WorldWideScience

Sample records for stretching folding instability

  1. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board

  2. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  3. Stretched versus compressed exponential kinetics in α-helix folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Peter; Helbing, Jan; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, J.R. Kumita, G.A. Woolley, P. Hamm, α-helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time resolved IR spectroscopy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102 (2005) 2379), we have investigated the folding of a photo-switchable α-helix with a kinetics that could be fit by a stretched exponential function exp(-(t/τ) β ). The stretching factor β became smaller as the temperature was lowered, a result which has been interpreted in terms of activated diffusion on a rugged energy surface. In the present paper, we discuss under which conditions diffusion problems occur with stretched exponential kinetics (β 1). We show that diffusion problems do have a strong tendency to yield stretched exponential kinetics, yet, that there are conditions (strong perturbation from equilibrium, performing the experiment in the folding direction) under which compressed exponential kinetics would be expected instead. We discuss the kinetics on free energy surfaces predicted by simple initiation-propagation models (zipper models) of α-helix folding, as well as by folding funnel models. We show that our recent experiment has been performed under condition for which models with strong downhill driving force, such as the zipper model, would predict compressed, rather than stretched exponential kinetics, in disagreement with the experimental observation. We therefore propose that the free energy surface along a reaction coordinate that governs the folding kinetics must be relatively flat and has a shape similar to a 1D golf course. We discuss how this conclusion can be unified with the thermodynamically well established zipper model by introducing an additional kinetic reaction coordinate

  4. Eliminating electromechanical instability in dielectric elastomers by employing pre-stretch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liang; Jerrams, Stephen; Betts, Anthony; Kennedy, David

    2016-01-01

    Electromechanical instability (EMI) is one of most common failure modes for dielectric elastomers (DEs). It has been reported that pre-stretching a DE sample can suppress EMI due to strain stiffening taking place for larger strains and a higher elastic modulus are achieved at high stretch ratios when a voltage is applied to the material. In this work, the influence of equi-biaxial stretch on DE secant modulus was studied using VHB 4910 and silicone rubber (SR) composites containing barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BT) particles and also dopamine coated BT (DP-BT) particles. The investigation of equi-biaxial deformation and EMI failure for VHB 4910 was undertaken by introducing a voltage-stretch function. The results showed that EMI was suppressed by equi-biaxial pre-stretch for all the DEs fabricated and tested. The stiffening properties of the DE materials were also studied with respect to the secant modulus. Furthermore, a voltage-induced strain of above 200% was achieved for the polyacrylate film by applying a pre-stretch ratio of 2.0 without EMI occurring. However, a maximum voltage-induced strain in the polyacrylate film of 78% was obtained by the SR/20 wt% DP-BT composite for a lower applied pre-stretch ratio of 1.6 and again EMI was eliminated. (paper)

  5. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  6. Experimental Investigation of the End Plate Instability in the Extension of Polymer Melts in a Filament Stretch Rheometer. P.-Y. Longin, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Bach and O. Hassager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Longin, Pierre-Yves; Bach, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We consider here a particular instability, an axis symmetry breaking meniscus instability, that occurs under certain conditions in the transient filament stretching apparatus near the endplates as the plates are separated. Spiegelberg and McKinley [1] investigated this instability development in ...

  7. The Viscoelastic End Plate Instability in the Stretch of Concentrated Polymer Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Longin, Pierre-Yves; Bach, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We consider here a particular instability, an axis symmetry breaking meniscus instability that occurs etc.......We consider here a particular instability, an axis symmetry breaking meniscus instability that occurs etc....

  8. Optimizing an Intermittent Stretch Paradigm Using ERK1/2 Phosphorylation Results in Increased Collagen Synthesis in Engineered Ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Jennifer Z.; Hagerty, Paul; Andrick, Jonathan J.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical input is believed to play a critical role in the development of functional musculoskeletal tissues. To study this phenomenon, cyclic uniaxial mechanical stretch was applied to engineered ligaments using a custom-built bioreactor and the effects of different stretch frequency, amplitude, and duration were determined. Stretch acutely increased the phosphorylation of p38 (3.5±0.74-fold), S6K1 (3.9±0.19-fold), and ERK1/2 (2.45±0.32-fold). The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was dependent on time, rather than on frequency or amplitude, within these constructs. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was similar following stretch at frequencies from 0.1 to 1 Hz and amplitudes from 2.5% to 15%, whereas phosphorylation reached maximal levels at 10 min of stretch and returned toward basal within 60 min of stretch. Following a single 10-min bout of cyclic stretch, the cells remained refractory to a second stretch for up to 6 h. Using the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 as a guide, the optimum stretch paradigm was hypothesized to be 10 min of stretch at 2.5% of resting length repeated every 6 h. Consistent with this hypothesis, 7 days of stretch using this optimized intermittent stretch program increased the collagen content of the grafts more than a continuous stretch program (CTL=3.1%±0.44%; CONT=4.8%±0.30%; and INT=5.9%±0.56%). These results suggest that short infrequent bouts of loading are optimal for improving engineered tendon and ligament physiology. PMID:21902469

  9. The influence of static pre-stretching on the mechanical ageing of filled silicone rubbers for dielectric elastomer applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Yu, Liyun; Kofod, Guggi

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) pre-stretching is a key aspect of attaining better actuation performance, as ithelps prevent electromechanical instability (EMI) and usually lowers the Young’s modulus, thus leading toeasier deformation. The pre-stretched DE is not only susceptible to a high risk...

  10. Material instabilities and their role for the initiation of boudinage and folding structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veveakis, Manolis; Peters, Max; Poulet, Thomas; Karrech, Ali; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Localized phenomena, such as pinch-and-swell boudinage or localized folds, are usually interpreted to arise from viscosity contrasts. These are caused by structural heterogeneities, such as geometric or material imperfections. An alternative possibility for strain localization exists in material science, where dynamic localization emerges out of a steady state for a given critical set of material parameters and loading rates (Montési and Zuber, 2002). In our contribution, we will investigate the conditions under which this type of instabilities triggers localized deformation. Moreover, we discuss whether geological materials necessarily require structural heterogeneities, such as weak seeds, in order to generate aforementioned localized structures. We set up a random distribution of grain sizes in a layer embedded in a matrix with a diffusion creep rheology. Deformation within the layer is accommodated by dislocation and diffusion creep as end member deformation mechanism. The grain size evolution follows the paleowattmeter scaling relationship for calcite creep (Austin and Evans, 2007), which is controlled by thermo-mechanical feedbacks (Herwegh et al., 2014). During the first strain increments in the numerical simulation, the layer establishes a viscous steady state, which is the systems' response to optimize energy following the paleowattmeter (Herwegh et al., 2014). With further loading, localization interestingly arises out of a homogeneous state. We will demonstrate the robustness of this numerical solution by identifying the natural mode shapes and frequencies of the simulated structure and material parameters, including geometric imperfections (Rudnicki and Rice, 1975). This technique aims at the determination of the spatial manifestation of the instability pattern (Peters et al., in review). The eigenvalues are thought to represent the nodal points, where the onset of (visco)-elasto-plastic localization can initiate in the structure (Rudnicki and Rice

  11. Magnetic neutral point stretching and coalescence in tearing-generated magnetohydrodynamic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, F.; Veltri, P.; Carbone, V.

