climatic instability. This study provides important data in understanding the interactions between regional hydro-climatic systems and global change in semiarid and subhumid regions.

  18. Flood Simulation based on ArcGIS in the Ungauged Area from Fugu to Wubao of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangyan; Yan, Yiqi; Jiang, Xinhui

    2017-12-01

    The Qingliangsigou and Jialuhe in the middle Yellow River are selected as the typical tributaries, history flood data in 1980-2013 and Horton infiltration capacity curve are used to calculate the stable infiltration rate and establish the model of runoff yield and concentration, the parameters are calibrated and applied in the ungauged area from Fugu to Wubao. The study area is divided into 20 units based on ArcGIS, Muskingum method parameters in each unit are calibrated, and typical floods of ungauged area from Fugu to Wubao are simulated. The results show that the simulation effects are good: the average error of peak time is about -0.4h, the error of peak discharge is in the forecasting allowable range, and the deterministic coefficient is 0.66.

  19. Strict confluent drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppstein, D.; Holten, D.H.R.; Löffler, M.; Nöllenburg, M.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings), and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to

  20. Strict confluent drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppstein, D.; Holten, D.; Löffler, M.; Nöllenburg, M.; Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings), and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to

  1. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  2. Runoff and sediment variation in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yao, Wenyi; Xiao, Peiqing; Sun, Weiying

    2018-02-01

    Massive water and soil conservation works (WSCW) have been conducted in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River since 1982. With the impending effects of climate change, it is necessary to reconsider the effects of WSCW on runoff and sediment variation at decadal and regional scales. Using long-term official and synthesized data, the WSCW impacts on reducing water and soil loss were studied in Sanchuanhe River watershed. Results showed that the sediment and runoff generated from this area showed a decreasing trend in the past 50 years. A great progress has been achieved in erosion control since the 1970s. After the 4 soil and water conservation harnessing stages during the period from 1970 to 2006, the sediment and runoff yield showed decreases with the extension of harnessing. The results revealed that human activities exerted the largest effects on the sediment reduction and explained 66.6% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. The contribution of rainfall variation to runoff reduction was as large as human activities. A great benefit have been obtained in water and soil loss control in this area.

  3. Drought change in the middle reach of the Yellow River since the late Ming Dynasty and their correlation with runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    Because of the reported decreasing trends in precipitation and streamflow in north-central China (Starting point of Ancient Silk Road), it is essential to understand long-term in water resource availability in this area. Thus, this research presents a new February-August PDSI reconstruction spanning CE 1615-2013 for the southern edge of the Gobi Desert under a highly variable arid and semi-arid climate in northern China. In addition to this new PDSI reconstruction, some previously published annual precipitation/PDSI reconstructions from the neighbouring regions were also used to infer the large-scale hydro-climatic signal of the middle reach of the Yellow River. Spatial correlation analyses with gridded precipitation data showed that the tree-ring records were indeed able to capture much of the regional interannual hydro-climatic signal variability. Using principal component analyses on the reconstructions and documentary records, many large-scale dry and flood events were found during the period AD 1615-2006. Many of these dry events have had profound impacts on the people of the study area over the past several centuries. Temporal correlations among the reconstruction and climatic indices, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, demonstrate that water availability is influenced by tropical and high-latitude forcings in the Pacific rim. Continued work in this direction should enable us to understand better the hydrological change under global warming and the past climate variability of the silk road over long temporal and large spatial scales.

  4. Yellow Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Vaccine Information Testing for Vaccine Adverse Events Yellow fever Vaccine Continuing Education Course Yellow Fever Home Prevention Vaccine Vaccine Recommendations Reactions to Yellow Fever Vacine Yellow Fever Vaccine, Pregnancy, & ... Transmission Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment Maps Africa ...

  5. Dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load in the Huangfuchuan Basin of the Middle Yellow River, China: historical records and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, E.; Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow River is well known for its high sediment load and serious water shortage. The long-term averaged sediment load is about 1.6´103 million tons per year, resulting in aggrading and perched lower reaches. In recent years, however, dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load have been observed. The annual sediment load has been less than 150 million tons in the last ten years. Extrapolation of this trend into the future would motivate substantial change in the management strategies of the Lower Yellow River. To understand the possible trend and its coevolving drivers, we performed a case study of the Huangfuchuang River, which is a tributary to the Middle Yellow River, with a drainage area of 3246 km2 and an annual precipitation of 365 mm. Statistical analysis of historical data from 1960s to 2015 showed a significantly decreasing trend in runoff and sediment load since 1984. As potential drivers, the precipitation does not show an obvious change in annual amount, while the vegetation cover and the number of check dams have been increased gradually as a result of the national Grain for Green project. A simulation with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) reproduced the historical evolution processes, and showed that human activities dominated the reduction in runoff and sediment load, with a contribution of around 80%. We then projected the runoff and sediment load for the next 50 years (2016-2066), considering typical scenarios of climate change and accounting for vegetation cover development subject to climate conditions and storage capacity loss of check dams due to sediment deposition. The differences between the projected trend and the historical record were analyzed, so as to highlight the coevolving processes of climate, vegetation, and check dam retention on a time scale of decades. Keywords: Huangfuchuan River Basin, sediment load, vegetation cover, check dams, annual precipitation, SWAT.

  6. Species Protection in the European Union : How Strict is Strict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoukens, Hendrik; Bastmeijer, Kees; Born et al., Charles-Hubert

    2015-01-01

    European Union law to protect wild species of plants and animals is generally considered as ‘strict’. Opponents of nature conservation law often pick the species protection components of the EU Bird Directive and Habitat Directive as a prime example of an unnecessary strict regulatory scheme that

  7. Efficient Strictness Analysis of Haskell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Damm; Hjæresen, Peter; Rosendahl, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Strictness analysis has been a living field of investigation since Mycroft's original work in 1980, and is getting increasingly significant with the still wider use of lazy functional programming languages. This paper focuses on an actual implementation of a strictness analyser for Haskell....... The analyser uses abstract interpretation with chaotic fixpoint iteration. The demand-driven nature of this iteration technique allows us to use large domains including function domains in the style of Burn et al. 1986 and Wadler 87 and retain reasonable efficiency. The implementation, furthermore, allows us...

  8. Flexible or Strict Taxonomic Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This work compares methods for constructing feature-based ontologies that are supposed to be used for culturally-specific knowledge transfer. The methods to be compared are the Terminological Ontology (TO) [1], a method of constructing ontology based on strict principles and rules, and the Infinite...

  9. Yellow fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to thrive. Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment There is no specific treatment for yellow fever. ... SJ, Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis, St. ...

  10. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    interpretation of attribute grammars. The framework is used to construct a strictness analysis for attribute grammars. Results of the analysis enable us to transform an attribute grammar such that attributes are evaluated during parsing, if possible. The analysis is proved correct by relating it to a fixpoint...... semantics for attribute grammars. An implementation of the analysis is discussed and some extensions to the analysis are mentioned....

  11. The trend to get strict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Chris.

    1997-01-01

    Most policy makers in the USA and Europe are committed to strict environmental liability. The polluter pays principle is seen as popular with voters and easy to defend. For the energy sector, encompassing everything from disused gas works and coal mines to refineries, tank farms and filling stations, the cost of cleaning up old sites can be huge. Within the policy commitment to strict liability there are some issues up for negotiation, however. These include such things as: available defences; the burden of proof; mechanisms for sharing liability at multi-party sites; funding of orphan shares; the protection afforded to lenders. Most governments have shown some flexibility on these issues and some examples from the USA are given. Nevertheless, in Europe the momentum towards comprehensive strict liability regimes seems unrelenting. In the Member states of the European Union, liability laws are either already in place or new laws are in preparation. The European Commission is working on proposals for an EU-wide environmental liability regime but there are formidable obstacles to overcome if it is to become EU law. In the meanwhile, the process of trying to reach agreement at an EU level is likely to strengthen the legislative drive at national level. (UK)

  12. Occurrences, sources and risk assessment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-12-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), one class of hydrophobic and toxic compounds, are easily adsorbed into sediments and then pose potential risks to the ecosystem and human health. However, few researches on short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in sediments have been performed. In order to comprehensively investigate the spatial distributions, sources, and ecological risks of CPs, sediments collected from the middle reaches of the Yellow River were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 11.6 to 9.76 × 10 3  ng/g dry weight (dw) and from 8.33 to 168 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant correlation was found between total organic carbon (TOC) and CP concentrations (P > 0.05). The spatial distributions showed that contamination levels of CPs were relevant to human activities. In addition, two types of sediment samples were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and results indicated the predominant congener groups were C 10 Cl 6-7 for SCCPs and C 14 Cl 7-8 for MCCPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that SCCPs and MCCPs in the sediments may have different sources, and SCCPs are likely to come from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Moreover, complex environmental processes, including long-range transportation via the atmosphere and/or river, deposition and degradation of CPs, resulted in increased abundances of short chain and low chlorinated congeners in sediment samples compared with commercial mixtures, and different homolog patterns among samples. The significant negative correlation between SCCP concentrations and MCCP/SCCP ratios could be related to long-range transport of CPs. A preliminary risk assessment indicated that CPs at current levels posed no significant ecological risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    of Euclidean spaces. We prove that, if the distance matrix is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points. In connection with an open problem raised...

  14. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  15. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  16. Strictly diagonal holomorphic functions on Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Fedak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the boundedness of holomorphic functionals on a Banach space with a normalized basis $\\{e_n\\}$ which have a very special form $f(x=f(0+\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty c_nx_n^n$ and which we call strictly diagonal. We consider under which conditions strictly diagonal functions are entire and uniformly continuous on every ball of a fixed radius.

  17. Precipitation cycles in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River (1736-2000)%1736-2000年黄河中下游地区降水变化的周期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝志新; 郑景云; 葛全胜

    2008-01-01

    Based on the long-term precipitation series with annual time resolution in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and its four sub-regions during 1736-2000 reconstructed from the rainfall and snowfall archives of the Qing Dynasty, the precipitation cycles are analyzed by wavelet analysis and the possible climate forcings, which drive the precipitation changes, are explored. The results show that: the precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River has inter-annual and inter-decadal oscillations like 2-4a,quasi-22a and 70-80a. The 2-4a cycle is linked with EI Ni(n)o events, and the precipitation is lower than normal year in the occurrence of the EI Ni(n)o year or the next year; for the quasi-22a and the 70-80a cycles, Wolf Sun Spot Numbers and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) coincide with the two cycle signals. However, on a 70-80a time scale, the coincidence between solar activity and precipitation is identified before 1830, and strong (weak) solar activity is generally correlated to the dry (wet) periods; after 1830, the solar activity changes to 80-100a quasi-century long oscillation, and the adjusting action to the precipitation is becoming weaker and weaker; the coincidence between PDO and precipitation is shown in the whole time series. Moreover, in recent 100 years, PDO is becoming a pace-maker of the precipitation on the 70-80a time scale.

  18. Electronuclear Park, Privatization and Civil Strict Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Gerard Camille

    2008-01-01

    The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park

  19. Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nóbrega Litvoc

    Full Text Available Summary The yellow fever (YF virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98% and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.

  20. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...

  1. Divergence of Populations of Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava, and Citrine wagtaill, Motacilla citreola (Motacillidae, Passeriformes, in the Middle Volga of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemieva E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of “yellow” wagtails collected in the areas geographically representing the Middle Volga breeding populations of these species were investigated. After isolation of mtDNA barkoding of studied “yellow” wagtails species was conducted. Amplification of the subunit of cytochrome oxidase I gene used as a genetic marker for the comparison of the samples was carried out. After sequencing and sequence alignment of gene cytochrome c-oxidase I, based on the comparison of genetic distances between individuals of the studied species using Jalview phylogenetic trees of populations of species Motacilla flava Linnaeus, 1758 and Motacilla citreola Pallas, 1776 were constructed.

  2. Dynamic Enforcement of the Strict Integrity Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiangfeng; LIANGHongliang; SUNYufang

    2005-01-01

    The Strict integrity policy (SIP) in Biba's integrity model is widely used in protecting information integrity, but the static integrity labels of both subjects and objects increase compatibility cost of applications and might prevent some operations that are indeed harmless.In order to improve compatibility, Dynamic enforcement of the Strict integrity policy (DESIP) is put forward. The current integrity label attribute of a subject in SIP is replaced with two attributes in DESIP, which are used to confine dynamically the range of objects a subject could be allowed to access. The new rules of access control in DESIP are given for each kind of access mode (observe,modify and invoke) together with the proofs of their valid-ity. Comparison between SIP and DESIP shows that after a sequence of operations, a subject controlled by DESIP tends to behave in a similar way as it is controlled by SIP and DESIP is more compatible than SIP.

  3. A strictly hyperbolic equilibrium phase transition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaire, G; Faccanoni, G; Kokh, S.

    2007-01-01

    This Note is concerned with the strict hyperbolicity of the compressible Euler equations equipped with an equation of state that describes the thermodynamical equilibrium between the liquid phase and the vapor phase of a fluid. The proof is valid for a very wide class of fluids. The argument only relies on smoothness assumptions and on the classical thermodynamical stability assumptions, that requires a definite negative Hessian matrix for each phase entropy as a function of the specific volume and internal energy. (authors)

  4. On Fixed Points of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    were defined to be the functions that are strictly contracting with respect to the Cantor metric (also called the Baire distance) on signals over non...in Computer Science, pages 447–484. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1992. [36] George Markowsky. Chain-complete posets and directed sets with...Journal of Logic Programming, 42(2):59–70, 2000. [53] George M. Reed and A. William Roscoe. A timed model for communicating sequential processes. In

  5. STRICT STABILITY OF IMPULSIVE SET VALUED DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop strict stability concepts of ODE to impulsive hybrid set valued differential equations. By Lyapunov’s original method, we get some basic strict stability criteria of impulsive hybrid set valued equations.

  6. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

  8. Synchronizing strict-feedback and general strict-feedback chaotic systems via a single controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shihua; Wang Feng; Wang Changping

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic design procedure to synchronize a class of chaotic systems in a so-called strict-feedback form based on back-stepping procedure. This approach needs only a single controller to realize synchronization no matter how many dimensions the chaotic system contains. Furthermore, we point out that the method does not work for general strict-feedback chaotic systems, for instance, Lorenz system. Therefore, we propose three kinds of synchronization schemes for Lorenz system using the Lyapunov function method. All the three schemes avoid including divergence factor as in Ref. [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 16 (2003) 37]. Especially in the last two schemes, we need only one state variable in controller, which has important significance in chaos synchronization used for communication purposes. Finally numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed methods

  9. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  10. Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics...

  11. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  12. 43 CFR 29.7 - Imposition of strict liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LIABILITY FUND § 29.7 Imposition of strict liability. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law... prove that the damages were caused by an act of war or by the negligence of the United States or other... negligence of such damaged party. (c)(1) Strict liability for all claims arising out of any one incident...

  13. Strictly-regular number system and data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that we call the strictly-regular system, which efficiently supports the operations: digit-increment, digit-decrement, cut, concatenate, and add. Compared to other number systems, the strictly-regular system has distinguishable properties. It is superior to the re...

  14. STRICT CONVEXITY THROUGH EQUIVALENT NORMS IN SEPARABLES BANACH SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Zubiaga Vera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Let E be a separable Banach space with norm || . ||. In the present work, the objective is to construct a norm || . ||1 that is equivalent to || . || in E, such that || . ||1 is strictly convex. In addition it is shown that its dual conjugate norm is also strictly convex.

  15. Yellow fever: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    2001-08-01

    Yellow fever, the original viral haemorrhagic fever, was one of the most feared lethal diseases before the development of an effective vaccine. Today the disease still affects as many as 200,000 persons annually in tropical regions of Africa and South America, and poses a significant hazard to unvaccinated travellers to these areas. Yellow fever is transmitted in a cycle involving monkeys and mosquitoes, but human beings can also serve as the viraemic host for mosquito infection. Recent increases in the density and distribution of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, as well as the rise in air travel increase the risk of introduction and spread of yellow fever to North and Central America, the Caribbean and Asia. Here I review the clinical features of the disease, its pathogenesis and pathophysiology. The disease mechanisms are poorly understood and have not been the subject of modern clinical research. Since there is no specific treatment, and management of patients with the disease is extremely problematic, the emphasis is on preventative vaccination. As a zoonosis, yellow fever cannot be eradicated, but reduction of the human disease burden is achievable through routine childhood vaccination in endemic countries, with a low cost for the benefits obtained. The biological characteristics, safety, and efficacy of live attenuated, yellow fever 17D vaccine are reviewed. New applications of yellow fever 17D virus as a vector for foreign genes hold considerable promise as a means of developing new vaccines against other viruses, and possibly against cancers.

  16. Strategy and Aspects of Monitoring / Control Strictly in Coordinated Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William José Borges

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the approach structures of the strictly coordinated theoretical framework developed by Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 as an expanded perspective of the firm, taking into account the food supply chains as an extension of the nexus of contracts proposed by Coase (1937 and taken up by Williamson (1985. The structures stand out as strictly coordinated. Zylbersztajn and Farina (1999 turn to identifying points of common interests that encourage firms to promote contracts between themselves in a strictly coordinated way, considering the degree of asset specificity involved in the transaction and the competitive forces that determine the search for strategic positioning organizations to achieve sustainable superior results.

  17. Normal form and synchronization of strict-feedback chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Shihua; Yu Minghai; Wang Changping

    2004-01-01

    This study concerns the normal form and synchronization of strict-feedback chaotic systems. We prove that, any strict-feedback chaotic system can be rendered into a normal form with a invertible transform and then a design procedure to synchronize the normal form of a non-autonomous strict-feedback chaotic system is presented. This approach needs only a scalar driving signal to realize synchronization no matter how many dimensions the chaotic system contains. Furthermore, the Roessler chaotic system is taken as a concrete example to illustrate the procedure of designing without transforming a strict-feedback chaotic system into its normal form. Numerical simulations are also provided to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed methods

  18. Strict finitism and the logic of mathematical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the logic behind applied mathematics to the physical world, this volume illustrates how radical naturalism, nominalism and strict finitism can account for the applications of classical mathematics in current theories about natural phenomena.

  19. Tocopherol synthesis from homogentisate in Capsicum anuum L. (yellow pepper) chromoplast membranes: evidence for tocopherol cyclase.

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Y; Heise, K P

    1998-01-01

    The present study shows for the first time appreciable tocopherol cyclase activities in plastidial membrane preparations of Capsicum annuum L. (yellow pepper) fruits. When chromoplast membranes from yellow peppers were incubated with [3H]homogentisate and phytyl pyrophosphate under strictly reducing conditions, all biosynthesis precursors were labelled. The main labelling was found in gamma-tocopherol. These observations contradict the hypothesis that assigns a rate-limiting function to tocop...

  20. Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.

  1. Strictly contractive quantum channels and physically realizable quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raginsky, Maxim

    2002-01-01

    We study the robustness of quantum computers under the influence of errors modeled by strictly contractive channels. A channel T is defined to be strictly contractive if, for any pair of density operators ρ, σ in its domain, parallel Tρ-Tσ parallel 1 ≤k parallel ρ-σ parallel 1 for some 0≤k 1 denotes the trace norm). In other words, strictly contractive channels render the states of the computer less distinguishable in the sense of quantum detection theory. Starting from the premise that all experimental procedures can be carried out with finite precision, we argue that there exists a physically meaningful connection between strictly contractive channels and errors in physically realizable quantum computers. We show that, in the absence of error correction, sensitivity of quantum memories and computers to strictly contractive errors grows exponentially with storage time and computation time, respectively, and depends only on the constant k and the measurement precision. We prove that strict contractivity rules out the possibility of perfect error correction, and give an argument that approximate error correction, which covers previous work on fault-tolerant quantum computation as a special case, is possible

  2. Yellow fever: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2007-03-15

    Yellow fever continues to occur in regions of Africa and South America, despite the availability of effective vaccines. Recently, some cases of severe neurologic disease and multiorgan system disease have been described in individuals who received yellow fever vaccine. These events have focused attention on the need to define criteria for judicious use of yellow fever vaccine and to describe the spectrum of adverse events that may be associated with yellow fever vaccine. Describing host factors that would increase risk of these events and identifying potential treatment modalities for yellow fever and yellow fever vaccine-associated adverse events are subjects of intense investigation.

  3. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How can I prevent yellow fever? Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine can prevent yellow fever. Yellow fever vaccine ... such as those containing DEET. 3 Yellow fever vaccine Yellow fever vaccine is a live, weakened virus. It is ...

  4. Convergence theorems for strictly hemi-contractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-04-01

    It is proved that each of two well-known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and the Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to the fixed point of strictly hemi-contractive map in real Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1,m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets; and Banach spaces with property (U, λ, m+1, m), λ is an element of R, m is an element of IN include the L p (or l p ) spaces, p≥2. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 22 refs

  5. Yellow substance (gelbstoff)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, A.

    1988-04-01

    The different values of the mean slope (S) of the absorption coefficient a(λ) of gelbstoff (yellow substance) for each region under the same hydrological conditions and the correlation between the quantity of absorption (CA) of gelbstoff and sea water parameter is discussed. 12 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Introducing the Yellow Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye…

  7. Analytic properties of form factors in strictly confining models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikor, F.

    1979-12-01

    An argument is presented showing that strict confinement implies the possible existence of an (unwanted) branch point at q 2 =0 in the form factors. In case of a bag extended to infinity in the relative time, the branch point is certainly there (provided that the form factor is non zero at q 2 =0). (author)

  8. Dominance on Strict Triangular Norms and Mulholland Inequality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrík, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, 15 March (2018), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-07724Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dominance relation * Mulholland inequality * strict triangular norm * transitivity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  9. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  10. Introducing the yellow laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-02-01

    The author has acquired a yellow laser with the specific wavelength of 589 nm. Because this is the first time such a laser has been discussed in this journal, I feel it is appropriate to provide a discussion of its function and capabilities. Normal laser safety should be employed, such as not pointing it into eyes or at people, and using eye protection for the young and inexperienced. It is important to note that 589 nm is the same wavelength as the Sodium-D line (doublet). This allows for the laser to serve as a replacement for sodium lamps, and, considering its rather high price, this added value should be balanced against its cost. What follows is a list of activities that showcase the yellow laser's unique promise as an engaging piece of technology that can be used in the teaching of physics.

  11. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassanti, W.A.; Esteves Junior, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  12. Yellow cake product practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosina, B.

    1980-01-01

    The flow sheets of uranium ore processing plants at present operating throughout the world terminate with the production of yellow cake. The demands of the refineries on the quality of this commodity have become more stringent with time. The impurity content of yellow cake depends to a considerable extent on the nature of the technical operations preceding precipitation. As a rule the purity of the final product is greater when the uranium is precipitated from re-extractants or regenerators consisting of weakly basic resins. An analysis of 80 uranium precipitation flow sheets demonstrates the advantages of using ammonia, while to some extent use is made of caustic soda, magnesium oxide, hydrogen peroxide or calcium oxide; precipitation is carried out in one or two stages at high temperature. Use of a particular chemical is governed by its availability, price, effect on the environment, degree of filtrate utilization, etc. It may be anticipated that the perfecting of precipitation flow sheets will be directed towards achieving maximum concentration of uranium in the solutions before precipitation, reduction in the volume of liquid flows through the equipment, an improvement in the filtration qualities of the precipitate, etc. The paper gives the flow sheet for precipitation of uranium by means of gaseous ammonia from sulphate-carbonate solutions. For drying yellow cake use has been made of spray driers. The dry product is easily sampled and transported. (author)

  13. Strong Convergence Theorems for a Pair of Strictly Pseudononspreading Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Chao Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a real Hilbert space. Let T1,T2:H→H be k1-, k2-strictly pseudononspreading mappings; let αn and βn be two real sequences in (0,1. For given x0∈H, the sequence xn is generated iteratively by xn+1=βnxn+1-βnTw1αnγfxn+I-μαnBTw2xn, ∀n∈N, where Twi=1−wiI+wiTi with i=1,2 and B:H→H is strongly monotone and Lipschitzian. Under some mild conditions on parameters αn and βn, we prove that the sequence xn converges strongly to the set FixT1∩FixT2 of fixed points of a pair of strictly pseudononspreading mappings T1 and T2.

  14. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and c...

  15. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Causal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-09

    functions were defined to be the functions that are strictly contracting with respect to the Cantor metric (also called the Baire distance) on signals...of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 447–484. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 1992. [36] George Markowsky. Chain-complete posets and directed...Journal of Logic Programming, 42(2):59–70, 2000. [52] George M. Reed and A. William Roscoe. A timed model for communicating sequential processes. In Laurent

  16. Febre amarela Yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A febre amarela é doenca infecciosa não-contagiosa causada por um arbovírus mantido em ciclos silvestres em que macacos atuam como hospedeiros amplificadores e mosquitos dos gêneros Aedes na África, e Haemagogus e Sabethes na América, são os transmissores. Cerca de 90% dos casos da doença apresentam-se com formas clínicas benignas que evoluem para a cura, enquanto 10% desenvolvem quadros dramáticos com mortalidade em torno de 50%. O problema mostra-se mais grave em África onde ainda há casos urbanos. Nas Américas, no período de 1970-2001, descreveram-se 4.543 casos. Os países que mais diagnosticaram a doença foram o Peru (51,5%, a Bolívia (20,1% e o Brasil (18,7%. Os métodos diagnósticos utilizados incluem a sorologia (IgM, isolamento viral, imunohistoquímica e RT-PCR. A zoonose não pode ser erradicada, mas, a doença humana é prevenível mediante a vacinação com a amostra 17D do vírus amarílico. A OMS recomenda nova vacinação a cada 10 anos. Neste artigo são revistos os principais conceitos da doença e os casos de mortes associados à vacina.Yellow fever is an infectious and non-contagious disease caused by an arbovirus, the yellow fever virus. The agent is maintained in jungle cycles among primates as vertebrate hosts and mosquitoes, especially Aedes in Africa, and Haemagogus and Sabethes in America. Approximately 90% of the infections are mild or asymptomatic, while 10% course to a severe clinical picture with 50% case-fatality rate. Yellow fever is largely distributed in Africa where urban epidemics are still reported. In South America, between 1970-2001, 4,543 cases were reported, mostly from Peru (51.5%, Bolivia (20.1% and Brazil (18.7%. The disease is diagnosed by serology (detection of IgM, virus isolation, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Yellow fever is a zoonosis and cannot be eradicated, but it is preventable in man by using the 17D vaccine. A single dose is enough to protect an individual for at least

  17. Modular PNML revisited: Some ideas for strict typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2007-01-01

    The Petri Net Markup Language (PNML) is currently standardised by ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7 WG 19 as Part 2 of ISO/IEC 15909. But, there is not yet a mechanism for structuring large Petri nets and for constructing Petri nets from modules. To this end, modular PNML has been proposed some time ago. But, mod...... of Petri net, but still has a strict type system. This paper focuses on the ideas and concepts; the technical details still need to be worked out. To this end, this paper also raises some issues and questions that need to be discussed before standardising modular PNML....

  18. Relaxation Methods for Strictly Convex Regularizations of Piecewise Linear Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwiel, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    We give an algorithm for minimizing the sum of a strictly convex function and a convex piecewise linear function. It extends several dual coordinate ascent methods for large-scale linearly constrained problems that occur in entropy maximization, quadratic programming, and network flows. In particular, it may solve exact penalty versions of such (possibly inconsistent) problems, and subproblems of bundle methods for nondifferentiable optimization. It is simple, can exploit sparsity, and in certain cases is highly parallelizable. Its global convergence is established in the recent framework of B -functions (generalized Bregman functions)

  19. Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Need yellow fever vaccine? Plan ahead. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... none were from the United States). What is yellow fever? Yellow fever is caused by a virus that ...

  20. Non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The tunnelling mechanism is widely used to explain Hawking radiation. However, in many cases the analysis used to obtain the Hawking temperature only involves comparing the emission probability for an outgoing particle with the Boltzmann factor. Banerjee and Majhi improved this approach by explicitly finding a black body spectrum associated with black holes. Their result, obtained using a reformulation of the tunnelling mechanism, is in contrast to that of Parikh and Wilczek, who found an emission probability that is compatible with a non-strictly thermal spectrum. Using the recently identified effective state for a black hole, we solve this contradiction via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. The final result is a non-strictly black body spectrum from the tunnelling mechanism. We also show that for an effective temperature, we can express the corresponding effective metric using Hawking’s periodicity arguments. Potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle are discussed. -- Highlights: •We review an important result by Banerjee and Majhi on the tunnelling mechanism in the framework of Hawking radiation. •This result is in contrast to another result reported by Parikh and Wilczek. •We introduce the effective state of a black hole. •We explain the contrast via a slight modification of the analysis by Banerjee and Majhi. •We discuss potential important implications for the black hole information puzzle

  1. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  2. Strict calculation of electron energy distribution functions in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is objective of the paper to report on strict calculations of the velocity or energy distribution function function and related macroscopic properties of the electrons from appropriate electron kinetic equations under various plasma conditions and to contribute to a better understanding of the electron behaviour in inhomogeneous plasma regions. In particular, the spatial relaxation of plasma electrons acted upon by uniform electric fields, the response of plasma electrons on spatial disturbances of the electric field, the electron kinetics under the impact of space charge field confinement in the dc column plasma and the electron velocity distribution is stronger field as occurring in the electrode regions of a dc glow discharge is considered. (author)

  3. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitambar, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Hsieh, Min-Hsiu [Centre for Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems (QCIS), Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology (FEIT), University of Technology Sydney - UTS, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  4. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and contained cytochrome c3 and desulfoviridin. Except for furfural degradation, the characteristics of the furfural isolate were remarkably similar to those of the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio gigas. The furfural isolate has been tentatively identified as Desulfovibrio sp. strain F-1. Images PMID:16346423

  5. Effects of a strict cutoff on Quantum Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturnfield, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Standard Quantum Field Theory has a number of integrals which are infinite. Although these are eliminated for some cases by renormalization, this aspect of the theory is not fully satisfactory. A number of theories with fundamental lengths have been introduced as alternatives and it would be useful to be able to distinguish between them. In particular, the effects that a strict cutoff would have on Quantum Field Theory is studied. It is noted that care must be taken in the method used to apply a strict cutoff. This lead to considering a theory where the cutoffs are defined by restricting each internal line. This theory is only piece-wise analytic. The resulting scattering matrix is frame dependent, yet the theory still satisfies the special relativity view that all frames are subjectively identical. The renormalization of this theory is finite. The change in mass from the electron self-energy will be a spinor operator. The main distinctions of this theory from standard theory will occur at super high energies. New poles and resonances which arise from new endpoint singularities will be found. The locations of these singularities will be frame dependent. Some of these singularities will correspond to creations or interactions of the normal particles with tachyons. It will be shown that for the one loop diagram, the form of the cutoff singularities are closely related to the standard singularities. When there is more than one loop, there can appear some new type of behavior. In particular, a cube root type of behavior in the two loop self-energy diagram will be found. Also the asymptotic behavior of the ladder diagram is studied

  6. Phylogeny of Yellow Fever Virus, Uganda, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Holly R; Kayiwa, John; Mossel, Eric C; Lutwama, Julius; Staples, J Erin; Lambert, Amy J

    2018-08-17

    In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.

  7. Light perception in two strictly subterranean rodents: life in the dark or blue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Kott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia are strictly subterranean, congenitally microphthalmic rodents that are hardly ever exposed to environmental light. Because of the lack of an overt behavioural reaction to light, they have long been considered to be blind. However, recent anatomical studies have suggested retention of basic visual capabilities. In this study, we employed behavioural tests to find out if two mole-rat species are able to discriminate between light and dark, if they are able to discriminate colours and, finally, if the presence of light in burrows provokes plugging behaviour, which is assumed to have a primarily anti-predatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We used a binary choice test to show that the silvery mole-rat Heliophobius argenteocinereus and the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii exhibit a clear photoavoidance response to full-spectrum ("white", blue and green-yellow light, but no significant reaction to ultraviolet or red light during nest building. The mole-rats thus retain dark/light discrimination capabilities and a capacity to perceive short to medium-wavelength light in the photopic range of intensities. These findings further suggest that the mole-rat S opsin has its absorption maximum in the violet/blue part of the spectrum. The assay did not yield conclusive evidence regarding colour discrimination. To test the putative role of vision in bathyergid anti-predatory behaviour, we examined the reaction of mole-rats to the incidence of light in an artificial burrow system. The presence of light in the burrow effectively induced plugging of the illuminated tunnel. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that the photopic vision is conserved and that low acuity residual vision plays an important role in predator avoidance and tunnel maintenance in the African mole-rats.

