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Sample records for stria terminalis bst

  1. MORPHINE PRODUCES CIRCUIT-SPECIFIC NEUROPLASTICITY IN THE BED NUCLEUS OF THE STRIA TERMINALIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, É. C.; Rycroft, B. K.; Maiz, J.; Williams, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a brain structure located at the interface of the cortex and the cerebrospinal trunk. The BST is a cluster of nuclei organized in a complex intrinsic network that receives inputs from cortical and subcortical sources, and that sends a widespread top-down projection. There is growing evidence that the BST is a key component in the neurobiological basis of substance abuse. In the present study, the regulation of excitatory inputs onto identified neurons in the BST was examined in rats treated chronically with morphine. Neurons projecting to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were identified by retrograde transport of fluorescent microspheres and recorded in the whole-cell voltage clamp configuration in brain slices. Selective excitatory inputs to these neurons were electrically evoked with electrodes placed in the medial and lateral aspects of the dorsal BST. The chronic morphine treatment selectively increased AMPA-dependent excitatory postsynaptic currents in a subset of inputs activated by dorso-lateral stimulation in the BST. Inputs activated by medial stimulation were not affected by morphine. Likewise, the inputs to neurons that did not project to the VTA were not changed by morphine. Altogether, these results extend the understanding of neuronal circuits intrinsically sensitive to drugs of abuse within the BST. PMID:18343592

  2. Neuronal Correlates of Fear Conditioning in the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufler, Darrell; Nagy, Frank Z.; Pare, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Lesion and inactivation studies indicate that the central amygdala (CeA) participates in the expression of cued and contextual fear, whereas the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is only involved in the latter. The basis for this functional dissociation is unclear because CeA and BNST form similar connections with the amygdala and…

  3. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage alters resting blood flow to the bed nucleus of stria terminalis.

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    Motzkin, Julian C; Philippi, Carissa L; Oler, Jonathan A; Kalin, Ned H; Baskaya, Mustafa K; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in modulating emotional responses, yet the precise neural mechanisms underlying this function remain unclear. vmPFC interacts with a number of subcortical structures involved in affective processing, including the amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, ventral striatum, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST). While a previous study of non-human primates shows that vmPFC lesions reduce BNST activity and anxious behavior, no such causal evidence exists in humans. In this study, we used a novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in neurosurgical patients with focal, bilateral vmPFC damage to determine whether vmPFC is indeed critical for modulating BNST function in humans. Relative to neurologically healthy subjects, who exhibited robust rest-state functional connectivity between vmPFC and BNST, the vmPFC lesion patients had significantly lower resting-state perfusion of the right BNST. No such perfusion differences were observed for the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, or periaqueductal gray. This study thus provides unique data on the relationship between vmPFC and BNST, suggesting that vmPFC serves to promote BNST activity in humans. This finding is relevant for neural circuitry models of mood and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurogenetic and morphogenetic heterogeneity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (strial bed nucleus) were examined with [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of [ 3 H]thymidine on 2 consecutive gestational days. Nine groups of embryos were exposed to [ 3 H]thymidine on E13-E14, E14-E15,... E21-E22, respectively. On P60, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hour periods were quantified at six anteroposterior levels in the strial bed nucleus. On the basis of neurogenetic gradients, the strial bed nucleus was divided into anterior and posterior parts. The anterior strial bed nucleus shows a caudal (older) to rostral (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Cells in the vicinity of the anterior commissural decussation are generated mainly between E13 and E16, cells just posterior to the nucleus accumbens mainly between E15 and E17. Within each rostrocaudal level, neurons originate in combined dorsal to ventral and medial to lateral neurogenetic gradients so that the oldest cells are located ventromedially and the youngest cells dorsolaterally. The most caudal level has some small neurons adjacent to the internal capsule that originate between E17 and E20. In the posterior strial bed nucleus, neurons extend ventromedially into the posterior preoptic area. Cells are generated simultaneously along the rostrocaudal plane in a modified lateral (older) to medial (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Ventrolateral neurons originate mainly between E13 and E16, dorsolateral neurons mainly between E15 and E16, and medial neurons mainly between E15 and E17. The youngest neurons are clumped into a medial core area just ventral to the fornix

  5. Allopregnanolone in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates contextual fear in rats

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    Naomi eNagaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trauma- and stress-related disorders are among the most common types of mental illness affecting the U.S. population. For many of these disorders, there is a striking sex difference in lifetime prevalence; for instance, women are twice as likely as men to be affected by posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Gonadal steroids and their metabolites have been implicated in sex differences in fear and anxiety. One example, allopregnanolone (ALLO, is a neuroactive metabolite of progesterone that allosterically enhances GABAA receptor activity and has anxiolytic effects. Like other ovarian hormones, it not only occurs at different levels in males and females but also fluctuates over the female reproductive cycle. One brain structure that may be involved in neuroactive steroid regulation of fear and anxiety is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST. To explore this question, we examined the consequences of augmenting or reducing ALLO activity in the BNST on the expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. In Experiment 1, intra-BNST infusions of ALLO in male rats suppressed freezing behavior (a fear response to the conditioned context, but did not influence freezing to a discrete tone conditioned stimulus (CS. In Experiment 2, intra-BNST infusion of either finasteride, an inhibitor of ALLO synthesis, or 17-phenyl-(3α,5α-androst-16-en-3-ol, an ALLO antagonist, in female rats enhanced contextual freezing; neither treatment affected freezing to the tone CS. These findings support a role for ALLO in modulating contextual fear via the BNST and suggest that sex differences in fear and anxiety could arise from differential steroid regulation of BNST function. The susceptibility of women to disorders such as PTSD may be linked to cyclic declines in neuroactive steroid activity within fear circuitry.

  6. Neurogenetic and morphogenetic heterogeneity in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

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    Bayer, S.A.

    1987-11-01

    Neurogenesis and morphogenesis in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (strial bed nucleus) were examined with (/sup 3/H)thymidine autoradiography. For neurogenesis, the experimental animals were the offspring of pregnant females given an injection of (/sup 3/H)thymidine on 2 consecutive gestational days. Nine groups of embryos were exposed to (/sup 3/H)thymidine on E13-E14, E14-E15,... E21-E22, respectively. On P60, the percentage of labeled cells and the proportion of cells originating during 24-hour periods were quantified at six anteroposterior levels in the strial bed nucleus. On the basis of neurogenetic gradients, the strial bed nucleus was divided into anterior and posterior parts. The anterior strial bed nucleus shows a caudal (older) to rostral (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Cells in the vicinity of the anterior commissural decussation are generated mainly between E13 and E16, cells just posterior to the nucleus accumbens mainly between E15 and E17. Within each rostrocaudal level, neurons originate in combined dorsal to ventral and medial to lateral neurogenetic gradients so that the oldest cells are located ventromedially and the youngest cells dorsolaterally. The most caudal level has some small neurons adjacent to the internal capsule that originate between E17 and E20. In the posterior strial bed nucleus, neurons extend ventromedially into the posterior preoptic area. Cells are generated simultaneously along the rostrocaudal plane in a modified lateral (older) to medial (younger) neurogenetic gradient. Ventrolateral neurons originate mainly between E13 and E16, dorsolateral neurons mainly between E15 and E16, and medial neurons mainly between E15 and E17. The youngest neurons are clumped into a medial core area just ventral to the fornix.

  7. How Human Amygdala and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis May Drive Distinct Defensive Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpers, Floris; Kroes, Marijn C W; Baas, Johanna M P; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-10-04

    The ability to adaptively regulate responses to the proximity of potential danger is critical to survival and imbalance in this system may contribute to psychopathology. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in defensive responding during uncertain threat anticipation whereas the amygdala may drive responding upon more acute danger. This functional dissociation between the BNST and amygdala is however controversial, and human evidence scarce. Here we used data from two independent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies [ n = 108 males and n = 70 (45 females)] to probe how coordination between the BNST and amygdala may regulate responses during shock anticipation and actual shock confrontation. In a subset of participants from Sample 2 ( n = 48) we demonstrate that anticipation and confrontation evoke bradycardic and tachycardic responses, respectively. Further, we show that in each sample when going from shock anticipation to the moment of shock confrontation neural activity shifted from a region anatomically consistent with the BNST toward the amygdala. Comparisons of functional connectivity during threat processing showed overlapping yet also consistently divergent functional connectivity profiles for the BNST and amygdala. Finally, childhood maltreatment levels predicted amygdala, but not BNST, hyperactivity during shock anticipation. Our results support an evolutionary conserved, defensive distance-dependent dynamic balance between BNST and amygdala activity. Shifts in this balance may enable shifts in defensive reactions via the demonstrated differential functional connectivity. Our results indicate that early life stress may tip the neural balance toward acute threat responding and via that route predispose for affective disorder. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Previously proposed differential contributions of the BNST and amygdala to fear and anxiety have been recently debated. Despite the significance of understanding their

  8. Projections from Bed Nuclei of the Stria Terminalis, Magnocellular Nucleus: Implications for Cerebral Hemisphere Regulation of Micturition, Defecation, and Penile Erection

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, HONG-WEI; SWANSON, LARRY W.

    2006-01-01

    The basic structural organization of axonal projections from the small but distinct magnocellular and ventral nuclei (of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis) were analyzed with the PHAL anterograde tract tracing method in adult male rats. The former's overall projection pattern is complex, with over 80 distinct terminal fields ipsilateral to injection sites. Innervated regions in the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem fall into 9 general functional categories: cerebral nuclei, behavior cont...

  9. Neuregulin 1-ErbB4 signaling in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis regulates anxiety-like behavior.

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    Geng, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Jian-Lin; Zou, Wen-Jun; Liang, Zhi-Ping; Bi, Lin-Lin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Kong, Ying; Huang, Chu-Qiang; Li, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Jian-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2016-08-04

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nucleus defined as part of the extended amygdala, is involved in the expression of anxiety disorders. However, the regulatory mechanisms of BNST inhibitory activity that is involved in anxiety are unknown. Here, we showed that blocking neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling in the BNST of mice, by either neutralizing endogenous NRG1 with ecto-Erbb4 or antagonizing the ErbB4 receptor with its specific inhibitor, produced anxiogenic responses. Interestingly, application of exogenous NRG1 into the BNST induced no anxiolytic effects, suggesting saturating activity of endogenous NRG1. While infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the BNST also led to anxiety-related behaviors, it did not worsen the anxiogenic effects produced by blocking NRG1-ErbB4 signaling, suggesting possible involvement of GABAergic neurotransmission. Further, in vitro electrophysiological recordings showed that BNST NRG1-ErbB4 signaling regulated the presynaptic GABA release. Together, these results suggest that NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in the BNST may play an important role in regulating anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms of Neuroplasticity and Ethanol's Effects on Plasticity in the Striatum and Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis.

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    Lovinger, David M; Kash, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic function (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have long been thought to contribute to information storage in the nervous system. Although synaptic plasticity mainly has adaptive functions that allow the organism to function in complex environments, it is now clear that certain events or exposure to various substances can produce plasticity that has negative consequences for organisms. Exposure to drugs of abuse, in particular ethanol, is a life experience that can activate or alter synaptic plasticity, often resulting in increased drug seeking and taking and in many cases addiction.Two brain regions subject to alcohol's effects on synaptic plasticity are the striatum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), both of which have key roles in alcohol's actions and control of intake. The specific effects depend on both the brain region analyzed (e.g., specific subregions of the striatum and BNST) and the duration of ethanol exposure (i.e., acute vs. chronic). Plastic changes in synaptic transmission in these two brain regions following prolonged ethanol exposure are thought to contribute to excessive alcohol drinking and relapse to drinking. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this plasticity may lead to new therapies for treatment of these and other aspects of alcohol use disorder.

  11. CRF receptor type 2 neurons in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis critically contribute to stress recovery.

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    Henckens, M J A G; Printz, Y; Shamgar, U; Dine, J; Lebow, M; Drori, Y; Kuehne, C; Kolarz, A; Eder, M; Deussing, J M; Justice, N J; Yizhar, O; Chen, A

    2017-12-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is critical in mediating states of anxiety, and its dysfunction has been linked to stress-related mental disease. Although the anxiety-related role of distinct subregions of the anterior BNST was recently reported, little is known about the contribution of the posterior BNST (pBNST) to the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Previously, we observed abnormal expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRFR2) to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms. Here, we found that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST send dense inhibitory projections to other stress-related brain regions (for example, the locus coeruleus, medial amygdala and paraventricular nucleus), implicating a prominent role of these neurons in orchestrating the neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral response to stressful situations. Local CRFR2 activation by urocortin 3 depolarized the cells, increased the neuronal input resistance and increased firing of action potentials, indicating an enhanced excitability. Furthermore, we showed that CRFR2-expressing neurons within the pBNST are critically involved in the modulation of the behavioral and neuroendocrine response to stress. Optogenetic activation of CRFR2 neurons in the pBNST decreased anxiety, attenuated the neuroendocrine stress response, ameliorated stress-induced anxiety and impaired the fear memory for the stressful event. Moreover, activation following trauma exposure reduced the susceptibility for PTSD-like symptoms. Optogenetic inhibition of pBNST CRFR2 neurons yielded opposite effects. These data indicate the relevance of pBNST activity for adaptive stress recovery.

  12. Molecular phenotyping of transient postnatal tyrosine hydroxylase neurons in the rat bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

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    Carter, David A

    2017-07-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a complex integrative centre in the forebrain, composed of multiple sub-nuclei, each with discrete populations of neurons. Progress in understanding BNST function, both in the adult and during postnatal maturation, is dependent upon a more complete characterization of neuronal phenotypes in the BNST. The aim of the current study was to define the molecular phenotype of one postnatal BNST neuronal population, in order to identify molecular factors that may underlie both (protein marker-related) immaturity, and secondly, the transience of this phenotype. This BNST population was originally identified by high, but transient expression of the EGR1 transcription factor (TF) in postnatal rat lateral intermediate BNST (BNSTLI). The current results confirm a high level of Egr1 activation in postnatal day 10 (PN10) male BNSTLI that is lost at PN40, and now demonstrate a similar pattern of transient activation in female brains. Apparent cellular immaturity in this population, as indicated by low levels of the adult neuronal marker NeuN/RBFOX3, was found to be uncorrelated with both key neuronal regulator protein expression (SOX2 and REST), and also RBFOX2 protein levels. The BNSTLI neurons have a partial catecholaminergic phenotype (tyrosine hydroxylase-positive/dopa decarboxylase-negative; TH+ve/DDC-ve) that is lost at PN40. In contrast, the co-expressed neuropeptide, somatostatin, is maintained, albeit at lower levels, at PN40. The transcriptional basis of the transient and partial catecholaminergic phenotype was investigated by analysing TFs known to maintain adult dopaminergic (TH+ve/DDC+ve) neuronal phenotypes. The BNSTLI neurons were shown to lack forkhead TFs including FOXA1, FOXA2 and FOXO1. In addition, the BNSTLI neurons had low, primarily cytoplasmic, expression of NR4A2/NURR1, an orphan nuclear receptor that is critical for adult maintenance of midbrain dopamine neurons. These results detail the molecular features

  13. Vasotocin neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis preferentially process social information and exhibit properties that dichotomize courting and non-courting phenotypes.

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    Goodson, James L; Rinaldi, Jacob; Kelly, Aubrey M

    2009-01-01

    Neurons within the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) that produce arginine vasotocin (VT; in non-mammals) or arginine vasopressin (VP; in mammals) have been intensively studied with respect to their anatomy and neuroendocrine regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how these neurons process stimuli in the animals' immediate environment. We recently showed that in five estrildid finch species, VT-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the BSTm increase their Fos expression selectively in response to positively-valenced social stimuli (i.e., stimuli that should elicit affiliation). Using male zebra finches, a highly gregarious estrildid, we now extend those findings to show that VT-Fos coexpression is induced by a positive social stimulus (a female), but not by a positive non-social stimulus (a water bath in bath-deprived birds), although the female and bath stimuli induced Fos equally within a nearby control region, the medial preoptic nucleus. In concurrent experiments, we also show that the properties of BSTm VT-ir neurons strongly differentiate males that diverge in social phenotype. Males who reliably fail to court females ("non-courters") have dramatically fewer VT-ir neurons in the BSTm than do reliable courters, and the VT-ir neurons of non-courters fail to exhibit Fos induction in response to a female stimulus.

  14. Projections from bed nuclei of the stria terminalis, magnocellular nucleus: implications for cerebral hemisphere regulation of micturition, defecation, and penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Wei; Swanson, Larry W

    2006-01-01

    The basic structural organization of axonal projections from the small but distinct magnocellular and ventral nuclei (of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis) was analyzed with the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin anterograde tract tracing method in adult male rats. The former's overall projection pattern is complex, with over 80 distinct terminal fields ipsilateral to injection sites. Innervated regions in the cerebral hemisphere and brainstem fall into nine general functional categories: cerebral nuclei, behavior control column, orofacial motor-related, humorosensory/thirst-related, brainstem autonomic control network, neuroendocrine, hypothalamic visceromotor pattern-generator network, thalamocortical feedback loops, and behavioral state control. The most novel findings indicate that the magnocellular nucleus projects to virtually all known major parts of the brain network that controls pelvic functions, including micturition, defecation, and penile erection, as well as to brain networks controlling nutrient and body water homeostasis. This and other evidence suggests that the magnocellular nucleus is part of a corticostriatopallidal differentiation modulating and coordinating pelvic functions with the maintenance of nutrient and body water homeostasis. Projections of the ventral nucleus are a subset of those generated by the magnocellular nucleus, with the obvious difference that the ventral nucleus does not project detectably to Barrington's nucleus, the subfornical organ, the median preoptic and parastrial nuclei, the neuroendocrine system, and midbrain orofacial motor-related regions.

  15. The anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are mediated by 5-HT1A receptors.

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    Gomes, Felipe V; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2011-02-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that induces anxiolytic-like effects in rodents and humans after systemic administration. Previous results from our group showed that CBD injection into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) attenuates conditioned aversive responses. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of this region on the anxiolytic effects of the CBD. Moreover, considering that CBD can activate 5-HT1A receptors, we also verified a possible involvement of these receptors in those effects. Male Wistar rats received injections of CBD (15, 30, or 60 nmol) into the BNST and were exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) or to the Vogel conflict test (VCT), two widely used animal models of anxiety. CBD increased open arms exploration in the EPM as well as the number of punished licks in the VCT, suggesting an anxiolytic-like effect. The drug did not change the number of entries into the enclosed arms of the EPM nor interfered with water consumption or nociceptive threshold, discarding potential confounding factors in the two tests. Moreover, pretreatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.37 nmol) blocked the effects of CBD in both models. These results give further support to the proposal that BNST is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of CBD observed after systemic administration, probably by facilitating local 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  16. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition

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    Dumais, Kelly M.; Alonso, Andrea G.; Immormino, Marisa A.; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. PMID:26630388

  17. CRF1 and CRF2 receptors in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis differently modulate the baroreflex function in unanesthetized rats.

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    Oliveira, Leandro A; Almeida, Jeferson; Gomes-de-Souza, Lucas; Benini, Ricardo; Crestani, Carlos C

    2017-07-01

    The baroreflex is an important blood pressure regulating mechanism. The bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) modulates the baroreflex function. However, the local BNST neurochemical mechanisms involved in control of baroreflex responses are not completely understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors within the BNST in baroreflex control of heart rate in unanesthetized rats. For this, we evaluated effects of bilateral microinjection into the BNST of either the selective CRF 1 receptor antagonist CP376395 (5 nmol/100 nL) or the selective CRF 2 receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30 (5 nmol/100 nL) in bradycardiac response evoked by blood pressure increases caused by intravenous infusion of phenylephrine as well as tachycardiac response to blood pressure decrease caused by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside. Bilateral microinjection of CP376395 into the BNST decreased the baroreflex bradycardiac response without affecting the reflex tachycardia. Conversely, BNST treatment with antisauvagine-30 decreased heart rate response during blood pressure drop without affecting the reflex bradycardia. Overall, these findings provide evidence of an involvement of CRF neurotransmission within the BNST in baroreflex activity. Nevertheless, data indicate that local CRF 1 and CRF 2 receptors differently modulate the baroreflex control of heart rate. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. PAC1 receptor antagonism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) attenuates the endocrine and behavioral consequences of chronic stress.

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    Roman, Carolyn W; Lezak, Kim R; Hartsock, Matthew J; Falls, William A; Braas, Karen M; Howard, Alan B; Hammack, Sayamwong E; May, Victor

    2014-09-01

    Chronic or repeated stressor exposure can induce a number of maladaptive behavioral and physiological consequences and among limbic structures, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in the integration and interpretation of stress responses. Previous work has demonstrated that chronic variate stress (CVS) exposure in rodents increases BNST pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1) and PAC1 receptor (Adcyap1r1) transcript expression, and that acute BNST PACAP injections can stimulate anxiety-like behavior. Here we show that chronic stress increases PACAP expression selectively in the oval nucleus of the dorsolateral BNST in patterns distinct from those for corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Among receptor subtypes, BNST PACAP signaling through PAC1 receptors not only heightened anxiety responses as measured by different behavioral parameters but also induced anorexic-like behavior to mimic the consequences of stress. Conversely, chronic inhibition of BNST PACAP signaling by continuous infusion with the PAC1 receptor antagonist PACAP(6-38) during the week of CVS attenuated these stress-induced behavioral responses and changes in weight gain. BNST PACAP signaling stimulated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and heightened corticosterone release; further, BNST PACAP(6-38) administration blocked corticosterone release in a sensitized stress model. In aggregate with recent associations of PACAP/PAC1 receptor dysregulation with altered stress responses including post-traumatic stress disorder, these data suggest that BNST PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling mechanisms may coordinate the behavioral and endocrine consequences of stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vasotocin mRNA expression is sensitive to testosterone and oestradiol in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in female Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aste, N; Sakamoto, E; Kagami, M; Saito, N

    2013-09-01

    Vasotocin-producing parvocellular neurones in the medial part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTM) of many species of birds and mammals show sexual dimorphism and great plasticity in response to hormonal and environmental stimuli. In the BSTM of Japanese quail, vasotocin-immunoreactive neurones are visible and sensitive to testosterone exclusively in males. In males, gonadectomy decreases and testosterone restores vasotocin-immunoreactive cells and fibres by acting on vasotocin mRNA transcription. The insensitivity of female vasotocin-immunoreactive neurones to the activating effects of testosterone is the result of organisational effects of early exposure to oestradiol. Female quail also show vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones in the BSTM, although it is not known whether the insensitivity of the vasotocinergic neurones to testosterone originates at the level of vasotocin gene transcription in this sex. Therefore, initially, the present study analysed the effects of acute treatment with testosterone on vasotocin mRNA expression in the BSTM of gonadectomised male and female quail using in situ hybridisation. Gonadectomy decreased (and a single injection of testosterone increased) the number of vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones and intensity of the vasotocin mRNA hybridisation signal similarly in both sexes. Notably, testosterone increased vasotocin mRNA expression in ovariectomised females over that shown by intact quail. However, this treatment had no effect on vasotocin immunoreactivity. A second experiment analysed the effects of testosterone metabolites, oestradiol and 5α-dihydrotestosterone, on vasotocin mRNA expression in female quail. Oestradiol (but not 5α-dihydrotestosterone) fully mimicked the effects of testosterone on the number of vasotocin mRNA-expressing neurones and the intensity of the vasotocin mRNA hybridisation signal. Taken together, these results show, for the first time, that gonadal steroids strongly activate vasotocin m

  20. Oxytocin receptor neurotransmission in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis facilitates the acquisition of cued fear in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats.

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    Moaddab, Mahsa; Dabrowska, Joanna

    2017-07-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that modulates fear and anxiety-like behaviors. Dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST dl ) plays a critical role in the regulation of fear and anxiety, and expresses high levels of OT receptor (OTR). However, the role of OTR neurotransmission within the BNST dl in mediating these behaviors is unknown. Here, we used adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the modulation of the acoustic startle response, as well as in the acquisition and consolidation of conditioned fear using fear potentiated startle (FPS) paradigm. Bilateral intra-BNST dl administration of OT (100 ng) did not affect the acquisition of conditioned fear response. However, intra-BNST dl administration of specific OTR antagonist (OTA), (d(CH 2 ) 5 1 , Tyr(Me) 2 , Thr 4 , Orn 8 , des-Gly-NH 2 9 )-vasotocin, (200 ng), prior to the fear conditioning session, impaired the acquisition of cued fear, without affecting a non-cued fear component of FPS. Neither OTA, nor OT affected baseline startle or shock reactivity during fear conditioning. Therefore, the observed impairment of cued fear after OTA infusion resulted from the specific effect on the formation of cued fear. In contrast to the acquisition, neither OTA nor OT affected the consolidation of FPS, when administered after the completion of fear conditioning session. Taken together, these results reveal the important role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNST dl in the formation of conditioned fear to a discrete cue. This study also highlights the role of the BNST dl in learning to discriminate between threatening and safe stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of the oxytocin system in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Kelly M; Alonso, Andrea G; Immormino, Marisa A; Bredewold, Remco; Veenema, Alexa H

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in the oxytocin (OT) system in the brain may explain why OT often regulates social behaviors in sex-specific ways. However, a link between sex differences in the OT system and sex-specific regulation of social behavior has not been tested. Here, we determined whether sex differences in the OT receptor (OTR) or in OT release in the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) mediates sex-specific regulation of social recognition in rats. We recently showed that, compared to female rats, male rats have a three-fold higher OTR binding density in the pBNST, a sexually dimorphic area implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. We now demonstrate that OTR antagonist (5 ng/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST impairs social recognition in both sexes, while OT (100 pg/0.5 μl/side) administration into the pBNST prolongs the duration of social recognition in males only. These effects seem specific to social recognition, as neither treatment altered total social investigation time in either sex. Moreover, baseline OT release in the pBNST, as measured with in vivo microdialysis, did not differ between the sexes. However, males showed higher OT release in the pBNST during social recognition compared to females. These findings suggest a sex-specific role of the OT system in the pBNST in the regulation of social recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endogenous oxytocin is necessary for preferential Fos expression to male odors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Levy, Marisa J; Petrulis, Aras

    2013-09-01

    Successful reproduction in mammals depends on proceptive or solicitational behaviors that enhance the probability of encountering potential mates. In female Syrian hamsters, one such behavior is vaginal scent marking. Recent evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) may be critical for regulating this behavior. Blockade of OT receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) or the medial preoptic area (MPOA) decreases vaginal marking responses to male odors; lesion data suggest that BNST, rather than MPOA, mediates this effect. However, how OT interacts with sexual odor processing to drive preferential solicitation is not known. To address this issue, intact female Syrian hamsters were exposed to male or female odors and their brains processed for immunohistochemistry for Fos, a marker of recent neuronal activation, and OT. Additional females were injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with an oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) or vehicle, and then tested for vaginal marking and Fos responses to sexual odors. Colocalization of OT and Fos in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was unchanged following exposure to male odors, but decreased following exposure to female odors. Following injections of OTA, Fos expression to male odors was decreased in BNST, but not in MPOA or the medial amygdala (MA). Fos expression in BNST may be functionally relevant for vaginal marking, given that there was a positive correlation between Fos expression and vaginal marking for BNST, but not MPOA or MA. Together, these data suggest that OT facilitation of neuronal activity in BNST underlies the facilitative effects of OT on solicitational responses to male odors. © 2013.

  3. Recovery of stress-impaired social behavior by an antagonist of the CRF binding protein, CRF6-33,in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Mailton; Stein, Dirson J; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M

    2018-01-09

    Social stress is recognized to promote the development of neuropsychiatric and mood disorders. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is an important neuropeptide activated by social stress, and it contributes to neural and behavioral adaptations, as indicated by impaired social interactions and anhedonic effects. Few studies have focused on the role of the CRF binding protein (CRFBP), a component of the CRF system, and its activity in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic structure connecting amygdala and hypothalamus. In this study, animals' preference for sweet solutions was examined as an index of stress-induced anhedonic responses in Wistar rats subjected to four brief intermittent episodes of social defeat. Next, social approach was assessed after local infusions of the CRFBP antagonist, CRF fragment 6-33 (CRF 6-33 ) into the BNST. The experience of brief episodes of social defeat impaired social approach behaviors in male rats. However, intra-BNST CRF 6-33 infusions restored social approach in stressed animals to the levels of non-stressed rats. CRF 6-33 acted selectively on social interaction and did not alter general exploration in nether stressed nor non-stressed rats. These findings suggest that BNST CRFBP is involved in the modulation of anxiety-like responses induced by social stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidepressants share the ability to increase catecholamine output in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis: a possible role in antidepressant therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadeddu, Roberto; Ibba, Marcello; Sadile, Adolfo; Carboni, Ezio

    2014-05-01

    Antidepressants include a relatively wide spectrum of drugs that increase the synaptic concentration of monoamines, mostly through neurotransmitter reuptake blockade. The bed nucleus of stria teminalis (BNST) is considered a relay station in mediating the activation of stress response but also in the acquisition and expression of emotions. BNST is richly innervated by monoamines and sends back projections to the nucleus of origin. We previously showed that the administration of selective blockers of norepinephrine transporter (NET) increases the extracellular concentration (output) of dopamine, suggesting that dopamine could be captured by NET in the BNST. The aim of this study, carried out by means of in vivo microdialysis, was to ascertain the acute effects that antidepressants with varying mechanisms of action have on dopamine and norepinephrine output in the BNST. We observed that all the antidepressants tested (5-20 mg/kg i.p.) increased the output of catecholamines, dose dependently. In particular, the maximum increases (as a percent of basal) for norepinephrine and dopamine respectively, were as follows: desipramine, 239 and 137; reboxetine, 185 and 128; imipramine, 512 and 359; citalopram, 95 and 122; fluoxetine, 122 and 68; bupropion, 255 and 164. These results suggest that catecholamine transmission in the BNST may be part of a common downstream pathway that is involved in the action mechanism of antidepressants. Consequently, it is hypothesized that a dysfunction of neuronal transmission in this brain area may have a role in the etiology of affective disorders.

  5. Activation of Hypocretin-1/Orexin-A Neurons Projecting to the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Paraventricular Nucleus Is Critical for Reinstatement of Alcohol Seeking by Neuropeptide S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Giordano, Antonio; Severi, Ilenia; Li, Hongwu; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Ruggeri, Barbara; Stopponi, Serena; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cannella, Nazzareno

    2016-03-15

    Environmental conditioning is a major trigger for relapse in abstinent addicts. We showed that activation of the neuropeptide S (NPS) system exacerbates reinstatement vulnerability to cocaine and alcohol via stimulation of the hypocretin-1/orexin-A (Hcrt-1/Ox-A) system. Combining pharmacologic manipulations with immunohistochemistry techniques, we sought to determine how NPS and Hcrt-1/Ox-A systems interact to modulate reinstatement of alcohol seeking in rats. Intrahypothalamic injection of NPS facilitated discriminative cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. This effect was blocked by the selective Hcrt-1/Ox-A antagonist SB334867 microinjected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) but not into the ventral tegmental area or the locus coeruleus. Combining double labeling and confocal microscopy analyses, we found that NPS-containing axons are in close apposition to hypothalamic Hcrt-1/Ox-A positive neurons, a significant proportion of which express NPS receptors, suggesting a direct interaction between the two systems. Retrograde tracing experiments showed that intra-PVN or intra-BNST red fluorobead unilateral injection labeled bilaterally Hcrt-1/Ox-A somata, suggesting that NPS could recruit two distinct neuronal pathways. Confirming this assumption, intra-BNST or PVN Hcrt-1/Ox-A injection enhanced alcohol seeking similarly to hypothalamic NPS injection but to a lesser degree. Results suggest that the Hcrt-1/Ox-A neurocircuitry mediating the facilitation of cue-induced reinstatement by NPS involves structures critically involved in stress regulation such as the PVN and the BNST. These findings open to the tempting hypothesis of a role of the NPS system in modulating the interactions between stress and environmental conditioning factors in drug relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Role of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis corticotrophin-releasing factor receptors in frustration stress-induced binge-like palatable food consumption in female rats with a history of food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Romano, Adele; Bossert, Jennifer M; Rice, Kenner C; Ubaldi, Massimo; St Laurent, Robyn; Gaetani, Silvana; Massi, Maurizio; Shaham, Yavin; Cifani, Carlo

    2014-08-20

    We developed recently a binge-eating model in which female rats with a history of intermittent food restriction show binge-like palatable food consumption after 15 min exposure to the sight of the palatable food. This "frustration stress" manipulation also activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Here, we determined the role of the stress neurohormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in stress-induced binge eating in our model. We also assessed the role of CRF receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region implicated in stress responses and stress-induced drug seeking, in stress-induced binge eating. We used four groups that were first exposed or not exposed to repeated intermittent cycles of regular chow food restriction during which they were also given intermittent access to high-caloric palatable food. On the test day, we either exposed or did not expose the rats to the sight of the palatable food for 15 min (frustration stress) before assessing food consumption for 2 h. We found that systemic injections of the CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 (2,5-dimethyl-3-(6-dimethyl-4-methylpyridin-3-yl)-7 dipropylamino pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine) (10-20 mg/kg) and BNST (25-50 ng/side) or ventricular (1000 ng) injections of the nonselective CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41) decreased frustration stress-induced binge eating in rats with a history of food restriction. Frustration stress also increased Fos (a neuronal activity marker) expression in ventral and dorsal BNST. Results demonstrate a critical role of CRF receptors in BNST in stress-induced binge eating in our rat model. CRF1 receptor antagonists may represent a novel pharmacological treatment for bingeing-related eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411316-09$15.00/0.

  7. Resting-state functional connectivity of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Daniela; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Jean, Théberge; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth A

    2018-03-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) is a subcortical structure involved in anticipatory and sustained reactivity to threat and is thus essential to the understanding of anxiety and stress responses. Although chronic stress and anxiety represent a hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to date, few studies have examined the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD. Here, we used resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional connectivity of the BNST in PTSD (n = 70), its dissociative subtype (PTSD + DS) (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50). In comparison to controls, PTSD showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with regions of the reward system (ventral and dorsal striatum), possibly underlying stress-induced reward-seeking behaviors in PTSD. By contrast, comparing PTSD + DS to controls, we observed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with the claustrum, a brain region implicated in consciousness and a primary site of kappa-opioid receptors, which are critical to the dynorphin-mediated dysphoric stress response. Moreover, PTSD + DS showed increased functional connectivity of the BNST with brain regions involved in attention and salience detection (anterior insula and caudate nucleus) as compared to PTSD and controls. Finally, BNST functional connectivity positively correlated with default-mode network regions as a function of state identity dissociation, suggesting a role of BNST networks in the disruption of self-relevant processing characterizing the dissociative subtype. These findings represent an important first step in elucidating the role of the BNST in aberrant functional networks underlying PTSD and its dissociative subtype. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  9. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  10. Tissue oxygen tension in the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, K; Miyake, Y; Aoyama, T; Ogino, F

    1988-01-01

    Tissue oxygen tension in the stria vascularis was successfully measured in cats using the polarographic technique. A correlation study using the differential coefficient between oxygen tension in the stria vascularis and systemic blood pressure proved that vascular autoregulation is present in the mean systemic blood pressure range between 40 and 80 mmHg. The anatomical findings and the response patterns to different gas inhalations indicated that the type of vascular regulation present is more closely related to chemical control than to auto-regulation.

  11. Development of stria gravidarum in pregnant women and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kılıç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Stria gravidarum is a cosmetically disfiguring condition that is commonly seen in pregnancy. Various parameters such as age of mother, genetical factors like family history, skin colour, various hormonal changes seen in pregnancy, weight gain and physical features of newborn are accused in the development. The studies reported primarily include primigravidas. In this study, the presence of stria gravidarum and associated risk factors are aimed to be investigated. Materials and methods: All attenders' gestastional week, prepregnancy and delivery weights, height, family history of stria, smoking habits and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, any use of cream and/or oil for preventing stria, delivery way, newborn's gender, height, weight and head circumference were recorded. In both primigravidas and multigravidas, factors that could be associated with stria gravidarum were investigated by Spearman'scorrelation analysis and risk factors in the development of stria gravidarum by logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty of 128 pregnant women were primigravidas and 78 were multigravidas. In primigravidas, a correlation was detected between family history of stria, non-usage of cream and/or oil during pregnancy,head circumference of newborn and development of stria gravidarum while in multigravidas, a correlation is detected between prepregnancy weight, delivery weight, smoking during pregnancy, not using of any cream and/or oil during pregnancy, family history of stria, head circumference of newborn, weight of newborn and stria gravidarum development. Presence of family history of stria and not using of any cream and/or oil were found to be risk factors in development of stria gravidarum in all pregnant women by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Both genetical and physical factors are thought to play a role in development of stria gravidarum; however, further broad scale studies with larger samples including both

  12. Extrahypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin in the human brain; presence of vasopressin cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Guldenaar, S. E.; van de Wal, N.; Swaab, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of extrahypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OXT) in the human brain was investigated by means of immunocytochemistry. In the septum verum, few VP fibers were found in the nucleus septalis lateralis and medialis (NSL and NSM), and in the bed nucleus of

  13. BST2/Tetherin Inhibition of Alphavirus Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw Shin Ooi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV and Semliki Forest virus (SFV are small enveloped RNA viruses that bud from the plasma membrane. Tetherin/BST2 is an interferon-induced host membrane protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses via direct tethering of budded particles to the cell surface. Alphaviruses have highly organized structures and exclude host membrane proteins from the site of budding, suggesting that their release might be insensitive to tetherin inhibition. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously-expressed tetherin efficiently inhibited the release of SFV and CHIKV particles from host cells without affecting virus entry and infection. Alphavirus release was also inhibited by the endogenous levels of tetherin in HeLa cells. While rubella virus (RuV and dengue virus (DENV have structural similarities to alphaviruses, tetherin inhibited the release of RuV but not DENV. We found that two recently identified tetherin isoforms differing in length at the N-terminus exhibited distinct capabilities in restricting alphavirus release. SFV exit was efficiently inhibited by the long isoform but not the short isoform of tetherin, while both isoforms inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus exit. Thus, in spite of the organized structure of the virus particle, tetherin specifically blocks alphavirus release and shows an interesting isoform requirement.

  14. Revalidation of Ceresa terminalis walker and its placement in Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae Revalidação de Ceresa terminalis walker e sua alocação em Stictocephala Stål (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel S. de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 is reinstated and transferred to Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.Ceresa terminalis Walker, 1851 é revalidada e transferida para Stictocephala Stål, 1869: Stictocephala terminalis (Walker, 1851 sp. rev., comb. nov.

  15. ESTEVE Terminali kiire arengu tagavad vanametall ja autod / Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niitra, Sirje, 1948-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Transport i logistika 25. mai lk. 7. Ülevaade Paldiski lõunasadamas tegutseva ESTEVE Terminali edukast tegevusest. Diagrammid: ESTEVE kasvab kiiresti. Vt. samas: Paldiski sadamal head arenguväljavaated. Kommenteerib Romet Kreek

  16. Socioterminologia da indÃstria madeireira

    OpenAIRE

    Alcides Fernandes de Lima

    2010-01-01

    O trabalho Socioterminologia da IndÃstria Madeireira tem como objetivo fundamental a construÃÃo de um dicionÃrio terminolÃgico (ou dicionÃrio especializado) da madeira. Os fundamentos teÃricos e metodolÃgicos da pesquisa e do trabalho terminogrÃfico, para a elaboraÃÃo do dicionÃrio, se embasam na Teoria Comunicativa da Terminologia (CABRÃ, 2002) e, principalmente, na Socioterminologia (GAUDIN, 1993a e 1993b). Para a elaboraÃÃo do dicionÃrio foi usado um corpus com mais de 4 milhÃes de palavra...

  17. Sexual behavior reduces hypothalamic androgen receptor immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Guasti, Alonso; Swaab, Dick; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual behavior is regulated by limbic areas like the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Neurons in these brain areas are rich in androgen receptors (AR) and express

  18. Optical study of BST films combining ellipsometry and reflectivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železný, Vladimír; Chvostová, Dagmar; Pajasová, Libuše; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Daniš, S.; Valvoda, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 10 (2009), s. 5280-5283 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : BST thin films * optical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2009

  19. BST-PINK PANTHER. An intelligent CAMAC crate controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troester, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A technical and functional description of the PINK system for intelligent, distributed data acquisition, data formatting, and data reduction is presented. The system has been developed to bypass some of the constraints of CAMAC when collecting data with the high-resolution π 0 spectrometers of the Basel-Stockholm-Thessaloniki (BST) Collaboration at CERN. (orig.)

  20. Improved flexoelectricity in PVDF/barium strontium titanate (BST) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinping; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Jie; Chu, Baojin

    2018-04-01

    The flexoelectric effect of polymers is normally much weaker than that of ferroelectric oxides. In order to improve the flexoelectric response of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ferroelectric polymer, PVDF/Ba0.67Si0.33TiO3 (BST) nanocomposites were fabricated. BST nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method, and the fibers were further surface modified with H2O2 to achieve a stronger interfacial interaction between the fibers and polymer matrix. Due to the high dielectric properties and strong flexoelectric effect of the BST, both dielectric constant and flexoelectric response of the composite with 25 vol. % surface modified BST are 3-4 times higher than those of PVDF. The dependence of the dielectric constant and the flexoelectric coefficient on the composition of the nanocomposites can be fitted by the empirical Yamada model, and the dielectric constant and the flexoelectric coefficient are correlated by a linear relationship. This study provides an approach to enhance the flexoelectric response of PVDF-based polymers.

  1. (BST) and some bioassays using Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  2. Physical properties of bifunctional BST/LSMO nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Huarac, Juan; Martinez, Ricardo; Morell, Gerardo

    2014-02-01

    We report the fabrication of bifunctional nanocomposites consisting of ferroelectric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 (BST) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) at different concentrations via a high-temperature solid state route. The structural, dielectric, electrical, magnetodielectric (MD), magnetoelectric (ME) and magnetic properties of BST/LSMO nanocomposites were systematically investigated over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The X-Ray Diffraction analyses reveal the nanocrystalline nature of the heterostructures, wherein both perovskite phases co-exist. No parasitic phases were observed. The study of the dielectric properties shows that the nanocomposites exhibit relaxor ferroelectric character, with ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition temperatures around 287-292 K that do not follow the Curie-Weiss law. The electrical measurements indicate that ac conductivities of the nanocomposites follow the Jonscher's universal power law, with activation energies of 0.42-0.63 eV based on Arrhenius-type behavior at high temperatures. The nanocomposites exhibit well-defined ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at room temperature (RT). The MD and ME measurements at RT indicate that BST/LSMO exhibits a nonlinear ME effect at low frequencies, with a threshold near 0.5 T. The magnetocapacitance (MCp) measurements evidence a quadratic dependence on magnetic field, further confirming the multiferroic nature of BST/LSMO. The order of MCp was found to be ˜7% per Tesla. The analysis of the MCp measurements indicates that one of the BST/LSMO compositions studied can be considered as a new multiferroic compound.

  3. Cloning and characterization of the antiviral activity of feline Tetherin/BST-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Fukuma

    Full Text Available Human Tetherin/BST-2 has recently been identified as a cellular antiviral factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. In this study, we cloned a cDNA fragment encoding a feline homolog of Tetherin/BST-2 and characterized the protein product. The degree of amino acid sequence identity between human Tetherin/BST-2 and the feline homolog was 44.4%. Similar to human Tetherin/BST-2, the expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 mRNA was inducible by type I interferon (IFN. Exogenous expression of feline Tetherin/BST-2 efficiently inhibited the release of feline endogenous retrovirus RD-114. The extracellular domain of feline Tetherin/BST-2 has two putative N-linked glycosylation sites, N79 and N119. Complete loss of N-linked glycosylation by introduction of mutations into both sites resulted in almost complete abolition of its antiviral activity. In addition, feline Tetherin/BST-2 was insensitive to antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu, although the antiviral activity of human Tetherin/BST-2 was antagonized by HIV-1 Vpu. Our data suggest that feline Tetherin/BST-2 functions as a part of IFN-induced innate immunity against virus infection and that the induction of feline Tetherin/BST-2 in vivo may be effective as a novel antiviral strategy for viral infection.

  4. Gas sensing properties of Cu and Cr activated BST thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H2S gas sensing properties of BST ((Ba0.67Sr0.33)TiO3) thick films are reported here for the first time. BST ceramic powder was prepared by mechanochemical ... of activators on H2S gas sensing were discussed. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability, response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  5. Dielectric Behavior of Ceramic (BST/Epoxy Thick Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hadik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials were made by mixing powders of Ba1−xSrxTiO3 (x=0.2 and 0.4 ceramics and epoxy resin with various volume fractions (vol%. Dielectric measurements of these composites were performed as a function of filler ratio in the range 100–360°K at 10 KHz. The dielectric constant of the composite increased with increasing volume fraction varies slightly with temperature. The 20 vol% of BST(0.4-epoxy composite had the highest dielectric constant of 19.4 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.027. Among the dielectric mixing models presented, the model of Lichtenecker shows the best fit to the experimental data for both composites.

  6. Effect of long term use of Bovine Somatotropic Hormone (bST) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-va-512

    , Lahore-54000, Pakistan. Abstract. The study was conducted to determine the effect of long term use of bovine somatotropic hormone. (bST) on days to first oestrus post-partum, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, lactation.

  7. Ginseng Purified Dry Extract, BST204, Improved Cancer Chemotherapy-Related Fatigue and Toxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer related fatigue (CRF is one of the most common side effects of cancer and its treatments. A large proportion of cancer patients experience cancer-related physical and central fatigue so new strategies are needed for treatment and improved survival of these patients. BST204 was prepared by incubating crude ginseng extract with ginsenoside-β-glucosidase. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of BST204, mixture of ginsenosides on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced CRF, the glycogen synthesis, and biochemical parameters in mice. The mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the naïve normal (normal, the HT-29 cell inoculated (xenograft, xenograft and 5-FU treated (control, xenograft + 5-FU + BST204-treated (100 and 200 mg/kg (BST204, and xenograft + 5-FU + modafinil (13 mg/kg treated group (modafinil. Running wheel activity and forced swimming test were used for evaluation of CRF. Muscle glycogen, serum inflammatory cytokines, aspartic aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine (CRE, white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEUT, red blood cell (RBC, and hemoglobin (HGB were measured. Treatment with BST204 significantly increased the running wheel activity and forced swimming time compared to the control group. Consistent with the behavioral data, BST204 markedly increased muscle glycogen activity and concentrations of WBC, NEUT, RBC, and HGB. Also, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6, AST, ALT, and CRE levels in the serum were significantly reduced in the BST204-treated group compared to the control group. This result suggests that BST204 may improve chemotherapy-related fatigue and adverse toxic side effects.

  8. Bending of the BST-2 coiled-coil during viral budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kadir A; Berndsen, Christopher E

    2017-11-01

    BST-2/tetherin is a human extracellular transmembrane protein that serves as a host defense factor against HIV-1 and other viruses by inhibiting viral spreading. Structurally, BST-2 is a homo-dimeric coiled-coil that is connected to the host cell membrane by N and C terminal transmembrane anchors. The C-terminal membrane anchor of BST-2 is inserted into the budding virus while the N-terminal membrane anchor remains in the host cell membrane creating a viral tether. The structural mechanism of viral budding and tethering as mediated by BST-2 is not clear. To more fully describe the mechanism of viral tethering, we created a model of BST-2 embedded in a membrane and used steered molecular dynamics to simulate the transition from the host cell membrane associated form to the cell-virus membrane bridging form. We observed that BST-2 did not transition as a rigid structure, but instead bent at positions with a reduced interface between the helices of the coiled-coil. The simulations for the human BST-2 were then compared with simulations on the mouse homolog, which has no apparent weak spots. We observed that the mouse homolog spread the bending across the ectodomain, rather than breaking at discrete points as observed with the human homolog. These simulations support previous biochemical and cellular work suggesting some flexibility in the coiled-coil is necessary for viral tethering, while also highlighting how subtle changes in protein sequence can influence the dynamics and stability of proteins with overall similar structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Emprego da somatopropina bovina (BST em vacas de alta produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Trinta e seis novilhas de primeira cria, prenhes, da raça Holandesa ppc, foram utilizadas em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, para comparar a periodicidade da aplicação de 500 mg/animal da somatotropina bovina recombinada (BST, das seguintes formas: A Controle; B BST a cada 28 dias; C BST a cada 21 dias; D BST a cada 14 dias. Foram formados três blocos de indivíduos conforme as produções, com médias diárias de 28,6 kg, 25,1 kg e 19,1 kg de leite. O experimento teve a duração de 112 dias, sendo as produções de leite registradas diariamente, análises de gordura láctea e contagem de células somáticas executadas a cada 14 dias e colhidos dados das condições físicas e perímetros torácicos dos animais a cada 28 dias. A produção de leite corrigida a 4% de gordura apresentou contraste estatisticamente significativo (p<0,01 entre o tratamento controle (19,4 kg/dia e os três tratamentos com aplicação de BST a cada 14 dias (24,3 kg/dia, a cada 21 dias (23,1 kg/dia e a cada 28 dias (21,1 kg/dia. Em termos de produções de leite não corrigidas, o contraste entre os animais controle (21,6 kg/dia e os tratados por BST a cada 14 dias (26,5 kg/dia, a cada 21 dias (25,5 kg/dia ou a cada 28 dias (24,5 kg/dia foi estatisticamente significativo (p<0,01. Para a produção de gordura láctea, a diferença entre controle (0,717 kg/dia e demais tratamentos com BST a cada 14 dias (0,916 kg/dia, a cada 21 dias (0,862 kg/dia e a cada 28 dias (0,753 kg/dia foi significativa (p<0,05; considerando apenas os dados referentes à aplicação de BST, houve regressão linear (p<0,05 entre os intervalos de aplicação de BST, diminuindo a produção de gordura com o aumento do espaço entre aplicações do produto. Análises estatísticas da porcentagem de gordura do leite não acusaram diferença estatística entre controle (3,39% e tratamentos com BST, enquanto que os tratamentos com aplicação de BST mostraram linearidade (p<0,05 com BST a cada

  10. BST2/CD317 counteracts human coronavirus 229E productive infection by tethering virions at the cell surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shiu-Mei [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuo-Jung [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chin-Tien, E-mail: chintien@ym.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-20

    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2), an interferon-inducible antiviral factor, has been shown to block the release of various enveloped viruses from cells. It has also been identified as an innate immune system component. Most enveloped viruses subject to BST2 restriction bud at the plasma membrane. Here we report our findings that (a) the production of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) progeny viruses, whose budding occurs at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), markedly decreases in the presence of BST2; and (b) BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E virion production. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. Our results suggest that BST2 exerts a broad blocking effect against enveloped virus release, regardless of whether budding occurs at the plasma membrane or intracellular compartments. - Highlights: • BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E egress. • HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. • HCoV-229E infection at high MOI can significantly downregulate HeLa BST2 and rescue HIV-1 egress.

  11. Congenital Generalized Hypertrichosis Terminalis with Gingival Hyperplasia and a Coarse Face: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazandjieva Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital generalized hypertrichosis, in its most common form, is idiopathic. In the absence of underlying endocrine or metabolic disorders, congenital generalized hypertrichosis is rare in humans, affecting as few as one in a billion individuals and may be an isolated condition of the skin, or a component feature of other disorders or syndromes. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is an extremely rare condition, a distinct subset of disorders with congenital hypertrichosis, presenting with excessive hair as the primary clinical feature. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis is characterized by universal excessive growth of pigmented terminal hair and often accompanied with gingival hyperplasia and/or a coarse face. Gingival hyperplasia may be delayed even until puberty. Its pathogenesis may be caused by one of the following mechanisms: conversion of vellus to terminal hairs and/or prolonged anagenetic stage, and/or increase in the number of hair follicles. Since the Middle Ages, less than 60 individuals with congenital hypertrichosis terminalis have been described, and, according to the most recent estimates, less than 40 cases were documented adequately and definitively in the literature. Recent articles identified congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis as a genomic disorder.

  12. Efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST sobre o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas da raça Holandesa Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST on productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Rennó

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da aplicação de rBST sobre o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas da raça Holandesa no início da lactação. Foram avaliadas 41 vacas, dos 60 aos 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em três tratamentos: 1- sem aplicação de rBST (controle; 2- aplicação de rBST 60 dias após o parto (rBST-60; 3- aplicação de rBST 100 dias após o parto (rBST-100. A aplicação de rBST aumentou a produção de leite e a produção de leite corrigida a 4% de gordura em 14,0 e 13,2%, respectivamente, quando administrada aos 60 dias pós-parto. Não se observou efeito da aplicação de rBST sobre a porcentagem e a produção de gordura do leite nem sobre o período de serviço, número de serviços por concepção e taxa de gestação aos 150 dias de lactação. O uso do rBST também não afetou o ganho de peso dos animais durante o período avaliado. A aplicação de rBST aos 60 dias de lactação proporcionou maiores pico de produção e persistência da lactação, sem, no entanto, influenciar o desempenho reprodutivo. A aplicação de rBST aos 100 dias de lactação não aumentou a produção de leite e o desempenho reprodutivo das vacas.The effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST on production and reproductive parameters of Holstein dairy cows, from 60 to 150 days of lactation were evaluated. Forty-one cows were assigned to treatments: 1- no rBST application (control, 2- rBST application 60 days post calving (rBST-60, and 3- rBST application 100 days after calving (rBST-100, in a completely randomized design. The rBST application 60 days post calving significantly increased milk production (14% and corrected milk production (13%. No effects of rBST administration on milk fat production (% and kg/day, days open, number of services/conception and pregnancy rate and on cow weight gain were observed. The rBST application 60 days after calving increased milk production peak

  13. Up-regulation of bone marrow stromal protein 2 (BST2) in breast cancer with bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Dongqing; Cao, Jie; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Xin; Yao, Yao; Li, Wanglin; Yuan, Ziqiang

    2009-01-01

    Bone metastases are frequent complications of breast cancer. Recent literature implicates multiple chemokines in the formation of bone metastases in breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of metastatic bone disease in breast cancer remains unknown. We have recently made the novel observation of the BST2 protein expression in human breast cancer cell lines. The purpose of our present study is to investigate the expression and the role of BST2 in bone metastatic breast cancer. cDNA microarray analysis was used to compare the BST2 gene expression between a metastatic to bone human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) and a primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The BST2 expression in one bone metastatic breast cancer and seven non-bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines were also determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. We then employed tissue array to further study the BST2 expression in human breast cancer using array slides containing 20 independent breast cancer tumors that formed metastatic bone lesions, 30 non-metastasis-forming breast cancer tumors, and 8 normal breast tissues. In order to test the feasibility of utilizing BST2 as a serum marker for the presence of bone metastasis in breast cancer, we had measured the BST2 expression levels in human serums by using ELISA on 43 breast cancer patients with bone metastasis, 43 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis, and 14 normal healthy controls. The relationship between cell migration and proliferation and BST2 expression was also studied in a human breast recombinant model system using migration and FACS analysis. The microarray demonstrated over expression of the BST2 gene in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-231BO) compared to the primary human breast cancer cell line (MDA-231). The expression of the BST2 gene was significantly increased in the bone metastatic breast cancer cell lines and tumor tissues compared to non-bone metastatic breast cancer

  14. Long term use of bovine somatotropic (bST) on reproduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of long term use of bovine somatotropic hormone (bST) on days to first oestrus post-partum, number of services per ... Prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in the treated animals while differences in body weights of the animals in the groups were not significant.

  15. Consumers' reactions to rBST milk with and without labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.

    2002-01-01

    Verslag van een consumentonderzoek naar de reacties van Nederlandse melkdrinkers, waarbij de melk van de aanduiding was voorzien dat deze geproduceerd was door met BST-behandelde koeien, en anderszijds bij een groep melkdrinkers, waarbij geen onderscheid was gemaakt tussen melk afkomstig van wel of

  16. Phytochemical composition of the root extract of Ichthyothere terminalis from two geographical regiones in Colombia

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    Luz Yineth Ortiz-Rojas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of two extracts from Ichthyothere terminalis root which were collected in the localities of Cumaral (Meta and Abrego (Norte de Santander, Colombia is reported. Extracts were obtained with ethanol using distillation under reduced pressure and were characterized by qualitative assays and by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometery (GC-MS. GC-MS analysis revealed differences in Ichthyothere terminalis compounds according to locality. Plants from Cumaral contain saponins, coumarins, and tannins, while those from Abrego contains tannins, alkaloids, coumarins and flavoniods. Plants from Abrego contain octadecadien-1-ol (53.5%, caryophyllene oxide (30.8%, hexadecanol (24.0%, trans-β-caryophyllene (13.6%, cycloisolongifolene (11.6%, germacrene D (6.0%, and 9-octadecen-1-ol (8.0%. Plants from Cumaral have citronellal (46.4%, p-cymene (6.4%, geraniol (5.0%, and citronellol (4.6%. Among the chemical compounds found, several have repellent properties, according to ethnobotanics reports from Amazonian Region. Further studies may determine the effectiveness as repellent of extracts from I. Terminalis root.

  17. The size and conservation of a coiled-coil structure in the ectodomain of human BST-2/tetherin is dispensable for inhibition of HIV-1 virion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Amy J; Berndsen, Christopher E; Kao, Sandra; Strebel, Klaus

    2012-12-28

    BST-2/CD317/tetherin is a host factor that inhibits HIV-1 release and is counteracted by HIV-1 Vpu. Structural studies indicate that the BST-2 ectodomain assumes a coiled-coil conformation. Here we studied the role of the BST-2 ectodomain for tethering function. First, we addressed the importance of the length and structure of the ectodomain by adding or substituting heterologous coiled-coil or non-coiled-coil sequences. We found that extending or replacing the BST-2 ectodomain using non-coiled-coil sequences resulted in loss of BST-2 function. Doubling the size of the BST-2 ectodomain by insertion of a heterologous coiled-coil motif or substituting the BST-2 coiled-coil domain with a heterologous coiled-coil motif maintained tethering function. Reductions in the size of the BST-2 coiled-coil domain were tolerated as well. In fact, deletion of the C-terminal half of the BST-2 ectodomain, including a series of seven consecutive heptad motifs did not abolish tethering function. However, slight changes in the positioning of deletions affecting the relative placing of charged or hydrophobic residues on the helix severely impacted the functional properties of BST-2. Overall, we conclude that the size of the BST-2 ectodomain is highly flexible and can be reduced or extended as long as the positioning of residues important for the stability of the dimer interface is maintained.

  18. Stria vascularis and cochlear hair cell changes in syphilis: A human temporal bone study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hızlı, Ömer; Kaya, Serdar; Hızlı, Pelin; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2016-12-01

    To observe any changes in stria vascularis and cochlear hair cells in patients with syphilis. We examined 13 human temporal bone samples from 8 patients with syphilis (our syphilis group), as well as 12 histopathologically normal samples from 9 age-matched patients without syphilis (our control group). We compared, between the two groups, the mean area of the stria vascularis (measured with conventional light microscopy connected to a personal computer) and the mean percentage of cochlear hair cell loss (obtained from cytocochleograms). In our syphilis group, only 1 (7.7%) of the 13 samples had precipitate in the endolymphatic or perilymphatic spaces; 8 (61.5%) of the samples revealed the presence of endolymphatic hydrops (4 cochlear, 4 saccular). The mean area of the stria vascularis did not significantly differ, in any turn of the cochlea, between the 2 groups (P>0.1). However, we did find significant differences between the 2 groups in the mean percentage of outer hair cells in the apical turn (Psyphilis group, we observed either complete loss of the organ of Corti or a flattened organ of Corti without any cells in addition to the absence of both outer and inner hair cells. In this study, syphilis led either to complete loss of the organ of Corti or to significant loss of cochlear hair cells, in addition to cochleosaccular hydrops. But the area of the stria vascularis did not change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prominent crista terminalis mimicking a right atrial mixoma: cardiac magnetic resonance aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, C; Di Michele, S; Cera, M; Nguyen, B L; Pannarale, G; Alessandri, N

    2004-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman came to our observation with a clinical history of isolated systolic hypertension poorly controlled by the combination of ramipril 5 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg o.d. The ECG showed sinus rhythm with heart rate of 68 beats per minute and signs of left ventricular hypertrophy without strain. Further investigation included an echocardiogram that showed normal left and right cavities and normal cardiac valves. At the level of the posterior wall of the right atrial (RA) an apparent smooth, bean-like tumor, having a thin pedicle, was identified as a RA mixoma. Cardiac MRI was requested and showed in two sequential slices a muscular ridge, identified as a prominent crista terminalis. Some para-physiological structures sited in the RA may have the appearance of tumors, as crista terminalis, Eustachian valve extending into the RA chambers and Chiari network. The multiplain projections of MRI allow the cardiologist to identify the presence of intracardiac masses and to make a differential diagnosis between neoplasms and variant anatomic structures.

  20. Possible Origins of CTnBST, a Conjugative Transposon Found Recently in a Human Colonic Bacteroides Strain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, David J.; Shoemaker, Nadja B.; Salyers, Abigail A.