    1991-01-01

    The time evolution of the instability of a sheet pinch is numerically studied using a sufficiently high ratio of system length to width in order to allow the simultaneous growth of several unstable wavelengths. This numerical simulation provides new insights into the nonlinear development of the tearing instability. Before the instability saturates, the nonlinear interactions among the unstable modes produce local coalescence phenomena that destroy the weaker current pinches and reduce the number of magnetic islands. In contrast with the usual picture, this coalescence is not due to the attraction between the current maxima, but is due to the stretching of the X-neutral points associated with the most intense current pinches. The global perturbation growth rate remains essentially unchanged in time, being of the order of the resistive instability growth rate

  12. Stretching of material lines in pseudo-turbulence induced by small rising bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M; Tsujimura, Y; Kanatani, H

    2011-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations have been conducted for the stretching of material lines in pseudo-turbulence induced by small rising bubbles in order to understand the mixing characteristics of bubbly flows. Contaminated bubbles are considered and are treated as light solid particles. An immersed boundary method has been used for evaluating the coupling force between the bubbles and the surrounding fluid flows. Numerical results show that the total length of material lines increases exponentially in time as a result of stretching and folding due to the rising bubbles. The material lines tend to accumulate in the wake regions of the bubbles, and they are strongly stretched in the vertical direction there. It is also found that the stretching rate of material lines increases with the mean void fraction when it is normalized by the magnitude of the rate-of-strain tensor of liquid flow in pseudo-turbulence. In the case of high void fractions, material lines tend to align with the direction of maximum stretching, and are effectively stretched.

  13. Stretching of material lines in pseudo-turbulence induced by small rising bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M; Tsujimura, Y; Kanatani, H, E-mail: mtanaka@kit.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and System Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2011-12-22

    Direct numerical simulations have been conducted for the stretching of material lines in pseudo-turbulence induced by small rising bubbles in order to understand the mixing characteristics of bubbly flows. Contaminated bubbles are considered and are treated as light solid particles. An immersed boundary method has been used for evaluating the coupling force between the bubbles and the surrounding fluid flows. Numerical results show that the total length of material lines increases exponentially in time as a result of stretching and folding due to the rising bubbles. The material lines tend to accumulate in the wake regions of the bubbles, and they are strongly stretched in the vertical direction there. It is also found that the stretching rate of material lines increases with the mean void fraction when it is normalized by the magnitude of the rate-of-strain tensor of liquid flow in pseudo-turbulence. In the case of high void fractions, material lines tend to align with the direction of maximum stretching, and are effectively stretched.

  14. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamical instabilities are usually studied either in bounded regions or free to grow in space. In this article we review the experimental results of an intermediate situation, in which an instability develops in deformable domains. The Faraday instability, which consists in the formation of surface waves on a liquid experiencing a vertical forcing, is triggered in floating liquid lenses playing the role of deformable domains. Faraday waves deform the lenses from the initial circular shape and the mutual adaptation of instability patterns with the lens boundary is observed. Two archetypes of behaviour have been found. In the first archetype a stable elongated shape is reached, the wave vector being parallel to the direction of elongation. In the second archetype the waves exceed the response of the lens border and no equilibrium shape is reached. The lens stretches and eventually breaks into fragments that have a complex dynamics. The difference between the two archetypes is explained by the competition between the radiation pressure the waves exert on the lens border and its response due to surface tension.

  15. Stretching of macromolecules and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strick, T R; Dessinges, M-N; Charvin, G; Dekker, N H; Allemand, J-F; Bensimon, D; Croquette, V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we review the biophysics revealed by stretching single biopolymers. During the last decade various techniques have emerged allowing micromanipulation of single molecules and simultaneous measurements of their elasticity. Using such techniques, it has been possible to investigate some of the interactions playing a role in biology. We shall first review the simplest case of a non-interacting polymer and then present the structural transitions in DNA, RNA and proteins that have been studied by single-molecule techniques. We shall explain how these techniques permit a new approach to the protein folding/unfolding transition

  16. Equibiaxial cyclic stretch stimulates fibroblasts to rapidly remodel fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna Leigh; Billiar, Kristen Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the mechanical environment on wound healing is critical for developing more effective treatments to reduce scar formation and contracture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dynamic mechanical stretch on cell-mediated early wound remodeling independent of matrix alignment which obscures more subtle remodeling mechanisms. Cyclic equibiaxial stretch (16% stretch at 0.2 Hz) was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gel in vitro wound models for eight days. Compaction, density, tensile strength, and collagen content were quantified as functional measures of remodeling. Stretched samples were approximately ten times stronger, eight-fold more dense, and eight times thinner than statically cultured samples. These changes were accompanied by a 15% increase in net collagen but no significant differences in cell number or viability. When collagen crosslinking was inhibited in stretched samples, the extensibility increased and the strength decreased. The apparent weakening was due to a reduction in compaction rather than a decrease in ability of the tissue to withstand tensile forces. Interestingly, inhibiting collagen crosslinking had no measurable effects on the statically cultured samples. These results indicate that amplified cell-mediated compaction and even a slight addition in collagen content play substantial roles in mechanically induced wound strengthening. These findings increase our understanding of how mechanical forces guide the healing response in skin, and the methods employed in this study may also prove valuable tools for investigating stretch-induced remodeling of other planar connective tissues and for creating mechanically robust engineered tissues.

  17. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  18. Stretch Sensor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining stretch values and movement of body parts, e.g. a foot, by analysing stretch data from a stretch sensor. By analysing data from the stretch sensor it is possible to determine stretch samples which are associated with particular motion phases...

  19. Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after a workout. Stretching still can be a beneficial activity after you have sufficiently warmed up. The ... light aerobic activity and stretching. If you're running at a quick pace, you can slow down ...

  20. Human brain organoids on a chip reveal the physics of folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzbrun, Eyal; Kshirsagar, Aditya; Cohen, Sidney R.; Hanna, Jacob H.; Reiner, Orly

    2018-05-01

    Human brain wrinkling has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and yet its origins remain unknown. Polymer gel models suggest that wrinkling emerges spontaneously due to compression forces arising during differential swelling, but these ideas have not been tested in a living system. Here, we report the appearance of surface wrinkles during the in vitro development and self-organization of human brain organoids in a microfabricated compartment that supports in situ imaging over a timescale of weeks. We observe the emergence of convolutions at a critical cell density and maximal nuclear strain, which are indicative of a mechanical instability. We identify two opposing forces contributing to differential growth: cytoskeletal contraction at the organoid core and cell-cycle-dependent nuclear expansion at the organoid perimeter. The wrinkling wavelength exhibits linear scaling with tissue thickness, consistent with balanced bending and stretching energies. Lissencephalic (smooth brain) organoids display reduced convolutions, modified scaling and a reduced elastic modulus. Although the mechanism here does not include the neuronal migration seen in vivo, it models the physics of the folding brain remarkably well. Our on-chip approach offers a means for studying the emergent properties of organoid development, with implications for the embryonic human brain.