  8. Study on Environment Performance Evaluation and Regional Differences of Strictly-Environmental-Monitored Cities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth and development, the problem of environmental pollution in China’s cities is becoming increasingly serious, and environmental pollution takes on a regional difference. There is, however, little comprehensive evaluation on the environmental performance and the regional difference of strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China. In this paper, the environmental performance of 109 strictly-environmental-monitored cities in China is evaluated in terms of natural performance, management performance, and scale performance by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, incorporating PM2.5 and PM10 as undesirable outputs. The empirical results show that: (1 At present, the natural performance is quite high, while the management performance is noticeably low for most cities. (2 The gap between the level of economic development and environmental protection among cities in China is large, and the scale efficiency of big cities is better than that of smaller cities. The efficiency value of large-scale cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, etc. is high, equaling 1; the value of smaller cities such as Sanmenxia, Baoding, Mudanjiang, and Pingdingshan is low, close to 0, indicating that big cities are characterized by high environmental efficiency. (3 From the perspective of region, the level of environmental performance in China is very uneven. For example, the environmental efficiency level of the Pan-Pearl River Delta region is superior to that of the Pan-Yangtze River region and the Bahia Rim region, whose values of environmental efficiency are 0.858, 0.658, and 0.622 respectively. The average efficiency of the Southern Coastal Economic Zone, Eastern Coastal Comprehensive Economic Zone, and the Comprehensive Economic Zone in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is higher than that of other regions. Finally, corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward. The method used in this paper is applicable

  9. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  10. Managing Hanford Site solid waste through strict acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Pierce, R.D.; Willis, N.P.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, strict management programs have been implemented for the management of these wastes. Solid waste management is accomplished through a systems performance approach to waste management that used best-demonstrated available technology (BDAT) and best management practices. The solid waste program at the Hanford Site strives to integrate all aspects of management relative to the treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) of solid waste. Often there are many competing and important needs. It is a difficult task to balance these needs in a manner that is both equitable and productive. Management science is used to help the process of making decisions. Tools used to support the decision making process include five-year planning, cost estimating, resource allocation, performance assessment, waste volume forecasts, input/output models, and waste acceptance criteria. The purpose of this document is to describe how one of these tools, waste acceptance criteria, has helped the Hanford Site manage solid wastes

  11. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  12. Middle Eastern solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, M.

    2001-01-01

    The need to consider the Middle East as a group of distinct countries and not as one single market and to tailor the services offered by companies is stressed. The cultures, political and social conditions, forms of the oil and gas industry in the countries making up the Middle East and their technology requirements are different and vary widely. The approach taken by Shell Global Solutions to these differences is described and illustrated with Shell's experiences in Oman and Saudi Arabia. Shell has found that Omanis are keen to work in their oil and gas industry, and to protect their country's natural environment. Saudi also have intense pride in their oil industry and here Shell supports refinery operators reduce costs while maintaining strict quality control. Shell has been selected to help Saudi Arabia develop its natural gas reserves; as part of the Core Venture 3 project, Shell will build a power desalination plant

  13. Strict or Graduated Punishment? Effect of Punishment Strictness on the Evolution of Cooperation in Continuous Public Goods Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, Hajime; Nakamaru, Mayuko

    2013-01-01

    Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher’s threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player’s death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results. PMID:23555826

  14. Strict or graduated punishment? Effect of punishment strictness on the evolution of cooperation in continuous public goods games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shimao

    Full Text Available Whether costly punishment encourages cooperation is one of the principal questions in studies on the evolution of cooperation and social sciences. In society, punishment helps deter people from flouting rules in institutions. Specifically, graduated punishment is a design principle for long-enduring common-pool resource institutions. In this study, we investigate whether graduated punishment can promote a higher cooperation level when each individual plays the public goods game and has the opportunity to punish others whose cooperation levels fall below the punisher's threshold. We then examine how spatial structure affects evolutionary dynamics when each individual dies inversely proportional to the game score resulting from the social interaction and another player is randomly chosen from the population to produce offspring to fill the empty site created after a player's death. Our evolutionary simulation outcomes demonstrate that stricter punishment promotes increased cooperation more than graduated punishment in a spatially structured population, whereas graduated punishment increases cooperation more than strict punishment when players interact with randomly chosen opponents from the population. The mathematical analysis also supports the results.

  15. Smog Yellows Taj Mahal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Built as a monument to the favorite wife of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, the Taj Mahal has watched over the city of Agra, India, since the mid-seventeenth century with its pillars of gleaming white marble. By the spring of 2007, however, one of the world's most visited landmarks was turning yellow, and a panel of India's parliament had little trouble identifying the culprit: pollution. The panel blamed particles of soot and dirt suspended high in the atmosphere for the Taj Mahal's dinginess. The Taj Mahal's home, Agra, sits not far from the base of the Himalaya, and smog regularly collects along the southern side of the mountain range. On May 16, 2007, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around Agra, India. The closeup image shows the immediate vicinity of the Taj Majal. The larger image shows the surrounding area. In both pictures, dingy, gray-beige haze obscures the satellite's view of the land surface. India had tried to minimize the adverse impact of air pollution on the famous landmark. According to the BBC, in the late 1990s, India's Supreme Court ordered the closure of thousands of iron foundries and kilns that had belched smoke near the monument. Many of the 3 million tourists who visited the Taj Majal each year approached the monument on horse-drawn carriages or battery-operated buses as fossil-fuel-powered vehicles could not drive within 2 kilometers (1.5 miles). Since those efforts have failed to save the Taj Majal's complexion, Indian officials have considered applying a cleansing mud pack to the monument's surface to draw out the dirt. As India industrializes, smog results, and the Taj Mahal's gleaming whiteness is only one casualty. Pollution has been blamed for a decrease in Indian rice harvests, which had soared during the 'Green Revolution' of the 1960s and 1970s. Haze and dust also appear to bring on the region's monsoon rains earlier than normal.

  16. 17DD yellow fever vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472

  17. Application of isostatic gravity anomaly in the Yellow Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z.; Qin, J.; Huang, W.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the deep crustal structure of the Yellow Sea area, we used the Airy-Heiskanen model to calculate the isostatic gravity anomaly of this area. Based on the Bouguer gravity anomaly and water depth data of this area, we chose the calculating parameters as standard crustal thickness 30 km, crust-mantle density difference 0.6g/cm3and grid spacing 0.1°×0.1°. This study reveals that there are six faults and four isostatic negative anomalies in the study area. The isostatic anomalies in much of Yellow Sea areas give priority to those with positive anomalies. The isostatic anomalies in North Yellow Sea are higher than South Yellow Sea with Jiashan-Xiangshui fault as the boundary. In the north of the study area, isostatic anomalies are characterized by large areas of positive anomaly. The change is relatively slow, and the trends give priority to the trend NE or NEE. In the middle of the north Yellow Sea basin, there is a local negative anomaly, arranged as a string of beads in NE to discontinuous distribution. Negative anomaly range is small, basically corresponds to the region's former Cenozoic sedimentary basin position. To the south of Jiashan-Xiangshui fault and west of Yellow Sea eastern margin fault, including most of the south Yellow Sea and Jiangsu province, the isostatic anomalies are lower. And the positive and negative anomalies are alternative distribution, and negative anomaly trap in extensive development. The trends give priority to NE, NEE, both to the NW. On the basis of the characteristics of isostatic gravity anomalies, it is concluded that the Yellow Sea belongs to continental crustal isostatic area whose isostatic anomalies is smooth and slow. ReferencesHeiskanen, W. A., F. A. V. Meinesz, and S. A. Korff (1958), The Earth and Its Gravity Field, McGraw-Hill, New York. Meng, X. J., X. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Yang (2014), Geophysical survey in eastern China seas and the characteristics of gravity and magnetic fields, Marine Geoglogy

  18. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ntushk

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic ... lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly ..... Immunodominant membrane protein (imp) Gene.

  19. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  20. Application of the Delft Numerical models in the Lower Yellow River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Wang, Z.B.; Winterwerp, H.; Visser, P.J.; Sloff, C.J.; Liu, H.L.; Liang, G.T.; Wu, S.Q.; Ji, Z.W.

    2002-01-01

    Because of heavy deposition and water shortage, the Yellow River faces the risk of flooding and no-flow since the middle of 1980s. The problem could be solved only by integrated water management. However, Dutch has a long history fighting the flood and gets a lot of experiences in water management,

  1. Plant Guide: Yellow beeplant (Cleome lutea Hook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Jim Cane; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Yellow beeplant is a valuable native forage species for bees wasps and butterflies. Over 140 species of native bees have been observed foraging for nectar or pollen on yellow beeplant in southern Utah (Cane, 2008). Yellow beeplant is an annual forb which could provide food to insects in the first growing season of a range seeding (Ogle and others, 2011a). This...

  2. The Success Rate of Initial {sup 131I} Ablation in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Comparison Between Less strict and Very Strict Low Iodine Diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ik Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Seo, Ye Young; Oh, Jin Kyoung; O, Joo Hyun; Chung, Soo Kyo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To decrease the risk of recurrence or metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), selected patients receive radioactive iodine ablation of remnant thyroid tissue or tumor. A low iodine diet can enhance uptake of radioactive iodine. We compared the success rates of radioactive iodine ablation therapy in patients who followed two different low iodine diets (LIDs). The success rates of postsurgical radioactive iodine ablation in DTC patients receiving empiric doses of 150 mCi were retrospectively reviewed. First-time radioactive iodine ablation therapy was done in 71 patients following less strict LID. Less strict LID restricted seafood, iodized salt, egg yolk, dairy products, processed meat, instant prepared meals, and multivitamins. Very strict LID additionally restricted rice, freshwater fish, spinach, and soybean products. Radioactive iodine ablation therapy was considered successful when follow up {sup 123I} whole body scan was negative and stimulated serum thyroglobulin level was less than 2.0 ng/mL. The success rate of patients following less strict LID was 80.3% and for very strict LID 75.6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates between the two LID groups (P=0.48). Very strict LID may not contribute to improving the success rate of initial radioactive iodine ablation therapy at the cost of great inconvenience to the patient.

  3. Validation of an automatic diagnosis of strict left bundle branch block criteria using 12-lead electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiaojuan; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Ruwald, Martin H

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were recently proposed to identify LBBB patients to benefit most from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of our study was to automate identification of strict LBBB in order to facilitate its broader application. METHODS: We devel...

  4. The Effect of the Strictness of Consultation Requirements on Fraud Consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gold, A.H.; Knechel, W.R.; Wallage, P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the strictness of a requirement to consult on potential client fraud affects auditors' propensity to consult with firm experts. We consider two specific forms of guidance about fraud consultations: (1) strict, i.e., mandatory and binding; and (2) lenient, i.e., advisory and

  5. Combining glyphosate with burning or mowing improves control of Yellow Bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S.; Hickman, Karen R.; Harmoney, Keith R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum [L.] Keng) threatens native biodiversity, and its control is of interest to land managers involved in restoration of invaded grasslands. We used single, double, and triple applications of glyphosate (2.125 kg ai.ha-1.application-1) over the course of one growing season in combinations at different timings (early, middle, late season) with and without a mechanical treatment of mowing or burning to determine the most effective control method. One year after treatment, burning and mowing prior to a mid-season single or double early, middle, and/or late season herbicide application resulted in a similar level of control of yellow bluestem relative to a triple herbicide application, all of which had greater control relative to herbicide treatment alone. Reproductive tiller density and visual obstruction increased 2 yr after treatment with two herbicide treatments applied either early and middle season or early and late season, but it was prevented with burning and mowing prior to herbicide application. With the exception of three herbicide applications, combining burning or mowing with herbicide applications provided more effective control of yellow bluestem than any individual herbicide applications. Burning or mowing likely improves glyphosate effectiveness by altering the invasive grass structure so that plants are clear of standing dead and have shorter, active regrowth to enhance herbicide effectiveness. During restoration projects requiring control of invasive yellow bluestem, an effective management option is a combination of mechanical and chemical control.

  6. Perinatal Yellow Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lilian Martins Oliveira; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Teixeira, Daniela Caldas; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Andrade; Cury, Verônica Ferreira; Filho, Marcelo Pereira Lima; Perígolo, Graciele; Heringer, Tiago Pires

    2018-04-09

    An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.

  7. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  8. Synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system based on cross active backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Gao Jinfeng; Ma Xikui

    2007-01-01

    This Letter presents a novel cross active backstepping design method for synchronization control of cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system, in which the ordinary backstepping design is unavailable. The proposed control method, combining backstepping design and active control approach, extends the application of backstepping technique in chaos control. Based on this method, different combinations of controllers can be designed to meet the needs of different applications. The proposed method is applied to achieve chaos synchronization of two identical cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic systems. Also it is used to implement synchronization between cross-strict feedback hyperchaotic system and Roessler hyperchaotic system. Numerical examples illustrate the validity of the control method

  9. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  10. Morfofunctional indices of peripheric blood for persons working within the strict radiation control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Yukhimuk, L.N.; Egorova, D.M.; Pogontseva, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    The blood of 118 people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control has been investigated. Erythrocyte morphofunctional value has been estimated taking into consideration the erythrocyte morphological index as well as mechanical and osmotic resistivity of erythrocytes. For people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control intensity of signals of EPR for blood paramagnetic centres essentially changes. It proves profound changes in functioning of blood plasma antioxidant system for people working in the area of strict radiation control. For the people permanently working within the area of strict radiation control in peripheric blood growth of echynocytes and spherocytes as well as lowering of mechanical resistivity of erythrocytes is observed. 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  11. Strict deformation quantization for actions of a class of symplectic lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieliavsky, Pierre; Massar, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We present explicit universal strict deformation quantization formulae for actions of Iwasawa subgroups AN of SN(1, n). This answers a question raised by Rieffel in [Contemp. Math. 228 (1998), 315]. (author)

  12. Effect of human activities on overall trend of sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiongxin, Xu

    2004-05-01

    The Yellow River has been intensively affected by human activities, particularly in the past 50 years, including soil-water conservation in the upper and middle drainage basin, flood protection in the lower reaches, and flow regulation and water diversion in the whole drainage basin. All these changes may impact sedimentation process of the lower Yellow River in different ways. Assessing these impacts comprehensively is important for more effective environmental management of the drainage basin. Based on the data of annual river flow, sediment load, and channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River between 1950 and 1997, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the overall trend of channel sedimentation rate at a time scale of 50 years, and its formative cause. It was found in this study that erosion control measures and water diversion have counteractive impacts on sedimentation rate in the lower Yellow River. Although both annual river flow and sediment decreased, there was no change in channel sedimentation rate. A regression analysis indicated that the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River decreased with the sediment input to the lower Yellow River but increased with the river flow input. In the past 30-40 years, the basin-wide practice of erosion and sediment control measures resulted in a decline in sediment supply to the Yellow River; at the same time, the human development of water resources that required river flow regulation and water diversion caused great reduction in river flow. The former may reduce the sedimentation in the lower Yellow River, but the reduction of river flow increased the sedimentation. When their effects counterbalanced each other, the overall trend of channel sedimentation in the lower Yellow River remained unchanged. This fact may help us to better understand the positive and negative effects of human activities in the Yellow River basin and to pay more attention to the negative effect of the development of water resources. The

  13. Do strict rules and moving images increase the reliability of sequential identification procedures?.

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Tim; Darling, Stephen; Memon, Amina

    2007-01-01

    Live identification procedures in England and Wales have been replaced by use of video, which provides a sequential presentation of facial images. Sequential presentation of photographs provides some protection to innocent suspects from mistaken identification when used with strict instructions designed to prevent relative judgements (Lindsay, Lea & Fulford, 1991). However, the current procedure in England and Wales is incompatible with these strict instructions. The reported research investi...

  14. Strict optical orthogonal codes for purely asynchronous code-division multiple-access applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo

    1996-12-01

    Strict optical orthogonal codes are presented for purely asynchronous optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA) applications. The proposed code can strictly guarantee the peaks of its cross-correlation functions and the sidelobes of any of its autocorrelation functions to have a value of 1 in purely asynchronous data communications. The basic theory of the proposed codes is given. An experiment on optical CDMA systems is also demonstrated to verify the characteristics of the proposed code.

  15. Dimension yields from yellow-poplar lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Gilmore; J. D. Danielson

    1984-01-01

    The available supply of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), its potential for new uses, and its continuing importance to the furniture industry have created a need to accumulate additional information about this species. As an aid to better utilization of this species, charts for determining cutting stock yields from yellow poplar lumber are presented for each...

  16. Palm yellows phytoplasmas and their genetic classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm yellows phytoplasmas have been a subject of debate because of two recent outbreaks. Firstly, a lethal yellowing-type phytoplasma disease was recorded on a number of palm species of mainly the genus Phoenix in Florida in 2008. Shortly afterwards, Sabal palmetto which has never been threatened by a ...

  17. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  18. Isolated abnormal strict morphology is not a contraindication for intrauterine insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, G M; Deveneau, N E; Shridharani, A N; Strawn, E Y; Sandlow, J I

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to investigate whether isolated abnormal strict morphology (<5% normal forms) and very low strict morphology (0-1% normal forms) affects pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination (IUI). This was a retrospective study performed at an Academic Medical Center/Reproductive Medicine Center. Four hundred and eight couples were included for 856 IUI cycles. 70 IUI cycles were performed in couples with abnormal strict morphology and otherwise normal semen parameters. Outcomes were measured as clinical pregnancy rate per IUI cycle as documented by fetal heart activity on maternal ultrasound. Clinical pregnancy rate did not significantly differ between the group with abnormal strict morphology [11/70 (15.7%)] and the normal morphology group [39/281 (13.9%)]. Additionally, there was no significant difference between the pregnancy rate in the abnormal morphology group compared to that of our overall institutional IUI pregnancy rate [145/856 (16.9%)]. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between pregnancy rate in the very low morphology group [3/14 (21.4%)] compared to those with normal morphology or the overall IUI pregnancy rate. Patients with isolated abnormal strict morphology have clinical pregnancy rates similar to those with normal morphology for IUI. Even in those with very low normal forms, consideration of IUI for assisted reproduction should not be excluded. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. A European map regarding the strictness of the transfer pricing regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ignat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context in which transfer pricing may represent a mechanism through which multinationals have the possibility to move funds internationally, in order to prevent the base erosion and profit shifting between multinationals, countries over the world have adopted various transfer pricing regulations. Furthermore, some of the countries adopted stricter regulations than others. The objective of our research was to identify the level of strictness for the transfer pricing regulations from the European countries. To achieve this objective, we analyzed the transfer pricing regulations of all European countries and we built a transfer pricing strictness index, based on which we defined 4 categories of countries (where category 1 includes the countries with the least strict transfer pricing regulations and category 4 countries with the strictest regulations. After that, we illustrated how these categories are distributed on the European map. In order to collect the information, we used the transfer pricing guides issued by the Big Four companies for the year 2015. The study`s results show that the strictness of the transfer pricing regulations decreases from the west of Europe to east. Moreover, most of the countries were included in category 2, respectively category 3, meaning that the transfer pricing regulations from the European continent are not so flexible, but in the same time are not so strict.

  20. NODULATION OF YELLOW LUPIN (Lupinus luteus L. DEPENDING ON THE FORECROP, SEED INOCULATION WITH Bradyrhizobium lupini AND GENISTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz PRUSIŃSKI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A strict two-factor field ‘Mister’ yellow lupin experiment was made in a split-plot design in poor rye complex soil (soil valuation class IVb at the Experiment Station of the Faculty of Agriculture and Biotechnology, the University of Technology and Life Sciences at Mochełek over 2008-2011. The experiment design covered 2 factors: growing yellow lupin after intercrops of ‘Bardena’ white mustard and ‘Pastar’ winter rye as well as seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium lupini with or without genistein added. Growing intercrops in the poor rye complex soil considerably decreased neither the Nmin content in early spring nor the size of nodulation in yellow lupin. After lupin harvest, slightly more Nmin was noted for the treatments where intercrops were applied, especially rye in the 0-30 cm layer. The weather pattern, especially moisture conditions, pointed to a special sensitivity of nodulation to water deficit or excess in the rhizosphere. The method of preparing seeds for sowing did not play a greater role in developing the Nmin content in both soil profile layers analysed. White mustard showed a negative effect on the dry weight of nodules and the total N content in the plants and the seeds of yellow lupin as well as created the least favourable conditions for the survival and the capacity for symbiosis by symbiotic bacteria remaining in soil after lupin harvest. The state of yellow lupin plant nitrogen nutrition did not depend on the experimental factors.

  1. New strict left bundle branch block criteria reflect left ventricular activation differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Kasper Janus Grønn; Risum, Niels; Hjortshøj, Søren Pihlkjær

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left ven....... CONCLUSION: Interventricular electrical delay predicts left ventricular remodeling after CRT and new, strict ECG criteria of LBBB are superior in predicting remodeling.......AIMS: Pacing lead electrical delays and strict left bundle branch block (LBBB) criteria were assessed against cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) outcome. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with LBBB and QRS duration >130 milliseconds underwent CRT-implantation. Sensed right ventricular to left...... ventricular electrical delay (RV-LV-IED) was measured. Response to CRT was defined as ≥15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume. RESULTS: Eighteen of 20 (90%) patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 18 of 29 (62%) with ischemic heart disease (IHD) responded to CRT, p

  2. Actions of a separately strict cpo-monoid on pointed directed complete posets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Moghbeli Damaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ‎ In the present article‎, ‎we study some categorical properties of the category {$bf‎ Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} of all {separately strict $S$-cpo's}; cpo's equipped with‎ a compatible right action of a separately strict cpo-monoid $S$ which is‎ strict continuous in each component‎. ‎In particular‎, we show that this category is reflective and coreflective in the‎ category of $S$-cpo's‎, ‎find the free and cofree functors‎, characterize products and coproducts‎. ‎Furthermore‎, ‎epimorphisms and‎  monomorphisms in {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} are studied‎, ‎and show that‎ {$bf Cpo_{Sep}$-$S$} is not cartesian closed‎.

  3. Hippocrates, cardiology, Confucius and the Yellow Emperor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T O

    2001-12-01

    Although Hippocrates (460-c.375 BC) has been traditionally recognized as the Father of Medicine, the fact that he was seminal in the development of cardiology is much less well known. Evidence is presented to support the notion that Hippocrates could also be considered the Father of Cardiology. Hippocrates also had many of the teachings and practices in common with Confucius (c.551-c.479 BC) and the Yellow Emperor of China (2695-2589 BC). Whereas Confucius was not a physician, the Yellow Emperor was an ancient Chinese physician whose Huang Di Neijing, the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Internal Medicine, is the oldest known treatise of medicine in existence.

  4. The photon is no strict particle and nonlocality is far from being proven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institut, Jena (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Two aspects of philosophical discussions on physics are the wave particle dualism and non locality including entanglement. However the strict particle aspect of the photon, in the common sense view, has never been proven. The accumulation time argument, the only experimental verification of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been satisfied. Also, experiments thought to prove nonlocality have loophole which have so far not yet been safely closed, and now an even more serious loophole emerges. Thus, also nonlocality cannot be seen as proven. This demands some fine tuning of philosophical discussions on critical experiments in physics.

  5. The Fixed-Point Theory of Strictly Contracting Functions on Generalized Ultrametric Semilattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Matsikoudis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of abstract structures, which we call generalized ultrametric semilattices, and in which the meet operation of the semilattice coexists with a generalized distance function in a tightly coordinated way. We prove a constructive fixed-point theorem for strictly contracting functions on directed-complete generalized ultrametric semilattices, and introduce a corresponding induction principle. We cite examples of application in the semantics of logic programming and timed computation, where, until now, the only tool available has been the non-constructive fixed-point theorem of Priess-Crampe and Ribenboim for strictly contracting functions on spherically complete generalized ultrametric semilattices.

  6. More strictly protected areas are not necessarily more protective: evidence from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Indonesia, and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Miteva, Daniela A; Pattanayak, Subhrendu K; Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo Javier; Sims, Katharine R E

    2013-01-01

    National parks and other protected areas are at the forefront of global efforts to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, not all protection is equal. Some areas are assigned strict legal protection that permits few extractive human uses. Other protected area designations permit a wider range of uses. Whether strictly protected areas are more effective in achieving environmental objectives is an empirical question: although strictly protected areas legally permit less anthropogenic disturbance, the social conflicts associated with assigning strict protection may lead politicians to assign strict protection to less-threatened areas and may lead citizens or enforcement agents to ignore the strict legal restrictions. We contrast the impacts of strictly and less strictly protected areas in four countries using IUCN designations to measure de jure strictness, data on deforestation to measure outcomes, and a quasi-experimental design to estimate impacts. On average, stricter protection reduced deforestation rates more than less strict protection, but the additional impact was not always large and sometimes arose because of where stricter protection was assigned rather than regulatory strictness per se. We also show that, in protected area studies contrasting y management regimes, there are y 2 policy-relevant impacts, rather than only y, as earlier studies have implied. (letter)

  7. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  8. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...

  9. A “Yellow Submarine” in Dermoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Satolli

    2018-01-01

    CONCLUSION: HS is usually diagnosed at an already advanced clinical stage and it has a high mortality rate even today. Dermoscopy, showing a yellow and distributed homogeneously colour, can facilitate its hard diagnosis.

  10. Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharanipradab, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathan, Stalin; Kumar, Gokula Raman; Krishnamurthy, Vijayalatchumy; Stanley, Daphene Divya

    Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Brugada phenocopy and hepatic dysfunction were observed in a 29-year-old male following yellow phosphorus consumption. He had both type 1 (day1) and type 2 (day2) Brugada patterns in the electrocardiogram, which resolved spontaneously by the third day without hemodynamic compromise. Toxins such as aluminum and zinc phosphide have been reported to induce Brugada ECG patterns due to the generation of phosphine. We report the first case of yellow phosphorus-related Brugada phenocopy, without hemodynamic compromise or malignant arrhythmia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineralogical characterization of uranium yellow cake concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausen, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium yellow cake concentrates have been analyzed and characterized mineralogically by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra and wet chemical methods. On the basis of mineralogical methods of characterization, the following four major structural types of yellow cake may be classified: Uranyl Hydroxide Hydrate, UO 2 (OH) 2 nH 2 O; Basic Uranyl Sulfate Hydrate, (UO 2 ) x (SO 4 ) y (OH) s(x-y ).nH 2 O; Sodium Para-Uranate, Na 5 U 7 O 24 and Uranyl Peroxide Hydrate, UO 4 .nH 2 O. In this paper conditions of yellow cake preparation and characterization are described, along with discussion of significance of structural types to the physical and chemical properties of yellow cake production

  12. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  13. Silvical characteristics of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1960-01-01

    Of the birches in the Northeast, the yellow birch is the elite species, by far the most valuable as a timber tree. More than that, it is one of the largest deciduous trees of northeastern America. It may reach 100 feet in height and more than 3 feet in diameter, and may live to 300 years of age. Pioneers told tales of the gigantic yellow birches they saw.

  14. Extraction and purification of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation has reviewed current studies on production and purification of yellow cake from uranium ores by both acid and alkaline leaching processes. It comprises three chapters, the first one deal with uranium minerals, uranium deposits, geology of uranium and uranium isotopes. The second chapter covers mining and milling methods, uranium leaching chemistry, precipitation, and purification of uranium concentrate by solvent extraction and possible impurities that commonly interfered with yellow cake. The last chapter presented ongoing literature review.(Author)

  15. She's Strict for a Good Reason: Highly Effective Teachers in Low-Performing Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplin, Mary; Rivera, John; Durish, Dena; Hoff, Linda; Kawell, Susan; Pawlak, Pat; Hinman, Ivannia Soto; Straus, Laura; Veney, Cloetta

    2011-01-01

    A study of 31 high-performing teachers in low-performing urban schools found that these teachers had certain traits in common. They were strict; they taught in traditional, explicit ways; there was little time in their classrooms when instruction was not occurring; and they moved around the room helping their students. They used very few…

  16. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermsen, E.; Pompe, R.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a

  17. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  18. The Preventive Effect of Strict Gun Control Laws on Suicide and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Murrell, Mary E.

    1982-01-01

    Examined state gun control laws and used a multidimensional scaling technique to study the relationship of strictness and death rates. Results showed states with stricter laws had lower suicide rates by firearms but higher rates by other means. No effect on homicide was found. (JAC)

  19. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  20. ASHP therapeutic position statement on strict glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-15

    The deleterious effects of hyperglycemia have been documented from the biochemical to the pathophysiologic level. Given the research findings and the guidelines for glycemic control established by ADA and ACE, ASHP supports and encourages strict glycemic control in all appropriate patients with diabetes mellitus to reduce the progression of chronic complications.

  1. What is your level of overconfidence? A strictly incentive compatible measurement of absolute and relative overconfidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.; Stauf, J.; Weitzel, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/276323394

    This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the appropriate measurement of overconfidence, in particular, its strictly incentive compatible measurement in experiments. Despite a number of significant advances in recent research, several important issues remain to be solved. These relate to

  2. Screening test for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus, based on a flavivirus pseudotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Mercier-Delarue

    Full Text Available Given the possibility of yellow fever virus reintroduction in epidemiologically receptive geographic areas, the risk of vaccine supply disruption is a serious issue. New strategies to reduce the doses of injected vaccines should be evaluated very carefully in terms of immunogenicity. The plaque reduction test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT is particularly time-consuming and requires the use of a confinement laboratory. We have developed a new test based on the use of a non-infectious pseudovirus (WN/YF17D. The presence of a reporter gene allows sensitive determination of neutralizing antibodies by flow cytometry. This WN/YF17D test was as sensitive as PRNT for the follow-up of yellow fever vaccinees. Both tests lacked specificity with sera from patients hospitalized for acute Dengue virus infection. Conversely, both assays were strictly negative in adults never exposed to flavivirus infection or vaccination, and in patients sampled some time after acute Dengue infection. This WN/YF17D test will be particularly useful for large epidemiological studies and for screening for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus.

  3. [Spatial heterogeneity in body condition of small yellow croaker in Yellow Sea and East China Sea based on mixed-effects model and quantile regression analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun-Lei; Yuan, Xing-Wei; Yan, Li-Ping; Yang, Lin-Lin; Cheng, Jia-Hua

    2013-09-01

    By using the 2008-2010 investigation data about the body condition of small yellow croaker in the offshore waters of southern Yellow Sea (SYS), open waters of northern East China Sea (NECS), and offshore waters of middle East China Sea (MECS), this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of body length-body mass of juvenile and adult small yellow croakers by the statistical approaches of mean regression model and quantile regression model. The results showed that the residual standard errors from the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and the linear mixed-effects model were similar, and those from the simple linear regression were the highest. For the juvenile small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in SYS and NECS estimated by the mixed-effects mean regression model was higher than the overall average mass across the three regions, while the mean body mass in MECS was below the overall average. For the adult small yellow croakers, their mean body mass in NECS was higher than the overall average, while the mean body mass in SYS and MECS was below the overall average. The results from quantile regression indicated the substantial differences in the allometric relationships of juvenile small yellow croakers between SYS, NECS, and MECS, with the estimated mean exponent of the allometric relationship in SYS being 2.85, and the interquartile range being from 2.63 to 2.96, which indicated the heterogeneity of body form. The results from ANCOVA showed that the allometric body length-body mass relationships were significantly different between the 25th and 75th percentile exponent values (F=6.38, df=1737, P<0.01) and the 25th percentile and median exponent values (F=2.35, df=1737, P=0.039). The relationship was marginally different between the median and 75th percentile exponent values (F=2.21, df=1737, P=0.051). The estimated body length-body mass exponent of adult small yellow croakers in SYS was 3.01 (10th and 95th percentiles = 2.77 and 3.1, respectively). The

  4. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  5. Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Enya; Pompe, Renske; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A

    2017-09-15

    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of >20μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09-1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. S2SA preconditioning for the Sn equations with strictly non negative spatial discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruss, D. E.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Preconditioners based upon sweeps and diffusion-synthetic acceleration have been constructed and applied to the zeroth and first spatial moments of the 1-D S n transport equation using a strictly non negative nonlinear spatial closure. Linear and nonlinear preconditioners have been analyzed. The effectiveness of various combinations of these preconditioners are compared. In one dimension, nonlinear sweep preconditioning is shown to be superior to linear sweep preconditioning, and DSA preconditioning using nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a linear diffusion equation is found to be essentially equivalent to nonlinear sweeps in conjunction with a nonlinear diffusion equation. The ability to use a linear diffusion equation has important implications for preconditioning the S n equations with a strictly non negative spatial discretization in multiple dimensions. (authors)

  7. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen-producing culture enriched from digested household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Trably, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enrich, characterize and identify strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic hydrogen (H-2) producers from digested household solid wastes. A strict anaerobic extreme thermophilic H-2 producing bacterial culture was enriched from a lab-scale digester treating household...... wastes at 70 degrees C. The enriched mixed culture consisted of two rod-shaped bacterial members growing at an optimal temperature of 80 degrees C and an optimal pH 8.1. The culture was able to utilize glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, maltose, sucrose, pyruvate and glycerol as carbon...... sources. Growth on glucose produced acetate, H-2 and carbon dioxide. Maximal H-2 production rate on glucose was 1.1 mmol l(-1) h(-1) with a maximum H-2 yield of 1.9 mole H-2 per mole glucose. 16S ribosomal DNA clone library analyses showed that the culture members were phylogenetically affiliated...

  8. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  9. The conditions for attaining the greatest degree of system stability with strict generator excitation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Ekimova, M.M.; Truspekova, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Expressions are derived for an idealized model of a complex electric power system; these expressions define the greatest level of stability of an electric power system and the optimum combination of stabilization factors with automatic excitation control in a single power system. The possibility of increasing the level of stability of an electric power system with simultaneous strict automatic excitation control of the synychronous generators in several power systems is analyzed.

  10. Frequency effect on p-nitrophenol degradation under conditions of strict acoustic and electric control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-ping Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of decomposing p-nitrophenol (PNP with power ultrasound requires strict control of acoustic and electric conditions. In this study, the conditions, including acoustic power and acoustic intensity, but not ultrasonic frequency, were controlled strictly at constant levels. The absorbency and the COD concentrations of the samples were measured in order to show the variation of the sample concentration. The results show significant differences in the trend of the solution degradation rate as acoustic power increases after the PNP solution (with a concentration of 114 mg/L and a pH value of 5.4 is irradiated for 60 min with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz. The degradation rate of the solution increases with time and acoustic power (acoustic intensity. On the other hand, the degradation rate of the solution is distinctly dependent on frequency when the acoustic power and intensity are strictly controlled and maintained at constant levels. The degradation rate of the PNP solution declines with ultrasonic frequencies of 530.8 kHz, 610.6 kHz, 855.0 kHz, and 1 130.0 kHz; the COD concentration, on the contrary, increase.