    2007-01-01

    A previous survey of Bacteroides isolates suggested that the ermB gene entered Bacteroides spp. recently. Previously, ermB had been found almost exclusively in gram-positive bacteria. In one Bacteroides strain, ermB was located on 100-kb conjugative transposon (CTn) CTnBST. To assess the possible origin of this CTn, we obtained the full DNA sequence of CTnBST and used this information to investigate its possible origins. Over one-half of CTnBST had high sequence identity to a putative CTn found in the genome of Bacteroides fragilis YCH46. This included the ends of the CTn and genes involved in integration, transfer, and excision. However, the region around the ermB gene contained genes that appeared to originate from gram-positive organisms. In particular, a 7-kb segment containing the ermB gene was 100% identical to an ermB region found in the genome of the gram-positive bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes. A screen of Bacteroides isolates whose DNA cross-hybridized with a CTnBST probe revealed that several isolates did not carry the 7-kb region, implying that the acquisition of this region may be more recent than the acquisition of the entire CTnBST element by Bacteroides spp. We have also identified other Bacteroides isolates that carry a slightly modified 7-kb region but have no other traces of CTnBST. Thus, it is possible that this 7-kb region could itself be part of a mobile element that has inserted in a Bacteroides CTn. Our results show that CTnBST is a hybrid element which has acquired a portion of its coding region from gram-positive bacteria but which may originally have come from Bacteroides spp. or some related species. PMID:17483268

  1. Possible origins of CTnBST, a conjugative transposon found recently in a human colonic Bacteroides strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, David J; Shoemaker, Nadja B; Salyers, Abigail A

    2007-07-01

    A previous survey of Bacteroides isolates suggested that the ermB gene entered Bacteroides spp. recently. Previously, ermB had been found almost exclusively in gram-positive bacteria. In one Bacteroides strain, ermB was located on 100-kb conjugative transposon (CTn) CTnBST. To assess the possible origin of this CTn, we obtained the full DNA sequence of CTnBST and used this information to investigate its possible origins. Over one-half of CTnBST had high sequence identity to a putative CTn found in the genome of Bacteroides fragilis YCH46. This included the ends of the CTn and genes involved in integration, transfer, and excision. However, the region around the ermB gene contained genes that appeared to originate from gram-positive organisms. In particular, a 7-kb segment containing the ermB gene was 100% identical to an ermB region found in the genome of the gram-positive bacterium Arcanobacterium pyogenes. A screen of Bacteroides isolates whose DNA cross-hybridized with a CTnBST probe revealed that several isolates did not carry the 7-kb region, implying that the acquisition of this region may be more recent than the acquisition of the entire CTnBST element by Bacteroides spp. We have also identified other Bacteroides isolates that carry a slightly modified 7-kb region but have no other traces of CTnBST. Thus, it is possible that this 7-kb region could itself be part of a mobile element that has inserted in a Bacteroides CTn. Our results show that CTnBST is a hybrid element which has acquired a portion of its coding region from gram-positive bacteria but which may originally have come from Bacteroides spp. or some related species.

  2. Antiviral Inhibition of Enveloped Virus Release by Tetherin/BST-2: Action and Counteraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. D. Neil

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin (BST2/CD317 has been recently recognized as a potent interferon-induced antiviral molecule that inhibits the release of diverse mammalian enveloped virus particles from infected cells. By targeting an immutable structure common to all these viruses, the virion membrane, evasion of this antiviral mechanism has necessitated the development of specific countermeasures that directly inhibit tetherin activity. Here we review our current understanding of the molecular basis of tetherin’s mode of action, the viral countermeasures that antagonize it, and how virus/tetherin interactions may affect viral transmission and pathogenicity.

  3. Monoaminergic innervation of the rat organum vasculosum laminae terminalis as revealed by radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosler, O.

    1987-01-01

    As revealed by radioautography after in vivo labelling with [ 3 H]monoamines, the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) is mostly supplied with serotonin (5-HT) fibres which terminate profusely throughout its thickness. Catecholamine, mostly dopamine (DA) afferents, are scarce and exhibit a mainly perivascular distribution. Some 25% of the 5-HT endings in the juxtaventricular zone are engaged in morphologically defined synaptic axo-dendritic contacts. In the juxtavascular zone, 5-HT and DA varicosities never show true synaptic junctional complexes but frequently establish synaptoid-like contacts with astrocytic and/or tanycytic processes. Occasionally, they can about onto the parenchymal basement membrane limiting the perivascular space. Monoamines might therefore be involved in the OVLT function through interactions with neural and non-neural elements. A morphological substratum also exists for a direct neurohormonal release of 5-HT and DA at the OVLT level. (author)

  4. Barium strontium titanate (BST) thin film analysis on different layer and annealing temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Y. C.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thin film has been prepared by using sol-gel method. The samples are prepared with 2 different deposition layers (1 layer and 4 layer) and annealing temperature (600°C and 800°C) with Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 solution. Physical and electrical characterization of all the samples is done. The results showed that the grain size and surface roughness of the samples increased as the deposition layer and annealing temperature increased. In addition, the dielectric constant of the samples also increased as the deposition layer and annealing temperature increased. Thus, the physical and electrical characteristics of the thin films are related one to another.

  5. The relationship of PTH Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shibao; Li, Anqi; Cui, Liuxin; Huang, Qi; Chen, Hongyang; Guo, Xiaoyi; Luo, Yixin; Hao, Qianyun; Hou, Jiaxiang; Ba, Yue

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene Bst BI polymorphism, calciotropic hormone levels, and dental fluorosis of children. A case-control study was conducted in two counties (Kaifeng and Tongxu) in Henan Province, China in 2005-2006. Two hundred and twenty-five children were recruited and divided into three groups including dental fluorosis group (DFG), non-dental fluorosis group (NDFG) from high fluoride areas, and control group (CG). Urine fluoride content was determined using fluoride ion selective electrode; PTH Bst BI were genotyped using PCR-RFLP; osteocalcin (OC) and calcitonin (CT) levels in serum were detected using radioimmunoassay. Genotype distributions were BB 85.3% (58/68), Bb 14.7% (10/68) for DFG; BB 77.6% (52/67), Bb 22.4% (15/67) for NDFG; and BB 73.3% (66/90), Bb 27.7% (24/90) for CG. No significant difference of Bst BI genotypes was observed among three groups (P > 0.05). Serum OC and urine fluoride of children were both significantly higher in DFG and NDFG than in CG (P 0.05). Serum OC level of children with BB genotype was significantly higher compared to those with Bb genotype in high fluoride areas (P dental fluorosis and PTH Bst BI polymorphism. Serum OC might be a more sensitive biomarker for detecting early stages of dental fluorosis, and further studies are needed.

  6. Association Study between the CD157/BST1 Gene and Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Yokoyama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CD157, also referred to as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule that promotes pre-B-cell growth. Previous studies have reported associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CD157/BST1 gene with Parkinson’s disease. In an attempt to determine whether SNPs or haplotypes in the CD157/BST1 are associated with other brain disorders, we performed a case-control study including 147 autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients at Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 150 unselected Japanese volunteers by the sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction method combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Of 93 SNPs examined, two SNPs showed significantly higher allele frequencies in cases with ASDs than in unaffected controls (rs4301112, OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 1.9 to 22, p = 0.0007; and rs28532698, OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 21, p = 0.0012; Fisher’s exact test; p < 0.002 was considered significant after multiple testing correction. In addition, CT genotype in rs10001565 was more frequently observed in the ASD group than in the control group (OR = 15, 95% CI = 2.0 to 117, p = 0.0007; Fisher’s exact test. The present data indicate that genetic variation of the CD157/BST1 gene might confer susceptibility to ASDs.

  7. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  8. Antagonism of BST-2/Tetherin Is a Conserved Function of the Env Glycoprotein of Primary HIV-2 Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Shingai, Masashi; Welbourn, Sarah; Martin, Malcolm A; Borrego, Pedro; Taveira, Nuno; Strebel, Klaus

    2016-12-15

    Although HIV-2 does not encode a vpu gene, the ability to antagonize bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) is conserved in some HIV-2 isolates, where it is controlled by the Env glycoprotein. We previously reported that a single-amino-acid difference between the laboratory-adapted ROD10 and ROD14 Envs controlled the enhancement of virus release (referred to here as Vpu-like) activity. Here, we investigated how conserved the Vpu-like activity is in primary HIV-2 isolates. We found that half of the 34 tested primary HIV-2 Env isolates obtained from 7 different patients enhanced virus release. Interestingly, most HIV-2 patients harbored a mixed population of viruses containing or lacking Vpu-like activity. Vpu-like activity and Envelope functionality varied significantly among Env isolates; however, there was no direct correlation between these two functions, suggesting they evolved independently. In comparing the Env sequences from one HIV-2 patient, we found that similar to the ROD10/ROD14 Envs, a single-amino-acid change (T568I) in the ectodomain of the TM subunit was sufficient to confer Vpu-like activity to an inactive Env variant. Surprisingly, however, absence of Vpu-like activity was not correlated with absence of BST-2 interaction. Taken together, our data suggest that maintaining the ability to antagonize BST-2 is of functional relevance not only to HIV-1 but also to HIV-2 as well. Our data show that as with Vpu, binding of HIV-2 Env to BST-2 is important but not sufficient for antagonism. Finally, as observed previously, the Vpu-like activity in HIV-2 Env can be controlled by single-residue changes in the TM subunit. Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 and HIV-2 encode accessory proteins whose function is to overcome host restriction mechanisms. Vpu is a well-studied HIV-1 accessory protein that enhances virus release by antagonizing the host restriction factor BST-2. HIV-2 does not encode a vpu gene. Instead, the HIV-2 Env glycoprotein was found to antagonize BST-2

  9. Extending the amygdala in theories of threat processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Tromp, Do P.M.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2015-01-01

    The central extended amygdala is an evolutionarily conserved set of interconnected brain regions that play an important role in threat processing to promote survival. Two core components of the central extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are highly similar regions that serve complimentary roles by integrating fear- and anxiety-relevant information. Survival depends on the central extended amygdala's ability to rapidly integrate and respond to threats that vary in their immediacy, proximity, and characteristics. Future studies will benefit from understanding alterations in central extended amygdala function in relation to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25851307

  10. Digestibilidade e ganhos em peso de ovinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos e recebendo somatotropina recombinante bovina (rBST Digestibility and live weight gain of lambs fed different forages and administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de 20 mg de somatotropina recombinante bovina (rBST de liberação lenta, em períodos de 14 e 28 dias, sobre a ingestão de matéria seca, os coeficientes de digestibilidade de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB e energia bruta (EB, o balanço de nitrogênio e o ganho de peso diário, em rações à base de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar ou bagaço hidrolisado e concentrado. Foi usado um total de 24 borregos mestiços, não-castrados, com média de 4 a 5 meses de idade e 22 ± 2 kg de PV. Não houve efeito da rBST na ingestão de matéria seca, nas digestibilidades de PB e FDA, no balanço de nitrogênio e no ganho de peso diário dos borregos. A digestibilidade da energia bruta foi influenciada pela aplicação de rBST, quando os diferentes volumosos ou períodos pós-aplicação hormonal foram considerados, porém, somente foi observado efeito da ação hormonal sobre a digestibilidade de MS nas dietas à base de silagem de milho.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of 20 mg of slow liberation bovine somatotropin (rBST on the dry matter intake and on the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (MS, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, crude energy, nitrogen balance and the daily weight gain in lambs fed diets based on corn silage, sugar cane or hydrolyzed bagasse and concentrate. Twenty-four crossbred lambs, averaging 4-5 months of age and 22 + 2 kg LW, were used. There was no effect of the rBST on the dry matter intake, the digestibilities of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, the nitrogen balance and the daily weight gain of the lambs. The gross energy digestibility was affected by the rBST administration when different forages or periods post hormonal administration were considered, however, the effect of the hormonal action was observed only on the dry matter digestibility of corn silage diets.

  11. Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env) Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrasne, François E; Lombard, Catherine; Goubau, Patrick; Ruelle, Jean

    2016-10-14

    BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. Viral release assays in cell lines expressing BST-2 showed a loss of viral release ability for the HIV-2 N659D mutant virus compared to the HIV-2 wild type virus. In bst-2 inactivated H9 cells, those differences were lost. Subtilisin treatment of infected cells demonstrated that the N659D mutant was more tethered at the cell surface. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments confirmed a direct molecular link between Env and BST-2 and highlighted an inability of the mutant to bind BST-2. We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. Interestingly, viral release assays and FRET experiments indicated that a full Env cytoplasmic tail was essential in BST-2 antagonism. In HIV-2 infected cells, an efficient Env-mediated antagonism of BST-2 is operated through an intermolecular link involving the asparagine 659 residue as well as the C-terminal part of the cytoplasmic tail.

  12. "Cristal tachycardias": origin of right atrial tachycardias from the crista terminalis identified by intracardiac echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, J M; Olgin, J E; Karch, M R; Hamdan, M; Lee, R J; Lesh, M D

    1998-02-01

    We sought to use intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to identify the anatomic origin of focal right atrial tachycardias and to define their relation with the crista terminalis (CT). Previous studies using ICE during mapping of atrial flutter and inappropriate sinus tachycardia have demonstrated an important relation between endocardial anatomy and electrophysiologic events. Recent studies have suggested that right atrial tachycardias may also have a characteristic anatomic distribution. Twenty-three consecutive patients with 27 right atrial tachycardias were included in the study. ICE was used to facilitate activation mapping in relation to endocardial structures. A 20-pole catheter was positioned along the CT under ICE guidance. ICE was also used to assist in guiding detailed mapping with the ablation catheter in the right atrium. Of 27 focal right atrial tachycardias, 18 (67%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 46% to 83%) were on the CT (2 high medial, 8 high lateral, 6 mid and 2 low). ICE identified the location of the tip of the ablation catheter in immediate relation to the CT in all 18 cases. The 20-pole mapping catheter together with echocardiographic visualization of the CT provided a guide to the site of tachycardia origin along this structure. Radiofrequency ablation was successful in 26 (96%) of 27 (95% CI 81% to 100%) right atrial tachycardias. This study demonstrates that approximately two thirds of focal right atrial tachycardias occurring in the absence of structural heart disease will arise along the CT. Recognition of this common distribution may potentially facilitate mapping and ablation of these tachycardias.

  13. The role of BST2/tetherin in infection with the feline retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Isabelle; Hosie, Margaret J.; Willett, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The recently identified host restriction factor tetherin (BST-2, CD317) potently inhibits the release of nascent retrovirus particles from infected cells. Recently, we reported the identification and characterization of tetherin as a novel feline retroviral restriction factor. Based on homology to human tetherin we identified a putative tetherin gene in the genome of the domestic cat (Felis catus) which was found to be expressed in different feline cell lines both prior to and post treatment with either type I or type II interferon (IFN). The predicted structure of feline tetherin (feTHN) was that of a type II single-pass transmembrane protein encoding an N-terminal transmembrane anchor, central predicted coiled-coil bearing extracellular domain to promote dimerization, and a C-terminal GPI-anchor, consistent with conservation of structure between human and feline tetherin. FeTHN displayed potent inhibition of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release in single-cycle replication assays. Notably, feTHN activity was resistant to antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu. However, stable ectopic expression of feTHN mRNA in different feline cell lines had no inhibitory effect on the growth of diverse primary or cell culture-adapted strains of FIV. Hence, whereas feline tetherin efficiently blocks viral particle release in single-cycle replication assays, it might not prevent dissemination of feline retroviruses in vivo. PMID:21715020

  14. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss using a new method to quantify stria vascularis volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of stria vascularis atrophy in individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss. Individuals with presbycusis have historically been categorized by the shape of their audiograms, and flat audiometric thresholds have been reported to be associated with atrophy of the stria vascularis. Stria vascularis volume was not measured in these studies. Retrospective case review. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for flat audiometric thresholds. Six temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones in individuals with normal hearing. A unique quantitative method was developed to measure the stria vascularis volume in these temporal bones. The hair cell and spiral ganglion cell populations also were quantitatively evaluated. Only one of the six individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric thresholds had significant atrophy of the stria vascularis. This individual with stria vascularis atrophy also had reduced inner hair cell, outer hair cell, and ganglion cell populations. Three of the individuals with presbycusis had spiral ganglion cell loss, three individuals had inner hair cell loss, and all six individuals had outer hair cell loss. The results of this investigation suggest that individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss infrequently have stria vascularis atrophy. Outer hair cell loss alone or in combination with inner hair cell or ganglion cell loss may be the cause of flat audiometric thresholds in individuals with presbycusis.

  15. Formation of solar cells based on Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric thick film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irzaman,, E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Syafutra, H., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Arif, A., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Alatas, H., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, FMIPA Bogor Agricultural Unversity, Campus Darmaga Gedung Wing S Bogor (Indonesia); Hilaluddin, M. N.; Kurniawan, A.; Iskandar, J.; Dahrul, M.; Ismangil, A.; Yosman, D.; Aminullah [Department of Biophysics, FMIPA Bogor Agricultural Unversity (Indonesia); Prasetyo, L. B. [Department of Forest Resources Conservation, FAHUTAN, Bogor Agricultural Unversity, Campus Darmaga Bogor (Indonesia); Yusuf, A.; Kadri, T. M. [LAPAN Rancabungur Ciampea Bogor (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Growth of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) 1 M thick films are conducted with variation of annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours at a constant temperature of 850 °C on p-type Si (100) substrate using sol-gel method then followed by spin coating process at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds. The BST thick film electrical conductivity is obtained to be 10{sup −5} to 10{sup −4} S/cm indicate that the BST thick film is classified as semiconductor material. The semiconductor energy band gap value of BST thick film based on annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours are 2.58 eV, 3.15 eV, 3.2 eV and 2.62 eV, respectively. The I-V photovoltaic characterization shows that the BST thick film is potentially solar cell device, and in accordance to annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours and 29 hours have respective solar cell energy conversion efficiencies of 0.343%, 0.399%, 0.469% and 0.374%, respectively. Optical spectroscopy shows that BST thick film solar cells with annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, and 22 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ≥ 700 nm. BST film samples with annealing hold time of 29 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ≤ 700 nm. The BST thick film refraction index is between 1.1 to 1.8 at light wavelength between ±370 to 870 nm.

  16. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  17. Effect of BST film thickness on the performance of tunable interdigital capacitors grown by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Cedric J. G.; Freeze, Christopher R.; Stemmer, Susanne; York, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    Voltage-tunable, interdigital capacitors (IDCs) were fabricated on Ba0.29Sr0.71TiO3 grown by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In this growth technique, we utilize the metal-organic precursor titanium tetraisopropoxide rather than solid-source Ti as with conventional MBE. Two samples of varying BaxSr(1-x)TiO3 (BST) thicknesses were fabricated and analyzed. High-quality, epitaxial Pt electrodes were deposited by sputtering from a high-purity Pt target at 825 °C. The Pt electrodes were patterned and etched by argon ion milling, passivated with reactively sputtered SiO2, and then metallized with lift-off Ti/Au. The fabricated devices consisted of two-port IDCs embedded in ground-signal-ground, coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines to enable radio-frequency (RF) probing. The sample included open and thru de-embedding structures to remove pad and CPW parasitic impedances. Two-port RF scattering (S) parameters were measured from 100 MHz to 40 GHz while DC bias was stepped from 0 V to 100 V. The IDCs exhibit a high zero-bias radio-frequency (RF) quality factor (Q) approaching 200 at 1 GHz and better than 2.3:1 capacitance tuning for the 300-nm-thick sample. Differences in the Q(V) and C(V) response with varying thicknesses indicate that unknown higher order material phenomena are contributing to the loss and tuning characteristics of the material.

  18. Bst2/Tetherin Is Induced in Neurons by Type I Interferon and Viral Infection but Is Dispensable for Protection against Neurotropic Viral Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Alicia M; Miller, Katelyn D; Cavanaugh, Sarah E; Rall, Glenn F

    2015-11-01

    In permissive mouse central nervous system (CNS) neurons, measles virus (MV) spreads in the absence of hallmark viral budding or neuronal death, with transmission occurring efficiently and exclusively via the synapse. MV infection also initiates a robust type I interferon (IFN) response, resulting in the synthesis of a large number of genes, including bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (Bst2)/tetherin/CD317. Bst2 restricts the release of some enveloped viruses, but to date, its role in viral infection of neurons has not been assessed. Consequently, we investigated how Bst2 was induced and what role it played in MV neuronal infection. The magnitude of induction of neuronal Bst2 RNA and protein following IFN exposure and viral infection was notably higher than in similarly treated mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs). Bst2 synthesis was both IFN and Stat1 dependent. Although Bst2 prevented MV release from nonneuronal cells, its deletion had no effect on viral pathogenesis in MV-challenged mice. Our findings underscore how cell-type-specific differences impact viral infection and pathogenesis. Viral infections of the central nervous system can lead to debilitating disease and death. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly clear that nonrenewable cells, including most central nervous system neurons, combat neurotropic viral infections in fundamentally different ways than other rapidly dividing and renewable cell populations. Here we identify type I interferon signaling as a key inducer of a known antiviral protein (Bst2) in neurons. Unexpectedly, the gene is dispensable for clearance of neurotropic viral infection despite its well-defined contribution to limiting the spread of enveloped viruses in proliferating cells. A deeper appreciation of the importance of cell type heterogeneity in antiviral immunity will aid in the identification of unique therapeutic targets for life-threatening viral infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Mutation of Glycosylation Sites in BST-2 Leads to Its Accumulation at Intracellular CD63-Positive Vesicles without Affecting Its Antiviral Activity against Multivesicular Body-Targeted HIV-1 and Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhu; Lv, Mingyu; Shi, Ying; Yu, Jinghua; Niu, Junqi; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Wenyan

    2016-02-29

    BST-2/tetherin blocks the release of various enveloped viruses including HIV-1 with a "physical tethering" model. The detailed contribution of N-linked glycosylation to this model is controversial. Here, we confirmed that mutation of glycosylation sites exerted an effect of post-translational mis-trafficking, leading to an accumulation of BST-2 at intracellular CD63-positive vesicles. BST-2 with this phenotype potently inhibited the release of multivesicular body-targeted HIV-1 and hepatitis B virus, without affecting the co-localization of BST-2 with EEA1 and LAMP1. These results suggest that N-linked glycosylation of human BST-2 is dispensable for intracellular virion retention and imply that this recently discovered intracellular tethering function may be evolutionarily distinguished from the canonical antiviral function of BST-2 by tethering nascent virions at the cell surface.

  20. Efeito da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST sobre a produção de leite em búfalas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge André Mendes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o resultado da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST atuando na produção de leite em búfalas da raça Murrah. Empregaram-se 28 búfalas multíparas da raça Murrah, divididas em dois grupos homogêneos de 14 animais, recebendo os seguintes tratamentos: Grupo 1 fraction three-quarters Controle (solução salina e Grupo 2 fraction three-quarters 500 mg de bST/cabeça a cada 14 dias, durante 7 meses. Búfalas tratadas com bST exibiram incrementos de 48,52%, 32,80% e 32,80% nas produções total de leite, corrigida, depois, para 4% de gordura e média diária, respectivamente. A somatotropina elevou a produção total de gordura sem alterar a porcentagem dela no leite. A administração de bST não afetou a porcentagem de proteína do leite todavia, a produção total de proteína foi aumentada. Quanto à duração da lactação, o tratamento com bST diferiu do controle, o que demonstra a maior persistência da lactação de búfalas tratadas com bST.

  1. The nervus terminalis in amphibians: anatomy, chemistry and relationship with the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, L E; Moore, F L

    1988-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (TN), a component of the olfactory system, is found in most vertebrates. The TN of some fishes and mammals contains neurons immunoreactive (ir) to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (LHRH), and to several other neuropeptides and neurotransmitter systems, but there is little information on TN chemistry in other vertebrate taxa. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we found LHRH-ir neurons in amphibian TNs. In anurans, but not in a urodele, the TN was also found to contain Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide) immunoreactivity. LHRH-ir neurons of the TN and those of the septal-hypothalamic system are morphologically homogeneous and form a distinct anatomical continuum in amphibians. Based upon topographical and cytological criteria, we hypothesize that LHRH-ir systems in vertebrates might derive embryonically from the TN.

  2. MR Imaging of Ventriculus Terminalis of The Conus Medullaris. A report of two operated patients and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullerud, Reidar; Server, A. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Div. of Radiology; Berg-Johnsen, J. [The National Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2003-07-01

    We report on 2 patients in whom a cystic dilation of the conus medullaris was incidentally found at MR imaging carried out in the work-up for sciatica. The cysts were well circumscribed and had signal intensity identical to the CSF on both T1- and T2-weighted images. There was no evidence of contrast enhancement. None of the patients had specific symptoms related to the spinal cord. At surgery, no evidence of malignancy was seen in any of the patients. A benign cystic dilation, also called dilated ventriculus terminalis, occasionally can be seen in the conus medullaris as an incidental finding at thoracolumbar MR imaging. Unless the expansion per se indicates cyst drainage, these patients may be monitored by clinical and MR follow-up, avoiding surgery in a substantial number of cases.

  3. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fiona J; Auld, Tony D; Ramp, Daniel; Kingsford, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal) can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae), a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal) and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l) seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l) vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  4. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Thomson

    Full Text Available The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae, a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  5. Phytophthora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man In 't Veld, Willem A; Rosendahl, Karin C H M; van Rijswick, Patricia C J; Meffert, Johan P; Westenberg, Marcel; van de Vossenberg, Bart T L H; Denton, Geoff; van Kuik, Fons A J

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade several Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Pachysandra terminalis plants suffering stem base and root rot, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium. All isolates were homothallic and had a felt-like colony pattern, produced semi-papillate sporangia, globose oogonia and had a maximum growth at ~ 27 C. Several additional Phytophthora strains were isolated from diseased Buxus sempervirens plants, originating from the Netherlands and Belgium, which had sustained stem base and root rot; similar strains also were isolated from Acer palmatum, Choisya ternata and Taxus in the United Kingdom. All isolates were homothallic and had a stellate colony pattern, produced larger semi-papillate sporangia and smaller globose oogonia than the isolates from Pa. terminalis and had a maximum growth temperature of ~ 30 C. Phylogenetic analyses of both species using the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuc rDNA (ITS), mt cytochrome oxidases subunit I gene (CoxI) and nuc translation elongation factor 1-α gene (TEF1α) revealed that all sequences of each species were identical at each locus and unique to that species, forming two distinct clusters in subclade 2a. Sequence analysis of partial β-tubulin genes showed that both taxa share an identical sequence that is identical to that of Ph. himalsilva, a species originating from Asia, suggesting a common Asian origin. Pathogenicity trials demonstrated disease symptoms on their respective hosts, and re-isolation and re-identification of the inoculated pathogens confirmed Koch's postulates. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  6. A somatotropina recombinante bovina (bST) e a dinâmica folicular em bovinos leiteiros /

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Marcos André

    2004-01-01

    O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a influência da somatotropina recombinante bovina (bST) sobre a reprodução de fêmeas bovinas da raça Holandesa Preta e Branca tratadas, avaliando-se um ciclo estral completo. Foi verificado a dinâmica folicular, observando-se o diâmetro dos ovários, número de ondas foliculares durante o ciclo estral, duração de cada onda folicular, número e diâmetro dos folículos recrutados. Foram utilizadas doze fêmeas sendo seis do grupo controle e seis do grupo trata...

  7. Efeito da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST sobre a produção de leite em búfalas Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o resultado da utilização da somatotropina bovina recombinante (bST atuando na produção de leite em búfalas da raça Murrah. Empregaram-se 28 búfalas multíparas da raça Murrah, divididas em dois grupos homogêneos de 14 animais, recebendo os seguintes tratamentos: Grupo 1 ¾ Controle (solução salina e Grupo 2 ¾ 500 mg de bST/cabeça a cada 14 dias, durante 7 meses. Búfalas tratadas com bST exibiram incrementos de 48,52%, 32,80% e 32,80% nas produções total de leite, corrigida, depois, para 4% de gordura e média diária, respectivamente. A somatotropina elevou a produção total de gordura sem alterar a porcentagem dela no leite. A administração de bST não afetou a porcentagem de proteína do leite todavia, a produção total de proteína foi aumentada. Quanto à duração da lactação, o tratamento com bST diferiu do controle, o que demonstra a maior persistência da lactação de búfalas tratadas com bST.The objective of this work was to study the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST utilization on milk production from Murrah buffaloes. Twenty eight multiparous Murrah buffaloes were used and divided into two homogeneous groups of 14 animals, receiving the following treatments: Group 1 ¾ Control (salt solution and Group 2 ¾ 500 mg of bST/head every 14 days during 7 months. Buffaloes treated with bST presented increase of 48.52%, 32.80% and 32.80% on total milk yield, adjusted to 4% of fat and average daily milk yield, respectively. Somatotropin increased total fat milk yield without alter fat percentage of milk. Administration of bST did not affect protein percentage of milk while total protein milk yield increased. As for the lactating period, the treatment with bST differed of the control, what might have denoted in larger persistence of the lactation from buffaloes treated with bST.

  8. Emergence of CTX-M-15 producing E. coli O25b-ST131 clone in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, N; Shamsuzzaman, S M

    2016-12-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing uropathogens has become prevalent worldwide. E. coli O25b-ST131 clone, associated with blaCTX-M-15, has been reported from many parts of the world and is frequently associated with multidrug resistance. Thus far, there are no reports about this clone in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to investigate ESBL producing uropathogens and to survey the prevalence of E. coli O25b-ST131 clone among ESBL positive E. coli isolates. From symptomatic urinary tract infection cases, a total of 800 urine samples were collected. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using established methods. Screening of ESBL producers was done using the disk diffusion method. Screening positive isolates were phenotypically confirmed by double disk synergy (DDS) test. Genes encoding ESBLs (blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1) were identified both by PCR and DNA sequencing. Phenotypic positive ESBL producers were also studied by PCR for existence of class 1 integron. Subsequently, O25b-ST131 clone was identified by allele specific PCR. Of 138 gram-negative uropathogens, 45 (32.6%) were positive for ESBLs. ESBL producers showed high frequency of antimicrobial resistance except imipenem. Among 45 ESBL producers, 36 (80%) produced blaCTX-M-15, 18 (40%) produced blaOXA-1. Fifteen (33.3%) strains simultaneously produced both blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Class 1 integron was present in 30 (66.7%) isolates. Of the 31 blaCTX-M-15 positive E. coli, 22 (71%) were positive for E. coli O25b-ST131 clone and all (100%) belonged to B2 phylogenetic group. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens, and especially the emergence of blaCTX-M-15 positive E. coli O25b-ST131 clone in Bangladesh has provided urgency to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  9. X-ray diffraction and surface acoustic wave analysis of BST/Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mseddi, Souhir; Hedi Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Universite de Sfax, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Njeh, Anouar [Unite de Physique, Informatique et Matematiques, Faculte des Sciences de Gafsa, Universite de Gafsa, 2112 Gafsa (Tunisia); Schneider, Dieter [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Material- und Strahltechnologie, Winterbergstrasse 28, 1277 Dresden (Germany); Fuess, Hartmut [Institute of Materials Science, University of Technology, Petersenstr.23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    High dielectric constant and electrostriction property of (Ba, Sr)Ti0{sub 3} (BST) thin films result in an increasing interest for dielectric devices and microwave acoustic resonator. Barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 0.645}Sr{sub 0.355}TiO{sub 3}) films of about 300 nm thickness are grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates by rf magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. X-ray diffraction is applied for the microstructural characterization. The BST films exhibit a cubic perovskite structure with a dense and smooth surface. A laser acoustic waves (LA-waves) technique is used to generate surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in the BST films. Young's modulus E and the Poisson ratio {nu} of TiO{sub 2,} Pt and BST films in different propagation directions are derived from the measured dispersion curves. Estimation of BST elastics constants are served in SAW studies. Impact of stratification process on SAW, propagating along [100] and [110] directions of silicon substrate, has been interpreted on the basis of ordinary differential equation (ODE) and stiffness matrix method (SMM). A good agreement is observed between experimental and calculated dispersion curves. The performed calculations are strongly related to the implemented crystallographic data of each layer. Dispersion curves are found to be sensitive to the SAW propagation direction and the stratification process for the explored frequency ranges 50-250 MHz, even though it corresponds to a wave length clearly higher than the whole films thickness.

  10. Epithelial cell stretching and luminal acidification lead to a retarded development of stria vascularis and deafness in mice lacking pendrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Mi Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations of SLC26A4/pendrin are among the most prevalent causes of deafness. Deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the corresponding mouse model, Slc26a4(-/-, are associated with an enlargement and acidification of the membranous labyrinth. Here we relate the onset of expression of the HCO(3 (- transporter pendrin to the luminal pH and to enlargement-associated epithelial cell stretching. We determined expression with immunocytochemistry, cell stretching by digital morphometry and pH with double-barreled ion-selective electrodes. Pendrin was first expressed in the endolymphatic sac at embryonic day (E 11.5, in the cochlear hook-region at E13.5, in the utricle and saccule at E14.5, in ampullae at E16.5, and in the upper turn of the cochlea at E17.5. Epithelial cell stretching in Slc26a4(-/- mice began at E14.5. pH changes occurred first in the cochlea at E15.5 and in the endolymphatic sac at E17.5. At postnatal day 2, stria vascularis, outer sulcus and Reissner's membrane epithelial cells, and utricular and saccular transitional cells were stretched, whereas sensory cells in the cochlea, utricle and saccule did not differ between Slc26a4(+/- and Slc26a4(-/- mice. Structural development of stria vascularis, including vascularization, was retarded in Slc26a4(-/- mice. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the enlargement and stretching of non-sensory epithelial cells precedes luminal acidification in the cochlea and the endolymphatic sac. Stretching and luminal acidification may alter cell-to-cell communication and lead to the observed retarded development of stria vascularis, which may be an important step on the path to deafness in Slc26a4(-/- mice, and possibly in humans, lacking functional pendrin expression.

  11. Expression of aquaporins and vasopressin type 2 receptor in the stria vascularis of the cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, R; Takeda, T; Kakigi, A; Okada, T; Takebayashi, S; Taguchi, D; Nishimura, M; Hyodo, M

    2010-02-01

    Recently, considerable evidence has been accumulated to support the novel view that water homeostasis in the inner ear is regulated via the vasopressin-aquaporin 2 (VP-AQP2) system in the same fashion as in the kidney. Indeed, multiple subtypes of AQPs including AQP-2 are reported to be expressed in the cochlea. However, the mechanism that underlies VP-AQP-2 mediated water homeostasis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the localizations of AQP-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, -8, -9, and vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2-R) in the stria vascularis (SV) were molecular biologically and immunohistochemically examined to evaluate the role of the AQP water channel system in water homeostasis of the SV. A RT-PCR study revealed that AQPs and V2-R mRNA are expressed in the cochlea. As for their immunohistochemical localization, the AQP-2 protein is expressed on the basal side of the basal cells of the SV, and proteins of AQP-3 and V2-R are expressed on the apical side of the basal cells. AQP-7 and -9 proteins are expressed on the apical side of marginal cells. AQP-4, -5, and -8 protein expressions could not be detected in the lateral wall of the cochlea. From the present results, water flux in the SV is thought to be regulated at the level of the basal cells by vasopressin. Furthermore, such a distribution of AQP-2, -3, and V2-R suggests that VP-AQP-2 mediated water transport might work actively in the basal cells from perilymph towards endolymph containing AQP-1, -7 and -9. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST administration in Simbrasil calves and its effects on muscle fibers and T3, T4 and IGF-I hormonal pattern Somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST em bezerros Simbrasil e seus efeitos sobre as fibras musculares e o padrão hormonal de T3, T4 e IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Silveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the muscle fibers and alterations of the thyroid hormones and IGF-I, 64 Simbrasil male and female calves, from 60 until 210 days-old, were supplemented in creep-feeding, with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST. A dose of 0.15 mg of rBST/kg of body weight was administrated every 14 days in the animals with rBST. The muscle fibers were characterized, and the proteins were quantified. Alterations hormones and IGF-I were also evaluated. It was not observed any increase in the average diameter of the three types of muscle fibers. The myofibril protein content of the muscle from the rBST female calves increased, and the same were observed in male calves, independent of rBST administration. It was not found any influence of rBST administration in the T3 hormone, although the female calves (2.37ng/mL had greater T3 concentration than the male calves (1.95ng/mL. Regarding the T4 hormone, female calves had greater concentration than male calves, in which the rBST administration resulted in a decrease of T4 concentration. The female calves had lower IGF-I concentration than the male calves, but rBST administration caused an increase in the IGF-I concentration in both gender. In conclusion, the rBST administration did not promote an increase in the muscle fiber diameter, and it happened with the myofibril protein content of the muscle from the females calves. Also, rBST did not influence T3 concentration, reduced T4 in male calves and increased IGF-I concentration in both gender.Com o objetivo de caracterizar as fibras musculares e avaliar as alterações dos hormônios tireoidianos e IGF-I, em bezerros suplementados em creep-feeding, com administração de somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST, realizou-se o experimento com 64 machos e fêmeas, Simbrasil. O experimento iniciou-se aos 60 dias e foi até os 210 dias de idade. Foram administrados 0,15mg de rBST/kg de peso vivo, em intervalos de 14 dias. Caracterizaram

  13. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  14. Monoamine innervation of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT): a high resolution radioautographic study in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosler, O.; Descarries, L.

    1988-06-22

    The monoamine innervation of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) was examined in the adult rat by light and electron microscope radioautography after intraventricular administration of tritiated serotonin (( 3H)5-HT) or dopamine (( 3H)DA). Radioautographic and biochemical controls after 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine or 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning established the respective serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamine (CA) identities of the axonal varicosities labeled under the conditions of the present experiments. For descriptive purposes, the OVLT was subdivided in three parts: two parenchymal zones, one juxtaventricular, the other juxtavascular, and the vascular core. Almost 10% of all axonal varicosities in the OVLT were found to be labeled with (3H)5-HT. This 5-HT innervation was most prominent in the rostrocaudal and ventrodorsal portions of the juxtaventricular zone and the dorsal aspect of the juxtavascular zone; there was none in the vascular core. (3H)DA-labeled varicosities were much less abundant and yet more numerous than earlier histofluorescent and immunohistochemical studies would have predicted. They predominated in the juxtavascular zone, where a majority presumably had a dopamine (DA) rather than a noradrenaline identity. Some were also found in the vascular core, where they most likely corresponded to peripheral autonomic noradrenaline endings. In the juxtaventricular zone of the OVLT, a significant proportion of the (3H)5-HT-labeled varicosity profiles could be observed to form axodendritic synapses, but in the juxtavascular zone no 5-HT or any (3H)DA-labeled ones were ever seen in synaptic junction. In the juxtavascular zone, the 5-HT and the presumed DA endings established close relationships with neurosecretory axons, and with astrocytic or tanycytic processes on which they occasionally formed synaptoid contacts.

  15. Somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade aparente de novilhas (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Willian Gonçalves do

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST - análogo do BST, obtido comercialmente pela técnica do DNA recombinante, sobre ganho médio diário (GMD, ingestão de matéria seca (IMS, matéria orgânica (IMO, energia metabolizável (IEM e fibra em detergente neutro (IFDN, ingestão de matéria seca em relação ao peso vivo (IMS/PV, conversão alimentar (CA, rendimento de carcaça (RC e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, energia bruta (DAEB e fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN. Foram utilizadas 24 novilhas mestiças (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus, com aproximadamente 18 meses de idade e peso médio 255 kg. Os animais foram alimentados com uma dieta contendo silagem de milho, como volumoso, e polpa de citrus e farelo de soja, como concentrado, durante 84 dias. Essa dieta foi utilizada para os três tratamentos, que se diferenciaram pela aplicação de 250 mg de rBST, por via subcutânea, na fossa ísqueo-retal, onde: tratamento 1 controle (aplicação de dois mL de solução salina; 2 dose única e 3 uma dose a cada 14 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e oito repetições. O GMD foi determinado a cada 14 dias. A ingestão de alimentos e a conversão da MS foram determinadas ao final do experimento. A digestibilidade aparente (DA foi determinada durante um período de sete dias com uso de indicador interno. Não houve diferença entre animais tratados ou não com rBST sobre o GMD, IMS, IPB, IEM, IMO e IFDN, CAMS e RC. No entanto, a DA da MS, MO, PB, EB e FND foi superior para as novilhas que receberam rBST a cada 14 dias.

  16. Species-specific activity of SIV Nef and HIV-1 Vpu in overcoming restriction by tetherin/BST2.

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    Bin Jia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin, also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24, was recently identified as an interferon-inducible host-cell factor that interferes with the detachment of virus particles from infected cells. HIV-1 overcomes this restriction by expressing an accessory protein, Vpu, which counteracts tetherin. Since lentiviruses of the SIV(smm/mac/HIV-2 lineage do not have a vpu gene, this activity has likely been assumed by other viral gene products. We found that deletion of the SIV(mac239 nef gene significantly impaired virus release in cells expressing rhesus macaque tetherin. Virus release could be restored by expressing Nef in trans. However, Nef was unable to facilitate virus release in the presence of human tetherin. Conversely, Vpu enhanced virus release in the presence of human tetherin, but not in the presence of rhesus tetherin. In accordance with the species-specificity of Nef in mediating virus release, SIV Nef downregulated cell-surface expression of rhesus tetherin, but did not downregulate human tetherin. The specificity of SIV Nef for rhesus tetherin mapped to four amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the molecule that are missing from human tetherin, whereas the specificity of Vpu for human tetherin mapped to amino acid differences in the transmembrane domain. Nef alleles of SIV(smm, HIV-2 and HIV-1 were also able to rescue virus release in the presence of both rhesus macaque and sooty mangabey tetherin, but were generally ineffective against human tetherin. Thus, the ability of Nef to antagonize tetherin from these Old World primates appears to be conserved among the primate lentiviruses. These results identify Nef as the viral gene product of SIV that opposes restriction by tetherin in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys, and reveal species-specificity in the activities of both Nef and Vpu in overcoming tetherin in their respective hosts.

  17. Fluoroquinolone-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli, including O25b-ST131, isolated from faeces of hospitalized dogs in an Australian veterinary referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siyu; Brouwers, Huub J M; Cobbold, Rowland N; Platell, Joanne L; Chapman, Toni A; Barrs, Vanessa R; Johnson, James R; Trott, Darren J

    2013-05-01

    To determine rates of carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) among dogs in a specialist referral hospital and to examine the population structure of the isolates. Fluoroquinolone-resistant faecal E. coli isolates (n = 232, from 23 of 123 dogs) recovered from hospitalized dogs in a veterinary referral centre in Sydney, Australia, over 140 days in 2009 were characterized by phylogenetic grouping, virulence genotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The RAPD dendrogram for representative isolates showed one group B2-associated cluster and three group D-associated clusters; each contained isolates with closely related ExPEC-associated virulence profiles. All group B2 faecal isolates represented the O25b-ST131 clonal group and were closely related to recent canine extraintestinal ST131 clinical isolates from the east coast of Australia by RAPD analysis. Hospitalized dogs may carry fluoroquinolone-resistant ExPEC in their faeces, including those representing O25b-ST131.

  18. Contributions of the Central Extended Amygdala to Fear and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Alexander J; Fox, Andrew S

    2016-08-03

    It is widely thought that phasic and sustained responses to threat reflect dissociable circuits centered on the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the two major subdivisions of the central extended amygdala. Early versions of this hypothesis remain highly influential and have been incorporated into the National Institute of Mental Health Research Research Domain Criteria framework. However, new observations encourage a different perspective. Anatomical studies show that the Ce and BST form a tightly interconnected unit, where different kinds of threat-relevant information can be integrated and used to assemble states of fear and anxiety. Imaging studies in humans and monkeys show that the Ce and BST exhibit similar functional profiles. Both regions are sensitive to a range of aversive challenges, including uncertain or temporally remote threat; both covary with concurrent signs and symptoms of fear and anxiety; both show phasic responses to short-lived threat; and both show heightened activity during sustained exposure to diffusely threatening contexts. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that both regions can control the expression of fear and anxiety during sustained exposure to diffuse threat. These observations compel a reconsideration of the central extended amygdala's contributions to fear and anxiety and its role in neuropsychiatric disease. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/368050-14$15.00/0.

  19. Deafness in Claudin 11-Null Mice Reveals the Critical Contribution of Basal Cell Tight Junctions to Stria Vascularis Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Alexander; Davies, Caroline; Southwood, Cherie M.; Frolenkov, Gregory; Chrustowski, Mark; Ng, Lily; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Marcus, Daniel C.; Kachar, Bechara

    2015-01-01

    Generation of a strong electrical potential in the cochlea is uniquely mammalian and may reflect recent evolutionary advances in cellular voltage-dependent amplifiers. This endocochlear potential is hypothesized to dramatically improve hearing sensitivity, a concept that is difficult to explore experimentally, because manipulating cochlear function frequently causes rapid degenerative changes early in development. Here, we examine the deafness phenotype in adult Claudin 11-null mice, which lack the basal cell tight junctions that give rise to the intrastrial compartment and find little evidence of cochlear pathology. Potassium ion recycling is normal in these mutants, but endocochlear potentials were below 30 mV and hearing thresholds were elevated 50 dB sound pressure level across the frequency spectrum. Together, these data demonstrate the central importance of basal cell tight junctions in the stria vascularis and directly verify the two-cell hypothesis for generation of endocochlear potential. Furthermore, these data indicate that endocochlear potential is an essential component of the power source for the mammalian cochlear amplifier. PMID:15306639

  20. INTERACCIÓN COLIBRÍ-FLOR EN TRES REMANENTES DE BOSQUE TROPICAL SECO (BST DEL MUNICIPIO DE CHIMICHAGUA (CESAR, COLOMBIA

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    DANIEL LEÓN-CAMARGO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó la interacción colibrí-planta en tres remanentes de bosque tropical seco (BsT, ubicados en el municipio de Chimichagua (Cesar, Colombia con base en la observación de las visitas a los recursos florales y en los análisis de las cargas de polen en el pico y en otras partes del cuerpo de las aves. Se registró la época de floración y la abundancia de flores producidas por las plantas utilizadas por los colibríes y se midió la cantidad y calidad del néctar. En cinco muestreos que cubrieron la variabilidad de la precipitación en la zona de estudio, se capturaron a 17 individuos. Se realizaron 218 observaciones (visitas de dos especies de colibríes Lepidopyga goudoti y Phaethornis anthophilus, los cuales visitaron a 31 especies de plantas. Para el caso de las observaciones sobre visitas de los colibríes a las plantas, Arrabidaea cf. corallina fue la más importante (IVIR=0.14840 en los tres remanentes de vegetación estudiados, seguida por Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.05356 y Pogonopus speciosus (IVIR=0.02773. Otra especie importante pero con valores bajos fue Cochlospermum vitifolium. De acuerdo con los análisis de cargas de polen, el recurso más importante fue Pogonopus speciosus con un valor de IVIR=0.29643, seguido por Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.09286 y Hemistylus cf. odontophylla (IVIR=0.03294. En el análisis general para los tres sitios (Tabla 3, los recursos más importantes para los colibríes fueron Pogonopus speciosus (IVIR=0.06207, Aphelandra pulcherrima (IVIR=0.06021 y Cochlospermum vitifolium (IVIR=0.01095. Lepidopyga goudoti utiliza 22 especies de plantas, mientras que P. anthophilus solamente utiliza siete. Las flores visitadas fueron en su mayoría tubulares con colores brillantes y contrastantes como el rojo, el morado y el violeta y se encontró buen ajuste entre su tamaño y la longitud y la forma del pico de los colibríes. También se presentaron visitas a flores de color blanco y amarillo como

  1. Efeitos da somatotropina bovina recombinante (BST), da raça e da alimentação sobre a produção e a qualidade do leite de cabra na região Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    LUCENA, Jesane Alves de

    2003-01-01

    A somatotropina bovina recombinante (BST) tem sido utilizada como ferramenta para incrementar a produção leiteira em ruminantes, podendo ser aplicada à caprinocultura leiteira do Nordeste. A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da BST sobre a produção e a qualidade do leite de cabra, de raças exóticas submetidas a diferentes níveis de concentrado, no semi-árido nordestino. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa/Caprinos, em Sobral-Ceará. Utili...

  2. La estria supranuclear de las células ciliadas en la rinitis alérgica Supranuclear stria of ciliated cells in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zerdiew

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 80 pacientes adultos alérgicos, que cursaron con los siguientes cuadros clínicos: 16 casos de rinitis intermitente y 64 de rinitis persistente. Se realizó el recuento porcentual de la estría supranuclear de las células ciliadas, respecto de los leucocitos presentes en los extendidos obtenidos por toma endonasal. Con los datos obtenidos se clasificaron los extendidos en 4 grupos; Grupo A (N=23: predominio leucocitario eosinófilo con eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo B (N=15: abundantes leucocitos neutrófilos y eosinofilia nasal >10%, Grupo C (N=29: con escasos leucocitos, Grupo D (N=13: con abundantes leucocitos de predominio neutrófilo sin eosinofilia. Se observó que el incremento porcentual de estría supranuclear se correlacionó con eosinofilia nasal >10% y con las muestras que presentaron escasos leucocitos. Sin embargo se evidenció una marcada disminución del porcentaje de estría supranuclear en la leucocitosis neutrófila de etiología bacteriana.Nasal secretions were studied in 80 allergic adults patients: 16 with intermittent rhinitis and 64 with persistent rhinitis. The percentage of supranuclear stria of ciliated cells with regard to leucocytes was studied by nasal scraping. Four groups of patients were classified according to nasal leucocytic predominance: patients with eosinophilic predominance with eosinophils > 10% in Group A (N=23, patients with abundant neutrophils and eosinophils >10% in Group B (N=15, patients with scant leucocytes in Group C (N=29, patients with neutrophilic predominance without eosinophils in Group D (N=13. An increase of supranuclear stria percentage was correlated to eosinophils > 10% and also correlated to scant leucocytes. Nevertheless, a significant decrease of supranuclear stria percentage was observed in neutrophilic leukocytosis of bacterial etiology.

  3. The Homolog of the Gene bstA of the BTP1 Phage from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ST313 Is an Antivirulence Gene in Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Espinel, Irene Cartas; Spiegelhauer, Malene Roed

    2018-01-01

    was not important for adherence to or invasion of human epithelial cells and did not influence bacterial growth in rich medium, minimal medium, or cattle blood. In conclusion, a lack of bstA affects the pathogenicity of S. Dublin by decreasing its virulence. Therefore, it might be regarded as an antivirulence gene...

  4. Indicadores de estresse térmico e utilização da somatotropina bovina (bST em vacas leiteiras mestiças (Bos taurus x Bos indicus no semi-árido do Nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Neto Joaquim Batista de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi avaliar a resposta ao bST de vacas mestiças (Bos taurus x Bos indicus criadas no semi-árido do Ceará. Quinze vacas (segunda e terceira parições; 42 a 155 dias pós-parto receberam cinco aplicações de bST a intervalos de 14 dias e outras 15 foram utilizadas como controle. A dieta dos animais consistiu de capim-elefante e concentrado. Durante a primeira aplicação de bST, a produção de leite dos animais tratados (12,6 kg/dia não diferiu dos animais controle (11,3 Kg/dia mas, na segunda e terceira aplicações, a diferença entre os grupos foi significativa (2,0 e 2,2 kg. Na quarta aplicação de bST, houve aumento na diferença entre os grupos (3,0 kg e, na quinta aplicação, esta diferença foi de 3,4 kg (14,0 kg versus 10,6 kg/dia. A interação tratamento com bST e estágio de lactação não foi significativa. As temperaturas do leite e retal foram maiores (0,6 e 0,1°C, respectivamente nos animais tratados com bST que nos animais controles, mas estas diferenças não foram significativas. Para o grupo de 30 animais, houve correlações entre produção e temperatura do leite (r = 0, 38 a 0,69. Com base no cálculo do índice de temperatura e umidade, os animais estiveram submetidos a estresse térmico ameno (manhã ou moderado (à tarde. Portanto, animais mestiços criados no semi-árido do Nordeste aumentaram a produção de leite devido ao bST, sem, no entanto, apresentar indicativos de estresse térmico severo.

  5. Adenosine Triphosphate-sensitive Micro-reentrant Atrial Tachycardia Originating from the Crista Terminalis in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure due to Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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    Shinya Sugiura, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old woman with chronic renal failure due to the thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura complained of palpitation. A 12-lead ECG showed supraventricular tachycardia with a cycle length of 375 ms. During the electrophysiological study, a tachycardia with a cycle length of 375 ms was reproducibly induced and terminated by atrial extrastimulation. The tachycardia exhibited an inverse relationship between the coupling interval of extrastimulus initiating the tachycardia, and the first postpacing return cycle, as well as an increasing pattern of resetting the tachycardia with an atrial extrastimulus. Ventricular burst pacing during tachycardia produced AV dissociation. Intravenous injections of a low dose (4 mg of adenosine triphosphate (ATP terminated the tachycardia without a preceding atrio-His bundle block. The tachycardia was diagnosed as an ATP-sensitive micro-reentrant atrial tachycardia. Real-time endocardial activation mapping using an electroanatomical mapping system revealed that the earliest activation site of the tachycardia was located at the midlateral portion of the crista terminalis. The tachycardia was abolished by focal ablation targeting the earliest activation site during tachycardia. This is the first reported case of an ATP-sensitive micro-reentrant atrial tachycardia associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

  6. Estrogen Receptor Alpha Distribution and Expression in the Social Neural Network of Monogamous and Polygynous Peromyscus.

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    Bruce S Cushing

    Full Text Available In microtine and dwarf hamsters low levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and medial amygdala (MeA play a critical role in the expression of social monogamy in males, which is characterized by high levels of affiliation and low levels of aggression. In contrast, monogamous Peromyscus males display high levels of aggression and affiliative behavior with high levels of testosterone and aromatase activity. Suggesting the hypothesis that in Peromyscus ERα expression will be positively correlated with high levels of male prosocial behavior and aggression. ERα expression was compared within the social neural network, including the posterior medial BST, MeA posterodorsal, medial preoptic area (MPOA, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH, and arcuate nucleus in two monogamous species, P. californicus and P. polionotus, and two polygynous species, P. leucopus and P. maniculatus. The results supported the prediction, with male P. polionotus and P. californicus expressing higher levels of ERα in the BST than their polygynous counter parts, and ERα expression was sexually dimorphic in the polygynous species, with females expressing significantly more than males in the BST in both polygynous species and in the MeA in P. leucopus. Peromyscus ERα expression also differed from rats, mice and microtines as in neither the MPOA nor the VMH was ERα sexually dimorphic. The results supported the hypothesis that higher levels of ERα are associated with monogamy in Peromyscus and that differential expression of ERα occurs in the same regions of the brains regardless of whether high or low expression is associated with social monogamy. Also discussed are possible mechanisms regulating this differential relationship.

  7. Relationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain.

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    Dickens, M J; de Bournonville, C; Balthazart, J; Cornil, C A

    2014-02-01

    Estradiol-17β (E2) synthesized in the brain plays a critical role in the activation of sexual behavior in many vertebrate species. Because E2 concentrations depend on aromatization of testosterone, changes in aromatase enzymatic activity (AA) are often utilized as a proxy to describe E2 concentrations. Utilizing two types of stimuli (sexual interactions and acute restraint stress) that have been demonstrated to reliably alter AA within minutes in opposite directions (sexual interactions=decrease, stress=increase), we tested in Japanese quail whether rapid changes in AA are paralleled by changes in E2 concentrations in discrete brain areas. In males, E2 in the pooled medial preoptic nucleus/medial portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (POM/BST) positively correlated with AA following sexual interactions. However, following acute stress, E2 decreased significantly (approximately 2-fold) in the male POM/BST despite a significant increase in AA. In females, AA positively correlated with E2 in both the POM/BST and mediobasal hypothalamus supporting a role for local, as opposed to ovarian, production regulating brain E2 concentrations. In addition, correlations of individual E2 in POM/BST and measurements of female sexual behavior suggested a role for local E2 synthesis in female receptivity. These data demonstrate that local E2 in the male brain changes in response to stimuli on a time course suggestive of potential non-genomic effects on brain and behavior. Overall, this study highlights the complex mechanisms regulating local E2 concentrations including rapid stimulus-driven changes in production and stress-induced changes in catabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice lacking the CD157/BST1 gene, a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease

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    Olga eLopatina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD157, known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyl cyclase that supports the survival and function of B-lymphocytes and hematopoietic or intestinal stem cells. Although CD157/Bst1 is a risk locus in Parkinson’s disease (PD, little is known about the function of CD157 in the nervous system and contribution to PD progression. Here, we show that no apparent motor dysfunction was observed in young knockout (CD157-/- male mice under less aging-related effects on behaviors. CD157-/- mice exhibited anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors compared with wild-type mice. These behaviors were rescued through treatment with anti-psychiatric drugs and oxytocin. CD157 was weakly expressed in the amygdala and c-Fos immunoreactivity was less evident in CD157-/- mice than in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CD157 plays a role as a neuro-regulator and suggest a potential role in pre-motor symptoms in PD.

  9. Differential co-localization with choline acetyltransferase in nervus terminalis suggests functional differences for GnRH isoforms in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo).

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    Moeller, John F; Meredith, Michael

    2010-12-17

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is a vertebrate cranial nerve whose function in adults is unknown. In bonnethead sharks, the nerve is anatomically independent of the olfactory system, with two major cell populations within one or more ganglia along its exposed length. Most cells are immunoreactive for either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or RF-amide-like peptides. To define further the cell populations and connectivity, we used double-label immunocytochemistry with antisera to different isoforms of GnRH and to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The labeling patterns of two GnRH antisera revealed different populations of GnRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell profiles in the NT ganglion. One antiserum labeled a large group of cells and fibers, which likely contain mammalian GnRH (GnRH-I) as described in previous studies and which were ChAT immunoreactive. The other antiserum labeled large club-like structures, which were anuclear, and a sparse number of fibers, but with no clear labeling of cell bodies in the ganglion. These club structures were choline acetyltrasferase (ChAT)-negative, and preabsorption control tests suggest they may contain chicken-GnRH-II (GnRH-II) or dogfish GnRH. The second major NT ganglion cell-type was immunoreactive for RF-amides, which regulate GnRH release in other vertebrates, and may provide an intraganglionic influence on GnRH release. The immunocytochemical and anatomical differences between the two GnRH-immunoreactive profile types indicate possible functional differences for these isoforms in the NT. The club-like structures may be sites of GnRH release into the general circulation since these structures were observed near blood vessels and resembled structures seen in the median eminence of rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis).

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    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Wei-Na; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Lu, Kang-Le; Wang, Li-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) and their interaction on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream Megalobrama terminalis (average initial weight 30.5 ± 0.5 g). Nine experimental diets were formulated to contain three FOS levels (0, 0.3% and 0.6%) and three B. licheniformis levels (0, 1 × 10(7), 5 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)) according to a 3 × 3 factorial design. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) and survival rate was recorded for the next 7 days. The results showed that leucocyte counts, alternative complement activity as well as total serum protein and globulin contents all increased significantly (P licheniformis levels increased from 0 to 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1), while little difference (P > 0.05) was observed in these parameters in terms of dietary FOS levels. Both plasma alkaline phosphatase and phenoloxidase activities were significantly (P 0.05) by both FOS and B. licheniformis. Liver catalase, glutathione peroxidase as well as plasma SOD activities of fish fed 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis were all significantly (P 0.05) by either FOS levels or B. licheniformis contents, whereas a significant (P licheniformis. The results of this study indicated that dietary FOS and B. licheniformis could significantly enhance the innate immunity and antioxidant capability of triangular bream, as well as improve its disease resistance. The best combination of these two prebiotics and/or probiotics was 0.3% FOS and 1 × 10(7) CFU g(-1)B. licheniformis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging of aromatase distribution in rat and rhesus monkey brains with [{sup 11}C]vorozole

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    Takahashi, Kayo [Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)]. E-mail: kayo.takahashi@uppsala.imanet.se; Bergstroem, Mats [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75124 (Sweden); Fraendberg, Pernilla [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Vesstroem, Eva-Lotta [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden); Watanabe, Yasuyoshi [Department of Physiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Langstroem, Bengt [Uppsala Imanet, Uppsala SE-75109 (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    Aromatase is an enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens and may play a role in mood and mental status. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that brain aromatase distribution could be evaluated with a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [{sup 11}C]vorozole. Vorozole is a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor that reversibly binds to the heme domain of aromatase. In vitro experiments in rat brain, using frozen section autoradiography, illustrated specific binding in the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and the preoptic area (POA) of male rat brain. Specific binding in female rat brain was found in the MA and the BST; however, the signals were lower than those of males. The K {sub d} of [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding to aromatase in MA was determined to be 0.60{+-}0.06 nM by Scatchard plot analysis using homogenates. An in vivo PET study in female rhesus monkey brain demonstrated the uptake of [{sup 11}C]vorozole in the amygdala, where the uptake was blocked by the presence of excess amounts of unlabeled vorozole. Thus, this tracer has a high affinity for brain aromatase and could have a potential for in vivo aromatase imaging. This technique might enable the investigation of human brain aromatase in healthy and diseased persons.