  1. Stretching & Flexibility: An Interactive Encyclopedia of Stretching. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This CD-ROM offers 140 different stretches in full-motion video sequences. It focuses on the proper techniques for overall physical fitness, injury prevention and rehabilitation, and 23 different sports (e.g., golf, running, soccer, skiing, climbing, football, and baseball). Topics include stretching for sports; stretching awareness and education…

  2. Heterochiral Knottin Protein: Folding and Solution Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Surin K; Cochran, Frank V; Yu, Hongtao; Graziano, Zachary; Lin, Yu-Shan; Cochran, Jennifer R; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2017-10-31

    Homochirality is a general feature of biological macromolecules, and Nature includes few examples of heterochiral proteins. Herein, we report on the design, chemical synthesis, and structural characterization of heterochiral proteins possessing loops of amino acids of chirality opposite to that of the rest of a protein scaffold. Using the protein Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor II, we discover that selective β-alanine substitution favors the efficient folding of our heterochiral constructs. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of one such heterochiral protein reveals a homogeneous global fold. Additionally, steered molecular dynamics simulation indicate β-alanine reduces the free energy required to fold the protein. We also find these heterochiral proteins to be more resistant to proteolysis than homochiral l-proteins. This work informs the design of heterochiral protein architectures containing stretches of both d- and l-amino acids.

  3. Pattern zoology in biaxially pre-stretched elastic bilayers: from wrinkles and creases to fracture-like ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashed, Rashed; Lopez JiméNez, Francisco; Reis, Pedro

    The wrinkling of elastic bilayers under compression has been explored as a method to produce reversible surface topography, with applications ranging from microfluidics to tunable optics. We introduce a new experimental system to study the effects of pre-stretching on the instability patterns that result from the biaxial compression of thin shells bound to an elastic substrate. A pre-stretched substrate is first prepared by pressurizing an initially flat elastomeric disk and bulging it into a nearly hemispherical thick shell. The substrate is then coated with a thin layer of a polymer suspension, which, upon curing, results in a thin shell of nearly constant thickness. Releasing the pre-stretch in the substrate by deflating the system places the outer film in a state of biaxial compression, resulting in a variety of buckling patterns. We explore the parameter space by systematically varying the pre-stretch, the substrate/film stiffness mismatch, and the thickness of the film. This results in a continuous transition between different buckling patterns, from the dimples and wrinkles that are traditionally associated with the buckling of elastic bilayers, to creases and high aspect ratio `fracture-like' ridges, where the pre-stretch plays an essential role.

  4. Human Brain Organoids on a Chip Reveal the Physics of Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzbrun, Eyal; Kshirsagar, Aditya; Cohen, Sidney R; Hanna, Jacob H; Reiner, Orly

    2018-05-01

    Human brain wrinkling has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and yet its origins remain unknown. Polymer gel models suggest that wrinkling emerges spontaneously due to compression forces arising during differential swelling, but these ideas have not been tested in a living system. Here, we report the appearance of surface wrinkles during the in vitro development and self-organization of human brain organoids in a micro-fabricated compartment that supports in situ imaging over a timescale of weeks. We observe the emergence of convolutions at a critical cell density and maximal nuclear strain, which are indicative of a mechanical instability. We identify two opposing forces contributing to differential growth: cytoskeletal contraction at the organoid core and cell-cycle-dependent nuclear expansion at the organoid perimeter. The wrinkling wavelength exhibits linear scaling with tissue thickness, consistent with balanced bending and stretching energies. Lissencephalic (smooth brain) organoids display reduced convolutions, modified scaling and a reduced elastic modulus. Although the mechanism here does not include the neuronal migration seen in in vivo , it models the physics of the folding brain remarkably well. Our on-chip approach offers a means for studying the emergent properties of organoid development, with implications for the embryonic human brain.

  5. Effect of acute stretch injury on action potential and network activity of rat neocortical neurons in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magou, George C; Pfister, Bryan J; Berlin, Joshua R

    2015-10-22

    The basis for acute seizures following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. Animal models of TBI have revealed acute hyperexcitablility in cortical neurons that could underlie seizure activity, but studying initiating events causing hyperexcitability is difficult in these models. In vitro models of stretch injury with cultured cortical neurons, a surrogate for TBI, allow facile investigation of cellular changes after injury but they have only demonstrated post-injury hypoexcitability. The goal of this study was to determine if neuronal hyperexcitability could be triggered by in vitro stretch injury. Controlled uniaxial stretch injury was delivered to a spatially delimited region of a spontaneously active network of cultured rat cortical neurons, yielding a region of stretch-injured neurons and adjacent regions of non-stretched neurons that did not directly experience stretch injury. Spontaneous electrical activity was measured in non-stretched and stretch-injured neurons, and in control neuronal networks not subjected to stretch injury. Non-stretched neurons in stretch-injured cultures displayed a three-fold increase in action potential firing rate and bursting activity 30-60 min post-injury. Stretch-injured neurons, however, displayed dramatically lower rates of action potential firing and bursting. These results demonstrate that acute hyperexcitability can be observed in non-stretched neurons located in regions adjacent to the site of stretch injury, consistent with reports that seizure activity can arise from regions surrounding the site of localized brain injury. Thus, this in vitro procedure for localized neuronal stretch injury may provide a model to study the earliest cellular changes in neuronal function associated with acute post-traumatic seizures. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Kosinka, Jin; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these 'stretch-free' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stretch-minimising stream surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We study the problem of finding stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a divergence-free vector field. These surfaces are generated by motions of seed curves that propagate through the field in a stretch minimising manner, i.e., they move without stretching or shrinking, preserving the length of their arbitrary arc. In general fields, such curves may not exist. How-ever, the divergence-free constraint gives rise to these \\'stretch-free\\' curves that are locally arc-length preserving when infinitesimally propagated. Several families of stretch-free curves are identified and used as initial guesses for stream surface generation. These surfaces are subsequently globally optimised to obtain the best stretch-minimising stream surfaces in a given divergence-free vector field. Our algorithm was tested on benchmark datasets, proving its applicability to incompressible fluid flow simulations, where our stretch-minimising stream surfaces realistically reflect the flow of a flexible univariate object. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shown that stretching immediately before an event weakens hamstring strength. Instead of static stretching, try performing a " ... If you play soccer, for instance, stretch your hamstrings as you're more vulnerable to hamstring strains. ...