  11. Examination of the PCICE method in the nearly incompressible, as well as strictly incompressible, limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    The conservative-form, pressure-based PCICE numerical method (Martineau and Berry, 2004) (Berry, 2006), recently developed for computing transient fluid flows of all speeds from very low to very high (with strong shocks), is simplified and generalized. Though the method automatically treats a continuous transition of compressibility, three distinct, limiting compressibility regimes are formally defined for purposes of discussion and comparison with traditional methods - the strictly incompressible limit, the nearly incompressible limit, and the fully compressible limit. The PCICE method's behavior is examined in each limiting regime. In the strictly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm reduces to the traditional MAC-type method with velocity divergence driving the pressure Poisson equation. In the nearly incompressible limit the PCICE algorithm is found to reduce to a generalization of traditional incompressible methods, i.e. to one in which not only the velocity divergence effect, but also the density gradient effect is included as a driving function in the pressure Poisson equation. This nearly incompressible regime has received little attention, and it appears that in the past, strictly incompressible methods may have been conveniently applied to flows in this regime at the expense of ignoring a potentially important coupling mechanism. This could be significant in many important flows; for example, in natural convection flows resulting from high heat flux. In the fully compressible limit or regime, the algorithm is found to reduce to an expression equivalent to density-based methods for high-speed flow. (author)

  12. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  13. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  14. Effect of aspherical and yellow tinted intraocular lens on blue-on-yellow perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo França de Espíndola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the possible effect of aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens (IOL on contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry. METHODS: This prospective randomized bilateral double-masked clinical study included 52 patients with visually significant bilateral cataracts divided in two groups; 25 patients (50 eyes received aspherical intraocular lens in one eye and spherical intraocular lens in the fellow eye; and 27 patients (54 eyes received ultraviolet and blue light filter (yellow tinted IOL implantation in one eye and acrylic ultraviolet filter IOL in the fellow eye. The primary outcome measures were contrast sensitivity and blue-on-yellow perimetry values (mean deviation [MD] and pattern standard deviation [PSD] investigated two years after surgery. The results were compared intra-individually. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant between-group (aspherical and spherical intraocular lens difference in contrast sensitivity under photopic conditions at 12 cycles per degree and under mesopic conditions at all spatial frequencies. There were no between-group significant differences (yellow tinted and clear intraocular lens under photopic or mesopic conditions. There was no statistically significant difference between all intraocular lens in MD or PSD. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was better under mesopic conditions with aspherical intraocular lens. Blue-on-yellow perimetry did not appear to be affected by aspherical or yellow tinted intraocular lens. Further studies with a larger sample should be carried out to confirm or not that hypotheses.

  15. [The fourth horseman: The yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos-Parás, Alfonso; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus three, Chikunguya and Zika have entered the national territory through the south of the country. Cases and outbreaks of yellow fever have now been identified in the Americas where it threatens to expand. Although Mexico has a robust epidemiological surveillance system for vector-borne diseases, our country must be alert in case of its possible introduction into the national territory. This paper presents theoretical assumptions based on factual data on the behavior of yellow fever in the Americas, as well as reflections on the epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne diseases.

  16. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  17. One year of migration data for a western yellow-billed cuckoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrist, Juddson D.; Paxton, Eben H.; Ahlers, Darrell D.; Doster, Robert H.; Ryan, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, we studied the migration of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo by capturing 13 breeding birds on the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, and attaching a 1.5-g Mk 14-S British Antarctic Survey geolocator to each bird. In 2010, we recaptured one of the cuckoos, enabling us to download its geolocation data. The cuckoo had flown approximately 9500 km during its southward migration, traveling through Central America to winter in portions of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. The spring migration route differed somewhat from the fall route, with the cuckoo bypassing Central America to migrate through the Caribbean. Additionally, it moved between New Mexico and Mexico at the end of summer in 2009 and again in 2010 before being recaptured at its breeding site. Our results, albeit from one individual, hint at a dynamic migration strategy and have broad implications for the ecology and conservation of the Western Yellow-billed Cuckoo, a species of conservation concern.

  18. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  19. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  20. Effect of high dietary copper on growth, antioxidant and lipid metabolism enzymes of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to test the responses of juvenile larger yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus to high Cu intake. Experimental diets were formulated containing three levels of Cu: low Cu (3.67 mg/kg, middle Cu (13.65 mg/kg and high Cu (25.78 mg/kg, and each diet were fed to large yellow croaker in triplicate for 10 weeks. Final body weight, weight gain and feed intake were the lowest in high Cu group, but hepatosomatic index was the highest; Cu concentrations in the whole-body, muscle and liver of fish fed low Cu diet was the lowest; Liver superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in fish fed high Cu diet were lower than those in fish fed other diets; The higher content of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content was found in high Cu group, followed by middle Cu group, and the lowest in low Cu group; Liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase activities were the lowest in high Cu group, but lipoprotein lipase activity was the highest. This study indicated that high copper intake reduced growth of juvenile larger yellow croaker, inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid synthetases, and led to energy mobilization. Keywords: Larger yellow croaker, Copper, Antioxidant enzyme, Lipid metabolism enzyme

  1. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  2. Yellow-Poplar: Characteristics and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca

    1981-01-01

    This reference tool and field guide for foresters and other landmanagers includes a synthesis of information on the characteristics of yellow-poplar with guidelines for managing the species. It is based on research conducted by many individuals in State and Federal forestry organizations and in universities throughout the Eastern United States. This handbook...

  3. Enzootic transmission of yellow fever virus, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Albert J; Lemey, Philippe; Bergren, Nicholas A; Giambalvo, Dileyvic; Moncada, Maria; Morón, Dulce; Hernandez, Rosa; Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Weaver, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of yellow fever virus (YFV) strains isolated from Venezuela strongly supports YFV maintenance in situ in Venezuela, with evidence of regionally independent evolution within the country. However, there is considerable YFV movement from Brazil to Venezuela and between Trinidad and Venezuela.

  4. Making the yellow cake go round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Yellow cake' is the name given to uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) by the mining profession. Ore containing about a million tons of it and capable of processing at reasonable cost has to be found by 1980 if reserves are to be kept in balance. Many areas of the world are favourable for exploration and experts are confident that additional resources exist. (author)

  5. Gravimetric Analysis of Uranium in Yellow Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Jantha, Suwat

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The gravimetric analysis of uranium in yellow cake is composed of several stages. The analysis takes a long time, which is the disadvantage of this method. However, this gravimetric method provides accurate result for determining the major content of sample. Uranium is the main composition of yellow cake, while Thorium, rare earths and other elements are minor and trace elements. In this work, anion exchange resin was used to separate uranium from other elements to yield highly pure uranium suitable for precipitation. This pure uranium was burnt to U3O8, a form that is stable enough to be weighed. From the optimal condition, the recovery of U3O8 after separating uranium from rare earths and iron is 99.85 ± 0.21%. The application of anion exchange separation was used to analyze uranium in yellow cake obtained from monazite digestion process. It was found that U3O8 in yellow cake is 78.85 ± 2.03%

  6. Molecular detection and characterisation of Horsegram Yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific sets of primers (HYMV-A1500F & HYMV-A1500R and D-HYMV-B2200F & D-HYMV-B2200R) for the amplification of the complete DNA-A and DNA-B components of lima bean isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV-Lb).

  7. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Strictly local one-dimensional topological quantum error correction with symmetry-constrained cellular automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Lang, Hans Peter Büchler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active quantum error correction on topological codes is one of the most promising routes to long-term qubit storage. In view of future applications, the scalability of the used decoding algorithms in physical implementations is crucial. In this work, we focus on the one-dimensional Majorana chain and construct a strictly local decoder based on a self-dual cellular automaton. We study numerically and analytically its performance and exploit these results to contrive a scalable decoder with exponentially growing decoherence times in the presence of noise. Our results pave the way for scalable and modular designs of actively corrected one-dimensional topological quantum memories.

  9. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  10. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  11. Strictly positive solutions for one-dimensional nonlinear problems involving the p-Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Uriel; Medri, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be a bounded open interval, and let $p>1$ and $q\\in\\left(0,p-1\\right) $. Let $m\\in L^{p^{\\prime}}\\left(\\Omega\\right) $ and $0\\leq c\\in L^{\\infty}\\left(\\Omega\\right) $. We study existence of strictly positive solutions for elliptic problems of the form $-\\left(\\left\\| u^{\\prime}\\right\\|^{p-2}u^{\\prime}\\right) ^{\\prime}+c\\left(x\\right) u^{p-1}=m\\left(x\\right) u^{q}$ in $\\Omega$, $u=0$ on $\\partial\\Omega$. We mention that our results are new even in the case $c\\equiv0$.

  12. Structural stability of Riemann solutions for strictly hyperbolic systems with three piecewise constant states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Wei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the wave interaction problem for a strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws whose Riemann solutions involve delta shock waves. To cover all situations, the global solutions are constructed when the initial data are taken as three piecewise constant states. It is shown that the Riemann solutions are stable with respect to a specific small perturbation of the Riemann initial data. In addition, some interesting nonlinear phenomena are captured during the process of constructing the solutions, such as the generation and decomposition of delta shock waves.

  13. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  14. Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines that differed ...

  15. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  16. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Biała Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  17. The effect of 8 days of strict bed rest on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Wedell-Neergaard, Anne-Sophie; Lyngbæk, Mark Preben; Møller, Kirsten; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2016-03-15

    Bed rest and physical inactivity are the consequences of hospital admission for many patients. Physical inactivity induces changes in glucose metabolism, but its effect on the incretin effect, which is reduced in, e.g., Type 2 diabetes, is unknown. To investigate how 8 days of strict bed rest affects the incretin effect, 10 healthy nonobese male volunteers underwent 8 days of strict bed rest. Before and after the intervention, all volunteers underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) followed by an intravenous glucose infusion (IVGI) on the following day to mimic the blood glucose profile from the OGTT. Blood glucose, serum insulin, serum C-peptide, plasma incretin hormones [glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)], and serum glucagon were measured serially during both the OGTT and the IVGI. The incretin effect is calculated as the relative difference between the area under the curve for the insulin response during the OGTT and that of the corresponding IVGI, respectively. Concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP measured during the OGTT were higher after the bed rest intervention (all P effect (P = 0.6). In conclusion, 8 days of bed rest induces insulin resistance, but we did not see evidence of an associated change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Optimal control of nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel optimal tracking control scheme for nonlinear continuous-time systems in strict-feedback form with uncertain dynamics. The optimal tracking problem is transformed into an equivalent optimal regulation problem through a feedforward adaptive control input that is generated by modifying the standard backstepping technique. Subsequently, a neural network-based optimal control scheme is introduced to estimate the cost, or value function, over an infinite horizon for the resulting nonlinear continuous-time systems in affine form when the internal dynamics are unknown. The estimated cost function is then used to obtain the optimal feedback control input; therefore, the overall optimal control input for the nonlinear continuous-time system in strict-feedback form includes the feedforward plus the optimal feedback terms. It is shown that the estimated cost function minimizes the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman estimation error in a forward-in-time manner without using any value or policy iterations. Finally, optimal output feedback control is introduced through the design of a suitable observer. Lyapunov theory is utilized to show the overall stability of the proposed schemes without requiring an initial admissible controller. Simulation examples are provided to validate the theoretical results.

  19. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS2 films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS 2 film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS 2 covering an area as large as a few cm 2 on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO 2 coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS 2 films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS 2 . In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces

  20. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  1. Monitored results from the Yellow House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.B.; Nielsen, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the monitoring program for The Yellow House, which consists of a four-storey high building with eight apartments. The monitoring started after the completion of the renovation in December 1996 and will continue until July 2000. Not all components have been measured during the whole period. The monitoring contains data for each apartment for space heating, electricity, cold water, hot water and gas. Also long-term measurements of the relative air humidity and room temperatures in two apartments have been made together with short-term measurements of daylight levels. For The Yellow House data has been registered for the PV-panels and solar collectors and also the climatic data have been measured. A questionnaire has been evaluated and a user survey will be carried out during summer 2000. (au)

  2. On The Integral Representation of Strictly Continuous Set-Valued Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaté K. Lakmon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a completely regular topological space and C(T be the space of bounded, continuous real-valued functions on T. C(T is endowed with the strict topology (the topology generated by seminorms determined by continuous functions vanishing at in_nity. R. Giles ([13], p. 472, Theorem 4.6 proved in 1971 that the dual of C(T can be identi_ed with the space of regular Borel measures on T. We prove this result for positive, additive set-valued maps with values in the space of convex weakly compact non-empty subsets of a Banach space and we deduce from this result the theorem of R. Giles ([13], theorem 4.6, p.473.

  3. On a class of adjustable rate mortgage loans subject to a strict balance principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne

    We describe the background and the basic funding mechanisms for the type of adjustable rate mortgageloans that were introduced in the Danish market in 1996. Each loan is funded separately by tap issuingpass-through mortgage bonds (`strict balance principle'). The novelty is a funding mechanism...... that usesa roll-over strategy, where long term loans are funded by sequentially issuing short term pass-throughbonds, and the first issuer of these loans obtained a patent on the funding principles in 1999. Publiclyavailable descriptions of the principles leave an impression of very complicated numerical...... algorithms.The algorithms described here show that the essentials can be reduced to a `back of an envelope' complexity.Keywords: Adjustable rate mortgages, balance principle, patent, yield curve riding...

  4. Control of Petri nets subject to strict temporal constraints using Max-Plus algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, K.; Amari, S.; Kara, R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we treat the control problem of timed discrete event systems under temporal constraints. This type of constraint is very frequent in production systems, transportation network and in networked automation systems. Precisely, we are interested in the validation of strict temporal constraints imposed on the paths in a timed event graph (TEG) by using Max-Plus algebra. Not all the transitions of the considered TEG model are controllable, i.e. only the input transitions are controllable. An analytical approach for computing state feedback controllers is developed. Sufficient condition is given for the existence of causal control laws satisfying the temporal constraints. In the first, a TEG with observable transitions is considered. Then, the proposed approach is extended to the partially observable TEG. The synthesised feedback can be interpreted by places of control connected to the TEG to guarantee the respect of the time constraints. The proposed method is illustrated in the assembly system example.

  5. Learning-Based Adaptive Optimal Tracking Control of Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Weinan Gao; Zhong-Ping Jiang; Gao, Weinan; Jiang, Zhong-Ping

    2018-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel data-driven control approach to address the problem of adaptive optimal tracking for a class of nonlinear systems taking the strict-feedback form. Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and nonlinear output regulation theories are integrated for the first time to compute an adaptive near-optimal tracker without any a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. Fundamentally different from adaptive optimal stabilization problems, the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, not necessarily a positive definite function, cannot be approximated through the existing iterative methods. This paper proposes a novel policy iteration technique for solving positive semidefinite HJB equations with rigorous convergence analysis. A two-phase data-driven learning method is developed and implemented online by ADP. The efficacy of the proposed adaptive optimal tracking control methodology is demonstrated via a Van der Pol oscillator with time-varying exogenous signals.

  6. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  7. A Total Variation Model Based on the Strictly Convex Modification for Image Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a strictly convex functional in which the regular term consists of the total variation term and an adaptive logarithm based convex modification term. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the minimizer for the proposed variational problem. The existence, uniqueness, and long-time behavior of the solution of the associated evolution system is also established. Finally, we present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in noise reduction, and a comparison is made in relation to the more classical methods of the traditional total variation (TV, the Perona-Malik (PM, and the more recent D-α-PM method. Additional distinction from the other methods is that the parameters, for manual manipulation, in the proposed algorithm are reduced to basically only one.

  8. A semi-automatic method for positioning a femoral bone reconstruction for strict view generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Federico; Ritacco, Lucas; Gomez, Adrian; Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, Fernan; Risk, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for femoral bone positioning after 3D image reconstruction from Computed Tomography images. This serves as grounding for the definition of strict axial, longitudinal and anterior-posterior views, overcoming the problem of patient positioning biases in 2D femoral bone measuring methods. After the bone reconstruction is aligned to a standard reference frame, new tomographic slices can be generated, on which unbiased measures may be taken. This could allow not only accurate inter-patient comparisons but also intra-patient comparisons, i.e., comparisons of images of the same patient taken at different times. This method could enable medical doctors to diagnose and follow up several bone deformities more easily.

  9. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation—a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics—mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions—fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories—are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  10. Strict Liability Versus Policy and Regulation for Environmental Protection and Agricultural Waste Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Bakri Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Basically, strict liability is part of the mechanism for expressing judgment or sentence by using direct evidence. This principle is very useful in order to obtain remedies from any damage either directly or indirectly. The principle in Rylands v Fletcher is responsible on imposing strict liability where if something brought onto land or collected there escapes liability under this rule can include not only the owner of land but also those who control or occupation on it. However, as a matter of fact, policy and regulation are also important in taking any action against any party who are responsible for environmental pollution or damage, which may include mismanagement of waste or industrial waste or agricultural waste. There are certain policies and regulations on environmental protection such as the National Environmental Policy, certain Acts and several regulations under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127, which are very useful for agricultural waste management inter alia: Waters Act 1920 (Act 418, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Crude Palm Oil Regulations 1977, Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises (Raw Natural Rubber Regulations 1978, Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents Regulations 1979, and Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offences Rules 1978. As a matter of fact, we should realize that time is of an essence for any parties which are involved in court cases and especially in avoiding the element of externality, which is commonly suffered by the government. In making this paper, therefore, some element of comparison with certain developed jurisdiction such as in the United Kingdom and Japan could not be avoided in order to obtain better outcome and to be more practical for the purpose of environmental protection and agricultural waste management.

  11. Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic, crotonate-dismutating bacterium isolated from a methanogenic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xianhua; Liu, Xiaoli; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2003-07-01

    Two bacterial strains were isolated from methanogenic butyrate-oxidizing mixed cultures. The cells were straight to slightly curved, gram-positive rods that were motile by means of multiple flagella and formed endospores. Growth was observed in the temperature range 15-45 degrees C (optimum 37 degrees C) and pH range 5.5-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The novel isolates were strictly anaerobic chemo-organotrophs capable of utilizing yeast extract, peptone, tryptone and a variety of sugars and organic acids, but not glucose. None of the accessory electron acceptors tested (elemental sulfur, thiosulfate or fumarate) improved growth, except crotonate, which was dismutated to butyrate and acetate. The G + C content of the DNA of one of the isolates, strain B11-2T, was 30.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence similarity between strain B11-2T and some other strictly anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria indicated that the novel isolates represented a species in cluster XI within the low-GC gram-positive bacteria, being most closely related to Alkaliphilus transvaalensis JCM 10712T. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain B11-2T and A. transvaalensis JCM 10712T was 21%. On the basis of physiological and molecular properties, and cellular fatty acid and cell wall compositions, the novel isolates are proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Alkaliphilus, for which the name Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans is proposed (type strain B11-2T=AS 1.2897T=JCM 11672T).

  12. Weight of fitness deviation governs strict physical chaos in replicator dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Varun; Mukhopadhyay, Archan; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-03-01

    Replicator equation-a paradigm equation in evolutionary game dynamics-mathematizes the frequency dependent selection of competing strategies vying to enhance their fitness (quantified by the average payoffs) with respect to the average fitnesses of the evolving population under consideration. In this paper, we deal with two discrete versions of the replicator equation employed to study evolution in a population where any two players' interaction is modelled by a two-strategy symmetric normal-form game. There are twelve distinct classes of such games, each typified by a particular ordinal relationship among the elements of the corresponding payoff matrix. Here, we find the sufficient conditions for the existence of asymptotic solutions of the replicator equations such that the solutions-fixed points, periodic orbits, and chaotic trajectories-are all strictly physical, meaning that the frequency of any strategy lies inside the closed interval zero to one at all times. Thus, we elaborate on which of the twelve types of games are capable of showing meaningful physical solutions and for which of the two types of replicator equation. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of the weight of fitness deviation that is the scaling factor in a positive affine transformation connecting two payoff matrices such that the corresponding one-shot games have exactly same Nash equilibria and evolutionary stable states. The weight also quantifies how much the excess of fitness of a strategy over the average fitness of the population affects the per capita change in the frequency of the strategy. Intriguingly, the weight's variation is capable of making the Nash equilibria and the evolutionary stable states, useless by introducing strict physical chaos in the replicator dynamics based on the normal-form game.

  13. Strict follow-up programme including CT and (18) F-FDG-PET after curative surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N F; Jensen, A B; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2010-01-01

    Aim The risk of local recurrence following curative surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC) is up to 50%. A rigorous follow-up program may increase survival. Guidelines on suitable methods for scheduled follow up examinations are needed. This study evaluates a strict follow-up program including...... supported a strict follow-up program following curative surgery for colorectal cancer. FDG-PET combined with CT should be included in control programs....

  14. Student Evaluation of the Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention Program in Midwest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alexandra; Zackula, Rosalee; Klaus, Nicole M.; McGinness, Liz; Carr, Susan; Macaluso, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Objective Yellow Ribbon is a gatekeeper-type suicide prevention program that is widely used in public schools. However, data on its effectiveness are limited. The purpose of our study was to evaluate self-reported changes in knowledge and comfort level communicating about suicide following Yellow Ribbon training for a large, representative sample of students from a public school system in the midwestern United States. Methods The program was administered to students within the same school district during 2006 through 2009. A pre-post survey using a 4-point Likert scale was administered to rate students’ knowledge of risk factors and available resources, comfort level communicating about suicide, estimate of friends at risk for suicide, and behavioral intent toward help-seeking. Results Aggregate responses from 3,257 students, aged 11 to 18 years, were collected by the schools; 51% were female, 33% were Hispanic, and 30% were white. Suicide-related knowledge of risk factors, where to go for help, and resources, along with comfort level in asking for help, all significantly improved following program participation (Cramer’s V = 0.243 to 0.376, P suicide prevention program appears to be beneficial for students in the midwestern United States. We observed significant improvement in knowledge, comfort level, and behavioral intent for help-seeking if suicidal thoughts occur. Findings also suggested that Yellow Ribbon training administered during middle school may be especially helpful for males. PMID:27733952

  15. No evidence for effects of infection with the amphibian chytrid fungus on populations of yellow-bellied toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Neubeck, Claus; Guicking, Daniela; Finke, Lennart; Wittich, Martin; Weising, Kurt; Geske, Christian; Veith, Michael

    2017-02-08

    The parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause the lethal disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians and therefore may play a role in population declines. The yellow-bellied toad Bombina variegata suffered strong declines throughout western and northwestern parts of its range and is therefore listed as highly endangered for Germany and the federal state of Hesse. Whether chytridiomycosis may play a role in the observed local declines of this strictly protected anuran species has never been tested. We investigated 19 Hessian yellow-bellied toad populations for Bd infection rates, conducted capture-mark-recapture studies in 4 of them over 2 to 3 yr, examined survival histories of recaptured infected individuals, and tested whether multi-locus heterozygosity of individuals as well as expected heterozygosity and different environmental variables of populations affect probabilities of Bd infection. Our results show high prevalence of Bd infection in Hessian yellow-bellied toad populations, but although significant decreases in 2 populations could be observed, no causative link to Bd as the reason for this can be established. Mass mortalities or obvious signs of disease in individuals were not observed. Conversely, we show that growth of Bd-infected populations is possible under favorable habitat conditions and that most infected individuals could be recaptured with improved body indices. Neither genetic diversity nor environmental variables appeared to affect Bd infection probabilities. Hence, genetically diverse amphibian specimens and populations may not automatically be less susceptible for Bd infection.

  16. Variation in the macrofaunal community over large temporal and spatial scales in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Sui, Jixing; Yang, Mei; Sun, Yue; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2017-09-01

    To detect large, temporal- and spatial-scale variations in the macrofaunal community in the southern Yellow Sea, data collected along the western, middle and eastern regions of the southern Yellow Sea from 1958 to 2014 were organized and analyzed. Statistical methods such as cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination (nMDS), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were applied. The abundance of polychaetes increased in the western region but decreased in the eastern region from 1958 to 2014, whereas the abundance of echinoderms showed an opposite trend. For the entire macrofaunal community, Margalef's richness (d), the Shannon-Wiener index (H‧) and Pielou's evenness (J‧) were significantly lower in the eastern region when compared with the other two regions. No significant temporal differences were found for d and H‧, but there were significantly lower values of J‧ in 2014. Considerable variation in the macrofaunal community structure over the past several decades and among the geographical regions at the species, genus and family levels were observed. The species, genera and families that contributed to the temporal variation in each region were also identified. The most conspicuous pattern was the increase in the species Ophiura sarsii vadicola in the eastern region. In the western region, five polychaetes (Ninoe palmata, Notomastus latericeus, Paralacydonia paradoxa, Paraprionospio pinnata and Sternaspis scutata) increased consistently from 1958 to 2014. The dominance curves showed that both the species diversity and the dominance patterns were relatively stable in the western and middle regions. Environmental parameters such as depth, temperature and salinity could only partially explain the observed biological variation in the southern Yellow Sea. Anthropogenic activities such as demersal fishing and other unmeasured environmental variables

  17. Present status of yellow fever: Memorandum from a PAHO Meeting

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    An international seminar on the treatment and laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever, sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and held in 1984, differed from previous meetings on yellow fever because of its emphasis on the care and management of patients and because the participants included specialists from several branches of medicine, such as hepatology, haematology, cardiology, infectious diseases, pathology and nephrology. The meeting reviewed the current status of yellow ...

  18. The research on new production technique of yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoguo; Lin Cirong; Pan Haichun; Wang Haita

    2001-01-01

    As a new production technique of yellow cake, resorption with loaded resin-elution with acid ammonium nitrate-precipitation in two steps is studied. The results show that the produced yellow cake by the new production technique has better performance of settlement, filtration and dehydration. Each index of yellow cake accords with the first grade level issued by CNNC without washing, uranium and water content are 70% and 25%, respectively

  19. Fermentation of animal components in strict carnivores: a comparative study with cheetah fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depauw, S; Bosch, G; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Hendriks, W H; Kaandorp, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-08-01

    The natural diet of felids contains highly digestible animal tissues but also fractions resistant to small intestinal digestion, which enter the large intestine where they may be fermented by the resident microbial population. Little information exists on the microbial degradability of animal tissues in the large intestine of felids consuming a natural diet. This study aimed to rank animal substrates in their microbial degradability by means of an in vitro study using captive cheetahs fed a strict carnivorous diet as fecal donors. Fresh cheetah fecal samples were collected, pooled, and incubated with various raw animal substrates (chicken cartilage, collagen, glucosamine-chondroitin, glucosamine, rabbit bone, rabbit hair, and rabbit skin; 4 replicates per substrate) for cumulative gas production measurement in a batch culture technique. Negative (cellulose) and positive (casein and fructo-oligosaccharides; FOS) controls were incorporated in the study. Additionally, after 72 h of incubation, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), including branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia concentrations were determined for each substrate. Glucosamine and glucosamine-chondroitin yielded the greatest organic matter cumulative gas volume (OMCV) among animal substrates (P carnivore, and indicates that animal tissues have potentially similar functions as soluble or insoluble plant fibers in vitro. Further research is warranted to assess the impact of fermentation of each type of animal tissue on gastro-intestinal function and health in the cheetah and other felid species.

  20. Hunting the ghosts of a 'strictly quantum field': the Klein-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and tackle some problems related to teaching quantum field theory (QFT) at university level. In particular, problems arising from the canonical quantization are addressed by focusing on the Klein-Gordon equation (KGE). After a brief description of the status of the KGE in teaching as it emerges from an analysis of a selected sample of university textbooks, an analysis of the applications of the KGE in contexts different from the QFT is presented. The results of the analysis show that, while in the real case the solutions of the equation can be easily interpreted from a physical point of view, in the complex case the coherence with relativistic quantum mechanics and the electrodynamics framework brings to light interpretative problems related to the classical complex KG field. The comparison between the classical cases investigated and the QFT framework, where the equation finds a coherent particle interpretation, leads to share Ryder's statement asserting that the KG field is a 'strictly quantum field'. Implications of the results in terms of remarks about the canonical procedure currently utilized for teaching are underlined.

  1. Divergent changes in serum sterols during a strict uncooked vegan diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agren, J J; Tvrzicka, E; Nenonen, M T; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    2001-02-01

    The effects of a strict uncooked vegan diet on serum lipid and sterol concentrations were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The subjects were randomized into a vegan diet group (n 16), who consumed a vegan diet for 2-3 months, or into a control group (n 13), who continued their usual omnivorous diets. Serum total and LDL-cholesterol and -phospholipid concentrations were significantly decreased by the vegan diet. The levels of serum cholestanol and lathosterol also decreased, but serum cholestanol:total cholesterol and lathosterol:total cholesterol did not change. The effect of a vegan diet on serum plant sterols was divergent as the concentration of campesterol decreased while that of sitosterol increased. This effect resulted in a significantly greater sitosterol:campesterol value in the vegan diet group than in the control group (1.48 (SD 0.39) v. 0.72 (SD 0.14); P vegan diet changes the relative absorption rates of these sterols and/or their biliary clearance.

  2. Computational Evaluation of the Strict Master and Random Template Models of Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fabrícia F.; Rodrigo, Allen G.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that are able to replicate and move within and between host genomes. Their mechanism of replication is also shared with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are also a type of TE that represent an ancient retroviral infection within animal genomes. Two models have been proposed to explain TE proliferation in host genomes: the strict master model (SMM), and the random template (or transposon) model (TM). In SMM only a single copy of a given TE lineage is able to replicate, and all other genomic copies of TEs are derived from that master copy. In TM, any element of a given family is able to replicate in the host genome. In this paper, we simulated ERV phylogenetic trees under variations of SMM and TM. To test whether current phylogenetic programs can recover the simulated ERV phylogenies, DNA sequence alignments were simulated and maximum likelihood trees were reconstructed and compared to the simulated phylogenies. Results indicate that visual inspection of phylogenetic trees alone can be misleading. However, if a set of statistical summaries is calculated, we are able to distinguish between models with high accuracy by using a data mining algorithm that we introduce here. We also demonstrate the use of our data mining algorithm with empirical data for the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), an ERV that is able to replicate in human and pig cells in vitro. PMID:27649303

  3. Generalized mechanical pain sensitivity over nerve tissues in patients with strictly unilateral migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    No study has previously analyzed pressure pain sensitivity of nerve trunks in migraine. This study aimed to examine the differences in mechanical pain sensitivity over specific nerves between patients with unilateral migraine and healthy controls. Blinded investigators assessed pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the supra-orbital nerves (V1) and peripheral nerve trunks of both upper extremities (median, radial, and ulnar nerves) in 20 patients with strictly unilateral migraine and 20 healthy matched controls. Pain intensity after palpation over both supra-orbital nerves was also assessed. A pressure algometer was used to quantify PPT, whereas a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to evaluate pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve. The analysis of covariance revealed that pain to palpation over the supra-orbital nerve was significantly higher (P0.6). In patients with unilateral migraine, we found increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve on the symptomatic side of the head. Outside the head, the same patients showed increased mechano-sensitivity of the main peripheral nerves of both upper limbs, without asymmetries. Such diffuse hypersensitivity of the peripheral nerves lends further evidence to the presence of a state of hyperexcitability of the central nervous system in patients with unilateral migraine.

  4. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet.

  6. A strictly monofunctional bacterial hydroxymethylpyrimidine phosphate kinase precludes damaging errors in thiamin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamm, Antje M; Li, Gengnan; Taja-Moreno, Marlene; Gerdes, Svetlana Y; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Bruner, Steven D; Hanson, Andrew D

    2017-07-20

    The canonical kinase (ThiD) that converts the thiamin biosynthesis intermediate hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) monophosphate to the diphosphate can also very efficiently convert free HMP to the monophosphate in prokaryotes, plants, and fungi. This HMP kinase activity enables salvage of HMP, but it is not substrate-specific and so allows toxic HMP analogs and damage products to infiltrate the thiamin biosynthesis pathway. Comparative analysis of bacterial genomes uncovered a gene, thiD2 , that is often fused to the thiamin synthesis gene thiE and could potentially encode a replacement for ThiD. Standalone ThiD2 proteins and ThiD2 fusion domains are small (~130-residues) and do not belong to any previously known protein family. Genetic and biochemical analyses showed that representative standalone and fused ThiD2 proteins catalyze phosphorylation of HMP monophosphate, but not of HMP or its toxic analogs and damage products such as bacimethrin and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyrimidin-4-ol. As strictly monofunctional HMP monophosphate kinases, ThiD2 proteins eliminate a potentially fatal vulnerability of canonical ThiD, at the cost of the ability to reclaim HMP formed by thiamin turnover. ©2017 The Author(s).

  7. Clinical impact of strict criteria for selectivity and lateralization in adrenal vein sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparetto, Alessandro; Angle, John F; Darvishi, Pasha; Freeman, Colbey W; Norby, Ray G; Carey, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Selectivity index (SI) and lateralization index (LI) thresholds determine the adequacy of adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and the degree of lateralization. The purpose of this study was investigate the clinical outcome of patients whose adrenal vein sampling was interpreted using "strict criteria" (SC) (SIpre-stimuli≥3, SIpost-stimuli≥5 and LIpre-stimuli≥4, LIpost-stimuli≥4). A retrospective review of 73 consecutive AVS procedures was performed and 67 were technically successful. Forty-three patients showed lateralization and underwent surgery, while 24 did not lateralize and were managed conservatively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), kalemia (K(+)), and the change in number of blood pressure (BP) medications were recorded for each patient before and after AVS and potential surgery were performed. In the surgery group, BP and K(+) changed respectively from 160±5.3/100±2.0 mmHg to 127±3.3/80±1.9 (p blood pressure medications were six (14.0%) in the lateralized group and 22 (91.7%) in the non-lateralized group (p <0.001). AVS interpretation with SC leads to significant clinical improvement in both patients who underwent surgery and those managed conservatively.