  12. The hypothalamic neuropeptide FF network is impaired in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, Valeri D; Buijs, Ruud M; Jhamandas, Jack H; Swaab, Dick F

    2014-07-01

    The human hypothalamus contains the neuropeptide FF (NPFF) neurochemical network. Animal experiments demonstrated that NPFF is implicated in the central cardiovascular regulation. We therefore studied expression of this peptide in the hypothalamus of individuals who suffered from essential hypertension (n = 8) and died suddenly due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and compared to that of healthy individuals (controls) (n = 6) who died abruptly due to mechanical trauma of the chest. The frozen right part of the hypothalamus was cut coronally into serial sections of 20 μm thickness, and each tenth section was stained immunohistochemically using antibody against NPFF. The central section through each hypothalamic nucleus was characterized by the highest intensity of NPFF immunostaining and thus was chosen for quantitative densitometry. In hypertensive patients, the area occupied by NPFF immunostained neuronal elements in the central sections through the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCh), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (Pa), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), perinuclear zone (PNZ) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON), dorso- (DMH), ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, and perifornical nucleus (PeF) was dramatically decreased compared to controls, ranging about six times less in the VMH to 15 times less in the central part of the BST (BSTC). The NPFF innervation of both nonstained neuronal profiles and microvasculature was extremely poor in hypertensive patients compared to control. The decreased NPFF expression in the hypothalamus of hypertensive patients might be a cause of impairment of its interaction with other neurochemical systems, and thereby might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Estrous cycle influences the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the hypothalamus and limbic system of female mice

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    Viglietti-Panzica Carla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide plays an important role in the regulation of male and female sexual behavior in rodents, and the expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS is influenced by testosterone in the male rat, and by estrogens in the female. We have here quantitatively investigated the distribution of nNOS immunoreactive (ir neurons in the limbic hypothalamic region of intact female mice sacrificed during different phases of estrous cycle. Results Changes were observed in the medial preoptic area (MPA (significantly higher number in estrus and in the arcuate nucleus (Arc (significantly higher number in proestrus. In the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial nucleus (VMHvl and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST no significant changes have been observed. In addition, by comparing males and females, we observed a stable sex dimorphism (males have a higher number of nNOS-ir cells in comparison to almost all the different phases of the estrous cycle in the VMHvl and in the BST (when considering only the less intensely stained elements. In the MPA and in the Arc sex differences were detected only comparing some phases of the cycle. Conclusion These data demonstrate that, in mice, the expression of nNOS in some hypothalamic regions involved in the control of reproduction and characterized by a large number of estrogen receptors is under the control of gonadal hormones and may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle.

  14. Selegiline Ameliorates Depression-Like Behavior in Mice Lacking the CD157/BST1 Gene, a Risk Factor for Parkinson’s Disease

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    Satoka Kasai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD, a neurodegenerative disorder, is accompanied by various non-motor symptoms including depression and anxiety, which may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Selegiline is an irreversible monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B inhibitor, and is widely used in the treatment of PD and major depression. However, there are few reports about the effects of selegiline on non-motor symptoms in PD. The aim of this study was to explore the antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of selegiline, using CD157/BST1 knockout (CD157 KO mouse, a PD-related genetic model displaying depression and anxiety, compared with other antiparkinsonian drugs and an antidepressant, and was to investigate the effects of selegiline on biochemical parameters in emotion-related brain regions. A single administration of selegiline (1–10 mg/kg dose-dependently reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST in CD157 KO mice, but not C57BL/6N wild-type (WT mice. At 10 mg/kg, but not 3 mg/kg, selegiline significantly increased climbing time in CD157 KO mice. A single administration of the antiparkinsonian drugs pramipexole (a dopamine (DA D2/D3 receptor agonist or rasagiline (another MAO-B inhibitor, and repeated injections of a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA, mirtazapine, also decreased immobility time, but did not increase climbing time, in CD157 KO mice. The antidepressant-like effects of 10 mg/kg selegiline were comparable to those of 10 mg/kg rasagiline, and tended to be stronger than those of 1 mg/kg rasagiline. After the FST, CD157 KO mice showed decreases in striatal and hippocampal serotonin (5-HT content, cortical norepinephrine (NE content, and plasma corticosterone concentration. A single administration of selegiline at 10 mg/kg returned striatal 5-HT, cortical NE, and plasma corticosterone levels to those observed in WT mice. In the open field test (OFT, repeated administration of mirtazapine had anxiolytic effects

  15. Somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST nos aspectos hematológicos e metabólitos do sangue de novilhas (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus em confinamento

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    Prado Ivanor Nunes do

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (rBST - análogo do BST, obtido comercialmente pela técnica do DNA recombinante, sobre os aspectos hematológicos (hematócrito, eritrócitos, hemoglobina, leucócitos, neutrófilos, eosinófilos, linfócitos e monócitos e metabólitos (glicose, insulina, IGF-I, triglicérides, colesterol total e uréia do sangue de novilhas confinadas. Foram utilizadas 24 novilhas mestiças (½ Nelore x ½ Red Angus, com aproximadamente 18 meses de idade e peso médio 255 kg. Os animais foram alimentados com uma dieta contendo silagem de milho como volumoso e polpa de citrus peletizada e farelo de soja, como concentrado, durante 84 dias. Essa dieta foi utilizada para os três tratamentos, que se diferenciaram pela aplicação de 250 mg de rBST, por via subcutânea, na fossa ísqueo-retal, onde: 1 controle (aplicação de dois mL de solução salina; 2 dose única e 3 uma dose a cada 14 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e oito repetições. Coleta de sangue foi realizada no início do experimento e nos dias 28, 56 e 84 do experimento, para as determinações dos aspectos hematológicos e metabólitos. Não houve influência da aplicação de rBST sobre os aspectos hematológicos do sangue no início e final do experimento. Todavia, independentemente do tratamento, o dia de coleta teve um efeito linear positivo sobre os níveis de hematócrito, linear negativo sobre os níveis de glicose e triglicérides e quadrático positivo sobre os níveis de IGF-I e uréia. Ainda, não foi observado efeito do dia de coleta sobre os níveis de insulina e colesterol total.

  16. Pattern of distribution of serotonergic fibers to the amygdala and extended amygdala in the rat.

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    Linley, Stephanie B; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco; Vertes, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    As is well recognized, serotonergic (5-HT) fibers distribute widely throughout the forebrain, including the amygdala. Although a few reports have examined the 5-HT innervation of select nuclei of the amygdala in the rat, no previous report has described overall 5-HT projections to the amygdala in the rat. Using immunostaining for the serotonin transporter, SERT, we describe the complete pattern of distribution of 5-HT fibers to the amygdala (proper) and to the extended amygdala in the rat. Based on its ontogenetic origins, the amygdala was subdivided into two major parts, pallial and subpallial components, with the pallial component further divided into superficial and deep nuclei (Olucha-Bordonau et al. 2015). SERT + fibers were shown to distributed moderately to densely to the deep and cortical pallial nuclei, but, by contrast, lightly to the subpallial nuclei. Specifically, 1) of the deep pallial nuclei, the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nuclei contained a very dense concentration of 5-HT fibers; 2) of the cortical pallial nuclei, the anterior cortical and amygdala-cortical transition zone rostrally and the posteromedial and posterolateral nuclei caudally contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers; and 3) of the subpallial nuclei, the anterior nuclei and the rostral part of the medial (Me) nuclei contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers, whereas caudal regions of Me as well as the central nuclei and the intercalated nuclei contained a sparse/light concentration of 5-HT fibers. With regard to the extended amygdala (primarily the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; BST), on the whole, the BST contained moderate numbers of 5-HT fibers, spread fairly uniformly throughout BST. The findings are discussed with respect to a critical serotonergic influence on the amygdala, particularly on the basal complex, and on the extended amygdala in the control of states of fear and anxiety. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:116-139, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

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    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  18. Social status and sex independently influence androgen receptor expression in the eusocial naked mole-rat brain.

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    Holmes, Melissa M; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2008-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies including a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males; all other members of the colony, known as subordinates, are reproductively suppressed. We recently found that naked mole-rats lack many of the sex differences in the brain and spinal cord commonly found in other rodents. Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA). To begin to understand how breeding status influences brain morphology, we examined the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in gonadally intact breeders and subordinates of both sexes. All animals had AR+ nuclei in many of the same regions positive for AR in other mammals, including the VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and the ventral portion of the premammillary nucleus (PMv). We also observed diffuse labeling throughout the preoptic area, demonstrating that distribution of the AR protein in presumptive reproductive brain nuclei is well-conserved, even in a species that exhibits remarkably little sexual dimorphism. In contrast to other rodents, however, naked mole-rats lacked AR+ nuclei in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus. Males had more AR+ nuclei in the MeA, VMH, and PMv than did females. Surprisingly, breeders had significantly fewer AR+ nuclei than subordinates in all brain regions examined (VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and PMv). Thus, social status is strongly correlated with AR immunoreactivity in this eusocial species.

  19. Connections of the juxtaventromedial region of the lateral hypothalamic area in the male rat.

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    Joel D Hahn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary conservation of the hypothalamus attests to its critical role in the control of fundamental behaviors. However, our knowledge of hypothalamic connections is incomplete, particularly for the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA. Here we present the results of neuronal pathway-tracing experiments to investigate connections of the LHA juxtaventromedial region, which is parceled into dorsal (LHAjvd and ventral (LHAjvv zones. Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL, for outputs and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, for inputs coinjections were targeted stereotaxically to the LHAjvd/v. RESULTS: LHAjvd/v connections overlapped highly but not uniformly. Major joint outputs included: Bed nuc. stria terminalis (BST, interfascicular nuc. (BSTif and BST anteromedial area, rostral lateral septal (LSr- and ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH nuc., and periaqueductal gray. Prominent joint LHAjvd/v input sources included: BSTif, BST principal nuc., LSr, VMH, anterior hypothalamic-, ventral premammillary-, and medial amygdalar nuc., and hippocampal formation (HPF field CA1. However, LHAjvd HPF retrograde labeling was markedly more abundant than from the LHAjvv; in the LSr this was reversed. Furthermore, robust LHAjvv (but not LHAjvd targets included posterior- and basomedial amygdalar nuc., whereas the midbrain reticular nuc. received a dense input from the LHAjvd alone. Our analyses indicate the existence of about 500 LHAjvd and LHAjvv connections with about 200 distinct regions of the cerebral cortex, cerebral nuclei, and cerebrospinal trunk. Several highly LHAjvd/v-connected regions have a prominent role in reproductive behavior. These findings contrast with those from our previous pathway-tracing studies of other LHA medial and perifornical tier regions, with different connectional behavioral relations. The emerging picture is of a highly differentiated LHA with extensive and far-reaching connections that point to a role as a central coordinator of behavioral

  20. Iodometric and Molecular Detection of ESBL Production Among Clinical Isolates of E. coli Fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR: The First Egyptian Report Declares the Emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131clone Harboring blaGES.

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    El-Badawy, Mohamed F; Tawakol, Wael M; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Mansy, Moselhy S; Shohayeb, Mohamed M; Ashour, Mohammed S

    2017-09-01

    The extensive use of β-lactam antibiotics has led to emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of 7 different ESBL genes (bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla VEB , bla PER , bla GES , and bla OXA-10 ) and O25b-ST131 high-risk clone among 61 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Also, one broad-spectrum β-lactamase (bla OXA-1 ) was investigated. This study was also constructed to evaluate iodometric overlay method in detection of ESBL production. Phenotypic identification of E. coli isolates using API 20E revealed 18 distinct biotypes. DNA fingerprinting using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) differentiated all isolates into 2 main phylogenetic groups with 60 distinct genetic profiles. Elevated values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 and MIC 90 for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins were observed. Phenotypic tests revealed that 85.24% of isolates were ESBL producers. The incidence rates of bla TEM , bla SHV , bla CTX-M , bla GES , bla OXA-1 , and bla OXA-10 among E. coli ESBL producer phenotype were 69.23%, 25%, 96.15%, 3.85%, 11.54%, and 48%, respectively. On the other hand, bla VEB and bla PER were not detected. Sequencing of bla TEM and bla SHV revealed that bla TEM-214 and bla SHV-11 were the most prevalent variants. Group characterization of bla CTX-M revealed that bla CTX-M-1 was the most prevalent group of bla CTX-M family. It was found that 30.77% of E. coli ESBL producers belonged to O25b-ST131 clone harboring bla CTX-M-15 . This study concluded that iodometric overlay method was 100% sensitive in detection of ESBL production. To our knowledge, this is the first Egyptian study that declares the emergence of E. coli O25b-ST131 harboring bla GES .

  1. Effect of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production in rabbits with a central lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saitoh, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of adrenocortical hormone production under electroacupuncture stimulation of the Tsu-San-Li locus in rabbits with a lesion in the fornix, stria terminalis, ventromedial nucleus or arcuate nucleus. In rabbits with a lesion in the stria terminalis or ventromedial nucleus, electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li resulted in no increase in phase 1 but an increase in phase 2 of adrenocortical hormone production. In rabbits with a lesion in the fornix or arcuate nucleus electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li was followed by increased adrenocortical hormone production in the both phases. These results show that the stria terminalis and the ventromedial nucleus play a major role in the augmentation of adrenocortical hormone production by electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li.

  2. Distribution of vasopressin in the brain of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

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    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2007-02-20

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies in which one queen breeds with one to three males. All other animals are nonbreeding subordinates. The external features of male and female subordinates, including their genitalia, are remarkably monomorphic, as is their behavior. Because vasopressin (VP) is associated with social behaviors and sex differences in other species, its distribution in naked mole-rats was of interest. We used immunohistochemistry to examine VP in the brains of subordinate and breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. As in other mammals, VP-immunoreactive (-ir) somata were found in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) and VP-ir projections from these nuclei ran through the internal and external zone of the median eminence. However, naked mole-rats had very few VP-ir cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and none in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); the extensive network of fine-caliber VP-ir fibers usually seen in projection sites of the BST and SCN were also absent. Equally unexpected was the abundance of large-caliber VP-ir fibers in the dorsomedial septum. VP immunoreactivity was generally similar in all groups, with the exception of VP-ir cell number in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Breeders had a population of labeled cells in the DMH that was absent, or nearly absent, in subordinates. Future studies on the function of VP in these areas are needed to determine how the atypical distribution of VP immunoreactivity relates to eusociality and the unusual physiology of naked mole-rats.

  3. Organizing effects of sex steroids on brain aromatase activity in quail.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Cornil

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoptic/hypothalamic aromatase activity (AA is sexually differentiated in birds and mammals but the mechanisms controlling this sex difference remain unclear. We determined here (1 brain sites where AA is sexually differentiated and (2 whether this sex difference results from organizing effects of estrogens during ontogeny or activating effects of testosterone in adulthood. In the first experiment we measured AA in brain regions micropunched in adult male and female Japanese quail utilizing the novel strategy of basing the microdissections on the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive cells. The largest sex difference was found in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mBST followed by the medial preoptic nucleus (POM and the tuberal hypothalamic region. A second experiment tested the effect of embryonic treatments known to sex-reverse male copulatory behavior (i.e., estradiol benzoate [EB] or the aromatase inhibitor, Vorozole on brain AA in gonadectomized adult males and females chronically treated as adults with testosterone. Embryonic EB demasculinized male copulatory behavior, while vorozole blocked demasculinization of behavior in females as previously demonstrated in birds. Interestingly, these treatments did not affect a measure of appetitive sexual behavior. In parallel, embryonic vorozole increased, while EB decreased AA in pooled POM and mBST, but the same effect was observed in both sexes. Together, these data indicate that the early action of estrogens demasculinizes AA. However, this organizational action of estrogens on AA does not explain the behavioral sex difference in copulatory behavior since AA is similar in testosterone-treated males and females that were or were not exposed to embryonic treatments with estrogens.

  4. Collating and Curating Neuroanatomical Nomenclatures: Principles and Use of the Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System (BAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bota, Mihail; Swanson, Larry W

    2010-01-01

    Terms used to describe nervous system parts and their interconnections are rife with synonyms, partial correspondences, and even homonyms, making effective scientific communication unnecessarily difficult. To address this problem a new Topological Relations schema for the Relations module of BAMS (Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System) was created. It includes a representation of the qualitative spatial relations between nervous system parts defined in different neuroanatomical nomenclatures or atlases and is general enough to record data and metadata from the literature, regardless of description level or species. Based on this foundation a Projections Translations inference engine was developed for the BAMS interface that automatically translates neuroanatomical projection (axonal inputs and outputs) reports across nomenclatures from translated information. To make BAMS more useful to the neuroscience community three things were done. First, we implemented a simple schema for validation of the translated neuroanatomical projections. Second, more than 1,000 topological relations between brain gray matter regions for the rat were inserted, along with associated details. Finally, a case study was performed to enter all historical or legacy published information about terminology related to one relatively complex gray matter region of the rat. The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) were chosen and 21 different nomenclatures from 1923 to present were collated, along with 284 terms for parts (gray matter differentiations), 360 qualitative topological relations between parts, and more than 7,000 details about spatial relations between parts, all of which was annotated with appropriate metadata. This information was used to construct a graphical "knowledge map" of relations used in the literature to describe subdivisions of the rat BST.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and anti-remodelling effects of ISU201, a modified form of the extracellular domain of human BST2, in experimental models of asthma: association with inhibition of histone acetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan Herbert

    Full Text Available There are few alternatives to glucocorticosteroids for treatment of asthma. We assessed the activity of a novel protein drug designated ISU201, the extracellular domain of the human cell surface protein BST2, stabilised by fusion with the Fc region of IgG, in mouse models of mild chronic asthma and an acute exacerbation of asthma. The ability of ISU201 to suppress airway inflammation and remodelling was compared with that of dexamethasone. Female BALB/c mice were systemically sensitised with ovalbumin, then received controlled low-level challenge with aerosolised ovalbumin for 6 weeks, which induced lesions of mild chronic asthma, and were treated with drugs during the final 2 weeks. Alternatively, sensitised mice received 4 weeks of chronic low-level challenge and were treated 24 and 2 hours before a final single moderate-level challenge, which triggered acute airway inflammation simulating an asthmatic exacerbation. Inflammation and remodelling were quantified, as was the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tissues. To identify cellular targets of ISU201, we assessed the effects of the drug on activated lymphocytes, macrophages and airway epithelial cells. In the model of mild chronic asthma, ISU201 was as effective as dexamethasone in suppressing airway inflammation and most changes of remodelling. In the model of an allergen-induced acute exacerbation of chronic asthma, ISU201 was also an effective anti-inflammatory agent, although it was less active than dexamethasone. The drug acted on multiple cellular targets, suppressing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lymphocytes and macrophages. ISU201 significantly reduced acetylation of histone H4 in airway epithelial cells, suggesting at least one potential mechanism of action. We conclude that in these models of asthma, ISU201 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of both airway inflammation and remodelling. Thus, unlike drugs which target specific

  6. Optical and structural study of BST multilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železný, Vladimír; Chvostová, Dagmar; Pajasová, Libuše; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Daniš, S.; Valvoda, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 538-541 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ellipsometry * structure * ferroelectric multilayers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  7. Prevalence of O25b-ST131 clone among Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-92 β-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedraitienė, Agnė; Vitkauskienė, Astra; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Patamsytė, Vaiva; Genel, Nathalie; Decre, Dominique; Arlet, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    Dissemination of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli is closely associated with the worldwide spread of a single clone ST131, which is the main cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections in patients from nursing homes and immunocompromised patients. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of ST131 clone and the replicons involved in the spread of bla CTX-M genes among O25b-ST131 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates in Lithuania. The strains included in this study were screened for CTX-M β-lactamase-encoding genes, phylogenetic groups and ST131 clone by PCR. Bacterial conjugation was performed to identify plasmid replicon types responsible for bla CTX-M genes dissemination. A total of 158 E. coli clinical non-duplicate ESBL isolates were analyzed. Nearly half (n = 67, 42.4%) of the investigated E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B2. The isolates producing CTX-M-92 β-lactamases were identified to be the ST131 clone more frequently than the non-ST131 clone (11.5% vs. 3.1%, p = .035). The CTX-M-15 isolates were identified as ST131 isolates less frequently than non-ST131 isolates (50.8% vs. 71.1%; p = .015). The ST131 clone isolates contained type L/M and A/C replicons; a fused FII/FIB replicon was found in four isolates (23.5%). Type HI1 replicon was identified in ST131 E. coli isolates producing CTX-M-15 β-lactamases. This study demonstrates the predominance of the ST131 clone among CTX-M β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates. Dissemination of bla CTX-M genes in ST131 strains can be linked not only to highly adapted IncF plasmids such as FII/FIB and FII, but also to plasmid replicon types A/C, L/M and HI1.

  8. The neurobiological basis of fear: a concise review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-01-11

    5 Thus, activation of the LA results in disinhibition of the CeM, with a resultant fear response, as illustrated in Figure. 1. While the CeM is important for fear, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in anxiety, ...

  9. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear–potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Johanna M P; Klumpers, Floris; Mantione, Mariska H.; Figee, Martijn; Vulink, Nienke C.; Richard Schuurman, P.; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST), we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS

  10. Coping with stress in rats and mice : Differential peptidergic modulation of the amygdala-lateral septum complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Everts, H.G J; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; de Boer, S.F.; Bohus, B.G J

    1998-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the parvicellular vasopressin (VP) system originating from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The vasopressinergic fibers of these nuclei innervate a number of limbic brain areas including the septum-hippocampal complex.

  11. Fornix transection: Discrimination between neuropeptide effects on attention and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Croiset, G.; Schuiling, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Transection of the fornix and the stria terminalis completely blocks the inhibitory action of ACTH 4–10 on extinction of a conditioned avoidance response (CAR), whereas this effect of the vasopressin analogue des-glycinamide-lysine-vasopressin (DG-LVP) is not affected. These data indicate that the

  12. ESCLARECIMENTO E INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Raffaelle Andressa dos Santos; Utta, Bergson Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Foi na década de 40 que os renomados filósofos Theodor Adorno e Max Horkheimer reverberaram sobre a cultura, mais precisamente acerca da inclusão dos meios técnicos aos bens culturais, assumindo uma posição crítica sobre a relação entre industrialização e arte, acreditando que toda expressão cultural seria transformada em produto, numa indústria cultural. Na obra Dialética do Esclarecimento, eles defendem a tese de que mito e esclarecimento mantêm entre si uma relação dialética, com o mito já...

  13. Comparative distribution of relaxin-3 inputs and calcium-binding protein-positive neurons in rat amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio N Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in mediating complex behaviors are being rapidly elucidated using various newly developed and powerful anatomical and molecular techniques, providing insights into the neural basis for anxiety disorders, depression, addiction, and dysfunctional social behaviors. Many of these behaviors and associated physiological processes involve the activation of the amygdala in conjunction with cortical and hippocampal circuits. Ascending subcortical projections provide modulatory inputs to the extended amygdala and its related nodes (or ‘hubs’ within these key circuits. One such input arises from the nucleus incertus (NI in the tegmentum, which sends amino acid- and peptide-containing projections throughout the forebrain. Notably, a distinct population of GABAergic NI neurons expresses the highly-conserved neuropeptide, relaxin-3, and relaxin-3 signaling has been implicated in the modulation of reward/motivation and anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in rodents via actions within the extended amygdala. Thus, a detailed description of the relaxin-3 innervation of the extended amygdala would provide an anatomical framework for an improved understanding of NI and relaxin-3 modulation of these and other specific amygdala-related functions. Therefore, in this study, we examined the distribution of NI projections and relaxin-3-positive elements (axons/fibers/terminals within the amygdala, relative to the distribution of neurons expressing the calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin, calretinin and/or calbindin. Anterograde tracer injections into the NI revealed a topographic distribution of NI efferents within the amygdala that was near identical to the distribution of relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers. Highest densities of anterogradely-labeled elements and relaxin-3-immunoreactive fibers were observed in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, medial divisions of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and in the endopiriform

  14. Assessment of SFR reactor safety issues. Part I: Analysis of the unprotected ULOF, ULOHS and UTOP transients for the SFR(v2b-ST) reactor design and assessment of the efficiency of a passive safety system for prevention of severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikorr, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bubelis, E., E-mail: evaldas.bubelis@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Carluec, B.; Champigny, J. [AREVA, 10, rue J. Récamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Innovative sodium cooled fast reactor concepts are investigated. • Newly conceived mitigation measures of the severe transients are being investigated. • Evaluation of severe transient behavior in sodium-cooled fast reactors is being performed. - Abstract: In the frame of an AREVA – KIT cooperation in the years 2008–2013 on R&D issues associated with Innovative sodium cooled fast reactor concepts, several major topics were identified as being of mutual interest to both partners, one of which was the evaluation of severe transient behavior in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) and the impact of newly conceived mitigation measures. The SFR design taken for the analysis was the SFR(v2b-ST) reactor design, and the system code to be used was selected to be the SIM-SFR code. The transients chosen for evaluation of the efficiency of mitigation measures were the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS) and the unprotected transient-overpower (UTOP)

  15. Photoperiod reverses the effects of estrogens on male aggression via genomic and nongenomic pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Trainor, Brian C.; Lin, Shili; Finy*, M. Sima; Rowland, Michael R.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite recent discoveries of the specific contributions of genes to behavior, the molecular mechanisms mediating contributions of the environment are understudied. We demonstrate that the behavioral effects of estrogens on aggression are completely reversed by a discrete environmental signal, day length. Selective activation of either estrogen receptor α or β decreases aggression in long days and increases aggression in short days. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, one of several n...

  16. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory: Modulation and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    memory through influences invol- ving noradrenergic receptors in the amygdala. , .. . .... C-Qc- u , Y\\ o C r z A-, - r V r a ,, ~ Epinephrine Effects...epinephrine affects memory through influences involving the amygdala is supported by the finding that lesions of the stria terminalis (ST), a major...interpreted these findings as indicating that peripherally- administered naloxone influences memory by blocking opioid peptide recep- tors located within

  17. Biochemical evidence for glutamate as a transmitter in hippocampal efferents to the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.; Fonnum, F.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of bilateral transection of the fornix bundle on the high affinity uptake of glutamate and on the amino acid content in several nuclei of rat forebrain and hypothalamus were studied in order to investigate the possible role of glutamate as a transmitter of these fibres. This lesion decreased the high affinity uptake of L-glutamate by 60 to 70% in the mammillary body and lateral septum, and by 40 to 50% in the anterior diagonal band nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediobasal hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens. The content of endogenous glutamate in samples dissected from freeze-dried tissue also decreased significantly in these regions. Endogenous aspartate was slightly decreased in the anterior diagonal band nucleus and the mammillary body, but unchanged in the other regions. No significant changes were seen in the levels of serine, ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid, glutamine and taurine, except for an increase in glutamine and taurine in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The high affinity uptake of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid, tested in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediobasal hypothalamus and the mammillary body, was unchanged after the lesion. The results indicate that allocortical efferents innervating subcortial nuclei through the fornix might use glutamate as a transmitter. The study further supports the concept that glutamate plays an important role as transmitter of several different corticofugal fibre systems in mammalian brain.

  18. The Progress in Localization Initiatives in PDC, BST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan; Hasni Hassan; Anwar Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia has been established since 1972. It has evolves from laying the foundation for infrastructure and human resources in nuclear technology; research and development in nuclear applications; producing new products and prototypes; and finally, transferring the products and technology to the end users such as the industry and communities. While Nuclear Malaysia has been able to develop various nuclear applications, there are areas which have been left behind. Most of the facilities and instruments for nuclear Research and Development are imported. Although Nuclear Malaysia has been able to operate and maintain the facilities, there are occasions where the foreign experts and components need to be sought for. This dependency on foreign technology has cost Nuclear Malaysia a lot, especially in the maintenance and procurement of new instruments and spare parts. To reduce this dependency, some localization initiatives have been conducted by various groups in Nuclear Malaysia. This paper discusses the recent progress and achievement of localization initiatives undertaken by PDC on the related technology which has reduced the dependency on foreign experts and technology. (author)

  19. Connectivity between the superior colliculus and the amygdala in humans and macaque monkeys: virtual dissection with probabilistic DTI tractography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Kristin; Bultitude, Janet H.; Mullins, Paul; Ward, Robert; Mitchell, Anna S.; Bell, Andrew H.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that some cortically blind patients can process the emotional valence of visual stimuli via a fast, subcortical pathway from the superior colliculus (SC) that reaches the amygdala via the pulvinar. We provide in vivo evidence for connectivity between the SC and the amygdala via the pulvinar in both humans and rhesus macaques. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging tractography revealed a streamlined path that passes dorsolaterally through the pulvinar before arcing rostrally to traverse above the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and connect to the lateral amygdala. To obviate artifactual connectivity with crossing fibers of the stria terminalis, the stria was also dissected. The putative streamline between the SC and amygdala traverses above the temporal horn dorsal to the stria terminalis and is positioned medial to it in humans and lateral to it in monkeys. The topography of the streamline was examined in relation to lesion anatomy in five patients who had previously participated in behavioral experiments studying the processing of emotionally valenced visual stimuli. The pulvinar lesion interrupted the streamline in two patients who had exhibited contralesional processing deficits and spared the streamline in three patients who had no deficit. Although not definitive, this evidence supports the existence of a subcortical pathway linking the SC with the amygdala in primates. It also provides a necessary bridge between behavioral data obtained in future studies of neurological patients, and any forthcoming evidence from more invasive techniques, such as anatomical tracing studies and electrophysiological investigations only possible in nonhuman species. PMID:26224780

  20. MAPEAMENTO DE INDÚSTRIAS CRIATIVAS EM SERGIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmara Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A criatividade é um valor existente em qualquer sociedade. É um recurso inato do ser humano e provavelmente, o mais potente, porque a criatividade desafia e questiona as formas, estruturas e hierarquias. O termo indústrias criativas surgiu nos anos 90, para designar setores nos quais a criatividade é uma dimensão essencial do negócio. As Indústrias Criativas, portanto, são aquelas que têm sua origem na criatividade, habilidade e talento individuais, e possuem o potencial para a criação de riqueza e empregos através da geração e da exploração da propriedade intelectual, compreendem, entre outras, as atividades relacionadas ao cinema, ao teatro, à música e às artes plásticas. O presente artigo traça um painel de discussões sobre as indústrias criativas trazendo visões, definições sobre o tema e mapeamento das indústrias.

  1. REUSO DO EFLUENTE TRATADO NA INDÚSTRIA CURTIDORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Heinz Luersen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a possibilidade de reúso do efluente líquido tratado de uma indústria curtidora, foi realizada esta pesquisa. O procedimento experimental comparou a produção de couros confeccionados com água potável, extraída de poços artesianos, com couros produzidos a partir do efluente líquido final tratado. Para alcançar este objetivo, foram realizados testes físicos e químicos através de análises em laboratório (análises químicas e de resistências físicas e avaliações organolépticas executadas por profissionais do setor de couro (quanto a cor, firmeza de flor, enchimento e toque. A avaliação analítica e a das características organolépticas não indicam diferenças representativas quando comparadas aos padrões de referência da ABNT de couros produzidos, permitindo, assim, concluir que o reúso de efluente tratado não altera a aparência dos artigos de couro.

  2. Effects of pelvic, pudendal, or hypogastric nerve cuts on Fos induction in the rat brain following vaginocervical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G; Manitt, Colleen; Coopersmith, Carol B

    2006-12-30

    In the female rat, genitosensory input is conveyed to the central nervous system predominantly through the pelvic, pudendal, and hypogastric nerves. The present study examined the relative contribution of those three nerves in the expression of Fos immunoreactivity within brain regions previously shown to be activated by vaginocervical stimulation (VCS). Bilateral transection of those nerves, or sham neurectomy, was conducted in separate groups of ovariectomized, sexually-experienced females. After recovery, females were primed with estrogen and progesterone and given either 50 manual VCSs with a lubricated glass rod over the course of 1 h. VCS increased the number of neurons expressing Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala of sham neurectomized females. Transection of the pelvic nerve reduced Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventromedial hypothalamus, and medial amygdala, whereas transection of the pudendal nerve had no effect. In contrast, transection of the hypogastric nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic area and lateral septum, whereas transaction of the pelvic nerve increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral septum, following VCS. All females given VCS, except those with pelvic neurectomy, displayed a characteristic immobility during each application. These data confirm that the pelvic nerve is largely responsible for the neural and behavioral effects of VCS, and support a separate function for the hypogastric nerve.

  3. Callous-unemotional traits drive reduced white-matter integrity in youths with conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeden, A L; Cardinale, E M; Lozier, L M; VanMeter, J W; Marsh, A A

    2015-10-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits represent a significant risk factor for severe and persistent conduct problems in children and adolescents. Extensive neuroimaging research links CU traits to structural and functional abnormalities in the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In addition, adults with psychopathy (a disorder for which CU traits are a developmental precursor) exhibit reduced integrity in uncinate fasciculus, a white-matter (WM) tract that connects prefrontal and temporal regions. However, research in adolescents has not yet yielded similarly consistent findings. We simultaneously modeled CU traits and externalizing behaviors as continuous traits, while controlling for age and IQ, in order to identify the unique relationship of each variable with WM microstructural integrity, assessed using diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to evaluate fractional anisotropy, an index of WM integrity, in uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis in 47 youths aged 10-17 years, of whom 26 exhibited conduct problems and varying levels of CU traits. Whereas both CU traits and externalizing behaviors were negatively correlated with WM integrity in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis/fornix, simultaneously modeling both variables revealed that these effects were driven by CU traits; the severity of externalizing behavior was not related to WM integrity after controlling for CU traits. These results indicate that WM abnormalities similar to those observed in adult populations with psychopathy may emerge in late childhood or early adolescence, and may be critical to understanding the social and affective deficits observed in this population.

  4. Tallinna Lennujaama vana terminali renoveerimine = Renovation of Tallinn Airport's old terminal / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Arhitektid: Andres Põime, Reet Põime, Tiiu Truus. Tallinna Lennujaama reisijateterminali projekteerisid 1939. a. arhitektid Roman Koolmar ja Artur Jürvetson, hoone valmis Paula Koido rekonstrueerimisprojekti järgi. Ill.: 2 värv. sisevaadet, välisvaade

  5. Muuga terminal 2 - panus Vene Raudteele. Konkurent tooks terminali teenuste odavnemise / Jaroslav Tavgen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tavgen, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Muuga konteinerterminali operaatori konkursi kaotanud Muuga CT omanik AS Transiidikeskus ei ole Tallinna Sadama otsusega rahul ja leiab, et selle konkursi võitnud Rail Garant ei suuda kaubavedu suurendada

  6. 2016 Copyright © 2016, CRISA Publications Prior SuBStAnce uSe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Green, Wood, Kerfoot, Trainor, Roberts,. Rothwell, Woodham, Ayodeji, Barrett,. Byford & Harrington, 2011), accounting for high attendances at hospitals with in- creasing incidences (National Collaborat- · ing Centre for Mental Health, 2004). It is associated with recurrent psychosocial problems (Hawton, Houston & Shep-.

  7. Surface hydrolysis of polyacrylonitrile with nitrile hydrolysing enzymes from Micrococcus luteus BST20

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer-Colbrie, G.; Matamá, T.; Heumann, S.; Martínková, Ludmila; Cavaco Paulo, A.; Gubitz, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 1 (2007), s. 62-68 ISSN 0168-1656 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D25.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : micrococcus luteus * nitrilase * polyacrylonitrile Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2007

  8. Gas sensing properties of Cu and Cr activated BST thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    construction of more or less intelligent ensembles, which integrate actuating, sensing and computing subsystems. (Mair 1993). Detection of various gases using solid- ..... The Cr and Cu activators can create artificial surface states in the midgap region, leading to unusual physical and chemical properties. For example, the ...

  9. Fabrication and Crystal Structure of Sol-Gel Deposited BST Thin Films with Compositional Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekaj D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research technology of compositionally graded barium strontium titanate Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films deposited on stainless steel substrates by sol-gel spin coating followed with thermal annealing at T = 650°C is reported. Results of thermal behavior of the sol-gel derived powders with compositions used for fabrication of graded structure (i.e. with Sr mole fraction x = 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 are described. X-ray diffraction studies of the phase composition and crystal structure of such complex thin film configuration are given. It was found that gel powders exhibited a large total weight loss of about Δm ≈ 44-47%. Three stages of weight loss took place at temperature ranges: below T ≈ 300°C, at ΔT ≈ 300-500°C and between T = 600°C and T = 800°C. Phase analysis has shown that the dominating phase is Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 compound while the second phase is Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 or Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 for “up-graded” and “down-graded” structure, respectively.

  10. Anomalous dielectric nonlinearity and dielectric relaxation in xBST-(1- x) (LMT-LNT) ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Liu, Peng

    2011-11-01

    xwt%Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3-(1- x)wt%[0.4La (Mg0.5Ti0.5)O3-0.6(La0.5Na0.5)TiO3] ( x=0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90, 0.95) ceramics were prepared via a traditional solid-state reaction route. Interesting anomalous dielectric nonlinearity (ADN)—permittivity increased with dc bias electric field ( E-field), and low-temperature dielectric relaxation (LTDR) behaviors—were observed within a x range of 0.30˜0.70 for the first time. Based on our experimental facts, it was suggested that the LTDR was originated from a charge-associated process between electron-oxygen vacancy pairs during a thermal stimulation, while the ADN was related with a metastable state of polarized nano-regions (PNRs).

  11. Gas sensing properties of Cu and Cr activated BST thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    screen-printing technique. The sensing performance of the films was tested for various gases. ... academia and in industry (Hirschfeld et al 1986). Although much research has been focused on sensors based on ... industry in applications for capacitors, thermocouples, transducers, sensors and actuators, etc (Herbert 1980;.

  12. TRANSFORMAÇÃO DA INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA PELA INTERNET: O CASO DA INDÚSTRIA FONOGRÁFICA NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    silvia novaes zilber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever o modelo de negócio dos criadores e distribuidores de conteúdo da indústria fonográfica a partir do uso da Internet, entendida como inovação.. O método empregado foi o estudo de casos múltiplos, com quatro criadores de conteúdo (artistas e dois distribuidores de conteúdo (uma major- Sony- e uma indie.Os resultados mostraram transformações no produto (digital ao invés de suporte físico, distribuição- feita por lojas virtuais, ocorrendo a desintermediação, possibilitando artistas conectarem-se diretamente a seus clientes, e faturamento aumentado para artistas e distribuidores indie, que se beneficiaram da divulgação pela Internet, enquanto que distribuidoras major não perceberam esse aumento, talvez devido à pirataria.

  13. NPBWR1 and NPBWR2: implications in energy homeostasis, pain, and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide B/W receptor 1 (NPBWR1 and NPBWR2 had been known as orphan receptors GPR7 and 8, respectively. Endogenous peptide ligands of these receptors, neuropeptide B and neuropeptide W, were identified in 2002 and 2003 (1-3. These peptides have been implicated in regulation of feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and modulating inflammatory pain. In addition, strong and discrete expression of their receptors in the extended amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suggests a potential role in regulating stress responses, emotion, anxiety and fear. Recent studies of NPB/NPW using both pharmacological and phenotypic analyses of genetically engineered mice as well as a human study support this hypothesis.

  14. Photoperiod reverses the effects of estrogens on male aggression via genomic and nongenomic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Lin, Shili; Finy, M Sima; Rowland, Michael R; Nelson, Randy J

    2007-06-05

    Despite recent discoveries of the specific contributions of genes to behavior, the molecular mechanisms mediating contributions of the environment are understudied. We demonstrate that the behavioral effects of estrogens on aggression are completely reversed by a discrete environmental signal, day length. Selective activation of either estrogen receptor alpha or beta decreases aggression in long days and increases aggression in short days. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, one of several nuclei in a neural circuit that controls aggression, estrogen-dependent gene expression is increased in long days but not in short days, suggesting that estrogens decrease aggression by driving estrogen-dependent gene expression. Estradiol injections increased aggression within 15 min in short days but not in long days, suggesting that estrogens increase aggression in short days primarily via nongenomic pathways. These data demonstrate that the environment can dictate how hormones affect a complex behavior by altering the molecular pathways targeted by steroid receptors.

  15. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides

  16. Neudesin is involved in anxiety behavior: structural and neurochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley eNovais

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neudesin (also known as neuron derived neurotrophic factor, Nenf is a scarcely studied putative non-canonical neurotrophic factor. In order to understand its function in the brain, we performed an extensive behavioral characterization (motor, emotional and cognitive dimensions of neudesin-null mice. The absence of neudesin leads to an anxious-like behavior as assessed in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box and novelty suppressed feeding tests, but not in the acoustic startle test. This anxious phenotype is associated with reduced dopaminergic input and impoverished dendritic arborizations in the dentate gyrus granule neurons of the ventral hippocampus. Interestingly, shorter dendrites are also observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST of neudesin-null mice. These findings lead us to suggest that neudesin is a novel relevant player in the maintenance of the anxiety circuitry.

  17. IMPLICAÇÕES DO MAPEAMENTO DE FLUXO DE VALOR NA INDÚSTRIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Larissa Batisti; Isoppo, Anelise; Bitencourt, Jaqueline; Pacheco, Diego Augusto de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto ao se realizar o mapeamento do fluxo de valor atual e projetar o estado futuro em uma indústria de equipamentos de limpeza. O foco do estudo é a redução do lead time de produção utilizando práticas da manufatura enxuta. Para conduzir a pesquisa foram realizadas pesquisas em documentos da empresa para obtenção de dados históricos, revisão bibliográfica e a aplicação de estudo de caso. Os principais resultados da pesquisa demonstram que a aplicaçã...

  18. HIDROFOBICIDADE DE RIBOTIPOS DE BACILLUS CEREUS ISOLADOS DE INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS

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    Emiliane Andrade ARAÚJO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A contaminação de superfícies por microrganismos deterioradores e patogênicos é causa de preocupação na indústria de alimentos. Desenvolvimento de biofilmes em ambientes de processamento de alimentos resulta na deterioração do produto e em possíveis riscos para a saúde pública, além de criar sérios problemas nas operações de processamento do fl uido. A adesão da bactéria à superfície é um dos primeiros passos para a formação do biofilme e propriedades físico-químicas da interface bacteriana infl uenciam o processo de adesão microbiana e, consequentemente, os procedimentos operacionais de higienização. A estrutura do biofilme e as características fisiológicas do microrganismo podem conferir resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos, como por exemplo, aos sanitizantes usados no procedimento de higienização. Dentre os fatores que infl uenciam o processo de adesão, as características de hidrofobicidade do microrganismo e da superfície apresentam grande importância nos mecanismos de adesão. As técnicas da medição do ângulo de contato e da coluna de interação hidrofóbica, para determinação da hidrofobicidade de superfícies de ribotipos de Bacillus cereus isolados de indústria de laticínios, foram avaliadas. Observou-se que as quatro superfícies dos ribotipos avaliados apresentaram a mesma classificação quanto à hidrofobicidade tanto pela medida do ângulo de contato com a água quanto pela determinação da energia livre de interação hidrofóbica (ΔGsas TOT. Três ribotipos foram considerados hidrofílicos e um hidrofóbico. Já a técnica da coluna de interação hidrofóbica não mostrou diferença (p>0,05 no percentual de células retidas na coluna, sugerindo que as superfícies dos ribotipos apresentam as mesmas características quanto à hidrofobicidade. Os resultados indicam que a técnica da medição do ângulo de contato é a mais indicada para avaliar a hidrofobicidade de superfícies celulares. A determinação da hidrofobicidade da superfície celular é relevante, uma vez que quando se conhece também a hidrofobicidade da superfície de processamento é possível predizer se a adesão bacteriana é termodinamicamente favorável, a fim de adotar métodos eficientes para reduzir a contaminação de B.cereus e conseqüente adesão e formação de biofilmes.

  19. ALINHAMENTO ESTRATÃGICO INFORMACIONAL NA INDÃSTRIA DE MEDICAMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Cavalheiro Marcondes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar o nível de alinhamento das dimensões da informação entre dois elos da cadeia de suprimentos, a indústria de medicamentos e as farmácias e drogarias segundo a abordagem da gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma amostra de 85 empresas, sendo 51 delas varejistas de farmácias e drogarias e 34 fabricantes de medicamentos, localizadas na região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo, SP. A pesquisa é de natureza exploratória descritiva, com aporte quantitativo, tendo os dados sidos coletados por meio de um questionário estruturado com questões fechadas. Os resultados evidenciaram que ocorre o alinhamento em padrões pouco significativos entre as dimensões da informação quando comparados os dados informacionais desses dois elos pesquisados. Como essa evidência contrasta com a literatura que defende que a gestão da cadeia de suprimentos deve apresentar elevado alinhamento estratégico das informações com seus parceiros, foram formuladas algumas hipóteses sobre essa constatação.

  20. REPRESENTAÇÕES DO TRABALHO: ESTUDO SOBRE CONFINAMENTO NA INDÚSTRIA PETROLÍFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Medeiros Ribeiro Salles

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the influence of the confined work system on the organizational environment representations and social behaviors, inside and outside the workplace. Confinement may be referred to as a total experience in the workplace, imposing special work and life regimes over workers. The study, based on Bourdieu´s and on Moscovici’s Social Representations Theory, explored how confined workers construct meanings and representations of their work through free evocation and discourse analysis. Forty interviews were conducted in two large companies in the oil industry, with head offices in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Duque de Caxias (RJ. The results presented confirmed the influence of confined work environments in the formation of beliefs and the consolidation of specific behaviors, based on defense mechanisms designed to maintain psychological stability of workers, essential to survival in such environments.

  1. XILITOL: UM ADOÇANTE ALTERNATIVO PARA A INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

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    SILVIO SILVéRIO DA SILVA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: O xilitol é um açúcar-álcool de grande valor econômico e social, devido à sua ampla utilização em vários segmentos industriais. Esta revisão pretende mostrar algumas das aplicações mais significativas do xilitol nas indústrias de alimentos, odontológica e farmacêutica. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Xilitol; adoçante.

  2. XILITOL: UM ADOÇANTE ALTERNATIVO PARA A INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Silvério da SILVA; Michele VITOLO; Ismael Maciel de MANCILHA; Inês Conceição ROBERTO; Maria das Graças Almeida FELIPE

    2009-01-01

    RESUMO: O xilitol é um açúcar-álcool de grande valor econômico e social, devido à sua ampla utilização em vários segmentos industriais. Esta revisão pretende mostrar algumas das aplicações mais significativas do xilitol nas indústrias de alimentos, odontológica e farmacêutica. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Xilitol; adoçante.

  3. XILITOL: UM ADOÇANTE ALTERNATIVO PARA A INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIO SILVéRIO DA SILVA; MICHELE VITOLO; ISMAEL MACIEL DE MANCILHA; INêS CONCEIçãO ROBERTO; MARIA DAS GRAçAS ALMEIDA FELIPE

    2009-01-01

    RESUMO: O xilitol é um açúcar-álcool de grande valor econômico e social, devido à sua ampla utilização em vários segmentos industriais. Esta revisão pretende mostrar algumas das aplicações mais significativas do xilitol nas indústrias de alimentos, odontológica e farmacêutica. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Xilitol; adoçante.

  4. TRATAMENTOS ALTERNATIVOS DO EFLUENTE DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE CELULOSE BRANQUEADA E PAPEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Edmundo Bochetti Foelkel

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar a eficiência de tratamento floculante com sulfato de alumínio ou cloreto férrico para o efluente bruto neutralizado de uma indústria de celulose e papel. A filtração do efluente, removendo fibras, finos, macromoléculas e flocos naturais, permitiu expressivas reduções da cor aparente, cor real e DQO do mesmo. Enquanto o sulfato de alumínio mostrou excelentes resultados, o cloreto férrico não teve bom desempenho. Deve-se otimizar as concentrações, as formas de agitação e a decantação dos flocos. Para as amostras testadas, na primeira seqüência de testes, concentrações com cerca de 2500 ppm de sulfato de alumínio (com 14 moléculas de água de hidratação mostraram ótimos resultados para redução de cor aparente, cor real, DQO e cloretos. Conforme o previsto, na segunda seqüência de testes as concentrações de [Al2(SO43 . 14 H2O] diminuíram para todos os índices físico-químicos testados. A melhor concentração para pH, cor aparente e cor real foi de 1000 ppm filtrado, enquanto que para cloretos foi de 2000 ppm não filtrado, com o tempo de agitação de 1 minuto com alta velocidade e 15 minutos à baixa velocidade, com exceção da cor real que foi de 10 minutos à baixa velocidade. Como recomendação, sugere-se avaliar uma etapa seqüencial de filtração após clarifloculação/decantação. Com isso, o desempenho de um tratamento físico-químico de efluentes desse tipo será eficiente, apesar do custo envolvido na aquisição do insumo sulfato de alumínio.

  5. ALINHAMENTO ESTRATÉGICO INFORMACIONAL NA INDÚSTRIA DE MEDICAMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giro Moori

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar o nível de alinhamento das dimensões da informação entre dois elos da cadeia de suprimentos, a indústria de medicamentos e as farmácias e drogarias segundo a abordagem da gestão da cadeia de suprimentos. Para tanto, foi utilizada uma amostra de 85 empresas, sendo 51 delas varejistas de farmácias e drogarias e 34 fabricantes de medicamentos, localizadas na região metropolitana da cidade de São Paulo, SP. A pesquisa é de natureza exploratória descritiva, com aporte quantitativo, tendo os dados sidos coletados por meio de um questionário estruturado com questões fechadas. Os resultados evidenciaram que ocorre o alinhamento em padrões pouco significativos entre as dimensões da informação quando comparados os dados informacionais desses dois elos pesquisados. Como essa evidência contrasta com a literatura que defende que a gestão da cadeia de suprimentos deve apresentar elevado alinhamento estratégico das informações com seus parceiros, foram formuladas algumas hipóteses sobre essa constatação.

  6. INOVAÇÃO NO USO DE RESÍDUO DA INDÚSTRIA SUCROALCOOLEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Sarmento dos Santos Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento sustentável associado à solução de problemas que prejudicam de alguma maneira a sociedade é um assunto que merece destaque e abordagem ampla em pesquisas acadêmicas. A utilização de materiais alternativos buscando soluções para os problemas ocasionados pelo ruído procura, ao mesmo tempo, oferecer conforto e comodidade para o meio urbano, além de ser uma alternativa para destinação final de resíduos sólidos produzidos por demais setores da economia. Desta forma, o presente estudo tem o objetivo de desenvolver enchimento alternativo para drywall utilizando fibra residual do setor sucroalcooleiro com a finalidade de buscar condicionamento acústico. Após produção do material pesquisado, foi realizado o ensaio para a determinação do desempenho acústico por meio da Perda de Transmissão Sonora (TL, onde foram comparados os valores obtidos de TL do painel de drywall com o enchimento pesquisado, com painéis drywall com enchimentos de lã de vidro e ar. Ao fim dos ensaios, pode-se concluir que o painel com enchimento pesquisado obteve resultados superiores aos comparados quando analisado em baixas frequências.

  7. TRABALHO, AGRONEGÓCIO E GESTÃO TERRITORIAL DO CAPITAL NA AGROINDÚSTRIA SUCROALCOOLEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Thomaz Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As novas formas de controle do processo de trabalho e de gestão territorial do capital sobre a ctrabalhadora é o que estamos nos dedicando. Questões como superexploração do trabalho, incrementoconcentração da propriedade da terra, articulada ou não com a centralização e concentração de capfortalecimento das relações de assalariamento por um lado, e de relações não assalariadas por outro - como nodos produtores camponeses, integrados, em bases familiares, com a explicitação das diferentes formaapropriação da renda da terra e do excedente, é o substrato em que o agronegócio está implementando seu prode expansão e ganhos com base em diferentes ações simultâneas. Assim, a efetivação dos investimentostecnologia associadas às formas de gestão e controle do processo de trabalho colocam ao mesmo tempo, ndesafios ao movimento sindical. Desde os controles microprocessados na planta fabril, passando pela intensificdo corte mecanizado da cana, à sofisticação dos mecanismos de gestão e controle do processo de produçãoforça de trabalho, incluindo-se a ampliação do processo de terceirização e da participação das cooperativas de mde-obra, bem como as reais possibilidades que se abrem para a constituição de cadeias produtivas (comobagaço e da sucroalcoolquímica, ultrapassam, os limites do ramo agroindustrial sucroalcooleiro e, aindrecrudescimento da concentração e centralização de capital. Temos que considerar também o novo ceninstitucional, que por um lado, remete ao culto à negociação, às reminiscências das câmaras setoriais, permanecos trabalhadores imersos na roda viva dos desígnios do capital.

  8. AS INDÚSTRIAS CULTURAIS E CRIATIVAS BASEADAS NOS CÍRCULOS CONCÊNTRICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiane Barili; Juliano Varella de Carvalho; Marta Rosecler Bez

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo se propõe a demonstrar um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos do I Congresso de Indústrias Criativas, realizado na Universidade Feevale em 2015. Ele identifica como os trabalhos do congresso se relacionam com o modelo de Economia Criativa apresentado pela UNESCO, em sua edição de 2013. Este estudo apresenta uma fundamentação teórica sobre os conceitos de Indústria Criativa, Economia Criativa e Indústria Cultural, com o auxílio dos principais teóricos da área. Metodologicamen...

  9. AS INDÚSTRIAS CULTURAIS E CRIATIVAS BASEADAS NOS CÍRCULOS CONCÊNTRICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Barili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se propõe a demonstrar um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos do I Congresso de Indústrias Criativas, realizado na Universidade Feevale em 2015. Ele identifica como os trabalhos do congresso se relacionam com o modelo de Economia Criativa apresentado pela UNESCO, em sua edição de 2013. Este estudo apresenta uma fundamentação teórica sobre os conceitos de Indústria Criativa, Economia Criativa e Indústria Cultural, com o auxílio dos principais teóricos da área. Metodologicamente, este trabalho se realiza com a técnica da bibliometria, leitura e análise dos dados coletados. Sendo assim, este trabalho demonstra um panorama atualizado dos setores criativos, observando quais deles estão em maior crescimento a partir dos trabalhos analisados. O estudo revelou uma pulverização de estudos na área e que o setor da Indústria Criativa em maior evidência é aquele relacionado com áreas de publicidade, televisão e moda. Também se destacam a interdisciplinaridade e as mais diferentes áreas de formação dos profissionais que atuam na Indústria Criativa. Palavras-chave: Indústria Criativa. Economia Criativa. Economia Cultural.

  10. APOIO À DECISÃO DE COMPRA NA INDÚSTRIA DE CIMENTOS E DERIVADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Felinto de Farias Aires

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available O setor da construção civil é um dos mais dinâmicos setores da economia brasileira, impactando toda a complexa cadeia de atividades ligadas à construção, como, por exemplo, a produção de cimento. Assim, todas as indústrias ligadas à produção desse material necessitam tomar decisões da melhor maneira de forma a competirem no acirrado mercado brasileiro de cimento - quarto maior produtor do mundo. Por conta disso, o objetivo deste estudo é desenvolver um modelo multicritério para apoiar a compra de uma linha de ensacamento e paletização de pós para uma indústria de cimentos e derivados. Para isso, este estudo de caso exploratório empregou o método ELECTRE II ao problema a partir de quatro critérios. O resultado é apresentado por meio de um ranking das alternativas estudadas e as implicações deste. Concluiu-se que os resultados apresentados foram satisfatórios devido à robustez e a implicação prática dos mesmos.

  11. Genoarchitecture of the extended amygdala in zebra finch, and expression of FoxP2 in cell corridors of different genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Alba; Mendoza, Ezequiel; Abellán, Antonio; Scharff, Constance; Medina, Loreta

    2017-01-01

    We used a battery of genes encoding transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1, Lhx6, Lhx5, Lhx9, FoxP2) and neuropeptides to study the extended amygdala in developing zebra finches. We identified different components of the central extended amygdala comparable to those found in mice and chickens, including the intercalated amygdalar cells, the central amygdala, and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Many cells likely originate in the dorsal striatal domain, ventral striatal domain, or the pallidal domain, as is the case in mice and chickens. Moreover, a cell subpopulation of the central extended amygdala appears to originate in the prethalamic eminence. As a general principle, these different cells with specific genetic profiles and embryonic origin form separate or partially intermingled cell corridors along the extended amygdala, which may be involved in different functional pathways. In addition, we identified the medial amygdala of the zebra finch. Like in the chickens and mice, it is located in the subpallium and is rich in cells of pallido-preoptic origin, containing minor subpopulations of immigrant cells from the ventral pallium, alar hypothalamus and prethalamic eminence. We also proposed that the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis is composed of several parallel cell corridors with different genetic profile and embryonic origin: preoptic, pallidal, hypothalamic, and prethalamic. Several of these cell corridors with distinct origin express FoxP2, a transcription factor implicated in synaptic plasticity. Our results pave the way for studies using zebra finches to understand the neural basis of social behavior, in which the extended amygdala is involved.

  12. Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Oxytocin Neurons Correspond With Responses to Intranasal Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel model for neuroendocrine toxicology: neurobehavioral effects of BPA exposure in a prosocial species, the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alana W; Beach, Elsworth C; Stetzik, Lucas A; Perry, Amy; D'Addezio, Alyssa S; Cushing, Bruce S; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-10-01

    Impacts on brain and behavior have been reported in laboratory rodents after developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), raising concerns about possible human effects. Epidemiological data suggest links between prenatal BPA exposure and altered affective behaviors in children, but potential mechanisms are unclear. Disruption of mesolimbic oxytocin (OT)/vasopressin (AVP) pathways have been proposed, but supporting evidence is minimal. To address these data gaps, we employed a novel animal model for neuroendocrine toxicology: the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which are more prosocial than lab rats or mice. Male and female prairie vole pups were orally exposed to 5-μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, 50-μg/kg bw/d, or 50-mg/kg bw/d BPA or vehicle over postnatal days 8-14. Subjects were tested as juveniles in open field and novel social tests and for partner preference as adults. Brains were then collected and assessed for immunoreactive (ir) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (a dopamine marker) neurons in the principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBNST) and TH-ir, OT-ir, and AVP-ir neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Female open field activity indicated hyperactivity at the lowest dose and anxiety at the highest dose. Effects on social interactions were also observed, and partner preference formation was mildly inhibited at all dose levels. BPA masculinized principal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis TH-ir neuron numbers in females. Additionally, 50-mg/kg bw BPA-exposed females had more AVP-ir neurons in the anterior PVN and fewer OT-ir neurons in the posterior PVN. At the 2 lowest doses, BPA eliminated sex differences in PVN TH-ir neuron numbers and reversed this sex difference at the highest dose. Minimal behavioral effects were observed in BPA-exposed males. These data support the hypothesis that BPA alters affective behaviors, potentially via disruption of OT/AVP pathways.

  14. The extended amygdala and salt appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. K.; de Olmos, J.; Pastuskovas, C. V.; Zardetto-Smith, A. M.; Vivas, L.

    1999-01-01

    Both chemo- and mechanosensitive receptors are involved in detecting changes in the signals that reflect the status of body fluids and of blood pressure. These receptors are located in the systemic circulatory system and in the sensory circumventricular organs of the brain. Under conditions of body fluid deficit or of marked changes in fluid distribution, multiple inputs derived from these humoral and neural receptors converge on key areas of the brain where the information is integrated. The result of this central processing is the mobilization of homeostatic behaviors (thirst and salt appetite), hormone release, autonomic changes, and cardiovascular adjustments. This review discusses the current understanding of the nature and role of the central and systemic receptors involved in the facilitation and inhibition of thirst and salt appetite and on particular components of the central neural network that receive and process input derived from fluid- and cardiovascular-related sensory systems. Special attention is paid to the structures of the lamina terminalis, the area postrema, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, and their association with the central nucleus of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in controlling the behaviors that participate in maintaining body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis.

  15. Phytophtora terminalis sp. nov. and Phytophthora occultans sp. nov., two invasive pathogens of ornamental plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Rosendahl, K.C.H.M.; Rijswick, van P.C.J.; Meffert, J.P.; Westenberg, M.; Vossenberg, van de B.T.L.H.; Denton, G.; Kuik, van A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives
    To evaluate, among the elderly, the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mortality, and to identify determinants of self-rating health as “at-least-good”.

    Study Design
    Individual data on SRH and important covariates were obtained for 424,791 European and Unites

  16. Neither bST nor Growth Hormone Releasing Factor Alter Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Liver and Mammary Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine, to specific nuclear receptors. It has been hypothesized that organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, target the action of thyroid hormones to the mammary...

  17. PRESENÇA DE DISLIPIDEMIA E USO DE ESTATINAS EM TRABALHADORES DA AGROINDÚSTRIA E PRODUTORES RURAIS: ESTUDO PRELIMINAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Glier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterações no perfil lipídico estão relacionados ao estilo de vida e comumente são tratadas com estatinas. Desta forma, esta pesquisa objetiva caracterizar trabalhadores da agroindústria e produtores rurais quanto à presença de dislipidemia e uso de estatinas, associado a variáveis demográficas. Estudo transversal e analítico, com 127 sujeitos da região do Conselho Regional de Desenvolvimento do Vale do Rio Pardo, avaliados em 2012-2013. O uso de estatinas bem como as variáveis demográficas (sexo, faixa etária, estado civil, classe econômico e escolaridade foram obtidas por questionários. A definição da presença ou ausência de dislipidemia foi definida pelos marcadores bioquímicos, obtidos através de coleta sanguínea, após 12 horas de jejum. Os dados foram analisados com medidas de frequência e percentual, além do teste Exato de Fisher (p < 0,05. Constatou-se que 61,4% dos sujeitos eram dislipidêmicos, dos quais 89,7% não usavam estatinas. Houveram diferenças demográficas quanto a faixa etária entre aqueles que usam ou não estatinas tanto na presença de dislipidemia (p = 0,006 quanto em sua ausência (p=0,022. Verificou-se o desconhecimento e falta de controle dos níveis do perfil lipídico por alguns indivíduos.

  18. AVALIAÇÃO DE DESEMPENHO EMPRESARIAL: ESTUDO DE CASO DE UMA AGROINDÚSTRIA NO RS

    OpenAIRE

    Cánepa, Daniela; Ludwig, Vanelli Salati

    2009-01-01

    This article seeks to discuss the relevance of the performance indicators in the process of business management, and to indicate the importance of the alignment of these indicators with the business strategy. In a competitive environment, companies face increasing difficulties in order to keep their market competitiveness. In this sense, the financial indicators turn out to be insufficient to assess the business performance, and the utilization of non-financial indicators gets more importance...