  9. The Relation Between Stretching Typology and Stretching Duration: The Effects on Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ewan; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Different stretching strategies and protocols are widely used to improve flexibility or maintain health, acting on the muscle tendon-unit, in order to improve the range of motion (ROM) of the joints. This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature in order to understand the relation between stretching typology and ROM, and secondly to evaluate if a relation exists between stretching volume (either as a single training session, weekly training and weekly frequency) and ROM, after long-term stretching. Twenty-three articles were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis. All stretching typologies showed ROM improvements over a long-term period, however the static protocols showed significant gains (p<0.05) when compared to the ballistic or PNF protocols. Time spent stretching per week seems fundamental to elicit range of movement improvements when stretches are applied for at least or more than 5 min, whereas the time spent stretching within a single session does not seem to have significant effects for ROM gains. Weekly frequency is positively associated to ROM. Evaluated data indicates that performing stretching at least 5 days a week for at least 5 min per week using static stretching may be beneficial to promote ROM improvements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Retosiban Prevents Stretch-Induced Human Myometrial Contractility and Delays Labor in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Irving L M H; Moraitis, Alexandros A; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Gordon C S

    2018-03-01

    Stretch of the myometrium promotes its contractility and is believed to contribute to the control of parturition at term and to the increased risk of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. To determine the effects of the putative oxytocin receptor (OTR) inverse agonist retosiban on (1) the contractility of human myometrial explants and (2) labor in nonhuman primates. Human myometrial biopsies were obtained at planned term cesarean, and explants were exposed to stretch in the presence and absence of a range of drugs, including retosiban. The in vivo effects of retosiban were determined in cynomolgus monkeys. Prolonged mechanical stretch promoted myometrial extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, stretch-induced stimulation of myometrial contractility was prevented by ERK1/2 inhibitors. Retosiban (10 nM) prevented stretch-induced stimulation of myometrial contractility and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of retosiban on stretch-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was prevented by coincubation with a 100-fold excess of a peptide OTR antagonist, atosiban. Compared with vehicle-treated cynomolgus monkeys, treatment with oral retosiban (100 to 150 days of gestational age) reduced the risk of spontaneous delivery (hazard ratio = 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.60, P = 0.015). The OTR acts as a uterine mechanosensor, whereby stretch increases myometrial contractility through agonist-free activation of the OTR. Retosiban prevents this through inverse agonism of the OTR and, in vivo, reduced the likelihood of spontaneous labor in nonhuman primates. We hypothesize that retosiban may be an effective preventative treatment of preterm birth in high-risk multiple pregnancies, an area of unmet clinical need.

  11. Force generation by titin folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártonfalvi, Zsolt; Bianco, Pasquale; Naftz, Katalin; Ferenczy, György G; Kellermayer, Miklós

    2017-07-01

    Titin is a giant protein that provides elasticity to muscle. As the sarcomere is stretched, titin extends hierarchically according to the mechanics of its segments. Whether titin's globular domains unfold during this process and how such unfolded domains might contribute to muscle contractility are strongly debated. To explore the force-dependent folding mechanisms, here we manipulated skeletal-muscle titin molecules with high-resolution optical tweezers. In force-clamp mode, after quenching the force (force trace contained rapid fluctuations and a gradual increase of average force, indicating that titin can develop force via dynamic transitions between its structural states en route to the native conformation. In 4 M urea, which destabilizes H-bonds hence the consolidated native domain structure, the net force increase disappeared but the fluctuations persisted. Thus, whereas net force generation is caused by the ensemble folding of the elastically-coupled domains, force fluctuations arise due to a dynamic equilibrium between unfolded and molten-globule states. Monte-Carlo simulations incorporating a compact molten-globule intermediate in the folding landscape recovered all features of our nanomechanics results. The ensemble molten-globule dynamics delivers significant added contractility that may assist sarcomere mechanics, and it may reduce the dissipative energy loss associated with titin unfolding/refolding during muscle contraction/relaxation cycles. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  12. Control of transversal instabilities in reaction-diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totz, Sonja; Löber, Jakob; Totz, Jan Frederik; Engel, Harald

    2018-05-01

    In two-dimensional reaction-diffusion systems, local curvature perturbations on traveling waves are typically damped out and vanish. However, if the inhibitor diffuses much faster than the activator, transversal instabilities can arise, leading from flat to folded, spatio-temporally modulated waves and to spreading spiral turbulence. Here, we propose a scheme to induce or inhibit these instabilities via a spatio-temporal feedback loop. In a piecewise-linear version of the FitzHugh–Nagumo model, transversal instabilities and spiral turbulence in the uncontrolled system are shown to be suppressed in the presence of control, thereby stabilizing plane wave propagation. Conversely, in numerical simulations with the modified Oregonator model for the photosensitive Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, which does not exhibit transversal instabilities on its own, we demonstrate the feasibility of inducing transversal instabilities and study the emerging wave patterns in a well-controlled manner.

  13. Knotting in stretched polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G

    2008-01-01

    The knotting in a lattice polygon model of ring polymers is examined when a stretching force is applied to the polygon. By examining the incidence of cut-planes in the polygon, we prove a pattern theorem in the stretching regime for large applied forces. This theorem can be used to examine the incidence of entanglements such as knotting and writhing. In particular, we prove that for arbitrarily large positive, but finite, values of the stretching force, the probability that a stretched polygon is knotted approaches 1 as the length of the polygon increases. In the case of writhing, we prove that for stretched polygons of length n, and for every function f(n)=o(√n), the probability that the absolute value of the mean writhe is less than f(n) approaches 0 as n → ∞, for sufficiently large values of the applied stretching force

  14. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  15. The impact of intraglottal vortices on vocal fold dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Byron; Pirnia, Alireza; Peterson, Sean

    2016-11-01

    During voiced speech a critical pressure is produced in the lungs that separates the vocal folds and creates a passage (the glottis) for airflow. As air passes through the vocal folds the resulting aerodynamic loading, coupled with the tissue properties of the vocal folds, produces self-sustained oscillations. Throughout each cycle a complex flow field develops, characterized by a plethora of viscous flow phenomena. Air passing through the glottis creates a jet, with periodically-shed vortices developing due to flow separation and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear layer. These vortices have been hypothesized to be a crucial mechanism for producing vocal fold vibrations. In this study the effect of vortices on the vocal fold dynamics is investigated experimentally by passing a vortex ring over a flexible beam with the same non-dimensional mechanical properties as the vocal folds. Synchronized particle image velocimetry data are acquired in tandem with the beam dynamics. The resulting impact of the vortex ring loading on vocal fold dynamics is discussed in detail. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant CBET #1511761.