  8. The Yellow Fever Vaccine: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Frierson, J. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...

  9. Gamma Radiation Effect on Titan Yellow Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the radiation induced color bleaching of Titan yellow dye (TY) in different solvents has been studied. The color bleaching of the dye solutions upon irradiation was followed spectrophotometrically. The % color bleaching of the dyes in different solvent systems was plotted against different gamma irradiation doses used and was determined and the obtained relationships were found to be linear in most cases. These relationships were used as calibration curves to determine the unknown irradiation dose. The results obtained were reproducible and showed differences from calculated values ranging from 10 % to 15 %

  10. Differential Expression of , , and Genes in Various Adipose Tissues and Muscle from Yanbian Yellow Cattle and Yan Yellow Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between cattle breeds and deposit of adipose tissues in different positions and the gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FASN, and Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM, which are associated with lipid metabolism and are valuable for understanding the physiology in fat depot and meat quality. Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle reared under the same conditions display different fat proportions in the carcass. To understand this difference, the expression of PPARγ, FASN, and ACADM in different adipose tissues and longissimus dorsi muscle (LD in these two breeds were analyzed using the Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qRT-PCR. The result showed that PPARγ gene expression was significantly higher in adipose tissue than in LD in both breeds. PPARγ expression was also higher in abdominal fat, in perirenal fat than in the subcutaneous fat (p<0.05 in Yanbian yellow cattle, and was significantly higher in subcutaneous fat in Yan yellow cattle than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. On the other hand, FASN mRNA expression levels in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat in Yan yellow cattle were significantly higher than that in Yanbian yellow cattle. Interestingly, ACADM gene shows greater fold changes in LD than in adipose tissues in Yan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the expressions of these three genes in lung, colon, kidney, liver and heart of Yanbian yellow cattle and Yan yellow cattle were also investigated. The results showed that the highest expression levels of PPARγ and FASN genes were detected in the lung in both breeds. The expression of ACADM gene in kidney and liver were higher than that in other organs in Yanbian yellow cattle, the comparison was not statistically significant in Yan yellow cattle.

  11. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  12. Longitudinal myelitis associated with yellow fever vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, M; Riccio, P; Patrucco, L; Rojas, J I; Cristiano, E

    2009-07-01

    Severe adverse reaction to yellow fever (YF) vaccine includes the yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease. This terminology includes postvaccinal encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The objective of this communication is to report a patient who received a YF vaccine in Argentina and subsequently developed longitudinal myelitis with a symptom that had previously gone unreported in the literature. A 56-year-old man began with progressive paraparesia, urinary retention, and constipation 48 h previous to admission. The patient received YF vaccine 45 days prior to the onset of the symptoms. There was no history of other immunization or relevant condition. MR of the spine showed longitudinal intramedullary hyperintense signal (D5-12) without gadolinium enhancement. A high concentration of YFV-specific IgM vaccine antibody was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Serological tests for other flavivirus were negative. A diagnosis of longitudinal myelitis without encephalitis associated with YF vaccine was performed and symptoms improved 5 days later. This is the first report dealing with longitudinal myelitis as a serious adverse event associated with YF vaccination in which confirmation of the presence of antibodies in CSF was found. To date, it is also the first report with serological confirmation in Argentina and in South America. We consider that the present investigation will raise awareness in the region in the reporting of adverse events related to YF vaccine and improve our knowledge of adverse reactions to the vaccine.

  13. The thermal stability of yellow fever vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ishak

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of yellow fever vaccine thermostability both in lyophilized form and after reconstitution were analyzed. Two commercial yellow fever vaccines were assayed for their thermal stability. Vaccines were exposed to test temperatures in the range of 8 (graus C to 45 (graus C. Residual infectivity was measured by a plaque assay using Vero cells. The titre values were used in an accelerated degradation test that follows the Arrhenius equation and the minimum immunizing dose was assumed to be 10 (ao cubo particles forming unit (pfu/dose. Some of the most relevant results include that (i regular culture medium show the same degradation pattern of a reconstituted 17D-204 vaccine; (ii reconstituted YF-17D-204 showed a predictable half life of more than six days if kept at 0 (graus C; (iii there are differences in thermostability between different products that are probably due to both presence of stabilizers in the preparation and the modernization in the vaccine production; (iv it is important to establish a proper correlation between the mouse infectivity test and the plaque assay since the last appears to be more simple, economical, and practical for small laboratories to assess the potency of the vaccine, and (v the accelerated degradation test appears to be the best procedure to quantify the thermostability of biological products.

  14. Uranium Yellow Cake accident - Wichita, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A tractor and semi trailer containing Uranium Yellow Cake, had overturned on I-235, Wichita, Kansas on Thursday, March 22, 1979. The truck driver and passenger were transported, with unknown injuries, to the hospital by ambulance. The shipment consisted of 54 drums of Uranium Ore Concentrate Powder. Half of the drums were damaged or had their lids off. Since it was raining at the time of the accident, plastic was used to cover the barrels and spilled material in an attempt to contain the yellow cake. A bulldozer was used to construct a series of dams in the median and the ditch to contain the run-off water from the contaminated area. Adverse and diverse weather conditions hampered the clean up operations over the next several days. The contaminated water and soil were shipped back to the mine for reintroduction into the milling process. The equipment was decontaminated prior to being released from the site. The clean up personnel wore protective clothing and respiratory protection equipment, if necessary. All individuals were surveyed and decontaminated prior to exiting the area

  15. Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov., a strictly aerobic and moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Li; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2013-11-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, motile and spore-forming bacterium, strain 3nP4(T), was isolated from the Puge hot spring located in the south-western geothermal area of China. Strain 3nP4(T) grew at 38-66 °C (optimum 57-60 °C), at pH 6.0-9.3 (optimum 7.0-7.5) and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-0.5 %). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, as well as DNA-DNA relatedness values, indicated that the isolate represents a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, related most closely to Anoxybacillus voinovskiensis DSM 12111(T). Strain 3nP4(T) had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and one unidentified phospholipid as major polar lipids and iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 as major fatty acids, which are both typical chemotaxonomic characteristics of the genus Anoxybacillus. The mean DNA G+C content of strain 3nP4(T) was 39.2±0.95 mol% (HPLC). A distinctive characteristic of the novel isolate was its extreme reliance on vitamin mixture or yeast extract for growth. Based on data from this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, strain 3nP4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus, for which the name Anoxybacillus vitaminiphilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 3nP4(T) ( = CGMCC 1.8979(T) = JCM 16594(T)).

  16. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis does not perceive odor mixtures as strictly elemental objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; de Bruijn, Paulien J A; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2010-11-01

    . persimilis perceives odor mixtures as a collection of strictly elemental objects. They suggest that odor mixtures rather are perceived as one synthetic whole.

  17. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG, or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation.

  18. The complete nucleotide sequence of the Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV genome reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All ...

  19. Traveling Abroad: Latest Yellow Fever Vaccine Update | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier this month, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released its list of clinics that are administering the yellow fever vaccine Stamaril, which has been made available to address the total depletion of the United States’ primary yellow fever vaccine, YF-VAX. These clinics will provide the vaccine to individuals preparing for international travel,

  20. Fatal Yellow Fever in Travelers to Brazil, 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Angelo, Kristina; Caumes, Eric; van Genderen, Perry J J; Florescu, Simin A; Popescu, Corneliu P; Perret, Cecilia; McBride, Angela; Checkley, Anna; Ryan, Jenny; Cetron, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2018-03-23

    Yellow fever virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes yellow fever, an acute infectious disease that occurs in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Most patients with yellow fever are asymptomatic, but among the 15% who develop severe illness, the case fatality rate is 20%-60%. Effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available that protect against yellow fever (1). An outbreak of yellow fever began in Brazil in December 2016; since July 2017, cases in both humans and nonhuman primates have been reported from the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro, including cases occurring near large urban centers in these states (2). On January 16, 2018, the World Health Organization updated yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil to include all persons traveling to or living in Espírito Santo, São Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro states, and certain cities in Bahia state, in addition to areas where vaccination had been recommended before the recent outbreak (3). Since January 2018, 10 travel-related cases of yellow fever, including four deaths, have been reported in international travelers returning from Brazil. None of the 10 travelers had received yellow fever vaccination.

  1. Determining the Feasibility of Yellow Corn Production in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia, Maria; Peel, Derrell S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexico produces large quantities of white corn for human consumption. Yellow corn production, mostly used for feed, has increased lately. Driving factors include higher domestic demand (growing livestock industry) and greater international demand (ethanol industry). This study uses enterprise budgeting to determine the feasibility of producing yellow corn in Mexico.

  2. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    effect of yellow sand with that of silica and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in a ... [Ca2+]i was measured using the method previously des- cribed by Yang et ... particle activity as a Fenton catalyst). The capability of a particle to support transitional metal- dependent .... TNF-α production was increased in silica-treated cells and yellow ...

  3. 33 CFR 117.225 - Yellow Mill Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yellow Mill Channel. 117.225 Section 117.225 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.225 Yellow Mill Channel. The...

  4. The Size And Localisation Of Yellow Pigmented Lipid Cells 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size and distribution of the main pungent principle (6-gingerol) in two ginger varieties “ Tafin giwa” (the yellow variety) and “Yatsum biri” (the dark variety) at 4, 5, 6, and 8 months stages of maturity at harvest were studied empirically by the determination of the mean number of yellow pigmented lipid cells per unit area ...

  5. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What a rheumatologist needs to know about yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Cristina Vanderley; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz Dos; Tauil, Pedro Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases are more susceptible to infection, due to the underlying disease itself or to its treatment. The rheumatologist should prevent infections in those patients, vaccination being one preventive measure to be adopted. Yellow fever is one of such infectious diseases that can be avoided.The yellow fever vaccine is safe and effective for the general population, but, being an attenuated live virus vaccine, it should be avoided whenever possible in rheumatic patients on immunosuppressive drugs. Considering that yellow fever is endemic in a large area of Brazil, and that vaccination against that disease is indicated for those living in such area or travelling there, rheumatologists need to know that disease, as well as the indications for the yellow fever vaccine and contraindications to it. Our paper was aimed at highlighting the major aspects rheumatologists need to know about the yellow fever vaccine to decide about its indication or contraindication in specific situations. 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Yellow Fever Outbreaks in Unvaccinated Populations, Brazil, 2008–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandro Pecego Martins; Costa, Zouraide Guerra Antunes; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Jayme, Valéria de Sá; de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Vettorello, Kátia Campomar; Mascheretti, Melissa; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. PMID:24625634

  8. Viscerotropic disease following yellow fever vaccination in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittembury, Alvaro; Ramirez, Gladys; Hernández, Herminio; Ropero, Alba Maria; Waterman, Steve; Ticona, María; Brinton, Margo; Uchuya, Jorge; Gershman, Mark; Toledo, Washington; Staples, Erin; Campos, Clarense; Martínez, Mario; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Cabezas, Cesar; Lanciotti, Robert; Zaki, Sherif; Montgomery, Joel M; Monath, Thomas; Hayes, Edward

    2009-10-09

    Five suspected cases of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) clustered in space and time following a vaccination campaign in Ica, Peru in 2007. All five people received the same lot of 17DD live attenuated yellow fever vaccine before their illness; four of the five died of confirmed YEL-AVD. The surviving case was classified as probable YEL-AVD. Intensive investigation yielded no abnormalities of the implicated vaccine lot and no common risk factors. This is the first described space-time cluster of yellow fever viscerotropic disease involving more than two cases. Mass yellow fever vaccination should be avoided in areas that present extremely low risk of yellow fever.

  9. Convergence of Implicit and Explicit Schemes for an Asymptotically Nonexpansive Mapping in -Uniformly Smooth and Strictly Convex Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for an asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in -uniformly smooth and strictly convex Banach spaces. We also proved the strong convergence theorems of implicit and explicit schemes. The results obtained in this paper extend and improve many recent ones announced by many others.

  10. Short-Acting Gas Tamponade with Strict Face-Down Posturing for the Treatment of Idiopathic Macular Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotzaridis, Stratos; Liazos, Efstathios; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective consecutive case series to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy, ILM peeling, 20% SF 6 gas tamponade and strict posturing for the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular holes. We report the results of 106 consecutive eyes that underwent standard 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy, brilliant peel-assisted internal limiting membrane peel, fluid:gas exchange with 20% SF 6 and strict posturing for one week. All patients were followed up at one week, one month, three months, and nine months postoperatively. Biomicroscopy at day 1 and biomicroscopy and OCT at week 1, months 1, 3, and 9 were used to assess macular hole status postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative logMAR visual acuity was compared. The macular hole was closed in 102/106 eyes postoperatively (96.2%). Four eyes showed unclosed macular holes and underwent additional SF 6 intravitreal injection and strict posturing for 10 days. All macular holes were eventually closed without the need of a second surgical procedure. Mean visual acuity improved from 0.63 logMAR preoperatively to 0.39 logMAR postoperatively. One case of retinal toxicity was reported due to accidental intravitreal injection of antibiotic. 25-gauge vitrectomy, ILM peel, and short-acting gas tamponade are highly effective for the treatment of macular holes. Additional intravitreal gas injection followed by strict posturing seems to be a simple and effective treatment for unclosed holes.

  11. Distinct Osmoadaptation Strategies in the Strict Halophilic and Halotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Lunsu Salt Water Body of North West Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Shivani; Dev, Kamal; Sourirajan, Anuradha

    2018-07-01

    Two strict halophilic bacterial strains, Halobacillus trueperi SS1, and Halobacillus trueperi SS3, and three halotolerant bacterial strains, Shewanella algae SS2, Halomonas venusta SS5, and Marinomonas sp. SS8 of Lunsu salt water body, Himachal Pradesh, India, were selected to study the mechanism of salt tolerance and the role of osmolytes therein. A combination of flame photometry, chromatographic and colorimetric assays was used to study the mechanism of salt tolerance in the selected strict halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains. The strict halophiles and, one of the halotolerants, Marinomonas sp. SS8 were found to utilize both "salt-in strategy" and "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" for osmoregulation in hypersaline conditions. On the contrary, the remaining two halotolerants used "accumulation of compatible solutes strategy" under saline stress and not the "salt-in strategy". The present study suggests towards distinct mechanisms of salt tolerance in the two classes, wherein strict halophiles accumulate compatible solutes as well as adopt salt-in strategy, while the halotolerant bacteria accumulate a range of compatible solutes, except Marinomonas sp. SS8, which utilizes both the strategies to combat salt stress.

  12. First report of the cucurbit yellow vine disease caused by Serratia marcescens in watermelon and yellow squash in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms typical of cucurbit yellow vine disease (CYVD) were first observed in a 2 ha watermelon field in Crawford, Russell County, Alabama on 8 June 2010. Watermelon plants, cv. 'Jubilee,' exhibited a yellow or chlorotic appearance and some plants were completely wilted. On 24 June plant samples ...

  13. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  14. Effects of geological changes and climatic fluctuations on the demographic histories and low genetic diversity of Squaliobarbus curriculus in Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Na; Wang, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-09-15

    The 104 samples of Squaliobarbus curriculus were collected from four localities in Yellow River and one region in Yangtze River. Analyses of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA control region of 555bp revealed only 15 polymorphism sites and defined 19 haplotypes. Low-to-moderate levels of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity were observed in Yellow River populations (h=0.2529-0.7510, π=0.0712%-0.2197%). In contrast, Poyang Lake population showed high haplotype diversity and lower-middle nucleotide diversity (h=0.9636, π=0.5317%). Low genetic differentiation was estimated among Yellow River populations and significant level of genetic structure was detected between two rivers. Population genetic structure between two rivers was believed to be connected with geographical barriers and paleoclimatic events. The demographic history of S. curriculus in Yellow River examined by neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and Bayesian skyline analysis suggested a sudden and spatial population expansion dating to the Holocene. Climatic warming and changes of Yellow River course may have important effects on demographic facet of S. curriculus history. The same signal was also obtained on Poyang Lake population in late Pleistocene during the last interglacial period. During the period, the pronounced climatic change and the water system variation of PYL may have an important influence on the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The strict liability principle in antidoping rules and the human rights of athletes: an approach critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Cruz Cunha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: the human lives in search of overrun at all levels, whether professional, emotional or in their interpersonal relationships. In the middle of sports this search becomes more visible, because hundredths of seconds can make the difference between the podium and the failure. Journals at any moment announces a new case of a positive doping in several sports. Objective: analyse the processes judged for doping in the STJD of the Brazilian athletism and verify if the pronounced sentences are in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. Materials and Methods: 18 cases were reviewed by the use of prohibited substance, between the years 2003 to 2006 by the STJD of Athletism. Results: of the 18 cases examined only 3 were acquitted by the STJD, however, these three, two have met suspension for two years, in order that WADA, not satisfied with the results asked the International Federation (IAAF to analyze them, and after guided them to the Court of Arbitration Sports (CAS. Conclusion: the rule of objective responsibility are not in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, leading athletes to respond irrespective proven their guilt.

  16. The strict liability principle in antidoping rules and the human rights of athletes: an approach critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Back Ground: the human lives in search of overrun at all levels, whether professional, emotional or in their interpersonal relationships. In the middle of sports this search becomes more visible, because hundredths of seconds can make the difference between the podium and the failure. Journals at any moment announces a new case of a positive doping in several sports. Objective: analyse the processes judged for doping in the STJD of the Brazilian athletism and verify if the pronounced sentences are in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights. Materials and Methods: 18 cases were reviewed by the use of prohibited substance, between the years 2003 to 2006 by the STJD of Athletism. Results: of the 18 cases examined only 3 were acquitted by the STJD, however, these three, two have met suspension for two years, in order that WADA, not satisfied with the results asked the International Federation (IAAF to analyze them, and after guided them to the Court of Arbitration Sports (CAS. Conclusion: the rule of objective responsibility are not in accordance with the Brazilian Constitution and with the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights, leading athletes to respond irrespective proven their guilt.

  17. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinoni, C; Amaro, E; Cendes, F; dos Santos, A C; Salmon, C E G

    2013-04-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a 'resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs). Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced "silent" pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent) counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal), while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  18. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rondinoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal, while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  19. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Sean; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Poh Lian

    2016-07-01

    There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel yellow colored flame compositions with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of colored flames is the primary purpose of military signaling, projectile tracing, and illuminating devices. Certain elements and compounds when heated to high temperature have the unique property of emitting lines or narrow bands in the visible region (380–780 nm. This study, reports on the development of novel yellow colored flame compositions with enhanced spectral performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality to standard Russian yellow tracer. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed yellow flares were measured using digital luxmeter and UV–Vis. spectrometer respectively. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity, and color quality of Russian yellow tracer were improved by 287%, and 170% respectively. This was accomplished by means of optimizing the ratio of novel binder to color source using aluminum metal fuel. Aluminum-based formulations were found to maximize the formation of yellow reactive emitting specimens, and to eliminate any interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO. Quantification of yellow color emitting specimens in the combustion gaseous products was achieved using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT (Institute of Chemical Technology in Germany, Virgin 2008; in an attempt to judge the light quality. This improvement in yellow flare performance established the rule that the emission intensity increases as the reaction temperature increases. In the meantime upper limit of temperature was avoided to maximize the color quality.

  1. Yellow fever cases in Asia: primed for an epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is currently an emerging outbreak of yellow fever in Angola. Cases in infected travellers have been reported in a number of other African countries, as well as in China, representing the first ever documented cases of yellow fever in Asia. There is a large Chinese workforce in Angola, many of whom may be unvaccinated, increasing the risk of ongoing importation of yellow fever into Asia via busy commercial airline routes. Large parts of the region are hyperendemic for the related Flavivirus dengue and are widely infested by Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of urban yellow fever transmission. The combination of sustained introduction of viraemic travellers, an ecology conducive to local transmission, and an unimmunized population raises the possibility of a yellow fever epidemic in Asia. This represents a major global health threat, particularly in the context of a depleted emergency vaccine stockpile and untested surveillance systems in the region. In this review, the potential for a yellow fever outbreak in Asia is discussed with reference to the ecological and historical forces that have shaped global yellow fever epidemiology. The limitations of surveillance and vector control in the region are highlighted, and priorities for outbreak preparedness and response are suggested.

  2. Sedimentary architecture of the Holocene mud deposit off the southern Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiandong; Liu, Jian; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Liangyong

    2018-01-01

    Newly acquired high-resolution seismic profiles reveal a nearshore and an offshore mud depocenter offthe southern Shandong Peninsula in the Yellow Sea. The nearshore depocenter is distributed in bands along the south coast of Shandong Peninsula. The offshore depocenter is part of the distal subaqueous deltaic lobe, which deposited around the southeastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. Between the two depocenters is a linear depression. The mud deposits directly overlie the postglacial transgressive surface and can be divided into lower and upper units by the Holocene maximum flooding surface. The nearshore and offshore units display different seismic structures. The lower unit of the nearshore deposit exhibits basal onlap, whereas the upper unit is characterized by progradation. The lower and upper units of the offshore deposit display distinct acoustic features. The lower unit has low-angle aggradation with internal reflectors generally dipping seaward and truncated by the Holocene maximum flooding surface, whereas the upper unit is characterized by aggradation and progradation landward rather than seaward. Results of geochemistry analysis of QDZ03 sediments and mineral analysis of WHZK01 sediments suggest that the nearshore deposit and the lower unit of the offshore deposit are derived from the proximal coastal sediments of the Shandong Peninsula and the Huanghe (Yellow) River sediments. The upper unit of the offshore deposit is mainly Huanghe River-derived. The lower unit of the mud deposit represents a post-glacial transgressive system tract according to dates of core QDZ03, and the upper unit represents a highstand system tract from middle Holocene to the present. These results will be of great significance to further understanding of the transportation of the Huanghe River sediments into the Yellow Sea and the spatial distribution of the subaqueous delta.

  3. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  4. Strict liability as a legal mechanism protecting the aggrieved parties' interests within the nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The no-fault liability principle of nuclear liability regime, its compensation schemes, sociological and legal grounds of its construction as well as liberation grounds are analysed. The simple existence of causation of damage and nuclear accident without necessity of proving negligence or any other type of fault on the part of the operator as an adequate basis for the operator’s strict liability is highlighted thus simplifying the litigation process eliminating potential obstacles, especially such as might exist with the burden of proof. The question of weighing the interests of society in the development of nuclear industry, the necessary extent of protection of victims of nuclear accidents and the interests of operators of nuclear facilities as main determinants of the strict nature of nuclear liability is also described. (orig.)

  5. Strong Convergence to Common Fixed Points of a Countable Family of Asymptotically Strictly Quasi-ϕ-Pseudocontractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qi Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an original idea, namely, a specific way of choosing the indexes of the involved mappings, we propose a new hybrid shrinking iteration scheme for approximating some common fixed points of a countable family of asymptotically strictly quasi-ϕ-pseudocontractions and obtain a strong convergence theorem in the framework of Banach space. Our result extends other authors, related results existing in the current literature. As application, an iterative solution to a system of equilibrium problems is provided.

  6. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 42 CFR 71.3 - Designation of yellow fever vaccination centers; Validation stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safe, potent, and pure yellow fever vaccine. Medical facilities of Federal agencies are authorized to obtain yellow fever vaccine without being designated as a yellow fever vaccination center by the Director..., storage, and administration of yellow fever vaccine. If a designated center fails to comply with such...

  8. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  9. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  10. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The application of strict criminal liabilities to spillage of oil: the practical impact on effective spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provides criminal penalties in oil spills that result from criminal activity, gross negligence or wilful misconduct on the part of the spiller. Nevertheless, the Department of Justice has seen fit to reach into unrelated legislation to potentially apply strict criminal liability to any oil spill regardless of intent. Strict criminalization of accidental oil spills is demonstrably counterproductive to effective protection of the environment from the effect of spills since it poses a serious impediment to cooperation and coordination by and between those charged by law to respond to them. This impediment is particularly dangerous since it threatens the proper functioning of the inherently sensitive ''troika'' Unified Command Structure that has evolved in spill response management in response to OPA-90 management requirements. Introduction of strict criminal liability for accidental spills is also particularly troublesome in that it must enlist unrelated law to influence an area that has been addressed specifically by legislation designed for that purpose; legislation that has worked well in the past 30 years to both regulate the target activities while successfully achieving the objective of protecting and improving environment quality. (author)

  12. Volatile components from the anal glands of the yellow mongoose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-12-01

    Dec 1, 1988 ... sampling, gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrome- try. The odour volatiles were ... tube and over the secretion at a flow rate of 15 cm3 min-1 .... behaviour of the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. (G. Cuvier).

  13. Is it time for a new yellow fever vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Edward B

    2010-11-29

    An inexpensive live attenuated vaccine (the 17D vaccine) against yellow fever has been effectively used to prevent yellow fever for more than 70 years. Interest in developing new inactivated vaccines has been spurred by recognition of rare but serious, sometimes fatal adverse events following live virus vaccination. A safer inactivated yellow fever vaccine could be useful for vaccinating people at higher risk of adverse events from the live vaccine, but could also have broader global health utility by lowering the risk-benefit threshold for assuring high levels of yellow fever vaccine coverage. If ongoing trials demonstrate favorable immunogenicity and safety compared to the current vaccine, the practical global health utility of an inactivated vaccine is likely to be determined mostly by cost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of red and yellow tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ripe fruits of tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) of red and yellow varieties were ... The nutrient compositions were determined using AOAC techniques. ... Conclusion: Moisture, fat and fibre values were similar in the samples.

  15. Yellow fever vectors' surveillance in three satellite communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of yellow fever have continued to occur in various parts of Nigeria. ... easily render themselves to vector and environmental management strategies. ... vectors, while locally adapted CDC (Centre for Disease Control) ovitraps were ...

  16. Study on silk yellowing induced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Masuhiro; Aoki, Akira

    1985-01-01

    The changes in the yellow color of silk threads with total dose of irradiation applied were described and studied by a colorimetric method and by monochrome photography. The change into a yellow color of the specimen in the course of irradiation was clearly detected in photographs using filters, 2B and SC 56 under light conditions at the wavelength of 366 nm. The b/L value measured by colorimetry in undegummed and degummed silk fibers sharply increased in the early stage of irradiation. Yellow color indices (b/L) of the specimen subjected to gamma-irradiation continued to increase and the yellow color of the silk threads became more pronounced above a total dose of irradiation of 21 Mrad. The b/L value of the undegummed silk fiber which had deen irradiated was about 2 times that of the degummed silk fiber. (author)

  17. EVALUATION OF COLOUR IN WHITE AND YELLOW TRIFOLIATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    2010-03-20

    Mar 20, 2010 ... 2Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Therefore, this work determines the colour in white and yellow trifoliate ... Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were prepared into flour using four.

  18. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byoung-Jik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 7}Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides.

  19. Correlation between Yellow Dust and Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIZaabia, Mouza A; Kim, Byoung-Jik

    2015-01-01

    In East Asia, yellow dust or Asian Dust (AD) outbreaks are among the largest contributors of wind-blown dust that carry natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and subsequently alter their concentration and distribution throughout the environment. Although the Korean Peninsula has been experiencing AD events since ancient times, the research has tended to focus on the transport routes and characteristics of AD, rather than on its impact on radionuclide activity levels. This paper examines the relationship between radionuclide concentration in the air and the frequency of dusty days in South Korea during AD intrusion events. It also investigates whether increased radionuclide concentration is a function of either more mass or more dust contamination. In this study, significant linear correlations of gamma-emitting radionuclides were found with mass of dust and occurrence frequency of AD. Regardless of the source origin of the dust, 137 Cs and 7 Be concentration primarily depended on dust mass in the filter. Nonetheless, the correlations were greatly distorted in 2011 and in the spring season, particularly the correlations with AD days that were far below that of the correlations obtained for the whole study period. A possible explanation of these conflicting results is that a change in the dust source could appreciably alter the concentration, deposition, and distribution of airborne radionuclides

  20. Shortage of vaccines during a yellow fever outbreak in Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, N; Barry, M; Van Herp, M; Zeller, H

    2001-01-01

    A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...

  1. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Wauters, Robert H.; Hernandez, Camellia L.; Petersen, Maureen M.

    2017-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  2. An Atypical Local Vesicular Reaction to the Yellow Fever Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Robert H; Hernandez, Camellia L; Petersen, Maureen M

    2017-09-19

    Yellow fever vaccine is a live attenuated viral inoculation indicated for patients traveling to endemic areas. The vaccine is generally well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. Typical side effects include malaise, pain at the injection site, and, albeit rarely, immediate hypersensitivity reactions. We present a case of a rare adverse reaction to yellow fever vaccine in which a patient developed vesicular lesions resulting in bullae and circumferential hyperpigmentation.

  3. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals

  4. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  5. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  6. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  7. Survey the Effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum of Wheat Cultivars Resistance in Yellow Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2017-01-01

    -levels (non-inoculated seeds and inoculated seed and wheat cultivars in three levels, Chamran (bread wheat, Dena and Behrang (durum wheat varieties. In this experiment evaluated, to yellow rust disease, the intensity of infection, the average coefficient of infection, type of infection and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. Infection type and disease severity were also recorded at flag leaf stage using modified Cobb’s scale. First symptoms of yellow rust were observed in middle January of 2013. Analysis of variance was performed using PROC ANOVA of SAS (version 9.1.3, 2004The comparison of the means was done by Duncan test at a probability level of 5 percent. Results and Discussion: Survey on the resistance to yellow rust in wheat cultivars treated with Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum showed that seed inoculation with Azospirillum traits reduced between 10 percent to 13 percent and the use strains of Mycorrhiza fungi intensity of infection 45-51 percent, the average coefficient of infection and AUDPC 74-85 percent respectively for G. intraradices and G. mosseae strains have been reduced compared with control and Chamran cultivar between 40-70 percent showed more Sensitivity to disease from durum varieties. Generally, the lowest of infection intensity (18.33 was obtained from inoculation of C.V Dena seeds with Azospirillum and G. mosseae strain. According to the result, we found yellow rust in all experiment field also the incidence varied between 10-70 percent. Therefore, it is concluded that, given the climatic conditions favorable to the spread of yellow rust, the incidence of yellow rust in the region that have a high degree of pathogenicity. In general the results of this test, mycorrhiza application has a significant role in enhancing wheat resistance to yellow rust. The seed inoculation with Azospirillum although did not have significant role in disease control, but increased at an acceptable level resistance to wheat rust. But the important point was the combined

  8. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.351 - If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.351 If a state or local government has a smoke-free ordinance that is more strict than the smoking policy for Federal facilities...

  10. Adrenarche and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Benjamin C

    2011-09-01

    Middle childhood, the period from 6 to 12 years of age, is defined socially by increasing autonomy and emotional regulation, somatically by the development of anatomical structures for subsistence, and endocrinologically by adrenarche, the adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here I suggest that DHEA plays a key role in the coordinated development of the brain and body beginning with middle childhood, via energetic allocation. I argue that with adrenarche, increasing levels of circulating DHEA act to down-regulate the release of glucose into circulation and hence limit the supply of glucose which is needed by the brain for synaptogenesis. Furthermore, I suggest the antioxidant properties of DHEA may be important in maintaining synaptic plasticity throughout middle childhood within slow-developing areas of the cortex, including the insula, thamalus, and anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, DHEA may play a role in the development of body odor as a reliable social signal of behavioral changes associated with middle childhood.

  11. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  12. Middle-State Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  13. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Fermentative Degradation of Polyethylene Glycol by a Strictly Anaerobic, Gram-Negative, Nonsporeforming Bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely...

  16. Some results on a general iterative method for k-strictly pseudo-contractive mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Jong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Let H be a Hilbert space, C be a closed convex subset of H such that C ± C ⊂ C, and T : C → H be a k-strictly pseudo-contractive mapping with F(T) ≠ ∅ for some 0 ≤ k < 1. Let F : C → C be a κ-Lipschitzian and η-strongly monotone operator with κ > 0 and η > 0 and f : C → C be a contraction with the contractive constant α ∈ (0, 1). Let , and τ < 1. Let {αn } and {βn } be sequen...

  17. Structural stability of solutions to the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system with flux approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the Riemann problem for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws under the linear approximations of flux functions with three parameters. The approximated system also belongs to the type of triangular systems of conservation laws and this approximation does not change the structure of Riemann solutions to the original system. Furthermore, it is proven that the Riemann solutions to the approximated system converge to the corresponding ones to the original system as the perturbation parameter tends to zero.

  18. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  19. Yellow Fever outbreaks in unvaccinated populations, Brazil, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43% in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39% in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered. Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever.

  20. Yellow fever, Asia and the East African slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, John T; Marr, John S

    2014-05-01

    Yellow fever is endemic in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and South America, yet its principal vectors--species of mosquito of the genus Aedes--are found throughout tropical and subtropical latitudes. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that yellow fever originated in Africa and that its spread to the New World coincided with the slave trade, but why yellow fever has never appeared in Asia remains a mystery. None of several previously proposed explanations for its absence there is considered satisfactory. We contrast the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and trade across the Sahara and to the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia, with that to Far East and Southeast Asian ports before abolition of the African slave trade, and before the scientific community understood the transmission vector of yellow fever and the viral life cycle, and the need for shipboard mosquito control. We propose that these differences in slave trading had a primary role in the avoidance of yellow fever transmission into Asia in the centuries before the 20(th) century. The relatively small volume of the Black African slave trade between Africa and East and Southeast Asia has heretofore been largely ignored. Although focal epidemics may have occurred, the volume was insufficient to reach the threshold for endemicity.