  19. INOVAÇÃO EM PRODUTO: ESTUDO LEXICAL NAS INDÚSTRIAS GAÚCHAS DE BENEFICIAMENTO DE ARROZ

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    Carlos Otávio Zamberlan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O arroz é considerado um importante produto na economia mundial, pois é consumido em vários países e continentes. Todavia, a maior parte dos países consumidores são também produtores e as empresas que o beneficiam enfrentam uma grande concorrência. Para ganhar em competitividade a inovação deve se fazer presente. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as inovações em produto por parte das empresas beneficiadoras do Rio Grande do Sul, maior produtor nacional. Para isso, utilizou-se de métodos qualitativos baseados em análise lexical e de conteúdo. Concluiu-se que ocorrem inovações tanto incrementais em produtos existentes, bem como no lançamento de novos produtos visando, também, o fortalecimento de marca, o aumento de opções para o cliente, entre outros motivos.

  20. GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE COMO ESTRATÉGIA PARA MELHORIAS NO RENDIMENTO OPERACIONAL DE INDÚSTRIAS QUEIJEIRAS

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    Luiz Célio Souza Rocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quando se analisa o setor de lácteos brasileiro, constata-se que muitas empresas ainda estão distantes da implementação de estratégias que possibilitem o alcance de diferenciais competitivos. O presente trabalho buscou quantificar as perdas operacionais em uma fábrica de queijo localizada no Município de Rio Pomba/MG considerando o não uso de um programa de garantia da qualidade que refletisse na melhoria da matéria-prima. Como resultado, obteve-se que o rendimento foi significativamente afetado pelo tempo de armazenamento. Por fim, conclui-se que a implementação da gestão da qualidade na indústria queijeira analisada melhoraria seu desempenho operacional e econômico.

  1. CARACTERÍSTICA DOS SEGMENTOS SETORIAIS NO BRASIL: UMA BREVE ABORDAGEM SOBRE O SETOR DA AGROINDÚSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Del Fiori

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho se propõe a fazer uma análise das características setoriais do Brasil desde a segunda metade do século XIX até a data presente, com o objetivo de mostrar que embora tenham ocorrido intervenções do Estado para a realização do processo de industrialização ao longo da história brasileira, nota-se que elas foram de certa forma ineficiente, e acabaram influenciando a trajetória dos setores econômicos de tal forma que na data presente, o Brasil possui a predominância de exportação dos setores básicos, sendo uma verdadeira contradição para as metas que o Brasil almeja alcançar nas próximas décadas. Este trabalho sugere que o Brasil necessita rever suas políticas e escolher algum setor líder no mercado mundial e o setor da Agroindústria poderia ser o segmento econômico líder do país, conforme será abordado neste trabalho. Palavras-Chave: Indústrias, Estado, Setores Abstract: This work intends to make an analysis of industry characteristics in Brazil since the mid-nineteenth century to the present date in order to show that although there were state interventions to the achievement of industrialization throughout history Brazilian note that they were somewhat inefficient, and ultimately influencing the trajectory of economic sectors so that at the present time, Brazil has the predominance of the basic sectors of export, being a real contradiction to the goals that Brazil intends to reach the coming decades. This work suggests that Brazil needs to review its policies and choose a sector leader in the world market and agribusiness sector could be the key economic sector in Brazil, according to his approach in this work. Key Words: Industries, State, Sectors

  2. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: PROCESSO DE LIOFILIZAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Junior, Antonio Martins de; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Oliveira, Gardenia Rocha; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Santos, Jéssica Teles Siqueira; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Campos, Ananda Fontes Pinheiro; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Nunes, Tatiana Pacheco; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Russo, Suzana Leitão; Universidade Federal de Sergipe

    2013-01-01

    O processo de liofilização ou secagem pelo frio “freeze drying” ou “lyophilization”, apresenta uma série de vantagens quanto à manutenção das características originais dos produtos, pelo fato de não submetê-lo a elevadas temperaturas conforme outros processos de desidratação. Preservação do sabor e aroma, aumento da estabilidade através da diminuição da atividade de água, que minimiza a deterioração do alimento durante o armazenamento, são vantagens deste processo. A aplicação da liofilização...

  3. PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA: PROCESSO DE LIOFILIZAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martins de Oliveira Junior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O processo de liofilização ou secagem pelo frio “freeze drying” ou “lyophilization”, apresenta uma série de vantagens quanto à manutenção das características originais dos produtos, pelo fato de não submetê-lo a elevadas temperaturas conforme outros processos de desidratação. Preservação do sabor e aroma, aumento da estabilidade através da diminuição da atividade de água, que minimiza a deterioração do alimento durante o armazenamento, são vantagens deste processo. A aplicação da liofilização em produtos alimentícios ainda é cara, sendo empregada com maior frequência, na fabricação de produtos nobres que necessitam de reidratação rápida e completa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perspectivas e a evolução das competências tecnológicas traduzidas através dos depósitos de patentes referentes à aplicação da liofilização na indústria alimentícia, bem como mapear as pesquisas desenvolvidas. A prospecção foi realizada no Banco Europeu de Patente, no Banco de Dados do Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Intelectual do Brasil, no Banco da Organização Mundial de Propriedade Intelectual e no Banco Americano de Marcas e Patentes. A classificação internacional mais frequente nessa prospecção foi Subseção A23 e principalmente na Subclasse A23L. Com a palavra chave freeze-drying e CIP A23L a República da Coreia, apresentou-se como o maior depositante. Os dados permitem concluir que se trata de uma área promissora, com crescimento de patentes depositadas.

  4. ANÁLISE DO DESEMPENHO ORGANIZACIONAL NO AGRONEGÓCIO BRASILEIRO: APLICANDO À AGROINDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL E CELULOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO ALVARO DA SILVA MACEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Agronegocio es uno de los sectores más importantes de la economía brasileña y su segmento industrial tiene un papel significativo. Debido a esa relevancia, cuestiones técnicas y gerenciales merecen atención especial. Este artículo procura promover una discusión sobre el desempeño organizacional de empresas brasileñas de papel y celulosa, desde informaciones contables -financieras. Por medio de la aplicación del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA, se busca identificar un índice de desempeño multicriterial para cada empresa y hacer un análisis de benchmarking para mostrar lo que las empresas ineficientes necesitan hacer para hacerse eficientes. Los resultados muestran que las mejores empresas son aquéllas que mejor com - binan sus inputs (índices del tipo cuanto menor mejor a los outputs que buscan (índices del tipo cuanto mayor mejor. Además, las peores empresas son aquéllas que necesitan cambios radicales en sus niveles de input y/o output para que alcancen el desempeño máximo.

  5. SUSCETIBILIDADE A ANTIMICROBIANOS DE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLADOS DE MANIPULADORES DE INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS

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    Williani Fabíola GRANDO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar Staphylococcus aureus de manipuladores de alimentos de um lacticínio e determinar sua suscetibilidade a diversos antimicrobianos. Para tal, coletaram-se amostras a partir das mãos e cavidade nasal de 29 manipuladores. Foram obtidos 58 cultivos suspeitos, os quais foram submetidos a testes bioquímicos e ao teste de suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos ciprofloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, clindamicina, tetraciclina, eritromicina, nitrofurantoína, sulfazotrim, rifampicina e vancomicina através da técnica de difusão em disco. Foram isoladas 19 cepas de S. aureus, sendo 42,10% provenientes das mãos e 57,90% da cavidade nasal dos indivíduos avaliados. O maior índice de resistência foi encontrado para penicilina G (78,95%, seguido pela tetraciclina (26,31%, enquanto que o maior índice de sensibilidade foi observado para nitrofurantoína, sulfazotrim, rifampicina e vancomicina (100%, seguido da oxacilina (94,73% e ciprofloxacina (89,47%. De modo geral, as cepas apresentaram baixos níveis de resistência, entretanto, a presença de S. aureus nas mãos e cavidades nasais dos manipuladores desempenham papel importante na disseminação do micro-organismo.

  6. ESTILOS DE FUNCIONAMENTO E MECANISMOS DE APRENDIZAGEM EM UMA INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA DE PUBLICIDADE E PROPAGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chaves Correia Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva analisar a cultura organizacional quanto aos estilos de funcionamentoe aos mecanismos de aprendizagem em uma indústria de criação funcional. Trata-se deuma pesquisa quantitativa, descritiva, com uso de questionários estruturados. Utilizou-seestatísticas descritivas de médias, desvio-padrão e correlação mediante informações damaior empresa de publicidade e propaganda do Ceará. A cultura da organização é formadapela presença moderada e simultânea dos estilos empreendedor, afiliativo, burocrático eindividualista, predominando o primeiro. O único mecanismo de aprendizagem com nível altode ocorrência foi codificação e controle de conhecimento, evidenciando fraca correlação entreimportância atribuída e ocorrência desses mecanismos.

  7. BENEFÍCIOS DA IMPLANTAÇÃO DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA INDÚSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Naime

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a preservação ambiental é relativamente recente na história das sociedades humanas, tendo nascido do grande desenvolvimento, com paralela produção de impactos ambientais decorrentes da aceleração do processo industrial. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso de implantação de um sistema de Gestão Ambiental em uma empresa do setor automotivo. Sistematiza questões referentes à metodologia de implantação e em relação aos benefícios produzidos na produção em função do SGA. Aborda também as melhorias de qualidade de vida obtidas por funcionários e colaboradores. E finaliza qualificando os ganhos com a percepção da comunidade sobre a nova visão socioambiental que a empresa assume a partir da implantação de um Sistema de Gestão Ambiental. O trabalho objetiva estimular a reflexão de outras empresas e organizações sobre as vantagens globais da implantação de Sistemas de Gestão Ambiental. Palavras-chave: Gestão. Meio ambiente. Sistemas.

  8. A GUERRA DAS TUBAÍNAS: ESTRATÉGIAS COMPETITIVAS DAS INDÚSTRIAS DE REFRIGERANTES POPULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciel Henrique de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubaína is the generic name of a tutti-frutti flavored soft drink, produced by Brazilian industries, with many regional variations. These soft drinks are generally popular, very sweet, withlower price and local brand. This research aimed to describe the economic importance of the Brazilian soft drinks, from the point of view of small and medium manufacturers. What strategies used by theseindustries to face the big companies competition? How can these companies survive and grow in such a competitive market? The study had three objectives: (1 know and understand the popular soft drinkindustry, highlighting the participation of regional industries, (2 raise the popular soft drink industries of São Paulo State, highlighting the most relevant cases, (3 analyze prominent cases, relating them to theories of strategy envisaged. We found that the main strategy of small and mid-sized companies is to prioritize and focus their strength in regional markets where their factories are located. Producers invest in production vertical integration, modern equipment similar to those used by large enterprises, and innovation to reduce costs and gain a competitive advantage. Always they try to follow the trends set by big players hit the market. Combining the lower prices and a quality product to the local tradition of consuming these soft drinks, these companies can compete and annoy the major sector’s industries.

  9. A INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA VERDE E ADAPTAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: O TURISMO CRIATIVO COMO MATERIALIZAÇÃO

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    André Rafael Weyermüller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A inovação oriunda da criatividade e é o elemento chave para promover o adequado encaminhamento de diversas problemáticas da sociedade atual. A Indústria Criativa Verde é a fonte do desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços diferenciados, os quais conciliam aplicações no mercado com a necessidade de preservação ambiental. A legislação que se propõe a viabilizar ações inovadoras como na área do turismo, são representativas de uma proposta adaptativa que supera a sustentabilidade. Palavras-chave: Inovação. Adaptação. Direito. Turismo. Indústria Criativa.

  10. A INDÚSTRIA CRIATIVA VERDE E ADAPTAÇÃO AMBIENTAL: O TURISMO CRIATIVO COMO MATERIALIZAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    André Rafael Weyermüller; Pedro Ernesto Neubarth Jung; Maria Eduarda Lima da Rosa; Lucas Rodrigo Kehl

    2015-01-01

    A inovação oriunda da criatividade e é o elemento chave para promover o adequado encaminhamento de diversas problemáticas da sociedade atual. A Indústria Criativa Verde é a fonte do desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços diferenciados, os quais conciliam aplicações no mercado com a necessidade de preservação ambiental. A legislação que se propõe a viabilizar ações inovadoras como na área do turismo, são representativas de uma proposta adaptativa que supera a sustentabilidade. Palavras-cha...

  11. PRATICANTES DA ESTRATÉGIA E AS BASES PRAXEOLÓGICAS DA INDÚSTRIA DO MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Cristiano Oliveira; Augusto, Paulo Otávio Mussi

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO No presente artigo, tentou-se ir além das explicações tradicionais sobre as modas gerenciais que configuram a indústria do management. Para tanto, foi adotada uma perspectiva praxeológica ao examinar as bases de sustentação dessa indústria. Os dados foram coletados durante um período de sete meses via observação, pesquisa documental e entrevistas em uma organização do emergente setor dos sites de vendas de cupons de desconto. A análise do processo de construção social dos praticantes d...

  12. ESTRATÉGIAS DE REDUÇÃO DA VARIABILIDADE DE PROCESSOS NA INDÚSTRIA CALÇADISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Gross

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of a Brazilian company, operating in the footwear sector, located in Parobé city, in the Valley of Paranhana, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The process analyzed showed high failure rates of manufactured batches and by quality analysis tools, the Statistical Process Control tools were applied to analyze the variability. The tools applied were the control charts, process capacity and capability analysis, histogram, Pareto chart and cause and effect analysis. The main results of the study were the reduction of the rejection indices of the process to zero and improvement in the capacity index from 0,424 to 1,52, demonstrating the reduction of the sources of variation of the production process and reaching the objectives The research. This research can be used by academics and professionals to improve the competitive performance of footwear companies.

  13. A TRAJETÓRIA DO SAMBA NO SÉCULO XX: DA MARGINALIDADE À INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL

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    Valdemar Valente Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma visão panorâmica do samba a partir de sua inserção como produto cultural no Brasil do século XX. Sua configuração de gênero musical moderno e sua ascensão de manifestação periférica e marginal à condição de música definidora de um sentido de nacionalidade. A influência dos gêneros estrangeiros e o papel da indústria do rádio, do disco e mais tarde da televisão como multiplicadora de sua importância como música de consumo.

  14. PRÁTICAS DE GESTÃO DO CONHECIMENTO NAS INDÚSTRIAS PARANAENSES: UMA ABORDAGEM RELACIONADA À COMPETITIVIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Volnei Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The global picture of the twenty-first century presents the knowledge management as a strategy in the use of their practices to enhance intangible assets focusing better systematic processes and reach a higher performance of the organization. This article seeks to describe the importance of knowledge management practices Paraná industries. Data collection was done through a questionnaire, and as a result we sought to identify which practices are most important in this scenario knowledge management for the development of the organization to support the local industry.

  15. UM ESTUDO EXPLORATÓRIO SOBRE A INDÚSTRIA BRASILEIRA DE ANIMAÇÃO PARA A TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian Gatti Junior

    Full Text Available A economia criativa tem recebido pouca atenção da comunidade acadêmica, a despeito de sua importância econômica e cultural. Este artigo procura contribuir com a literatura sobre o tema com foco na indústria de animação, mais precisamente na produção de animações para a TV, pois recentemente o país produziu animações de sucesso na TV paga exibidas não só no Brasil, mas também em vários países. Este artigo procura analisar como as produtoras nacionais construíram vantagens competitivas que as possibilitaram obter êxito em suas produções em um mercado dominado por estúdios internacionais. Para atingir esse propósito foi conduzida uma pesquisa exploratório-descritiva analisando três produtoras (Flamma, TV PinGuim e 2DLab que exibem seu produto no canal Discovery Kids, voltado ao público préescolar. Foram entrevistados todos os sócios das produtoras (em um total de seis, dois de cada produtora, mais uma representante da indústria de animação para o cinema. Além das entrevistas, foram utilizados dados secundários, basicamente coletados na mídia (jornais, revistas e internet. O trabalho revelou a convergência de duas fontes de vantagens competitivas. A primeira ligada a fatores internos às produtoras estudadas (conhecimento técnico e visão do negócio e a segunda fonte ligada a fatores ambientais, criados pela cadeia produtiva dessa indústria (criação de novos canais de TV, interesse de parceiros internacionais e linhas de financiamento para a produção.

  16. IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DE PLANO DE LUBRIFICAÇÃO EM INDÚSTRIA FRIGORÍFICA DE BOVINOS

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    Alano De La Torre Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado pelo meio de um estudo de caso em uma indústria frigorífica de bovinos. O plano de manutenção preventiva da empresa estudada possuía deficiências na parte de lubrificação dos equipamentos. Desta forma, este trabalho tem a finalidade de mostrar como é a implantação de um plano de lubrificação na empresa estudada. Foi implantado um plano de lubrificação destinado a cinco maquinas diferentes. Foram necessários três meses para a implantação do plano. Comparando-se o número de ordens de serviço de manutenções corretivas relacionadas à falta de lubrificação antes e três meses após a implantação do plano de lubrificação nas máquinas citadas, obteve-se um resultado satisfatório, pois houve uma redução de cerca de 50% das ordens de serviços para manutenção corretivas dos equipamentos,

  17. Betahistine exerts a dose-dependent effect on cochlear stria vascularis blood flow in guinea pigs in vivo.

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    Fritz Ihler

    Full Text Available Betahistine is a histamine H(1-receptor agonist and H(3-receptor antagonist that is administered to treat Menière's disease. Despite widespread use, its pharmacological mode of action has not been entirely elucidated. This study investigated the effect of betahistine on guinea pigs at dosages corresponding to clinically used doses for cochlear microcirculation.Thirty healthy Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to five groups to receive betahistine dihydrochloride in a dose of 1,000 mg/kg b. w. (milligram per kilogram body weight, 0.100 mg/kg b. w., 0.010 mg/kg b. w., 0.001 mg/kg b. w. in NaCl 0.9% or NaCl 0.9% alone as placebo. Cochlear blood flow and mean arterial pressure were continuously monitored by intravital fluorescence microscopy and invasive blood pressure measurements 3 minutes before and 15 minutes after administration of betahistine.When betahistine was administered in a dose of 1.000 mg/kg b. w. cochlear blood flow was increased to a peak value of 1.340 arbitrary units (SD: 0.246; range: 0.933-1.546 arb. units compared to baseline (p<0.05; Two Way Repeated Measures ANOVA/Bonferroni t-test. The lowest dosage of 0.001 mg/kg b. w. betahistine or NaCl 0.9% had the same effect as placebo. Nonlinear regression revealed that there was a sigmoid correlation between increase in blood flow and dosages.Betahistine has a dose-dependent effect on the increase of blood flow in cochlear capillaries. The effects of the dosage range of betahistine on cochlear microcirculation corresponded well to clinically used single dosages to treat Menière's disease. Our data suggest that the improved effects of higher doses of betahistine in the treatment of Menière's disease might be due to a corresponding increase of cochlear blood flow.

  18. FIXAÇÃO DE CO2 EM EFLUENTE SALINO DE INDÚSTRIA PETROQUÍMICA

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    Leonardo F. Santos

    Full Text Available In various industrial processes, such as the process of obtaining potassium by solution mining or in the oil industry, fuels are burnt concurrently to the formation of saline effluents. The opportunity to sequester carbon through capturing the CO2 from the flue gas by carbonation of these effluents and reducing the potential of scaling of the water is evident. The use of saline industrial effluent from electrodialysis for carbon sequestration by mineralization of carbon dioxide is the focus of this work. The carbonation reaction of saline effluent of reverse electrodialysis, of low ionic strength and higher CO2 solubility, was simulated through OLI®. Precipitation tests were performed by bubbling 10-20 NL h-1 CO2 in a glass reactor containing the brine and pH adjusted to 8.9. The solid was characterized and the results from the simulation and the experiments were compared. The removal of calcium and strontium in the form of carbonates reach out up to 98% and 75%. The simulation results were in line with the experimental results for the calcium behavior, but not for strontium. The OLI® simulation was powerful to represent the calcium carbonate formation, however, comparisons between predicted Sr removal and testwork results presented differences and must be investigated.

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DA DISPERSÃO ATMOSFÉRICA DE COMPOSTOS ODORANTES EMITIDOS NA INDÚSTRIA PAPELEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O caráter odorante de compostos reduzidos de enxofre (TRS, tipicamente emitidos na indústria papeleira, tem gerado grande interesse por parte dessas indústrias em predizer a qualidade do ar nas proximidades de suas fontes emissoras. Desse modo, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar o impacto na atmosfera resultante das emissões de TRS de uma fabricante de papel e celulose de grande porte, por meio da modelagem dos compostos gasosos emitidos a partir de duas fontes pontuais (tomadas como as maiores contribuidoras. Para tanto, foi utilizado o “software” AID (Avaliação Instantânea de Dispersão baseado no modelo de Gauss para determinação das concentrações (no ar resultantes dessas emissões. Nessa determinação, foram abordados os principais parâmetros meteorológicos (dos últimos 3 anos e cinéticos de emissão necessários à modelagem. A máxima concentração de TRS obtida após a modelagem foi de 3,84 ppb (somatório das duas fontes avaliadas, ficando bem abaixo dos limites de percepção odorífera (LPO recomendado por órgãos internacionais (o Brasil não possui leis específicas para esse caso. Como os limites de toxicidade quase sempre estão bem acima dos LPO, é seguro afirmar que, no caso avaliado, a concentração máxima estimada não apresenta riscos de toxicidade à população exposta, uma vez, pelo valor obtido, nem o odor pode ser percebido.

  20. FORMAÇÃO E ESTRUTURAÇÃO DO CAMPO ORGANIZACIONAL DA INDÚSTRIA PESQUEIRA EM CALLAO, PERU

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    Wuili Roberto Vela Ocaña

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como finalidade, analisar a formação e a estruturação do campo organizacional da indústria pesqueira na região do Callao, Peru, apoiando-se nos pressupostos da teoria institucional. Utilizar o conceito de campo organizacional e aplicá-lo na indústria pesqueira permitirá determinar como estão se comportando as organizações que fazem parte do mesmo. Os resultados aqui apresentados, bem como a análise, foram elaborados a partir dos dados coletados em documentos assim, como em uma série de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com representantes das principais organizações que compõem o campo. O atual grau de estruturação do campo é moderado, por esta atividade centrar-se quase exclusivamente na produção de farinha de pescado e, descuidar os outros tipos de empresas existentes, mas também devido a fragilidade com a qual alguns indicadores se apresentaram no campo. A influência do setor privado é determinante dessa situação.

  1. Circuit and synaptic mechanisms of repeated stress: Perspectives from differing contexts, duration, and development

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    Kevin G. Bath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current review is meant to synthesize research presented as part of a symposium at the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Irvine California. The focus of the symposium was “Stress and the Synapse: New Concepts and Methods” and featured the work of several junior investigators. The presentations focused on the impact of various forms of stress (altered maternal care, binge alcohol drinking, chronic social defeat, and chronic unpredictable stress on synaptic function, neurodevelopment, and behavioral outcomes. One of the goals of the symposium was to highlight the mechanisms accounting for how the nervous system responds to stress and their impact on outcome measures with converging effects on the development of pathological behavior. Dr. Kevin Bath's presentation focused on the impact of disruptions in early maternal care and its impact on the timing of hippocampus maturation in mice, finding that this form of stress drove accelerated synaptic and behavioral maturation, and contributed to the later emergence of risk for cognitive and emotional disturbance. Dr. Scott Russo highlighted the impact of chronic social defeat stress in adolescent mice on the development and plasticity of reward circuity, with a focus on glutamatergic development in the nucleus accumbens and mesolimbic dopamine system, and the implications of these changes for disruptions in social and hedonic response, key processes disturbed in depressive pathology. Dr. Kristen Pleil described synaptic changes in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis that underlie the behavioral consequences of allostatic load produced by repeated cycles of alcohol binge drinking and withdrawal. Dr. Eric Wohleb and Dr. Ron Duman provided new data associating decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling and neurobiological changes in the synapses in response to chronic unpredictable stress, and highlighted the potential for the novel antidepressant ketamine to rescue

  2. Circuits regulating pleasure and happiness: the evolution of the amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular connectivity in vertebrates.

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    Anton J.M. Loonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line. Up to, and including, amphibians, the dorsal pallium can be considered to be an extension of the medial pallium, which later develops into the hippocampus. The ventral and lateral pallium largely go up into the corticoid part of the amygdala. The striatopallidum of these early vertebrates becomes extended amygdala, consisting of centromedial amygdala (striatum connected with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pallidum. This amygdaloid system gives output to hypothalamus and brainstem, but also a connection with the cerebral cortex exists, which in part was created after the development of the more recent cerebral neocortex. Apart from bidirectional connectivity with the hippocampal complex, this route can also be considered to be an output channel as the fornix connects the hippocampus with the medial septum, which is the most important input structure of the medial habenula. The medial habenula regulates the activity of midbrain structures adjusting the intensity of the misery-fleeing response. Within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis the human homologue of the ancient lateral habenula-projecting globus pallidus may exist; this structure is important for the evaluation of efficacy of the reward-seeking response. The described organization offers a

  3. In vivoAcute Toxicity Studies Using Swiss Albino Mice and In vitro Cytotoxicity (BST Assay of the Methanol Extracts of Stem bark of Echinaceae angustifolia DC

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    Abdu ZAKARI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of Echinaceae angustifolia DC was tested for acute toxicity (LD50 using Swiss Albino Mice and was screened for cytotoxicity assay using Artemia salina larvae. The results showed that the plant was toxic to the mice at even a low concentration and caused death at a concentration of 500mg/Kg body weight of the live mice. The LD50 was found to be 1,224.74mg/Kg. The result of the cytotoxicity showed that the extract was toxic to the naupli with an LC50and LC90 values of 125.89μg/mL and 794.33μg/mL.

  4. Neural-activity mapping of memory-based dominance in the crow: neural networks integrating individual discrimination and social behaviour control.

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    Nishizawa, K; Izawa, E-I; Watanabe, S

    2011-12-01

    Large-billed crows (Corvus macrorhynchos), highly social birds, form stable dominance relationships based on the memory of win/loss outcomes of first encounters and on individual discrimination. This socio-cognitive behaviour predicts the existence of neural mechanisms for integration of social behaviour control and individual discrimination. This study aimed to elucidate the neural substrates of memory-based dominance in crows. First, the formation of dominance relationships was confirmed between males in a dyadic encounter paradigm. Next, we examined whether neural activities in 22 focal nuclei of pallium and subpallium were correlated with social behaviour and stimulus familiarity after exposure to dominant/subordinate familiar individuals and unfamiliar conspecifics. Neural activity was determined by measuring expression level of the immediate-early-gene (IEG) protein Zenk. Crows displayed aggressive and/or submissive behaviour to opponents less frequently but more discriminatively in subsequent encounters, suggesting stable dominance based on memory, including win/loss outcomes of the first encounters and individual discrimination. Neural correlates of aggressive and submissive behaviour were found in limbic subpallium including septum, bed nucleus of the striae terminalis (BST), and nucleus taeniae of amygdala (TnA), but also those to familiarity factor in BST and TnA. Contrastingly, correlates of social behaviour were little in pallium and those of familiarity with exposed individuals were identified in hippocampus, medial meso-/nidopallium, and ventro-caudal nidopallium. Given the anatomical connection and neural response patterns of the focal nuclei, neural networks connecting pallium and limbic subpallium via hippocampus could be involved in the integration of individual discrimination and social behaviour control in memory-based dominance in the crow. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Endocannabinoid System and Anxiety.

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    Lisboa, S F; Gomes, F V; Terzian, A L B; Aguiar, D C; Moreira, F A; Resstel, L B M; Guimarães, F S

    2017-01-01

    The medical properties of Cannabis sativa is known for centuries. Since the discovery and characterization of the endogenous cannabinoid system, several studies have evaluated how cannabinoid compounds and, particularly, how the modulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system influences a wide range of functions, from metabolic to mental disorders. Cannabinoids and eCB system often exert opposite effects on several functions, such as anxiety. Although the mechanisms are not completely understood, evidence points to different factors influencing those effects. In this chapter, the recent advances in research about the relationship between eCB system and anxiety disorders in humans, as well as in animal models, will be discussed. The recent data addressing modulation of the eCBs in specific brain areas, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdaloid complex, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and dorsal periaqueductal gray, will be summarized. Finally, data from animal models addressing the mechanisms through which the eCB system modulates anxiety-related behavior dependent on stressful situations, such as the involvement of different receptors, distinct eCBs, modulation of neurotransmitters release, HPA axis and immune system activation, and plastic mechanisms, will also be discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Subcortical BOLD responses during visual sexual stimulation vary as a function of implicit porn associations in women.

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    Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J; Georgiadis, Janniko R

    2014-02-01

    Lifetime experiences shape people's attitudes toward sexual stimuli. Visual sexual stimulation (VSS), for instance, may be perceived as pleasurable by some, but as disgusting or ambiguous by others. VSS depicting explicit penile-vaginal penetration (PEN) is relevant in this respect, because the act of penetration is a core sexual activity. In this study, 20 women without sexual complaints participated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a single-target implicit association task to investigate how brain responses to PEN were modulated by the initial associations in memory (PEN-'hot' vs PEN-disgust) with such hardcore pornographic stimuli. Many brain areas responded to PEN in the same way they responded to disgust stimuli, and PEN-induced brain activity was prone to modulation by subjective disgust ratings toward PEN stimuli. The relative implicit PEN-disgust (relative to PEN-'hot') associations exclusively modulated PEN-induced brain responses: comparatively negative (PEN-disgust) implicit associations with pornography predicted the strongest PEN-related responses in the basal forebrain (including nucleus accumbens and bed nucleus of stria terminalis), midbrain and amygdala. Since these areas are often implicated in visual sexual processing, the present findings should be taken as a warning: apparently their involvement may also indicate a negative or ambivalent attitude toward sexual stimuli.

  7. Chronic social isolation enhances reproduction in the monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

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    Perry, Adam N; Carter, C Sue; Cushing, Bruce S

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stressors are generally considered to disrupt reproduction and inhibit mating. Here we test the hypothesis that a chronic stressor, specifically social isolation, can facilitate adaptive changes that enhance/accelerate reproductive effort. In general, monogamous species display high levels of prosociality, delayed sexual maturation, and greater parental investment in fewer, higher quality offspring compared with closely related polygynous species. We predicted that chronic social isolation would promote behavioral and neurochemical patterns in prairie voles associated with polygyny. Male and female prairie voles were isolated for four weeks and changes in mating behavior, alloparental care, estrogen receptor (ER) α expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in brain regions regulating sociosexual behavior were examined. In males, isolation accelerated copulation, increased ERα in the medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpm), and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on alloparental behavior. In females, isolation resulted in more rapid estrus induction and reduced TH expression in the MEApd and BSTpm, but had no effect on estradiol sensitivity or ERα expression. The results support the hypothesis that ERα expression in the MEApd and BSTpm is a critical determinant of male copulatory behavior and/or mating system. The lack of change in alloparental behavior suggests that changes in prosocial behavior are selective and regulated by different mechanisms. The results also suggest that TH in the MEApd and BSTpm may play a critical role in determining mating behavior in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of estrous cycle and xenoestrogens expositions on mice nitric oxide producing system.

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    Gotti, Stefano; Martini, Mariangela; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Miceli, Desiree; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-containing neurons are widely distributed within the central nervous system, including regions involved in the control of reproduction and sexual behavior. Nitrergic neurons may co-localize with gonadal hormone receptors and gonadal hormones may influence neuronal NO synthase expression in adulthood as well as during development. In rodents, the female, in physiological conditions, is exposed to short-term changes of gonadal hormones levels (estrous cycle). Our studies, performed in mouse hypothalamic and limbic systems, reveal that the expression of neuronal NO synthase may vary according to the rapid variations of hormonal levels that take place during the estrous cycle. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that gonadal hormone activation of NO-cGMP pathway is important for mating behavior. NO-producing system appears particularly sensitive to alterations of endocrine balance during development, as demonstrated by our experiments utilizing perinatal exposure to bisphenol A, an endocrine disrupting chemical. In fact, significant effects were detected in adulthood in the medial preoptic nucleus and in the ventromedial subdivision of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Therefore, alteration of the neuronal NO synthase expression may be one of the causes of the important behavioral alterations observed in bisphenol-exposed animals.

  9. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for interactions between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Jennifer M; Besson, Marie-Jo; Caboche, Jocelyne; Maldonado, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Behavioural and pharmacological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and nicotine are well known. However, the possible interactions between these two drugs of abuse remain unclear in spite of the current association of cannabis and tobacco in humans. The present study was designed to analyse the consequences of nicotine administration on THC-induced acute behavioural and biochemical responses, tolerance and physical dependence. Nicotine strongly facilitated hypothermia, antinociception and hypolocomotion induced by the acute administration of THC. Furthermore, the co-administration of sub-threshold doses of THC and nicotine produced an anxiolytic-like response in the light–dark box and in the open-field test as well as a significant conditioned place preference. Animals co-treated with nicotine and THC displayed an attenuation in THC tolerance and an enhancement in the somatic expression of cannabinoid antagonist-precipitated THC withdrawal. THC and nicotine administration induced c-Fos expression in several brain structures. Co-administration of both compounds enhanced c-Fos expression in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, central and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, dorso-lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, cingular and piriform cortex, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. These results clearly demonstrate the existence of a functional interaction between THC and nicotine. The facilitation of THC-induced acute pharmacological and biochemical responses, tolerance and physical dependence by nicotine could play an important role in the development of addictive processes. PMID:11815392

  10. Dynorphin Controls the Gain of an Amygdalar Anxiety Circuit

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    Nicole A. Crowley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kappa opioid receptors (KORs are involved in a variety of aversive behavioral states, including anxiety. To date, a circuit-based mechanism for KOR-driven anxiety has not been described. Here, we show that activation of KORs inhibits glutamate release from basolateral amygdala (BLA inputs to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST and occludes the anxiolytic phenotype seen with optogenetic activation of BLA-BNST projections. In addition, deletion of KORs from amygdala neurons results in an anxiolytic phenotype. Furthermore, we identify a frequency-dependent, optically evoked local dynorphin-induced heterosynaptic plasticity of glutamate inputs in the BNST. We also find that there is cell type specificity to the KOR modulation of the BLA-BNST input with greater KOR-mediated inhibition of BLA dynorphin-expressing neurons. Collectively, these results provide support for a model in which local dynorphin release can inhibit an anxiolytic pathway, providing a discrete therapeutic target for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  11. Physical interaction is not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia in male rats.

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    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    In social animals, housing with conspecific animals after a stressful event attenuates the subsequent adverse outcomes due to the event, and this has been called housing-type social buffering. We have previously found that housing-type social buffering attenuates the enhancement of hyperthermia and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that occurs in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus in male rats. Here, we analyzed the role of physical interactions during social housing in the induction of housing-type social buffering. When a fear-conditioned subject was alone after the conditioning and then exposed to the conditioned stimulus, it showed behavioral, autonomic, and neural stress responses. However, social housing, during which physical interactions were prevented by wire mesh, attenuated these autonomic and neural stress responses, as has been seen in previous studies. These results suggested that physical interaction was not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering. With this social cohabitation model, we then found that social cohabitation increased Fos expression in the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus of the fear-conditioned subject. Social cohabitation also increased Fos expression in 11 brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the medial, lateral, basal, and cortical amygdala. These results provide information about the neural mechanisms that induce housing-type social buffering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 125/I-galanin binding sites in the rat central nervous system

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    Skofitsch, G.; Sills, M.A.; Jacobowitz, D.M.

    1986-11-01

    Galanin (GAL) binding sites in coronal sections of the rat brain were demonstrated using autoradiographic methods. Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-GAL binding to slide-mounted tissue sections revealed saturable binding to a single class of receptors with a Kd of approximately 0.2 nM. /sup 125/I-GAL binding sites were demonstrated throughout the rat central nervous system. Dense binding was observed in the following areas: prefrontal cortex, the anterior nuclei of the olfactory bulb, several nuclei of the amygdaloid complex, the dorsal septal area, dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the ventral pallidum, the internal medullary laminae of the thalamus, medial pretectal nucleus, nucleus of the medial optic tract, borderline area of the caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus adjacent to the spinal trigeminal tract, the substantia gelatinosa and the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord. Moderate binding was observed in the piriform, periamygdaloid, entorhinal, insular cortex and the subiculum, the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, anterior hypothalamic, ventromedial, dorsal premamillary, lateral and periventricular thalamic nuclei, the subzona incerta, Forel's field H1 and H2, periventricular gray matter, medial and superficial gray strata of the superior colliculus, dorsal parts of the central gray, peripeduncular area, the interpeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra zona compacta, ventral tegmental area, the dorsal and ventral parabrachial and parvocellular reticular nuclei. The preponderance of GAL-binding in somatosensory as well as in limbic areas suggests a possible involvement of GAL in a variety of brain functions.

  13. No impact of deep brain stimulation on fear-potentiated startle in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Johanna M.P. Baas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Given the close proximity of the stimulation site to the stria terminalis (BNST, we hypothesized that the striking decrease in anxiety symptoms following DBS could be the result of the modulation of contextual anxiety. However, the effect of DBS in this region on contextual anxiety is as of yet unknown. Thus, the current study investigated the effect of DBS on contextual anxiety in an experimental threat of shock paradigm. Eight patients with DBS treatment for severe OCD were tested in a double-blind crossover design with randomly assigned two-week periods of active and sham stimulation. DBS resulted in significant decrease of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, anxiety and depression. However, even though the threat manipulation resulted in a clear context potentiated startle effect, none of the parameters derived from the startle recordings was modulated by the DBS. This suggests that DBS in the ventral internal capsule is effective in treating anxiety symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder without modulating the startle circuitry. We hypothesize that the anxiety symptoms present in OCD are likely distinct from the pathological brain circuits in defensive states of other anxiety disorders.

  14. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by 'comfort' food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Christiansen, Anne M; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P

    2016-07-01

    A history of eating highly palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30 % sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such 'comfort' foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala-medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological datasets.

  15. Conservatism and the neural circuitry of threat: economic conservatism predicts greater amygdala-BNST connectivity during periods of threat vs safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Walker S; Muftuler, L Tugan; Larson, Christine L

    2018-01-01

    Political conservatism is associated with an increased negativity bias, including increased attention and reactivity toward negative and threatening stimuli. Although the human amygdala has been implicated in the response to threatening stimuli, no studies to date have investigated whether conservatism is associated with altered amygdala function toward threat. Furthermore, although an influential theory posits that connectivity between the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is important in initiating the response to sustained or uncertain threat, whether individual differences in conservatism modulate this connectivity is unknown. To test whether conservatism is associated with increased reactivity in neural threat circuitry, we measured participants' self-reported social and economic conservatism and asked them to complete high-resolution fMRI scans while under threat of an unpredictable shock and while safe. We found that economic conservatism predicted greater connectivity between the BNST and a cluster of voxels in the left amygdala during threat vs safety. These results suggest that increased amygdala-BNST connectivity during threat may be a key neural correlate of the enhanced negativity bias found in conservatism. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

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    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  17. c-fos Changes following an aggressive encounter in female California mice: a synthesis of behavior, hormone changes and neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E S; Marler, C A

    2004-01-01

    Although there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and physiological mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior, little work has focused on possible mechanisms controlling natural plasticity in aggression. In the current study, we used naturally occurring changes in aggression level displayed by female Peromyscus californicus across the estrous cycle and parallel changes in c-fos expression to examine possible brain regions involved in mediating this plasticity. We found that c-fos expression was increased in females exposed to a conspecific female intruder compared with control females in numerous brain regions thought to be involved in the control of aggression. More importantly, we found that c-fos increased in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and ventral lateral septum (LSv) only in the more aggressive, diestrous females, and not in the less aggressive, proestrous and estrous females. Conversely, c-fos increased in the medial amygdala (MeA) across all stages of estrus compared with controls, suggesting the MeA is not involved in mediating changes in individual levels of aggression. Moreover, we found correlations between several measures of aggression and c-fos expression in the BNST and LSv but not the MeA, again suggesting a role in mediating aggression plasticity for the former two but not the latter brain region. We further hypothesize that the BNST and the LSv may be involved more generally in mediating natural changes in aggression, such as increases often observed after individuals win aggressive interactions against conspecifics.

  18. Behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice: a crucial role of the vomeronasal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Kashiko S; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2013-03-20

    Sexually naive male mice show robust aggressive behavior toward pups. However, the proportion of male mice exhibiting pup-directed aggression declines after cohabitation with a pregnant female for 2 weeks after mating. Subsequently, on becoming fathers, they show parental behavior toward pups, similar to maternal behavior by mothers. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this behavioral transition, we examined brain regions differentially activated in sexually naive males and fathers after exposure to pups, using c-Fos expression as a neuronal activation marker. We found that, after pup exposure, subsets of neurons along the vomeronasal neural pathway-including the vomeronasal sensory neurons, the accessory olfactory bulb, the posterior medial amygdala, the medioposterior division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and the anterior hypothalamic area-were more strongly activated in sexually naive males than in fathers. Notably, c-Fos induction was not observed in the vomeronasal sensory neurons of fathers after pup exposure. Surgical ablation of the vomeronasal organ in sexually naive males resulted in the abrogation of pup-directed aggression and simultaneous induction of parental behavior. These results suggest that chemical cues evoking pup-directed aggression are received by the vomeronasal sensory neurons and activate the vomeronasal neural pathway in sexually naive male mice but not in fathers. Thus, the downregulation of pup pheromone-induced activation of the vomeronasal system might be important for the behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice.

  19. Brain structures and neurotransmitters regulating aggression in cats: implications for human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T R; Siegel, A

    2001-01-01

    1. Violence and aggression are major public health problems. 2. The authors have used techniques of electrical brain stimulation, anatomical-immunohistochemical techniques, and behavioral pharmacology to investigate the neural systems and circuits underlying aggressive behavior in the cat. 3. The medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray are the most important structures mediating defensive rage behavior, and the perifornical lateral hypothalamus clearly mediates predatory attack behavior. The hippocampus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, septal area, cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex project to these structures directly or indirectly and thus can modulate the intensity of attack and rage. 4. Evidence suggests that several neurotransmitters facilitate defensive rage within the PAG and medial hypothalamus, including glutamate, Substance P, and cholecystokinin, and that opioid peptides suppress it; these effects usually depend on the subtype of receptor that is activated. 5. A key recent discovery was a GABAergic projection that may underlie the often-observed reciprocally inhibitory relationship between these two forms of aggression. 6. Recently, Substance P has come under scrutiny as a possible key neurotransmitter involved in defensive rage, and the mechanism by which it plays a role in aggression and rage is under investigation. 7. It is hoped that this line of research will provide a better understanding of the neural mechanisms and substrates regulating aggression and rage and thus establish a rational basis for treatment of disorders associated with these forms of aggression.

  20. Mapping the co-localization of the circadian proteins PER2 and BMAL1 with enkephalin and substance P throughout the rodent forebrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Frederick

    Full Text Available Despite rhythmic expression of clock genes being found throughout the central nervous system, very little is known about their function outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Determining the pattern of clock gene expression across neuronal subpopulations is a key step in understanding their regulation and how they may influence the functions of various brain structures. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP and Enkephalin (Enk, expressed in distinct neuronal populations throughout the forebrain. Regions examined included the limbic forebrain (dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, stria terminalis, thalamus medial habenula of the thalamus, paraventricular nucleus and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the olfactory bulb. In most regions examined, BMAL1 was homogeneously expressed in nearly all neurons (~90%, and PER2 was expressed in a slightly lower proportion of cells. There was no specific correlation to SubP- or Enk- expressing subpopulations. The olfactory bulb was unique in that PER2 and BMAL1 were expressed in a much smaller percentage of cells, and Enk was rarely found in the same cells that expressed the clock proteins (SubP was undetectable. These results indicate that clock genes are not unique to specific cell types, and further studies will be required to determine the factors that contribute to the regulation of clock gene expression throughout the brain.

  1. Autoradiographic localization of (125I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbin, M.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of ( 125 I-Tyr 4 )bombesin to rat brain slices was investigated. Radiolabeled (Tyr 4 )bombesin bound with high affinity (K/sub d/ . 4 nM) to a single class of sites (B/sub max/ . 130 fmol/mg of protein); the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding was 6/1. Also, pharmacology studies indicated that the C-terminal of bombesin was important for the high affinity binding activity. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites were discretely distributed in certain gray but not white matter regions of rat brain. Highest grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, central medial thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and substantia gelatinosa. Moderate grain densities were present in the parietal cortex, deep layers of the neocortex, rhinal cortex, caudate putamen, stria terminalis, locus ceruleus, parabrachial nucleus, and facial nucleus. Low grain densities were present in the globus pallidus, lateral thalamus, and midbrain. Negligible grain densities were present in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and all regions treated with 1 microM unlabeled bombesin. The discrete regional distribution of binding suggests that endogenous bombesin-like peptides may function as important regulatory agents in certain brain loci

  2. Effects of perinatal daidzein exposure on subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α expression in the adult male mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjun; Tai, Fadao; Zeng, Shuangyan; Zhang, Xia

    2013-06-03

    Daidzein is one of the most important isoflavones present in soy and it is unique as it can be further metabolized to equol, a compound with greater estrogenic activity than other isoflavones. The potential role of daidzein in the prevention of some chronic diseases has drawn public attention and increased its consumption in human, including in pregnant women and adolescent. It is unclear whether perinatal exposure to daidzein through maternal diets affects subsequent behavior and central estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in male adults. Following developmental exposure to daidzein through maternal diets during perinatal period, subsequent anxiety-like behavior, social behavior, spatial learning and memory of male mice at adulthood were assessed using a series of tests. The levels of central ER α expression were also examined using immunocytochemistry. Compared with the controls, adult male mice exposed to daidzein during the perinatal period showed significantly less exploration, higher levels of anxiety and aggression. They also displayed more social investigation for females and a tendency to improve spatial learning and memory. The mice with this early daidzein treatment demonstrated significantly higher levels of ERα expression in several brain regions such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and central amygdaloid mucleus, but decreased it in the lateral septum. Our results indicated that perinatal exposure to daidzein enhanced masculinization on male behaviors which is assocciated with alterations in ERα expression levels led by perinatal daidzein exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2008-12-01

    Transsexuality is an individual's unshakable conviction of belonging to the opposite sex, resulting in a request for sex-reassignment surgery. We have shown previously that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTc) is female in size and neuron number in male-to-female transsexual people. In the present study we investigated the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus, which is composed of two subnuclei, namely interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 3 and 4. Post-mortem brain material was used from 42 subjects: 14 control males, 11 control females, 11 male-to-female transsexual people, 1 female-to-male transsexual subject and 5 non-transsexual subjects who were castrated because of prostate cancer. To identify and delineate the nuclei and determine their volume and shape we used three different stainings throughout the nuclei in every 15th section, i.e. thionin, neuropeptide Y and synaptophysin, using an image analysis system. The most pronounced differences were found in the INAH3 subnucleus. Its volume in thionin sections was 1.9 times larger in control males than in females (P 0.117) and females (volume P > 0.245 and number of neurons P > 0.341). There was no difference in INAH3 between pre-and post-menopausal women, either in the volume (P > 0.84) or in the number of neurons (P gender identity.

  4. Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: Interaction with other brain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.; Cahill, Larry; Roozendaal, Benno

    1996-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that the amygdala is involved in affectively influenced memory. The central hypothesis guiding the research reviewed in this paper is that emotional arousal activates the amygdala and that such activation results in the modulation of memory storage occurring in other brain regions. Several lines of evidence support this view. First, the effects of stress-related hormones (epinephrine and glucocorticoids) are mediated by influences involving the amygdala. In rats, lesions of the amygdala and the stria terminalis block the effects of posttraining administration of epinephrine and glucocorticoids on memory. Furthermore, memory is enhanced by posttraining intra-amygdala infusions of drugs that activate β-adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors. Additionally, infusion of β-adrenergic blockers into the amygdala blocks the memory-modulating effects of epinephrine and glucocorticoids, as well as those of drugs affecting opiate and GABAergic systems. Second, an intact amygdala is not required for expression of retention. Inactivation of the amygdala prior to retention testing (by posttraining lesions or drug infusions) does not block retention performance. Third, findings of studies using human subjects are consistent with those of animal experiments. β-Blockers and amygdala lesions attenuate the effects of emotional arousal on memory. Additionally, 3-week recall of emotional material is highly correlated with positron-emission tomography activation (cerebral glucose metabolism) of the right amygdala during encoding. These findings provide strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that the amygdala is involved in modulating long-term memory storage. PMID:8942964

  5. Striatum on the anxiety map: Small detours into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Tiffany; Davis, Andrew; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is the most sensitive period for the development of pathological anxiety. Moreover, specific neural changes associated with the striatum might be related to adolescent vulnerability to anxiety. Up to now, the study of anxiety has primarily focused on the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), while the striatum has typically not been considered as part of the anxiety system. This review proposes the addition of the striatum, a complex, multi-component structure, to the anxiety network by underscoring two lines of research. First, the co-occurrence of the adolescent striatal development with the peak vulnerability of adolescents to anxiety disorders might potentially reflect a causal relationship. Second, the recognition of the role of the striatum in fundamental behavioral processes that do affect anxiety supports the putative importance of the striatum in anxiety. These behavioral processes include (1) attention, (2) conditioning/prediction error, and (3) motivation. This review proposes a simplistic schematic representation of the anxiety circuitry that includes the striatum, and aims to promote further work in this direction, as the role of the striatum in shaping an anxiety phenotype during adolescence could have critical implications for understanding and preventing the peak onset of anxiety disorders during this period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Adolescent plasticity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Cocaine-associated odor cue re-exposure increases blood oxygenation level dependent signal in memory and reward regions of the maternal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Martha K; Febo, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Cue triggered relapse during the postpartum period can negatively impact maternal care. Given the high reward value of pups in maternal rats, we designed an fMRI experiment to test whether offspring presence reduces the neural response to a cocaine associated olfactory cue. Cocaine conditioned place preference was carried out before pregnancy in the presence of two distinct odors that were paired with cocaine or saline (+Cue and -Cue). The BOLD response to +Cue and -Cue was measured in dams on postpartum days 2-4. Odor cues were delivered to dams in the absence and then the presence of pups. Our data indicate that several limbic and cognitive regions of the maternal rat brain show a greater BOLD signal response to a +Cue versus -Cue. These include dorsal striatum, prelimbic cortex, parietal cortex, habenula, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, lateral septum and the mediodorsal and the anterior thalamic nucleus. Of the aforementioned brain regions, only the parietal cortex of cocaine treated dams showed a significant modulatory effect of pup presence. In this area of the cortex, cocaine exposed maternal rats showed a greater BOLD activation in response to the +Cue in the presence than in the absence of pups. Specific regions of the cocaine exposed maternal rat brain are strongly reactive to drug associated cues. The regions implicated in cue reactivity have been previously reported in clinical imaging work, and previous work supports their role in various motivational and cognitive functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex differences in cells expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of the estrogen receptor-α promoter in the hypothalamus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Okoshi, Kota; Ito, Hiroto; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol that originates from testicular testosterone and binds to estrogen receptor-α (ERα) during developing period acts to organize the male-type brain in mice. Here, we examined transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the ERα promoter, in which ERα-expressing cells in the brain can be visualized by GFP. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the existence of many GFP-expressing cells in the medial preoptic area, medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and striohypothalamic nucleus (StHy) of adult transgenic mice. Neuronal nuclear antigen, a neuron marker, but not glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, was mostly expressed by GFP-expressing cells. Analysis of GFP expression area showed that adult females had higher GFP expression in a region including the ventral part of the BNST, StHy, and dorsal part of the MPN than in adult males. Such female-biased sex difference was also found in transgenic pups on postnatal day 5 and 8. The GFP expression area of adult females was decreased by postnatal treatment with testosterone or estradiol. These results indicate that GFP visualizes a sex difference of ERα-expressing neurons. The transgenic mice may be useful for the analysis of the sexual differentiation of the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. NPY Signaling Inhibits Extended Amygdala CRF Neurons to Suppress Binge Alcohol Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Kristen E.; Rinker, Jennifer A.; Lowery-Gionta, Emily G.; Mazzone, Christopher M.; McCall, Nora M.; Kendra, Alexis M.; Olson, David P.; Lowell, Bradford B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Thiele, Todd E.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary paragraph Binge alcohol drinking is a tremendous public health problem because it leads to the development of numerous pathologies including alcohol abuse, and anxiety1–4. It is thought to do so by hijacking brain systems that regulate stress and reward, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin–releasing factor (CRF). The central actions of NPY and CRF play opposing functional roles in the regulation of emotional and reward–seeking behaviors; therefore, dysfunctional interactions between these peptidergic systems could play a role in the development of these pathologies. Here, we used converging physiological, pharmacological, and chemogenetic approaches to identify a precise neural mechanism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic brain region involved in pathological reward and anxiety behaviors, underlying the interactions between NPY and CRF in the regulation of binge alcohol drinking in both mice and monkeys. We found that NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) activation in the BNST suppressed binge alcohol drinking by enhancing inhibitory synaptic transmission specifically in CRF neurons via a novel, Gi-mediated, PKA-dependent postsynaptic mechanism. Further, chronic alcohol drinking led to persistent alterations in Y1R function in the BNST of both mice and monkeys, highlighting the enduring, conserved nature of this effect across mammalian species. Together, these data provide both a cellular locus and signaling framework for the development of novel therapeutics for treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, including alcohol use disorders. PMID:25751534

  9. Anatomical and electrophysiological characterization of presumed dopamine-containing neurons within the supramammillary region of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, P D; Mihailoff, G A; German, D C

    1988-03-01

    A combination of immunocytochemical, electrophysiological and pharmacological techniques were employed to study the properties of neurons within the supramammillary (SUM) complex of the rat. The SUM region contains a small, but dense, population of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons. Following injection of the orthograde neuroanatomical tracer, Phaseolus Vulgaris leucoagglutinin, into the SUM region, heavy terminal labeling was observed in the lateral septal nucleus, diagonal band of Broca and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of antidromically-activated SUM neurons revealed evidence of two neuronal populations. Both groups of neurons exhibited long duration action potentials (greater than 2 msec) and slow conduction velocities (less than 0.5 m/sec). However, cells in one group were characterized by slow and erratic firing rates and insensitivity to dopamine (DA) autoreceptor agonists. Cells in the other group typically exhibited no spontaneous activity but could be induced to discharge by iontophoretic application of glutamate. These latter cells were sensitive to DA autoreceptor stimulation. Of the two populations of mammilloseptal SUM neurons, the silent population exhibited several properties similar to those of midbrain DA neurons.

  10. PACAP in the BNST produces anorexia and weight loss in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocho-Schellenberg, Margaret; Lezak, Kimberly R; Harris, Olivia M; Roelke, Erin; Gick, Niklas; Choi, Inyop; Edwards, Shaquille; Wasserman, Emily; Toufexis, Donna J; Braas, Karen M; May, Victor; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2014-06-01

    Recent gene association studies have implicated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) systems in several psychiatric disorders associated with stressor exposure, and we have argued that many of the behavioral consequences of repeated stressor exposure may depend on the expression of PACAP in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). One behavioral consequence of the activation of stress systems can be anorexia and subsequent weight loss, and both the activation of central PACAP systems as well as neuronal activity in the BNST have also been associated with anorexic states in rodents. Hence, we investigated the regulation of food and water intake and weight loss following BNST PACAP infusion. BNST PACAP38 dose-dependently decreased body weight, as well as food and water intake in the first 24 h following infusion. Because different BNST subregions differentially regulate stress responding, we further examined the effects of PACAP38 in either the anterior or posterior BNST. Anterior BNST PACAP38 infusion did not alter weight gain, whereas posterior PACAP38 infusion resulted in weight loss. PACAP38 infused into the lateral ventricles did not alter weight, suggesting that the effects of BNST-infused PACAP were not mediated by leakage into the ventricular system. These data suggest that PACAP receptor activation in posterior BNST subregions can produce anorexia and weight loss, and corroborate growing data implicating central PACAP activation in mediating the consequences of stressor exposure.

  11. Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Reverses Chronic Cocaine-Induced Changes in Glutamate Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; Young, Amy B.; Lee, Kunhee; McGinty, Jacqueline F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin, a neurohypophyseal neuropeptide, is a potential mediator and regulator of drug addiction. However, the cellular mechanisms of oxytocin in drug seeking remain unknown. Methods: In the present study, we used a self-administration/reinstatement model to study the effects of oxytocin on cocaine seeking and its potential interaction with glutamate function at the receptor level. Results: Systemic oxytocin dose-dependently reduced cocaine self-administration during various schedules of reinforcement, including fixed ratio 1, fixed ratio 5, and progressive ratio. Oxytocin also attenuated reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cocaine prime or conditioned cues. Western-blot analysis indicated that oxytocin increased phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor GluA1 subunit at the Ser 845 site with or without accompanying increases in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in several brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdala, and dorsal hippocampus. Immunoprecipitation of oxytocin receptor and GluA1 subunit receptors further demonstrated a physical interaction between these 2 receptors, although the interaction was not influenced by chronic cocaine or oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin also attenuated sucrose seeking in a GluA1- or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-independent manner. Conclusions: These findings suggest that oxytocin mediates cocaine seeking through interacting with glutamate receptor systems via second messenger cascades in mesocorticolimbic regions. PMID:25539504

  12. Separate effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and spatial navigation assessment of the Four Core Genotype mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Christina; Friedel, Miriam; Vousden, Dulcie A; Metcalf, Ariane; Spring, Shoshana; Qiu, Lily R; Lerch, Jason P; Palmert, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Males and females exhibit several differences in brain structure and function. To examine the basis for these sex differences, we investigated the influences of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on brain structure and function in mice. We used the Four Core Genotype (4CG) mice, which can generate both male and female mice with XX or XY sex chromosome complement, allowing the decoupling of sex chromosomes from hormonal milieu. To examine whole brain structure, high-resolution ex vivo MRI was performed, and to assess differences in cognitive function, mice were trained on a radial arm maze. Voxel-wise and volumetric analyses of MRI data uncovered a striking independence of hormonal versus chromosomal influences in 30 sexually dimorphic brain regions. For example, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the parieto-temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex displayed steroid-dependence while the cerebellar cortex, corpus callosum, and olfactory bulbs were influenced by sex chromosomes. Spatial learning and memory demonstrated strict hormone-dependency with no apparent influence of sex chromosomes. Understanding the influences of chromosomes and hormones on brain structure and function is important for understanding sex differences in brain structure and function, an endeavor that has eventual implications for understanding sex biases observed in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

  13. Differential visualization of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain using [3H]mazindol autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javitch, J.A.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Mazindol is a potent inhibitor of neuronal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) uptake. DA and NE uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using [ 3 H]mazindol autoradiography. At appropriate concentrations, desipramine (DMI) selectively inhibits [ 3 H]mazindol binding to NE uptake sites without significantly affecting binding to DA uptake sites. The localization of DMI-insensitive specific [ 3 H] mazindol binding, reflecting DA uptake sites, is densest in the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle, the subthalamic nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, and the anterior olfactory nuclei. In contrast, the localization of DMI-sensitive specific [ 3 H]mazindol binding, representing NE uptake sites, is densest in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the anteroventral thalamus. The distribution of DMI-insensitive specific [ 3 H]mazindol binding closely parallels that of dopaminergic terminal and somatodendritic regions, while the distribution of DMI-sensitive specific [ 3 H]mazindol binding correlates well with the regional localization of noradrenergic terminals and cell bodies. Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, ibotenic acid, or colchicine into the SN decreases [ 3 H]mazindol binding to DA uptake sites in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 85%. In contrast, ibotenic acid lesions of the caudate-putamen do not reduce [ 3 H]mazindol binding to either the ipsilateral or contralateral caudate-putamen

  14. Personality is Tightly Coupled to Vasopressin-Oxytocin Neuron Activity in a Gregarious Finch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonapeptides of the vasopressin-oxytocin family modulate social processes differentially in relation to sex, species, behavioral phenotype, and human personality. However, the mechanistic bases for these differences are not well understood, in part because multidimensional personality structures remain to be described for common laboratory animals. Based upon principal components (PC analysis of extensive behavioral measures in social and nonsocial contexts, we now describe three complex dimensions of phenotype (personality for the zebra finch, a species that exhibits a human-like social organization that is based upon biparental nuclear families embedded within larger social groups. These dimensions can be characterized as Social competence/dominance, Gregariousness, and Anxiety. We further demonstrate that the phasic Fos response of nonapeptide neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis are significantly predicted by personality, sex, social context, and their interactions. Furthermore the behavioral PCs are each associated with a distinct suite of neural PCs that incorporate both peptide cell numbers and their phasic Fos responses, indicating that personality is reflected in complex patterns of neuromodulation arising from multiple peptide cell groups. These findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying sex- and phenotype-specific modulation of behavior, and should be broadly relevant, given that vasopressin-oxytocin systems are strongly conserved across vertebrates.