  16. Bifurcation of self-folded polygonal bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Arif M.; Braun, Paul V.; Hsia, K. Jimmy

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the self-assembly of natural systems, researchers have investigated the stimulus-responsive curving of thin-shell structures, which is also known as self-folding. Self-folding strategies not only offer possibilities to realize complicated shapes but also promise actuation at small length scales. Biaxial mismatch strain driven self-folding bilayers demonstrate bifurcation of equilibrium shapes (from quasi-axisymmetric doubly curved to approximately singly curved) during their stimulus-responsive morphing behavior. Being a structurally instable, bifurcation could be used to tune the self-folding behavior, and hence, a detailed understanding of this phenomenon is appealing from both fundamental and practical perspectives. In this work, we investigated the bifurcation behavior of self-folding bilayer polygons. For the mechanistic understanding, we developed finite element models of planar bilayers (consisting of a stimulus-responsive and a passive layer of material) that transform into 3D curved configurations. Our experiments with cross-linked Polydimethylsiloxane samples that change shapes in organic solvents confirmed our model predictions. Finally, we explored a design scheme to generate gripper-like architectures by avoiding the bifurcation of stimulus-responsive bilayers. Our research contributes to the broad field of self-assembly as the findings could motivate functional devices across multiple disciplines such as robotics, artificial muscles, therapeutic cargos, and reconfigurable biomedical devices.

  17. Folding and Boudinage As the Same Fundamental Energy Bifurcation in Elasto-Visco-Plastic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M.; Paesold, M.; Veveakis, M.; Poulet, T.; Herwegh, M.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2014-12-01

    Folding or boudinage are commonly thought to develop due to viscosity contrasts induced by either geometric interactions or material imperfections. However, there exists an additional localization phenomenon, i.e. strain localization out of steady state in homogeneous materials at a critical material parameter (set) or deformation rate. This study focuses on imperfections in terms of grain size variations, using the paleowattmeter relationship [Austin and Evans, 2007; 2009, Herwegh et al., 2014]. We identify the parameters for bifurcation, which is the critical amount of dissipation, expressed by the Gruntfest number [Gruntfest, 1963], incorporating flow stress, the Arrhenius number (Q/RT) and the layer dimensions. We verify the robustness of the solution through a method, developed to analyze such material instabilities [Rudnicki and Rice, 1975]. The second step is to identify the natural mode shapes and frequencies of the geometric structure and material parameters, including geometric imperfections. In a third step, the eigenmodes are perturbed and superposed to the initial conditions. We then subject the composite structure to natural deformation conditions. Grain sizes within the layer relatively quickly equilibrate to a homogeneous state, which is in response to energy optimization following the paleowattmeterrelationship. Upon continued loading, localization in terms of a necking or folding instability consequently arises out of this steady state. We obtain the criteria for the onset of localization from theory and numerical simulation, i.e. the critical Gruntfest number. Boudinage and folding instabilities occur when heat produced by dissipative work overcomes the diffusive capacity of the system. Both instabilities develop for the exact same Arrhenius and Gruntfestnumbers. Consequently, folding and boudinage instabilities can be seen as the same energy bifurcation triggered by dissipative work out of homogeneous state. Austin, N.J. and Evans, B. (2007

  18. Delayed chromosomal instability caused by large deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kodama, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There is accumulating evidence that genomic instability, manifested by the expression of delayed phenotypes, is induced by X-irradiation but not by ultraviolet (UV) light. It is well known that ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, induces DNA double strand breaks, but UV-light mainly causes base damage like pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Although the mechanism of radiation-induced genomic instability has not been thoroughly explained, it is suggested that DNA double strand breaks contribute the induction of genomic instability. We examined here whether X-ray induced gene deletion at the hprt locus induces delayed instability in chromosome X. SV40-immortalized normal human fibroblasts, GM638, were irradiated with X-rays (3, 6 Gy), and the hprt mutants were isolated in the presence of 6-thioguanine (6-TG). A 2-fold and a 60-fold increase in mutation frequency were found by 3 Gy and 6 Gy irradiation, respectively. The molecular structure of the hprt mutations was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction of nine exons. Approximately 60% of 3 Gy mutants lost a part or the entire hprt gene, and the other mutants showed point mutations like spontaneous mutants. All 6 Gy mutants show total gene deletion. The chromosomes of the hprt mutants were analyzed by Whole Human Chromosome X Paint FISH or Xq telomere FISH. None of the point or partial gene deletion mutants showed aberrations of X-chromosome, however total gene deletion mutants induced translocations and dicentrics involving chromosome X. These results suggest that large deletion caused by DNA double strand breaks destabilizes chromosome structure, which may be involved in an induction of radiation-induced genomic instability

  19. Cleavage strain in the Variscan fold belt, County Cork, Ireland, estimated from stretched arsenopyrite rosettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.; Ferguson, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    In south-west Ireland, hydrothermally formed arsenopyrite crystals in a Devonian mudstone have responded to Variscan deformation by brittle extension fracture and fragment separation. The interfragment gaps and terminal extension zones of each crystal are infilled with fibrous quartz. Stretches within the cleavage plane have been calculated by the various methods available, most of which can be modified to incorporate terminal extension zones. The Strain Reversal Method is the most accurate currently available but still gives a minimum estimate of the overall strain. The more direct Hossain method, which gives only slightly lower estimates with this data, is more practical for field use. A strain ellipse can be estimated from each crystal rosette composed of three laths (assuming the original interlimb angles were all 60??) and, because actual rather than relative stretches are estimated, this provides a lower bound to the area increase in the plane of cleavage. Based on the average of our calculated strain ellipses this area increase is at least 114% and implies an average shortening across the cleavage of at least 53%. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the cleavage deformation was more intense and more oblate than that calculated, and we argue that a 300% area increase in the cleavage plane and 75% shortening across the cleavage are more realistic estimates of the true strain. Furthermore, the along-strike elongation indicated is at least 80%, which may be regionally significant. Estimates of orogenic contraction derived from balanced section construction should therefore take into account the possibility of a substantial strike elongation, and tectonic models that can accommodate such elongations need to be developed. ?? 1985.

  20. Influence of the stretch wrapping process on the mechanical behavior of a stretch film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel; Stommel, Markus; Zimmer, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Lightweight construction is an ongoing task in packaging development. Consequently, the stability of packages during transport is gaining importance. This study contributes to the optimization of lightweight packaging concepts regarding their stability. A very widespread packaging concept is the distribution of goods on a pallet whereas a Polyethylene (PE) stretch film stabilizes the lightweight structure during the shipment. Usually, a stretch wrapping machine applies this stretch film to the pallet. The objective of this study is to support packaging development with a method that predicts the result of the wrapping process, based on the mechanical characterization of the stretch film. This result is not only defined by the amount of stretch film, its spatial distribution on the pallet and its internal stresses that result in a containment force. More accurate, this contribution also considers the influence of the deformation history of the stretch film during the wrapping process. By focusing on similarities of stretch wrappers rather than on differences, the influence of generalized process parameters on stretch film mechanics and thereby on pallet stability can be determined experimentally. For a practical use, the predictive method is accumulated in an analytic model of the wrapping process that can be verified experimentally. This paves the way for experimental and numerical approaches regarding the optimization of pallet stability.

  1. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W C; Behm, David G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key pointsThe duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001).No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions.The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects.The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments.