  1. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  2. Cow urine, Indian yellow, and art forgeries: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory Dale

    2017-07-01

    In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer. To highlight the importance of the proper identification of dyes and colorants, the authentication and art historical implications of previous literature reports that have misidentified Indian yellow on historic documents are more thoroughly discussed here from a forensic science point of view. The numerous modern pigments that are sold as imitation Indian yellow are addressed and analyzed, allowing the ready noninvasive detection of anachronistic colorants in attempted forgeries. Finally, this unusual pigment is positively identified for the first time using non-invasive dispersive Raman microspectroscopy on a historic object of uncertain date, a highly decorative manuscript from the Indian subcontinent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. R -Dimensional ESPRIT-Type Algorithms for Strictly Second-Order Non-Circular Sources and Their Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwandt, Jens; Roemer, Florian; Haardt, Martin; Galdo, Giovanni Del

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution parameter estimation algorithms designed to exploit the prior knowledge about incident signals from strictly second-order (SO) non-circular (NC) sources allow for a lower estimation error and can resolve twice as many sources. In this paper, we derive the R-D NC Standard ESPRIT and the R-D NC Unitary ESPRIT algorithms that provide a significantly better performance compared to their original versions for arbitrary source signals. They are applicable to shift-invariant R-D antenna arrays and do not require a centrosymmetric array structure. Moreover, we present a first-order asymptotic performance analysis of the proposed algorithms, which is based on the error in the signal subspace estimate arising from the noise perturbation. The derived expressions for the resulting parameter estimation error are explicit in the noise realizations and asymptotic in the effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e., the results become exact for either high SNRs or a large sample size. We also provide mean squared error (MSE) expressions, where only the assumptions of a zero mean and finite SO moments of the noise are required, but no assumptions about its statistics are necessary. As a main result, we analytically prove that the asymptotic performance of both R-D NC ESPRIT-type algorithms is identical in the high effective SNR regime. Finally, a case study shows that no improvement from strictly non-circular sources can be achieved in the special case of a single source.

  4. Strictly monolayer large continuous MoS{sub 2} films on diverse substrates and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, P. K.; Deb, S.; Singh, B. P.; Vasa, P.; Dhar, S., E-mail: dhar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-01-25

    Despite a tremendous interest on molybdenum disulfide as a thinnest direct band gap semiconductor, single step synthesis of a large area purely monolayer MoS{sub 2} film has not yet been reported. Here, we report a CVD route to synthesize a continuous film of strictly monolayer MoS{sub 2} covering an area as large as a few cm{sup 2} on a variety of different substrates without using any seeding material or any elaborate pretreatment of the substrate. This is achieved by allowing the growth to take place in the naturally formed gap between a piece of SiO{sub 2} coated Si wafer and the substrate, when the latter is placed on top of the former inside a CVD reactor. We propose a qualitative model to explain why the MoS{sub 2} films are always strictly monolayer in this method. The photoluminescence study of these monolayers shows the characteristic excitonic and trionic features associated with monolayer MoS{sub 2}. In addition, a broad defect related luminescence band appears at ∼1.7 eV. As temperature decreases, the intensity of this broad feature increases, while the band edge luminescence reduces.

  5. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for hypersonic flight vehicles with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Jie; Zuo, Jing-Xing; Sun, Liang-Hua

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the altitude and velocity tracking control of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) is considered. A novel adaptive terminal sliding mode controller (ATSMC) with strictly lower convex function based nonlinear disturbance observer (SDOB) is proposed for the longitudinal dynamics of HFV in presence of both parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. First, for the sake of enhancing the anti-interference capability, SDOB is presented to estimate and compensate the equivalent disturbances by introducing a strictly lower convex function. Next, the SDOB based ATSMC (SDOB-ATSMC) is proposed to guarantee the system outputs track the reference trajectory. Then, stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov function method. Compared with other HFV control approaches, key novelties of SDOB-ATSMC are that a novel SDOB is proposed and drawn into the (virtual) control laws to compensate the disturbances and that several adaptive laws are used to deal with the differential explosion problem. Finally, it is illustrated by the simulation results that the new method exhibits an excellent robustness and a better disturbance rejection performance than the convention approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yellow fever risk assessment in the Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Junior, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-04-01

    Yellow fever still causes high burden in several areas of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. There are few well-designed epidemiological studies and limited data about yellow fever in Africa. Staples et al., in a recently published paper in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, performed a nationwide study in the Central African Republic (CAR) assessing infection risk and the operational impact of preventive measures. The rapid assessment of human, non-human and mosquito data call attention to the potential risk of future yellow fever outbreaks in the CAR and elsewhere. The study reinforces the need for intensified applied and operational research to address problems and human capacity needs in the realm of neglected tropical diseases in the post-2015 agenda. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamrin, M Thoyib; Sofyan, Hasnel

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of high dose radiation using yellow perspex dosemeter has been carried out. Dose range used was between 0.1 to 3.0 kGy. Measurement of dose rate against Fricke dosemeter as a standard dose meter From the irradiation of Fricke dosemeter with time variation of 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 minute, it was obtained average dose rate of 955.57 Gy/hour, linear equation of dose was Y= 2.333+15.776 X with its correlation factor r = 0.9999. Measurement result using yellow perspex show that correlation between net optical density and radiation dose was not linear with its equation was ODc exp. [Bo + In(dose).Bi] Value of Bo = -0.215 and Bi=0.5020. From the experiment it was suggested that routine dosimeter (yellow perspex) should be calibrated formerly against standard dosemeters

  8. [On academic thought and clinical application of LI Yan-Fang's middle-warmer energy method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Jun

    2010-10-01

    The present paper introduces LI Yan-Fang's middle-warmer energy method from acupoint selection, needling methods, treatment principle and his clinical experiences in treatment of stroke and insomnia etc. The acupuncture prescription of this method consist of Shangwan (CV 13), Zhongwan (CV 12), Jianli (CV 11), Xiawan (CV 10), Shuifen (CV 9), Huangshu (KI 16) and Qihai (CV 6) etc as the main acupoints combined with strict manipulation and depth of needling to treat clinical diseases.

  9. Yellow fever vaccine: worthy friend or stealthy foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Recognition that the live yellow fever vaccine may rarely be associated with viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) has diminished its safety status. However, the vaccine remains the principal tool for limiting the occurrence of yellow fever, making large portions of Africa and South America more habitable. The subject has previously been exhaustively reviewed. Novel concepts in the current report include the description of a systematic method for deciding whom to vaccinate, recommendations for obtaining data helpful in making that decision, and suggestions for additional study. The vaccine is indeed a worthy friend, but its adverse reactions need to be recognized.

  10. Is Red Heavier Than Yellow Even for Blind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilari, Marco; de Heering, Adélaïde; Crollen, Virginie; Collignon, Olivier; Bottini, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Across cultures and languages, people find similarities between the products of different senses in mysterious ways. By studying what is called cross-modal correspondences, cognitive psychologists discovered that lemons are fast rather than slow, boulders are sour, and red is heavier than yellow. Are these cross-modal correspondences established via sensory perception or can they be learned merely through language? We contribute to this debate by demonstrating that early blind people who lack the perceptual experience of color also think that red is heavier than yellow but to a lesser extent than sighted do.

  11. Identifikasi Pepper vein yellows virus yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Yellow Vein Banding pada Tanaman Mentimun di Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing vein banding disease has been reported infecting cucurbit plants in Bali since 2014. Similar vein banding symptom on chilli pepper was observed previously, and early diagnosis indicated infection of Polerovirus. The objective of this research was to confirm the presence of Polerovirus infection on cucumber plant showing yellow vein banding symptom in Bali. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction – based detection method was conducted using specific primer pairs PeVYV-CP-F-BamH1/ PeVYV-CP-R-Pst1followed by sequencing and nucleotide sequence analysis.  Specific DNA fragments of ± 650 bp was successfully amplified from field samples.  Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the sequence has the highest similarity > 95% with Pepper vein yellow virus (PeVYV infecting chili pepper from Indonesia (Bali, and Rembang, Japan, and Greece.

  12. World review: Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  13. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, San-Ji; Lin, Yi-Hua; Pan, Yong-Bao; Damaj, Mona B; Wang, Qin-Nan; Mirkov, T Erik; Chen, Ru-Kai

    2012-10-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae), the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD), was first detected in China in 2006. To assess the distribution of SCYLV in the major sugarcane-growing Chinese provinces, leaf samples from 22 sugarcane clones (Saccharum spp. hybrid) showing YLD symptoms were collected and analyzed for infection by the virus using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunological assays. A complete genomic sequence (5,879 nt) of the Chinese SCYLV isolate CHN-FJ1 and partial genomic sequences (2,915 nt) of 13 other Chinese SCYLV isolates from this study were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The genomic sequence of the CHN-FJ1 isolate was found to share a high identity (98.4-99.1 %) with those of the Brazilian (BRA) genotype isolates and a low identity (86.5-86.9 %) with those of the CHN1 and Cuban (CUB) genotype isolates. The genetic diversity of these 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates was assessed along with that of 29 SCYLV isolates of worldwide origin reported in the GenBank database, based on the full or partial genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all the 14 Chinese SCYLV isolates clustered into one large group with the BRA genotype and 12 other reported SCYLV isolates. In addition, five reported Chinese SCYLV isolates were grouped with the Peruvian (PER), CHN1 and CUB genotypes. We therefore speculated that at least four SCYLV genotypes, BRA, PER, CHN1, and CUB, are associated with YLD in China. Interestingly, a 39-nt deletion was detected in the sequence of the CHN-GD3 isolate, in the middle of the ORF1 region adjacent to the overlap between ORF1 and ORF2. This location is known to be one of the recombination breakpoints in the Luteoviridae family.

  14. Serological Changes Induced by Blend of Sunset Yellow, Metanil Yellow and Tartrazine in Swiss Albino Rat, Rattus Norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as con...

  15. Strict fibonacci heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lagogiannis, George; Tarjan, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst-case O(1) time, and delete and delete-min in worst-case O(lg n) time, where n is the size of the heap...... of the smaller heap when doing a meld. We use the pigeonhole principle in place of the redundant counter mechanism. We present the first pointer-based heap implementation with time bounds matching those of Fibonacci heaps in the worst case. We support make-heap, insert, find-min, meld and decrease-key in worst...

  16. Iterative algorithms for the input and state recovery from the approximate inverse of strictly proper multivariable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liwen; Xu, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes new iterative algorithms for the unknown input and state recovery from the system outputs using an approximate inverse of the strictly proper linear time-invariant (LTI) multivariable system. One of the unique advantages from previous system inverse algorithms is that the output differentiation is not required. The approximate system inverse is stable due to the systematic optimal design of a dummy feedthrough D matrix in the state-space model via the feedback stabilization. The optimal design procedure avoids trial and error to identify such a D matrix which saves tremendous amount of efforts. From the derived and proved convergence criteria, such an optimal D matrix also guarantees the convergence of algorithms. Illustrative examples show significant improvement of the reference input signal tracking by the algorithms and optimal D design over non-iterative counterparts on controllable or stabilizable LTI systems, respectively. Case studies of two Boeing-767 aircraft aerodynamic models further demonstrate the capability of the proposed methods.

  17. Globally Stable Adaptive Backstepping Neural Network Control for Uncertain Strict-Feedback Systems With Tracking Accuracy Known a Priori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weisheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Wu, Jian; Gong, Maoguo

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the problem of globally stable direct adaptive backstepping neural network (NN) tracking control design for a class of uncertain strict-feedback systems under the assumption that the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error is given a priori. In contrast to the classical adaptive backstepping NN control schemes, this paper analyzes the convergence of the tracking error using Barbalat's Lemma via some nonnegative functions rather than the positive-definite Lyapunov functions. Thus, the accuracy of the ultimate tracking error can be determined and adjusted accurately a priori, and the closed-loop system is guaranteed to be globally uniformly ultimately bounded. The main technical novelty is to construct three new n th-order continuously differentiable functions, which are used to design the control law, the virtual control variables, and the adaptive laws. Finally, two simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed control method.

  18. Online Recorded Data-Based Composite Neural Control of Strict-Feedback Systems With Application to Hypersonic Flight Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Daipeng; Shi, Zhongke; Pan, Yongping; Chen, Badong; Sun, Fuchun

    2017-09-25

    This paper investigates the online recorded data-based composite neural control of uncertain strict-feedback systems using the backstepping framework. In each step of the virtual control design, neural network (NN) is employed for uncertainty approximation. In previous works, most designs are directly toward system stability ignoring the fact how the NN is working as an approximator. In this paper, to enhance the learning ability, a novel prediction error signal is constructed to provide additional correction information for NN weight update using online recorded data. In this way, the neural approximation precision is highly improved, and the convergence speed can be faster. Furthermore, the sliding mode differentiator is employed to approximate the derivative of the virtual control signal, and thus, the complex analysis of the backstepping design can be avoided. The closed-loop stability is rigorously established, and the boundedness of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Through simulation of hypersonic flight dynamics, the proposed approach exhibits better tracking performance.

  19. Global neural dynamic surface tracking control of strict-feedback systems with application to hypersonic flight vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Chenguang; Pan, Yongping

    2015-10-01

    This paper studies both indirect and direct global neural control of strict-feedback systems in the presence of unknown dynamics, using the dynamic surface control (DSC) technique in a novel manner. A new switching mechanism is designed to combine an adaptive neural controller in the neural approximation domain, together with the robust controller that pulls the transient states back into the neural approximation domain from the outside. In comparison with the conventional control techniques, which could only achieve semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded stability, the proposed control scheme guarantees all the signals in the closed-loop system are globally uniformly ultimately bounded, such that the conventional constraints on initial conditions of the neural control system can be relaxed. The simulation studies of hypersonic flight vehicle (HFV) are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed global neural DSC design.

  20. Probing the redox metabolism in the strictly anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-producing Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus using amperometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Willquist, Karin; Emnéus, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellul...... in the intracellular electron flow and to probe redox enzyme properties of a strictly anaerobic thermophile in vivo.......Changes in the redox metabolism in the anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, hydrogen-forming bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were probed for the first time in vivo using mediated amperometry with ferricyanide as a thermotolerant external mediator. Clear differences in the intracellular...... the NADH-dependent lactate dehydrogenase, upon which more NADH was directed to membrane-associated enzymes for ferricyanide reduction, leading to a higher electrochemical signal. The method is noninvasive and the results presented here demonstrate that this method can be used to accurately detect changes...

  1. A solid criterion based on strict LMI without invoking equality constraint for stabilization of continuous singular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Chen, YangQuan

    2017-11-01

    The paper considers the stabilization issue of linear continuous singular systems by dealing with strict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) without invoking equality constraint and proposes a complete and effective solved LMIs formulation. The criterion is necessary and sufficient condition and can be directly solved the feasible solutions with LMI toolbox and is much more tractable and reliable in numerical simulation than existing results, which involve positive semi-definite LMIs with equality constraints. The most important property of the criterion proposed in the paper is that it can overcome the drawbacks of the invalidity caused by the singularity of Ω=PE T +SQ for stabilization of singular systems. Two counterexamples are presented to avoid the disadvantages of the existing condition of stabilization of continuous singular systems. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer for identification of strictly anaerobic bacterium Zymophilus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felsberg, Jürgen; Jelínková, Markéta; Kubizniaková, P.; Matoulková, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, June (2015), s. 85-89 ISSN 1075-9964 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewing microbiology * Strictly anaerobic bacteria * Yeast contamination Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.424, year: 2015

  3. On the Formation of Verb Compounds in Early Middle Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao LI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the formation of verb compounds in Early Middle Japanese, a stage of the Japanese language used in the Heian Period (794–1185. The findings reveal that current verb compounds have come a long way from Old Japanese. Multiple verbs in Old Japanese are assigned to an associate type, rather than a compounding type of relation. Thus, the serial constituents receive equal syntactic weight, giving rise to the extensive use of the coordinate type and succession type of multi-verbs. In Early Middle Japanese, the combinations of the two constituents seem much tighter, giving rise the frequent use of the modifier-predicate V-V. The conclusion emerging from this study is that it was not until Early Middle Japanese that verb compounds in the strict sense appeared. Moreover, two types of verb weakening are observed in Early Middle Japanese: (a transformation of the first verb into a prefix, (b grammaticalization of the second verb into a directional/resultative complement.

  4. Strict sequential catheter ablation strategy targeting the pulmonary veins and superior vena cava for persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiga, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Akihiko; Ueyama, Takeshi; Ono, Makoto; Fukuda, Masakazu; Fumimoto, Tomoko; Ishiguchi, Hironori; Omuro, Takuya; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Yano, Masafumi

    2018-08-01

    An effective catheter ablation strategy, beyond pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is necessary. Pulmonary vein (PV)-reconduction also causes recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias. The effect of the PVI and additional effect of a superior vena cava (SVC) isolation (SVCI) was strictly evaluated. Seventy consecutive patients with persistent AF who underwent a strict sequential ablation strategy targeting the PVs and SVC were included in this study. The initial ablation strategy was a circumferential PVI. A segmental SVCI was only applied as a repeat procedure when patients demonstrated no PV-reconduction. After the initial procedure, persistent AF was suppressed in 39 of 70 (55.7%) patients during a median follow-up of 32 months. After multiple procedures, persistent AF was suppressed in 46 (65.7%) and 52 (74.3%) patients after receiving the PVI alone and PVI plus SVCI strategies, respectively. In 6 of 15 (40.0%) patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI, persistent AF was suppressed. The persistent AF duration independently predicted persistent AF recurrences after multiple PVI alone procedures [HR: 1.012 (95% confidence interval: 1.006-1.018); pstrategies [HR: 1.018 (95% confidence interval: 1.011-1.025); pstrategies, respectively. The outcomes of the PVI plus SVCI strategy were favorable for patients with shorter persistent AF durations. The initial SVCI had the additional effect of maintaining sinus rhythm in some patients with persistent AF resistant to PVI. Copyright © 2018 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report:

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  6. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate

    OpenAIRE

    Štuhec, Matej

    2015-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were noadverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. ...

  7. Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved uranium in the Yellow River estuary: seasonal variation and anthropogenic (Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme) impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanjuan, Sui; Zhigang, Yu; Bochao, Xu; Wenhua, Dong; Dong, Xia; Xueyan, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) of the Yellow River is a procedure implemented annually from June to July to expel sediments deposited in Xiaolangdi and other large middle-reach reservoirs and to scour the lower reaches of the river, by controlling water and sediment discharges. Dissolved uranium isotopes were measured in river waters collected monthly as well as daily during the 2010 WSRS (June 19–July 16) from Station Lijin (a hydrologic station nearest to the Yellow River estuary). The monthly samples showed dissolved uranium concentrations of 3.85–7.57 μg l −1 and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios of 1.24–1.53. The concentrations were much higher than those reported for other global major rivers, and showed seasonal variability. Laboratory simulation experiments showed significant uranium release from bottom and suspended sediment. The uranium concentrations and activity ratios differed during the two stages of the WSRS, which may reflect desorption/dissolution of uranium from suspended river sediments of different origins. An annual flux of dissolved uranium of 1.04 × 10 8 g y −1 was estimated based on the monthly average water discharge and dissolved uranium concentration in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The amount of dissolved uranium (2.65 × 10 7 g) transported from the Yellow River to the sea during the WSRS constituted about 1/4 of the annual flux. -- Highlights: • Dissolved U in the Yellow River estuary has distinct seasonal variability. • Geochemistry of dissolved U influenced by the WSRS has been analyzed. • Uranium flux during the WSRS has been evaluated

  8. Genetic differentiation in Japanese flounder in the Yellow Sea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population structure of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in the Yellow and East China Seas were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequencing. A total of 390 reproducible bands were generated by 10 AFLP primer combinations in ...

  9. Amniogenesis in the African yellow bat, Scotophilus dinganii | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African yellow house bat, Scotophilus dinganii, was found to be seasonally monestrus, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns of the bicornuate uterus. Implantation was superficial, with amniogenesis initiated early during embryogenesis. The amnion in S. dinganii was a schizamnion, and it is deduced ...

  10. A review of United States yellow cake precipitation practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litz, J.E.; Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The various process flowsheets used to produce concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. The choices of flowsheets are affected by ore alkalinity, uranium mineralization, and the impurities solubilized during leaching. The techniques used to precipitate yellow cake from concentrated uranium solutions are reviewed. Consideration is given to precipitation chemistry, reagent requirements, and process equipment and costs for precipitation, dewatering, drying and calcining. (author)

  11. Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Fernandes Leal, Maria da Luz; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine was considered one of the safest vaccines, but in recent years it was found that it could rarely cause invasive and disseminated disease in some otherwise healthy individuals, with high lethality. After extensive studies, although some risk factors have been identified, the real cause of causes of this serious adverse event are largely unknown, but findings point to individual host factors. Meningoencephalitis, once considered to happen only in children less than 6 months of age, has also been identified in older children and adults, but with good prognosis. Efforts are being made to develop a safer yellow fever vaccine, and an inactivated vaccine or a vaccine prepared with the vaccine virus envelope produced in plants are being tested. Even with serious and rare adverse events, yellow fever vaccine is the best way to avoid yellow fever, a disease of high lethality and should be used routinely in endemic areas, and on people from non-endemic areas that could be exposed, according to a careful risk-benefit analysis.

  12. How Brazil joined the quest for a yellow fever vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D’Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.

  13. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  14. Facing up to re-emergence of urban yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, T P

    1999-05-08

    Transmitted from person to person by Aedes aegypti, urban yellow fever was eliminated in the first half of this century, with the eradication of its mosquito vector from most of South America. However, reinfestation began in the 1970s is now almost complete, and vector control is considerably more difficult now than before. The threat of urban yellow fever is greatest in towns such as Santa Cruz, Bolivia, near the forest, but improved transport links increase the likelihood of spread by viremic people to nonendemic areas. Van der Stuyft et al. have reported the first instance of urban transmission of yellow fever in the Americas in 44 years. Since residents of the densely populated cities and much visited areas in coastal South America have never been vaccinated, an outbreak there would facilitate widespread dissemination of the disease, even to other continents. While urban yellow fever is a significant threat, carrying a case-fatality rate of about 20%, the constrained dynamics of transmission, early recognition of the striking clinical presentation, and efforts to control the infection should limit the impact of the disease. Laboratory-based surveillance, together with the prevention and control strategies outlined by van der Stuyft et al. are the key defensive measures against the future threat of urban epidemics.

  15. Scaling Up the Production of More Nutritious Yellow Potatoes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Researchers will scale up improved yellow potato varieties that -yield 15% more than other varieties -are ... -have nearly 20% more iron and zinc than the most cultivated Colombian variety The project will deliver these ...

  16. The carbon footprint of exported Brazilian yellow melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito de Figueirêdo, M.C.; Kroeze, C.; Potting, J.; Silva Barros, da V.; Sousa de Aragão, A.; Sonsol Gondim, R.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon footprint of food has become important for producers worldwide as consumers and retail companies increasingly base their purchase decisions on carbon footprint labels. In this context, our objectives is to assess the carbon footprint (CF) of Brazilian yellow melon exported from the Low

  17. Predicting Driver Behavior during the Yellow Interval Using Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a signalized intersection, drivers must make a stop/go decision at the onset of the yellow signal. Incorrect decisions would lead to red light running (RLR violations or crashes. This study aims to predict drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations during yellow intervals. Traffic data such as vehicle approaching speed, acceleration, distance to the intersection, and occurrence of RLR violations are gathered by a Vehicle Data Collection System (VDCS. An enhanced Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM is used to extract moving vehicles from target lanes, and the Kalman Filter (KF algorithm is utilized to acquire vehicle trajectories. The data collected from the VDCS are further analyzed by a sequential logit model, and the relationship between drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations is identified. The results indicate that the distance of vehicles to the stop line at the onset of the yellow signal is an important predictor for both drivers’ stop/go decisions and RLR violations. In addition, vehicle approaching speed is a contributing factor for stop/go decisions. Furthermore, the accelerations of vehicles after the onset of the yellow signal are positively related to RLR violations. The findings of this study can be used to predict the probability of drivers’ RLR violations and improve traffic safety at signalized intersections.

  18. Suspected YF-AND after yellow fever vaccination in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Huhtamo, Eili; Kivioja, Reetta; Domingo, Cristina; Vene, Sirkka; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Niedrig, Matthias; Tienari, Pentti J; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-11-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccine is considered safe but vaccine-associated complications have also been encountered. We report neurological symptoms after YF-vaccination in a previously healthy Finnish male. Other concomitant infections or causes for the symptoms could not be identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 38 CFR 21.9700 - Yellow Ribbon Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Yellow Ribbon Program and the student maintains satisfactory progress, conduct, and attendance according...) Based on student status (i.e. , undergraduate, graduate, doctoral), or (ii) For each subelement of the institution (i.e., college or professional school). The maximum amount specified for each subelement of the...

  20. Sugar maple and yellow birch seedling growth after simulated browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1977-01-01

    Simulating natural damage to leaders of forest-grown seedlings of yellow birch and sugar maple resulted in no loss of vigor but a loss in net height growth. Leader elongation depended upon seedling, shoot, and bud characteristics rather than on the extent of damage.

  1. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  2. Fish protein fingerprint in whole muscle samples of yellow perch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many studies have shown the impact of environmental and/or genetic factors on the growth and development of various fish species. However, the role of genes supporting the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for fish was to compare whole muscle proteomic profiles of large versus small growth yellow perch ...

  3. [A novel yellow organic light-emitting device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen; Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-Ying; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhou, He-Feng; Xu, Bing-She

    2008-07-01

    The fabrication of a novel organic yellow-light-emitting device using Rhodamine B as dopant with double quantum-well (DQW) structure was introduced in the present article. The structure and thickness of this device is ITO/CuPc (6 nm) /NPB (20 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm)/Alq3 : Rhodamine B (3 nm) /Alq3 (3 nm) /Al q3 : Rhodamine B(3 nm) /Alq3 (30 nm) /Liq (5 nm)/Al (30 nm). With the detailed investigation of electroluminescence of the novel organic yellow-light-emitting device, the authors found that the doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) had a very big influence on luminance and efficiency of the organic yellow-light-emitting device. When doping concentration of Rhodamine B (RhB) was 1.5 wt%, the organic yellow-light-emitting device was obtained with the maximum current efficiency of 1.526 cd x A(-1) and the maximum luminance of 1 309 cd x m(-2). It can be seen from the EL spectra of the devices that there existed energy transferring from Alq3 to RhB in the organic light-emitting layers. When the doping concentration of RhB increased, lambda(max) of EL spectra redshifted obviously. The phenomenon was attributed to the Stokes effect of quantum wells and self-polarization of RhB dye molecules.

  4. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  5. Invisible Connections : Why Migrating Shorebirds Need the Yellow Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kam, Jan; Battley, Phil; McCaffery, Brian; Rogers, Danny; Hong, Jae-Sang; Moores, Nial; Yong-ki, Yu; Lewis, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-01-01

    Each year, invisible to the naked eye, millions of migrating shorebirds fly from Australasia towards the tidal flats of the Yellow Sea bordering China and Korea. Each flock is made up of individuals using whatever strategies they can muster to endure the flights, weather the storms and find safe

  6. Two barley yellow dwarf luteovirus serotypes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) serotypes PAV and RPV were identified from irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples from three provinces of Zambia by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Nine wheat cultivars were surveyed in 11 wheat ...

  7. breeding Red-and-yellow Barbets Trachyphonus erythrocephalus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Table 1), but it was not possible to ascertain whether it was always the exact same pair breeding. Table 1. Breeding activity of Red-and-yellow Barbets from a single nest in south- eastern Sudan in 2005. Date. Brood No. Nesting activity. Fledging date. No. of Fledglings. Observed post-fledging. 11 Feb. 1 feeding young.

  8. Initial photoinduced dynamics of the photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Grondelle, R.

    2005-01-01

    The photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is the photoreceptor protein responsible for initiating the blue-light repellent response of the Halorhodospira halophila bacterium. Optical excitation of the intrinsic chromophore in PYP, p-coumaric acid, leads to the initiation of a photocycle that comprises

  9. Biology and biological control of Dalmatian and yellow toadflax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Wilson; Sharlene E. Sing; Gary L. Piper; Richard W. Hansen; Rosemarie De Clerck-Floate; Daniel K. MacKinnon; Carol Bell Randall

    2005-01-01

    Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (L.) P. Mill. ssp. dalmatica (Fig. 1a), and yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris (L.) P. Mill. (Fig. 1b), are exotic [see Glossary] weeds of rangeland, forests and cropland. Although several species of weedy toadflax have been intentionally or accidentally introduced to North America, these two species are by far the most common and...

  10. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  11. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2018-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  12. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 195 varieties often out compete introduced varieties on local markets; even though the former have lower yield potential. Breeding work incorporating grain quality was started in 1972 with the aim of developing varieties which combine high grain yield and grain quality ...

  13. Response of bankfull discharge of the Inner Mongolia Yellow River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the flood and sediment transport capacity of a river channel. It is based on the ...... Eng. 39 680–687 (in Chinese). Wu B S and Zhang Y F 2007 Law of along-course chang- ... load in the Lower Yellow River; Geomorphology 100(3–4). 366–376.

  14. Proline 68 enhances photoisomerization yield in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  15. Proline 68 Enhances Photoisomerization Yield in Photoactive Yellow Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rupenyan, A.B.; Vreede, J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Hospes, M.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    In proteins and enzymes, the local environment of an active cofactor plays an important role in controlling the outcome of a functional reaction. In photoactive yellow protein (PYP), it ensures photoisomerization of the chromophore, a prerequisite for formation of a signaling state. PYP is the

  16. Normal and hetero-yellow endosperm grain sorghum as substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housed in flat deck-type cages, 1,6 x 1 m, fitted with a self- feeder and an automatic water nipple. Temperatures in the ... adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Amino acid analyses, following acid hydrolysis in a .... the hetero-yellow endosperm type sorghum had the highest avarage daily gains (ADGs), whereas pigs fed the maize-.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1973 - Beeswax (yellow and white).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Beeswax (yellow and white). 184.1973 Section 184.1973 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  18. Middle Level Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child…

  19. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    Bone scan showed a hot spot in the right mastoid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the petrous ridges showed an irregular enhancing mass eroding and occupying the middle and inferior aspects of the right petrous temporal bone. This extended into the adjacent occipital bone, occipital condyle and the posterior cranial ...

  20. Utopia Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  1. The Middle Income Squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  2. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  3. Middle East political stability

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Henry Siegman asks whether the next US President can rescue a two-state solution to the Israel–Palestine conflict; Lakhdar Brahimi discusses Iran – war or peace in the Middle East?; Eric Rouleau assesses the Iranian nuclear threat; Walid Khadduri looks at concerns over the future of Iraq and regional implications.

  4. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  5. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  6. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K s ) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K s ) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10 8-9 cm –3 ), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S

  7. Yellow nail syndrome – report of a rare disorder | Ikuabe | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Yellow Nail Syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by the trail of yellow and thickened nails, lymphoedema and respiratory manifestation. We have no record of any case report of yellow nail syndrome in our setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of an 80 year old woman ...

  8. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  9. 29-34 Yellow Rust Resistance in Advanced Lines and Commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rust pathogen. The objective of this study was to characterize seedling yellow rust resistance in 21 advanced bread wheat lines and 20 cultivars from Ethiopia. Yellow rust infection types (ITs) produced on test wheat lines and cultivars from nine yellow rust races were compared with ITs produced on standard differential lines ...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1705 - FD&C Yellow No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... listing the color additive using the names FD&C Yellow No. 5 and tartrazine. The label shall bear a statement such as “Contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive” or “Contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine).” The labels of certain drug products subject to this labeling...

  11. [Study on distribution characteristics and potential ecological risk of soil heavy metals in the Yellow River beach region in Kaifeng City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng-yan; Qin, Ming-zhou; Chen, Long; Hu, Chang-hui; Zhao, Ya-ping; Dong, Wei-jun

    2013-09-01

    The distributions, soil environment status and potential ecological risk of heavy metals were studied in beach soil of returning the cropland into Yellow River beach region in Kaifeng by the Nemerows and Håkansons methods. The results showed that (1) as Among the average contents of the five heavy metals Pb, Cr, Hg, As and Cd, the highest was the average content of Cr, and the lowest was the average content of Pb and Hg. In addition to Hg, the coefficients of variation of other heavy metals were relatively small, indicating that the content of heavy metals was quite different at different sites, and to some extent, relecting that Hg, As and Pb were the major elements polluting the soil, among which, Pb pollution was the pollution with universality. There was little difference in the contents of Cr and Cd from village to village the coefficient of variation was small, and the contents were below the national standard level. (2) There was significant difference in the spatial distribution of soil heavy metal elements in the upper, the middle and lower sections of the study area. The upper section was clean, the middle section was slightly polluted, and the lower section was enriched with pollutants. (3) The distribution of heavy metals in the beach region inside and outside the levees of Yellow River was closely related to the distribution of the residential regions. In the upper section of the beach region (southwest), the population was large and the contents of heavy metals were high. The contents of heavy metals were lower in the near river zone than outside the levees of Yellow River. And the heavy metal contents in the middle and lower section were higher than those outside the levees of Yellow River, while the lower section (northwest) showed a tendency of pollution enrichment. (4) In the view of the average individual potential ecological risk index of heavy metals (E(r)i), the potential ecological risk of Hg reached intense levels, and the potential

  12. Coconut lethal yellowing diseases: a phytoplasma threat to palms of global economic and social significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurr M Geoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of Bogia Coconut Syndrome in Papua New Guinea is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late 19th century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the 20th century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems.