  15. Vasotocin neurons and septal V1a-like receptors potently modulate songbird flocking and responses to novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Kingsbury, Marcy A; Hoffbuhr, Kristin; Schrock, Sara E; Waxman, Brandon; Kabelik, David; Thompson, Richmond R; Goodson, James L

    2011-06-01

    Previous comparisons of territorial and gregarious finches (family Estrildidae) suggest the hypothesis that arginine vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and V(1a)-like receptors in the lateral septum (LS) promote flocking behavior. Consistent with this hypothesis, we now show that intraseptal infusions of a V(1a) antagonist in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) reduce gregariousness (preference for a group of 10 versus 2 conspecific males), but have no effect on the amount of time that subjects spend in close proximity to other birds ("contact time"). The antagonist also produces a profound increase in anxiety-like behavior, as exhibited by an increased latency to feed in a novelty-suppressed feeding test. Bilateral knockdown of VT production in the BSTm using LNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides likewise produces increases in anxiety-like behavior and a potent reduction in gregariousness, relative to subjects receiving scrambled oligonucleotides. The antisense oligonucleotides also produced a modest increase in contact time, irrespective of group size. Together, these combined experiments provide clear evidence that endogenous VT promotes preferences for larger flock sizes, and does so in a manner that is coupled to general anxiolysis. Given that homologous peptide circuitry of the BSTm-LS is found across all tetrapod vertebrate classes, these findings may be predictive for other highly gregarious species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors in distinct circuits of the extended amygdala determine fear responsiveness to unpredictable threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, M D; Daldrup, T; Remmers, F; Szkudlarek, H J; Lesting, J; Guggenhuber, S; Ruehle, S; Jüngling, K; Seidenbecher, T; Lutz, B; Pape, H C

    2017-10-01

    The brain circuits underlying behavioral fear have been extensively studied over the last decades. Although the vast majority of experimental studies assess fear as a transient state of apprehension in response to a discrete threat, such phasic states of fear can shift to a sustained anxious apprehension, particularly in face of diffuse cues with unpredictable environmental contingencies. Unpredictability, in turn, is considered an important variable contributing to anxiety disorders. The networks of the extended amygdala have been suggested keys to the control of phasic and sustained states of fear, although the underlying synaptic pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system acting in synaptic circuits of the extended amygdala can explain the fear response profile during exposure to unpredictable threat. Using fear training with predictable or unpredictable cues in mice, combined with local and cell-type-specific deficiency and rescue of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, we found that presynaptic CB1 receptors on distinct amygdala projections to bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) are both necessary and sufficient for the shift from phasic to sustained fear in response to an unpredictable threat. These results thereby identify the causal role of a defined protein in a distinct brain pathway for the temporal development of a sustained state of anxious apprehension during unpredictability of environmental influences, reminiscent of anxiety symptoms in humans.

  17. Blocking oxytocin receptors inhibits vaginal marking to male odors in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Albers, H Elliott; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-12-02

    In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), precopulatory behaviors such as vaginal scent marking are essential for attracting a suitable mate. Vaginal marking is dependent on forebrain areas implicated in the neural regulation of reproductive behaviors in rodents, including the medial preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH). Within MPOA-AH, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts to facilitate copulation (lordosis), as well as ultrasonic vocalizations towards males. It is not known, however, if OT in this area also facilitates vaginal marking. In the present study, a specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) was injected into MPOA-AH of intact female Syrian hamsters to determine if oxytocin receptor-dependent signaling is critical for the normal expression of vaginal marking elicited by male, female, and clean odors. OTA injections significantly inhibited vaginal marking in response to male odors compared with vehicle injections. There was no effect of OTA on marking in response to either female or clean odors. When injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nearby region to MPOA-AH, OTA was equally effective in decreasing marking. Finally, the effects of OTA appear to be specific to vaginal marking, as OTA injections in MPOA-AH or BNST did not alter general locomotor activity, flank marking, or social odor investigation. Considered together, these results suggest that OT in MPOA-AH and/or BNST normally facilitates male odor-induced vaginal marking, providing further evidence that OT generally supports prosocial interactions among conspecifics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Plotsky, P M; Young, L J; Lim, M M; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, C S

    2007-01-05

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the long-lasting, developmental effects of exposure to neonatal OT or OTA might reflect changes in the expression of receptors for these peptides. On postnatal day 1, prairie voles were injected intraperitoneally with either OT (1 mg/kg), an OTA (0.1 mg/kg), saline vehicle, or were handled only. At approximately 60 days of age, vasopressin V1a receptors, OT receptors (OTR) and dopamine D2 receptor binding were quantified using receptor autoradiography in brain tissue taken from males and females. Significant treatment effects on V1a binding were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingulate cortex (CgCtx), mediodorsal thalamus (MdThal), medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (MPOA), and lateral septum (LS). The CgCtx, MPOA, ventral pallidum, and LS also showed significant sex by treatment interactions on V1a binding. No significant treatment or sex differences were observed for D2 receptor binding. No significant treatment difference was observed for OTR receptor binding, and only a marginal sex difference. Changes in the neuropeptide receptor expression, especially the V1a receptor, may help to explain sexually dimorphic changes in behavior that follow comparable neonatal manipulations.

  19. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  20. The avian subpallium: new insights into structural and functional subdivisions occupying the lateral subpallial wall and their embryological origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Wayne J.; Medina, Loreta; Csillag, Andras; Perkel, David J.; Reiner, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The subpallial region of the avian telencephalon contains neural systems whose functions are critical to the survival of individual vertebrates and their species. The subpallial neural structures can be grouped into five major functional systems, namely the dorsal somatomotor basal ganglia; ventral viscerolimbic basal ganglia; subpallial extended amygdala including the central and medial extended amygdala and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; basal telencephalic cholinergic and non-cholinergic corticopetal systems; and septum. The paper provides an overview of the major developmental, neuroanatomical and functional characteristics of the first four of these neural systems, all of which belong to the lateral telencephalic wall. The review particularly focuses on new findings that have emerged since the identity, extent and terminology for the regions was considered by the Avian Brain Nomenclature Forum. New terminology is introduced as appropriate based on the new findings. The paper also addresses regional similarities and differences between birds and mammals, and notes areas where gaps in knowledge occur for birds. PMID:22015350

  1. Sexually dimorphic effects of a prenatal immune challenge on social play and vasopressin expression in juvenile rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Patrick V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases and inflammation during pregnancy increase the offspring’s risk for behavioral disorders. However, how immune stress affects neural circuitry during development is not well known. We tested whether a prenatal immune challenge interferes with the development of social play and with neural circuits implicated in social behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS – 100 μg /kg or saline on the 15th day of pregnancy. Offspring were tested for social play behaviors between postnatal days 26–40. Brains were harvested on postnatal day 45 and processed for arginine vasopressin (AVP mRNA in situ hybridization. Results In males, LPS treatment reduced the frequency of juvenile play behavior and reduced AVP mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These effects were not found in females. LPS treatment did not change AVP mRNA expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, or supraoptic nucleus of either sex, nor did it affect the sex difference in the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area. Conclusions Given AVP’s central role in regulating social behavior, the sexually dimorphic effects of prenatal LPS treatment on male AVP mRNA expression may contribute to the sexually dimorphic effect of LPS on male social play and may, therefore, increase understanding of factors that contribute to sex differences in social psychopathology.

  2. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of the human limbic white matter

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    Susumu eMori

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The limbic system mediates memory, behavior, and emotional output in the human brain, and is implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease and a wide spectrum of related neurological disorders. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of structural components comprising the limbic system and their interconnections via white matter pathways in the human brain has helped define current understanding of the limbic model based on the classical circuit proposed by Papez. MRI techniques, including diffusion MR imaging, provide a non-invasive method to characterize white matter tracts of the limbic system, and investigate pathological changes that affect these pathways in clinical settings. This review focuses on delineation of the anatomy of major limbic tracts in the human brain, namely, the cingulum, the fornix and fimbria, and the stria terminalis, based on in vivo MRI contrasts. The detailed morphology and intricate trajectories of these pathways that can be identified using relaxometry-based and diffusion-weighted MRI provide an important anatomical reference for evaluation of clinical disorders commonly associated with limbic pathology.

  3. Influence of lesions in the limbic-hypothalamic system on adrenocortical responses to daily repeated exposures to immobilization stress in rabbits

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    Seto, K.; Saito, H.; Kaba, H.; Kawakami, M.

    1983-01-01

    The influences of daily repeated exposures of immobilization stress on the adrenocorticoid formation in adrenal slices of rabbits with lesions of various sites of the hypothalamus and limbic structures had been investigated. The experimental results obtained were as follows: (1) Lesions in periventricular arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) decreased the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 1st immobilization exposure (exposure on the 1st day), but did not alter the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 4th immobilization exposure (exposure on the 4th day). (2) Lesions in stria-terminalis (ST) and dorsal fornix (FX) did not alter the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 1st immobilization exposure, but increased the rates of adrenocortical responses to the 4th immobilization exposure. (3) The adrenocortical responses to immobilization stress were completely abolished by the seven times repetition of exposures in each sham-operated group and in the animals with lesions of ARC and VMH, but in the rabbits with lesions of ST and FX the adrenocortical responses to immobilization stress were not abolished by the seven times repetition of exposures. (4) These results suggested that such basal medial hypothalamus participated in the mechanisms of adrenocortical responses to the 1st exposure of immobilization stress, but did not participate in the disappearance process of adrenocortical responses to immobilization stress by the seven times repetition of exposures.

  4. AGROINDÚSTRIAS RURAIS FAMILIARES: Estratégias de mercado na região do COREDE Jacuí Centro/RS

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    Chaiane Leal Agne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As Agroindústrias Rurais Familiares destacam-se pelo desenvolvimento de produtos diferenciados. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo descrever as características que estão diferenciando os produtos agroindustriais nos mercados de proximidade, na região do Corede Jacuí Centro. O estudo caracterizou-se como exploratório-descritivo, com a coleta de informações secundárias e primárias. Foram realizadas 41 entrevistas, com o auxílio de um formulário semiestruturado e diários de campo. Utilizou-se de metodologia qualitativa (análise de conteúdo e quantitativa (média aritmética simples para a análise dos dados. A diferenciação destaca-se como um conjunto de aspectos pertinentes para entender a consolidação de mercados para os produtos da agroindústria rural familiar. Para os agricultores, as características que diferenciam seus produtos nos mercados são: o natural, o jeito de fazer, o sabor, o trabalho do agricultor para produzir, o preço, a certificação SIM e a produção ecológica. Palavras-chave: Agroindústria. Agricultura Familiar. Produtos Diferenciados. Rio Grande do Sul

  5. ANÁLISE DO GERENCIAMENTO DOS RESÍDUOS DE TECIDOS GERADOS PELA INDÚSTRIA DE CONFECÇÕES DO AGRESTE DE PERNAMBUCO

    OpenAIRE

    Correia de Araujo, Wanderbeg; Elisa Fontana, Marcele

    2017-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como objetivo, analisar à forma de gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos, com foco em restos de tecidos, das micro e pequenas empresas de confecções do Agreste de Pernambuco, bem como propor formas de prevenção de resíduos na fonte e melhorias em seu gerenciamento. Para isso, foram realizadas entrevistas e aplicação de questionário para identificar o perfil das empresas e as práticas de gerenciamento de seus resíduos de tecidos. Através desta pesquisa, constatou-se que a ma...

  6. MAPEAMENTO DO FLUXO DE VALOR E KAIZEN COMO INSTRUMENTOS DE REDUÇÃO DE PERDAS: UM CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE MOTOSSERRAS

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gilberto Scherer; Marcelo Alexandre Borges

    2007-01-01

    Tem se verificado que as operações industriais aplicam, cada vez mais, esforços e recursos no sentido de promover a melhoria contínua de seus processos e assim garantir uma sólida posição no mercado. Este artigo visa a identificar oportunidades de redução das perdas do processo de manufatura, através da utilização da ferramenta de mapeamento de fluxo de valor e a aplicação de Kaizen. Trata-se de um estudo de caso na indústria de motosserras, em que há um levantamento detalhado de dados de tod...

  7. CONHECIMENTO DOS TRABALHADORES DA INDÙSTRIA METAL-MECÂNICA SOBRE FATORES DE RISCO PARA DOENÇA ARTERIAL CORONARIANA

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    Silvia Bohrer Oliva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: identificar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores da indústria metalmecânica em relação aos fatores de risco para doença arterial coronariana (DAC e às atitudes voltadas a sua prevenção. Métodos: estudo com delineamento transversal, realizado com um grupo de trabalhadores da indústria metal-mecânica do sul do Brasil. A amostra foi por conveniência. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário e verificação de medidas antropométricas. Análise descritiva. Resultados: foram incluídos 100 trabalhadores, com idade média de 29,0+10,16 anos, 66% homens. A obesidade foi considerada como fator de risco para DAC por 94% dos trabalhadores, a hipertensão arterial por 88% e hipercolesterolemia por 80%. Em relação às atitudes para prevenção da DAC, 51% da amostra referiram praticar atividade física. Conclusão: a maioria dos entrevistados conhece os principais fatores de risco para DAC. Contudo, as atitudes voltadas à prevenção ainda são limitadas.

  8. ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS: O CASO DOS FRIGORÍFICOS NA REGIÃO DE PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE-SP

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    João Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz Machado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar as estratégias de marketing e comunicação dos frigoríficos na região de Presidente Prudente-SP, visando melhorar a competitividade do setor e de toda a cadeia produtiva, identificando as principais estratégias relacionadas ao composto mercadológico. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, aplicadas em dois frigoríficos da região de Presidente Prudente-SP. Observou-se que as estratégias do composto mercadológico das empresas do setor sofrem poucas variações, em função das características dos produtos e do público-alvo dessas empresas. Também foi verificado um distanciamento entre as empresas e o consumidor final, no que diz respeito às práticas de marketing e comunicação, podendo ser responsável por um desconhecimento, por parte das empresas, das necessidades e dos hábitos de consumo do consumidor final.

  9. QUESTÕES ESTRATÉGICAS DE PLANEJAMENTO, NEGOCIAÇÃO E MARKETING NA INDÚSTRIA TEXTIL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO

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    Michelle Cristine Silveira Meireles

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumo

    O presente artigo aborda questões relacionadas a estratégias de planejamento, negociação e marketing utilizadas por uma empresa na área têxtil. A realização da pesquisa pautou-se em um estudo de caso, a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e consultas a materiais institucionais. As abordagens teóricas utilizadas no corpo da pesquisa são aplicadas no estudo no intuito de embasar a compreensão do fenômeno estudado. A empresa trabalha com produto de qualidade, bons preços, tendo seu maior problema localizado no capital de giro. Na realização de uma análise organizacional mais detalhada, pesquisa direta com clientes e arrolamento de novas táticas de atuação, percebeu-se que houve por parte da empresa pesquisada uma ampliação à visão de mercado abrindo caminhos e potenciais possibilidades para uma nova atuação de mercado. Assim, o estudo revelou que a empresa deve implantar um conjunto de políticas empresariais de modo agressivo e interativo dentro de suas possibilidades e limitações tanto com os consumidores/clientes quanto no mercado em que atua. 

     

    Palavras-chave: Estratégia; Indústria Têxtil; Negociação.

     

    Abstract

    The present paper approach questions related to planning, negotiation and marketing strategies carried by a textile industry enterprise. The search was based in a study of case, by semi-structured interviews and institutional document analyses. The theoric base utilized in the search was applied in sense to embased the comprehension of studied phenomenon. The enterprise play with quality product, low prices, and the major problem was in turnover capital. In the realization of a detailed organizational analyses, costumers direct search and inventore of new tatics of atuation, was perceived the occurrence of a market sense improve, leading the enterprise to new market perspectives. By this way, the study show that the organization should implant a conjoint of enterprise policies by intense and interactive way considering yours possibilities and limitations about consumers/costumers as in your market.

     

    Keywords: Strategy; Textile Industry; Negotiation.

  10. INTEGRAÇÃO ENTRE ERP E PROGRAMAÇÃO MATEMÁTICA UM ESTUDO DE CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE AUTOPEÇAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Beatriz Baptista Haddad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de caso para problemas de seqüenciamento de lotes numa indústria de autopeças. Nele é proposta a adição de um módulo de Capacitação a um software de ERP de forma que o Módulo de MRP deste passe a respeitar os limites de capacidade de recursos considerados críticos. Para isso, o problema de seqüenciamento de produção nos recursos críticos é modelado como problema de fluxos em redes com restrições adicionais. A grande vantagem do método está na "visão temporal" do sistema, que permite antecipações ou atrasos de lotes de fabricação - desde que exista capacidade disponível - sempre que houver sobrecarga. O método permite ainda a análise de diferentes objetivos. Ao final é apresentado um estudo de caso realizado com dados reais da empresa.

  11. TENDÊNCIAS BIOTECNOLÓGICAS DA INDÚSTRIA LÁCTEA A PARTIR DA PROSPECÇÃO DE PATENTES E ARTIGOS

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    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A biotecnologia continua a oferecer muitas alternativas para elaboração de produtos exclusivos. A indústria de laticínios vem contribuindo para o desenvolvimento e aplicação de processos inovadores, com destaque para os alimentos funcionais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as principais tendências sobre a biotecnologia aplicada no desenvolvimento de produtos lácteos a partir da análise de patentes, pela base Derwent, e de artigos científicos, pela base Scopus. Houve uma maior concentração de documentos de patentes entre os anos de 2003 e 2009. A Rússia foi o país líder em termos de patentes concedidas, com predominância de 73,4 % dos documentos analisados. Dentre as tecnologias, destacaram-se a produção de fermentados probióticos e a extração de oligossacarídeos do leite humano. Os países asiáticos e os europeus foram os maiores contribuidores no tocante desenvolvimento de pesquisas científicas sobre biotecnologia aplicada à indústria de laticínios, totalizando 91 % das publicações reportadas entre 2010 e 2016. Observou-se uma tendência de busca por suporte à propriedade intelectual superior às publicações científicas das biotecnologias associadas à indústria láctea.

  12. RESÍDUOS DA INDÚSTRIA COUREIRO-CALÇADISTA: PROPOSTA DE ANÁLISE DA CAPACIDADE TECNOLÓGICA DE CENTRAIS DO SETOR

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    Claudia Viegas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, atualiza informações sobre a geração de resíduos industriais por parte de empresas do setor coureiro-calçadista do Vale do Sinos, a partir de uma seleção crítica de informações com base em levantamento recente, realizado pela Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental (Fepam/RS, e de entrevistas junto a administradores de centrais de gerenciamento de resíduos industriais da região. Ainda na primeira parte, constata a evolução quantitativa dessas centrais. Na segunda parte, o artigo propõe a realização de um estudo de avaliação da capacidade tecnológica dos consórcios que gerenciam os referidos resíduos, tendo como base pesquisa semelhante, com método já desenvolvido, amparada em teoria de Lall (1992. Palavras-chave: resíduos industriais; gestão de resíduos; consórcios de gestão de resíduos; capacidade tecnológica.

  13. A GEOPOLÍTICA E A INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA: INSERÇÃO DO BRASIL, CHINA E ÍNDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Elisangela Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Esta dissertação discute a geopolítica internacional a partir da inserção da indústria farmacêutica no Brasil, Índia e China. O segmento farmacêutico consolidou-se internacionalmente a partir da Segunda Grande Guerra, com a comercialização da penicilina. Foi a partir de 1945 que houve a reconfiguração deste setor em nível internacional com a presença dos Estados Unidos, a partir de alianças estratégicas entre a indústria farmacêutica, as universidades e novos centros de pesquis...

  14. ALTERAÇÃO DE UM LAYOUT FUNCIONAL PARA LAYOUT CELULAR MOTIVADO PELOS FUNDAMENTOS DA MANUFATURA ENXUTA: ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE TRANSFORMADORES

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    Felipe Crisóstomo Gadelha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta o estudo de uma alteração de layout, de funcional para celular, motivado pelos fundamentos da manufatura enxuta. Tendo como objetivo verificar os benefícios de se utilizar a manufatura celular com fluxo enxuto (contínuo, apresenta como metodologia um estudo de caso, pós-fato, em uma indústria de transformadores, onde a mudança foi realizada. Para fundamentar o estudo, apresenta revisão dos temas: Sistema de Manufatura Enxuta e layout industrial, para, em seguida, trazer os dados apresentados por esta indústria, ainda em um arranjo físico funcional, antes da alteração, e, em seguida, nas células de manufatura com um fluxo enxuto, após a alteração, e realizar uma comparação entre ambos. Os resultados obtidos desta comparação apresentam ganhos como aumento de produção, em 20%, e produtividade, em 56%, redução de lead time, em 67%, mão de obra direta, em 30%, tempo de processamento, em 20%, e área fabril, em 24%, dentre outros, evidenciando os benefícios que a utilização de um layout celular e Manufatura Enxuta proporcionam.

  15. ELEMENTOS MINERAIS EM MADEIRAS DE EUCALIPTOS E ACÁCIA NEGRA E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA INDÚSTRIA DE CELULOSE KRAFT BRANQUEADA

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    Maria C. M. Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available No ramo de papel e celulose os efluentes são um dos principais problemas e o consumo de água é crítico. Os circuitos internos estão sendo fechados e as fontes de contaminação precisam ser conhecidas. Uma das fontes de contaminação destes efluentes são os minerais da madeira, matéria-prima neste tipo de indústria. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a quantidade de alumínio, cálcio, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, sódio, níquel e silício em madeiras de cinco espécies florestais, plantadas na região de Guaíba, RS, compreendendo Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna. As amostras de madeira foram tratadas com digestão ácida e com carbonização em mufla, solubilizando em ácido para serem analisadas por ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasm. Foi observado que a quantidade de elementos é considerável e os principais elementos encontrados foram K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn, e Si. As espécies Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna mostraram melhor crescimento. Por outro lado, Eucalyptus globulus e Eucalyptus dunnii mostraram menor crescimento e maior teor de elementos. Pelo fato dessas espécies introduzirem maiores quantidades de elementos no processo de fabricação, devem conduzir a maiores problemas industriais. A Acacia mearnsii mostrou o menor nível para ferro, manganês e níquel, sendo uma boa opção para uso em branqueamento com oxigênio, ozônio e peróxido. O silício observado estava em baixa quantidade, o que leva a afirmar que há, na prática industrial, muita contaminação da madeira explorada com solo já que se encontram altos valores de sílica nos circuitos de licores. A entrada dos elementos minerais estudados em uma fábrica de celulose via madeira varia de 4 a 6 kg por tonelada de polpa não-branqueada produzida. Cuidados especiais devem ser tomados com as espécies com madeiras mais ricas em cinzas e elementos minerais e mais baixas eficiências nutricionais, como foi o caso de Eucalyptus dunnii e Eucalyptus globulus.

  16. MAPEAMENTO DO FLUXO DE VALOR E KAIZEN COMO INSTRUMENTOS DE REDUÇÃO DE PERDAS: UM CASO NA INDÚSTRIA DE MOTOSSERRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gilberto Scherer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tem se verificado que as operações industriais aplicam, cada vez mais, esforços e recursos no sentido de promover a melhoria contínua de seus processos e assim garantir uma sólida posição no mercado. Este artigo visa a identificar oportunidades de redução das perdas do processo de manufatura, através da utilização da ferramenta de mapeamento de fluxo de valor e a aplicação de Kaizen. Trata-se de um estudo de caso na indústria de motosserras, em que há um levantamento detalhado de dados de todo o processo produtivo através do mapeamento da cadeia de valor, desde o recebimento da matéria-prima até os clientes. A partir da análise desses dados, demonstra-se o aumento de produtividade e outros ganhos em termos de resposta rápida e flexibilidade. Palavras-Chave: Mapeamento do Fluxo de Valor. Kaizen. Produtividade.

  17. ALGODÃO COLORIDO COMO APOIO À SUSTENTABILIDADE DA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL BRASILEIRA / COLORED COTTON TO SUPPORT THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE BRAZILIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

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    S. GARCIA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O segmento de moda é compreendido por várias redes de empresas, que atuam em conjunto, de forma interdependente, visando o sucesso da cadeia produtiva. Utilizando grande capilaridade, essas redes são formadas por empresas que interagem com diversos ramos de negócios e de produção de vários produtos. São também várias as formas de distribuição utilizadas nesta rede. Esta pesquisa objetivou investigar a aplicação de conceitos de sustentabilidade na cadeia de produção e de distribuição de vestuário de moda. A pesquisa foi elaborada a partir de um estudo exploratório e um estudo de caso, totalizando cinco entrevistas. A compreensão do tema sustentabilidade nos diversos segmentos que compõem as redes de empresas de moda é apresentado e discutido, sendo proposto o algodão colorido para sustentabilidade do setor.

  18. ESPAÇO, INDÚSTRIA E TRABALHO: A INSERÇÃO DE SOBRAL NA DIVISÃO ESPACIAL DA PRODUÇÃO CALÇADISTA

    OpenAIRE

    Gadelha, Diego

    2012-01-01

    O município de Sobral, no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foi selecionado na década de 1990 pela capital industrial nacional para cumprir uma função específica no circuito espacial da produção calçadista. Essa inserção, fruto da reestruturação produtiva e da redefinição da divisão espacial do trabalho por qual passou o setor, no final da década de 1980, incorporou novos municípios no circuito produtivo, em especial do nordeste brasileiro. As transformações decorrentes da apropriação de Sobral para d...

  19. CARACTERÍSTICAS E SELEÇÃO DE CURSOS TÉCNICOS VISANDO A EMPREGABILIDADE NA INDÚSTRIA PETROLÍFERA

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    Simara Netto Martins Cunha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem a finalidade de avaliar a carreira profissional dos técnicos formados nas áreas de: eletromecânica, eletrônica, automação e eletrotécnica, que atuam em empresas do ramo petrolífero e, a partir deste levantamento, avaliar o curso técnico que oferece as melhores condições de empregabilidade na Região Norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi realizada com aplicação de 86 questionários entre os profissionais técnicos que atuam em empresas petrolíferas sediadas em Macaé, RJ. O método AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process foi utilizado para seleção da melhor carreira com base nos seguintes critérios de seleção: salário, ascensão profissional, satisfação profissional, tempo para primeira contratação, duração do curso, estabilidade e periculosidade. Os técnicos formados em Eletrônica tem maior tempo de empresa, satisfação profissional, salário e conseguiram seu primeiro emprego mais rápido que os demais técnicos entrevistados. Situação oposta ocorre com os técnicos em Eletrotécnica, apesar de terem maior estabilidade no emprego. Todos os técnicos entrevistados se mostraram insatisfeitos com a ascensão profissional e aplicam parcialmente os conhecimentos adquiridos durante sua formação no ambiente de trabalho. O profissional formado em Eletromecânica julga que sua profissão apresenta periculosidade mediana, maior que os demais entrevistados. O método AHP apontou o curso de Eletromecânica como a melhor alternativa atual. Este trabalho pode auxiliar estudantes na seleção de suas carreiras, baseados na opinião de profissionais que atuam no setor petrolífero regional. O método AHP pode ser usado para tomada de decisões pessoais e oferecer uma resposta objetiva para uma decisão extremamente importante na vida dos jovens que buscam qualificação profissional para atuar na indústria do petróleo.

  20. USO DE RESÍDUOS DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DE BANANAS NA COMPOSIÇÃO DE SUBSTRATOS PARA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PAU PEREIRA

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Mábele de Cássia; Costa, Samara Maria Lopes; Pasin, Liliana Auxiliadora Avelar

    2015-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a utilização do resíduo orgânico da agroindústria processadora de bananas na composição de substratos em comparação com outros substratos para produção de mudas de Platycyamus regnellii Benth. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, avaliando-se seis substratos dispostos em blocos casualizados, constando de: solo, areia e compostagem da casca de banana (S1); solo, areia e compostagem de cascas de vegetais diversos sem adição de banana (S2); solo...

  1. ELEMENTOS PARA DISCUSSÃO DA CONFIGURAÇÃO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA CANAVIEIRA NO OESTE PAULISTA E DA RELAÇÃO CAPITAL X TRABALHO

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    José Roberto Nunes de Azevedo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vimos por meio deste texto trazer alguns elementos fundamentais para o entendimentoda configuração da agroindústria canavieira, associado, pois, à ação metabólica do capital quealicerça a sua consubstanciação no território paulista, bem como, a trama que marca o conflitocapital x trabalho nesse setor produtivo.

  2. DESEMPENHO TÉRMICO DE BEZERREIROS COBERTOS COM TELHA DE FIBROCIMENTO E FORRO ECOLÓGICO DE SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDÚSTRIAS ASSOCIADO A MATERIAIS ISOLANTES

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    G. Barbirato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um estudo sobre o potencial de utilização de um forro ecológico constituído de subprodutos da agroindústria (partículas de madeira de maravalha de Pinus sp. e bagaço de cana-de-açúcar - Saccharum officinarum L. associado a placas de poliestireno expandido (isopor® e de poliuretano à base de óleo de mamona (PU-mamona, quando aplicados em bezerreiros cobertos com telha de fibrocimento. Nesse estudo foi aferida a temperatura interna, umidade relativa e o índice de temperatura e umidade (ITU, no período do verão, durante 21 dias. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o ITU e temperatura ambiente interna das instalações com forro ecológico associado a placas de isopor® e PU-mamona foram inferiores àquelas aferidas em bezerreiros sem forro. As imagens captadas por câmera termográfica indicam que os materiais empregados como forro amorteceram a transferência de calor e radiação para o interior dos bezerreiros, ocasionando menores temperaturas internas nesses ambientes.

  3. A INFLUÊNCIA DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA IMAGEM ORGANIZACIONAL PERANTE OS STAKEHOLDERS: UMA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL DE MINAS GERAIS

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    Juliano Franco e Silva Amaral

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma característica da sociedade contemporânea é a crescente inquietação com a qualidade do ambiente natural. Grupos de pressão, cientistas, consumidores, políticos e empresas estão mais conscientes do meio ambiente e cada vez mais influentes. Na década de 1990, temas e conceitos importantes foram estudados: a teoria dos stakeholders, a ética nos negócios, a gestão ambiental, a cidadania empresarial, o desenvolvimento sustentável e a governança corporativa. Para Freeman apud Kreitlon (2003, os stakeholders podem ser definidos como qualquer grupo ou indivíduo capaz de afetar ou ser afetado pela organização. Em sentido estrito, são aqueles grupos vitais para o negócio da empresa. Segundo Moreira (2001, a organização que tem gestão ambiental é aquela que possui um departamento de meio ambiente responsável por atender às exigências dos órgãos ambientais e indicar equipamentos e dispositivos de controle ambiental apropriados à realidade do negócio e aos impactos ambientais. Por outro lado, o sistema de gestão ambiental adquire uma visão estratégica do meio ambiente. A organização deixa de agir apenas em função dos riscos e passa a perceber também as oportunidades de acordo com orientações de inserção da variável ambiental na gestão do negócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a influência da implantação do sistema de gestão ambiental na imagem de uma indústria têxtil de Minas Gerais frente aos stakeholders. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica sobre sistema de gestão ambiental, a análise de documentos da Empresa Alfa e entrevistas não estruturadas com os responsáveis pela implantação da ISO 14001 e pela área de relação com investidores

  4. IMPLANTAÇÃO DA ISO 14001:2004: ESTUDO DE CASO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL DA REGIÃO CENTRO-SUL DO PARANÁ

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    Katiane Crotti

    Full Text Available RESUMO Aliar as necessidades dos negócios às ambientais, trata-se de um desafio para as organizações. Os sistemas de gestão ambiental certificados pela NBR ISO 14001:2004 visam facilitar este processo, além de propiciar visibilidade positiva às organizações. No entanto, para adotar tal certificação, exige-se o atendimento de diversos requisitos e o desenvolvimento de estratégias de ecoinovação. Sob tal enfoque, esta pesquisa levantou os seguintes questionamentos: como a indústria de papel atendeu as exigências da NBR ISO 14001:2004? Quais estratégias de ecoinovação foram realizadas para a indústria conquistar a certificação? O objetivo geral buscou identificar e analisar as ações realizadas para a implantação da certificação ISO 14001:2004 em uma indústria de papel da região Centro-Sul do Paraná. Para isso utilizou-se do estudo de caso, no contexto da abordagem qualitativa, por meio de entrevistas, observação e pesquisa documental, e o tratamento destes se deu pela análise de conteúdo. Os principais resultados apontam que essa indústria atendeu aos requisitos de maneira satisfatória, demonstrando sua capacidade de adequar-se à norma. Observou-se também que as estratégias de ecoinovação desenvolvidas contribuíram para o alcance da certificação, o que exigiu da empresa adotar um processo de inovação capaz de subsidiar o atendimento de requisitos fundamentais de gestão ambiental.

  5. A INFLUÊNCIA DO SISTEMA DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL NA IMAGEM ORGANIZACIONAL PERANTE OS STAKEHOLDERS: UMA INDÚSTRIA TÊXTIL DE MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Franco e Silva Amaral

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma característica da sociedade contemporânea é a crescente inquietação com a qualidade do ambiente natural. Grupos de pressão, cientistas, consumidores, políticos e empresas estão mais conscientes do meio ambiente e cada vez mais influentes. Na década de 1990, temas e conceitos importantes foram estudados: a teoria dos stakeholders, a ética nos negócios, a gestão ambiental, a cidadania empresarial, o desenvolvimento sustentável e a governança corporativa. Para Freeman apud Kreitlon (2003, os stakeholders podem ser definidos como qualquer grupo ou indivíduo capaz de afetar ou ser afetado pela organização. Em sentido estrito, são aqueles grupos vitais para o negócio da empresa. Segundo Moreira (2001, a organização que tem gestão ambiental é aquela que possui um departamento de meio ambiente responsável por atender às exigências dos órgãos ambientais e indicar equipamentos e dispositivos de controle ambiental apropriados à realidade do negócio e aos impactos ambientais. Por outro lado, o sistema de gestão ambiental adquire uma visão estratégica do meio ambiente. A organização deixa de agir apenas em função dos riscos e passa a perceber também as oportunidades de acordo com orientações de inserção da variável ambiental na gestão do negócio. Este artigo tem como objetivo descrever a influência da implantação do sistema de gestão ambiental na imagem de uma indústria têxtil de Minas Gerais frente aos stakeholders. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão bibliográfica sobre sistema de gestão ambiental, a análise de documentos da Empresa Alfa e entrevistas não estruturadas com os responsáveis pela implantação da ISO 14001 e pela área de relação com investidores.

  6. IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS NA PRODUÇÃO DO ETANOL BRASILEIRO: UMA BREVE DISCUSSÃO DO CAMPO À INDÚSTRIA

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    Lilian Pugliese

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo compilar e apresentar conjuntamente os principais impactos ambientais causados pela produção agrícola e industrial da produção de etanol, assim como apontar medidas de mitigação que têm sido apresentadas na literatura. O delineamento do estudo foi realizado pela análise qualitativa do material obtido em revisão bibliográfica. Durante a produção agrícola, os principais impactos ambientais encontrados foram a compactação dos solos por tratores e implementos agrícolas, a contaminação de corpos d’água e solos pelo uso intensivo de fertilizantes e agrotóxicos, aplicação não controlada de vinhaça, torta de filtro ou escórias de siderurgia e poluição do ar por queimadas da palha da cana-de-açúcar. Durante a produção industrial, os principais impactos ambientais apontados relacionam-se com a poluição de ar proveniente da queima do bagaço e palhada excedente para geração de energia elétrica e cinzas dessa queima, com o descarte inadequados da água de lavagem da cana e de equipamentos, das águas residuais de condensadores e multijatos e das águas residuais domésticas. As discussões apresentadas demonstram que a produção de etanol pode gerar impactos desconhecidos pela maior parte da população, tanto na produção agrícola, quanto na produção industrial, podendo ocasionar poluição atmosférica e dos recursos hídricos. Medidas de mitigação, como biodegradação da vinhaça e produção de gases para geração de energia, diminuição do consumo e reúso da água, também são apontadas.

  7. COMPORTAMENTO DE CIDADANIA ORGANIZACIONAL: AS VISÕES DE COLABORADORES E DE GESTORES DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE ELETRODOMÉSTICOS

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    Vívian Flores Costa

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo tem o objetivo central identificar os comportamentos de cidadania organizacional (CCO predominantes no contexto organizacional, a partir da visão de colaboradores e de gestores de uma indústria de eletrodomésticos. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa descritiva, de natureza quantitativa e qualitativa, concretizada por meio de um estudo de caso em uma empresa fabricante de eletrodomésticos. Inicialmente, na etapa quantitativa, participaram 302 colaboradores pertencentes a diversas posições hierárquicas da empresa pesquisada, os quais responderam um questionário elaborado a partir do modelo Escala de Civismo nas Organizações (ECO de Porto e Tamayo (2003. Em um segundo momento, na etapa qualitativa, participaram 10 gestores da empresa investigada, com os quais se efetivaram entrevistas semiestruturadas, sendo o protocolo elaborado à luz do modelo de Porto e Tamayo (2003. Os principais resultados encontrados expõem que, no que tange aos CCO, os comportamentos de Proteção ao sistema e de Cooperação com os colegas foram os indicados pelos colaboradores e gestores como os mais presentes no contexto organizacional investigado. Em contrapartida, na visão dos colaboradores, o autotreinamento e o comportamento de sugestão à gestão organizacional são os menos praticados no ambiente de trabalho. Contudo, a visão dos gestores apresentou algumas dissensões, visto que apontaram esses comportamentos como recorrentes nos membros da organização.

  8. O GERENCIAMENTO DO RELACIONAMENTO COM FORNECEDORES NA INTEGRAÇÃO DA CADEIA DE SUPRIMENTOS: UM ESTUDO DE CASO NA INDÚSTRIA ELETRO-MECÂNICA

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    Almeida, Marly Mizue Kaibara de; Marins, Fernando Augusto Silva; Tramarico, Claudemir Leif

    2012-01-01

    O aumento da competição, a globalização e a necessidade de redução do ciclo de produção e níveis de estoques criou a necessidade de processos baseados em alianças eficazes na cadeia de suprimentos. Estas pressões têm levado os gestores a reverem suas empresas individualmente e analisar sua posição na cadeia de suprimentos. O Gerenciamento da Cadeia de Suprimentos representa uma importante evolução nas práticas de relacionamento entre clientes e fornecedores participantes de um mesmo canal de ...

  9. ESTUDO DA ADIÇÃO DA LIGNINA KRAFT NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DOS BRIQUETES DE RESÍDUOS DA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

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    Adriana de Fátima Gomes Gouvêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve global effectiveness of energy production, a strategy is the model of bio-refineries in which all the components of biomass are totally used to produce a range of products with aggregated value. The kraft lignin is one of the products originated in the process of cellulose production that can be used in making densified products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of the addition of extracted kraft lignin of black kraft liquor in briquette manufactures with furniture industry waste, in the form of shavings and panel particles in different proportions. The briquettes were produced in laboratory briquetting, using the temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 o C. The pressing and cooling time was 5 minutes and pressure 68,9 x 10 5 N.m -2 (1000 PSI. The briquette quality was evaluated through determining the mechanical properties. The kraft lignin in adequate proportions and temperature showed advantages in the increase of resistance and the durability of the briquettes. The kraft lignin presented advantages such as agglutinative in briquette productions from wood waste at a pressing temperature of 90 o C with addition of 20% of kraft lignin, and at pressing temperatures of 60 and 75 o C at a proportion of addition of 40 and 60% of kraft lignin to wood waste, respectively.

  10. MODELO DE GERÊNCIA DE PROJETOS PARA LANÇAMENTO DE MEDICAMENTOS GENÉRICOS PELA INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar Júnior, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir um modelo de gerência de projetos para o lançamento de novos produtos na indústria farmacêutica de medicamentos genéricos. O foco da pesquisa voltou-se ao desenvolvimento de técnicas e ferramentas de trabalho que possibilitam um maior controle sobre o processo de desenvolvimento de um novo produto a ser lançado no mercado e sirvam como base para planejamento, implantação, controle e avaliação do processo como um todo, fornecendo uma vi...

  11. GRUPOS ESTRATÉGICOS NA INDÚSTRIA DE RESSEGUROS BRASILEIRA: UMA VISÃO DE SUA FORMAÇÃO INICIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Selma Sotelo; Troccoli, Irene Raguenet

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación cualitativa sobre el mercado de reseguros brasileño tuvo el objetivo de rescatar la manera como cinco reseguradoras locales en funcionamiento en Brasil se configuraran estratégicamente después de la apertura de este mercado. Por el método utilizado hubo la formación de dos grupos estratégicos (GE): un formado por las reseguradoras locales con actuación endógena, y otro formado por el Instituto de Resseguros do Brasil (IRB) conjuntamente con las reseguradoras locales de actu...

  12. UMA REVISÃO SISTEMÁTICA SOBRE GESTÃO DA QUALIDADE EM INDÚSTRIAS DE MÓVEIS SOB ENCOMENDA

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    Jean Pierre Ludwig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta a revisão sistemática da literatura sobre ferramentas da qualidade enfatizando os modelos integrados entre FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis e MASP (Method of Analysis and Solving Problems. Como resultado, foram identificados 209 trabalhos. Destes, foram selecionados 40 considerados relevantes a pesquisa. O período usado para a pesquisa foi de 2005 a 2015. A partir da análise dos artigos publicados sobre a integração das duas ferramentas, foi possível concluir sobre a inexistência de um modelo integrado que contemple os requisitos particulares das empresas fabricantes de móveis sob encomenda. Dessa maneira, a presente pesquisa se torna relevante no contexto da gestão de operações industriais, pois permitiu a proposição de um conjunto de requisitos que devem ser considerados para a elaboração de um modelo integrado de gestão da qualidade que contemple FMEA e MASP para visando estruturar os processos de melhoria contínua e gestão da qualidade de empresas fabricantes de móveis sob encomenda.

  13. LAS BIOPELÍCULAS EN LA INDUSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS BIOFILMES NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS BIOFILMS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

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    DIANA PAOLA NAVIA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos útiles y bacterias patógenas como por ejemplo Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycobacteria, tienen la capacidad de adherirse y crecer en los alimentos y/o en las superficies que están en contacto con ellos formando biopelículas. Estas son significativamente importantes en el campo alimentario porgue causan serios problemas que dificultan y perjudican las operaciones y los procesos al generar pérdidas de energía, reducción del flujo (en tuberías y transferencia de calor, y taponamiento de poros de membranas, entre otros. Este documento considera los aspectos biológicos y fisicoquímicos relacionados con la formación y desarrollo de las biopelículas, lo cual, unido al desarrollo de metodologías de diagnóstico e identificación, permitirán desarrollar estrategias gue faciliten la prevención y control de la contaminación en la industria de alimentos para mantener los sistemas libres de biopelículas y favorecer la calidad y seguridad de los alimentos.Alguns microorganismos úteis e bactérias patogênicas, como Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Micobactéria, têm a capacidade de aderir e crescer em alimentos e/ou as superfícies em contato com eles. Neste contexto, os biofilmes são significativamente importantes na alimentação, porque podem causar problemas graves que impedem e dificultam as operações e processos para gerar perdas de energia, fluxo reduzido (tubos e transferência de calor, e entupimento de poros da membrana, entre outros. Este documento considera a aspectos biológicos e físico-químicas relacionadas à formação e desenvolvimento de biofilmes, que, juntamente com o desenvolvimento de métodos para o diagnóstico e identificação, ajudará a desenvolver estratégias de prevenção e controle da poluição na indústria de alimentos para manter os sistemas de biofilme livre e promover a qualidade e segurança alimentar.Some useful microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Escherichia, Salmonella, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycobacterium, have the ability to adhere and grow in food and/or surfaces in contact with them. In this context, the biofilms are significantly important in the food industry because they cause serious problems that impede and impair the operations and processes to generate energy losses, reduced flow (in pipes and heat transfer, and plugging of membrane pores, among others. This document considers the biological and physicochemical aspects related to training and development of biofilms, which, together with the development of methods for diagnosis and identification, will help develop strategies for prevention and control of pollution in the food industry to maintain biofilm-free systems and promote the quality and food safety

  14. IMPLANTAÇÃO DA LÓGICA TAMBOR-PULMÃO-CORDA EM UMA EMPRESA DA INDÚSTRIA MOVELEIRA

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    Juliane Luchese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os impactos da implantação do TPC (Tambor-Pulmão-Corda, descrevendo as desvantagens observadas antes desta modificação, bem como os benefícios obtidos após as mudanças. O método de pesquisa foi o estudo de caso único, efetuado em uma empresa pertencente ao polo moveleiro de Bento Gonçalves localizado no Rio Grande do Sul. Entre os resultados obtidos com a pesquisa, evidenciaram-se os processos da empresa, o espaço físico, o transporte de peças entre setores e o sequenciamento da produção, prévios a aplicação da metodologia. Constatou-se que a implantação de um sistema TPC foi essencial para que a melhoria dos processos fosse alcançada.

  15. O IMPACTO DA ROTATIVIDADE E DO ABSENTEÍSMO DE PESSOAL SOBRE O CUSTO DO PRODUTO: UM ESTUDO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA GAÚCHA.

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    Mauricio Farias Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o impacto da rotatividade e absenteísmo de pessoal sobre o custo do produto em uma indústria gaúcha.  Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de caso, que envolveu a participação de uma empresa multinacional, com unidade produtiva no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados no período de 2011, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com a responsável pelo setor de recursos humanos e também com supervisora de controladoria da empresa. Além das entrevistas foram analisados documentos contábeis e relatórios gerenciais de custos e de recursos humanos. O estudo limitou-se a analisar o produto de maior giro e o setor com maior índice de rotatividade e absenteísmo na empresa. Neste estudo foi possível demonstrar que a rotatividade e o absenteísmo apresentados pelo setor tiveram impacto relevante sobre o custo do produto analisado, diminuindo os resultados proporcionados pela venda deste produto nos períodos em que o custo apresentou maior elevação. 

  16. A EVOLUÇÃO DA ORGANIZAÇÃO E DA LOCALIZAÇÃO ESPACIAL DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO LEITE NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Fiegenbaum

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo visaanalisar a organização e a localização da agroindústria de leite no estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre os anos de 1990 a 2010. Busca-se neste estudo avaliar a evolução da agroindústria do leite, nos aspectos de estrutura industrial, de volume de produção e de localização do processamento fabril e da captação in natura. As referências teóricas perpassam pela utilização do Commodity System Approach, o modelo de estruturaconduta- desempenho (ECD) dinâmico, as ...

  17. ENGENHARIA DO CONHECIMENTO APLICADA AO SERVIÇO DE ATENDIMENTO AO CLIENTE NA INDÚSTRIA DO SOFTWARE KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING APPLIED TO COSTUMER SERVICE IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

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    Mauricio Uriona Maldonado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A representação do conhecimento apoia as técnicas e ferramentas de gestão e deve possuir uma compreensão substancial do negócio em que está inserido. A identificação e análise do negócio onde estão embutidos os aspectos de conhecimento são fundamentais para o sucesso da gestão do conhecimento nas organizações. Este artigo descreve a construção da primeira fase de um sistema de conhecimento para o serviço de atendimento ao usuário de uma software-house no Brasil. A metodología empregada é a engenharia do conhecimento e mais específicamente os modelos da camada contextual do CommonKADS. Inicialmente é apresentada uma revisão sobre o framework metodológico CommonKADS, com foco nos modelos de organização, tarefa e agente. Em seguida são descritas as etapas de construção do sistema de conhecimento e apresentado o local de aplicação. Conclui com as implicações do sistema de conhecimento para a software-house analizada bem como as recomendações dos próximos passos de aplicação do CommonKADS.Knowledge representation supports management tools and techniques and must possess a substantial comprehension of the business in which is inserted. This paper describes the first phase construction of a knowledge system for a Brazilian software-house´s customer service. The method applied is knowledge engineering and specifically the context-layer models of CommonKADS. First, a literature review is presented regarding the CommonKADS Methodology, focusing in the Organization, Tasks and Agent Models. Next, the development phases for the knowledge system are described as well as the company where the study was made. It concludes with the business implications of the knowledge system for the software-house as well as the next steps of application for CommonKADS.

  18. ANÁLISE DA CONCENTRAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA CERVEJEIRA BRASILEIRA NO PERÍODO ENTRE 1989 E 2011

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    Guilherme Zim Zaniol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar a evolução da concentração na indústria brasileira de produção de cerveja no período de 1989 a 2011, segregando-o entre dois períodos: antes e depois da fusão que originou a AmBev. O estudo procura mostrar os antecedentes à criação da AmBev, bem como o comportamento do setor depois da sua criação. A análise permitiu a conclusão de que houve aumento da concentração durante o período referido, como também houve significativo impacto do surgimento da AmBev no mercado.

  19. O PROCESSO DE INTRODUÇÃO DA MAQUINARIA NA INDÚSTRIA FABRIL E O TRABALHADOR [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20020102006

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    Alexandre Shigunov Neto

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste texto é analisar as implicações que a introdução da maquinaria trouxe para os trabalhadores das fábricas, tomando como ponto de partida o período inicial da Revolução Industrial. Nossa hipótese de trabalho sugere que a maquinaria em si, como instrumento auxiliar do progresso, é benéfica para a sociedade e, até mesmo, para o trabalhador, no entanto, a aplicação dada pelo capitalista é que poderá ser prejudicial para os mesmos, em especial para o trabalhador e suas condições de trabalho.

  20. INDÚSTRIA CULTURAL E CIBERCULTURA – APROXIMAÇÕES E DISTANCIAMENTOS DE CONCEITOS E PRÁTICAS NA CONTEMPORANEIDADE

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    Marcus Alexandre de Pádua Cavalcanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marcus Alexandre de Pádua Cavalcanti DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2013.15326O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as relações e os processos de comunicação promovidos pelas redes digitais e os meios de comunicação de massas, no sentido de perceber, na contemporaneidade, como ambos se integram e se complementam em suas práticas. No decorrer desta apresentação, serão abordados os conceitos de indústria cultural, cibercultura, hegemonia, contra-hegemonia e rizoma. Tais conceitos serão utilizados para analisar e apontar as dinâmicas e configurações das formas verticais/centralizadas e horizontais/descentralizadas de comunicação. As metáforas das ramificações arborescentes e rizomáticas serão utilizadas nesse contexto para visualizar e comunicar melhor o funcionamento desses dois sistemas. Discutem-se as características desses dois paradigmas, como eles convivem e se agenciam de maneira colaborativa e concomitante, potencializando e ampliando as práticas comunicacionais.

  1. ESTUDO DO COMPORTAMENTO DE BLENDAS DE POLIAMIDA 6/RESÍDUO DE BORRACHA DA INDÚSTRIA DE CALÇADOS

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    Carlos Bruno Barreto Luna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O reaproveitamento de borrachas tem sido bastante explorado, por meio de misturas com polímeros virgens, para gerar compostos utilizados em diversas aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir blendas poliméricas a partir de uma matriz de poliamida 6 com resíduos de borracha reciclada (SBR-R. Foram realizados estudos sobre reologia, temperatura de deflexão térmica (HDT, análise térmica dinâmico-mecânica (DMTA e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR. As blendas de poliamida 6/resíduo de borracha reciclada foram preparadas em uma extrusora de rosca dupla corrotacional e os grânulos extrusados foram moldados por injeção. Os resultados obtidos com o estudo reológico mostraram que quanto maior a percentagem de SBR-R adicionado, maiores os valores de torque. As temperaturas de deflexão térmica das blendas reduziram pouco, quando comparadas à da poliamida 6. No ensaio de DMTA, as blendas binárias e ternárias tiveram deslocamento dos picos para, aproximadamente, -10°C e o deslocamento da relaxação α da PA6, para valores maiores. Os resultados do FTIR evidenciaram que as bandas características da PA6 não foram modificadas pela presença do SBR-R e nem pelo aumento da percentagem nas blendas binárias e pela presença de PE-g-MA nas blendas ternárias, mostrando que os seus grupamentos químicos não foram afetados.

  2. Mürgilaeva maaletoojad / Sulev Vedler, Tarmo Vahter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vedler, Sulev, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Paldiskis kinni peetud mürgilaeva Probo Koalat rentiv Madalmaade naftakaubanduskompanii Trafigura Beheer on Alexela Terminali suurim aktsionär. Keskkonnakaitsjate surve, laeva kinnipidamise põhjused ja süüdistused. Lisa: Alexela terminali omanikud

  3. Structure and function of the amygdaloid NPY system: NPY Y2 receptors regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J; Verma, D; Lach, G; Bonaventure, P; Herzog, H; Sperk, G; Tasan, R O

    2016-09-01

    The amygdala is essential for generating emotional-affective behaviors. It consists of several nuclei with highly selective, elaborate functions. In particular, the central extended amygdala, consisting of the central amygdala (CEA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an essential component actively controlling efferent connections to downstream effectors like hypothalamus and brain stem. Both, CEA and BNST contain high amounts of different neuropeptides that significantly contribute to synaptic transmission. Among these, neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as an important anxiolytic and fear-reducing neuromodulator. Here, we characterized the expression, connectivity and electrophysiological function of NPY and Y2 receptors within the CEA. We identified several NPY-expressing neuronal populations, including somatostatin- and calretinin-expressing neurons. Furthermore, in the main intercalated nucleus, NPY is expressed primarily in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons but also in interspersed somatostatin-expressing neurons. Interestingly, NPY neurons did not co-localize with the Y2 receptor. Retrograde tract tracing experiments revealed that NPY neurons reciprocally connect the CEA and BNST. Functionally, the Y2 receptor agonist PYY3-36, reduced both, inhibitory as well as excitatory synaptic transmission in the centromedial amygdala (CEm). However, we also provide evidence that lack of NPY or Y2 receptors results in increased GABA release specifically at inhibitory synapses in the CEm. Taken together, our findings suggest that NPY expressed by distinct populations of neurons can modulate afferent and efferent projections of the CEA via presynaptic Y2 receptors located at inhibitory and excitatory synapses.

  4. Clinical significance of circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 to white matter disintegrity in Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Han; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chen, Wei-Hsi; Lu, Yan-Ting; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Alice Y W; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-11-25

    Endothelial dysfunction leads to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer's dementia (AD). While both cerebrovascular risk factors and endothelial dysfunction lead to activation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin, it is not known whether these biomarkers extend the diagnostic repertoire in reflecting intracerebral structural damage or cognitive performance. A total of 110 AD patients and 50 age-matched controls were enrolled. Plasma levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were measured and correlated with the cognitive performance, white matter macro-structural changes, and major tract-specific fractional anisotropy quantification. The AD patients were further stratified by clinical dementia rating score (mild dementia, n=60; moderate-to-severe dementia, n=50). Compared with the controls, plasma levels of VCAM-1 (p< 0.001), ICAM-1 (p=0.028) and E-selectin (p=0.016) were significantly higher in the patients, but only VCAM-1 levels significantly reflected the severity of dementia (p< 0.001). In addition, only VCAM-1 levels showed an association with macro- and micro- white matter changes especially in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (p< 0.001), posterior thalamic radiation (p=0.002), stria terminalis (p=0.002) and corpus callosum (p=0.009), and were independent of, age and cortical volume. These tracts show significant association with MMSE, short term memory and visuospatial function. Meanwhile, while VCAM-1 level correlated significantly with short-term memory (p=0.026) and drawing (p=0.025) scores in the AD patients after adjusting for age and education, the significance disappeared after adjusting for global FA. Endothelial activation, especially VCAM-1, was of clinical significance in AD that reflects macro- and micro-structural changes and poor short term memory and visuospatial function.

  5. Increased CRF mRNA expression in the sexually dimorphic BNST of male but not female GAD67 mice and TMT predator odor stress effects upon spatial memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzky, K; Peine, A; Kröber, A; Yanagawa, Y; Schwegler, H; Roskoden, T

    2014-10-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is an important region for 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT) predator odor-induced stress responses in mice. It is sexually dimorphic and a region for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-enhanced stress responses. Dense GABAergic and CRF input from the amygdala to the BNST gives point to relevant interactions between CRF and GABA activity in these brain regions. Hence, to investigate sexual dimorphism of stress-induced neuronal changes, we studied effects of acute TMT exposure on CRF mRNA expression in stress-related brain regions in male and female GAD67 mice and their wild-type littermates. In GAD67 mice, heterozygous knock-in of GFP in GABAergic neurons caused a 50% decrease of GAD67 protein level in the brain [91,99]. Results show higher CRF mRNA levels in the BNST of male but not female GAD67 mice after TMT and control odor exposure. While CRF neurons in the BNST are predominantly GABAergic and CRF enhances GABAergic transmission in the BNST [20,51], the deficit in GABAergic transmission in GAD67 mice could induce a compensatory CRF increase. Sexual dimorphism of the BNST with greater density of GABA-ir neurons in females could explain the differences in CRF mRNA levels between male and female GAD67 mice. Effects of odor exposure were studied in a radial arm maze (RAM) task. Results show impaired retrieval of spatial memory after acute TMT exposure in both sexes and genotypes. However, only GAD67 mice show increased working memory errors after control odor exposure. Our work elicits GAD67 mice as a model to further study interactions of GABA and CRF in the BNST for a better understanding of how sex-specific characteristics of the brain may contribute to differences in anxiety- and stress-related psychological disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  7. Increased STAT5 signaling in the ring dove brain in response to prolactin administration and spontaneous elevations in prolactin during the breeding cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, John D.; Buntin, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Prolactin acts on target cells in the central nervous system (CNS) to stimulate behavioral changes associated with parental care in birds, but the signaling mechanisms that mediate these actions have not been characterized. In mammals, the Janus Kinase 2-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (JAK2-STAT5) signaling pathway mediates many of the actions of prolactin. To assess the importance of this pathway in prolactin-sensitive target cells in the avian brain, we measured changes in activated (phosphorylated) STAT5 (pSTAT5) in the forebrain of female ring doves sampled as plasma prolactin levels change during the breeding cycle and in prolactin-treated, non-breeding females. The anatomical distribution of cells exhibiting pSTAT5 immunoreactivity in dove brain closely paralleled the distribution of prolactin receptors in this species. The density of pSTAT5 immunoreactive (pSTAT5-ir) cells were highest in the preoptic area, the suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the lateral and tuberal hypothalamic regions, the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. Mean pSTAT5-ir cell densities in these eight brain areas were several fold higher in breeding females during late incubation/early post-hatching when plasma prolactin levels have been observed to peak than in non-breeding females or breeding females sampled at earlier stages when prolactin titers have been reported to be lower. Similar differences were observed between prolactin-treated and vehicle-treated females in all three of the forebrain regions that were compared. We conclude that JAK2-STAT5 signaling is strongly activated in response to prolactin stimulation in the ring dove brain and could potentially mediate some of the centrally-mediated behavioral effects of this hormone. PMID:24530808

  8. Tuning the brain for motherhood: prolactin-like central signalling in virgin, pregnant, and lactating female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salais-López, Hugo; Lanuza, Enrique; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Prolactin is fundamental for the expression of maternal behaviour. In virgin female rats, prolactin administered upon steroid hormone priming accelerates the onset of maternal care. By contrast, the role of prolactin in mice maternal behaviour remains unclear. This study aims at characterizing central prolactin activity patterns in female mice and their variation through pregnancy and lactation. This was revealed by immunoreactivity of phosphorylated (active) signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5-ir), a key molecule in the signalling cascade of prolactin receptors. We also evaluated non-hypophyseal lactogenic activity during pregnancy by administering bromocriptine, which suppresses hypophyseal prolactin release. Late-pregnant and lactating females showed significantly increased pSTAT5-ir resulting in a widespread pattern of immunostaining with minor variations between pregnant and lactating animals, which comprises nuclei of the sociosexual and maternal brain, including telencephalic (septum, nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala), hypothalamic (preoptic, paraventricular, supraoptic, and ventromedial), and midbrain (periaqueductal grey) regions. During late pregnancy, this pattern was not affected by the administration of bromocriptine, suggesting it to be elicited mostly by non-hypophyseal lactogenic agents, likely placental lactogens. Virgin females displayed, instead, a variable pattern of pSTAT5-ir restricted to a subset of the brain nuclei labelled in pregnant and lactating mice. A hormonal substitution experiment confirmed that estradiol and progesterone contribute to the variability found in virgin females. Our results reflect how the shaping of the maternal brain takes place prior to parturition and suggest that lactogenic agents are important candidates in the development of maternal behaviours already during pregnancy.