  2. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  3. Collagen and Stretch Modulate Autocrine Secretion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins from Differentiated Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Fenwick-Smith, Daniela; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    1995-01-01

    Stretch-induced skeletal muscle growth may involve increased autocrine secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) since IGF-1 is a potent growth factor for skeletal muscle hypertrophy, and stretch elevates IGF-1 mRNA levels in vivo. In tissue cultures of differentiated avian pectoralis skeletal muscle cells, nanomolar concentrations of exogenous IGF-1 stimulated growth in mechanically stretched but not static cultures. These cultures released up to 100 pg of endogenously produced IGF-1/micro-g of protein/day, as well as three major IGF binding proteins of 31, 36, and 43 kilodaltons (kDa). IGF-1 was secreted from both myofibers and fibroblasts coexisting in the muscle cultures. Repetitive stretch/relaxation of the differentiated skeletal muscle cells stimulated the acute release of IGF-1 during the first 4 h after initiating mechanical activity, but caused no increase in the long-term secretion over 24-72 h of IGF-1, or its binding proteins. Varying the intensity and frequency of stretch had no effect on the long-term efflux of IGF-1. In contrast to stretch, embedding the differentiated muscle cells in a three-dimensional collagen (Type I) matrix resulted in a 2-5-fold increase in long-term IGF-1 efflux over 24-72 h. Collagen also caused a 2-5-fold increase in the release of the IGF binding proteins. Thus, both the extracellular matrix protein type I collagen and stretch stimulate the autocrine secretion of IGF-1, but with different time kinetics. This endogenously produced growth factor may be important for the growth response of skeletal myofibers to both types of external stimuli.

  4. Longitudinal Stretching for Maturation of Vascular Tissues Using Magnetic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellular spheroids were studied to determine their use as “bioinks” in the biofabrication of tissue engineered constructs. Specifically, magnetic forces were used to mediate the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues composed of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs, as part of a post-processing method for enhancing the deposition and mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose was to accelerate the conventional tissue maturation process via novel post-processing techniques that accelerate the functional, structural, and mechanical mimicking of native tissues. The results of a forty-day study of JMCSs indicated an expression of collagen I, collagen IV, elastin, and fibronectin, which are important vascular ECM proteins. Most notably, the subsequent exposure of fused tissue sheets composed of JMCSs to magnetic forces did not hinder the production of these key proteins. Quantitative results demonstrate that cyclic longitudinal stretching of the tissue sheets mediated by these magnetic forces increased the Young’s modulus and induced collagen fiber alignment over a seven day period, when compared to statically conditioned controls. Specifically, the elastin and collagen content of these dynamically-conditioned sheets were 35- and three-fold greater, respectively, at seven days compared to the statically-conditioned controls at three days. These findings indicate the potential of using magnetic forces in tissue maturation, specifically through the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues.

  5. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  6. Boosted quantum black hole and black string in M-theory, and quantum correction to Gregory-Laflamme instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyakutake, Yoshifumi [Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University,Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan)

    2015-09-11

    We take into account higher derivative R{sup 4} corrections in M-theory and construct quantum black hole and black string solutions in 11 dimensions up to the next leading order. The quantum black string is stretching along the 11th direction and the Gregory-Laflamme instability is examined at the quantum level. Thermodynamics of the boosted quantum black hole and black string are also discussed. Especially we take the near horizon limit of the quantum black string and investigate its instability quantitatively.

  7. SHORT DURATIONS OF STATIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC STRETCHING DO NOT IMPAIR REPEATED SPRINTS AND AGILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA and change of direction (COD. Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s. Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total. Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p < 0.001. However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (< 90 s static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments

  8. Rubber and gel origami: visco- and poro-elastic behavior of folded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur; Bende, Nakul; Na, Junhee; Hayward, Ryan; Santangelo, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The Japanese art of origami is rapidly becoming a platform for material design, as researchers develop systematic methods to exploit the purely geometric rules that allow paper to folded without stretching. Since any thin sheet couples mechanics strongly to geometry, origami provides a natural template for generating length-scale independent structures from a variety of different materials. In this talk I discuss some of the implications of using polymeric sheets and shells over many length scales to create folded materials with tunable shapes and properties. These implications include visco-elastic snap-through transitions and poro-elastically driven micro origami. In each case, mechanical response, dynamics, and reversible folding is tuned through a combination of geometry and constitutive properties, demonstrating the efficacy of using origami principles for designing functional materials.

  9. Arthroscopic management of posterior instability: evolution of technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Felix H; Holt, M Shaun; Field, Larry D; Ramsey, J Randall

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arthroscopic posterior shoulder reconstruction. We treated 136 shoulders in 131 patients with a diagnosis of primary posterior instability who failed 6 months of vigorous rehabilitation by operative stabilization between 1989 and 2001. Inclusion criterion was primary posterior instability that failed an extensive rehabilitative program with functional impairment and pain. Exclusion criterion was less than 12 months of follow-up and Suretac (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) or laser stabilization, leaving 92 shoulders in 90 patients available for the study (69 male, 21 female). Follow-up ranged from 12 to 132 months (average, 28 months). Each patient underwent diagnostic arthroscopy and surgical repair at the same time using one of several primary procedures. The procedure used was based on the pathologic entity noted at the time of surgery. At an average follow-up of 28 months, 97% of the shoulders were stable and considered a success based on the Neer-Foster rating scale. Posterior pathology varied, and a reverse Bankart lesion alone was found 51% of the time, a stretched posterior capsule 67% of the time, and a combination of a reverse Bankart lesion and capsular stretching 16% of the time. The rotator interval was obviously damaged in 61% of cases. Multiple accompanying lesions were found, including anterior-superior labral tears and SLAP tears (20%), superior glenohumeral ligament injury (7%), middle glenohumeral ligament injury (38%), anteroinferior glenohumaral ligament injury (37%), and an enlarged axillary pouch (20%). No essential lesion is present for posterior instability. Multiple varied pathologies will be present in a shoulder presenting with posterior instability. Arthroscopic surgery allows inspection of the joint and anatomic-specific repairs based on pathology. Careful attention to all the supporting structures of the shoulder, including the rotator interval, the anterior-superior labrum

  10. Stretch strength of Al-Li alloy sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Fujimoto, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Sakamoto, T. [Kobe Steel Works, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Stretch test on Al-Li alloy sheet was carried out in stretch rate of 0.01 to 0.2 mm/sec. The limiting stretch depth was measured in various conditions and the following results were obtained. (1) Stretch rate does not affect the limiting stretch depth of Al-Li alloy. (2) The limiting stretch depth is increased with increase of the profile radius. (3) Strain hardening exponent(n-value) and r-value of Lankford do not affect the limiting stretch depth. (4) Rapture pattern in stretch test of Al is {alpha} type rapture and that of Al-Li alloy is straight line type rapture. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Aggregation of natively folded proteins: a theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trovato, Antonio; Maritan, Amos; Seno, Flavio