  13. Coconut Lethal Yellowing Diseases: A Phytoplasma Threat to Palms of Global Economic and Social Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M; Johnson, Anne C; Ash, Gavin J; Wilson, Bree A L; Ero, Mark M; Pilotti, Carmel A; Dewhurst, Charles F; You, Minsheng S

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems.

  14. Coconut Lethal Yellowing Diseases: A Phytoplasma Threat to Palms of Global Economic and Social Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Geoff M.; Johnson, Anne C.; Ash, Gavin J.; Wilson, Bree A. L.; Ero, Mark M.; Pilotti, Carmel A.; Dewhurst, Charles F.; You, Minsheng S.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of Bogia coconut syndrome in Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the first report of a lethal yellowing disease (LYD) in Oceania. Numerous outbreaks of LYDs of coconut have been recorded in the Caribbean and Africa since the late Nineteenth century and have caused the death of millions of palms across several continents during the Twentieth century. Despite the severity of economic losses, it was only in the 1970s that the causes of LYDs were identified as phytoplasmas, a group of insect-transmitted bacteria associated with diseases in many other economically important crop species. Since the development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, knowledge of LYDs epidemiology, ecology and vectors has grown rapidly. There is no economically viable treatment for LYDs and vector-based management is hampered by the fact that vectors have been positively identified in very few cases despite many attempted transmission trials. Some varieties and hybrids of coconut palm are known to be less susceptible to LYD but none are completely resistant. Optimal and current management of LYD is through strict quarantine, prompt detection and destruction of symptomatic palms, and replanting with less susceptible varieties or crop species. Advances in technology such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection and tracking of phytoplasma DNA in plants and insects, remote sensing for identifying symptomatic palms, and the advent of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based tools for gene editing and plant breeding are likely to allow rapid progress in taxonomy as well as understanding and managing LYD phytoplasma pathosystems. PMID:27833616

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  16. Detection of Anomalies and Changes of Rainfall in the Yellow River Basin, China, through Two Graphical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal rainfall anomalies and changes over the Yellow River Basin due to the fragile ecosystem and rainfall-related disasters. Common trend analyses relate to overall trends in mean values. Therefore, we used two graphical methods: the quantile perturbation method (QPM was used to investigate anomalies over time in extreme rainfall, and the partial trend method (PTM was used to analyze rainfall changes at different intensities. A nonparametric bootstrap procedure is proposed in order to identify significant PTM indices. The QPM indicated prevailing positive anomalies in extreme daily rainfall 50 years ago and in the middle reaches during the 1970s and 1980s. The PTM detected significant decreases in annual rainfall mainly in the latter half of the middle reaches, two-thirds of which occurred in high and heavy rainfall. Most stations in the middle and lower reaches showed significant decreases in rainy days. Daily rainfall intensity had a significant increase at 13 stations, where rainy days were generally decreasing. The combined effect of these opposing changes explains the prevailing absence of change in annual rainfall, and the observed decreases in annual rainfall can be attributed to the decreasing number of rainy days. The changes in rainy days and rainfall intensity were dominated by the wet season and dry season, respectively.

  17. Serologic assessment of yellow fever immunity in the rural population of a yellow fever-endemic area in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wolff Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The yellow fever epidemic that occurred in 1972/73 in Central Brazil surprised the majority of the population unprotected. A clinical-epidemiological survey conducted at that time in the rural area of 19 municipalities found that the highest (13.8% number of disease cases were present in the municipality of Luziânia, State of Goiás. Methods Thirty-eight years later, a new seroepidemiological survey was conducted with the aim of assessing the degree of immune protection of the rural population of Luziânia, following the continuous attempts of public health services to obtain vaccination coverage in the region. A total of 383 volunteers, aged between 5 and 89 years and with predominant rural labor activities (75.5%, were interviewed. The presence of antibodies against the yellow fever was also investigated in these individuals, by using plaque reduction neutralization test, and correlated to information regarding residency, occupation, epidemiological data and immunity against the yellow fever virus. Results We found a high (97.6% frequency of protective titers (>1:10 of neutralizing antibodies against the yellow fever virus; the frequency of titers of 1:640 or higher was 23.2%, indicating wide immune protection against the disease in the study population. The presence of protective immunity was correlated to increasing age. Conclusions This study reinforces the importance of surveys to address the immune state of a population at risk for yellow fever infection and to the surveillance of actions to control the disease in endemic areas.

  18. Application of strict criteria in adrenal venous sampling increases the proportion of missed patients with unilateral disease who benefit from surgery for primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Gregory; Leung, Alexander; So, Benny; Chin, Alex; Harvey, Adrian; Pasieka, Janice L

    2018-06-01

    Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is intended to confirm unilateral forms of primary aldosteronism, which are amenable to surgical cure. Excessively strict AVS criteria to define lateralization may result in many patients incorrectly categorized as bilateral primary aldosteronism and opportunity for surgical cure missed. Retrospective review of an AVS-primary aldosteronism database in which surgical cases are verified by standardized outcomes. Having used 'less strict' AVS criteria for lateralization, we examined the distribution of AVS lateralization indices in our confirmed unilateral primary aldosteronism cases both with and without cosyntropin stimulation. The proportion of proven unilateral cases that would have been missed with stricter AVS interpretation criteria was calculated. Particular focus was given to the proportion of missed cases according to use of international guidelines. False-positive lateralization with 'less strict' interpretation was also calculated. Of 80 surgical primary aldosteronism cases, 10-23% would have been missed with AVS lateralization indices of 3 : 1 to 5 : 1, with or without cosyntropin. If strict selectivity indices (for confirmation of catheterization) were combined with strict lateralization indices, up to 70% of unilateral primary aldosteronism cases could have been missed. Use of Endocrine Society AVS guidelines would have missed 21-43% of proven unilateral cases. 'Less strict' AVS interpretation yielded one case (1.2%) of false lateralization. Excessively strict AVS interpretation criteria will result in a high rate of missed unilateral primary aldosteronism with subsequent loss of opportunity for intervention. Use of more lenient lateralization criteria will improve the detection rate of unilateral primary aldosteronism with very low false-positive rate.

  19. Intra-Genomic Heterogeneity in 16S rRNA Genes in Strictly Anaerobic Clinical Isolates from Periodontal Abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiazhen; Miao, Xinyu; Xu, Meng; He, Junlin; Xie, Yi; Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Gang; Yu, Liying; Zhang, Wenhong

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genera Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium are the predominant culturable obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal abscesses. When determining the cumulative number of clinical anaerobic isolates from periodontal abscesses, ambiguous or overlapping signals were frequently encountered in 16S rRNA gene sequencing chromatograms, resulting in ambiguous identifications. With the exception of the genus Veillonella, the high intra-chromosomal heterogeneity of rrs genes has not been reported. The 16S rRNA genes of 138 clinical, strictly anaerobic isolates and one reference strain were directly sequenced, and the chromatograms were carefully examined. Gene cloning was performed for 22 typical isolates with doublet sequencing signals for the 16S rRNA genes, and four copies of the rrs-ITS genes of 9 Prevotella intermedia isolates were separately amplified by PCR, sequenced and compared. Five conserved housekeeping genes, hsp60, recA, dnaJ, gyrB1 and rpoB from 89 clinical isolates of Prevotella were also amplified by PCR and sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis along with 18 Prevotella reference strains. Heterogeneity of 16S rRNA genes was apparent in clinical, strictly anaerobic oral bacteria, particularly in the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. One hundred out of 138 anaerobic strains (72%) had intragenomic nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple locations, and 13 strains (9.4%) had intragenomic insertions or deletions in the 16S rRNA gene. In the genera Prevotella and Veillonella, 75% (67/89) and 100% (19/19) of the strains had SNPs in the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Gene cloning and separate amplifications of four copies of the rrs-ITS genes confirmed that 2 to 4 heterogeneous 16S rRNA copies existed. Sequence alignment of five housekeeping genes revealed that intra-species nucleotide similarities were very high in the genera Prevotella, ranging from 94.3-100%. However, the inter-species similarities were

  20. Yellow fever vaccine used in a psoriatic arthritis patient treated with methotrexate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhec, Matej

    2014-01-01

    The yellow fever vaccines on the market are contraindicated for immunocompromised and elderly patients. A case of yellow fever vaccine used in a 27-year-old Slovenian male with psoriatic arthritis during treatment with methotrexate is described. We demonstrate a positive case, since there were no adverse effects in concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate. This patient did not show severe adverse reactions and did not contract yellow fever despite potential exposure. More research is needed on possible adverse effects of concurrent administration of yellow fever vaccine and methotrexate to determine the potential of this method for more frequent use.

  1. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  2. An experimental seasonal hydrological forecasting system over the Yellow River basin - Part 1: Understanding the role of initial hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing; Ma, Feng; Wang, Linying; Zheng, Ziyan; Ma, Zhuguo; Ye, Aizhong; Peng, Shaoming

    2016-06-01

    drops to 1 month during the rainy season. Based on an additional ESP-type simulation without the initialization of the river routing model, it is found that the initial surface water state is the main source of streamflow predictability during the first month, beyond which other sources of terrestrial memory become more important. During the dry/wet periods, the dominance of ICs on the streamflow predictability can be extended by a month even in the rainy season, suggesting the usefulness of the ESP forecasting approach after the onset of the hydrological extreme events. Similar results are found for the soil moisture predictability but with longer influences from ICs. And the simulations indicate that the soil moisture memory is longer over the middle reaches than those over the upper and lower reaches of the Yellow River. The naturalized hydrological predictability analysis in this study will provide a guideline for establishing an operational hydrological forecasting system as well as for managing the risks of hydrological extremes over the Yellow River basin.

  3. Fermentative degradation of polyethylene glycol by a strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporeforming bacterium, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schink, B; Stieb, M

    1983-06-01

    The synthetic polyether polyethylene glycol (PEG) with a molecular weight of 20,000 was anaerobically degraded in enrichment cultures inoculated with mud of limnic and marine origins. Three strains (Gra PEG 1, Gra PEG 2, and Ko PEG 2) of rod-shaped, gram-negative, nonsporeforming, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated in mineral medium with PEG as the sole source of carbon and energy. All strains degraded dimers, oligomers, and polymers of PEG up to a molecular weight of 20,000 completely by fermentation to nearly equal amounts of acetate and ethanol. The monomer ethylene glycol was not degraded. An ethylene glycol-fermenting anaerobe (strain Gra EG 12) isolated from the same enrichments was identified as Acetobacterium woodii. The PEG-fermenting strains did not excrete extracellular depolymerizing enzymes and were inhibited by ethylene glycol, probably owing to a blocking of the cellular uptake system. PEG, some PEG-containing nonionic detergents, 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, glycerol, and acetoin were the only growth substrates utilized of a broad variety of sugars, organic acids, and alcohols. The isolates did not reduce sulfate, sulfur, thiosulfate, or nitrate and were independent of growth factors. In coculture with A. woodii or Methanospirillum hungatei, PEGs and ethanol were completely fermented to acetate (and methane). A marine isolate is described as the type strain of a new species, Pelobacter venetianus sp. nov. Its physiology and ecological significance, as well as the importance and possible mechanism of anaerobic polyether degradation, are discussed.

  4. THE LESSONIA NIGRESCENS SPECIES COMPLEX (LAMINARIALES, PHAEOPHYCEAE) SHOWS STRICT PARAPATRY AND COMPLETE REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION IN A SECONDARY CONTACT ZONE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Florence; Tapia, Javier; Faugeron, Sylvain; Destombe, Christophe; Valero, Myriam

    2011-08-01

    During secondary contact between phylogenetically closely related species (sibling species) having diverged in allopatry, the maintenance of species integrity depends on intrinsic and extrinsic reproductive barriers. In kelps (Phaeophyceae), the observations of hybrids in laboratory conditions suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete. However, not all interspecific crosses are successful, and very few hybrids have been observed in nature, despite the co-occurrence of many kelp species in sympatry. This suggests that there are reproductive barriers that maintain species integrity. In this study, we characterized the fine genetic structure of a secondary contact zone to clarify the extent of reproductive isolation between two sister species. In Lessonia nigrescens Bory (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) species complex, two cryptic species have been recently found out from gene phylogenies, and-waiting for a formal taxonomic description-we used their geographic distribution to name them (northern and southern species). We studied 12 populations, distributed along 50 km of coastline, and employed two molecular approaches, assigning individuals to phylogenetic species according to a diagnostic mitochondrial marker (351 individuals analyzed) and quantifying interspecific gene flow with four microsatellite markers (248 individuals analyzed). No hybridization or introgression was revealed, indicating complete reproductive isolation in natural conditions. Unexpectedly, our study demonstrated that the two species were strictly segregated in space. This absence of co-occurrence along the contact zone can partially explain the lack of hybridization, raising new interesting questions as to the mechanisms that limit sympatry at small spatial scales. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Molecular mechanism of strict substrate specificity of an extradiol dioxygenase, DesB, derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Sugimoto

    Full Text Available DesB, which is derived from Sphingobium sp. SYK-6, is a type II extradiol dioxygenase that catalyzes a ring opening reaction of gallate. While typical extradiol dioxygenases show broad substrate specificity, DesB has strict substrate specificity for gallate. The substrate specificity of DesB seems to be required for the efficient growth of S. sp. SYK-6 using lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Since direct coordination of hydroxyl groups of the substrate to the non-heme iron in the active site is a critical step for the catalytic reaction of the extradiol dioxygenases, the mechanism of the substrate recognition and coordination of DesB was analyzed by biochemical and crystallographic methods. Our study demonstrated that the direct coordination between the non-heme iron and hydroxyl groups of the substrate requires a large shift of the Fe (II ion in the active site. Mutational analysis revealed that His124 and His192 in the active site are essential to the catalytic reaction of DesB. His124, which interacts with OH (4 of the bound gallate, seems to contribute to proper positioning of the substrate in the active site. His192, which is located close to OH (3 of the gallate, is likely to serve as the catalytic base. Glu377' interacts with OH (5 of the gallate and seems to play a critical role in the substrate specificity. Our biochemical and structural study showed the substrate recognition and catalytic mechanisms of DesB.

  6. Effect of strict metabolic control on regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Mathiesen, E R; Saurbrey, Nina

    1987-01-01

    washout technique. Mean arterial blood pressure was reduced by a maximum of 23 mmHg by elevating the limb above heart level and elevated to a maximum of 65 mmHg by head-up tilt; in the latter position venous pressure was kept constantly low by activation of the leg muscle vein pump (heel raising......The effect of 10 weeks of improved metabolic control on the impaired autoregulation of the subcutaneous blood flow was studied at the level of the lateral malleolus in eight long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy. Blood flow was measured by the local 133-Xenon......). Improved metabolic control was achieved using either continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple insulin injections. The blood glucose concentration declined from (median) 12.7 to 6.8 mmol/l and the HbA1C level from 10.1 to 7.5% during strict metabolic control (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0...

  7. Fermentation of glycolate by a pure culture of a strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Peter H; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2003-05-01

    The component bacteria of a three-membered mixed culture able to ferment glycolate to acetate, propionate and CO(2) were isolated in pure culture. All three strains were strict anaerobes that, on the basis of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to the order Clostridiales in the phylum Firmicutes (low G+C gram-positive bacteria). Two of the strains were not involved in glycolate metabolism. The third, the glycolate-fermenting strain 19gly4 (DSM 11261), was related to members of the family Lachnospiraceae. The cells of strain 19gly4 were oval- to lemon-shaped, 0.85 microm long and 0.65 microm in diameter, occurring singly, in pairs, or in chains of up to 30 cells. Strain 19gly4 fermented glycolate or fumarate to acetate, succinate, and CO(2). Hydrogen was not formed, and strain 19gly4 was able to grow on glycolate in pure culture without any syntrophic hydrogen transfer and without the use of an external electron acceptor. There was no evidence for homoacetogenic metabolism. This bacterium therefore differs in metabolism from previously reported glycolate-utilising anaerobes.

  8. A set-theoretic model reference adaptive control architecture for disturbance rejection and uncertainty suppression with strict performance guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Ehsan; Gruenwald, Benjamin C.; Yucelen, Tansel; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2018-05-01

    Research in adaptive control algorithms for safety-critical applications is primarily motivated by the fact that these algorithms have the capability to suppress the effects of adverse conditions resulting from exogenous disturbances, imperfect dynamical system modelling, degraded modes of operation, and changes in system dynamics. Although government and industry agree on the potential of these algorithms in providing safety and reducing vehicle development costs, a major issue is the inability to achieve a-priori, user-defined performance guarantees with adaptive control algorithms. In this paper, a new model reference adaptive control architecture for uncertain dynamical systems is presented to address disturbance rejection and uncertainty suppression. The proposed framework is predicated on a set-theoretic adaptive controller construction using generalised restricted potential functions.The key feature of this framework allows the system error bound between the state of an uncertain dynamical system and the state of a reference model, which captures a desired closed-loop system performance, to be less than a-priori, user-defined worst-case performance bound, and hence, it has the capability to enforce strict performance guarantees. Examples are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed set-theoretic model reference adaptive control architecture.

  9. Research on Driver Behavior in Yellow Interval at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicles are often caught in dilemma zone when they approach signalized intersections in yellow interval. The existence of dilemma zone which is significantly influenced by driver behavior seriously affects the efficiency and safety of intersections. This paper proposes the driver behavior models in yellow interval by logistic regression and fuzzy decision tree modeling, respectively, based on camera image data. Vehicle’s speed and distance to stop line are considered in logistic regression model, which also brings in a dummy variable to describe installation of countdown timer display. Fuzzy decision tree model is generated by FID3 algorithm whose heuristic information is fuzzy information entropy based on membership functions. This paper concludes that fuzzy decision tree is more accurate to describe driver behavior at signalized intersection than logistic regression model.

  10. Yellow and orange in cutaneous lesions: clinical and dermoscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, J; Arribas, P; Berbegal, L; DeLeón, F J; Francés, L; Zaballos, P

    2015-12-01

    Colour of the lesions is clue for the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis. Nevertheless, we have detected in the literature an uneven relevance of the colours as a diagnostic criterion. Thus, while red, brown and blue have taken important role in dermoscopic descriptions, other like yellow and orange have been given much less importance. This article reviews those lesions in which the yellow and orange colours have been considered constitutive or essential for diagnosis, and on the other hand it emphasizes the entities in which may appear these colours and are not well reflected in the literature. We believe that organize all this information will help us in a better understanding of these pathologies. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Preliminary results on epidemiology of Coconut Lethal Yellowing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnot François

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies are of major importance in understanding the determinants of plant diseases in order to control the risks of their spreading. A research programme on the epidemiology of coconut lethal yellowing, or Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, in Ghana was launched in March 2007. The objective was to characterize the distribution and spread of the disease in space and time at various scales, and their relation with the environment. This article presents the general strategy used to evaluate the incidence of CSPWD along with the environmental, ecological and agronomical variables at regional level. A survey was undertaken on 1,166 plots of Coconut Sector Development Project (CSDP planted with Malayan Yellow Dwarf (MYD × Vanuatu Tall (VTT hybrids in Western Region and Central Region. Preliminary results on the distribution of CSPWD and outside variables at regional scale, along with their relations, are given.

  12. Activitie of polyphenoloxidase in yellow and purple onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeliton Alves Calado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the onion may limit the shelf life of the bulbs, mainly by the biochemical transformations. The objective of this work is to determine and compare polyphenoloxidase activity (PPO in yellow and purple onions and their functional body. The raw material was purchased in the local market , where they were transported to the Food Analysis Laboratory of the, Center for Agro-Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus Pombal, being selected, cleaned, sorted, peeled processed and carried out chemical and physico- chemical analysis and determination of the enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO. The statistical design was completely randomized with two treatments (purple and yellow onion with six repetitions. The purple onion presented levels of soluble solids, flavonoids and anthocyanins, more significant than the white onion. Both onions showed enzymatic activity, without significant differences.

  13. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  14. Designing Yellow Intervals for Rainy and Wet Roadway Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper quantifies and models the impact of wet pavement surface and rainy weather conditions on driver perception-reaction times (PRTs, deceleration levels, and traffic signal change interval durations. A total of 648 stop-run records were collected as part of the research effort for a 72 km/h (45 mi/h approach speed where participant drivers encountered a yellow indication initiation at different distances from the intersection. The participant drivers were randomly selected in different age groups (under 40 years old, 40 to 59 years old, and 60 years of age or older and genders (female and male. Using the gathered data, statistical models for driver PRT and deceleration levels were developed, considering roadway surface and environmental parameters, driver attributes (age and gender, roadway grade, approaching speed, and time and distance to the intersection at the onset of yellow. Inclement weather yellow timings were then developed and summarized in lookup tables as a function of different factors (driver age/gender, roadway grade, speed limit, precipitation level, and roadway surface condition to provide practical guidelines for the design of yellow signal timings in wet and rainy weather conditions. The results indicate that wet roadway surface conditions require a 5 percent increase in the change interval and that rainy conditions require a 10 percent or more increase in the duration of the change interval. These recommended change durations can also be integrated within the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII initiative to provide customizable driver warnings prior to a transition to a red indication.

  15. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roger E

    2016-01-01

    Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF) vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search: Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and r...

  16. Refining of yellow cake by solvent extraction. Pakistan status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.; Muzaffar, A.; Qureshi, M.T.; Qazi, N.K.; Khan, J.R.; Chughtai, N.A.; Zaidi, S.M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the pilot-plant studies made at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Rawalpindi, on refining yellow cake. The process units mainly consist of digestion and filtration, solvent extraction, precipitation and filtration, and calcining and reduction. Extraction parameters, such as free acidity in terms of nitrate ion concentration, throughputs and AF index, have been studied in some detail. Product of satisfactory chemical purity, as confirmed by spectrochemical analysis, was produced by this method. (author)

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Yellow-headed blackbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available infomration on the species-habitat requirements of the species. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model, designed for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  18. Expected changes in future temperature extremes and their elevation dependency over the Yellow River source region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM and the outputs from two global climate models, we investigate possible changes in mean and extreme temperature indices and their elevation dependency over the Yellow River source region for the two future periods 2046–2065 and 2081–2100 under the IPCC SRES A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios. Changes in interannual variability of mean and extreme temperature indices are also analyzed. The validation results show that SDSM performs better in reproducing the maximum temperature-related indices than the minimum temperature-related indices. The projections show that by the middle and end of the 21st century all parts of the study region may experience increases in both mean and extreme temperature in all seasons, along with an increase in the frequency of hot days and warm nights and with a decrease in frost days. By the end of the 21st century, interannual variability increases in all seasons for the frequency of hot days and warm nights and in spring for frost days while it decreases for frost days in summer. Autumn demonstrates pronounced elevation-dependent changes in which around six out of eight indices show significant increasing changes with elevation.

  19. Yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease, a suspicious case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirão, Pedro; Pereira, Patrícia; Nunes, Andreia; Antunes, Pedro

    2017-03-02

    A 70-year-old man with known cardiovascular risk factors, presented with acute onset expression aphasia, agraphia, dyscalculia, right-left disorientation and finger agnosia, without fever or meningeal signs. Stroke was thought to be the cause, but cerebrovascular disease investigation was negative. Interviewing the family revealed he had undergone yellow fever vaccination 18 days before. Lumbar puncture revealed mild protein elevation. Cultural examinations, Coxiella burnetti, and neurotropic virus serologies were negative. Regarding the yellow fever virus, IgG was identified in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with negative IgM and virus PCR in CSF. EEG showed an encephalopathic pattern. The patient improved gradually and a week after discharge was his usual self. Only criteria for suspect neurotropic disease were met, but it's possible the time spent between symptom onset and lumbar puncture prevented a definite diagnosis of yellow fever vaccine-associated neurological disease. This gap would have been smaller if the vaccination history had been collected earlier. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. The phylogeny of yellow fever virus 17D vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nina K; Boschetti, Nicola; Herzog, Christian; Appelhans, Marc S; Niedrig, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    In recent years the safety of the yellow fever live vaccine 17D came under scrutiny. The focus was on serious adverse events after vaccinations that resemble a wild type infection with yellow fever and whose reasons are still not known. Also the exact mechanism of attenuation of the vaccine remains unknown to this day. In this context, the standards of safety and surveillance in vaccine production and administration have been discussed. Therein embodied was the demand for improved documentation of the derivation of the seed virus used for yellow fever vaccine production. So far, there was just a historical genealogy available that is based on source area and passage level. However, there is a need for a documentation based on molecular information to get better insights into the mechanisms of pathology. In this work we sequenced the whole genome of different passages of the YFV-17D strain used by Crucell Switzerland AG for vaccine production. Using all other publically available 17D full genome sequences we compared the sequence variance of all vaccine strains and oppose a phylogenetic tree based on full genome sequences to the historical genealogy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  2. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  3. Thermal quenching of the yellow luminescence in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Albarakati, N. M.; Monavarian, M.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2018-04-01

    We observed varying thermal quenching behavior of the yellow luminescence band near 2.2 eV in different GaN samples. In spite of the different behavior, the yellow band in all the samples is caused by the same defect—the YL1 center. In conductive n-type GaN, the YL1 band quenches with exponential law, and the Arrhenius plot reveals an ionization energy of ˜0.9 eV for the YL1 center. In semi-insulating GaN, an abrupt and tunable quenching of the YL1 band is observed, where the apparent activation energy in the Arrhenius plot is not related to the ionization energy of the defect. In this case, the ionization energy can be found by analyzing the shift of the characteristic temperature of PL quenching with excitation intensity. We conclude that only one defect, namely, the YL1 center, is responsible for the yellow band in undoped and doped GaN samples grown by different techniques.

  4. Narcolepsy following yellow fever vaccination: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ewald Rosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a rare, but important differential diagnosis for daytime sleepiness and atonic paroxysms in an adolescent. A recent increase in incidence in the paediatric age-group probably linked to the use of the Pandremix influenza vaccine in 2009, has increased awareness that different environmental factors can ‘trigger’ narcolepsy with cataplexy in a genetically susceptible population.Here we describe the case of a 13 year-old boy with narcolepsy following yellow-fever vaccination. He carries the HLA DQB1*0602 haplotype strongly associated with narcolepsy and cataplexy. Polysomnography showed rapid sleep onset with rapid eye movement (REM latency of 47 minutes, significant sleep fragmentation and a mean sleep latency of 1.6 minutes with sleep onset REM in 4 out of 4 nap periods. Together with the clinical history, these findings are diagnostic of narcolepsy type 1. The envelope protein E of the yellow fever vaccine strain 17D has significant amino acid sequence overlap with both hypocretin and the hypocretin receptor 2 receptors in protein regions that are predicted to act as epitopes for antibody production. These findings raise the question whether the yellow fever vaccine strain may, through a potential molecular mimicry mechanism, be another infectious trigger for this neuro-immunological disorder.

  5. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Glycosylated yellow laccases of the basidiomycete Stropharia aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroch, Maurycy; Houghton, Catharine A; Moore, Jonathan K; Wilkinson, Mark C; Carnell, Andrew J; Bates, Andrew D; Iwanejko, Lesley A

    2014-05-10

    Here we describe the identification, purification and characterisation of glycosylated yellow laccase proteins from the basidiomycete fungus Stropharia aeruginosa. Biochemical characterisation of two yellow laccases, Yel1p and Yel3p, show that they are both secreted, monomeric, N-glycosylated proteins of molecular weight around 55kDa with substrate specificities typical of laccases, but lacking the absorption band at 612nm typical of the blue laccase proteins. Low coverage, high throughput 454 transcriptome sequencing in combination with inverse-PCR was used to identify cDNA sequences. One of the cDNA sequences has been assigned to the Yel1p protein on the basis of identity between the translated protein sequence and the peptide data from the purified protein, and the full length gene sequence has been obtained. Biochemical properties, substrate specificities and protein sequence data have been used to discuss the unusual spectroscopic properties of S. aeruginosa proteins in the context of recent theories about the differences between yellow and blue laccases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal differences in freezing tolerance of yellow-cedar and western hemlock trees at a site affected by yellow-cedar decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Paul E. Hennon; Amore, David V. D; Gary J. Hawley; Catherine H. Borer; Catherine H. Borer

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether inadequate cold hardiness could be a contributor to yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) decline, we measured the freezing tolerance of foliage from yellow-cedar trees in closed-canopy (nondeclining) and open-canopy (declining at elevations below 130 m) stands at three sites along an elevational gradient in the heart of the decline...

  8. Serological changes induced by blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine in swiss albino rat, rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the toxic effect of blend of some food colors on Swiss albino rats. A blend (1:1:1) of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine showed additive effects on serological parameters which indicate that addition of these dye together in food stuff may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. Animals were divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV). First group was treated as control and respective group of animals received 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of food colors by gavaging up to 30 days. The serological study showed a decrease in total protein and albumin and an increase in alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and total bilirubin. The results revealed that oral administration of these blend did not affect the body weight gain. The prolonged consumption of the blend may cause adverse effect on human health.

  9. Costs associated with implementation of a strict policy for controlling spread of highly resistant microorganisms in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, Gabriel; Leroy, Christophe; Nerome, Simone; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Lolom, Isabelle; Armand-Lefevre, Laurence; Ciotti, Céline; Lecorre, Bertrand; Marcade, Géraldine; Fihman, Vincent; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Pelat, Camille; Perozziello, Anne; Fantin, Bruno; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-29

    To assess costs associated with implementation of a strict 'search and isolate' strategy for controlling highly drug-resistant organisms (HDRO). Review of data from 2-year prospective surveillance (01/2012 to 12/2013) of HDRO. Three university hospitals located in northern Paris. Episodes were defined as single cases or outbreaks of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriacae (CPE) colonisation. Costs were related to staff reinforcement, costs of screening cultures, contact precautions and interruption of new admissions. Univariate analysis, along with simple and multiple linear regression analyses, was conducted to determine variables associated with cost of HDRO management. Overall, 41 consecutive episodes were included, 28 single cases and 13 outbreaks. The cost (mean ± SD) associated with management of a single case identified within and/or 48 h after admission was €4443 ± 11,552 and €11,445 ± 15,743, respectively (pcost varied from €14,864 ± 17,734 for an episode with one secondary case (€7432 ± 8867 per case) to €136,525 ± 151,231 (€12,845 ± 5129 per case) when more than one secondary case occurred. In episodes of single cases, contact precautions and microbiological analyses represented 51% and 30% of overall cost, respectively. In outbreaks, cost related to interruption of new admissions represented 77-94% of total costs, and had the greatest financial impact (R(2)=0.98, pcostly measure in an outbreak situation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Schaff, Cody W.; Horne, Alexandra J.; Lessner, Faith H.

    2014-01-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens. PMID:24222618

  11. Cryptococcal meningitis management in Tanzania with strict schedule of serial lumber punctures using intravenous tubing sets: an operational research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, John; Kalluvya, Samuel; Downs, Jennifer A; Chofle, Awilly A; Seni, Jeremiah; Kidenya, Benson; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Peck, Robert N

    2014-06-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has a mortality rate of ∼70% among HIV-infected adults in low-income countries. Controlling intracranial pressure (ICP) is essential in CM, but it is difficult in low-income countries because manometers and practical ICP management protocols are lacking. As part of a continuous quality improvement project, our Tanzanian hospital initiated a new protocol for ICP management for CM. All adult inpatients with CM are included in a prospective patient registry. At the time of analysis, this registry included data from 2 years before the initiation of this new ICP management protocol and for a 9-month period after. ICP was measured at baseline and at days 3, 7, and 14 by both manometer and intravenous (IV) tubing set. All patients were given IV fluconazole according to Tanzanian treatment guidelines and were followed until 30 days after admission. Among adult inpatients with CM, 32 of 35 patients (91%) had elevated ICP on admission. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurements using the improvised IV tubing set demonstrated excellent agreement (r = 0.96) with manometer measurements. Compared with historical controls, the new ICP management protocol was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (16/35 [46%] vs. 48/64 [75%] in historical controls; hazard ratio = 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1 to 3.8]; P = 0.018]. Increased ICP is almost universal among HIV-infected adults admitted with CM in Tanzania. Intensive ICP management with a strict schedule of serial lumbar punctures reduced in-hospital mortality compared with historical controls. ICP measurement with IV tubing sets may be a good alternative in resource-limited health facilities where manometers are not available.