  9. Somatostatin receptor subtype 4 activation is involved in anxiety and depression-like behavior in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheich, Bálint; Gaszner, Balázs; Kormos, Viktória; László, Kristóf; Ádori, Csaba; Borbély, Éva; Hajna, Zsófia; Tékus, Valéria; Bölcskei, Kata; Ábrahám, István; Pintér, Erika; Szolcsányi, János; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-02-01

    Somatostatin regulates stress-related behavior and its expression is altered in mood disorders. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms, especially about the importance of its receptors (sst1-sst5) in anxiety and depression-like behavior. Here we analyzed the potential role of sst4 receptor in these processes, since sst4 is present in stress-related brain regions, but there are no data about its functional relevance. Genetic deletion of sst4 (Sstr4(-/-)) and its pharmacological activation with the newly developed selective non-peptide agonist J-2156 were used. Anxiety was examined in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and depression-like behavior in the forced swim (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Neuronal activation during the TST was monitored by Fos immunohistochemistry, receptor expression was identified by sst4(LacZ) immunostaining in several brain regions. Sstr4(-/-) mice showed increased anxiety in the EPM and enhanced depression-like behavior in the FST. J-2156 (100 μg/kg i.p.) exhibited anxiolytic effect in the EPM and decreased immobility in the TST. J-2156 alone did not influence Fos immunoreactivity in intact mice, but significantly increased the stress-induced Fos response in the dorsal raphe nucleus, central projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, the magnocellular, but not the parvocellular part of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, lateral septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the amygdala. Notably, sst4(LacZ) immunoreactivity occurred in the central and basolateral amygdala. Together, these studies reveal that sst4 mediates anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects by enhancing the stress-responsiveness of several brain regions with special emphasis on the amygdala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Aromatase Expression in the Adult Male and Female Mouse Brain. I. Coexistence with Oestrogen Receptors α and β, and Androgen Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα−, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females. PMID:24646567

  11. Chronic intermittent hypoxia sensitizes acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress reactivity and Fos induction in the rat locus coeruleus in response to subsequent immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Mifflin, S W; Cunningham, J T; Morilak, D A

    2008-07-17

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation, and other endocrine and metabolic disturbances comprising the "metabolic syndrome." Repeated episodes of hypoxia in OSA may represent a chronic intermittent stress, leading to HPA dysregulation. Alterations in HPA reactivity could then contribute to or exacerbate other pathophysiological processes. We showed previously that another metabolic stressor, chronic intermittent cold stress, enhanced noradrenergic facilitation of acute HPA stress reactivity. In this study, we investigated whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rat model for the arterial hypoxemia that accompanies OSA, similarly sensitizes the HPA response to novel acute stress. Rats were exposed to CIH (alternating cycles of normoxia [3 min at 21% O(2)] and hypoxia [3 min at 10% O(2)], repeated continuously for 8 h/day during the light portion of the cycle for 7 days). On the day after the final CIH exposure, there were no differences in baseline plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but the peak ACTH response to 30 min acute immobilization stress was greater in CIH-stressed rats than in controls. Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala. Fos induction was attenuated in lateral hypothalamus, an HPA-inhibitory region. By contrast, acute Fos induction was enhanced in noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus following CIH exposure. Thus, similar to chronic cold stress, CIH sensitized acute HPA and noradrenergic stress reactivity. Plasticity in the acute stress response is important for long-term adaptation, but may also contribute to pathophysiological conditions associated with states of chronic or repeated stress, such as OSA

  12. Neuropeptide Y2 receptors in anteroventral BNST control remote fear memory depending on extinction training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dilip; Tasan, Ramon; Sperk, Guenther; Pape, Hans-Christian

    2018-03-01

    The anterior bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) is involved in reinstatement of extinguished fear, and neuropeptide Y2 receptors influence local synaptic signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that Y2 receptors in anteroventral BNST (BNSTav) interfere with remote fear memory and that previous fear extinction is an important variable. C57BL/6NCrl mice were fear-conditioned, and a Y2 receptor-specific agonist (NPY 3-36 ) or antagonist (JNJ-5207787) was applied in BNSTav before fear retrieval at the following day. Remote fear memory was tested on day 16 in two groups of mice, which had (experiment 1) or had not (experiment 2) undergone extinction training after conditioning. In the group with extinction training, tests of remote fear memory revealed partial retrieval of extinction, which was prevented after blockade of Y2 receptors in BNSTav. No such effect was observed in the group with no extinction training, but stimulation of Y2 receptors in BNSTav mimicked the influence of extinction during tests of remote fear memory. Pharmacological manipulation of Y2 receptors in BNSTav before fear acquisition (experiment 3) had no effect on fear memory retrieval, extinction or remote fear memory. Furthermore, partial retrieval of extinction during tests of remote fear memory was associated with changes in number of c-Fos expressing neurons in BNSTav, which was prevented or mimicked upon Y2 blockade or stimulation in BNSTav. These results indicate that Y2 receptor manipulation in BNSTav interferes with fear memory and extinction retrieval at remote stages, likely through controlling neuronal activity in BNSTav during extinction training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge synthesis with maps of neural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo eTallis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes software for neuroanatomical knowledge synthesis based on high-quality neural connectivity data. This software supports a mature neuroanatomical methodology developed since the early 1990s. Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain atlas by experts. In earlier work, we presented an application for visualizing and comparing anatomical macroconnections using the Swanson 3rd edition atlas as a framework for accurate registration. Here we describe major improvements to the NeuARt application based on the incorporation of a knowledge representation of experimental design. We also present improvements in the interface and features of the neuroanatomical data mapping components within a unified web-application. As a step towards developing an accurate sub-regional account of neural connectivity, we provide navigational access between the neuroanatomical data maps and a semantic representation of area-to-area connections that they support. We do so based on an approach called ’Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design’ (KEfED model that is based on experimental variables. We have extended the underlying KEfED representation of tract-tracing experiments by incorporating the definition of a neuronanatomical data map as a measurement variable in the study design. This paper describes the software design of a web application that allows anatomical data sets to be described within a standard experimental context and thus incorporated with non-spatial data sets.

  14. Evaluating the relationship between white matter integrity, cognition, and varieties of video game learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nicholas R; O'Connell, Margaret A; Nashiro, Kaoru; Smith, Evan T; Qin, Shuo; Basak, Chandramallika

    2017-01-01

    Many studies are currently researching the effects of video games, particularly in the domain of cognitive training. Great variability exists among video games however, and few studies have attempted to compare different types of video games. Little is known, for instance, about the cognitive processes or brain structures that underlie learning of different genres of video games. To examine the cognitive and neural underpinnings of two different types of game learning in order to evaluate their common and separate correlates, with the hopes of informing future intervention research. Participants (31 younger adults and 31 older adults) completed an extensive cognitive battery and played two different genres of video games, one action game and one strategy game, for 1.5 hours each. DTI scans were acquired for each participant, and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted using the JHU atlas. Behavioral results indicated that better performance on tasks of working memory and perceptual discrimination was related to enhanced learning in both games, even after controlling for age, whereas better performance on a perceptual speed task was uniquely related with enhanced learning of the strategy game. DTI results indicated that white matter FA in the right fornix/stria terminalis was correlated with action game learning, whereas white matter FA in the left cingulum/hippocampus was correlated with strategy game learning, even after controlling for age. Although cognition, to a large extent, was a common predictor of both types of game learning, regional white matter FA could separately predict action and strategy game learning. Given the neural and cognitive correlates of strategy game learning, strategy games may provide a more beneficial training tool for adults suffering from memory-related disorders or declines in processing speed, particularly older adults.

  15. Association of schizophrenia onset age and white matter integrity with treatment effect of D-cycloserine: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kazuo; Uezato, Akihito; Itasaka, Michio; Atsuta, Hidenori; Narushima, Kenji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kurumaji, Akeo; Tomita, Makoto; Oshima, Kazunari; Shoda, Kosaku; Tamaru, Mai; Nakataki, Masahito; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Ishiwata, Sayuri; Ishiwata, Yasuyoshi; Yasuhara, Masato; Arima, Kunimasa; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Nishikawa, Toru

    2017-07-12

    It has been reported that drugs which promote the N-Methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor function by stimulating the glycine modulatory site in the receptor improve negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs. We performed a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study involving 41 schizophrenia patients in which D-cycloserine 50 mg/day was added-on, and the influence of the onset age and association with white matter integrity on MR diffusion tensor imaging were investigated for the first time. The patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), and other scales. D-cycloserine did not improve positive or negative symptoms or cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The investigation in consideration of the onset age suggests that D-cycloserine may aggravate negative symptoms of early-onset schizophrenia. The better treatment effect of D-cycloserine on BACS was observed when the white matter integrity of the sagittal stratum/ cingulum/fornix stria terminalis/genu of corpus callosum/external capsule was higher, and the better treatment effect on PANSS general psychopathology (PANSS-G) was observed when the white matter integrity of the splenium of corpus callosum was higher. In contrast, the better treatment effect of D-cycloserine on PANSS-G and SANS-IV were observed when the white matter integrity of the posterior thalamic radiation (left) was lower. It was suggested that response to D-cycloserine is influenced by the onset age and white matter integrity. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (number UMIN000000468 ). Registered 18 August 2006.

  16. The underestimated role of olfaction in avian reproduction ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazart, Jacques; Taziaux, Mélanie

    2009-01-01

    Until the second half of the 20th century, it was broadly accepted that most birds are microsmatic if not anosmic and unable to detect and use olfactory information. Exceptions were eventually conceded for species like procellariiforms, vultures or kiwis that detect their food at least in part based on olfactory signals. During the past 20–30 years, many publications have appeared indicating that this view is definitely erroneous. We briefly review here anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral data demonstrating that birds in general possess a functional olfactory system and are able to use olfactory information in a variety of ethological contexts, including reproduction. Recent work also indicates that brain activation induced by sexual interactions with a female is significantly affected by olfactory deprivation in Japanese quail. Brain activation was measured via immunocytochemical detection of the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos. Changes observed concerned two brain areas that play a key role in the control of male sexual behavior, the medial preoptic nucleus and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis therefore suggesting a potential role of olfaction in the control of reproduction. The widespread idea that birds are anosmic or microsmatic is thus not supported by the available experimental data and presumably originates in our anthropomorphic view that leads us to think that birds do not smell because they have a rigid beak and nostrils and do not obviously sniff. Experimental analysis of this phenomenon is thus warranted and should lead to a significant change in our understanding of avian biology. PMID:18804490

  17. Orexin 1 receptors are a novel target to modulate panic responses and the panic brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip L; Samuels, Brian C; Fitz, Stephanie D; Federici, Lauren M; Hammes, Nathan; Early, Maureen C; Truitt, William; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2012-12-05

    Although the hypothalamic orexin system is known to regulate appetitive behaviors and promote wakefulness and arousal (Sakurai, 2007 [56]), this system may also be important in adaptive and pathological anxiety/stress responses (Suzuki et al., 2005 [4]). In a recent study, we demonstrated that CSF orexin levels were significantly higher in patients experiencing panic attacks compared to non-panicking depressed subjects (Johnson et al., 2010 [9]). Furthermore, genetically silencing orexin synthesis or blocking orexin 1 receptors attenuated lactate-induced panic in an animal model of panic disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we tested if orexin (ORX) modulates panic responses and brain pathways activated by two different panicogenic drugs. We conducted a series of pharmacological, behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical experiments to study the modulation by the orexinergic inputs of anxiety behaviors, autonomic responses, and activation of brain pathways elicited by systemic injections of anxiogenic/panicogenic drugs in rats. We show that systemic injections of two different anxiogenic/panicogenic drugs (FG-7142, an inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor, and caffeine, a nonselective competitive adenosine receptor antagonist) increased c-Fos induction in a specific subset of orexin neurons located in the dorsomedial/perifornical (DMH/PeF) but not the lateral hypothalamus. Pretreating rats with an orexin 1 receptor antagonist attenuated the FG-7142-induced anxiety-like behaviors, increased heart rate, and neuronal activation in key panic pathways, including subregions of the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, periaqueductal gray and in the rostroventrolateral medulla. Overall, the data here suggest that the ORX neurons in the DMH/PeF region are critical to eliciting coordinated panic responses and that ORX1 receptor antagonists constitute a potential novel treatment strategy for panic and

  18. SPIDER OR NO SPIDER? NEURAL CORRELATES OF SUSTAINED AND PHASIC FEAR IN SPIDER PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münsterkötter, Anna Luisa; Notzon, Swantje; Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Arolt, Volker; Kugel, Harald; Zwanzger, Peter; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Processes of phasic fear responses to threatening stimuli are thought to be distinct from sustained, anticipatory anxiety toward an unpredicted, potential threat. There is evidence for dissociable neural correlates of phasic fear and sustained anxiety. Whereas increased amygdala activity has been associated with phasic fear, sustained anxiety has been linked with activation of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insula. So far, only a few studies have focused on the dissociation of neural processes related to both phasic and sustained fear in specific phobia. We suggested that first, conditions of phasic and sustained fear would involve different neural networks and, second, that overall neural activity would be enhanced in a sample of phobic compared to nonphobic participants. Pictures of spiders and neutral stimuli under conditions of either predicted (phasic) or unpredicted (sustained) fear were presented to 28 subjects with spider phobia and 28 nonphobic control subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Phobic patients revealed significantly higher amygdala activation than controls under conditions of phasic fear. Sustained fear processing was significantly related to activation in the insula and ACC, and phobic patients showed a stronger activation than controls of the BNST and the right ACC under conditions of sustained fear. Functional connectivity analysis revealed enhanced connectivity of the BNST and the amygdala in phobic subjects. Our findings support the idea of distinct neural correlates of phasic and sustained fear processes. Increased neural activity and functional connectivity in these networks might be crucial for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. cFOS and pCREB activation and maternal aggression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, S C; Nelson, R J

    2001-04-20

    Lactating mice exhibit a dramatic increase in aggression, termed maternal aggression, only in association with the rearing and protection of their offspring. Previous work indicates that the neural mechanisms underlying maternal and male aggression are different in rodents. In this study, we sought to examine possible neural regions involved in the control of maternal aggression by combining behavioral testing with immunohistochemistry for both cFOS and pCREB, two indirect markers of neuronal activity. All lactating female mice were exposed to a male intruder for 20 min and those exhibiting maternal aggression were placed in one group and those that were non-aggressive were placed in a second group. Thus, the sensory stimuli were similar and the main difference between the two groups was the behavior. cFOS expression increased significantly in the claustrum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, medial amygdala, and cortical amygdala in association with maternal aggression. In contrast, the number of pCREB-positive cells significantly increased only in the ventrolateral portion of the caudal periaqueductal gray and in the lateral septum in aggressive lactating mice. Due to large variance in the counts of pCREB-positive cells, the data were log transformed prior to statistical analysis. Thus, the sites of cFOS and pCREB increases do not overlap, but provide complementary indirect information on neural regions active during maternal aggression. These results complement previous studies of nitric oxide release during maternal aggression to create a possible map of the functional neural circuitry underlying maternal aggression.

  20. Dopaminergic regulation of mate competition aggression and aromatase-Fos colocalization in vasotocin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabelik, David; Kelly, Aubrey M; Goodson, James L

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate that aggressive competition for potential mates involves different neural mechanisms than does territorial, resident-intruder aggression. However, despite the obvious importance of mate competition aggression, we know little about its regulation. Immediate early gene experiments show that in contrast to territorial aggression, mate competition in finches is accompanied by the activation of neural populations associated with affiliation and motivation, including vasotocin (VT) neurons in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm) and midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons that project to the BSTm. Although VT is known to facilitate mate competition aggression, the role of DA has not previously been examined. We now show that in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), mate competition aggression is inhibited by the D(2) agonist quinpirole, though not the D(1) agonist SKF-38393 or the D(4) agonist PD168077. The D(3) agonist 7-OH-DPAT also inhibited aggression, but only following high dose treatment that may affect aggression via nonspecific binding to D(2) receptors. Central VT infusion failed to restore D(2) agonist-inhibited aggression in a subsequent experiment, demonstrating that D(2) does not suppress aggression by inhibiting VT release from BSTm neurons. In a final experiment, we detected D(2) agonist-induced increases in immunofluorescent colocalization of the product of the immediate early gene c-fos and the steroid-converting enzyme aromatase (ARO) within VT neurons of the BSTm. Thus, although VT and DA appear to influence mate competition aggression independently, BSTm VT neurons are clearly influenced by the activation of D(2) receptors, which may modify future behaviors.

  1. The Multifaceted Role of the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Emotion, Decision Making, Social Cognition, and Psychopathology.

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    Hiser, Jaryd; Koenigs, Michael

    2018-04-15

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala. A second track of research demonstrates that the vmPFC is critical for the generation and regulation of negative emotion, through its interactions with the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, periaqueductal gray, hippocampus, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. A third track of research shows the importance of the vmPFC in multiple aspects of social cognition, such as facial emotion recognition, theory-of-mind ability, and processing self-relevant information, through its interactions with the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, dorsomedial PFC, and amygdala. We then present meta-analytic data revealing distinct subregions within the vmPFC that correspond to each of these three functions, as well as the associations between these subregions and specific psychiatric disorders (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, addiction, social anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). We conclude by describing several translational possibilities for clinical studies of vmPFC-based circuits, including neuropsychological assessment of transdiagnostic functions, anatomical targets for intervention, predictors of treatment response, markers of treatment efficacy, and subtyping within disorders. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Oestrogen α Receptors in Sociosexual Behaviour in Female Rats Housed in a Seminatural Environment.

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    Snoeren, E M S; Antonio-Cabrera, E; Spiteri, T; Musatov, S; Ogawa, S; Pfaff, D W; Ågmo, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of oestrogen receptor (ER)α in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN), the preoptic area (POA), the medial amygdala (MePD) and the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) in sociosexual behaviour in female rats. This was conducted in two sets of experiments, with the VMN and POA investigated in the first set, and the MePD and BNST in the second set. The VMN and POA received intense projections from the MePD and BNST. We used a short hairpin RNA encoded within an adeno-associated viral vector directed against the gene for ERα to reduce the number of ERα in the VMN or POA (first set of experiments) or in the BNST or MePD (second set of experiments) in female rats. The rats were housed in groups of four ovariectomised females and three males in a seminatural environment for 8 days. Compared with traditional test set-ups, the seminatural environment provides an arena in which the rats can express their full behavioural repertoire, which allowed us to investigate multiple aspects of social and sexual behaviour in groups of rats. Behavioural observation was performed after oestrogen and progesterone injections. A reduction of ERα expression in the VMN or POA diminished the display of paracopulatory behaviours and lordosis responses compared to controls, whereas the lordosis quotient remained unaffected. This suggests that ERα in the VMN and POA play an important role in intrinsic sexual motivation. The reduction in ERα did not affect the social behaviour of the females, although the males sniffed and pursued the females with reduced ERα less than the controls. This suggests that the ERα in the VMN and POA is involved in the regulation of sexual attractiveness of females. The ERα in the MePD and BNST, on the other hand, plays no role in sociosexual behaviour. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  3. Social status and sex effects on neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis.

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    Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

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    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Neuropeptide Y attenuates anxiety- and depression-like effects of cholecystokinin-4 in mice.

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    Desai, S J; Borkar, C D; Nakhate, K T; Subhedar, N K; Kokare, D M

    2014-09-26

    We investigated the involvement of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the modulation of cholecystokinin-4 (CCK-4)-evoked anxiety and depression. Adult male mice were injected with vehicle, CCK-4, NPY, NPY Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY or antagonist BIBP3226, via intracerebroventricular route, and subjected to social interaction or forced swim test (FST) for the evaluation of anxiety- and depression-like phenotypes, respectively. To assess the interactions between the two systems, if any, NPYergic agents were administered prior to CCK-4 and the animals were subjected to these behavioral tests. Treatment with CCK-4 or BIBP3226 dose-dependently reduced social interaction time, while NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY produced opposite effect. CCK-4 treatment increased immobility time in FST. This effect was reversed by NPY and [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, although BIBP3226 per se did not alter the immobility time. In a combination study, the anxiogenic or depressive effects of CCK-4 were attenuated by NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY and potentiated by BIBP3226. The brains of CCK-4 treated rats were processed for NPY immunohistochemistry. Following CCK-4 treatment, the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), ventral part of lateral division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTLV), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus showed a reduction in NPY-immunoreactive fibers. Population of NPY-immunopositive cells was also decreased in the AcbSh, BSTLV, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). However, NPY-immunoreaction in the fibers of the ARC and cells of the central nucleus of amygdala was unchanged. We conclude that, inhibition of NPY signaling in the brain by CCK-4 might be causal to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

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    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  7. Impaired white matter connections of the limbic system networks associated with impaired emotional memory in Alzheimer's disease

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    Xiaoshu Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients. In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM.Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM of the limbic system networks. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients, 20 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls participated in emotional picture recognition tests and MRI scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM methods were used to determine white and gray matter changes of patients. Fourteen regions of interest (ROI of WM and 20 ROIs of GM were then selected for the correlation analyses with behavioral scores. Results: The EEM effect was lost in AD patients. Both white and gray matter of the limbic system networks were impaired in AD patients. Significant correlations or tendencies between the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and body, left cingulum bundle, left parahippocampal WM and the recognition sensitivity of emotional valence pictures, and significant correlations or tendencies between the splenium of corpus callosum, left cingulum bundle, left crus of fornix and stria terminalis and the recognition sensitivity of EEM were found. The volume of left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial frontal lobe, anterior and middle cingulum gyrus were positively correlated with the recognition sensitivity of emotional photos, and the right precuneus was positively correlated with the negative EEM effect. However, the affected brain areas of aMCI patients were more localized, and aMCI patients benefited only from positive stimuli. Conclusion: There are impairments of the limbic system networks of AD patients. Damaged WM

  8. Effects of VRK2 (rs2312147 on white matter connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Hoyoung Sohn

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia reported a novel risk variant, rs2312147 at vaccinia-related kinase 2 gene (VRK2, in multiple Asian and European samples. However, its effect on the brain structure in schizophrenia is little known. We analyzed the brain structure of 36 schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy subjects with regard to rs2312147 genotype groups. Brain magnetic resonance scans for gray matter (GM and white matter (WM analysis, and genotype analysis for VRK2 rs2312147, were conducted. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Digit Symbol Test were assessed for schizophrenia patients. There was no significant difference in either GM volume or WM connectivity with regard to rs2312147 genotype in healthy subjects. In contrast, we found significant differences in the WM connectivity between rs2312147 CC and CT/TT genotype groups of schizophrenia patients. The related brain areas included the splenium of corpus callosum, the left occipital lobe WM, the internal capsule (left anterior limb and right retrolenticular part, the bilateral temporal lobe WM, the left fornix/stria terminalis, the left cingulate gyrus WM, and the left parietal lobe WM. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the Digit Symbol Test scores (age corrected correlated with the fractional anisotropy in WM tracts that previously showed significant group differences between the CT/TT and CC genotypes in the rs2312147 CT/TT genotype group, while no significant correlation was found in the CC genotype group. Our data may provide evidence for the effect of VRK2 on WM connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Acute and chronic effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment on fear conditioning: implications for underlying fear circuits.

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    Burghardt, N S; Bauer, E P

    2013-09-05

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used for the treatment of a spectrum of anxiety disorders, yet paradoxically they may increase symptoms of anxiety when treatment is first initiated. Despite extensive research over the past 30 years focused on SSRI treatment, the precise mechanisms by which SSRIs exert these opposing acute and chronic effects on anxiety remain unknown. By testing the behavioral effects of SSRI treatment on Pavlovian fear conditioning, a well characterized model of emotional learning, we have the opportunity to identify how SSRIs affect the functioning of specific brain regions, including the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and hippocampus. In this review, we first define different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. We examine the results of numerous rodent studies investigating how acute SSRI treatment modulates fear learning and relate these effects to the known functions of serotonin in specific brain regions. With these findings, we propose a model by which acute SSRI administration, by altering neural activity in the extended amygdala and hippocampus, enhances both acquisition and expression of cued fear conditioning, but impairs the expression of contextual fear conditioning. Finally, we review the literature examining the effects of chronic SSRI treatment on fear conditioning in rodents and describe how downregulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus may mediate the impairments in fear learning and memory that are reported. While long-term SSRI treatment effectively reduces symptoms of anxiety, their disruptive effects on fear learning should be kept in mind when combining chronic SSRI treatment and learning-based therapies, such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

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    Lorey K. Takahashi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS and accessory olfactory systems (AOS detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress hormone secretion. The medial amygdala also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus appear prominently involve in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala, medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator odors activate

  11. Subdivisions of the turtle Pseudemys scripta subpallium based on the expression of regulatory genes and neuronal markers.

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    Moreno, Nerea; Morona, Ruth; López, Jesús M; González, Agustín

    2010-12-15

    The patterns of distribution of a set of conserved brain developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the subpallium of the juvenile turtle, Pseudemys scripta. Immunohistochemical techniques were used with a combination of primary antibodies for the identification of the main boundaries and subdivisions in the basal telencephalon. In the basal ganglia, the combinatorial expression on Pax6, Nkx2.1, and GABA was a powerful tool for the identification of the nucleus accumbens, the dorsal portion of the striatum, and the pallidal regions. It was also possible to suggest migratory streams of neurons from the pallidum into the striatal regions. On the basis of GABA, Pax6, Tbr1, tyrosine hydroxylase, Darpp32, and Nkx2.1 combinatorial expression patterns, the boundaries of the septal subdivisions and their embryological origin were assessed. In particular, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis was identified. Within the amygdaloid complex, the striatal central amygdala was characterized by Pax6 expression, whereas Orthopedia gene expression highlighted, at least, a subdivision of the medial amygdala. A newly identified preoptic commissural area and the boundaries of the preoptic area were assessed, mainly by the localization of Nkx2.1 expression. Finally, additional data were obtained by combining immunohistochemistry and tracing techniques on the interneuronal nature of the cholinerginergic, nitrergic, and Nkx2.1-positive striatal cells. Taken together, all the results of the present study allowed recognizing main features in the organization of the subpallium in reptiles that, in most cases, are shared with other amniotes and amphibians. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders

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    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca2+) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

  13. Glucocorticoids regulation of FosB/ΔFosB expression induced by chronic opiate exposure in the brain stress system.

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    Daniel García-Pérez

    Full Text Available Chronic use of drugs of abuse profoundly alters stress-responsive system. Repeated exposure to morphine leads to accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, particularly in brain areas associated with reward and stress. The persistent effects of ΔFosB on target genes may play an important role in the plasticity induced by drugs of abuse. Recent evidence suggests that stress-related hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids, GC may induce adaptations in the brain stress system that is likely to involve alteration in gene expression and transcription factors. This study examined the role of GC in regulation of FosB/ΔFosB in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain stress systems during morphine dependence. For that, expression of FosB/ΔFosB was measured in control (sham-operated and adrenalectomized (ADX rats that were made opiate dependent after ten days of morphine treatment. In sham-operated rats, FosB/ΔFosB was induced after chronic morphine administration in all the brain stress areas investigated: nucleus accumbens(shell (NAc, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST, central amygdala (CeA, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN and nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A(2. Adrenalectomy attenuated the increased production of FosB/ΔFosB observed after chronic morphine exposure in NAc, CeA, and NTS. Furthermore, ADX decreased expression of FosB/ΔFosB within CRH-positive neurons of the BNST, PVN and CeA. Similar results were obtained in NTS-A(2 TH-positive neurons and NAc pro-dynorphin-positive neurons. These data suggest that neuroadaptation (estimated as accumulation of FosB/ΔFosB to opiates in brain areas associated with stress is modulated by GC, supporting the evidence of a link between brain stress hormones and addiction.

  14. Trait-like brain activity during adolescence predicts anxious temperament in primates.

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    Andrew S Fox

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Early theorists (Freud and Darwin speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition (BI (inhibited motor behavior and decreased vocalizations and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it appears at a young age, it is a stable characteristic of individuals, and even in non-threatening environments it is associated with increased psychic anxiety and somatic tension. To understand the neural underpinnings of anxious temperament, we performed imaging studies with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG high-resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET in young rhesus monkeys. Rhesus monkeys were used because they provide a well validated model of anxious temperament for studies that cannot be performed in human children. Imaging the same animal in stressful and secure contexts, we examined the relation between regional metabolic brain activity and a trait-like measure of anxious temperament that encompasses measures of BI and pituitary-adrenal reactivity. Regardless of context, results demonstrated a trait-like pattern of brain activity (amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, hippocampus, and periaqueductal gray that is predictive of individual phenotypic differences. Importantly, individuals with extreme anxious temperament also displayed increased activity of this circuit when assessed in the security of their home environment. These findings suggest that increased activity of this circuit early in life mediates the childhood temperamental risk to develop anxiety and

  15. Why may allopregnanolone help alleviate loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, S; Cacioppo, J T

    2015-12-01

    Impaired biosynthesis of Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a brain endogenous neurosteroid, has been associated with numerous behavioral dysfunctions, which range from anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors to aggressive behavior and changes in responses to contextual fear conditioning in rodent models of emotional dysfunction. Recent animal research also demonstrates a critical role of ALLO in social isolation. Although there are likely aspects of perceived social isolation that are uniquely human, there is also continuity across species. Both human and animal research show that perceived social isolation (which can be defined behaviorally in animals and humans) has detrimental effects on physical health, such as increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and increased depressive behavior. The similarities between animal and human research suggest that perceived social isolation (loneliness) may also be associated with a reduction in the synthesis of ALLO, potentially by reducing BDNF regulation and increasing HPA activity through the hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), especially during social threat processing. Accordingly, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursor, such as pregnenolone), in humans may help alleviate loneliness. Congruent with our hypothesis, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursors) in humans has been shown to improve various stress-related disorders that show similarities between animals and humans i.e., post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic brain injuries. Because a growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of ALLO in socially isolated animals, we believe our ALLO hypothesis can be applied to loneliness in humans, as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging in male premutation carriers of the fragile X mental retardation gene.

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    Hashimoto, Ryu-ichiro; Srivastava, Siddharth; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Rivera, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Older male premutation carriers of the FMR1 gene are associated with the risk of developing a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Although previous postmortem and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies have indicated white matter pathology, the regional selectivity of abnormalities, as well as their relationship with molecular variables of the FMR1 gene, has not been investigated. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to study male premutation carriers with and without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and healthy sex-matched controls. We performed a tract of interest analysis for fractional anisotropy and axial and radial diffusivities of major white matter tracts in the cerebellar-brain stem and limbic systems. Compared with healthy controls, patients with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome showed significant reductions of fractional anisotropy in multiple white matter tracts, including the middle cerebellar peduncle, superior cerebellar peduncle, cerebral peduncle, and the fornix and stria terminalis. Significant reduction of fractional anisotropy in these tracts was confirmed by voxel-wise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics. Analysis of axial and radial diffusivities showed significant elevation of these measures in middle cerebellar peduncle, even among premutation carriers without fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Furthermore, regression analyses demonstrated a clear inverted U-shaped relationship between CGG-repeat size and axial and radial diffusivities in middle cerebellar peduncle. These results provide new evidence from diffusion tensor imaging for white matter abnormalities in the cerebellar-brain stem and limbic systems among individuals with the fragile X premutation and suggest the involvement of molecular mechanisms related to the FMR1 gene in their white matter pathology. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Characterization of aromatase expression in the adult male and female mouse brain. I. Coexistence with oestrogen receptors α and β, and androgen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Davor; Dubois, Sydney; Chua, Hui Kheng; Tonge, Bruce; Rinehart, Nicole; Horne, Malcolm K; Boon, Wah Chin

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the last step of oestrogen synthesis. There is growing evidence that local oestrogens influence many brain regions to modulate brain development and behaviour. We examined, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of aromatase in the adult male and female mouse brain, using mice in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) is transcribed following the physiological activation of the Cyp19A1 gene. EGFP-immunoreactive processes were distributed in many brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, olfactory tubercle, medial amygdaloid nucleus and medial preoptic area, with the densest distributions of EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. Differences between male and female mice were apparent, with the density of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres being lower in some brain regions of female mice, including the bed nucleus and medial amygdala. EGFP-positive cell bodies in the bed nucleus, lateral septum, medial amygdala and hypothalamus co-expressed oestrogen receptor (ER) α and β, or the androgen receptor (AR), although single-labelled EGFP-positive cells were also identified. Additionally, single-labelled ERα-, ERβ- or AR-positive cell bodies often appeared to be surrounded by EGFP-immunoreactive nerve fibres/terminals. The widespread distribution of EGFP-positive cell bodies and fibres suggests that aromatase signalling is common in the mouse brain, and that locally synthesised brain oestrogens could mediate biological effects by activating pre- and post-synaptic oestrogen α and β receptors, and androgen receptors. The higher number of EGFP-positive cells in male mice may indicate that the autocrine and paracrine effects of oestrogens are more prominent in males than females.

  18. Quantitative analysis of long-form aromatase mRNA in the male and female rat brain.

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    Tabatadze, Nino; Sato, Satoru M; Woolley, Catherine S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies show that estrogens acutely modulate synaptic function in both sexes. These acute effects may be mediated in vivo by estrogens synthesized within the brain, which could fluctuate more rapidly than circulating estrogens. For this to be the case, brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens should be capable of synthesizing them. To investigate this question, we used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of mRNA for the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase, in different brain regions of male and female rats. Importantly, because brain aromatase exists in two forms, a long form with aromatase activity and a short form with unknown function, we targeted a sequence found exclusively in long-form aromatase. With this approach, we found highest expression of aromatase mRNA in the amygdala followed closely by the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and preoptic area (POA); we found moderate levels of aromatase mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex; and aromatase mRNA was detectable in brainstem and cerebellum, but levels were very low. In the amygdala, gonadal/hormonal status regulated aromatase expression in both sexes; in the BNST and POA, castration of males down-regulated aromatase, whereas there was no effect of estradiol in ovariectomized females. In the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex, there were no differences in aromatase levels between males and females or effects of gonadal/hormonal status. These findings demonstrate that long-form aromatase is expressed in brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens, such as the dorsal hippocampus, and that gonadal/hormonal regulation of aromatase differs among different brain regions.

  19. Epigenetics and sex differences in the brain: A genome-wide comparison of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in male and female mice.

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    Shen, Erica Y; Ahern, Todd H; Cheung, Iris; Straubhaar, Juerg; Dincer, Aslihan; Houston, Isaac; de Vries, Geert J; Akbarian, Schahram; Forger, Nancy G

    2015-06-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders exhibit gender disparities, and sex differences in the brain likely explain some of these effects. Recent work in rodents points to a role for epigenetics in the development or maintenance of neural sex differences, although genome-wide studies have so far been lacking. Here we review the existing literature on epigenetics and brain sexual differentiation and present preliminary analyses on the genome-wide distribution of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation in a sexually dimorphic brain region in male and female mice. H3K4me3 is a histone mark primarily organized as 'peaks' surrounding the transcription start site of active genes. We microdissected the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area (BNST/POA) in adult male and female mice and used ChIP-Seq to compare the distribution of H3K4me3 throughout the genome. We found 248 genes and loci with a significant sex difference in H3K4me3. Of these, the majority (71%) had larger H3K4me3 peaks in females. Comparisons with existing databases indicate that genes and loci with increased H3K4me3 in females are associated with synaptic function and with expression atlases from related brain areas. Based on RT-PCR, only a minority of genes with a sex difference in H3K4me3 has detectable sex differences in expression at baseline conditions. Together with previous findings, our data suggest that there may be sex biases in the use of epigenetic marks. Such biases could underlie sex differences in vulnerabilities to drugs or diseases that disrupt specific epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Binge Alcohol Drinking Elicits Persistent Negative Affect in Mice

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    Lee, Kaziya M.; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A.; Waltermire, Ryan S.; Szumlinski, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-Dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal. PMID:26048424

  1. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

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    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  2. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear.

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    Takahashi, Lorey K

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator odor fear. For instance, the main (MOS) and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) detect predator odors and different types of predator odors are sensed by specific receptors located in either the MOS or AOS. However, complex predator chemosignals may be processed by both the MOS and AOS, which complicate our understanding of the specific neural circuits connected directly and indirectly from the MOS and AOS to activate the physiological and behavioral components of unconditioned and conditioned fear. Studies indicate that brain structures including the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and the medial amygdala (MeA) appear to be broadly involved in predator odor induced autonomic activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress hormone secretion. The MeA also plays a key role in predator odor unconditioned fear behavior and retrieval of contextual fear memory associated with prior predator odor experiences. Other neural structures including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventral hippocampus (VHC) appear prominently involved in predator odor fear behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA), medial hypothalamic nuclei, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are also activated by some but not all predator odors. Future research that characterizes how distinct predator odors are uniquely processed in olfactory systems and neural circuits will provide significant insights into the differences of how diverse predator

  3. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST

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    Pleil, Kristen E.; Helms, Christa M.; Sobus, Jon R.; Daunais, James B.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) may be key sites for these effects. Here, we measured circulating levels of several steroid hormones and performed whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from acutely-prepared BNST slices of male rhesus monkeys allowed to self-administer alcohol for 12 months or a control solution. Initial comparisons revealed that BNST neurons in alcohol-drinking monkeys had decreased membrane resistance, increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) with no change in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). We then used a combined variable cluster analysis and linear mixed model statistical approach to determine whether specific factors including stress and sex hormones, age, and measures of alcohol consumption and intoxication are related to these BNST measures. Modeling results showed that specific measures of alcohol consumption and stress-related hormone levels predicted differences in membrane conductance in BNST neurons. Distinct groups of adrenal stress hormones were negatively associated with the frequency of sIPSCs and sEPSCs, and alcohol drinking measures and basal neuronal membrane properties were additional positive predictors of inhibitory, but not excitatory, PSCs. The amplitude of sEPSCs was highly positively correlated with age, independent of other variables. Together, these results suggest that chronic voluntary alcohol consumption strongly influences limbic function in non-human primates, potentially via interactions with or modulation by other physiological variables, including stress steroid hormones and age. PMID:26223349

  4. Sex differences in circuits activated by corticotropin releasing factor in rats.

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    Salvatore, Madeleine; Wiersielis, Kimberly R; Luz, Sandra; Waxler, David E; Bhatnagar, Seema; Bangasser, Debra A

    2018-01-01

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from psychiatric disorders characterized by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) hypersecretion, suggesting sex differences in CRF sensitivity. In rodents, sex differences in the sensitivity of specific brain regions to CRF have been identified. However, regions do not work in isolation, but rather form circuits to coordinate distinct responses to stressful events. Here we examined whether CRF activates different circuits in male and female rats. Following central administration of CRF or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), neuronal activation in stress-related areas was assessed using cFOS. Functional connectivity was gauged by correlating the number of cFOS-positive cells between regions and then identifying differences within each sex in correlations for aCSF-treated and CRF-treated groups. This analysis revealed that CRF altered different circuits in males and females. As an example, CRF altered correlations involving the dorsal raphe in males and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in females, suggesting sex differences in stress-activated circuits controlling mood and anxiety. Next, plasma estradiol and progesterone levels were correlated with cFOS counts in females. Negative correlations between estradiol and neuronal activation in the regions within the extended amygdala were found in CRF-treated, but not aCSF-treated females. This result suggests that estrogens and CRF together modulate the fear and anxiety responses mediated by these regions. Collectively, these studies reveal sex differences in the way brain regions work together in response to CRF. These differences could drive different stress coping strategies in males and females, perhaps contributing to sex biases in psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The dynamics of stress: a longitudinal MRI study of rat brain structure and connectome.

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    Magalhães, R; Barrière, D A; Novais, A; Marques, F; Marques, P; Cerqueira, J; Sousa, J C; Cachia, A; Boumezbeur, F; Bottlaender, M; Jay, T M; Mériaux, S; Sousa, N

    2017-12-05

    Stress is a well-established trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, as it alters both structure and function of several brain regions and its networks. Herein, we conduct a longitudinal neuroimaging study to assess how a chronic unpredictable stress protocol impacts the structure of the rat brain and its functional connectome in both high and low responders to stress. Our results reveal the changes that stress triggers in the brain, with structural atrophy affecting key regions such as the prelimbic, cingulate, insular and retrosplenial, somatosensory, motor, auditory and perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens, the septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the thalamus and several brain stem nuclei. These structural changes are associated with increasing functional connectivity within a network composed by these regions. Moreover, using a clustering based on endocrine and behavioural outcomes, animals were classified as high and low responders to stress. We reveal that susceptible animals (high responders) develop local atrophy of the ventral tegmental area and an increase in functional connectivity between this area and the thalamus, further spreading to other areas that link the cognitive system with the fight-or-flight system. Through a longitudinal approach we were able to establish two distinct patterns, with functional changes occurring during the exposure to stress, but with an inflection point after the first week of stress when more prominent changes were seen. Finally, our study revealed differences in functional connectivity in a brainstem-limbic network that distinguishes resistant and susceptible responders before any exposure to stress, providing the first potential imaging-based predictive biomarkers of an individual's resilience/vulnerability to stressful conditions.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 5 December 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.244.

  6. Distribution and densitometry mapping of L1-CAM Immunoreactivity in the adult mouse brain – light microscopic observation

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    Yamasaki Hironobu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of L1 expression in the matured brain is suggested by physiological and behavioral studies showing that L1 is related to hippocampal plasticity and fear conditioning. The distribution of L1 in mouse brain might provide a basis for understanding its role in the brain. Results We examined the overall distribution of L1 in the adult mouse brain by immunohistochemistry using two polyclonal antibodies against different epitopes for L1. Immunoreactive L1 was widely but unevenly distributed from the olfactory bulb to the upper cervical cord. The accumulation of immunoreactive L1 was greatest in a non-neuronal element of the major fibre bundles, i.e. the lateral olfactory tract, olfactory and temporal limb of the anterior commissure, corpus callosum, stria terminalis, globus pallidus, fornix, mammillothalamic tract, solitary tract, and spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. High to highest levels of non-neuronal and neuronal L1 were found in the grey matter; i.e. the piriform and entorhinal cortices, hypothalamus, reticular part of the substantia nigra, periaqueductal grey, trigeminal spinal nucleus etc. High to moderate density of neuronal L1 was found in the olfactory bulb, layer V of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, pontine grey, superior colliculi, cerebellar cortex, solitary tract nucleus etc. Only low to lowest levels of neuronal L1 were found in the hippocampus, grey matter in the caudate-putamen, thalamus, cerebellar nuclei etc. Conclusion L1 is widely and unevenly distributed in the matured mouse brain, where immunoreactivity was present not only in neuronal elements; axons, synapses and cell soma, but also in non-neuronal elements.

  7. The role of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in nonimage-forming responses to light

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    Warthen DM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel M Warthen,1,2 Ignacio Provencio11Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USAAbstract: Light exerts many effects on behavior and physiology. These effects can be characterized as either image-forming or nonimage-forming (NIF visual processes. Image-forming vision refers to the process of detecting objects and organisms in the environment and distinguishing their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and direction of motion. NIF vision, in contrast, refers to effects of light that are independent of fine spatiotemporal vision. NIF effects are many and varied, ranging from modulation of basal physiology, such as heart rate and body temperature, to changes in higher functions, such as mood and cognitive performance. In mammals, many NIF effects of light are dependent upon the inner retinal photopigment melanopsin and the cells in which melanopsin is expressed, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs. The ipRGCs project broadly throughout the brain. Many of these projections terminate in areas known to mediate NIF effects, while others terminate in regions whose link to photoreception remains to be established. Additionally, the presence of ipRGC projections to areas of the brain with no known link to photoreception suggests the existence of additional ipRGC-mediated NIF effects. This review summarizes the known NIF effects of light and the role of melanopsin and ipRGCs in driving these effects, with an eye toward stimulating further investigation of the many and varied effects of light on physiology and behavior.Keywords: amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, melanopsin, opsin, optic nerve, retina

  8. Differential effects of cocaine on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in nuclei of the extended amygdala and prefrontal cortex of psychogenetically selected Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

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    Giorgi, Osvaldo; Corda, Maria G; Sabariego, Marta; Giugliano, Valentina; Piludu, Maria A; Rosas, Michela; Acquas, Elio

    2015-05-01

    Roman high (RHA)- and low (RLA)-avoidance rats are selectively bred for rapid vs. poor acquisition of active avoidance, respectively, and differ markedly in emotional reactivity, coping style, and behavioral and neurochemical responses to morphine and psychostimulants. Accordingly, acute cocaine induces more robust increments in locomotion and dopamine output in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) of RHA than of RLA rats. Cocaine induces short- and long-term neuronal plasticity via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. This study compares the effects of acute cocaine on ERK phosphorylation (pERK) in limbic brain areas of Roman rats. In RHA but not RLA rats, cocaine (5 mg/kg) increased pERK in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex and AcbSh, two areas involved in its acute effects, but did not modify pERK in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and Acb core, which mediate the chronic effects of cocaine. Moreover, cocaine failed to affect pERK immunolabeling in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis pars lateralis and central amygdala of either line but increased it in the basolateral amygdala of RLA rats. These results extend to pERK expression previous findings on the greater sensitivity to acute cocaine of RHA vs. RLA rats and confirm the notion that genetic factors influence the differential responses of the Roman lines to addictive drugs. Moreover, they support the view that the Roman lines are a useful tool to investigate the molecular underpinnings of individual vulnerability to drug addiction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Caloric restriction increases the sensitivity to the hyperphagic effect of nociceptin/orphanin FQ limiting its ability to reduce binge eating in female rats.

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    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Ubaldi, Massimo; Liberati, Sonia; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Massi, Maurizio; Cifani, Carlo

    2013-07-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a functional antagonist of corticotrophin-releasing factor, the main mediator of the stress response. Stress represents a key determinant of binge eating (BE) for highly palatable food (HPF). In relation to the antistress properties of N/OFQ, we evaluated its effect on BE. After the observation that episodes of food restriction increase the sensitivity to its hyperphagic effects, the function of NOP receptor and N/OFQ was investigated after cycles of food restrictions. In BE experiments, four groups were used: rats fed normally and not stressed or stressed, rats exposed to cycles of restriction/refeeding and then stressed, or not stressed. In the other experiments, two groups were used: rats exposed or not to food restriction. Only restricted and stressed rats exhibited BE for HPF (containing chocolate cream). Intracerebroventricular injections of N/OFQ of 0.5 nmol/rat significantly reduced BE. N/OFQ 1 nmol/rat did not reduce BE but significantly increased HPF intake following food restrictions. Cycles of food restriction increased animals' sensitivity to the hyperphagic effect of N/OFQ for HPF. In situ hybridization studies following food restrictions showed decreased ppN/OFQ mRNA expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and increased expression of ppN/OFQ and NOP receptor mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the ventromedial hypothalamus, respectively. These findings indicate that N/OFQ slightly reduces BE at low doses, while higher doses increase HPF intake, due to increased sensitivity to its hyperphagic effect following a history of caloric restrictions.

  10. Differential visualization of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain using [3H]mazindol autoradiography.

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    Javitch, J A; Strittmatter, S M; Snyder, S H

    1985-06-01

    Mazindol is a potent inhibitor of neuronal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) uptake. DA and NE uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using [3H]mazindol autoradiography. At appropriate concentrations, desipramine (DMI) selectively inhibits [3H]mazindol binding to NE uptake sites without significantly affecting binding to DA uptake sites. The localization of DMI-insensitive specific [3H] mazindol binding, reflecting DA uptake sites, is densest in the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle, the subthalamic nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, and the anterior olfactory nuclei. In contrast, the localization of DMI-sensitive specific [3H]mazindol binding, representing NE uptake sites, is densest in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the anteroventral thalamus. The distribution of DMI-insensitive specific [3H]mazindol binding closely parallels that of dopaminergic terminal and somatodendritic regions, while the distribution of DMI-sensitive specific [3H]mazindol binding correlates well with the regional localization of noradrenergic terminals and cell bodies. Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, ibotenic acid, or colchicine into the SN decreases [3H]mazindol binding to DA uptake sites in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 85%. In contrast, ibotenic acid lesions of the caudate-putamen do not reduce [3H]mazindol binding to either the ipsilateral or contralateral caudate-putamen. Thus, the DA uptake sites in the caudate-putamen are located on the presynaptic terminals of dopaminergic axons originating from the SN.

  11. Differential visualization of dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)mazindol autoradiography

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    Javitch, J.A.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1985-06-01

    Mazindol is a potent inhibitor of neuronal dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) uptake. DA and NE uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using (/sup 3/H)mazindol autoradiography. At appropriate concentrations, desipramine (DMI) selectively inhibits (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to NE uptake sites without significantly affecting binding to DA uptake sites. The localization of DMI-insensitive specific (/sup 3/H) mazindol binding, reflecting DA uptake sites, is densest in the caudate-putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the olfactory tubercle, the subthalamic nucleus, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, and the anterior olfactory nuclei. In contrast, the localization of DMI-sensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding, representing NE uptake sites, is densest in the locus coeruleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and the anteroventral thalamus. The distribution of DMI-insensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding closely parallels that of dopaminergic terminal and somatodendritic regions, while the distribution of DMI-sensitive specific (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding correlates well with the regional localization of noradrenergic terminals and cell bodies. Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, ibotenic acid, or colchicine into the SN decreases (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to DA uptake sites in the ipsilateral caudate-putamen by 85%. In contrast, ibotenic acid lesions of the caudate-putamen do not reduce (/sup 3/H)mazindol binding to either the ipsilateral or contralateral caudate-putamen.

  12. Increased potency and binding of mazindol to putative brain anorectic receptors in obesity-prone rats.

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    Levin, B E; Brown, K L; Vincent, G

    1994-12-30

    A class of sodium-sensitive, low affinity binding sites in the brain recognizes [3H]mazindol (MAZ). Competition for [3H]MAZ binding at these sites correlates with the anorectic potency of various phenethylamine drugs suggesting that these might be anorectic binding sites. Here [3H]MAZ binding, in the absence of sodium, was assessed by quantitative receptor autoradiography in rat brain. Binding was saturable, widespread and heterogenous with Kd = 3-229 microM and Bmax = 0.64-21.9 nmol/mg protein in various brain areas. By saturation studies, highest binding was in the somatosensory cortex, central amygdalar nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Hypothalamic subnuclei had intermediate and the piriform cortex had low binding. Rats were identified as prone to develop (DIO-prone) or resist (DR-prone) diet-induced obesity by their low vs. high 24 h urine norepinephrine excretion, respectively. While similar in body weight and basal 30 min intake of 4% sucrose, DIO-prone rats had 28% greater inhibition of sucrose intake by 3 mg/kg MAZ, i.p. (86 +/- 5%) than DR-prone rats (67 +/- 6%; P = 0.05). DIO-prone rats also had 23-55% higher levels of 10 nM [3H]MAZ binding in various hypothalamic and amygdalar nuclei, the somatosensory, piriform and gustatory cortices and thalamus. Given their greater sensitivity the highest dose of MAZ used and their higher binding of MAZ to putative brain anorectic receptors, DIO-prone rats might have a deficiency of an endogenous satiety factor which could predispose them to develop obesity when challenged with high energy, high sucrose diets.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal activation in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus depends on ambient temperature.

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    Samuel P Wanner

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with either fever or hypothermia, but the mechanisms responsible for switching from one to the other are unknown. In experimental animals, systemic inflammation is often induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To identify the diencephalic and brainstem structures involved in the fever-hypothermia switch, we studied the expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, in rats treated with the same high dose of LPS (0.5 mg/kg, intravenously either in a thermoneutral (30 °C or cool (24 °C environment. At 30 °C, LPS caused fever; at 24 °C, the same dose caused profound hypothermia. Both fever and hypothermia were associated with the induction of c-Fos in many brain areas, including several structures of the anterior preoptic, paraventricular, lateral, and dorsal hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the posterior pretectal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, area postrema, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Every brain area studied showed a comparable response to LPS at the two different ambient temperatures used, with the exception of two areas: the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH, which we studied together with the adjacent dorsal hypothalamic area (DA, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH. Both structures had much stronger c-Fos expression during LPS hypothermia than during fever. We propose that PVH and DMH/DA neurons are involved in a circuit, which - depending on the ambient temperature - determines whether the thermoregulatory response to bacterial LPS will be fever or hypothermia.

  14. Chemical anatomy of the human ventral striatum and adjacent basal forebrain structures.

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    Prensa, Lucía; Richard, Sandra; Parent, André

    2003-06-02

    Calbindin D-28k (CB), calretinin (CR), substance P (SP), limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were used as chemical markers to investigate the organization of the ventral striatum (VST) and adjacent structures in healthy human individuals. No clear boundary could be established between the dorsal striatum and the VST, and the core/shell subdivisions of nucleus accumbens (Acb) could be distinguished only at the midrostrocaudal level of the VST. The CB-poor shell displayed intense immunostaining for SP and CR but only weak staining for LAMP. By contrast, the core was weakly stained for SP and CR and moderately stained for LAMP and CB. There was no difference between shell and core with regard to the cholinergic markers. The Acb harbored numerous ChAT- and CR-immunoreactive cell bodies, the latter being distributed according to a marked, mediolaterally increasing gradient. The size of the ChAT- and CR-immunoreactive perikarya in the Acb varied according to their location in the core and shell. The VST was surrounded by a chemically heterogeneous group of cell clusters referred to as interface islands. The CR-rich caudal portion of the VST merged with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis dorsally and the diagonal band of Broca ventromedially, the latter two structures displaying complex immunostaining patterns. The claustrum was markedly enriched in LAMP and harbored different types of CR- and CB-immunopositive neurons. These results demonstrate that the neurochemical organization of the human VST is strikingly complex and exhibits a greater heterogeneity than the dorsal striatum. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Oxytocin-Oxytocin Receptor Systems Facilitate Social Defeat Posture in Male Mice.

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    Nasanbuyan, Naranbat; Yoshida, Masahide; Takayanagi, Yuki; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2018-02-01

    Social stress has deteriorating effects on various psychiatric diseases. In animal models, exposure to socially dominant conspecifics (i.e., social defeat stress) evokes a species-specific defeat posture via unknown mechanisms. Oxytocin neurons have been shown to be activated by stressful stimuli and to have prosocial and anxiolytic actions. The roles of oxytocin during social defeat stress remain unclear. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in oxytocin neurons and in oxytocin receptor‒expressing neurons was investigated in mice. The projection of oxytocin neurons was examined with an anterograde viral tracer, which induces selective expression of membrane-targeted palmitoylated green fluorescent protein in oxytocin neurons. Defensive behaviors during double exposure to social defeat stress in oxytocin receptor‒deficient mice were analyzed. After social defeat stress, expression of c-Fos protein was increased in oxytocin neurons of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, supraoptic nucleus, and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Expression of c-Fos protein was also increased in oxytocin receptor‒expressing neurons of brain regions, including the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. Projecting fibers from paraventricular hypothalamic oxytocin neurons were found in the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. Oxytocin receptor‒deficient mice showed reduced defeat posture during the second social defeat stress. These findings suggest that social defeat stress activates oxytocin-oxytocin receptor systems, and the findings are consistent with the view that activation of the oxytocin receptor in brain regions, including the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus and the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, facilitates social defeat posture.

  16. Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) reveals brain circuitry involved in responding to an acute novel stress in rats with a history of repeated social stress.

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    Bangasser, Debra A; Lee, Catherine S; Cook, Philip A; Gee, James C; Bhatnagar, Seema; Valentino, Rita J

    2013-10-02

    Responses to acute stressors are determined in part by stress history. For example, a history of chronic stress results in facilitated responses to a novel stressor and this facilitation is considered to be adaptive. We previously demonstrated that repeated exposure of rats to the resident-intruder model of social stress results in the emergence of two subpopulations that are characterized by different coping responses to stress. The submissive subpopulation failed to show facilitation to a novel stressor and developed a passive strategy in the Porsolt forced swim test. Because a passive stress coping response has been implicated in the propensity to develop certain psychiatric disorders, understanding the unique circuitry engaged by exposure to a novel stressor in these subpopulations would advance our understanding of the etiology of stress-related pathology. An ex vivo functional imaging technique, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), was used to identify and distinguish brain regions that are differentially activated by an acute swim stress (15 min) in rats with a history of social stress compared to controls. Specifically, Mn(2+) was administered intracerebroventricularly prior to swim stress and brains were later imaged ex vivo to reveal activated structures. When compared to controls, all rats with a history of social stress showed greater activation in specific striatal, hippocampal, hypothalamic, and midbrain regions. The submissive subpopulation of rats was further distinguished by significantly greater activation in amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and septum, suggesting that these regions may form a circuit mediating responses to novel stress in individuals that adopt passive coping strategies. The finding that different circuits are engaged by a novel stressor in the two subpopulations of rats exposed to social stress implicates a role for these circuits in determining individual strategies for responding to stressors

  17. Overexpression of CRF in the BNST diminishes dysphoria but not anxiety-like behavior in nicotine withdrawing rats.

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    Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia; Yang, Zhihui; Febo, Marcelo; Shan, Zhiying; Wang, Kevin K W; Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation leads to dysphoria and anxiety, which both increase the risk for relapse. This negative affective state is partly mediated by an increase in activity in brain stress systems. Recent studies indicate that prolonged viral vector-mediated overexpression of stress peptides diminishes stress sensitivity. Here we investigated whether the overexpression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) diminishes nicotine withdrawal symptoms in rats. The effect of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function was investigated with an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Anxiety-like behavior was investigated in the elevated plus maze test and a large open field. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) pseudotype 2/5 vector was used to overexpress CRF in the lateral BNST and nicotine dependence was induced using minipumps. Administration of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine and cessation of nicotine administration led to a dysphoria-like state, which was prevented by the overexpression of CRF in the BNST. Nicotine withdrawal also increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test and large open field test and slightly decreased locomotor activity in the open field. The overexpression of CRF in the BNST did not prevent the increase in anxiety-like behavior or decrease in locomotor activity. The overexpression of CRF increased CRF1 and CRF2 receptor gene expression and increased the CRF2/CRF1 receptor ratio. In conclusion, the overexpression of CRF in the BNST prevents the dysphoria-like state associated with nicotine withdrawal and increases the CRF2/CRF1 receptor ratio, which may diminish the negative effects of CRF on mood. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Differential brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in limbic brain regions following social defeat or territorial aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stacie L; Stanek, Lisa M; Ressler, Kerry J; Huhman, Kim L

    2011-12-01

    Syrian hamsters readily form dominant-subordinate relationships under laboratory conditions. Winning or losing in agonistic encounters can have striking, long-term effects on social behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this experience-induced behavioral plasticity are unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may at least in part mediate this plasticity. Male hamsters were paired for 15-min using a resident-intruder model, and individuals were identified as winners or losers on the basis of their behavior. BDNF was examined with in situ hybridization 2 hr after treatment during the consolidation period of emotional learning. Losing animals had significantly more BDNF mRNA in the basolateral (BLA) and medial (MeA) nuclei of the amygdala when compared with winning animals as well as novel cage and home cage controls. Interestingly, winning animals had significantly more BDNF mRNA in the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus than did losing animals, novel, and home cage controls. No conflict-related changes in BDNF mRNA were observed in several other regions including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdala. Next, we demonstrated that K252a, a Trk receptor antagonist, significantly reduced the acquisition of conditioned defeat when administered within the BLA. These data support a model in which BDNF-mediated plasticity within the BLA supports learning of submission or subordinate social status in losing animals, whereas BDNF-mediated plasticity within the hippocampus may instantiate aspects of winning such as control of a territory in dominant animals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Stress-induced changes in the expression of the clock protein PERIOD1 in the rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus: role of stress type, time of day, and predictability.

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    Sherin Al-Safadi

    Full Text Available Stressful events can disrupt circadian rhythms in mammals but mechanisms underlying this disruption remain largely unknown. One hypothesis is that stress alters circadian protein expression in the forebrain, leading to functional dysregulation of the brain circadian network and consequent disruption of circadian physiological and behavioral rhythms. Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats. We found that acute exposure to processive stressors, restraint and forced swim, elevated PER1 and FOS expression in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and piriform cortex but suppressed PER1 and FOS levels exclusively in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl and oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov. Conversely, systemic stressors, interleukin-1β and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, increased PER1 and FOS levels in all regions studied, including the CEAl and BNSTov. PER1 levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master pacemaker, were unaffected by any of the stress manipulations. The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability. These results demonstrate that the expression of PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, consistent with the hypothesis that PER1 serves as a link between stress and the brain circadian network. Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor. Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene. Our observations point to a novel role for PER1 as a key player in the interface between stress and circadian rhythms.

  20. The organizational effects of oxytocin on the central expression of estrogen receptor α and oxytocin in adulthood

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    Papademetriou Eros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that neonatal manipulation of oxytocin (OT has effects on the expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα and the central production of oxytocin observed in juveniles (at weaning, 21 days of age. The goal of this study was to determine whether the effects of neonatal manipulation of OT last into adulthood, and if the effects differ from those observed during the early postnatal period. On the first day of life, prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster received one of three doses of OT (High, 3 μg; Med, 0.3 μg; Low, 0.03 μg, an OT antagonist, or isotonic saline. Another group was handled, but not injected. Then as adults, brains were collected, sectioned, and stained for ERα or OT using immunocytochemistry. Results In females, treatment with OT increased the expression of ERα immunoreactivity in the ventral lateral septum (0.03 μg and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and central amygdala (0.3 μg. In males, OT antagonist increased ERα expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. There was no apparent effect of OT on the number of cells producing OT in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Conclusion The current results suggest that neonatal manipulation of OT has long-term organizational effects on the expression of ERα in both males and females. The lack of effect on OT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus suggests that some developmental effects of OT previously observed in weanlings do not persist into adulthood. Developmental effects of OT on ERα patterns were sexually dimorphic, dose-dependent, and site-specific.

  1. Are behavioral effects of early experience mediated by oxytocin?

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    Karen Lisa Bales

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Early experiences can alter adaptive emotional responses necessary for social behavior as well as physiological reactivity in the face of challenge. In the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster, manipulations in early life or hormonal treatments specifically targeted at the neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP, have long-lasting, often sexually-dimorphic, consequences for social behavior. Here we examine the hypothesis that behavioral changes associated with differential early experience, in this case handling the family during the first week of life, may be mediated by changes in OT or AVP or their brain receptors. Four early treatment groups were used, differing only in the amount of manipulation received during the first week of life. MAN1 animals were handled once on post-natal day 1; MAN1 treatment produces a pattern of behavior usually considered typical of this species, against which other groups were compared. MAN 1-7 animals were handled once a day for post-natal days 1-7, MAN 7 animals were handled once on post-natal day 7, and MAN0 animals received no handling during the first week of life. When tested following weaning, males in groups that had received manipulation during the first few days of life (MAN1 and MAN1-7 displayed higher alloparenting than other groups. Neuroendocrine measures, including OT receptor binding and OT and AVP immunoreactivity, varied by early treatment. In brain areas including the nucleus accumbens, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and lateral septum, MAN0 females showed increased OT receptor binding. MAN1 animals also displayed higher numbers of immunoreactive OT cell bodies in the supraoptic nucleus. Taken together these findings support the broader hypothesis that experiences in the first few days of life, mediated in part by sexually-dimorphic changes in neuropeptides, especially in the receptor for OT, may have adaptive consequences for sociality and emotion regulation.

  2. Alcohol consumption increases locomotion in an open field and induces Fos-immunoreactivity in reward and approach/withdrawal-related neurocircuitries.