    2007-01-01

    The reliable identification of β-aggregating stretches in protein sequences is essential for the development of therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as other pathological conditions associated with protein deposition. While the list of aggregation related diseases is growing, it has also been shown that many proteins that are normally well behaved can be induced to aggregate in vitro. This fact suggests the existence of a unified framework that could explain both folding and aggregation. By assuming this universal behaviour, we have recently introduced an algorithm (PASTA: prediction of amyloid structure aggregation), which is based on a sequence-specific energy function derived from the propensity of two residue types to be found paired in neighbouring strands within β-sheets in globular proteins. The algorithm is able to predict the most aggregation-prone portions of several proteins initially unfolded, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Here, we apply the method to a set of proteins which are known to aggregate, but which are natively folded. The quality of the prediction is again very high, corroborating the hypothesis that the amyloid structure is stabilized by the same physico-chemical determinants as those operating in folded proteins

  12. Buckling instabilities of subducted lithosphere beneath the transition zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Stutzmann, E.; Ren, Y.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2007-01-01

    A sheet of viscous fluid poured onto a surface buckles periodically to generate a pile of regular folds. Recent tomographic images beneath subduction zones, together with quantitative fluid mechanical scaling laws, suggest that a similar instability can occur when slabs of subducted oceanic

  13. Atomic Stretch: Optimally bounded real-time stretching and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color-modification, co......Atomic Stretch is a plugin for your preferred Adobe video editing tool, allowing real-time smooth and optimally bounded retarget-ting from and to any aspect ratio. The plugin allows preserving of high interest pixels through a protected region, attention redirection through color...

  14. Longitudinal instability of an induction linac with acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.; Lee, E.P.

    1993-05-01

    The question arises as to what effect acceleration, which so far has been ignored, has on the longitudinal instability of an induction linac. The answer is not much for the anticipated acceleration rate (1--2 MeV/m) and minimum e-folding distance for the instability (50--500 meters). However, total unstable growth is significantly reduced over distances which are long enough for appreciable acceleration to occur. The purpose of this note is to record a calculation of the instability, including a constant acceleration rate. Some interesting features emerge -- for example, the velocity of the head is a more convenient independent variable than axial position and, for an initial sinusoidal perturbation of velocity in time, the number of oscillations along the pulse is constant; as the pulse shortens in nine the frequency increases

  15. How to determine local stretching and tension in a flow-stretched DNA molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Nyvold; Marie, Rodolphe; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We determine the nonuniform stretching of and tension in amega base pairs-long fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is flow stretched in a nanofluidic chip. We use no markers, do not know the contour length of the DNA, and do not have the full DNA molecule inside our field of view. Instead......, we analyze the transverse thermal motion of the DNA. Tension at the center of the DNA adds up to 16 pN, giving almost fully stretched DNA. This method was devised for optical mapping of DNA, specifically, DNA denaturation patterns. It may be useful also for other studies, e.g., DNA......-protein interactions, specifically, their tension dependence. Generally, wherever long strands of DNA—e.g., native DNA extracted from human cells or bacteria—must be stretched with ease for inspection, this method applies....

  16. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  17. EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY OVER MANUAL PASSIVE STRETCHING WITH CRYOTHERAPY ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamik Bhattacharjee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy individuals, to ease and accomplish their activities of daily living they need flexible body without any tightness in the muscles, particularly those used for a definite function. Cooling soft tissues in a lengthened position after stretching has been shown to promote more lasting increases in soft tissue length and minimize post stretch muscle soreness. There are less documented studies which compared modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretch over passive manual stretch with cold application commonly after the interventions. Methods: Thirty high school going healthy students were divided into two groups- Group I received Passive Manual stretching (n=15 and Group II received modified PNF stretching (n=15 and both groups received cold application after the interventions for 10 minutes commonly for 5 days. ROM was taken on day 1, day 5 and day 7. Results: After day 7, Group II with Modified PNF stretching along with cold application showed a significant increase in range of motion tested with active knee extension test (AKET. Conclusion: Modified PNF stretching is considered to be the effective intervention in increasing and maintaining ROM in AKET over passive manual stretching with cold applications commonly after the interventions.

  18. Flexibility and stretching physiology : responses and adaptations to different stretching intensities.

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Sandro Remo Martins Neves Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Motricidade Humana, especialidade de Biomecânica Research and reported literature regarding the conceptual, methodological, and training effects of stretching with different intensities are scarce. The purposes of this thesis were to: i) explore and develop methodological conditions to achieve the second purpose (studies: 1 to 3); ii) characterize the acute and chronic effects induced by different stretching intensities on skeletal muscle and joint mechanical properti...

  19. Cell origami: self-folding of three-dimensional cell-laden microstructures driven by cell traction force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kuribayashi-Shigetomi

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method of generating three-dimensional (3D cell-laden microstructures by applying the principle of origami folding technique and cell traction force (CTF. We harness the CTF as a biological driving force to fold the microstructures. Cells stretch and adhere across multiple microplates. Upon detaching the microplates from a substrate, CTF causes the plates to lift and fold according to a prescribed pattern. This self-folding technique using cells is highly biocompatible and does not involve special material requirements for the microplates and hinges to induce folding. We successfully produced various 3D cell-laden microstructures by just changing the geometry of the patterned 2D plates. We also achieved mass-production of the 3D cell-laden microstructures without causing damage to the cells. We believe that our methods will be useful for biotechnology applications that require analysis of cells in 3D configurations and for self-assembly of cell-based micro-medical devices.

  20. Cell origami: self-folding of three-dimensional cell-laden microstructures driven by cell traction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Kaori; Onoe, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method of generating three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden microstructures by applying the principle of origami folding technique and cell traction force (CTF). We harness the CTF as a biological driving force to fold the microstructures. Cells stretch and adhere across multiple microplates. Upon detaching the microplates from a substrate, CTF causes the plates to lift and fold according to a prescribed pattern. This self-folding technique using cells is highly biocompatible and does not involve special material requirements for the microplates and hinges to induce folding. We successfully produced various 3D cell-laden microstructures by just changing the geometry of the patterned 2D plates. We also achieved mass-production of the 3D cell-laden microstructures without causing damage to the cells. We believe that our methods will be useful for biotechnology applications that require analysis of cells in 3D configurations and for self-assembly of cell-based micro-medical devices.

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  2. Thermodynamics and instability of dielectric elastomer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Mu, Tong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer is a kind of typical soft active material. It can deform obviously when subjected to an external voltage. When a dielectric elastomer with randomly oriented dipoles is subject to an electric field, the dipoles will rotate to and align with the electric field. The polarization of the dielectric elastomer may be saturated when the voltage is high enough. When subjected to a mechanical force, the end-to-end distance of each polymer chain, which has a finite contour length, will approach the finite value, reaching a limiting stretch. On approaching the limiting stretch, the elastomer stiffens steeply. Here, we develop a thermodynamic constitutive model of dielectric elastomers undergoing polarization saturation and strain-stiffening, and then investigate the stability (electromechanical stability, snap-through stability) and voltage induced deformation of dielectric elastomers. Analytical solution has been obtained and it reveals the marked influence of the extension limit and polarization saturation limit on its instability. The developed thermodynamic constitutive model and simulation results would be helpful in future to the research of dielectric elastomer based high-performance transducers.