  12. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  13. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  14. Removal of remazol yellow with modified clays with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Gomez T, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Clays have the ability to absorb water and to retain in its structure both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, therefore, it is possible to use them in the sorption of dyes from waste water, in order to avoid affecting water bodies or storm drains when they are discharged. In this paper the montmorillonite KSF and a sodium bentonite from the Morelos State, Mexico were studied for the sorption of an azo dye used in textiles knows as remazol yellow. These clays were modified with iron, the dye sorption behaviors and their regeneration processes for their reuse were determined. It was difficult to separate the sodium bentonite after being in contact with aqueous solutions; therefore it was nor a candidate dor the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. The montmorillonite KSF was characterized before and after the iron modification, and after its regeneration by scanning electron microscopy (elemental analysis), infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and the specific areas of the materials were determined by Bet analysis. The adsorption equilibrium time and the adsorption rate for remazol yellow were determined from the fitting of the experimental results to mathematical models for the unmodified and iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The adsorption capacity was determined from the adsorption isotherms and mathematical models. The influence of the ph in the sorption processes was determined as well, and it was found that, ph values between 2 and 12 do not have any influence on the adsorption processes for iron modified montmorillonite KSF. The montmorillonite KSF and the iron modified montmorillonite KSF are adequate adsorbents for the removal of remazol yellow from aqueous solutions. Although, the sorption capacity for the unmodified montmorillonite KSF is higher (about 10%) than the capacity for the iron modified montmorillonite KSF and the stability of the last one increased. The saturated clays with remazol yellow were treated with Fenton reactive

  15. Molecular and Ultrastructural Mechanisms Underlying Yellow Dwarf Symptom Formation in Wheat after Infection of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Wang, Xindong; Wang, Xifeng; Massart, Sebastien; Zhang, Zengyan

    2018-04-13

    Wheat ( Tritium aestivum L.) production is essential for global food security. Infection of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV (BYDV-GAV) results in wheat showing leaf yellowing and plant dwarfism symptom. To explore the molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms underlying yellow dwarf symptom formation in BYDV-GAV-infected wheat, we investigated the chloroplast ultrastructure via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), examined the contents of the virus, H₂O₂, and chlorophyll in Zhong8601, and studied the comparative transcriptome through microarray analyses in the susceptible wheat line Zhong8601 after virus infection. TEM images indicated that chloroplasts in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601 leaf cells were fragmentized. Where thylakoids were not well developed, starch granules and plastoglobules were rare. Compared with mock-inoculated Zhong8601, chlorophyll content was markedly reduced, but the virus and H₂O₂ contents were significantly higher in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. The transcriptomic analyses revealed that chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast related transcripts, encoding chlorophyll a/b binding protein, glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator 2, and glutamyl-tRNA reductase 1, were down-regulated in BYDV-GAV-infected Zhong8601. Some phytohormone signaling-related transcripts, including abscisic acid (ABA) signaling factors (phospholipase D alpha 1 and calcineurin B-like protein 9) and nine ethylene response factors, were up-regulated. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes were transcriptionally regulated in BYDV-GAV infected Zhong8601, including three up-regulated transcripts encoding germin-like proteins (promoting ROS accumulation) and four down-regulated transcripts encoding peroxides (scavenging ROS). These results clearly suggest that the yellow dwarf symptom formation is mainly attributed to reduced chlorophyll content and fragmentized chloroplasts caused by down-regulation of the chlorophyll and chloroplast biosynthesis

  16. Optimization of Replacing Pork Meat with Yellow Worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork meat with yellow mealworms on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of frankfurters were investigated in this study. The control (50% pork ham), T1 (45% pork ham + 5% yellow mealworm), T2 (40% pork ham + 10% yellow mealworm), T3 (35% pork ham + 15% yellow mealworm), T4 (30% pork ham + 20% yellow mealworm), T5 (25% pork ham + 25% yellow mealworm), and T6 (20% pork ham + 30% yellow mealworm) were prepared, replacing lean pork meat with yellow mealworm. The moisture content, lightness, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters with yellow mealworm were lower than those of the control (pmealworm were higher than those of the control (pmealworm concentrations (pmealworm concentrations had lower color, flavor, off-flavor, and juiciness scores. The overall acceptability was not significantly different in the control, T1, and T2 (p>0.05). Thus, the results of this study showed that replacing lean pork meat with up to 10% yellow mealworm successfully maintained the quality of frankfurters at a level similar to that of the regular control frankfurters. PMID:29147084

  17. Multiple yellow plaques assessed by angioscopy with quantitative colorimetry in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Shigenobu; Ishibashi, Fumiyuki; Waxman, Sergio; Okamatsu, Kentaro; Seimiya, Koji; Takano, Masamichi; Uemura, Ryota; Sano, Junko; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2008-03-01

    Multiple angioscopic yellow plaques are associated with diffuse atherosclerotic plaque, and may be prevalent in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), so in the present study the yellow plaques in the coronary arteries of patients with MI was evaluated using quantitative colorimetry, and compared with those of patients with stable angina (SA). In the recorded angioscopic images of 3 coronary vessels in 29 patients (15 patients with MI, 14 with SA), yellow plaques were determined as visually yellow regions with b* value >0 (yellow color intensity) measured by the quantitative colorimetric method. A total of 90 yellow plaques were identified (b* =19.35+/-8.3, 3.05-45.35). Yellow plaques were significantly more prevalent in 14 (93%) of 15 culprit lesions of MI as compared with 8 (57%) of 14 of SA (p=0.03). In non-culprit segments, yellow plaques were similarly prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI and 11 (79%) with SA (p=0.65). Overall, multiple (> or =2) yellow plaques were prevalent in 13 (87%) patients with MI, similar to the 10 (71%) with SA (p=0.38). The number of yellow plaques was significantly higher in patients with MI (3.8+/-1.9) than in those with SA (2.4+/-1.6, p=0.03). The present study suggests that patients with MI tend to have diffuse atherosclerotic plaque in their coronary arteries.

  18. Influence of Background Genome on Enzymatic Characteristics of Yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George L.; Pitot, Henry C.

    1973-01-01

    Identification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.—Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended on the background genome.—The ratio of malic enzyme activity to citrate-cleavage enzyme activity, possibly related to the altered fat metabolism of yellow mice, was influenced by background genome as well as by the yellow genotype.——Significant deviations of enzyme activities from mid-parent values among F1 hybrids were associated with particular background genomes; the number of such deviations was larger among yellow mice than among non-yellows and this difference was greater among C3H F1 hybrids than among C57BL/6 F1 hybrids. PMID:4405752

  19. Red-yellow electroluminescence, yellow-green photoluminescence of novel N, O donor ligands-chelated zirconium (IV) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahroosvand, Hashem, E-mail: shahroos@znu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasouti, Fahimeh [Chemistry Department, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Khabbazi, Amir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    In this paper, eight new zirconium complexes with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid (H{sub 4}btec), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen), were prepared and used as light emitting material in fabricated OLEDs. The structures of these complexes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy, {sup 1}H-NMR, CHN and ICP-AES. A yellow-green photoluminescence (PL) emission with a red shift compared to the PVK:PBD blend was observed. Devices with Zr complexes with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK:PBD/zirconium complex/Al emitted a yellow-red light originating from the Zr complexes. We believe that electroplex occurring at PVK-Zr complex interface is responsible for the red emission in the EL of the device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel photoluminescence zirconium (IV) complexes with hole transport ligands are synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yellow-green photoluminescence emission is shown red shift rather than PVK:PBD blend. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the emission properties of OLED devices is explored by adding of {pi}-extended ligands such as Bphen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer El spectra are shown a red shift of the emission bands in respond to the addition of {Pi}-conjugated ligands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroplex emission at PVK-Zr complex is proposed.

  20. Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved uranium in the Yellow River estuary: seasonal variation and anthropogenic (Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme) impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanjuan, Sui; Zhigang, Yu; Bochao, Xu; Wenhua, Dong; Dong, Xia; Xueyan, Jiang

    2014-02-01

    The Water-Sediment Regulation Scheme (WSRS) of the Yellow River is a procedure implemented annually from June to July to expel sediments deposited in Xiaolangdi and other large middle-reach reservoirs and to scour the lower reaches of the river, by controlling water and sediment discharges. Dissolved uranium isotopes were measured in river waters collected monthly as well as daily during the 2010 WSRS (June 19-July 16) from Station Lijin (a hydrologic station nearest to the Yellow River estuary). The monthly samples showed dissolved uranium concentrations of 3.85-7.57 μg l(-1) and (234)U/(238)U activity ratios of 1.24-1.53. The concentrations were much higher than those reported for other global major rivers, and showed seasonal variability. Laboratory simulation experiments showed significant uranium release from bottom and suspended sediment. The uranium concentrations and activity ratios differed during the two stages of the WSRS, which may reflect desorption/dissolution of uranium from suspended river sediments of different origins. An annual flux of dissolved uranium of 1.04 × 10(8) g y(-1) was estimated based on the monthly average water discharge and dissolved uranium concentration in the lower reaches of the Yellow River. The amount of dissolved uranium (2.65 × 10(7) g) transported from the Yellow River to the sea during the WSRS constituted about 1/4 of the annual flux. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  2. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses.

  3. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of an effective growth medium for culturing probiotic bacteria for applications in strict vegetarian food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pathak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to modify de Man Rogosa Sharpe culture medium (termed MRS for selective cultivation of probiotics strain for the consumption by the strictly vegetarian human population. Vegetarian probiotic foods by definition must be free from all animal-derived ingredients. This not only includes the product ingredients but the probiotic inoculum as well. Probiotic starter cultures are traditionally grown and stored in media containing milk or meatderived ingredients. The presence of these ingredients makes the probiotic cell concentrates unsuitable for use in vegetarian products and thus creates the need for a growth medium which isfree from animal-derived ingredients. Present study investigated the growth of a strain of Lactobacillus lactis in MRS. The present invention relates in general to a bacterial culture media,and more specifically a complex microbial culture media, based on plant seed powder extract in place of animal extract for probiotic bacterial growth.Methods: Lactobacillus lactis, a probiotic, was grown in standard MRS culture medium as well as in our various test media (TM containing various vegetal source in place of beef extract, yeast extract and peptone as in case of MRS. The inoculated culture mediums were incubated at 37C for 72 hours and growth of probiotic is recorded at regular intervals. The growth was recorded as Colony Forming Units (CFUs.Results: The best growth of probiotic is observed in TM 2. TM 2 is the leguminous seed extract. Starter culture mediums for probiotics or other bacteria primarily contain protein from animal source. The possibility of using vegetal protein from TM 2 extract in place of peptones and meat extract for the nitrogen supplementation of culture media for the growth of lactic acid bacteria has been demonstrated.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(10:369-378 Conclusion: The absolute vegetarian culture medium containing TM 2 is better than standard MRS for the

  5. Lenient vs. strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure: a post-hoc analysis of the RACE II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Bart A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Rienstra, Michiel; Groenveld, Hessel F.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether lenient rate control is an acceptable strategy in patients with AF and heart failure. We evaluated differences in outcome in patients with AF and heart failure treated with lenient or strict rate control. This post-hoc analysis of the RACE II trial included patients with an

  6. Strong Convergence Theorems of a New General Iterative Process with Meir-Keeler Contractions for a Countable Family of -Strict Pseudocontractions in -Uniformly Smooth Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yanlai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative scheme with Meir-Keeler contractions for strict pseudocontractions in -uniformly smooth Banach spaces. We also discuss the strong convergence theorems for the new iterative scheme in -uniformly smooth Banach space. Our results improve and extend the corresponding results announced by many others.

  7. The Kadi Saga as a Tale of 'Strict Observance’ of International Law : Obligations Under the UN Charter, Targeted Sanctions and Judicial Review in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larik, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question whether the European Union defaulted on the ‘strict observance’ of international law and ‘respect’ for the UN Charter, which are now express objectives of the EU following the Lisbon reform, in the course of the famous Kadi cases. With the final appeals judgment

  8. Teen Dating Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Bullying Among Middle School Youth: Examining Measurement Invariance by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated measurement invariance by gender among commonly used teen dating violence (TDV), sexual harassment, and bullying measures. Data were collected from one cohort of seventh-grade middle school students (N = 754) from four schools. Using structural equation modeling, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses assessed measurement models and tested measurement invariance by gender for aggression measures. Analyses invoked baseline data only. Physical and psychological TDV perpetration measures achieved strict measurement invariance, while bullying perpetration demonstrated partial strict invariance. Electronic TDV and sexual harassment perpetration achieved metric/scalar invariance. Study findings lend validation to prior and future studies using these measures with similar populations. Future research should increase attention to measurement development, refinement, and testing among study measures. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  9. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  10. Mechanical properties of salvaged dead yellow-cedar in southeast Alaska : Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. A. McDonald; P. E. Hennon; J. H. Stevens; D. W. Green

    An intensive decline and mortality problem is affecting yellow-cedar trees in southeast Alaska. Yellow-cedar snags (dead trees) could be important to the economy in southeast Alaska, if some high-value uses for the snags could be established. Due to the high decay resistance of yellow-cedar, the rate of deterioration is so slow that snags may remain standing for a...

  11. Dengue-yellow fever sera cross-reactivity; challenges for diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Houghton-Triviño, Natalia; Montaña, Diana; Castellanos, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Objective The Flavivirus genera share epitopes inducing cross-reactive antibodies leading to great difficulty in differentially diagnosing flaviviral infections. This work was aimed at evaluating the complexity of dengue and yellow fever serological differential diagnosis. Material and methods Dengue antibody capture ELISA and a yellow fever neutralisation test were carried out on 13 serum samples obtained from yellow fever patients, 20 acute serum samples from dengue patients and 19 voluntan...

  12. Existing and potential infection risk zones of yellow fever worldwide: a modelling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Freya M; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Marinho, Fatima; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Fullman, Nancy; Ray, Sarah E; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Background: Yellow fever cases are under-reported and the exact distribution of the disease is unknown. An effective vaccine is available but more information is needed about which populations within risk zones should be targeted to implement interventions. Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Brazil, coupled with the global expansion of the range of its main urban vector, Aedes aegypti, suggest that yellow fever has the propensity t...

  13. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, T. F.; Lazuick, J. S.; Ngah, R. W.; Mafiamba, P. C.; Quincke, G.; Monath, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic...

  14. [Culicidae insect fauna from rural zone in Amazonas State with incidence of sylvatic yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Md, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Flávio Augusto Andrade; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2003-01-01

    After the occurrence of 14 sylvatic yellow fever cases in 10 cities in the State of Amazonas during 1996, an investigation into the presence of sylvatic yellow fever vectors was carried out. The material of larvae and adult insects was collected around residences and canopy trees within forests, using a light trap (CDC) and human bait. A total of 424 insects was collected. Thirty seven species were identified, some of which were sylvatic yellow fever vectors: Haemagogus janthinomys, Ha. leucocelaenus, Aedes fulvus.

  15. Yellow pages advertising by physicians. Are doctors providing the information consumers want most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D D; Abernethy, A M

    1996-01-01

    Yellow pages listing are the most widely used form of physician advertising. Every month, approximately 21.6 million adults in the United States refer to the yellow pages before obtaining medical care. Mobile consumers--approximately 17% of the U.S. population who move each year--are heavy users of yellow pages. Consumers desire information on a physician's experience, but it is included in less than 1% of all physician display ads.

  16. Breeding of new variety Yangfumai 4 with high resistance to wheat yellow mosaic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhentian; Chen Xiulan; Zhang Rong; Wang Jianhua; Wang Jinrong; Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To control the infection of wheat yellow mosaic disease,new wheat variety with high-yield, disease-resistant was selected. Ningmai 9, which carries yellow mosaic disease resistant genes, was used as original material. Combination of conventional breeding technique and radiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai 4 was developed during 1996-2007, and registered in 2008. The new wheat variety with high yield and resistance to yellow mosaic disease is suitable to plant in the Yangtze River region. (authors)

  17. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  18. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  19. Investigation of a possible yellow fever epidemic and serosurvey for flavivirus infections in northern Cameroon, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T F; Lazuick, J S; Ngah, R W; Mafiamba, P C; Quincke, G; Monath, T P

    1987-01-01

    A cluster of fatal hepatitis cases in northern Cameroon in 1984 stimulated a field investigation to rule out an epidemic of yellow fever. A serosurvey of villages in the extreme north of the country, in a Sudan savanna (SS) phytogeographical zone, disclosed no evidence of recent yellow fever infection. However, further south, in a Guinea savanna (GS) phytogeographical zone, serological evidence was found of endemic yellow fever virus transmission. The results indicate a potential for epidemic spread of yellow fever virus from the southern GS zone to the nothern SS zone of Cameroon, where immunity in the population was low.

  20. Identification and analysis of YELLOW protein family genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yong-Zhu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major royal jelly proteins/yellow (MRJP/YELLOW family possesses several physiological and chemical functions in the development of Apis mellifera and Drosophila melanogaster. Each protein of the family has a conserved domain named MRJP. However, there is no report of MRJP/YELLOW family proteins in the Lepidoptera. Results Using the YELLOW protein sequence in Drosophila melanogaster to BLAST silkworm EST database, we found a gene family composed of seven members with a conserved MRJP domain each and named it YELLOW protein family of Bombyx mori. We completed the cDNA sequences with RACE method. The protein of each member possesses a MRJP domain and a putative cleavable signal peptide consisting of a hydrophobic sequence. In view of genetic evolution, the whole Bm YELLOW protein family composes a monophyletic group, which is distinctly separate from Drosophila melanogaster and Apis mellifera. We then showed the tissue expression profiles of Bm YELLOW protein family genes by RT-PCR. Conclusion A Bombyx mori YELLOW protein family is found to be composed of at least seven members. The low homogeneity and unique pattern of gene expression by each member among the family ensure us to prophesy that the members of Bm YELLOW protein family would play some important physiological functions in silkworm development.

  1. Gamma irradiation of yellow and blue colorants in polystyrene packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolprasert, V.; Diel, Todd; Sadler, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of 10- and 20-kGy gamma irradiation was studied on chromophtal yellow 2RLTS (Yellow 110-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrachloro-6-cyanobenzoic acid) and Irgalite Blue GBP (copper (II) phthalocyanine blue) colorants, which were added to polystyrene (PS) material used to package food prior to irradiation. Analytical results obtained suggest that irradiation did not generate any new chemicals in the PS polymer containing either yellow or blue colorant at a concentration of up to 1% (w/w). Both yellow and blue colorants are relatively stable to gamma irradiation

  2. 'Yellow lens' eyes of a stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somiya, H

    1982-07-22

    Bright yellow lenses were found in the eyes of the stomiatoid deep-sea fish, Malacosteus niger Ayres. The optical properties of the yellow lens and the retinal specializations in the eyes were examined. Absorption spectra of the yellow lens revealed two peaks at wavelengths 425 and 460 nm. The photoreceptors were all rods and were arranged in two superimposed layers. An astaxanthin-type retinal tapetum was observed in the pigment epithelium. Some chemical evidence is presented showing that the tapetal material is an astaxanthin ester. The ecological significance of the yellow lens is discussed in connection with that of Malacosteus' orbital light organ which has a reddish filter.

  3. Ecological and taphonomical influences on coccoliths in surface sediments in the shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaobo; Liu, Chuanlian

    2017-05-01

    Coccoliths, combined with sediment grain size, carbonate calcium and organic matters content, were analyzed to assess the ecological and taphonomical influences on coccolith distribution patterns in surface sediments in the continental shelf of the Yellow and East China Seas. Coccolith abundances ranged from 0 to 2.08×109 coccoliths g-1 sediment. The increasing abundance from the coastal inner shelf to the seaward middle shelf generally reflects the ecological fact that living coccolithophores are more abundant in the mesotrophic shelf waters than in the eutrophic coastal waters, although their deposits are still controlled by taphonomical effects, such as bottom (tidal) currents and calcite preservation conditions. Most abundant coccoliths are found in the fine-grained sediments of southwestern Cheju Island, where both ecology and taphonomy favor coccolith preservation. Still, large densities of coccoliths (>108 coccoliths g-1 sediment) are also found in coarse-grained relict sediments in the middle shelf. Coccolith assemblages were predominated by Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Emiliania huxleyi. The relative abundance of E. huxleyi, in addition to ecological reasons, may relate to selective post-mortem dissolution, since small E. huxleyi coccoliths are more susceptible to dissolution. Coccolith calcite has minor contributions (<1% to 12%) to total sediment CaCO3, and the main parts are attributed to terrigenous CaCO3 debris and relict shell fragments.

  4. An inactivated cell-culture vaccine against yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monath, Thomas P; Fowler, Elizabeth; Johnson, Casey T; Balser, John; Morin, Merribeth J; Sisti, Maggie; Trent, Dennis W

    2011-04-07

    Yellow fever is a lethal viral hemorrhagic fever occurring in Africa and South America. A highly effective live vaccine (17D) is widely used for travelers to and residents of areas in which yellow fever is endemic, but the vaccine can cause serious adverse events, including viscerotropic disease, which is associated with a high rate of death. A safer, nonreplicating vaccine is needed. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 study of 60 healthy subjects between 18 and 49 years of age, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of XRX-001 purified whole-virus, β-propiolactone-inactivated yellow fever vaccine produced in Vero cell cultures and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant. On two visits 21 days apart, subjects received intramuscular injections of vaccine that contained 0.48 μg or 4.8 μg of antigen. Levels of neutralizing antibodies were measured at baseline and on days 21, 31, and 42. The vaccine induced the development of neutralizing antibodies in 100% of subjects receiving 4.8 μg of antigen in each injection and in 88% of subjects receiving 0.48 μg of antigen in each injection. Antibody levels increased by day 10 after the second injection, at which time levels were significantly higher with the 4.8-μg formulation than with the 0.48-μg formulation (geometric mean titer, 146 vs. 39; Pvaccine groups than in the placebo group: mild pain, tenderness, and (much less frequently) itching at the injection site. One case of urticaria was observed on day 3 after the second dose of 4.8 μg of vaccine. A two-dose regimen of the XRX-001 vaccine, containing inactivated yellow fever antigen with an alum adjuvant, induced neutralizing antibodies in a high percentage of subjects. XRX-001 has the potential to be a safer alternative to live attenuated 17D vaccine. (Funded by Xcellerex; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00995865.).

  5. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  6. Crystallization Kinetics of Precipitating Calcium from Yellow Phosphorus Slag Lixivium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, G. -B.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization dynamic parameters of calcium sulphate were determined in the course of the precipitation conversion process of calcium in lixivium. The crystallization dynamic equations of calcium sulphate were achieved by multiple linear regression. The study results indicate that CaSO4 · 2 H2O crystal nucleation-growth kinetics equation in nitric acid leaching liquid of yellow phosphorus slag at room temperature is expressed by B0 = 2.904 · 1011 · G0.83 · MT 0.167.

  7. Hereditary dwarfism in yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dwarf plant was found in the F4 generation of a hybrid between two yellow lupin subspecies. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the dwarf grwoth is conditioned by one recessive factor which was named nanus. This factor acts pleiotroipically since it reduces the height, changes the morphological structure and some anatomical traits and reduces fertility in the dwarf plants. It is believed that in the chromosome with translocation a gene block arose in the F4, plant. These genes acting as a compact system cause dwarfism, changes in the anatomical structure and reduce fertility.

  8. Modification of Yellow River Sediment Based Stabilized Earth Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the microstructure and performance of stabilized earth bricks prepared from the Yellow River sediment. The sediment is modified by inorganic cementitious material, polymer bonding agent, and jute fibre. The results show that the sediment is preliminarily consolidated when the mixture ratio of activated sediment/cementitious binder/sand is 65/25/10. Compressive strength and softening coefficient of stabilized earth bricks is further improved by polymer bonding agent and jute fibre. SEM images and EDS spectral analysis indicate that there is indeed synergy among inorganic hydration products, polymer network and jute fibre to strengthen the sediment.

  9. Parasitic mycobiota of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Snežana Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycopopulation of yellow gentian growing in plantations was studied in 2008 and 2009. Fourteen species of fungi were registered at seed, out of which five were pathogenic. The most common species was Alternaria alternata (72-74 %. Species of the genus Fusarium (F. oxysporum, F. solani and F. equiseti were present in a small percentage (2-6 %. These species, as well as F. verticillioides, were isolated from root, and Fusarium sp. was isolated from the flowers. Alternaria alternate, Epicoccum purpurescens, Phoma sp. and Alternaria sp. were regularly present on the leaves and stems.

  10. Minions: Empathetic Lessons From Small Yellow Creatures Serving the Despicable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerning, Halfdan; Vilsgaard, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Reviews the film Minions (2015) directed by Kyle Balda and Pierre Coffin (2015). Minions are fictional computer-animated yellow pill-shaped creatures who speak their own language. They live to serve the most despicable master they can find. The film tells the evolutionary story of the minions and......, their facial expressions, their display of character strengths, and their need for a purpose in life, we identify reasons why we are able to understand the minions as we understand ourselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  11. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  12. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Are Middle Schools More Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Kelly; Do, Chan

    2005-01-01

    While nearly half of all school districts have adopted middle schools, there is little quantitative evidence of the efficacy of this educational structure. We estimate the impact of moving from a junior high school system, where students stay in elementary school longer, to a middle school system for on-time high school completion. This is a…

  14. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  15. Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its

  16. What Does the Future Hold for Yellow Fever Virus? (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Klitting

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. Yellow fever virus had been a human plague for centuries prior to the identification of its urban transmission vector, the Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus mosquito species, and the development of an efficient live-attenuated vaccine, the YF-17D strain. The combination of vector-control measures and vaccination campaigns drastically reduced YFV incidence in humans on many occasions, but the virus never ceased to circulate in the forest, through its sylvatic invertebrate vector(s and vertebrate host(s. Outbreaks recently reported in Central Africa (2015–2016 and Brazil (since late 2016, reached considerable proportions in terms of spatial distribution and total numbers of cases, with multiple exports, including to China. In turn, questions about the likeliness of occurrence of large urban YFV outbreaks in the Americas or of a successful import of YFV to Asia are currently resurfacing. This two-part review describes the current state of knowledge and gaps regarding the molecular biology and transmission dynamics of YFV, along with an overview of the tools that can be used to manage the disease at individual, local and global levels.

  17. Impact of yellow fever on the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, O

    1999-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) has remained a disease of public health importance since it was first described in the fifteenth century. At different periods in human history, YF has caused untold hardship and indescribable misery among populations in the Americas, Europe, and Africa. It brought economic disaster in its wake, constituting a stumbling block to development. Yellow fever is an arboviral infection with three epidemiological transmission cycles between monkeys, mosquitoes, and humans. It is an acute infectious disease characterized by sudden onset, with two phases of development separated by a short period of remission. The clinical spectrum of YF varies from a very mild, nonspecific, febrile illness to a fulminating, sometimes fatal disease with pathognomonic features. In severe cases, jaundice and bleeding diathesis with hepatorenal involvement are common. The fatality rate of severe YF is 50% or higher. Despite landmark achievements in the understanding of the epidemiology of YF and the availability of a safe, efficacious vaccine, YF remains a major public health problem in both Africa and South America, where annually the disease affects an estimated 200,000 persons, causing an estimated 30,000 deaths. Since the 1980s epidemics of YF in Africa have affected predominantly children under the age of 15 years. The failure to control YF arises from a misapplication of public health strategies and insufficient political commitment by governments in YF endemic areas, especially in Africa, to control the disease.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  19. Protein modeling of yellow rust disease in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.E.; Bano, R.; Zayed, M.E.; Elshikh, M.S.; Khan, M.H.; Chaudhry, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is affected by yellow rust disease caused by a fungus Puccinia striiformis. There is a need to broaden the genetic basis of wheat by identifying new resistance genes. The present study was aimed to identify an alternate resistance gene for yellow rust disease in wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis. Genome sequence was compared with databases and similar gene was identified for disease resistance in rye plant. Structural analysis of RGA1 gene (resistance gene in wheat) was carried out using different bioinformatics tools and an alternative gene having same structure was identified on the basis of structural and sequence homology. Rye plant is the proposed plant for the alternate new resistance gene. The result of pairwise alignment of RGA1 gene in wheat and gene of rye plant is 94.2% with accession DQ494535 .The secondary structures of both the genes was compared and found similar to each other. These comparisons between the wheat resistance gene and gene from rye plant depict structural similarities between the two genes. Results of RGA1 gene's structural analysis in wheat is as follow: Helices: 59, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 12, Coils: 13 and for alternate resistance genes in Rye is as follow: Helices: 52, Extended sheets: 30, Turns: 14, Coils: 17. As structures are similar, the alternate identified gene could be used for resistance in wheat. (author)

  20. Synthesis of new environment-friendly yellow pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Shinya; Masui, Toshiyuki; Imanaka, Nobuhito

    2006-01-01

    New inorganic pigments based on amorphous cerium tungstate, Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 (M = Zr or Ti, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6), were synthesized and their color properties were characterized from the viewpoint of possible ecological inorganic pigments. The Ce 1-x M x W 2 O 8 materials absorb the visible and the ultraviolet light under 500 nm efficiently, which is originated in the O 2p -Ce 4f and the O 2p -W 5d double charge transfer transitions, and, as a result, the pigments can show a brilliant yellow color. The optical absorption edge wavelength of these pigments depends on the Zr or Ti content, and the effective yellow hue was observed at x = 0.2 for both pigments. The color properties of the present pigments suggest that they have a potential to be applied as a satisfactory pigment for paints. Furthermore, these pigments can be prepared by a simple co-precipitation method. They are inert and safe and do not produce side effects in the human body because they are composed of non-toxic and safe elements

  1. Evaluasi Mutu Bunga Potong Krisan Yellow Fiji Menggunakan Pengolahan Citra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ahmad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestic and export market of chrysanthemum cut-flower require a prime and consistent cuality. Meanwhile, manual grading system based on human vision resulting in quality inconsistentcy. The objective of this study was to develop computer program for quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chysanthemum cut-flower using image processing. The cut-flowers were classified into different quality standards (AA,A.B.C based on the steam length and straightness, and flower diameter. Then results indicated a strong relationship between quality parameters extracted from the image and those obtained from direct meaurement for grade AA,A,B and C with R2=0.98, R2=0.97, R2=0.97, and R2=0.98 respectively for length of stem. Also with R2=0.90, R2=0.87, R2=88, and R2=88 respectively for diamter of flower. The validation of the computer program for the quality evaluation of Yellow Fiji chrysanthemum cut-flower performed a hight a ccuracy of 100% for AA grade, 90% for A grade, 85% for B grade, and 100% for C grade.

  2. Effect of low salinity on the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YBM. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the lethal salinity (LC50 for the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae and identify histopathological alterations that could be used to diagnose structural changes in clam tissue. Clams in two size classes (adults and juveniles were placed in 10 L chambers and exposed to salinities of 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 g/L. There were triplicate chambers with seven clams each for each salinity. The LC50 values for a 48 h exposure were 6.5 g/L and 5.7 g/L for adults and juveniles, respectively. For a 96 h exposure, the LC50 values were 10.5 g/L for adults and 8.8 g/L for juveniles. The histological examination of yellow clams exposed to 10 g/L for 96 h showed intercellular oedema and necrotic foci in the epithelium of the digestive gland and occlusion of the lumen of the digestive gland. In conclusion, M. mactroides can be characterised as a moderately euryhaline species, tolerating salinities from 35 to 15 g/L.

  3. Induced Mutation in Yellow Lotus by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puripunyavanich, Vichai; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2006-01-01

    Rhizomes of American yellow lotus were irradiated at eht dosed of 0, 10, 20 and 30 Gy, 10 rhizomes per treatment. They were planted in nursery pots. Unirradiated rhizomes gave out new shoots within 3-4 days. The survival rates of the 10, 20 and 30 Gy irradiated rhizomes at one month after transplanted were 80%, 30% and 10%, respectively. The radiation dose that resulted in a 50% death rate (LD 5 0) was approximately 17 Gy. The surviving plant lets were transplanted and grown in pots as the Agricultural Occupation Promotion and Development Center in Chiangmai and Chiangrai for three years. Normally, American yellow lotus does not flower in Thailand. However, a mutant was found to bear flower in Thailand. The mutant flower appeared a little different from the wild-type flower. The tip of its petals was more rounded than the pointy wild-type tip. The mutant will be propagated for clonal production or for use as a par net in breeding crosses with Thai white and pink lotuses

  4. The yellow cake accident at the Ezeiza Airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In January 1987 several drums containing yellow cake fell from about six meters during the loading operation of a Boeing 747 T-100 cargo aircraft. As a result of the accident, about 50% of the 38 drums involved lost their lids and a fraction of the radioactive content was released on an area of about 200 meters squared. Small amounts of yellow cake were dispersed down wind until about 100 meters from the accident place. The shipment was prepared for transport in standard 200 liter steel drums fulfilling the applicable Transport Regulations and the accident was the consequence of an erroneous operation during the cargo associated with a mechanical failure of the cargo lift. In order to avoid human contamination, immediate action was taken by the airport emergency team and in the meantime, the specialized groups of the National Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Fire Brigades, were convened to take care of the decontamination and radiological evaluation problems. This paper describes the accidental sequences, the accident scenery, the countermeasures taken, the recovery and decontamination actions, and finally, as a conclusion, a brief description of the toxic and radiological aspects of the accident's mode

  5. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lunau

    Full Text Available Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  6. International travel between global urban centres vulnerable to yellow fever transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Shannon E; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin; German, Matthew; Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brady, Oliver J; Hay, Simon I; Creatore, Maria I; Khan, Kamran

    2018-05-01

    To examine the potential for international travel to spread yellow fever virus to cities around the world. We obtained data on the international flight itineraries of travellers who departed yellow fever-endemic areas of the world in 2016 for cities either where yellow fever was endemic or which were suitable for viral transmission. Using a global ecological model of dengue virus transmission, we predicted the suitability of cities in non-endemic areas for yellow fever transmission. We obtained information on national entry requirements for yellow fever vaccination at travellers' destination cities. In 2016, 45.2 million international air travellers departed from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world. Of 11.7 million travellers with destinations in 472 cities where yellow fever was not endemic but which were suitable for virus transmission, 7.7 million (65.7%) were not required to provide proof of vaccination upon arrival. Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Peru and the United States of America had the highest volumes of travellers arriving from yellow fever-endemic areas and the largest populations living in cities suitable for yellow fever transmission. Each year millions of travellers depart from yellow fever-endemic areas of the world for cities in non-endemic areas that appear suitable for viral transmission without having to provide proof of vaccination. Rapid global changes in human mobility and urbanization make it vital for countries to re-examine their vaccination policies and practices to prevent urban yellow fever epidemics.

  7. Hukum Lingkungan dan Pertanggungjawaban Strict Liability dalam Sistem Hukum Common Law (Studi Kasus Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Mahfud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The possibilities for pollution control still offered today Blackburn J.’s celebrated rule of strict liability, now almost 130 years old, has ensured its continuing popularity. There can be few tort lawyers, however, who have not increasingly wondered how much time should be devoted to a case which has received little judicial attention in recent years, and which was last subjected to detailed consideration by the House of Lords nearly 50 years ago, until, that is, the much-published decision of the House of Lords in Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc.   (Environmental Law and The Strict Liability Application In the Common Law System (The Case Study of Cambridge Water Co. Ltd V. Eastern Countries Leather Plc

  8. Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid, Muhammad Shafiq; Ikegami, Masato; Waheed, Abdul; Briddon, Rob W.; Natsuaki, Keiko T.