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    Wscieklica, Tatiana; de Barros Viana, Milena; Le Sueur Maluf, Luciana; Pouza, Kathlein Cristiny Peres; Spadari, Regina Célia; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsion to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake and, eventually, the emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented. Both dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated systems seem to play important roles in the modulation of alcohol abuse and dependence. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety and locomotor parameters and on the activation of dopamine and CRF-innervated brain regions. Male Wistar rats were given a choice of two bottles for 31 days, one containing water and the other a solution of saccharin + alcohol. Control animals only received water and a solution of 0.2% saccharin. On the 31st day, animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze and open field, and euthanized immediately after the behavioral tests. An independent group of animals was treated with ethanol and used to measure blood ethanol concentration. Results showed that alcohol intake did not alter behavioral measurements in the plus-maze, but increased the number of crossings in the open field, an index of locomotor activity. Additionally, alcohol intake increased Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the prefrontal cortex, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens, in the medial and central amygdala, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the septal region, and in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, structures that have been linked to reward and to approach/withdrawal behavior. These observations might be relevant to a better understanding of the behavioral and physiological alterations that follow alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conditioned fear inhibits c-fos mRNA expression in the central extended amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Heidi E W; Kryskow, Elisa M; Nyhuis, Tara J; Herlihy, Lauren; Campeau, Serge

    2008-09-10

    We have shown previously that unconditioned stressors inhibit neurons of the lateral/capsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl/c) and oval division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTov), which form part of the central extended amygdala. The current study investigated whether conditioned fear inhibits c-fos mRNA expression in these regions. Male rats were trained either to associate a visual stimulus (light) with footshock or were exposed to the light alone. After training, animals were replaced in the apparatus, and 2 h later injected remotely, via a catheter, with amphetamine (2 mg/kg i.p.), to induce c-fos mRNA and allow inhibition of expression to be measured. The rats were then presented with 15 visual stimuli over a 30 minute period. As expected, fear conditioned animals that were not injected with amphetamine, had extremely low levels of c-fos mRNA in the central extended amygdala. In contrast, animals that were trained with the light alone (no fear conditioning) and were injected with amphetamine had high levels of c-fos mRNA in the CEAl/c and BSTov. Animals that underwent fear conditioning, and were re-exposed to the conditioned stimulus after amphetamine injection had significantly reduced levels of c-fos mRNA in both the BSTov and CEAl/c, compared to the non-conditioned animals. These data suggest that conditioned fear can inhibit neurons of the central extended amygdala. Because these neurons are GABAergic, and project to the medial CEA (an amygdaloid output region), this may be a novel mechanism whereby conditioned fear potentiates amygdaloid output.

  4. Estrogenic suppression of binge-like eating elicited by cyclic food restriction and frustrative-nonreward stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Lutz, Thomas A; Romano, Adele; Pucci, Mariangela; Geary, Nori; Asarian, Lori; Cifani, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Because binge eating and emotional eating vary through the menstrual cycle in human females, we investigated cyclic changes in binge-like eating in female rats and their control by estrogens. Binge-like eating was elicited by three cycles of 4 days of food restriction and 4 days of free feeding followed by a single frustrative nonreward-stress episode (15 min visual and olfactory exposure to a familiar palatable food) immediately before presentation of the palatable food. Intact rats showed binge-like eating during the diestrous and proestrous phases of the ovarian cycle, but not during the estrous (periovulatory) phase. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats not treated with estradiol (E2) displayed binge-like eating, whereas E2-treated OVX rats did not. The procedure did not increase signs of anxiety in an open-field test. OVX rats not treated with E2 that were subjected to food restriction and sacrificed immediately after frustrative nonreward had increased numbers of cells expressing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), and dorsal and ventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST) compared with nonrestricted or E2-treated rats. These data suggest that this female rat model is appropriate for mechanistic studies of some aspects of menstrual-cycle effects on emotional and binge eating in human females, that anxiety is not a sufficient cause of binge-like eating, and that the PVN, CeA, and BNST may contribute to information processing underlying binge-like eating. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Exploring life-experience of the staff and volunteers assisting pediatric patients in end-of-life situations] [Article in Italian] • I vissuti dello staff e dei volontari che assistono pazienti pediatrici terminali

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    Rosapia Lauro Grotto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of guidelines for palliative care in the paediatric settings is judged to be still incomplete and characterized by many controversial issues; in order to explore the life-experience of individual health care professionals, we proposed a semi-structured questionnaire with open questions on end-of-life procedures to the staff members of the Paediatric Onco-hematology Ward of the University of Padua, of the Oncology Ward and in the Home Assistance Module of the Giannetta Gaslini Hospital, Genoa, both in Italy. This paper will focus on the responses provided to the third question: “In your opinion, can inducing the suspension of the state of consciousness be counted among end-of-life procedures? If so, how and when?”. Staff members were found to face challenging interactions at at least three levels: within the professional team, with respect to the parents and with respect to the adolescent patients. Among the most complex issues raised by the participants we found the moral distress sometimes experienced by nurses with respect to the decisions assumed by doctors, as stated by a nurse: “Everything is subjective in those 24 hours  (… and you are to do or not do certain things and it makes you feel distressed”. Second, it emerged that the relationship with the parents becomes very challenging when the two are not in agreement: “The father wants to give the morphine, but the mother secretly closes the drip”. Finally, the relationship of trust with the adolescent patients is under threat when they ‘want to know’ while parents seem to be unable to tolerate this degree of painful but essential self-consciousness in their ‘child’: “He locked me in the room and asked, ‘Am I dying?’, and I wanted to die at that point…”. Our study shows that health care professionals require not just guidelines but a tailor-made training and support which integrate much deeply the therapeutic as well as the moral and philosophical approaches to the issues raised by palliative care in paediatric settings.Articoli Selezionati del Congresso “Medicina Narrativa e Comunicazione nella Pratica Clinica” ·  Cagliari · 14 Aprile 2014 Guest Editors: Massimiliano Zonza, Vassilios Fanos, Gian Paolo Donzelli

  6. Egecto de la Somatropina Recombinante Bovina (rBST) sobre la tasa de concepción en vacas Holstein sincronizadas con dispositivos intravaginales con Progesterona y Benzoato de Estradiol e inseminadas a tiempo fijo

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    Muñoz Espinoza, Rodrigo Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar el efecto de la Somatotropina Recombinante Bovina sobre la morfometría ovárica, el porcentaje de concepción y la tasa de mortalidad embrionaria en vacas Holstein de alta producción sincronizadas con dispositivos intravaginales a base de Progesterona (P4) y Benzoato de Estradiol (BE) e inseminadas artificialmente a tiempo fijo. El estudio se realizó entre Febrero-Agosto del 2012 en la hacienda Chullin, ubicada en el cantón Chambo Chimborazo; se utilizaron 50 vacas ...

  7. The Expression of BTS-2 Enhances Cell Growth and Invasiveness in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quoc Thang; Oue, Naohide; Yamamoto, Yuji; Shigematsu, Yoshinori; Sekino, Yohei; Sakamoto, Naoya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Uraoka, Naohiro; Tiwari, Mamata; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most common types of cancer in developed countries. Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) gene, which encodes BST2 transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed in several cancer types. In the present study, we analyzed the expression and function of BST2 in RCC. BST2 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 123 RCC cases. RNA interference was used to inhibit BST2 expression in a RCC cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that 32% of the 123 RCC cases were positive for BST2. BST2 expression was positively associated with tumour stage. Furthermore, BST2 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with RCC. BST2 siRNA-transfected Caki-1 cells displayed significantly reduced cell growth and invasive activity relative to negative control siRNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that BST2 plays an important role in the progression of RCC. Because BST2 is expressed on the cell membrane, BST2 is a good therapeutic target for RCC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. CRIAÇÃO DE UMA FERRAMENTA PARA VERIFICAÇÃO DO CONCEITO DE ARRANJO PRODUTIVO LOCAL: APLICAÇÃO NO APL DA INDÚSTRIA DE CALÇADOS DO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA

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    Kathyana Vanessa Diniz Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Existem nuances no conceito de arranjos produtivos locais (APL’s que nem sempre são percebidas e compreendidas quando da aplicação prática. Neste trabalho, foram apresentadas e analisadas as nuances existentes com o objetivo de verificar se a utilização do termo APL adotado pelo Sebrae em seus projetos é congruente com a literatura acadêmica. Como método tem-se um estudo de caso, visto que registrado no órgão existe um único projeto de APL ativo e em gestão (em maio de 2015 de acordo com o SIGEOR (Sistema de Informação da Gestão Estratégica Orientada para Resultados do próprio Sebrae/PB. O APL analisado foi o da Indústria de Calçados do Estado da Paraíba, com base nos elementos cruciais constituintes de um APL e concluiu-se que este arranjo não apresenta todos os elementos necessários para ser considerado um APL e assim, o Sebrae necessita rever o termo utilizado, não só para corrigir uma divergência conceitual em relação a literatura da academia, mas também para otimizar os processos existentes na própria organização.

  9. REPUTAÇÃO CORPORATIVA: MENSURAÇÃO E ANÁLISE DE MAPAS PERCEPTUAIS – UM ESTUDO EMPÍRICO NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOBILÍSTICA BRASILEIRA

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    Miguel Maurício Isoni

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura mostrar a pertinência de parâmetros e atributos de gestão reputacional percebidos pelos consumidores das marcas Fiat e Volks da indústria automobilística brasileira, através de quatro dimensões: (1 imagem, reputação e credibilidade; (2 relação com a comunidade; (3 ética e sustentabilidade; (4 decisão de compra ou recompra. Reputação corporativa tem sido tema mundialmente estudado e de grande importância para empresas e para a academia. Visando a mensurar a reputação corporativa, este estudo desenvolve uma escala de reputação baseada em Fombrun, Gardberg e Sever (2001 e King (2000. Com uma amostra de 316 respondentes de dois Estados brasileiros, buscando verificar a reputação da indústria automobilística, foi verificada a confiabilidade da escala, bem como traçados mapas perceptuais para análise dos resultados. Assim, este trabalho contribui para o desenvolvimento de uma escala brasileira de reputação corporativa e para a utilização de mapas perceptuais como instrumento gerencial e analítico.

  10. QUESTÕES ESTRATÉGICAS DE PLANEJAMENTO, NEGOCIAÇÃO E MARKETING NA INDÚSTRIA TEXTIL: UM ESTUDO DE CASO [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20050402008

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    Michelle Cristine Silveira Meireles

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Resumo O presente artigo aborda questões relacionadas a estratégias de planejamento, negociação e marketing utilizadas por uma empresa na área têxtil. A realização da pesquisa pautou-se em um estudo de caso, a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e consultas a materiais institucionais. As abordagens teóricas utilizadas no corpo da pesquisa são aplicadas no estudo no intuito de embasar a compreensão do fenômeno estudado. A empresa trabalha com produto de qualidade, bons preços, tendo seu maior problema localizado no capital de giro. Na realização de uma análise organizacional mais detalhada, pesquisa direta com clientes e arrolamento de novas táticas de atuação, percebeu-se que houve por parte da empresa pesquisada uma ampliação à visão de mercado abrindo caminhos e potenciais possibilidades para uma nova atuação de mercado. Assim, o estudo revelou que a empresa deve implantar um conjunto de políticas empresariais de modo agressivo e interativo dentro de suas possibilidades e limitações tanto com os consumidores/clientes quanto no mercado em que atua.    Palavras-chave: Estratégia; Indústria Têxtil; Negociação.   Abstract The present paper approach questions related to planning, negotiation and marketing strategies carried by a textile industry enterprise. The search was based in a study of case, by semi-structured interviews and institutional document analyses. The theoric base utilized in the search was applied in sense to embased the comprehension of studied phenomenon. The enterprise play with quality product, low prices, and the major problem was in turnover capital. In the realization of a detailed organizational analyses, costumers direct search and inventore of new tatics of atuation, was perceived the occurrence of a market sense improve, leading the enterprise to new market perspectives. By this way, the study show that the organization should implant a conjoint of enterprise policies by intense and interactive way considering yours possibilities and limitations about consumers/costumers as in your market.   Keywords: Strategy; Textile Industry; Negotiation.

  11. INFLUÊNCIA DA QUANTIDADE DE FIBRAS NA DUREZA E RESISTÊNCIA AO IMPACTO DE COMPÓSITOS HIPS/BAGAÇO DE CANA PARA APLICAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA DE PET SHOP

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    Glayce Cassaro Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos houve um grande avanço tecnológico no desenvolvimento de materiais compósitos reforçados com fibras naturais. Esse aumento do interesse das indústrias e grupos de pesquisa em desenvolver e utilizar materiais feitos a partir de matérias primas renováveis se deu principalmente pelo grande apelo mundial para a utilização de produtos naturais e pela preservação do meio ambiente. O presente trabalho visou a caracterização de compósitos reforçados com bagaço de cana em matriz de poliestireno de alto impacto (HIPS, tendo como objetivo uma possível substituição dos materiais utilizados atualmente na indústria de produtos para pet shop. Foram caracterizadas três famílias de compósitos, nas proporções de 10, 20 e 30% (m/m. Os resultados da dureza Shore A indicaram que a adição da fibra de bagaço ao HIPS não acarretou alterações nos valores da dureza nos compósitos quando comparados ao HIPS puro. E os resultados de resistência ao impacto foi possível constatar que a adição da fibra de bagaço ao HIPS acarretou uma diminuição na resistência ao impacto, quando comparados ao HIPS puro.

  12. MEDIÇÃO DO IMPACTO A MBIENTAL DO S PROCESSOS DE PRODU ÇÃO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE VESTUÁR IO DE MEDIO PORTE

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    Gabriela Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The apparel industry and their production processes generate serious impacts on the environment. This paper proposes a methodology to measure environmental impacts in a garment industry midsize Recife / PE. There are guidelines which the Design for Sustainability and Systems and Tools for Environmental Management were relevant to the search. This allowed mapping production processes and to analyze and measure the impacts generated by the creation and production of designitems. The aim is thus to encourage designers to seek to minimize the degradation caused by the production of Fashion Design.

  13. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE FIBRAS NA RESISTÊNCIA AO IMPACTO DE COMPÓSITOS HIPS/FIBRAS DE COCO VERDE APLICADOS PARA POSSÍVEL APLICAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOBILÍSTICA

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    Gilmara Brandão Pereira; Glayce Cassaro Pereira; Márcio Alves de Lima; Sérgio Roberto Montoro

    2016-01-01

    Existe uma tendência mundial em buscar recursos naturais alternativos em substituição às fibras sintéticas. Diante deste cenário, as fibras naturais vegetais, como por exemplo, a fibra da casca do coco verde, é uma excelente alternativa por possuírem boas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas. Essas fibras, além de seu baixo custo, são biodegradáveis e de fonte renovável. No presente trabalho foram caracterizados compósitos poliméricos de HIPS reforçados com fibras naturais provenientes da casca ...

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DO TEOR DE FIBRAS NA RESISTÊNCIA AO IMPACTO DE COMPÓSITOS HIPS/FIBRAS DE COCO VERDE APLICADOS PARA POSSÍVEL APLICAÇÃO NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOBILÍSTICA

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    Gilmara Brandão Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe uma tendência mundial em buscar recursos naturais alternativos em substituição às fibras sintéticas. Diante deste cenário, as fibras naturais vegetais, como por exemplo, a fibra da casca do coco verde, é uma excelente alternativa por possuírem boas propriedades mecânicas e térmicas. Essas fibras, além de seu baixo custo, são biodegradáveis e de fonte renovável. No presente trabalho foram caracterizados compósitos poliméricos de HIPS reforçados com fibras naturais provenientes da casca do coco verde. Foram caracterizadas três famílias de compósitos, nas proporções de 10, 20 e 30% (m/m. Foi possível constatar que a adição da fibra de coco ao HIPS acarretou uma diminuição na resistência ao impacto, quando comparados ao HIPS puro. Dessa forma, com a adição de fibras de coco verde no HIPS obteve-se um material com até 30% menos polímero e com propriedades mecânicas viáveis para determinadas aplicações do HIPS.

  15. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DE ÁGUA MINERAL NATURAL E DE TAMPAS PLÁSTICAS UTILIZADAS EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DA GRANDE PORTO ALEGRE/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina RITTER

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Embora a presença de bactérias seja esperada em águas minerais naturais, contaminações elevadas podem ocorrer e comprometer sua qualidade e segurança. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica de amostras de água mineral natural e de tampas plásticas utilizadas em uma indústria localizada na grande Porto Alegre/RS. Foram analisadas 152 amostras de água do poço e 15 amostras de água envasada em garrafões de 20 litros, utilizando-se as técnicas de membrana fi ltrante e “pour plate”. Os microrganismos pesquisados foram aqueles preconizados pela RDC 275/2005, da ANVISA, além da contagem total de microrganismos heterotrófi cos. O número de microrganismos heterotrófi cos também foi analisado em 22 tampas plásticas de garrafões de 20 litros. Os resultados demonstraram que em nenhuma amostra foi detectada a presença de coliformes totais, coliformes fecais/ Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Clostridium perfringens. Todas as amostras analisadas continham microrganismos viáveis, sendo que as contagens de microrganismos heterotrófi cos variaram de 1,0x10¹UFC/mL a 7,0x103UFC/mL. As tampas plásticas apresentaram contagens que variaram de 6,0x10¹UFC/ mL a 1,2x10²UFC/mL e essa contaminação representou aproximadamente 0,003 a 0,006% das contagens totais obtidas nos garrafões analisados. Os resultados indicaram que a água mineral natural estava dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira, além de demonstrar que a avaliação microbiológica foi importante como ferramenta para a melhoria dos processos empregados pela indústria em questão.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA SATISFAÇÃO DO USUÁRIO DOS SISTEMAS ERP COMO INSTRUMENTO PARA GESTÃO: UMA ABORDAGEM MULTIVARIADA DE DADOS EM UMA INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Dutra Oliveira Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O investimento para implementação de um sistema ERP é muito alto e a satisfação do usuário pode ser usada como um substituto para o sucesso da implementação do ERP. A satisfação do usuário é uma das formas de mensuração mais comuns encontradas na literatura para medir o sucesso do ERP. Um instrumento (escala de 5 pontos tipo Likert para mensurar a satisfação do usuário foi desenvolvido com 33 itens e 12 dimensões. Uma amostra de 81 respondentes, coletada por meio de um levantamento, em uma empresa farmacêutica no Brasil foi utilizada nesta pesquisa. Usando análise multivariada, os resultados desta pesquisa indicam a importância da satisfação do usuário, em todas as áreas da pesquisa, para o sucesso do ERP. Sugere ainda que a satisfação do usuário, quando desmembrada em 12 dimensões, pode ser base para um diagnóstica eficaz para implementação de um ERP. Os respondentes identificaram que em algumas áreas, como a Fiscal, não estão satisfeitos com ao menos uma dimensão relativos ao sistema ERP. Este resultado pode ajudar os gestores a realizarem ajustes localizados no ERP e/ou treinamentos específicos em algumas áreas, aumentando as chances de sucesso do sistema ERP.

  17. LA EMOCIONALIDAD EN LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE MERCADEO: CASO INDUSTRIA FUNERARIA // EMOTIONALITY IN MARKETING STRATEGIES: CASE STUDY FUNERAL INDUSTRY // A EMOTIVIDADE NAS ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING: CASO INDÚSTRIA FUNERÁRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvan Emilio Ramírez Ospina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este escrito se analiza el manejo de la emocionalidad en las estrategias de mercadeo en empresas del sector funerario, destacando el carácter contextual y ambiental del marketing dentro de la cultura como base permeable de la sociedad, sus hábitos, costumbres y rituales. Se partió de un estudio cualitativo usando entrevistas en profundidad y observación; se hizo un acercamiento teórico al marketing emocional y se muestran las relaciones encontradas entre este y las estrategias de mercadeo que están siendo usadas por las empresas funerarias.  Identificando el manejo de la emocionalidad implementado en el sector funerario por medio de “talleres de duelo”; eventos post-mortem de carácter masivo, donde los dolientes asisten a charlas programadas cada tres meses. Este tipo de eventos  por su periodicidad, asisten un número elevado de personas, dificultando que la experiencia sea individual, detallada y que facilite un contacto directo entre el cliente y la empresa.

  18. REUSO DO PÓ DE SILÍCIO ORIUNDO DA PRODUÇÃO DE SEMICONDUTORES NA INDÚSTRIA DA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL / REUSE OF SILICON POWDER ARISING OUT OF PRODUCTION OF SEMICONDUCTORS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

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    Antonio S BREJÃO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available esfera da ecologia industrial. A proposta deste trabalho é analisar as características deste resíduo, objetivando o fechamento do ciclo de produção. O pó de silício obtido através do processo do corte das lâminas de silício foi caracterizado por ensaios físicos e por microscopia ótica. Após a separação, o resíduo foi adicionado ao cimento comum formando corpos de prova e com isso, avaliou-se o possível ganho na resistência à compressão comparada ao cimento comum, comprovando a viabilidade técnica da utilização deste tipo de resíduo na fabricação de produtos de cimento.

  19. O JEITO É INOVAR: UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM UMA INDÚSTRIA METALMECÂNICA SOBRE A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DA GERAÇAO Y NO PROCESSO INOVATIVO

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    Juliane Ruffatto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A inovação tem ganhado ênfase no cenário empresarial nos últimos anos, haja vista a sobrevivência no mercado. As empresas têm investido cada vez mais nessa área e na capacitação de pessoal para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos. Desse modo, este artigo trata-se de um estudo de caso realizado em uma indústria metal mecânica da região norte do Rio Grande do Sul que inovou o seu portfólio de produtos nos últimos anos. Essa inovação foi bastante motivada pelas ideias criativas e audaciosas de seus colaboradores, que, majoritariamente, são jovens, alguns deles em cargos de gestão. Assim, o objetivo é identificar as características da gestão da geração Y que contribuem para a inovação de produto, bem como a sua importância para a performance organizacional. Para cumprir com o objetivo proposto, utilizou-se o método qualitativo. Os dados foram coletados a partir de entrevistas, do tipo semiestruturada, com questões abertas, voltadas à identificação das características da Geração Y e como elas contribuem para a inovação na empresa em estudo. As entrevistas foram realizadas no mês de junho de 2015 e analisadas pela técnica de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados evidenciam que o perfil da empresa é bastante inovador e que é unânime a importância dada para o investimento em tecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novos produtos. As características mais importantes dos jovens da geração Y que contribuem para a inovação de produto na empresa é a criatividade, o espírito inventivo, a ambição e o dinamismo.

  20. A CAPACITAÇÃO E O DESENVOLVIMENTO DAS COMPETÊNCIAS NECESSÁRIAS À FORMAÇÃO DE UM FUNDIDOR DE BARBOTINA EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DO SEGMENTO DE CERÂMICA TRIAXIAL

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    Leandro Kappes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo em vista que, com a globalização, as tecnologias de produção tornaram-se acessíveis à grande maioria das empresas, estas, para permanecerem no mercado e apresentar um diferencial competitivo, tiveram que investir fortemente no "talento humano", ou seja, na capacitação e desenvolvimento de seus funcionários. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo relatar o processo de capacitação de um Fundidor de Barbotina, tendo como base o desenvolvimento das competências essenciais para desempenho desta função. Trata-se de um estudo de caso desenvolvido com uma metodologia qualitativa, no qual se pesquisou uma indústria de cerâmica triaxial. Através da análise dos resultados, demonstra-se a eficácia do processo de capacitação, bem como a colaboração deste nos resultados da empresa, evidenciados pelo aumento de produtividade e qualidade. É possível verificar, ainda, que, na empresa em estudo, há um alinhamento entre a teoria e a prática sobre o assunto, tendo em vista que o projeto Centro de Formação promoveu mudanças significativas no comportamento das pessoas. Palavras-chave: Conhecimento. Habilidade. Atitude. Competência. Capacitação.

  1. TENDÊNCIAS DA GESTÃO PARTICIPATIVA PARA REDUÇÃO DE FALHAS NO NÍVEL OPERACIONAL DE SISTEMAS PRODUTIVOS EM INDÚSTRIAS METALÚRGICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Cembranel

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho busca conhecer as tendências da gestão participativa para redução de falhas no nível operacional nos sistemas produtivos em indústrias metalúrgicas. Para identificar as tendências da gestão participativa nas indústrias metalúrgicas objetivou-se levantar as estratégias de gestão participativa de acordo com gestores de produção, relacionar as práticas adotadas frente à redução de falhas inerentes aos processos produtivos e analisar os desafios em estratégias de gest...

  2. IMPLANTAÇÃO DE UM LABORATÓRIO DE ANÁLISE DA QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA E EFLUENTES DE UMA INDÚSTRIA FARMACÊUTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Letícia; Bilotta, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    A água para fabricação de fármacos demanda qualidade rigorosa, por isso requer sucessivas etapas de purificação para atender as determinações da legislação brasileira. Da mesma forma, o efluente gerado no processo produtivo também exige tratamento antes do seu descarte em corpos d'água. O monitoramento da qualidade da água e do efluente industrial é realizado por meio de análises laboratoriais, em muitos casos, por laboratórios terceirizadas a um custo elevado. O objetivo deste artigo é ident...

  3. USO DE EQUIPAMENTOS DE PROTEÇÃO INDIVIDUAL: UMA COMPARAÇÃO DOS PROGRAMAS DE FOMENTO DAS INDÚSTRIAS DE DEFENSIVOS AGRÍCOLAS / USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: A COMPARISON OF AGROCHEMICALS INDUSTRIES PROMOTION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Daniel de Souza BARBOSA; João Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz MACHADO

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo da pesquisa foi analisar as ações realizadas pelas empresas de defensivos, visando fomentar o uso de EPI por parte dos agricultores. Buscou-se descrever e analisar os programas de três empresas fabricantes de defensivos agrícolas para fomentar o uso dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI), e compará-los. As empresas, multinacionais de defensivos agrícolas, foram selecionadas com base no faturamento. Os resultados foram obtidos a partir de material disponibilizado nos sites da...

  4. ANÁLISE CRÍTICA DOS CUSTOS DE IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DE SISTEMA DE GESTÃO DE ESTOQUES EM INDÚSTRIAS METALÚRGICAS DE PEQUENO E MÉDIO PORTE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexsandra Matos Romio

    2012-01-01

    Com a necessidade de conhecer os estoques de forma cada vez mais precisa, a fim de planejar as vendas e a produção com o dinamismo que o mercado exige, mais empresas têm buscado ferramentas de controle de estoque, como sistemas informatizados, almejando resultados com alta precisão e confiabilidade. A incerteza de resultados positivos, nesse tipo de investimento, especialmente para metalúrgicas de pequeno porte, é uma incógnita, já que os recursos de pessoal e financeiro são ...

  5. ANÁLISE DOS INDICADORES ESTRUTURAIS DA INDÚSTRIA DE MÁQUINAS E IMPLEMENTOS AGRÍCOLAS NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL E EM SÃO PAULO NO PERÍODO 1996-2003

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    Marilise Dorneles Spat

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é descrever o comportamento da indústria de máquinas e implementos agrícolas (IMA no Brasil e nos principais pólos produtores, sendo eles Rio Grande do Sul (RS e São Paulo (SP, após a liberalização econômica e a estabilização monetária a partir de meados da década de 1990. A metodologia empregada foi a análise dos indicadores técnicos e econômicos da indústria, como: MCO (margem de custo de operação, MCM (margem de custo de matéria-prima, MCT (margem de custo do trabalho, MCP (margem de custo da produção, PT (produtividade do trabalho, MOE (margem operacional do excedente, LP (lucro da produção e mark-up. As fontes bibliográficas empregadas foram publicações especializadas da indústria, dados da FEE (Fundação de Economia e Estatística, da PIA (Pesquisa Industrial Anual do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, entre outros. Utilizou-se a classificação 29.3 do CNAE (Código Nacional de Atividade Econômica, correspondente à IMA. Como conclusões, observou-se que a indústria em questão passou por fortes oscilações e por mudanças no período analisado, além da sua elevada integração e competitividade, especialmente com os mercados dos Estados Unidos e da Europa.

  6. IMPLANTAÇÃO DA ANÁLISE DE PERIGOS E PONTOS CRÍTICOS DE CONTROLE (APPCC, GARANTIA DA QUALIDADE E SEGURANÇA NA INDÚSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS

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    Juliano BARRETO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar a eficácia da aplicação da Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC como ferramenta de qualidade na prevenção de contaminação por mofos e leveduras, em um processo produtivo em escala industrial de doce de leite. Essa ferramenta que a princípio foi desenvolvida pelo setor privado, atualmente faz parte da legislação de diversos países. Para isso foram avaliados dados da produção de uma fábrica de laticínio de Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, Noroeste do estado Rio de Janeiro, que processa em média cinquenta mil litros de leite por dia. Realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica a respeito do APPCC e de sua implantação como ferramenta de qualidade que garantiu o suporte teórico. O estudo mostra a eficácia dessa ferramenta de qualidade na prevenção de contaminação por mofos e leveduras, para isso, foi realizada uma análise qualitativa e quantitativa nos registros de acompanhamento microbiológico do laticínio.

  7. PRODUÇÃO E AVALIAÇÃO DE BRIQUETES DE FINOS DE CARVÃO VEGETAL COMPACTADOS COM RESÍDUO CELULÓSICO PROVENIENTE DA INDÚSTRIA DE PAPEL E CELULOSE1

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    Mariana Provedel Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar briquetes produzidos a partir de finos de carvão vegetal compactados com resíduo celulósico gerado na decantação dos efluentes da indústria de papel e celulose. Foram realizados os seguintes tratamentos: briquetes produzidos com fino de carvão vegetal e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 25% (T1, 30% (T2, 35% (T3, 40% (T4 e 45% (T5 e briquetes produzidos com finos de carvão vegetal com 10% de amido e resíduo celulósico nas proporções de 0% (T6, 5% (T7, 10% (T8, 15% (T9, 20% (T10 e 25% (T11. A caracterização dos briquetes foi realizada por meio de ensaios de análise química imediata, determinação do poder calorífico superior, densidade aparente e avaliação da resistência mecânica após a secagem dos briquetes em estufa ou ao ar livre. Observou-se que os briquetes com resíduo celulósico e amido em sua composição apresentaram maior densidade e resistência mecânica à compressão, concluindo-se, assim, que a presença do amido favoreceu a compactação e estabilidade dos briquetes. Observou-se, também, que o processo de secagem em estufa prejudicou a qualidade dos briquetes, de modo que a secagem ao ar livre forneceu briquetes mais resistentes e estáveis.

  8. LA EMOCIONALIDAD EN LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE MERCADEO: CASO INDUSTRIA FUNERARIA // EMOTIONALITY IN MARKETING STRATEGIES: CASE STUDY FUNERAL INDUSTRY // A EMOTIVIDADE NAS ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING: CASO INDÚSTRIA FUNERÁRIA

    OpenAIRE

    Duvan Emilio Ramírez Ospina; Lina María Toro Gonzales; Carolina Duarte Pareja

    2016-01-01

    En este escrito se analiza el manejo de la emocionalidad en las estrategias de mercadeo en empresas del sector funerario, destacando el carácter contextual y ambiental del marketing dentro de la cultura como base permeable de la sociedad, sus hábitos, costumbres y rituales. Se partió de un estudio cualitativo usando entrevistas en profundidad y observación; se hizo un acercamiento teórico al marketing emocional y se muestran las relaciones encontradas entre este y las estrategias de mercadeo ...

  9. BENEFÍCIOS AMBIENTAIS E ECONOMICOS PROVENIENTES DA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO MAIS LIMPA EM UMA INDÚSTRIA DE MÓVEIS DE MUNICIPIO DE NATAL-RN

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    Pedro Paulo Silva Leite

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral analisar os benefícios ambientais e econômicos obtidos através da implementação da Produção mais Limpa (P+L em uma indústria de móveis localizada em Natal-RN. Trata-se de um estudo de caso que contou com uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o setor e a P+L e uma pesquisa de campo que contemplou as seguintes etapas: diagnóstico ambiental e operacional da empresa (estudo de arranjo físico, levantamento de métodos, fluxograma especifico do processo produtivo, levantamento de aspectos e impactos; levantamento de desperdícios; estudo de oportunidades de melhorias; implementação e monitoramento. Os resultados do diagnostico mostram desperdícios representativos de insumos (MDF, cola, lixa, etc, além da desorganização do espaço físico da empresa, insalubridade do galpão de produção. Assim, foram implementadas algumas medidas de otimização do uso de MDF, cola, lixa, além da implementação de um sistema de coleta de serragem e sistematização da produção, além do reaproveitamento de aparas de MDF para fabricação de chapas recicladas. Nesse contexto, as oportunidades de melhoria ambiental contemplaram os níveis 1 (redução na fonte e nível 2 (reciclagem interna acarretando na otimização do uso de recursos e a diminuição da poluição gerada, trazendo um alavancar uma receita anual para empresa aproximadamente em R$ 3.600 a partir de um investimento de R$ 4311, tendo um período de retorno não superior à 2 anos em cada estudo. Por fim, verifica-se que com a implementação das atividades vislumbradas é possível alcançar uma economia significativa nos gastos da empresa além dos benefícios operacionais como melhoria do ambiente de trabalho e mudanças benéficas no quesito meio ambiente através da diminuição do consumo de matéria prima e da geração de resíduos.

  10. INTER-RELAÇÃO DA FERRAMENTA APQP E DO GUIA PMBOK PARA EFICIÊNCIA NAS ETAPAS DE IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DE NOVOS PROJETOS NA INDÚSTRIA AUTOMOTIVA

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    Jean Cristhiano Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de novos projetos na industria automotiva apresenta-se como um projeto de grande porte, regido por metodologias, guias e ferramentas estruturadas que visam garantir a eficácia do projeto. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o intuito de contribuir para um maior entendimento entre a ferramenta APQP, de grande aplicação na industria automotiva, e o guia PMBOK, considerado referência no gerenciamento de projetos. Neste âmbito, este estudo realiza uma análise comparativa entre suas principais características, identificando suas semelhanças e divergências. Dentre os diversos resultados do estudo, é possível identificar que o guia PMBOK é mais completo que a ferramenta APQP utilizada no setor automobilístico, uma vez que traz de forma mais detalhada as etapas e as técnicas que são indicadas nas atividades, segundo as boas práticas dos PMPs (Project Management Professional.

  11. GESTÃO DE PROJETOS NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE PRODUTOS DA INDÚSTRIA AERONÁUTICA: UMA ANÁLISE DA IMPORTÂNCIA E EFICIÊNCIA DOS PROCESSOS DA ENGENHARIA DE MANUFATURA

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    Maique Antônio Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa possui como principal foco a gestão de projetos associada ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos da indústria aeronáutica, destacando-se em especial a importância e eficiência dos processos de manufatura. A análise realizada tomou por base um questionário com os 47 processos disseminados pelo PMBOK, uma coleção de processos e conhecimentos aceitos como melhores práticas na área de gerenciamento de projetos. 20 profissionais com larga experiência no setor aeronáutico responderam à pesquisa e os dados foram tratados estatisticamente por meio das técnicas de Escalonamento Multidimensional e Análise Fatorial Exploratória para um único fator. Os resultados evidenciaram que os dez processos de maior importância estão associados às seguintes temáticas: 1º Desenvolver a equipe do projeto, 2º Controlar a qualidade, 3º Determinar o orçamento, 4º Conduzir as aquisições, 5º Controlar os riscos, 6º Identificar os riscos, 7º Planejar o gerenciamento de custos, 8º Gerenciar a equipe do projeto, 9º Planejar o gerenciamento das aquisições e 10º Planejar o gerenciamento de riscos. Apesar de bons resultados globais para os níveis de eficiência para os processos anteriores, observam-se ainda possibilidades de melhoria para a empresa estudada.

  12. LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL

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    CATÃO Raïssa Mayer Ramalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado, de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT, coliformes fecais (CF e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois grupos segundo o período de monitoramento: antes e após mudanças no processo de higienização da usina. Foi evidenciada elevada contaminação nas amostras de leite cru nas duas épocas. Na primeira (março-abril/1998, todas as amostras de leite beneficiado estiveram fora dos padrões da legislação vigente para CT e CF; na segunda (maio-agosto/1998, houve acentuada redução dos níveis destas bactérias indicadoras, porém as melhorias na higienização não foram suficientes para solucionar este problema, visto que 11,1% das amostras recém-pasteurizadas estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 33,3% para CF. Das amostras ensacadas, 22,2% estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 44,4% para CF. Comparando-se os resultados de CT, CF, e E.coli nas amostras de leite recém-pasteurizado e não ensacado com as amostras de leite ensacado, foi verificado que as amostras após serem pasteurizadas e ensacadas apresentaram valores de CT e CF levemente mais elevados, sugerindo contaminação durante o processo de ensacamento ou falhas na armazenagem. Observou-se que 33 (73,3% das amostras de leite cru e 9 (30% das de leite pasteurizado estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp., sendo identificadas L. monocytogenes em 17 (51,5% amostras de leite cru e em 9 (100% de leite beneficiado (4 recém-pasteurizadas e 5 ensacadas. Em relação à diversidade de espécies, nas amostras de leite cru foram encontradas: L. monocytogenes (66,6%, L. innocua (25,3%, L. ivanovii (3,9%, L. welshimeri (2,5% e L. grayi (1,5%. Nas amostras de leite pasteurizado isolaram-se: L. monocyogenes e L. innocua. O conjunto dos resultados evidenciou deficiências higiênico-sanitárias no leite in natura e ao longo do processo de produção, resultando em porcentagens elevadas de amostras que ultrapassaram os valores padrões de CT e CF além de apresentarem-se contaminadas por Listeria spp., com predominância de L. monocytogenes, sugerindo a existência de uma relação direta entre os altos índices de coliformes e a presença de Listeria spp.

  13. Understanding the photoluminescence characteristics of Eu{sup 3+}-doped double-perovskite by electronic structure calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Binita [St. Paul’s Cathedral Mission College, 33/1Raja Rammohan Roy Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Halder, Saswata; Sinha, T. P. [Department of Physics, Bose Institute, 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Das, Sayantani [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Europium-doped luminescent barium samarium tantalum oxide Ba{sub 2}SmTaO{sub 6} (BST) has been investigated by first-principles calculation, and the crystal structure, electronic structure, and optical properties of pure BST and Eu-doped BST have been examined and compared. Based on the calculated results, the luminescence properties and mechanism of Eu-doped BST has been discussed. In the case of Eu-doped BST, there is an impurity energy band at the Fermi level, which is formed by seven spin up energy levels of Eu and act as the luminescent centre, which is evident from the band structure calculations.

  14. Gazprom tõrjub võimalikku konkurenti / Vahur Koorits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koorits, Vahur, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti põhjarannikule kavandatud veeldatud maagaasi ehk LNG terminali ees seisab rida takistusi, suurimaks probleemiks on Gazprom. Vt. samas: Veeldatud maagaasi terminal annaks sõltumatuse Gazpromist

  15. Перемещение частных пространств = Transporting private spaces / Тоомас Паавер ; интервьюировал Владимир Фролов

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Паавер, Тоомас, 1976-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna linna tasuta ühistranspordist, transpordisüsteemi puudustest ja arengusuundadest. PAIK Arhitektide (Toomas Paaver, Jaak-Adam Looveer, Lauri Saar) Kristiine terminali projektist, jalgrattateedest

  16. LOWERING THE SINTERING TEMPERATURE OF BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE BULK CERAMICS BY BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE-GEL AND BaCu(B₂O₅

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gleissner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of barium strontium titanate (BST xerogel as a sinter additive and BaCu(B₂O₅(BCB as a liquid phase sintering aid on the sintering behavior of BST bulk ceramics is investigated. BST as well as BCB powders were synthesized via a mixed oxide route and BST gel via a sol-gel process. Compared to pure BST bulk ceramics, BST gel reduces the sintering start (onset temperature by up to 174°C and increases the density for a sintering temperature of 1200°C. By adding BCB to the BST powder the sintering was completed much faster and the onset temperatures were reduced by 281°C and 312°C for 1 mol% and 2.5 mol%, respectively. With 2.5 mol% BCB, the highest density of 96 % (5.41 g/cm³ was achieved at 950°C.

  17. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  18. The effects of stimulation of substantia innominata and sensory receiving areas of the forebrain upon the activity of neurons within the amygdala of the anesthetized cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femano, P A; Edinger, H M; Siegel, A

    1983-06-13

    The present study investigated the response characteristics of individual neurons in the amygdala following stimulation of the substantia innominata (SI), and compared these responses with those elicited by stimulation of insular and temporal polar cortices and the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Recordings were made from single units within the medial, central, basal, and lateral amygdaloid nuclei of anesthetized, male cats. Stimulating electrodes were located in the SI, LOT, and sylvian cortex (SG). Unit responses were classified as either excitation or inhibition. Excitatory responses were further divided into fixed latency excitation (FLE) and variable latency excitation (VLE) based on the variability of the onset latency of the response. The majority of responses to SI stimulation were of the FLE type, implying a direct orthodromic, monosynaptic activation of amygdaloid units. Proportionally more FLE responses were recorded laterally, especially in the magnocellular basal nucleus, compared to VLE responses which were more common in the medial and central nuclei. SI stimulation consistently affected the activity of many more units than did SG or LOT stimulation. The onset latencies of the population of cells exhibiting excitatory responses elicited by SI stimulation were distributed bimodally, and this may reflect a dual projection pathway of amygdaloid afferents from this basal forebrain region. This correlates with anatomical descriptions indicating that SI projections to amygdala pass via the ventral amygdalofugal pathway as well as in the stria terminalis. Excitatory onset latencies of responses to SI stimulation were the shortest in the lateral and magnocellular basal nuclei and the longest in the parvocellular basal nucleus. Amygdaloid units exhibited convergent input from the stimulus sites. A clear topographical distribution of units was not demonstrated. The data suggests that units receiving a convergent input were rarely driven monosynaptically by

  19. Core and paracores; some new chemoarchitectural entities in the mammalian neuraxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, R; Veening, J G; van Domburg, P

    nucleus and the catecholaminergic cell groups A1, A2, A5, A7 and C1 and C2. It harbours a large bundle of loosely arranged, thin fibres, which forms a direct caudal continuation of the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle. This lateral paracore bundle contains numerous catecholaminergic and peptidergic fibres. Three typical core centres, viz. the nucleus centralis amygdalae, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the lateral hypothalamic area contribute substantially to this bundle. The lateral paracore contains, just like the core region, a large number of functionally defined centres related to integrated somatomotor and visceromotor responses. It is postulated that non-synaptic interneuron

  20. Two Neural Measures Differ between Urban and Rural Song Sparrows after Conspecific Song Playback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra B. Sewall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a critical form of environmental change that can affect the physiology and behavior of wild animals and, notably, birds. One behavioral difference between birds living in urban and rural habitats is that urban males show elevated boldness or territorial aggression in response to simulated social challenge. This pattern has been described in several populations of song sparrow, Melospiza melodia. Such behavioral differences must be underpinned by differences in the brain, yet little work has explored how urbanization and neural function may be interrelated. We explored the relationship between urbanization and neural activation within a network of brain regions, collectively called the social behavior network, which contributes to the regulation of territorial aggression. Specifically, we captured free-living, territorial male song sparrows by playing them conspecific songs for 6–11 min, and then collected their brains. We estimated recent neural activation, as indicated by the immediate early gene FOS, and measured levels of a neuropeptide, arginine vasotocin (AVT, which is involved in the regulation of social behavior. Based on previous studies we expected urban males, which are generally more territorially aggressive, to have lower FOS expression in a node of the social behavior network implicated in regulating territoriality, the lateral septum (LS. Additionally, we expected urban males to have lower AVT expression in a brain region involved in the regulation of sociality, the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm. We found that, compared to rural males, urban male song sparrows did have lower FOS expression in the LS. This pattern suggests that lower neural activation in the LS could contribute to behavioral adjustments to urbanization in male song sparrows. Additionally, counter to our predictions, urban male song sparrows had higher AVT-like immunoreactivity in the BSTm. Future work building upon these findings

  1. Early life stress elicits visceral hyperalgesia and functional reorganization of pain circuits in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Holschneider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS is a risk factor for developing functional gastrointestinal disorders, and has been proposed to be related to a central amplification of sensory input and resultant visceral hyperalgesia. We sought to characterize ELS-related changes in functional brain responses during acute noxious visceral stimulation. Neonatal rats (males/females were exposed to limited bedding (ELS or standard bedding (controls on postnatal days 2–9. Age 10–11 weeks, animals were implanted with venous cannulas and transmitters for abdominal electromyography (EMG. Cerebral blood flow (rCBF was mapped during colorectal distension (CRD using [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, and analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping and functional connectivity. EMG responses to CRD were increased after ELS, with no evidence of a sex difference. ELS rats compared to controls showed a greater significant positive correlation of EMG with amygdalar rCBF. Factorial analysis revealed a significant main effect of ‘ELS’ on functional activation of nodes within the pain pathway (somatosensory, insular, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, locus coeruleus/lateral parabrachial n. [LC/LPB], periaqueductal gray, sensory thalamus, as well as in the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. In addition, ELS resulted in an increase in the number of significant functional connections (i.e. degree centrality between regions within the pain circuit, including the amygdala, LC/LPB, insula, anterior ventral cingulate, posterior cingulate (retrosplenium, and stria terminalis, with decreases noted in the sensory thalamus and the hippocampus. Sex differences in rCBF were less broadly expressed, with significant differences noted at the level of the cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, raphe, sensory thalamus, and caudate-putamen. ELS showed a sexually dimorphic effect (‘Sex x ELS’ interaction at the LC/LPB complex, globus pallidus

  2. White matter correlates of anxiety sensitivity in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kyoung; Kim, Borah; Kiu Choi, Tai; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a fear of anxiety-related sensations and is a dispositional variable especially elevated in patients with panic disorder (PD). Although several functional imaging studies of AS in patients with PD have suggested the presence of altered neural activity in paralimbic areas such as the insula, no study has investigated white matter (WM) alterations in patients with PD in relation to AS. The objective of this study was to investigate the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD. One-hundred and twelve right-handed patients with PD and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled in this study. The Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory-Revised (ASI-R), the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS), the Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire (APPQ), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Tract-based spatial statistics were used for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analysis. Among the patients with PD, the ASI-R total scores were significantly correlated with the fractional anisotropy values of the WM regions near the insula, the splenium of the corpus callosum, the tapetum, the fornix/stria terminalis, the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the retrolenticular part of the internal capsule, the posterior thalamic radiation, the sagittal striatum, and the posterior corona radiata located in temporo-parieto-limbic regions and are involved in interoceptive processing (p<0.01; threshold-free cluster enhancement [TFCE]-corrected). These WM regions were also significantly correlated with the APPQ interoceptive avoidance subscale and BDI scores in patients with PD (p<0.01, TFCE-corrected). Correlation analysis among the HC subjects revealed no significant findings. There has been no comparative study on the structural neural correlates of AS in PD. The current study suggests that the WM correlates of AS in patients with PD may be associated with the insula and the adjacent temporo

  3. Deep brain stimulation for severe treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder: An open-label case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Sarah; Evans, Andrew H; Mangelsdorf, Simone; Loi, Samantha M; Mocellin, Ramon; Borham, Adam; Bevilacqua, JoAnne; Blair-West, Scott; Walterfang, Mark A; Bittar, Richard G; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation can be of benefit in carefully selected patients with severe intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder. The aim of this paper is to describe the outcomes of the first seven deep brain stimulation procedures for obsessive-compulsive disorder undertaken at the Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital. The primary objective was to assess the response to deep brain stimulation treatment utilising the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a measure of symptom severity. Secondary objectives include assessment of depression and anxiety, as well as socio-occupational functioning. Patients with severe obsessive-compulsive disorder were referred by their treating psychiatrist for assessment of their suitability for deep brain stimulation. Following successful application to the Psychosurgery Review Board, patients proceeded to have deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted in either bilateral nucleus accumbens or bed nucleus of stria terminalis. Clinical assessment and symptom rating scales were undertaken pre- and post-operatively at 6- to 8-week intervals. Rating scales used included the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Obsessive Compulsive Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale. Seven patients referred from four states across Australia underwent deep brain stimulation surgery and were followed for a mean of 31 months (range, 8-54 months). The sample included four females and three males, with a mean age of 46 years (range, 37-59 years) and mean duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder of 25 years (range, 15-38 years) at the time of surgery. The time from first assessment to surgery was on average 18 months. All patients showed improvement on symptom severity rating scales. Three patients showed a full response, defined as greater than 35% improvement in Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score, with the remaining showing responses between 7% and 20%. Deep

  4. Sex-Dependent Effects of Prenatal Stress on Social Memory in Rats: A Role for Differential Expression of Central Vasopressin-1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundwald, N J; Benítez, D P; Brunton, P J

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal stress (PNS) affects a number of traits in the offspring, including stress axis regulation, emotionality and cognition; however, much less is known about the effects of PNS on social memory and the underlying central mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated social preference, social memory under basal and stress conditions and olfactory memory for social and nonsocial odours in the adult offspring of dams exposed to social stress during late pregnancy. Given the key roles that the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems play in facilitating social memory, we further investigated the effects of PNS on the central expression of mRNA for oxytocin (Oxtr) and vasopressin-1a (Avpr1a) receptors. PNS did not affect social preference in either sex; however, social memory was impaired under basal conditions in PNS females but not PNS males. Accordingly, Avpr1a mRNA expression in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) was unaltered in males but was significantly lower in PNS females compared to controls. No differences in Oxtr mRNA expression were detected between control and PNS offspring in either sex in any of the brain regions examined. Social memory deficits in PNS females persisted when social odours were used; however, this does not appear to be a result of impaired olfaction because memory for nonsocial odours was similar in control and PNS females. Under acute stress conditions, deficits in social memory were observed in both male and female control offspring; however, PNS males were unaffected. Moreover, acute stress facilitated social memory in PNS females and this was associated with an up-regulation of Avpr1a mRNA in the lateral septum and BNST. Our data support a role for altered signalling via central Avpr1a in PNS-induced sex-dependent changes in social memory and may have implications for understanding the aetiology of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by social behaviour deficits in humans. © 2015 The

  5. Cocaine accumulates in dopamine-rich regions of primate brain after i.v. administration: comparison with mazindol distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madras, B K; Kaufman, M J

    1994-11-01

    Pharmacological and neurochemical evidence suggest that brain dopamine systems, and the dopamine transporter in particular, contribute significantly to the behavioral effects and reinforcing properties of cocaine. The first objective of this study was to determine whether the brain distribution of cocaine supports these conclusions. A high resolution neuroanatomical map of cocaine disposition in brain after i.v. administration was developed. [3H]Cocaine ([3H](-)-cocaine) was administered to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at a trace dose (0.001 mg/kg) and at doses at or above the threshold for producing behavioral effects (0.1 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg). After 15 min, ex vivo autoradiography revealed the highest accumulation of [3H]cocaine in dopamine-rich brain regions, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens/olfactory tubercle. The norepinephrine-rich locus coeruleus, the hippocampus, and amygdala also accumulated large quantities of [3H]cocaine. Moderately high levels were found in the stria terminalis, medial septum, substantia nigra, and other regions. Lowest levels were found in the cerebellum. A high and positive correlation was established for the brain distribution of [3H]cocaine administered at trace or at behaviorally relevant doses (r: 0.94; P mazindol, a potent norepinephrine and dopamine transport inhibitor with low abuse liability in humans. The disposition of intravenously administered [3H]mazindol in brain (0.001 mg/kg, 0.007 mg/kg) was surveyed by ex vivo autoradiography. In sharp contrast to [3H]cocaine distribution, the highest accumulation of [3H]mazindol was localized in the norepinephrine-rich pineal gland, discrete regions of the hypothalamus (paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus), and the locus coeruleus. Moderately high levels were detected in the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and other regions. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Although dopamine-rich brain regions are principal targets of cocaine

  6. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  7. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Name of the pathogens Name of the hosts other susceptible viability plants. Months. P. bauhiniae . . ... Bauhinia purpurea * * 11. Callistemon indica . . . 12. Dracaena terminalis 14%. P. carica-papayae ... Carica papaya # 4. 10. Bauhinia purpurea 114 . Eriobotrya japonica 15. P. dracaenae . . . Dracaena terminalis * - - - 11.

  8. LNG terminal võib tulla ka igasse Balti riiki. Arutlused esialgu jätkuvad / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Balti peaministrid pole üksmeelel, kas ja kuhu rajada veeldatud gaasi terminal. Lepiti kokku, et kõik kolm riiki teevad vedelgaasi terminali tasuvusuuringu. Leedu kavatseb rajada oma riigi vajadusteks LNG ujuvterminali, kuid see ei välista osalemist suurema terminali projektis

  9. As bases neuroanatômicas do comportamento: histórico e contribuições recentes Neuroanatomical basis of behavior: history and recent contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Carvalhal Ribas

    2007-03-01

    conjunto com o núcleo basal de Meynert e com o sistema septo-banda diagonal, constituem as principais estruturas e sistemas que possuem conexões com as áreas corticais límbicas e que, em conjunto com estas, atuam sobre o hipotálamo e o tronco encefálico que, por sua vez, geram os componentes autonômicos, endócrinos e somatomotores das experiências emocionais e que regulam as atividades básicas de beber, comer e pertinentes ao comportamento sexual.Considering the most recent contributions, the limbic cortical areas, originally known as the greater limbic lobe, besides the cingulated and the parahippocampal gyri also includes the insula and the posterior orbital cortex. In contrast to the nonlimbic cortical areas that project to the basal ganglia (particularly over the dorsal aspects of the striatum, constituted by the caudate nucleus and by the putamen, the limbic cortical areas are characterized by projecting to the hypothalamus and also to the ventral striatum (particularly to the nucleus accumbens. Once all the striatum projects to the globus pallidus which projects to the thalamus and then to the cortex, generating cortical-subcortical reentrant circuits, while the dorsal striatum and pallidum related cortico-subcortical loops are involved with motor activities, the ventral cortical-striatal-pallidal system is particularly related with behavior functions. The extended amygdala (central medial amygdala, stria terminalis or dorsal component, ventral component, and bed nucleus of stria terminalis receives inputs primarily from the limbic cortical areas, is particularly modulated by the prefrontal cortex, and receives also direct connections from the thalamus that enables the amygdala to generate nonspecific and quick responses through its projections to the hypothalamus and to the brainstem. The ventral striatal-pallidal and the extended amygdala are then two basal forebrain macro-anatomical systems, that together with the basal nucleus of Meynert and with the

  10. Improvement of leakage current characteristics of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films by N2O plasma surface treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hag-Ju; Oh, Sejun; Kang, Chang Seok; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Lee, Byoung Taek; Lee, Ki Hoon; Horii, Hideki; Lee, Sang In; Lee, Moon Yong

    1997-12-01

    The effects of plasma surface treatment, using N2O gas, of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) film on the leakage current characteristic of a Pt/BST/Pt capacitor were investigated. As a result of exposure of BST film to the plasma, the leakage current density of the BST capacitor decreased by two orders of magnitude in the high voltage region, and higher onset voltage of an abrupt increase in leakage current was observed. The improvement of leakage properties of BST films can be attributed to the elimination of the bulged curve in the leakage current characteristics. Thermal desorption spectroscopy showed that the elimination was closely related to the reduction of carbon content in the BST film.

  11. 39% access time improvement, 11% energy reduction, 32 kbit 1-read/1-write 2-port static random-access memory using two-stage read boost and write-boost after read sensing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasue; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Kawasumi, Atsushi; Miyano, Shinji; Shinohara, Hirofumi

    2016-04-01

    We propose novel circuit techniques for 1 clock (1CLK) 1 read/1 write (1R/1W) 2-port static random-access memories (SRAMs) to improve read access time (tAC) and write margins at low voltages. Two-stage read boost (TSR-BST) and write word line boost (WWL-BST) after the read sensing schemes have been proposed. TSR-BST reduces the worst read bit line (RBL) delay by 61% and RBL amplitude by 10% at V DD = 0.5 V, which improves tAC by 39% and reduces energy dissipation by 11% at V DD = 0.55 V. WWL-BST after read sensing scheme improves minimum operating voltage (V min) by 140 mV. A 32 kbit 1CLK 1R/1W 2-port SRAM with TSR-BST and WWL-BST has been developed using a 40 nm CMOS.

  12. Canada continues use prohibition of gene recombination cattle somatotropin; Kanada wa idenshikumikaegyu seicho horumon no shiyo kinshi wo keizoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-05

    Canada continued use prohibition of gene recombination cattle somatotropin (BST) which stimulated milk increased production of this company in spite of request of Monsanto Co.. The cow that BST was administered is based on the report of veterinary surgeon that causes reproductive function and lowering in the life, dysbasia and increase in the mastitis on this. From the research report that BST causes thyroid gland cyst of the male rat in U.S.A., consumer organization and environment group petition FDA for the elimination of BST from the U.S.A. market. In the meantime, Monsanto Co. in the report which Canada adopted, chemical structure is different, and it reports that it uses BST of other company in which dosing method and dosing frequency differ and disregards the report of Cornell university in which the life of the cow administered more and more does not lower BST. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Evaluation of Efficiency of Schoenly Trap for Collecting Adult Sarcosaprophagous Dipterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordonez Gloria, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Communities of adult sarcosaprophagous dipterans were evaluated using both Schoenly traps (BST) baited with rabbit carcasses and the traditional forensic methodology (TradC) in the Sabana de Bogota ́ , Colombia. During 42 sampling days, 2,726 adult dipterans were collected (2,291 by BST and 435...... and matched rank-abun- dance plots indicated a signiÞcant nesting of the dipteran community collected by TradC with respect to BST captures. By comparing the structure and composition of the collected commu- nities, only those collected by BST showed repeatability of the results. The above......-mentioned information allows us to consider BST as a superior methodology to perform inventories of Diptera imagoes associated with carcasses. In the community collected by BST, the most abundant and rich families were Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Phoridae, and Sarcophagidae, all of them necroph- agous species associated...

  14. Studies on gas sensing performance of pure and modified barium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thick films of different thicknesses of BST were prepared by screen-printing technique and gas-sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases. The films showed highest response and selectivity to ammonia gas. The effect of film thickness on gas response was also studied. As prepared BST thick films ...

  15. Teaching Reading Comprehension Skills to a Child with Autism Using Behaviour Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Binita D.; Moore, Dennis W.; Furlonger, Brett E.; Anderson, Angelika; Busacca, Margherita L.; English, Derek L.

    2017-01-01

    A multiple probe design across skills was used to examine the effects of behaviour skills training (BST) on teaching four reading comprehension skills (predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing) to a 7th grade student with autism. Following baseline, the student received 12 sessions of BST during which each skill was taught to…

  16. Novel speed test for evaluation of badminton specific movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Karlsen, Anders; Nybo, Lars

    2015-01-01

    in badminton players. Thus, the BST appears to be sport specific as it may discriminate between groups (elite, less trained players and non-badminton players) with similar sprinting performance and the low test-retest variation may allow for using the BST to evaluate longitudinal changes e.g. training effects...

  17. Comparison of Computer Based Instruction to Behavior Skills Training for Teaching Staff Implementation of Discrete-Trial Instruction with an Adult with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, Melissa R.; Williams, W. Larry; Garrido, Natalia; Lee, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, behavior skills training (BST) is compared to a computer based training package for teaching discrete trial instruction to staff, teaching an adult with autism. The computer based training package consisted of instructions, video modeling and feedback. BST consisted of instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback. Following…

  18. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thick films of different thicknesses of BST were prepared by screen-printing technique and gas-sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases. The films showed highest response and selectivity to ammonia gas. The effect of film thickness on gas response was also studied. As prepared BST thick films ...

  19. Measurement of Elastic Modulus of Alumina and Barium Strontium Titanate Wafers Produced by Tape Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MEASUREMENT OF ELASTIC MODULUS OF ALUMINA AND BARIUM STRONTIUM TITANATE WAFERS PRODUCED BY...configuration testing method. Samples of barium strontium titanate (BST) were made using a regular powder pressing, sintering, pelletizing, and...fabricated using thin wafers of barium strontium titanate (BST) and aluminum oxide (alumina) ceramic during launch of a system. Sandia National

  20. Mathematical model of Boltzmann's sigmoidal equation applicable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-18

    Aug 18, 2017 ... deposits of BST on substrates of nichrome under the same experimental conditions, showing differences in the ratio Ba/Sr of the BST due to ... process conditions to be expected to control crosslinking so as to make the best ... value of the independent variable, the function is continuous; on the other hand, ...

  1. A Comparison of Staff Training Methods for Effective Implementation of Discrete Trial Teaching for Learners with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Kaneen Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Discrete trial teaching is an effective procedure for teaching a variety of skills to children with autism. However, it must be implemented with high integrity to produce optimal learning. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is a staff training procedure that has been demonstrated to be effective. However, BST is time and labor intensive, and with…

  2. [Practical application of recombinant bovine somatotropin: sequelae for man, animal and animal husbandry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievits, J M; van Dam, H C; Hessel, H W; Renkema, J A; Brand, A

    1988-12-01

    Recombinant Bovine Somtatotropin (r-BST) may be produced commercially in the forseeable future. On the basis of a study of the literature, it may be assumed in all likelihood that administration of r-BST to dairy cows will not have a negative effect on public health. However additional research on potential biological activity of recombinant-BST or its fragments and of somatomedins after oral administration, is advisable. Negative effects on the health, fertility and life-span of animals were not observed so far under experimental conditions but any reference to field situations is absent in the literature. Treatment with r-BST should not be initiated prior to within eighty days after parturition. Administration of r-BST also requires proper management in terms of ration formulation and feeding to ensure maintenance of health and production of dairy cattle. The use of r-BST will result in a less accurate estimation of the breeding potential of selected cows, resulting in a reduction of the genetic improvement of milk production. Increased economic benefits should be obtained on farms having high stocking rates (2.35 dairy cows/ha) compared with those having low stocking rates (1.90), varying with the price of r-BST. It is anticipated that the use of r-BST will have little effect on the reduction of the number of dairy cattle and dairy farms up to 1995.

  3. The Effects of Instructions, Rehearsal, Modeling, and Feedback on Acquisition and Generalization of Staff Use of Discrete Trial Teaching and Student Correct Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarokoff, Randi A.; Sturmey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A limited number of studies have investigated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on staff acquisition and generalization of discrete trial teaching (DTT) and student behavior. BST was used to improve three staff's use of DTT interactions with four children with autism. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to assess…

  4. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... provide as a service, scenario based physiology training, which includes hypobaric chamber training. BST may offer its scenario based physiology altitude training as a service to a prospective launch and...: Notification of criteria used to evaluate the Black Sky Training, Inc. (BST) safety approval application...

  5. Evaluating Behavioral Skills Training with and without Simulated in Situ Training for Teaching Safety Skills to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond; Gross, Amy; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Jostad, Candice; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to BST plus simulated in situ training (SIT) for teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. The results were evaluated in a posttest only control group design. Following the first assessment, participants in both training groups and the control group who did not…

  6. Exposure level from selected base station tower around Kuala Nerus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health risk due to RF radiation exposure from base station tower (BST) has been debated for years leading to public concerns. Thus, this preliminary study aims to measure, evaluate and analyze the exposure level on three selected BST around Kuala Nerus. The measurement of exposure level in terms of voltage ...

  7. Superovulatory response and embryonic progressive in Iranian Qezel ewes treated with two different concentrations of bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Asgari Safdar

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The treatment 50 mg bovine somatotropins enhance the ratio and growth of the transferable embryos. Embryos of bST-50 treatment indicated an improved embryonic development but bST did not affect the pregnancy rates of transferred embryos.

  8. Bovine somatotropin: review of an emerging animal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, D E

    1992-12-01

    One of the first potential biotechnology products for animal production is bST. Research in the technology of bST has involved scientists and support from federal agencies, universities, and private industry. As a consequence of this extensive cooperation, more than 1000 bST studies have been conducted, which involved over 20,000 dairy cows, and results have been confirmed by scientists throughout the world. This quantity of published research is unprecedented for a new technology and greater than most dairy technologies in use. In contrast to steroids, bST is a protein hormone. Milk yield and persistency responses to bST have been observed for all dairy breeds examined. Quality of management is the major factor affecting magnitude of milk response to bST. The mechanism of action of bST involves a series of orchestrated changes in the metabolism of body tissues so that more nutrients can be used for milk synthesis. It is these coordinated changes that allow the animal to achieve an increased milk yield while remaining normal and healthy. Bioenergetic studies demonstrated that bST-supplemented animals are not stressed. Similarly, there are no adverse health effects from bST even under poor management conditions. Composition of milk (fat, protein, lactose, cholesterol, minerals, and vitamins) is not substantially altered when bST is used and does not differ in manufacturing characteristics. Public perception is of paramount importance if bST or any new technology is to be effectively implemented. New technology must be understood and perceived as safe and beneficial both by farmers, who would utilize it, and consumers, who would purchase the dairy products. With bST use, a unit of milk is produced with less feed and protein supplement and with a reduction in animal excreta (manure, urine, and methane). Nationally, the use of bST simply reinforces, but does not fundamentally change, dairy industry trends of increased milk yield per cow, reduced number of cows, and

  9. Increased production of peptide deformylase eliminates retention of formylmethionine in bovine somatotropin overproduced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, W C; Bentle, K A; Schlittler, M R; Schwane, A C; O'Neil, J P; Bogosian, G

    1996-10-03

    In Escherichia coli and most other microorganisms, peptide synthesis is started at methionine start codons which are read only by N-formyl-methionine-tRNA. The formyl group is normally removed from the N-terminal Met residue of the peptide by peptide deformylase (PDF). However, it has been observed that overproduction of proteins in recombinant bacteria often yields protein products which are incompletely deformylated. Certain proteins could be poor substrates for PDF and exhibit incomplete deformylation, particularly when they are overproduced. Strains of E. coli which overproduce bovine somatotropin (BST) have a significant fraction of the BST with the formyl group retained. The PDF gene was isolated and positioned into a BST production vector in such a way that the BST and PDF genes were coexpressed. In strains containing this coexpression vector, the levels of PDF were increased and formylated BST was undetectable.

  10. Internal residual stress studies and enhanced dielectric properties in La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 buffered (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui

    2009-09-01

    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited on La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 (LSCO) buffered and unbuffered Pt (111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The former exhibits a (100) preferred orientation and the latter a random orientation, respectively. Grazing incident x-ray diffraction study revealed that the tensile residual stress observed in the latter is markedly reduced in the former. As a result, the dielectric property of the LSCO buffered BST thin film is greatly improved, which shows a larger dielectric constant and tunability, smaller loss tangent, and lower leakage current than those of the unbuffered BST thin film. The relaxation of the larger tensile residual stress is attributed to the larger grain size in the buffered BST thin film and to a closer match of thermal expansion coefficient between the BST and the LSCO buffer layer.

  11. The Moderating Effects of Financial Broad-scope Trust on Consumer Knowledge, Cognitive Effort, and Financial Healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    Substantial research results suggest the global financial crisis has negatively affected consumers' trust in financial service providers. Notably, trust not only relates to consumer trust in individual companies but also relates to the broader business context in which consumers may plan and carry...... and financial healthiness. In addition, it is demonstrated that BST negatively influences cognitive effort and positively influences financial healthiness. Our results demonstrate the importance of developing BST as it may ease the burdens put on consumers' financial knowledge and processing capabilities, which...... out their financial behavior. This latter form of trust can be referred to as "broad-scope" trust (BST). BST is especially important in a society context because lack of BST may reduce financial market dynamism, competition, and productivity. Consequently, financial service providers assume...

  12. Ärimehed lennukitüüri taga / Küllike Rooväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooväli, Küllike, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Copterline Eesti terminali juht Tõnis Lepp ja Eesti Esimese Aeronautikaklubi juht Johan Pender lendamisest, lennuõpetusest. Lisad: Eralenduri õpe Eestis; Erapiloodi kursus. Vt. samas: Kooliõpetajast saab vaheajal lendur [intervjuu Eesti Era- ja Harrastuspilootide Liidu esimehe Hendrik Aguriga

  13. Balti riigid asutavad Rail Balticu raudteefirma / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel Tallinnas jõuti üksmeelele Euroopa rööpalaiusega Rail Balticu ehitamises. Projekti elluviimiseks luuakse ühisettevõte. Veeldatud maagaasi terminali asukohas üksmeel puudub

  14. Dombrovskis: toetus Rail Balticule sõltub Siim Kallasest / Valdis Dombrovskis ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dombrovskis, Valdis, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Läti peaministriga Swedbankiga seotud sularahapaanikast, LNG terminali asukohast, Läti ettepanekust peatada Baltimaade eletrkisüsteemide Euroopaga sünkroniseerimise projekt, Poola väljumisest kavandatavast Visaginase tuumajaama projektist, Rail Balticust

  15. Kak zhit v Jevropeiskom Sojuze? : AO DBT = What will the life in the European Union be like? : AO DBT / Vladimir Volohhonski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volohhonski, Vladimir, 1948-2013

    2003-01-01

    DBT (Dry Bulk Terminal) AS-i juhatuse esimees räägib kuivainete terminali tegevusest tollivabas tsoonis, võrdleb Baltimaade ja Venemaa sadamate olukorda ning prognoosib Euroopa Liiduga liitumise mõju Eesti transiitkaubandusele

  16. Kelle süül ikkagi nurjus Baskimaa rahuprotsess? / Anna-Maria Penu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Penu, Anna-Maria, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Madridi lennujaama terminalis plahvatas pomm, riigi siseministri sõnul lõpetas see rahuprotsessi. Autori hinnangul eksis peaminister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero, uskudes, et Baskimaa probleem on küpseks dialoogiks valmis. Lisa: Rahuvahendaja tekitas segadust

  17. Dlja kompanii "Bega" ne nuzhen shljus v Jevrosojuz! = BEGA does not need any sluice to the EU / Aloizas Kuzmarskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuzmarskis, Aloizas

    2004-01-01

    Leedu stividorettevõtte "Bega" juht Aloizas Kuzmarskis ettevõtte asutamisest, terminali ehitamisest koostöös Klaipeda meresadamaga, kaupade lastimise mahtudest, kvaliteedisertifikaatide omandamisest ja Euroopa Liiduga liitumise mõjudest sadamateenustele

  18. Novõi sobstvennik planirujet rasshirjat sillamjaeskii neftjanoi terminal / Heiti Hääl ; interv. Aleksei Starkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hääl, Heiti, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Ettevõtte Alexela Logistics ja Sillamäe ja Paldiski tütarfirmade juhatuse esimees räägib naftaterminali Sillamäe Oil Terminali omandamisest, naftavedudest ja Venemaa-Eesti naftatransiidi tulevikust

  19. LNG terminal location still a tossup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Lätti rajatava LNG terminali asukoht pole veel teada. 16. märtsil kohtus Poola president Bronislaw Komorowki Läti riigipea Valdis Zatlersiga ja kiitis selle projekti heaks. Venemaast energiasõltumatuse olulisusest

  20. Tonnõ uglja - a põli net / Andrei Babin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Babin, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    Muuga sadamas opereeriv AS Coal Terminal Operator planeerib investeerida 15,5 miljonit krooni keskkonnameetmetesse, et lõpetada ümbruskonna saastamine söetolmuga. Terminali tegevusest. Lisa: Muuga sadama söeterminal

  1. Grain operator miffed at port administration

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ventspils Grain Terminal saatis president Vaira Vike-Freibergale ja mitmetele ministritele kirja sõnumiga, et Ventspilsi Vabasadama (Ventspils Free Port) administratsiooni tegevus takistab terminali äritegevust

  2. Signal k objedineniju / Aleksei Zhigulin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhigulin, Aleksei

    2006-01-01

    Muuga sadamas asuvate naftatransiidi firmade baasil luuakse spetsialiseeritud terminalikompleks. Selle rahvusvahelise projekti, milles osaleb vene kontsern Severstaltrans, strateegiliseks eesmärgiks on arendada terminaliäri Baltimaades. Diagrammid

  3. Eesti Loto uuendab kesksüsteemi / Merike Ojasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojasson, Merike

    2001-01-01

    Riigiettevõte Eesti Loto investeerib kümneid miljoneid kroone uude terminalisüsteemi lootuses, et kaasaegne tehnoloogia kasutuselevõtuga kasvab firma kasum lähema nelja aasta jooksul ligi viis korda

  4. Putin võttis esimesena ette nafta / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Venemaa peaminister Vladimir Putin külastas Primorski ja Ust-Luuga sadamaid, kus avas uue naftasaaduste terminali ning teatas Balti torujuhtmesüsteemi laiendamisest. Vt. samas: Soodne otsus Putini sõbrale

  5. Pregnancy success of lactating Holstein cows after a single administration of a sustained-release formulation of recombinant bovine somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez CG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results regarding the use of bovine somatotropin for enhancing fertility in dairy cattle are variable. Here, the hypothesis was tested that a single injection of a sustained-release preparation of bovine somatotropin (bST during the preovulatory period would improve pregnancy success of lactating dairy cows at first service. Results The first experiment was conducted in a temperate region of Mexico. Cows inseminated following natural estrus or timed artificial insemination were given a single injection of bST or a placebo injection at insemination (n = 100 cows per group. There was no significant difference between bST and control groups in the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant (29 vs 31% pregnant. The second experiment was performed during heat stress in Florida. Cows were subjected to an ovulation synchronization regimen for first insemination. Cows treated with bST received a single injection at 3 days before insemination. Controls received no additional treatment. As expected, bST did not increase vaginal temperature. Treatment with bST did not significantly increase the proportion of inseminated cows diagnosed pregnant although it was numerically greater for the bST group (24.2% vs 17.8%, 124–132 cows per group. There was a tendency (p = 0.10 for a smaller percent of control cows to have high plasma progesterone concentrations (≥ 1 ng/ml at Day 7 after insemination than for bST-treated cows (72.6 vs 81.1%. When only cows that were successfully synchronized were considered, the magnitude of the absolute difference in the percentage of inseminated cows that were diagnosed pregnant between bST and control cows was reduced (24.8 vs 22.4% pregnant for bST and control. Conclusion Results failed to indicate a beneficial effect of bST treatment on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

  6. Introduction: Addiction and Brain Reward and Anti-Reward Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    bio-psycho-social” model of etiology holds very well for addiction. Addiction appears to correlate with a hypo-dopaminergic dysfunctional state within the reward circuitry of the brain. Neuroimaging studies in humans add credence to this hypothesis. Credible evidence also implicates serotonergic, opioid, endocannabinoid, GABAergic, and glutamatergic mechanisms in addiction. Critically, drug addiction progresses from occasional recreational use to impulsive use to habitual compulsive use. This correlates with a progression from reward-driven to habit-driven drug-seeking behavior. This behavioral progression correlates with a neuroanatomical progression from ventral striatal (nucleus accumbens) to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior. The three classical sets of craving and relapse triggers are a) re-exposure to addictive drugs, b) stress, and c) re-exposure to environmental cues (“people, places, things”) previously associated with drug-taking behavior. Drug-triggered relapse involves the nucleus accumbens and the neurotransmitter dopamine. Stress-triggered relapse involves a) the central nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the neurotransmitter CRF; and b) the lateral tegmental noradrenergic nuclei of the brain stem and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Cue-triggered relapse involves the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the neurotransmitter glutamate. Knowledge of the neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, and neuropharmacology of addictive drug action in the brain is currently producing a variety of strategies for pharmacotherapeutic treatment of drug addiction, some of which appear promising. PMID:21508625

  7. DIAGNÓSTICO DO USO DA INTELIGÊNCIA COMPETITIVA EMPREENDEDORA EM PEQUENAS EMPRESAS DA INDÚSTRIA DE CONFECÇÕES DA CIDADE DE VILA VELHA – ES/DIAGNOSIS OF THE USE OF COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ENTREPRENEURIAL IN SMALL BUSINESS THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY OF THE CITY OF VILA VELHA – ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Soncini Pelissari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As organizações cujas estruturas, processos e tecnologias não estão alinhados com os negócios terão dificuldades em sobreviver. A fim de se manterem, estrategistas de gestão têm se apoiado em práticas como a Inteligência Competitiva (IC – que tem como base a informação e a velocidade de seu uso para melhor alinhar o negócio às estratégias, facilitando o processo de tomada de decisão. Posto isso, objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, analisar a prática da inteligência competitiva de pequenas empresas do Município de Vila Velha/ES e a importância da aplicabilidade da Inteligência Competitiva Empreendedora – assumindo-se que a IC contribui para o alinhamento das informações ambientais às estratégias das organizações. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se o levantamento (survey, em que foi aplicado um questionário com perguntas fechadas a uma amostra não probabilística intencional, aplicado diretamente pelo próprio pesquisador, por e-mail e fax. Os resultados apontaram que, apesar de os administradores pesquisadosdemonstrarem interesse em estruturar suas informações com o objetivo de tomar decisões mais rápidas e assertivas, eles não desenvolvem um processo global de Inteligência Competitiva Empreendedora, vistonão gerenciarem de modo sistemático as informações do mercado.The organizations, whose structures, processes and technologies are not aligned with the businesses, they will have difficulties in surviving. In order to maintain, management strategists have reliedon practices such as Competitive Intelligence (CI - which is based on the information and the speed of its use to better align business strategies, facilitating the process of decision making. That said, the aim with this research, analyzing the practice of competitive intelligence for small businesses in the City of Vila Velha/ES, and the importance of applicability of Competitive Intelligence Entrepreneurship - assuming that, the IC contributes to the alignment of environmental information the strategies of organizations. For data collection, we used the survey (survey, which was applied a questionnaire with closed questions to a non-probabilistic intentional sample applied directly by the researcher by e-mail and fax. The surveyresults indicated that, although the administrators surveyed show interest in structuring your informationwith the objective to make quick decisions and assertive, they do not develop a global process ofCompetitive Intelligence Entrepreneurship, since no systematic way to manage market information.

  8. AvaliaÃÃo do uso de polÃmero EVA, resÃduo da indÃstria de calÃados (EVAR) e aditivos no desempenho reolÃgico de ligante asfÃltico de petrÃleo

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ellen Valentim de Alencar

    2009-01-01

    O desenvolvimento de novas metodologias no campo da engenharia rodoviÃria tem sido uma preocupaÃÃo, visando à melhoria da qualidade das vias pavimentadas, tornando-as mais seguras e resistentes. Algumas inovaÃÃes introduzidas nesta Ãrea tem sido praticadas com a aplicaÃÃo de ligantes asfÃlticos (LAs) modificados, que tem demonstrado melhorar o desempenho destes, contribuindo para a reduÃÃo da formaÃÃo das trilhas de roda e das trincas tÃrmicas. Neste estudo, o ligante asfÃltico (LA) brasileir...

  9. CHEMICAL AND FERMENTATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEPHANT GRASS ENSILED WITH INCREAS-ING LEVELS OF DENIDRATED CASHEW FRUIT BY-PRODUCT CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS E FERMENTATIVAS DO CAPIM-ELEFANTE ENSILADO COM NÍVEIS CRESCENTES DE SUBPRODUTO DA AGROINDÚSTRIA DO CAJU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Efrem Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Nutritive value of silages of Elephant grass (Pen-nisetum   purpureum, Schum. mixed with 0; 3.5%; 7.0%; 10.5% and 14.0 %  of dehydrated by product from juice industry of cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale, L (DBC was determined. A randomized design was used with four replicates. Silages were opened after 65 days and samples taken for analysis of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose HCEL, cellulose (CEL, lig-nin (LIG, crude energy (CE, ash, neutral detergent inso-luble nitrogen (NDIN and acid detergent insoluble nitro-gen (ADIN. Were also analyzed, pH, ammonia nitrogen and organic acids (lactic, acetic, butyric and propionic. Regarding fermentative parameters, there was an expected decrease in pH and the increasing levels of DBC did not affect the concentrations of N-NH3/NT and organic acids. It is concluded that dehydrated cashew by product can be ensiled along with Elephant grass without altering its fer-mentative characteristics. On the other side, the increased cell walls and ADIN contents of the silage may affect its nutritional value.

    Key-words: Cashew byproducts, nutritive value, tropical grass.

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o valor nutritivo das silagens de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. com adição de 0%; 3,5%; 7%; 10,% e 14% do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju (Anacardium occidentale, L. desidratado (subproduto da agroindústria do suco de caju. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 65 dias, os silos foram abertos e coletadas amostras para determinação dos teores de matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, hemicelulose (HCEL, celulose (CEL, lignina (LIG, energia bruta (EB, cinzas, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente neutro (NIDN e nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA. Para avaliar as características fermentativas das silagens, determinaram-se os valores de pH e os teores de nitrogênio amoniacal (% do nitrogênio total e dos ácidos lático, acético, butírico e propiônico. A adição do subproduto do pseudofruto do caju desidratado (SPCD acarretou o aumento dos teores de MS, PB, FDA, LIG, NIDN e NIDA. Para os parâmetros fermentativos, observou-se redução dos valores de pH, porém não se registrou influência dos níveis de adição do SPCD sobre os teores de N-NH3/NT e ácidos orgânicos. Conclui-se que o subproduto do pseudofruto do caju desidratado pode ser ensilado com o capim-elefante, sem comprometer as características fermentativas das silagens de capim-elefante. Porém, o aumento nos componentes da parede celular e do NIDA pode comprometer o valor nutri-cional do ensilado final.

    Palavras-chaves: Gramínea tropical, subprodutos do caju, valor nutritivo.

  10. GESTÃO SUSTENTÁVEL NA CADEIA DE SUPRIMENTOS E DESEMPENHO INOVADOR EM PROCESSOS: UM ESTUDO NA INDÚSTRIA DO ALUMÍNIO / Sustainable management in supply chain and innovative in performance processes: a study in the aluminum industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Adilson Carlos; Gomes, Clandia Maffini; Kneipp, Jordana Marques

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo associar a gestão sustentável da cadeia de suprimentos com o desempenho inovador do processo produtivo na indústria do alumínio. Para atingir esse objetivo, utilizaram-se como base os pressupostos teóricos de Pagell e Wu (2009), Makkonen e Van Der Have (2012) e Gunday et al. (2011). O estudo possui uma abordagem qualitativa e é de natureza exploratória e descritiva. Como estratégia de pesquisa, utilizou-se o estudo de caso, desenvolvido a partir de entrevi...

  11. ADSORBENTES A BASE DE CASCARILLA DE ARROZ EN LA RETENCIÓN DE CROMO DE EFLUENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA DE CURTIEMBRES ADSORVENTES A BASE DE CASCA DE ARROZ NA RETENÇÃO DE CROMO DE EFLUENTES DA INDÚSTRIA DE CURTUMES RICE HUSK-BASED ADSORBENTS IN THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM TANNING INDUSTRY EFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANSY MILENA RODRÍGUEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes materiales adsorbentes fueron preparados a partir de la cascarilla de arroz (un residuo lignocelulósico agroindustrial, para la remoción de cromo presente en las aguas resultantes de la curtición, debido a su alta toxicidad para la salud humana y a nivel ambiental. La cascarilla de arroz se evaluó como ceniza y carbón activado con acido fosfórico e hidróxido de sodio como agentes activantes. La parte experimental consistió en la calcinación de la cascarilla de arroz, activación química, caracterización, pruebas de adsorción y absorción atómica; obteniendo mejores resultados el adsorbente activado con hidróxido de sodio. Para la activación de la cascarilla de arroz con NaOH se requirió una serie de experimentos para determinar las mejores condiciones de operación en el proceso de obtenci��n del carbón activado. Se obtuvo una mayor remoción en el carbón que se activo a una temperatura de 600°C, un tiempo de activación de 30 minutos y una concentración de la solución de 1% p/p; la remoción de cromo fue del 72,8% comparado con la cascarilla de arroz activada con H3PO4 que fue del 54,5% y la ceniza de cascarilla de arroz 49,2%.Diferentes materiais adsorventes fórum preparados a partir da casca de arroz, um resíduo lignocelulósico agroindustrial, para a remoção de cromo das águas resultantes da curtição, devido a sua alta toxicidade na saúde e ao nível ambiental. A casca de arroz, a qual se avalia como cinza e carvão ativado com acido fosfórico e hidróxido de sódio como agentes ativadores. A parte experimental consta de calcinação da casca de arroz, ativação química, caracterização, testes de adsorção e absorção atômica; obtendo os melhores resultados o adsorvente ativado com hidróxido de sódio. A ativação da casca de arroz com NaOH se precisaram uma série de experimentos para determinar as melhores condições de operação no processo de obtenção do carvão ativado. Obteve-se uma maior remoção no carvão que se ativo a uma temperatura de 600°C, um tempo de ativação de 30 minutos e uma concentração da solução de 1% p/p; a remoção foi do 72,8% comparado com a casca de arroz ativada com H3PO4 que foi do 54,5% e a cinza de casca de arroz 49,2%.Several adsorbent materials were prepared from rice husk, a lignocellulosic waste from agro-industry, for the removal of chromium present in the effluents of the tanning, due to its high toxicity in the health and to environmental level. The rice husk was evaluated as ash and activated coal with phosphoric acid or hydroxide of sodium as activating agents. The experimental part consisted of calcination of the rice husk, chemical activation, characterization, tests of adsorption and tests of atomic absorption; obtaining better results the adsorbent activated with hydroxide of sodium. The activation of the rice husk with NaOH required a series of experiments to determine the best conditions of operation in the process of obtaining of the activated coal. A major removal was obtained in the coal that was activated at 600°C 30 minutes of activation time and 1% p/p of solution concentration; the removal was of the 72,8 % compared with the rice husk ash activated with H3PO4 that was of the 54,5% and the rice husk ash 49,2%.

  12. UNA MIRADA A LA AGROINDUSTRIA DE EXTRACCIÓN DE ALMIDÓN DE YUCA, DESDE LA ESTANDARIZACIÓN DE PROCESOS UM OLHAR À AGROINDÚSTRIA DE EXTRAÇÃO DE AMIDO DE MANDIOCA, DESDE A PADRONIZAÇÃO DE PROCESSOS VIEW OF AGROINDUSTRY OF CASSAVA STARCH EXTRACTION FROM THE PROCESS STANDARDIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La agroindustria de extracción de almidón de yuca hace parte importante de la economía de Colombia, concentrándose su producción en el departamento del Cauca; el proceso emplea raíces frescas de yuca, agua y energía eléctrica como principales recursos, generando residuos sólidos y líquidos cuyo inadecuado aprovechamiento o vertimiento trae impactos ambientales y económicos. En este estudio se formularon medidas para la optimización de los procesos apoyándose en herramientas como el balance de masa y el estudio de métodos, tiempos y movimientos, considerando el contexto tecnológico y socioeconómico del sector. Los resultados mostraron una eficiencia del proceso entre 51 % y 59 %; se identificó que la etapa de colado presenta el mayor consumo de agua y generación de residuos sólidos (afrecho, la etapa de sedimentación genera la mayor cantidad de residuos líquidos con elevada carga contaminante. Se evidenció la necesidad de estandarizar y optimizar las etapas de lavado-pelado y colado por requerir los mayores tiempos, incrementar la capacidad del rallado (etapa crítica que influye en la eficiencia del proceso y calidad del almidón y registrar la información del proceso como estrategia de control.A agroindústria de extração de amido de mandioca faz parte importante da economia da Colômbia, concentrando-se sua produção no departamento do Cauca; o processo emprega raízes frescas de mandioca, água e energia elétrica como principais recursos, gerando resíduos sólidos e líquidos cujo inadequado aproveitamento ou eliminação traz impactos ambientais e econômicos. Neste estudo formularam-se medidas para a otimização dos processos apoiando-se em ferramentas como o balanço de massa e o estudo de métodos, tempos e movimentos, considerando o contexto tecnológico e socioeconômico do setor. Os resultados mostraram uma eficiência do processo entre 51 % e 59 %; identificou-se que a etapa de coado apresenta o maior consumo de água e geração de resíduos sólidos (farelo; a etapa de sedimentação gera a maior quantidade de resíduos líquidos com elevada carga contaminante. Evidenciou-se a necessidade de padronizar e otimizar os períodos de lavado-descascado e coado por requerer os maiores tempos, aumentar a capacidade do ralado (etapa crítica que influi na eficiência do processo e qualidade do amido e registrar a informação do processo como estratégia de controle.In Colombia, the agroindustry of cassava-starch extraction is an important sector of the country's economy; production is focused in Cauca Department; this process uses fresh cassava-roots, water, and electricity as main resources, generating solid and liquid wastes whose inadequate use or disposal brings environmental and economic impacts. In this study were made measures for process optimization supported by tools such as mass balance and study methods, time and motion, considering the technological and socio-economic context of the sector. The results showed process-efficiency between 51 and 59 %; it was identified that the straining stage has the highest water consumption and solid waste generation (fiber cassava pulp; the starch slurry’s sedimentation stage generates the most amount of liquid wastes with high-pollution load. It evidenced the need to standardize and optimize the washing-peeling and strain stages because they require the largest process times; to increase the grating-rasping machine capacity (this critical stage influences the process efficiency and the final starch quality besides recording the process information as control strategy.

  13. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on neuronal function in the non-human primate BNST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterations in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function contribute to many of the adverse behavioral effects of chronic voluntary alcohol drinking, including alcohol dependence and mood disorders; limbic brain structures such as the bed nucleus of the stria termin...

  14. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3-doped (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 lead-free ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Xue

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work prepares (Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST-doped (Bi1∕2Na1∕2TiO3 (NBT lead free ceramics through conventional solid reaction method and analyzes the doping effect of BST on phases, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The phase and structure of the NBT-BST ceramics were investigated through X-ray diffractometer (XRD and Raman. The XRD results showed that BST has diffused into the NBT lattices to form a stable solid solution; while, Raman spectrum showed the bands at low frequency are different with that of pure NBT and divided into two ranges around 247cm−1 and 303cm−1. Relative dense and homogeneous ceramic microstructures could be achieved, with the observation of a slight decrease in average grain size with the increase of BST doping content. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties were also investigated. The dielectric constant increases gradually with increasing the temperature to Tm, and then decrease. The temperature dependence property showed diffused phase transition near Tm. The polarization-electric field (P-E hysteresis loops of BST-doped NBT ceramics showed typical ferroelectric or relaxor nature. Both the Ec and Pr increased first, then decreased with respect to the increase of the BST content.

  15. The Moderating Influence of Broad-Scope Trust on Customer-Seller Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Trust relates not only to customer trust in individual companies (i.e., narrow-scope trust) but also to the broader business context in which customer–seller relationships may develop (i.e., broad-scope trust [BST]). Based on two surveys comprising 1155 bank consumers and 817 insurance consumers,......-scope trust and between narrow-scope trust and loyalty, BST positively moderates the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty. In addition, it is demonstrated that BST positively influences customer satisfaction and narrow-scope trust......Trust relates not only to customer trust in individual companies (i.e., narrow-scope trust) but also to the broader business context in which customer–seller relationships may develop (i.e., broad-scope trust [BST]). Based on two surveys comprising 1155 bank consumers and 817 insurance consumers......, respectively, this study investigates the moderating influence of BST on relationships between satisfaction, narrow-scope trust, and loyalty and also examines the direct influence of BST on these variables. The results indicate that whereas BST negatively moderates relationships between satisfaction and narrow...

  16. The MOTIV-HEART Study: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Pilot Study of Brief Strategic Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psychological distress, biomedical parameters, and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to a poorer prognosis for cardiac disease. Public health's challenge is to motivate patients to utilize self-care. Objective: This prospective, randomized, single-blind pilot study aimed at testing the incremental efficacy of Brief Strategic Therapy (BST) combined with Motivational Interviewing (MI) in improving selected biomedical and psychological outcomes over and beyond those of the stand-alone BST in a residential Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) program. Method: Fourty-two inpatients (17 females), enrolled in a 1-month CR program, were randomly allocated into two conditions: (a) Three sessions of BST and (b) Three sessions of BST plus MI. Data were collected at baseline, discharge, and after 3 months through phone interviews. Results: At discharge, no significant between-group difference was found in any outcome variable. Changes from pre- to post-treatment within each condition showed significant improvements only in the BST group, where the level of external regulation diminished, and both the participants' self-regulation (Relative Autonomous Motivation Index, RAI) and willingness to change improved. At the 3-month follow-up, within-group analyses on responders (BST = 9; BST + MI = 11) showed a statistically significant improvement in the level of systolic blood pressure in both groups. Discussion: Findings showed no evidence of the incremental efficacy of combining BST and MI over and beyond BST alone on either selected biomedical or psychological outcomes among CR patients. Conclusions: Ends and limitations from the present pilot study should be considered and addressed in future investigations.

  17. The MOTIV-HEART Study: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Pilot Study of Brief Strategic Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psychological distress, biomedical parameters, and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to a poorer prognosis for cardiac disease. Public health's challenge is to motivate patients to utilize self-care. Objective: This prospective, randomized, single-blind pilot study aimed at testing the incremental efficacy of Brief Strategic Therapy (BST) combined with Motivational Interviewing (MI) in improving selected biomedical and psychological outcomes over and beyond those of the stand-alone BST in a residential Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) program. Method: Fourty-two inpatients (17 females), enrolled in a 1-month CR program, were randomly allocated into two conditions: (a) Three sessions of BST and (b) Three sessions of BST plus MI. Data were collected at baseline, discharge, and after 3 months through phone interviews. Results: At discharge, no significant between-group difference was found in any outcome variable. Changes from pre- to post-treatment within each condition showed significant improvements only in the BST group, where the level of external regulation diminished, and both the participants' self-regulation (Relative Autonomous Motivation Index, RAI) and willingness to change improved. At the 3-month follow-up, within-group analyses on responders (BST = 9; BST + MI = 11) showed a statistically significant improvement in the level of systolic blood pressure in both groups. Discussion: Findings showed no evidence of the incremental efficacy of combining BST and MI over and beyond BST alone on either selected biomedical or psychological outcomes among CR patients. Conclusions: Ends and limitations from the present pilot study should be considered and addressed in future investigations. PMID:28223950

  18. Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Performance Skills Through Behavioral Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Mary R; Andzik, Natalie R; Kranak, Michael P; Willke, Carolyn P; Curiel, Emily S L; Hensley, Lauren E; Neef, Nancy A

    2017-09-01

    In higher education, instruction that incorporates effective performance skills training is vital to equipping pre-service teachers with the tools they will use to educate children. This study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on performance of evidence-based practices by undergraduate pre-service special education teachers. A pre-post design was used to evaluate performance during role-play. BST sessions produced higher levels of correct performance than baseline measures across all seven participants. We discuss limitations of these results with suggestions for future research, along with recommendations for incorporating BST into university settings.

  19. Utilization of the Baker soil test in synthetic soil preparation for reclamation of coal ash disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, J.P.; Baker, D.E.; Amistadi, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Application of procedures developed for preparation of synthetic soils for reclamation of two coal ash disposal sites in Pennsylvania is presented. These procedures include determination of water holding properties, lime requirement, and the Baker Soil Test (BST) for chemical element analysis. Results from soil and plant analyses following establishment of vegetation on the sites have shown that the BST predicts plant incorporation of chemical elements from the synthetic soils. The results confirm the utility of the BST in planning and executing successful reclamation on disturbed lands in a manner which protects the soil-plant-animal food chain

  20. Efeitos da somatotropina recombinante bovina na taxa de concepção, composição celular do corpo lúteo e morfometria das glândulas endometriais em vacas de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Natália Paulozzi [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    cows treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) have higher conception rate. It was found that maternal and embryonic components are positively affected by the design favoring bST. However, few investigations have been done on beef cows. It was hypothesized that beef cows treated with bST, the day timed AI (TAI) or seven days after TAI, have higher conception rates and the morphology of the endometrial glands and the proportion of steroidogenic luteal cells are altered by such treatme...

  1. ORF Sequence: NC_001138 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s, required for proper discrimination between resident ER proteins and Golgi-bound cargo molecules; Bst1p [S...ER that negatively regulates COPII vesicle formation, prevents production of vesicles with defective subunit

  2. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with.

  3. A Systematic Review of Literature Using Business Systems Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Morgan, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Business system theory (BST) lies at the intersection of organization theory, political economy and sociology. It is gaining incremental attention in the field of management, particularly in cross-border and comparative studies of the structure, strategy and management of multinationals. Yet......, international business (IB) studies do not tend to borrow much from this sub-field. This paper reviews BST literature from 1992 to 2015 and seeks to identify its contributions and gaps, in ways that can be helpful for future research in IB. Trend analysis of BST literature and mapping this sub-field suggests...... that the BST research stream can be identified in relation to four ‘broad themes’ which we describe as junctures- i.e. comparative business systems, internationalisation and MNC management, organizational capability and innovation, and transnational communities. Mapping and pattern recognition of the ‘themes...

  4. An FPGA Based Multiprocessing CPU for Beam Synchronous Timing in CERN's SPS and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ballester, F J; Gras, J J; Lewis, J; Savioz, J J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    The Beam Synchronous Timing system (BST) will be used around the LHC and its injector, the SPS, to broadcast timing meassages and synchronize actions with the beam in different receivers. To achieve beam synchronization, the BST Master card encodes messages using the bunch clock, with a nominal value of 40.079 MHz for the LHC. These messages are produced by a set of tasks every revolution period, which is every 89 us for the LHC and every 23 us for the SPS, therefore imposing a hard real-time constraint on the system. To achieve determinism, the BST Master uses a dedicated CPU inside its main Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) featuring zero-delay hardware task switching and a reduced instruction set. This paper describes the BST Master card, stressing the main FPGA design, as well as the associated software, including the LynxOS driver and the tailor-made assembler.

  5. Evaluating the educational environment of an international animal model-based wet lab course for undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Ch. Sideris

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Students seem to positively rate the ESMSC educational environment. Junior as well as KCL students appear to be more enthusiastic. Further research should focus on the optimal strategy for early involvement and motivation of various students' groups in BST.

  6. Teaching Reading Comprehension Skills to a Child with Autism Using Behaviour Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Binita D; Moore, Dennis W; Furlonger, Brett E; Anderson, Angelika; Busacca, Margherita L; English, Derek L

    2017-10-01

    A multiple probe design across skills was used to examine the effects of behaviour skills training (BST) on teaching four reading comprehension skills (predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing) to a 7th grade student with autism. Following baseline, the student received 12 sessions of BST during which each skill was taught to criterion. At each session, data was also collected on the accuracy of oral responses to 10 comprehension questions. BST was associated with clear gains in the participant's performance on each comprehension skill, along with concomitant gains in reading comprehension both on the daily probes and a standardized measure. Skills maintained at follow-up support the conclusion that BST was effective in improving the comprehension skills of a child with autism.

  7. Porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras tratadas con somatotropina bovina al momento de la inseminación

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Mendoza Medel; Joel Hernández Cerón; Luis A. Zarco Quintero; Carlos G. Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    S e probó si una sola inyección de la hormona bovina del crecimiento (bST) al momento de la inseminaci ón aumenta el porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras. Se utilizaron 316 vacas repetidoras (vacas con > 3 servicios infértiles); al momento de la inseminación se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo bST (n= 175), recibió 500 mg sc de bST al momento de la inseminación. El grupo testigo (n=141), no recibió bST. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación recta...

  8. Modified Pechini Processing of Barium and Lanthanum-Lithium Titanate Nanoparticles and Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, A; Kobylianska, S; Durilin, D; Ovchar, O; Trachevskii, V; Jancar, B; Belous, A

    2017-12-01

    Barium-strontium titanate (BST) Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 and lanthanum-lithium titanate (LLT) La 0.5 Li 0.5 TiO 3 nanopowders and thin films have been obtained via the modified Pechini route. Polyesterification and complexation processes of gel formation have been examined. Hypothetical models of coordinative polymers formed in sol-gel system have been suggested. It has been shown that BST and LLT solid solutions form in one step at relatively low temperature. X-ray diffraction confirms that the final products, which are single phases and have cubic shape, are formed at 600 and 700 °C for BST and LLT respectively. It has been found that use of thermal shock as pretreatment allows to increase the density of BST- and LLT-based thin films.

  9. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  10. Verification of the flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate through d33 meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlong Shu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexoelectricity is a newly arising electromechanical property that couples strain gradient to polarization. This physical property widely exists in most of the solid dielectrics but has quite weak response that often overlooked. Recently, barium strontium titanate (BST, a well-known ferroelectrics, has been reported to be a promising flexoelectric material, and thus triggered the associated studies on flexoelectricity to a new height. However, part of the researchers argued the observed flexoelectricity in BST is either by residual piezoelectricity or centric symmetry breaking during the densification process. In this paper, we would verify the flexoelectricity in BST ceramics by many comparison experiments. Our experimental result suggested the observed polarization in BST material is likely to be induced by strain gradient through flexoelectricity.

  11. Verification of the flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate through d33 meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Longlong; Wang, Tong; Jiang, Xiaoning; Huang, Wenbin

    2016-12-01

    Flexoelectricity is a newly arising electromechanical property that couples strain gradient to polarization. This physical property widely exists in most of the solid dielectrics but has quite weak response that often overlooked. Recently, barium strontium titanate (BST), a well-known ferroelectrics, has been reported to be a promising flexoelectric material, and thus triggered the associated studies on flexoelectricity to a new height. However, part of the researchers argued the observed flexoelectricity in BST is either by residual piezoelectricity or centric symmetry breaking during the densification process. In this paper, we would verify the flexoelectricity in BST ceramics by many comparison experiments. Our experimental result suggested the observed polarization in BST material is likely to be induced by strain gradient through flexoelectricity.

  12. Breed and selection line differences in the temperament of beef cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16426

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The temperament of four beef cattle breeds were measured using a flight time test (FT and a behavior score test (BST. FT was defined as the time taken by animals to cross a distance of 2 m after weight scale. The BST used a visual assessment of cattle behavior in which the results of four categories defined the score: movements, breathing intensity, vocalization and kicking. FT and BST coefficients of heritability were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood, considering half siblings. Caracu presented a lower BST value than the other breeds. Nellore presented intermediate results, followed by Guzerat and Gyr with similar and higher means (p p= -0.36; p s = -0.63; p Bos indicus cattle.  

  13. Net-zero building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In its experimental work on research and development of innovative technologies for low income housing on the Innovation Site on the CSIR campus in Pretoria, the Building Science and Technology (BST) competence area identified a number...

  14. Effect of rare earth substitution on properties of barium strontium titanate ceramic and its multiferroic composite with nickel cobalt ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahuja, Poonam; Kotnala, R.K.; Tandon, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rare earth ions Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Sm 3+ have been substituted in Ba 0.95 Sr 0.05 TiO 3 (BST). • Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 has been used as ferrimagnetic phase to obtain composites. • Substitution of these ions increases dielectric constant of BST and composites. • Magnetoelectric coefficient of composites increases on substitution of these ions. - Abstract: Effect of substitution of rare earth ions (Dy 3+ , Gd 3+ and Sm 3+ ) on various properties of Ba 0.95 Sr 0.05 TiO 3 (BST) i.e. the composition Ba 0.95−1.5x Sr 0.05 R x TiO 3 (where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and R are rare earths Dy, Gd, Sm) and that of their multiferroic composite with Ni 0.8 Co 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 (NCF) has been studied. Shifting of peaks corresponding to different compositions in the X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the substitution of rare earth ions at both Ba 2+ and Ti 4+ sites in BST. It is clear from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images that rare earth substitution in BST increases its grain size in both pure and composite samples. Substitution of rare earth ions results in increase in value of dielectric constant of pure and composite samples. Sm substitution in BST significantly decreases its Curie temperature. Dy substituted pure and composite samples possess superior ferroelectric properties as confirmed by polarization vs electric field (P–E) loops. Composite samples containing Dy, Gd and Sm substituted BST as ferroelectric phase possess lower values of remanent and saturation magnetizations in comparison to composite sample containing pure BST as ferroelectric phase (BSTC). Rare earth substituted composite samples possess higher value of magnetoelectric coefficient as compared to that for BSTC

  15. Feline tetherin is characterized by a short N-terminal region and is counteracted by the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Michele; Calistri, Arianna; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Salata, Cristiano; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Pistello, Mauro; Borsetti, Alessandra; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2012-06-01

    Tetherin (BST2) is the host cell factor that blocks the particle release of some enveloped viruses. Two putative feline tetherin proteins differing at the level of the N-terminal coding region have recently been described and tested for their antiviral activity. By cloning and comparing the two reported feline tetherins (called here cBST2(504) and cBST2*) and generating specific derivative mutants, this study provides evidence that feline tetherin has a shorter intracytoplasmic domain than those of other known homologues. The minimal tetherin promoter was identified and assayed for its ability to drive tetherin expression in an alpha interferon-inducible manner. We also demonstrated that cBST2(504) is able to dimerize, is localized at the cellular membrane, and impairs human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particle release, regardless of the presence of the Vpu antagonist accessory protein. While cBST2(504) failed to restrict wild-type feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) egress, FIV mutants, bearing a frameshift at the level of the envelope-encoding region, were potently blocked. The transient expression of the FIV envelope glycoprotein was able to rescue mutant particle release from feline tetherin-positive cells but did not antagonize human BST2 activity. Moreover, cBST2(504) was capable of specifically immunoprecipitating the FIV envelope glycoprotein. Finally, cBST2(504) also exerted its function on HIV-2 ROD10 and on the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239. Taken together, these results show that feline tetherin does indeed have a short N-terminal region and that the FIV envelope glycoprotein is the predominant factor counteracting tetherin restriction.

  16. AA, bending magnet, BLG

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.

  17. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  18. Porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras tratadas con somatotropina bovina al momento de la inseminación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mendoza Medel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available S e probó si una sola inyección de la hormona bovina del crecimiento (bST al momento de la inseminaci ón aumenta el porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras. Se utilizaron 316 vacas repetidoras (vacas con > 3 servicios infértiles; al momento de la inseminación se dividieron aleatoriamente en dos grupos: grupo bST (n= 175, recibió 500 mg sc de bST al momento de la inseminación. El grupo testigo (n=141, no recibió bST. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal 45 ± 3 días después de la IA. Para conocer el efecto de la bST en la s concentraciones plasmáticas de IGF-1 y progesterona, se obtuvieron muestras sanguíneas diariamente a partir de la inseminación hasta el día 10 posinseminación en siete vacas tratadas con bST y siete testigos. El tratamiento con bST incrementó el porcentaje de concepción [81/175 (46 % vs 49/141 (35 %]; P <0.01. Las concentraciones de IGF-1 fueron mayores ( P <0.001 en las vacas que recibieron bST que en las testigo. Las concentraciones de progesterona fueron similares entre los grupos ( P =0.68. Se concluye que una sola inyección de la hormona bovina del crecimiento al momento de la inseminación incrementa el porcentaje de concepción en vacas Holstein repetidoras.

  19. Study Addiction: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Study Examining Temporal Stability and Predictors of Its Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Atroszko, Pawe? Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, St?le

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: "Study addiction" has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. \\ud Methods: The BStAS and the Ten Item Persona...

  20. Application of RF varactor using Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3/TiO2/HR-Si substrate for reconfigurable radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Byoung; Park, Chul-Soon

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, the potential feasibility of integrating Ba(x)Sr(1-x)TiO3 (BST) films into Si wafer by adopting tunable interdigital capacitor (IDC) with TiO2 thin film buffer layer and a RF tunable active bandpass filter (BPF) using BST based capacitor are proposed. TiO2 as a buffer layer is grown onto Si substrate by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and the interdigital capacitor on BST(500 nm)/TiO2 (50 nm)/HR-Si is fabricated. BST interdigital tunable capacitor integrated on HR-Si substrate with high tunability and low loss tangent are characterized for their microwave performances. BST/TiO2/HR-Si IDC shows much enhanced tunability values of 40% and commutation quality factor (CQF) of 56.71. A resonator consists of an active capacitance circuit together with a BST varactor. The active capacitor is made of a field effect transistor (FET) that exhibits negative resistance as well as capacitance. The measured second order active BPF shows bandwidth of 110 MHz, insertion loss of about 1 dB at the 1.81 GHz center frequency and tuning frequency of 230 MHz (1.81-2.04 GHz).

  1. Usefulness of whole PTH assay in patients with renal osteodystrophy. Correlation with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Nishida, Hidemi; Baba, Kenkichi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Okuda, Seiya; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2005-01-01

    Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay has recently been reported to be effective in evaluating both 1-84 PTH (whole PTH) and inactive 7-84 PTH. Inactive 7-84 PTH is considered to be increased in hemodialysis patients and to prevent the effects of 1-84 PTH, and intact PTH is considered to overestimate the PTH activity in these patients. As such, a whole PTH assay has recently been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of a whole PTH assay using the bone to soft tissue (B/ST) ratio on bone scintigraphy. Twenty-five hemodialysis patients were included in our study. In all patients, bone scintigraphy and a blood test [whole PTH, intact PTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P)] were performed. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the cranium, lumbar vertebrae, left femoral neck, and soft tissue of the medial left thigh to obtain the B/ST ratio. The B/ST ratio of the cranium and left femoral neck correlated with whole PTH and intact PTH. In particular, the B/ST ratio of the cranium correlated most significantly with the value of whole PTH. Whole PTH levels correlated with intact PTH levels (r=0.891, p<0.0001). Our data indicate that a whole PTH assay may be useful in evaluating PTH activity using the B/ST ratio. The B/ST ratio of the cranium may reflect the bone metabolism of hemodialysis patients. (author)

  2. Studies on Nano Barium Strontium Titanate/Cellulose Derivatives Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamzeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the preparation and properties of the composites made from cellulose acetate butyrate and cellulose acetate propionate with various amounts of barium strontium titanate nano-particle. The nano-particles of barium strontium titanate (BST with formulation of Ba0.77Sr0.23TiO3 were made by sol-gel method and their purity and particle size were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The composites were prepared with BST nano-particle loading of 10 to 50 vol%, and their distribution in the composites studied using SEM imaging. The dielectric constant of the composites was measured at 1 kHz and 100 kHz at room temperature. It was found that the adopted procedure produced dense and uniform composites. The dielectric constant of the composites increased with the solid contentof BST and followed the modified Lichtenecker equation. The increasing rate of dielectric constant with increased BST content was more pronounced for the BST/CAP composite. The dielectric constant of the composites decreased withincreasing the frequency which was more obvious at higher loading of BST nano-particle

  3. Investigation of the effects of misfit strain on barium strontium titanate thin films deposited on base metal substrates by a modified phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hanting; Li, Hongfang; Chen, Jianguo; Jin, Dengren; Cheng, Jinrong

    2017-10-01

    The Landau-Devonshire phenomenological model, which has been utilized to investigate epitaxial barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films, was modified to investigate the effects of misfit strain on the dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films deposited on base metal substrates. The modification considers the relaxation of lattice misfit stress resulting from the formation of in-plane misfit dislocations. The modified lattice misfit strain was calculated by referring to the ferroelectric critical grain size. Moreover, the misfit strain and dielectric properties of BST thin films with different structures and substrates were investigated by the models. It was found that the measured dielectric constant and tunability of BST thin films on different metal substrates overall agreed with the computed data. In addition, the good agreement was also observed for sandwich-like structural BST thin films deposited on LNO buffered stainless steel plates. Our results indicated that the modified L-D models might be utilized to predict dielectric properties of polycrystalline BST thin films for varied substrates and multilayer structures.

  4. Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Is a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Prognosticator for Colorectal Carcinoma: A Secretome-Based Verification Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sum-Fu Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The cancer cell secretome has been recognized as a valuable reservoir for identifying novel serum/plasma biomarkers for different cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC. This study aimed to verify four CRC cell-secreted proteins (tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2/trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TACSTD2/TROP2, tetraspanin-6 (TSPAN6, bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 16 (NGFR as potential plasma CRC biomarkers. Methods. The study population comprises 152 CRC patients and 152 controls. Target protein levels in plasma and tissue samples were assessed by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results. Among the four candidate proteins examined by ELISA in a small sample set, only BST2 showed significantly elevated plasma levels in CRC patients versus controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the overexpression of BST2 in CRC tissues, and higher BST2 expression levels correlated with poorer 5-year survival (46.47% versus 65.57%; p=0.044. Further verification confirmed the elevated plasma BST2 levels in CRC patients (2.35 ± 0.13 ng/mL versus controls (1.04 ± 0.03 ng/mL (p<0.01, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC being 0.858 comparable to that of CEA (0.867. Conclusion. BST2, a membrane protein selectively detected in CRC cell secretome, may be a novel plasma biomarker and prognosticator for CRC.

  5. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Improvement in crystallization and electrical properties of barium strontium titanate thin films by gold doping using metal-organic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-W.; Nien, S.-W.; Lee, K.-C.; Wu, M.-C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gold (Au) on the crystallization, dielectric constant and leakage current density of barium strontium titanate (BST) thin films was investigated. BST thin films with various gold concentrations were prepared via a metal-organic deposition process. The X-ray diffraction shows enhanced crystallization as well as expanded lattice constants for the gold-doped BST films. Thermal analysis reveals that the gold dopant induces more complete decomposition of precursor for the doped films than those of undoped ones. The leakage current density of BST films is greatly reduced by the gold dopant over a range of biases (1-5 V). The distribution of gold was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy and found to be inside the BST grains, not in the grain-boundaries. Gold acted as a catalyst, inducing the nucleation of crystallites and improving the crystallinity of the structure. Its addition is shown to be associated to the improvement of the electrical properties of BST films

  7. Emergence in Taiwan of novel imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ST455 causing bloodstream infection in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hao-Yuan; Huang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Wang, Yi-Hsin; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2015-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study aimed to use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for the epidemiological surveillance of A. baumannii isolates in Taiwan and analyze the clinical presentations and patients' outcome. MLST according to both Bartual's PubMLST and Pasteur's MLST schemes was applied to characterize bloodstream imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) infection in intensive care units in a medical center. A total of 39 clinical IRAB bloodstream isolates in 2010 were enrolled. We also collected 13 imipenem-susceptible A. baumannii (ISAB) bloodstream isolates and 30 clinical sputum isolates (24 IRAB and 6 ISAB) for comparison. Clinical presentations and outcome of the patients were analyzed. We found that infection by ST455(B)/ST2(P) and inappropriate initial therapy were statistically significant risk factors for mortality. More than one-third of the IRAB isolates belonged to ST455(B)/ST2(P). Most ST455(B)/ST2(P) (80%) carried ISAba1-blaOXA-23, including 10 (66.7%) with Tn2006 (ISAba1-blaOXA-23-ISAba1) in an AbaR4-type resistance island. ST455(B)/ST2(P) appears to evolve from ST208(B)/ST2(P) of clonal complex (CC) 92(B)/CC2(P). In this hospital-based study, A. baumannii ST455 accounted for 38.5% of IRAB bacteremia, with a high mortality of 86.7%. Approximately 85% of ST455(B)/ST2(P)bacteremia had a primary source of ventilation-associated pneumonia. We report the emergence in Taiwan of IRAB ST455(B)/ST2(P), which is the current predominant clone of IRAB in our hospital and has been causing bacteremia with high mortality in critical patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Administração de somatotropina bovina no período pré-parto sobre parâmetros produtivos, sanitários e reprodutivos da primeira lactação de vacas holandesas Bovine somatotropin administration during pre-delivery period to productive, sanitary and reproductive parameters of holstein cows' first lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Dagher Cassoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a administração de somatotropina bovina (bST no período pré-parto, sobre o desempenho na primeira lactação, foram utilizadas 18 novilhas gestantes, de modo que 9 receberam injeções subcutâneas de 500mg de bST nos dias 21 e 9 antes da data prevista para o parto. Os animais foram alimentados com dieta total, 2 vezes ao dia, e os dados coletados foram relativos a parâmetros sanitários, produtivos e reprodutivos na primeira lactação. A administração de bST não afetou os parâmetros sanitários (retenção de placenta, metrite, deslocamento de abomaso, febre do leite e cetose e reprodutivo (cisto folicular. Entretanto, o uso de bST no pré-parto levou à variação de escore de condição corporal (ECC 65% maior, adiantou o pico de produção de leite em 9,7 dias e diminuiu os dias em lactação em 21,8 dias em relação ao controle (P The effects of pre-delivery administration of bovine somatotropin (bST on first lactation performance were evaluated in this study, which involved eighteen Holstein pregnant heifers. Nine animals were supplemented with subcutaneous injections of 500 mg of bST, on days 21 and 9 prior expected delivery, and 9 were not supplemented (control group. Animals were fed total mixed ration, twice daily. Data evaluated in this experiment were related to sanitary, reproductive and productive parameters during first lactation. Administration of bST did not affect parameters related to sanity (retained placenta, metritis, displacement abomasum, milk fever, ketosis, reproduction (follicular cysts. However, heifers supplemented with bST showed changes of body condition score 65% greater, anticipated milk production peak in 9.7 days and decreased number of days in lactation in 21,8 days, compared to the non-supplemented ones (p < 0.05. Milk production peak and milk production corrected for 305 days were not affected by bST administration.

  9. Respuesta estral y tasa de preñez en cabras en anestro estacional tratadas con progestágenos y somatotropina bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Martínez Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se probó si la administración de la hormona del crecimiento bovino (bST durante el tratamiento para inducir la ovulación en cabras en anestro mejora la fertilidad. A 109 cabras adultas de 1 a 5 partos se les insertó una esponja intravaginal de acetato de fluorogestona (FGA durante 12 días. Al retirar la esponja todas las cabras recibieron 300 UI de gonadotropina coriónica equina (eCG. Cinco días antes de retirar el progestágeno, las cabras fueron asignadas al azar a dos grupos, 1 125 mg de bST vía subcutánea (n=53, 2 Testigo (n=56 sin bST. En siete cabras de cada grupo se determinaron las concentraciones de factor de crecimiento parecido a la insulina tipo I (IGF-I y de insulina diariamente a partir de la inyección de bST hasta el día 7 post estro. Una proporción mayor (P<0.05 de animales del grupo bST (73.5 % mostraron estro (testigo, 51.7 %. El porcentaje de concepción fue similar (P=0.12 entre grupos (bST, 82.0 % vs testigo, 65.5 %. La tasa de preñez fue mayor (P<0.01 en el grupo bST (60.3 % que en el testigo (33.9 %. La proporción de partos múltiples fue igual (P=0.9 entre los grupos (bST, 59 % vs testigo, 63 %. Las concentraciones de IGF-I e insulina fueron más altas (P<0.01 en el grupo bST. Se concluye que la administración de la hormona del crecimiento bovina durante el tratamiento para inducir la ovulación en cabras en anestro aumentó la proporción de animales en estro y la tasa de preñez.

  10. The Homolog of the GenebstAof the BTP1 Phage from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ST313 Is an Antivirulence Gene in Salmonella enterica Serovar Dublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Espinel, Irene Cartas; Spiegelhauer, Malene Roed; Guerra, Priscila Regina; Andersen, Karsten Wiber; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2018-01-01

    In a previous study, a novel virulence gene, bstA , identified in a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium sequence type 313 (ST313) strain was found to be conserved in all published Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin genomes. In order to analyze the role of this gene in the host-pathogen interaction in S Dublin, a mutant where this gene was deleted ( S Dublin Δ bstA ) and a mutant which was further genetically complemented with bstA ( S Dublin 3246-C) were constructed and tested in models of in vitro and in vivo infection as well as during growth competition assays in M9 medium, Luria-Bertani broth, and cattle blood. In contrast to the results obtained for a strain of S Typhimurium ST313, the lack of bstA was found to be associated with increased virulence in S Dublin. Thus, S Dublin Δ bstA showed higher levels of uptake than the wild-type strain during infection of mouse and cattle macrophages and higher net replication within human THP-1 cells. Furthermore, during mouse infections, S Dublin Δ bstA was more virulent than the wild type following a single intraperitoneal infection and showed an increased competitive index during competitive infection assays. Deletion of bstA did not affect either the amount of cytokines released by THP-1 macrophages or the cytotoxicity toward these cells. The histology of the livers and spleens of mice infected with the wild-type strain and the S Dublin Δ bstA mutant revealed similar levels of inflammation between the two groups. The gene was not important for adherence to or invasion of human epithelial cells and did not influence bacterial growth in rich medium, minimal medium, or cattle blood. In conclusion, a lack of bstA affects the pathogenicity of S Dublin by decreasing its virulence. Therefore, it might be regarded as an antivirulence gene in this serovar. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.co [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Universidade Estadual Paulista- Unesp - Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratingueta, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Pedregulho, CEP 12516-410 Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba- Unifei - Campus Itabira, Rua Sao Paulo, 377, Bairro, Amazonas, CEP 35900-37, Itabira, MG (Brazil); Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar em Ceramica (LIEC), Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) {yields} This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times {yields} Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 {sup o}C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3}) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 {sup o}C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO{sub 3} as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  12. Roles of grain boundary and oxygen vacancies in Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} films for resistive switching device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xiaobing, E-mail: xiaobing-yan@126.com, E-mail: mseyanx@nus.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Digital Medical Engineering of Hebei Province, College of Electron and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, Yucheng; Zhao, Jianhui; Li, Yan [Key Laboratory of Digital Medical Engineering of Hebei Province, College of Electron and Information Engineering, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Bai, Gang [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Siqi [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information and Sensing Technologies of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2016-01-18

    Oxygen vacancies are widely thought to be responsible for resistive switching (RS) effects based on polycrystalline oxides films. It is also well known that grain boundaries (GB) serve as reservoirs for accumulating oxygen vacancies. Here, Ar gas was introduced to enlarge the size of GB and increase the quantity of oxygen vacancies when the Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films were deposited by pulse laser deposition technique. The experimental results indicate that the RS properties of the device exhibits better in the Ar-introduced BST films than in the O{sub 2}-grown BST films. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that an amorphous region GB with large size appears between two lattice planes corresponding to oxygen vacancies defects in the Ar-introduced BST. Fourier-transform infrared reflectivity spectroscopy results also reveal highly accumulated oxygen vacancies in the Ar-introduced BST films. And we propose that the conduction transport of the cell was dominantly contributed from not ions migration of oxygen vacancies but the electrons in our case according to the value of activation energies of two kinds of films.

  13. Fabrication and Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Alumina Nanoparticle-Dispersed Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Tae Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alumina nanoparticle-dispersed bismuth-antimony-tellurium matrix (Al2O3/BST composite powders were fabricated by using ball milling process of alumina nanoparticle about 10 nm and p-type bismuth telluride nanopowders prepared from the mechanochemical process (MCP. The fabricated Al2O3/BST composite powders were a few hundreds of nanometer in size, with a clear Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 phase. The composite powders were consolidated into p-type bulk composite by spark plasma sintering process. High-resolution TEM images reveal that alumina nanoparticles were dispersed among the grain boundary or in the matrix grain. The sintered 0.3 vol.% Al2O3/BST composite exhibited significantly improved power factor and reduced thermal conductivity in the temperature ranging from 293 to 473 K compared to those of pure BST. From these results, the highly increased ZT value of 1.5 was obtained from 0.3 vol.% Al2O3/BST composite at 323 K.

  14. Acoustoelastic effect of textured (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} thin films under an initial mechanical stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, Marwa; Mseddi, Souhir; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Donner, Wolfgang [Institute of Materials Science, University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse.2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-12-14

    Acoustoelastic (AE) analysis of initial stresses plays an important role as a nondestructive tool in current engineering. Two textured BST (Ba{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.35}TiO{sub 3}) thin films, with different substrate to target distance, were grown on Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrate by rf-magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. A conventional “sin{sup 2