    2014-01-01

    Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Jap...

  9. Observations on the activity patterns of the lesser yellow house bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lesser yellow house bat, Scotophilus viridis. F.P.D. Cotterill c/o Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town,. Cape Town. S.R. Giddings·. Department of Zoology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 10 June 1986; accepted 23 July 1986. The activity pattems of the lesser yellow ...

  10. Yellow Fever Virus Vaccine–associated Deaths in Young Women 1

    OpenAIRE

    Seligman, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease is a rare sequela of live-attenuated virus vaccine. Elderly persons and persons who have had thymectomies have increased susceptibility. A review of published and other data suggested a higher than expected number of deaths from yellow fever vaccine–associated viscerotropic disease among women 19–34 years of age without known immunodeficiency.

  11. Photopic spectral sensitivities of the red and the yellow field of the pigeon retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, J.F.; Wubbels, R.J.; Nuboer, J.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral sensitivities of the red field and the yellow field in the retina of the homing pigeon (Columba Livia) were determined on the basis of ERG responses. Between 450 and 550 nm the relative spectral sensitivity of the yellow field turned out to be higher than that of the red field. The

  12. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A; Charrel, Rémi N; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C; Rodrigues, Cintia D S; Kümmerer, Beate M; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-11-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  13. Transmission of yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding - Brazil, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    In April, 2009, the state health department of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was notified by the Cachoeira do Sul municipal health department of a case of meningoencephalitis requiring hospitalization in an infant whose mother recently had received yellow fever vaccine during a postpartum visit. The Field Epidemiology Training Program of the Secretariat of Surveillance in Health of the Brazilian Ministry of Health assisted state and municipal health departments with an investigation. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which determined that the infant acquired yellow fever vaccine virus through breast-feeding. The mother reported 2 days of headache, malaise, and low fever occurring 5 days after receipt of yellow fever vaccine. The infant, who was exclusively breast-fed, was hospitalized at age 23 days with seizures requiring continuous infusion of intravenous anticonvulsants. The infant received antimicrobial and antiviral treatment for meningoencephalitis. The presence of 17DD yellow fever virus was detected by reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the infant's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); yellow fever--specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies also were present in serum and CSF. The infant recovered completely, was discharged after 24 days of hospitalization, and has had normal neurodevelopment and growth through age 6 months. The findings in this report provide documentation that yellow fever vaccine virus can be transmitted via breast-feeding. Administration of yellow fever vaccine to breast-feeding women should be avoided except in situations where exposure to yellow fever viruses cannot be avoided or postponed.

  14. Lineage-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR for Yellow Fever Virus Outbreak Surveillance, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Carlo; Torres, Maria C.; Patel, Pranav; Moreira-Soto, Andres; Gould, Ernest A.; Charrel, Rémi N.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Sequeira, Patricia C.; Rodrigues, Cintia D.S.; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Drosten, Christian; Landt, Olfert; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    The current yellow fever outbreak in Brazil prompted widespread yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccination campaigns, imposing a responsibility to distinguish between vaccine- and wild-type YFV-associated disease. We developed novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCRs that differentiate between vaccine and American wild-type YFV. We validated these highly specific and sensitive assays in an outbreak setting.

  15. Development of PCR-RFP and DNA barcoding plastic markers for yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Boswell

    2013-01-01

    Yellow toadflax and Dalmatian toadflax are problematic invasive plant species in North America. Yellow toadflax was introduced multiple times to the United States from Europe, beginning in the late 1600s. Dalmatian toadflax has similarly been repeatedly introduced to the United States, starting in 1874. Both species are known to inhabit disturbed areas, competing for...

  16. Finger jointing green southern yellow pine with a soy-based adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Roland E. Kreibicha; Petrus J. Steynberg; Richard W. Hemingway

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of laboratory tests for a soy-based adhesive to bond southern yellow pine using the finger-jointing method. There was some reason to suspect that finger jointing of southern yellow pine (SYP) with the honeymoon system using soy-based adhesive might prove more difficult than for western species. The Wood Handbook classes western species in...

  17. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  18. The applicability of fluoride volatility process to producing UF6 from yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang

    2005-01-01

    The schematic diagrams producing UF 6 from yellow cake are showed in this paper. The characteristics and process improvements of the fluoride volatility process are explained. The applicability of the fluoride volatility process to producing UF 6 from yellow cake is discussed. (authors)

  19. Genetics and physiology of the nuclearly inherited yellow foliar mutants in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant photosynthetic pigments are important in harvesting the light energy and transfer of energy during photosynthesis. There are several yellow foliar mutants discovered in soybean and chromosomal locations for about half of them have been deduced. Viable-yellow mutants are capable of surviving wi...

  20. Numerical modelling of ice floods in the Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Ning-Meng reach of the Yellow River basin is located in the Inner Mongolia region at the Northern part of the Yellow River. Due to the special geographical conditions, the river flow direction is towards the North causing the Ning-Meng reach to freeze up every year in wintertime. Both during the

  1. Identification of insecticidal principals from cucumber seed oil against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is one of the most medically important mosquito species due to its ability to spread viruses of yellow fever, dengue fever and Zika in humans. In this study, the insecticidal activity of seventeen plant essential oils were evaluated to toxicity by topical a...

  2. Modelling the biological variance of the yellow aspect of Granny smith apple colour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Schouten, R.E.; Konopacki, P.; Hribar, J.; Simcic, M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The yellow aspect of colour is usually not considered for produce with a green-to-red or a green-to-yellow transition upon ripening. The magnitude of change is simply too small and, additionally, masked by a large variation. The colour of Granny Smith apples, harvested from three

  3. Determination of carotenoids in yellow maize, the effects of saponification and food preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhingi, Tawanda; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Russell, Robert M; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Qin, Jian; Tang, Guangwen

    2008-05-01

    Maize is an important staple food consumed by millions of people in many countries. Yellow maize naturally contains carotenoids which not only provide provitamin A carotenoids but also xanthophylls, which are known to be important for eye health. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the effect of saponification during extraction of yellow maize carotenoids, 2) determining the major carotenoids in 36 genotypes of yellow maize by high-performance liquid chromatography with a C30 column, and 3) determining the effect of cooking on the carotenoid content of yellow maize. The major carotenoids in yellow maize were identified as all-trans lutein, cis-isomers of lutein, all-trans zeaxanthin, alpha- and beta-cryptoxanthin, all-trans beta-carotene, 9-cis beta-carotene, and 13-cis beta-carotene. Our results indicated that carotenoid extraction without saponification showed a significantly higher yield than that obtained using saponification. Results of the current study indicate that yellow maize is a good source of provitamin A carotenoids and xanthophylls. Cooking by boiling yellow maize at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes increased the carotenoid concentration, while baking at 450 degrees F for 25 minutes decreased the carotenoid concentrations by almost 70% as compared to the uncooked yellow maize flour.

  4. Anamnestic immune response to dengue and decreased severity of yellow fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo O Izurieta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A protective immunity against yellow fever, from cross-reactive dengue antibodies, has been hypothesized as an explanation for the absence of yellow fever in Southern Asia where dengue immunity is almost universal. This study evaluates the association between protective immunity from cross-reactive dengue antibodies with yellow fever infection and severity of the disease. The study population consisted of military personnel of a jungle garrison and its detachments located in the Ecuadorian Amazonian rainforest. The cross-sectional study employed interviews as well as seroepidemiological methods. Humoral immune response to yellow fever, Mayaro, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Oropouche, and dengue 2 infections was assessed by evaluating IgM and IgG specific antibodies. Log-linear regression analysis was used to evaluate age and presence of antibodies, against dengue type 2 virus, as predictors of yellow fever infection or severe disease. During the seroepidemiological survey, presence of dengue antibodies among yellow fever cases were observed in 77.3% cases from the coastal region, where dengue is endemic, 14.3% cases from the Amazon and 16.7 % cases from the Andean region. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies were not significantly associated with yellow fever infection but significantly associated with severity of the disease. The findings of this study suggest that previous exposure to dengue infection may have induced an anamnestic immune response that did not prevent yellow fever infection but greatly reduced the severity of the disease.

  5. Incoherent manipulation of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle with dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Vengris, M.; van der Horst, M.A.; de Weerd, F.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the ``blue-light vision¿¿ of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast

  6. Incoherent manipulation of the photoactive yellow protein photocycle with dispersed pump-dump-probe spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, D.S.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Vengris, M.; Horst, M.A.; de Weerd, F.L.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    Photoactive yellow protein is the protein responsible for initiating the "blue-light vision" of Halorhodospira halophila. The dynamical processes responsible for triggering the photoactive yellow protein photocycle have been disentangled with the use of a novel application of dispersed ultrafast

  7. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  8. Red-yellow marrow conversion: Its effect on the location of some solitary bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kricun, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The location of red marrow related bone lesions is dependent upon the distribution of red marrow. It is altered by the normal conversion of red marrow to yellow (fat) marrow and by the reconversion of yellow marrow to red marrow caused by marrow infiltrating disorders or marrow stress disorders. (orig.)

  9. Status of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus and its impact in different progenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellow leaf disease caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) a Polerovirus is an important disease for sugarcane industries worldwide. High yield losses up to 50% were reported in susceptible varieties. Most of the commercial cultivars in Florida are infected with SCYLV; therefore, there is a ...

  10. First report of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus infecting Columbus Grass (Sorghum almum) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) [genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae] is the causal agent of sugarcane yellow leaf disease. SCYLV is widespread in Florida where sugarcane was the only known natural host of this virus. During spring 2015, we collected (leaves or stalks) and tested several gras...

  11. Acute neck pain caused by pseudogout attack of calcified cervical yellow ligament: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Abe, Toshiki; Abe, Eiji; Kikuchi, Kazuma; Noguchi, Hideaki; Konno, Norikazu; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-05-30

    Calcification of the yellow ligament sometimes compresses the spinal cord and can induce myelopathy. Usually, the calcification does not induce acute neck pain. We report a case of a patient with acute neck pain caused by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in a calcified cervical yellow ligament. A 70-year-old Japanese woman presented with acute neck pain. She had a moderately high fever (37.5 °C), and her neck pain was so severe that she could not move her neck in any direction. Computed tomography showed a high-density area between the C5 and C6 laminae suspicious for calcification of the yellow ligament. Magnetic resonance imaging showed intermediate-signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging surrounding a low-signal region on both T1- and T2-weighted imaging with cord compression. There was a turbid, yellow fluid collection in the yellow ligament at the time of operation. Histologically, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were found in the fluid, and she was diagnosed as having a pseudogout attack of the yellow ligament. Pseudogout attack of the cervical yellow ligament is rare, but this clinical entity should be added to the differential diagnosis of acute neck pain, especially when calcification of the yellow ligament exists.

  12. Within-host dynamics of the emergence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus recombinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cica Urbino

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is a highly damaging begomovirus native to the Middle East. TYLCV has recently spread worldwide, recombining with other begomoviruses. Recent analysis of mixed infections between TYLCV and Tomato leaf curl Comoros begomovirus (ToLCKMV has shown that, although natural selection preserves certain co-evolved intra-genomic interactions, numerous and diverse recombinants are produced at 120 days post-inoculation (dpi, and recombinant populations from different tomato plants are very divergent. Here, we investigate the population dynamics that lead to such patterns in tomato plants co-infected with TYLCV and ToLCKMV either by agro-inoculation or using the natural whitefly vector Bemisia tabaci. We monitored the frequency of parental and recombinant genotypes independently in 35 plants between 18 and 330 dpi and identified 177 recombinants isolated at different times. Recombinants were detected from 18 dpi and their frequency increased over time to reach about 50% at 150 dpi regardless of the inoculation method. The distribution of breakpoints detected on 96 fully sequenced recombinants was consistent with a continuous generation of new recombinants as well as random and deterministic effects in their maintenance. A severe population bottleneck of around 10 genomes was estimated during early systemic infection-a phenomenon that could account partially for the heterogeneity in recombinant patterns observed among plants. The detection of the same recombinant genome in six of the thirteen plants analysed beyond 30 dpi supported the influence of selection on observed recombination patterns. Moreover, a highly virulent recombinant genotype dominating virus populations within one plant has, apparently, the potential to be maintained in the natural population according to its infectivity, within-host accumulation, and transmission efficiency - all of which were similar or intermediate to those of the parent genotypes. Our

  13. Strict monandry in the ponerine army ant genus Simopelta suggests that colony size and complexity drive mating system evolution in social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; O'Donnell, Sean; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2011-01-01

    -ratios have convergently shaped these mating systems. Here we show that ponerine army ants of the genus Simopelta, which are distantly related but similar in general biology to other army ants, have strictly monandrous queens. Preliminary data suggest that workers reproduce in queenright colonies, which...... is in sharp contrast to other army ants. We hypothesize that differences in mature colony size and social complexity may explain these striking discrepancies....

  14. 21 CFR 201.20 - Declaration of presence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 and/or FD&C Yellow No. 6 in certain drugs for human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eye, containing FD&C Yellow No. 5 as a color additive using the names FD&C Yellow No. 5 and tartrazine... “Contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) as a color additive” or “Contains color additives including FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine)”. The labels of certain drug products subject to this labeling requirement that...

  15. First case of yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Shing; Chan, Man Chun; Chik, Shiu Hong; Tsang, Tak Yin

    2016-04-01

    Yellow fever is an important and potentially fatal infection in tropical regions of Africa, South America, eastern Panama in Central America and Trinidad in the Caribbean. Yellow fever vaccination is not only crucial to reduce the disease risk and mortality in individuals travelling to these areas, but also an important public health measure to prevent the spread of the disease. Despite generally considered as a safe vaccine, yellow fever vaccine can rarely be associated with severe adverse reactions including yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). Here, we report the first case of YEL-AVD in Hong Kong. Clinicians should alert to the possibility of YEL-AVD in vaccinees presenting with compatible symptoms after yellow fever vaccination, particularly in people at higher risk of adverse events. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Estimating the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers against yellow fever in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Massad, E

    2018-04-17

    A yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola in 2016 with 884 laboratory confirmed cases and 373 deaths. Eleven unvaccinated Chinese nationals working in Angola were also infected and imported the disease to China, thereby presenting the first importation of yellow fever into Asia. In Angola, there are about 259,000 Chinese foreign workers. The fact that 11 unvaccinated Chinese workers acquired yellow fever suggests that many more Chinese workers in Angola were not vaccinated. We applied a previously developed model to back-calculate the number of unvaccinated Chinese workers in Angola in order to determine the extent of lack of vaccine coverage. Our models suggest that none of the 259,000 Chinese had been vaccinated, although yellow fever vaccination is mandated by the International Health Regulations. Governments around the world including China need to ensure that their citizens obtain YF vaccination when traveling to countries where such vaccines are required in order to prevent the international spread of yellow fever.

  17. Electrochemical sensor for hazardous food colourant quinoline yellow based on carbon nanotube-modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Kangbing; Chen, Jianwei; Zhou, Yikai

    2011-09-15

    A novel electrochemical method using multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) film-modified electrode was developed for the detection of quinoline yellow. In pH 8 phosphate buffer, an irreversible oxidation peak at 0.71V was observed for quinoline yellow. Compared with the unmodified electrode, the MWNT film-modified electrode greatly increases the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow, showing notable enhancement effect. The effects of pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were studied on the oxidation peak current of quinoline yellow. The linear range is from 0.75 to 20mgL(-1), and the limit of detection is 0.5mgL(-1). It was applied to the detection of quinoline yellow in commercial soft drinks, and the results consisted with the value that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New poleroviruses associated with yellowing symptoms in different vegetable crops in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotos, L; Maliogka, V I; Katis, N I

    2016-02-01

    Four poleroviral isolates from Greece, two from lettuce, one from spinach and one from watermelon showing yellowing symptoms, were molecularly characterized by analyzing the sequence of a large part of the genome spanning from the 3'-terminal part of the RdRp to the end of the CP gene. The sequences were analyzed for their similarity and phylogenetic relationships to other members of the genus Polerovirus as well as for evidence of recombination events. The results revealed the existence of two putatively new viruses: one from lettuce and one from spinach, provisionally named "lettuce yellows virus" and "spinach yellows virus", respectively. Also, a new recombinant virus infecting lettuce, herein named "lettuce mild yellows virus", and a watermelon isolate of pepo aphid-borne yellows virus (PABYV) were identified. Our study highlights the existence of high genetic diversity within the genus Polerovirus, which could be associated with the emergence of new viral diseases in various crops worldwide.

  19. Yellow fever vaccine: an effective vaccine for travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10-14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2-8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO.

  20. Microsecond yellow laser for subfoveal leaks in central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambiya V

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vikas Ambiya, Abhilash Goud, Annie Mathai, Padmaja Kumari Rani, Jay Chhablani Srimati Kanuri Santhamma Retina Vitreous Center, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Purpose: To evaluate the role of navigated yellow microsecond laser in treating subfoveal leaks in nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC. Methods: This prospective study included ten eyes of ten consecutive patients with nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. All eyes were treated with 577 nm navigated yellow microsecond laser (5% duty cycle. Key inclusion criteria include a vision loss for a duration of minimum 3 months duration due to focal subfoveal leak on fluorescein angiography. Key exclusion criteria include prior treatment for CSC and any signs of chronic CSC. Comprehensive examination, in addition to low-contrast visual acuity assessment, microperimetry, autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus fluorescein angiography, was done at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Rescue laser was performed as per predefined criteria at 3 months. Results: The average best-corrected visual acuity improved from 73.3±16.1 letters to 75.8±14.0 (P=0.69 at 3 months and 76.9±13.0 (P=0.59 at 6 months, but was not statistically significant. Low-contrast visual acuity assessment (logMAR improved from 0.41±0.32 to 0.35±0.42 (P=0.50 at 3 months and 0.28±0.33 (P=0.18 at 6 months. Average retinal sensitivity significantly improved from baseline 18.93±7.19 dB to 22.49±6.67 dB (P=0.01 at 3 months and 21.46±8.47 dB (P=0.04 at 6 months. Rescue laser was required only in one eye at 3 months; however, laser was required in three eyes at 6 months. Conclusion: Microsecond laser is a safe and effective modality for treating cases of nonresolving CSC with subfoveal leaks. Keywords: CSC, central serous chorioretinopathy, Navilas®, navigated laser, microsecond yellow laser

  1. Preferences by Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) and non-target flies for rectangles of various yellow colours and fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven sticky rectangle traps of various yellow colours and fluorescence made of cardboard were field tested against western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in paired trap preference experiments in Washington state, USA. Alpha Scents (proprietary paint), Fluorescent Yellow (aerosol ...

  2. [Respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome: report of two cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Huang, H; Xu, K; Xu, Z J

    2018-03-12

    Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2 patients with respiratory diseases associated with yellow nail syndrome. Their clinical and chest radiological data were collected. We searched PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI databases with the keywords "yellow nail syndrome, yellow nail and lung" in Chinese and English. And the relevant literatures, including 6 articles in Chinese and 81 articles in English, were reviewed. Results: Our 2 patients were male, one 60 years old and the other 76. Typical yellow nails were present in their fingers, and one of them also showed toe yellow nails. One patient was admitted for refractory respiratory infection and he was diagnosed with diffuse bronchiectasis. The respiratory symptoms could be relieved with antibiotics according to the results of sputum microbiological analysis. The other patient was admitted for cough and exertional dyspnea, and refractory pleural effusions were revealed bilaterally. He received repeated effusion drainage by thoracentesis, and Octreotide was tried recently. A total of 373 cases were reviewed in Chinese and English literatures. Pleural effusions (152 cases) and diffuse bronchiectasis (121 cases) were the most common reported respiratory manifestations. Lymphoedema was present in almost all cases with pleural effusion associated with yellow nail syndrome, and the effusion was usually exudative and lymphocyte predominant. Pleurodesis and decortication were effective for them. But, somatostatin analogues had been tried effectively for these patients recently. On the other hand, literatures showed that diffuse bronchiectasis in yellow nail syndrome was less severe than idiopathic diffuse bronchiectasis, and might benefit from long-term macrolide antibiotics. Conclusions: Yellow nail syndrome is a very rare disorder. Besides yellow nail, respiratory manifestations are the main clinical

  3. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  4. Geographic patterns and environmental factors associated with human yellow fever presence in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Patricia Najera; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Machado, Gustavo; Leonel, Deise Galan; Vilca, Luz Maria; Uriona, Sonia; Schneider, Maria Cristina

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, yellow fever virus transmission is a latent threat due to the proximity between urban and wild environments. Although yellow fever has nearly vanished from North and Central America, there are still 13 countries in the Americas considered endemic by the World Health Organization. Human cases usually occur as a result of the exposure to sylvatic yellow fever in tropical forested environments; but urban outbreaks reported during the last decade demonstrate that the risk in this environment still exists. The objective of this study was to identify spatial patterns and the relationship between key geographic and environmental factors with the distribution of yellow fever human cases in the Americas. An ecological study was carried out to analyze yellow fever human cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization from 2000 to 2014, aggregated by second administrative level subdivisions (counties). Presence of yellow fever by county was used as the outcome variable and eight geo-environmental factors were used as independent variables. Spatial analysis was performed to identify and examine natural settings per county. Subsequently, a multivariable logistic regression model was built. During the study period, 1,164 cases were reported in eight out of the 13 endemic countries. Nearly 83.8% of these cases were concentrated in three countries: Peru (37.4%), Brazil (28.1%) and Colombia (18.4%); and distributed in 57 states/provinces, specifically in 286 counties (3.4% of total counties). Yellow fever presence was significantly associated with altitude, rain, diversity of non-human primate hosts and temperature. A positive spatial autocorrelation revealed a clustered geographic pattern in 138/286 yellow fever positive counties (48.3%). A clustered geographic pattern of yellow fever was identified mostly along the Andes eastern foothills. This risk map could support health policies in endemic countries. Geo-environmental factors associated with presence

  5. Intrusion of low-salinity water into the Yellow Sea Interior in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Seok; Pang, Ig-Chan

    2014-12-01

    Abnormally low-salinity water was detected in the surface layer of the central region of the Yellow Sea in August 2012. The presence of such low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior has never been reported previously. To understand the origin of this low-salinity water, oceanographic and wind data were analyzed, and the circulation of the surface layer was also examined in the Yellow and East China Seas using a numerical ocean model. The results confirmed that typhoons caused the low-salinity water. Two consecutive typhoons passed from east to west across the East China Sea, around the Changjiang Bank in early August 2012. Strong easterly and southeasterly winds created by the typhoons in the Yellow and East China Seas drove the low-salinity water to the north along the coast of China and northeastward toward the central region of the Yellow Sea, respectively. Usually, the northward drifting of Changjiang Diluted Water along the coast of China ends around the Jiangsu coast, where the drifting is blocked and is turned by the offshore Eulerian residual current. Therefore, the Changjiang Diluted Water does not intrude more into the Yellow Sea interior. However, in 2012, the low-salinity water drifted up to the Shandong Peninsula along the coast of China, and formed massive low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior combining with the other low-salinity water extended toward the central region of the Yellow Sea directly from the Changjiang Bank. Thus, the typhoons play a key role in the appearance of abnormally low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior and it means that the Yellow Sea ecosystem could be significantly influenced by the Changjiang Diluted Water.

  6. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  7. Current status and future prospects of yellow fever vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S; Barrett, Alan D T

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized historically for its immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be lifelong. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease.

  8. Wheat Rust Toolbox Related to New Initiatives on Yellow Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Grønbech; Lassen, Poul

    ://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/rust/stem/rust-report/en/). The Wheat rust toolbox is one of several International research platforms hosted by Aarhus University, and it uses the same ICT framework and databases as EuroWheat (www.eurowheat.org) and EuroBlight (www.EuroBlight.net). The Wheat Rust Toolbox will also serve the Global Rust Reference Centre (GRRC) as well...... – 2009), and as soon as possible this will be expanded to cover all global yellow rust data available via the GRRC. The presentation will focus on experiences from the previous work on global databases and web based information systems, as well as propose ideas how the toolbox can be helpful regarding...

  9. Current Status and Future Prospects of Yellow Fever Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew S.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Yellow fever 17D vaccine is one of the oldest live-attenuated vaccines in current use that is recognized for historically immunogenic and safe properties. These unique properties of 17D are presently exploited in rationally designed recombinant vaccines targeting not only flaviviral antigens but also other pathogens of public health concern. Several candidate vaccines based on 17D have advanced to human trials, and a chimeric recombinant Japanese encephalitis vaccine utilizing the 17D backbone has been licensed. The mechanism(s) of attenuation for 17D are poorly understood; however, recent insights from large in silico studies have indicated particular host genetic determinants contributing to the immune response to the vaccine, which presumably influences the considerable durability of protection, now in many cases considered to be life-long. The very rare occurrence of severe adverse events for 17D is discussed, including a recent fatal case of vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease. PMID:26366673

  10. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed.

  11. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Thomas Adepoju

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to research article titled “Effects of processing methods on nutrient and antinutrient composition of yellow yam (Dioscorea cayenensis products” (Adepoju et al., 2016 [1]. This article documented information on nutrient and antinutrient composition as well as nutrient retention of Dioscorea cayenensis products. Fresh Dioscorea cayenensis tubers obtained from Bodija market were prepared into raw sample and local delicacies and analysed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition using AOAC methods [2]. Data obtained were analysed using ANOVA, and level of significance set at p<0.05. Processing significantly improved macronutrients and energy content of yam products, and led to significant reduction in values of all antinutrient content of the products (p<0.05.

  12. A bacterial disease of yellow perch (Peres flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Nordstrom, P.R.; Bailey, J.E.; Heaton, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    On May 26, 1959, two of the authors' investigated a fish kill at Dailey Lake, Park County, Montana. They observed about a half-dozen live, weakly swimming yellow perch (Perca flavescens), in addition to thousand of dead perch along the shoreline. It was learned from local residents that mortalities had begun to appear some 2 weeks earlier. At that time the time the authorities had diagnosed the condition as a winterkill, since ice had only recently disappeared from the lake. Although a number of other species inhabit Dailey Lake, including rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brown trout (S. trutta), kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus), rainbow x cutthroat hybrids, only one other species was represented in the kill. This consisted of one black crappie.

  13. The RNA of turnip yellow mosaic virus exhibits icosahedral order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Steven B.; Lucas, Robert W.; Greenwood, Aaron; McPherson, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Difference electron density maps, based on structure factor amplitudes and experimental phases from crystals of wild-type turnip yellow mosaic virus and those of empty capsids prepared by freeze-thawing, show a large portion of the encapsidated RNA to have an icosahedral distribution. Four unique segments of base-paired, double-helical RNA, one to two turns in length, lie between 33-A and 101-A radius and are organized about either 2-fold or 5-fold icosahedral axes. In addition, single-stranded loops of RNA invade the pentameric and hexameric capsomeres where they contact the interior capsid surface. The remaining RNA, not seen in electron density maps, must serve as connecting links between these secondary structural elements and is likely icosahedrally disordered. The distribution of RNA observed crystallographically appears to be in agreement with models based on biochemical data and secondary structural analyses

  14. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas RE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Roger E Thomas Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Research Office, G012, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To assess those published cases of yellow fever (YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease that meet the Brighton Collaboration criteria and to assess the safety of YF vaccine with respect to viscerotropic disease. Literature search: Ten electronic databases were searched with no restriction of date or language and reference lists of retrieved articles. Methods: All abstracts and titles were independently read by two reviewers and data independently entered by two reviewers. Results: All serious adverse events that met the Brighton Classification criteria were associated with first YF vaccinations. Sixty-two published cases (35 died met the Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic criteria, with 32 from the US, six from Brazil, five from Peru, three from Spain, two from the People’s Republic of China, one each from Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Ecuador, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Portugal, and the UK, and four with no country stated. Two cases met both the viscerotropic and YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease criteria. Seventy cases proposed by authors as viscerotropic disease did not meet any Brighton Collaboration viscerotropic level of diagnostic certainty or any YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease causality criteria (37 died. Conclusion: Viscerotropic disease is rare in the published literature and in pharmacovigilance databases. All published cases were from developing countries. Because the symptoms are usually very severe and life threatening, it is unlikely that cases would not come to medical attention (but might not be published. Because viscerotropic disease has a highly predictable pathologic course, it is likely that viscerotropic disease post-YF vaccine occurs in low-income countries with the same incidence as in developing countries. YF

  15. Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhencheng Tao

    Full Text Available Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea were studied from September 2006 to August 2007. Euphausia pacifica is a selective-feeding omnivore and grazing rates among different months were monitored using a Coulter Counter and batch culture feeding experiments. Euphausia pacifica mainly grazed microzooplankton in August and September, which resulted in an increase in chlorophyll a concentration. Oxygen consumption rate of E. pacifica was 38.7-42.5 μmol O2 g(-1 DW h(-1 in March, which was four times higher than the oxygen consumption rates in September and December. The vigorous metabolism of E. pacifica in March consumed 3.1% of body carbon daily, which is likely related to its high reproduction and grazing rate. Respiration and metabolism of E. pacifica in September and December were similar and were lower. O:N ratio of E. pacifica was the highest (17.3-23.8 in March when spawning activity occurred and when food was abundant. The energetic source of E. pacifica during September and December was mostly protein from eating a carnivorous diet, including such items as microzooplankton. Euphausia pacifica was found in cold water at the bottom of the Yellow Sea in summer and autumn and maintained a low consumption status. O:N ratios of E. pacifica in March, September, and December were negatively correlated with SSTs and no significant correlation was found between O:N ratios and chlorophyll a concentration. Seawater temperature is clearly the most important parameter influencing the metabolism of E. pacifica.

  16. Stereo chromatic contrast sensitivity model to blue-yellow gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Lin, Yancong; Liu, Yun

    2016-03-07

    As a fundamental metric of human visual system (HVS), contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is typically measured by sinusoidal gratings at the detection of thresholds for psychophysically defined cardinal channels: luminance, red-green, and blue-yellow. Chromatic CSF, which is a quick and valid index to measure human visual performance and various retinal diseases in two-dimensional (2D) space, can not be directly applied into the measurement of human stereo visual performance. And no existing perception model considers the influence of chromatic CSF of inclined planes on depth perception in three-dimensional (3D) space. The main aim of this research is to extend traditional chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics to 3D space and build a model applicable in 3D space, for example, strengthening stereo quality of 3D images. This research also attempts to build a vision model or method to check human visual characteristics of stereo blindness. In this paper, CRT screen was clockwise and anti-clockwise rotated respectively to form the inclined planes. Four inclined planes were selected to investigate human chromatic vision in 3D space and contrast threshold of each inclined plane was measured with 18 observers. Stimuli were isoluminant blue-yellow sinusoidal gratings. Horizontal spatial frequencies ranged from 0.05 to 5 c/d. Contrast sensitivity was calculated as the inverse function of the pooled cone contrast threshold. According to the relationship between spatial frequency of inclined plane and horizontal spatial frequency, the chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space have been modeled based on the experimental data. The results show that the proposed model can well predicted human chromatic contrast sensitivity characteristics in 3D space.

  17. Interim Canadian recommendations for the use of a fractional dose of yellow fever vaccine during a vaccine shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summary This statement outlines interim recommendations intended for use during yellow fever vaccine shortages only. The recommendations differ from the standard recommendations for yellow fever vaccination in the Canadian Immunization Guide and in the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) Statement for Travellers and Yellow Fever. PMID:29770023

  18. Highly pure yellow light emission of perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots and their application for yellow light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuandan; Gong, Jinhui; Zhu, Yiyuan; Feng, Xingcan; Peng, Hong; Wang, Wei; He, Haiyang; Liu, Hu; Wang, Li

    2018-06-01

    High-quality all-inorganic perovskite CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 quantum dots (QDs) with quantum yield of 50% were systematically studied as yellow light convertor for light emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel heat insulation structure was designed for the QD-converted yellow LEDs. In this structure, a silicone layer was set on top of the GaN LED chip to prevent directly heating of the QDs by the LED chip. Then the CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs were filled in the bowl-shaped silicone layer after ultrasonic dispersion treatment. Finally, an Al2O3 passivation layer was grown on the QDs layer by Atomic Layer Disposition at 40 °C. When x = 0.55, highly pure yellow LEDs with an emission peak at ∼570 nm and a full width at half maximum of 25 nm were achieved. The chromaticity coordinates of the QD-converted yellow LEDs (0.4920 ± 0.0017, 0.4988 ± 0.0053) showed almost no variation under driving current from 5 mA to 150 mA. During an operation period of 60 min, the emission wavelength of the yellow LEDs showed no distinct shift. Moreover, the luminous efficiency of the QD-converted yellow LEDs achieved 13.51 l m/W at 6 mA. These results demonstrated that CsPb(BrxI1-x)3 QDs and the heat insulation structure are promising candidate for high purity yellow LEDs.

  19. The middle meningeal artery: from clinics to fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emiliano; Sherkat, Shahram

    2008-11-01

    of a larger percentage of traces left by the soft tissue or be associated with a more developed vascular network. Tools are needed to quantify and qualify the morphogenesis and variations of the middle meningeal artery. Supposing these vessels are not strictly necessary in the adult age, the evolutionary pressure shaping their structure may have been associated with early life stages. Apart from oxygenation, another function which deserves attention is thermoregulation, considering the metabolic loadings of the cerebral mass.

  20. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River.