  3. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced

  4. Satisfactory clinical outcome following delayed repositioning of a traumatic post-LASIK flap with dislocation and shrinkage managed by irrigation, stretching, and debridement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye-Sheng; Xie, Wen-Jia; Yao, Yu-Feng

    2017-06-01

    To report surgical management and favorable outcome in a case with delayed repair of traumatic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap dislocation with shrinkage and folds. A 30-year-old man with a five-year history of bilateral LASIK experienced blunt trauma to his right eye followed by decreased vision for 5 weeks. The surgical management included initially softening the flap by irrigation with balanced salt solution (BSS). The shrinkage folds were carefully and gently stretched by scraping with a 26-gauge cannula accompanied by BSS irrigation. All of the epithelial ingrowth on the flap inner surface and on the bed was thoroughly debrided by scraping and irrigation. After the flap was repositioned to match its original margin, a soft bandage contact lens was placed. At his initial visit, slit-lamp microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed shrinkage of the LASIK flap with an elevated margin approximately 3 mm above the original position. The flap covered half of the pupil and had multiple horizontal folds. Two months after surgery, the flap remained well positioned with only faint streaks in the anterior stroma. The uncorrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/20 with a manifest refraction of Plano. For delayed repair of traumatically dislocated LASIK flaps, sufficient softening by BSS, stretching the shrinkage folds, and thorough debridement of ingrowth epithelium enable resetting the flap and provide satisfactory results.

  5. Fractional hereditariness of lipid membranes: Instabilities and linearized evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deseri, L; Pollaci, P; Zingales, M; Dayal, K

    2016-05-01

    In this work lipid ordering phase changes arising in planar membrane bilayers is investigated both accounting for elasticity alone and for effective viscoelastic response of such assemblies. The mechanical response of such membranes is studied by minimizing the Gibbs free energy which penalizes perturbations of the changes of areal stretch and their gradients only (Deseri and Zurlo, 2013). As material instabilities arise whenever areal stretches characterizing homogeneous configurations lie inside the spinoidal zone of the free energy density, bifurcations from such configurations are shown to occur as oscillatory perturbations of the in-plane displacement. Experimental observations (Espinosa et al., 2011) show a power-law in-plane viscous behavior of lipid structures allowing for an effective viscoelastic behavior of lipid membranes, which falls in the framework of Fractional Hereditariness. A suitable generalization of the variational principle invoked for the elasticity is applied in this case, and the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation is found together with a set of boundary and initial conditions. Separation of variables allows for showing how Fractional Hereditariness owes bifurcated modes with a larger number of spatial oscillations than the corresponding elastic analog. Indeed, the available range of areal stresses for material instabilities is found to increase with respect to the purely elastic case. Nevertheless, the time evolution of the perturbations solving the Euler-Lagrange equation above exhibits time-decay and the large number of spatial oscillation slowly relaxes, thereby keeping the features of a long-tail type time-response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural analysis of sheath folds in the Sylacauga Marble Group, Talladega slate belt, southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Remnant blocks of marble from the Moretti-Harrah dimension-stone quarry provide excellent exposure of meter-scale sheath folds. Tubular structures with elliptical cross-sections (4 ???Ryz ??? 5) are the most common expression of the folds. The tubes are elongate subparallel to stretching lineation and are defined by centimeter-scale layers of schist. Eccentrically nested elliptical patterns and opposing asymmetry of folds ('S' and 'Z') are consistent with the sheath-fold interpretation. Sheath folds are locally numerous in the Moretti-Harrah quarry but are not widely distributed in the Sylacauga Marble Group; reconnaissance in neighboring quarries provided no additional observations. The presence of sheath folds in part of the Talladega slate belt indicates a local history of plastic, non-coaxial deformation. Such a history of deformation is substantiated by petrographic study of an extracted hinge from the Moretti-Harrah quarry. The sheath folds are modeled as due to passive amplification of initial structures during simple shear, using both analytic geometry and graphic simulation. As indicated by these models, relatively large shear strains (y ??? 9) and longitudinal initial structures are required. The shear strain presumably relates to NW-directed displacement of overlying crystalline rocks during late Paleozoic orogeny. ?? 1993.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING VERSUS STATIC STRETCHING ON PAIN AND HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY FOLLOWING MOIST HEAT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena .V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative joint disease and one of the major public health problem that causesfunctional impairment and reduced quality of life. To compare the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstring following moist heat in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. Hamstring tightness is the major problem in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Therefore the need of study is comparing the effectiveness of PNF Hold relax stretching versus static stretching on pain and flexibility of hamstrings following moist heat in knee osteoarthritis participants. Determining the effects of PNF Hold relax stretching versus Static stretching along with moist heat on pain and hamstring flexibility by VAS and Active knee extension range of motion in knee osteoarthritis individuals. Methods: 30 subjects with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis were randomly distributed into 2 groups 15 in each group. PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat is compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hamstring flexibility by Active knee Extension Range of Motion (AKEROM by universal goniometer. Measurements are taken pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicated PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed a statistically significant improvement in pain (p<0.05 and improvement in hamstring flexibility (p<0.05 when compared to Static stretching along with moist heat. Conclusion: Subjects with PNF Hold relax stretching along with moist heat showed significant improvement in pain reduction and improving hamstring flexibility than Static stretching along with moist heat.

  8. Endovascular rescue method for undesirably stretched coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Undesirable detachment or stretching of coils within the parent artery during aneurysm embolization can be related with thrombus formation, which can be caused occlusion of parent artery or embolic event(s). To escape from this situation, several rescue methods have been reported. A case with undesirably stretched coil in which another rescue method was used, is presented. When the stretched coil is still located in the coil delivery microcatheter, the stretched coil can be removed safely using a snare and a handmade monorail microcatheter. After a snare is lodged in the handmade monorail microcatheter, the snare is introduced over the coil delivery micorcatheter and located in the distal part of the stretched coil. After then, the handmade monorail microcatheter captures the stretched coil and the snare as one unit. This technique using a handmade monorail microcatheter and a snare can be a good rescue modality for the undesirably stretched coil, still remained within the coil delivery microcatheter.

  9. The effect of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in previously injured subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. Methods A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM. 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1 at baseline; (2 after warm-up; (3 after stretch (static or dynamic and (4 after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. Results Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p 0.05. Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141 baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05. Conclusion Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced flexibility post-injury, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further prospective research is required to validate the hypothesis that increased flexibility improves outcomes. Trial Registration ACTRN12608000638336

  10. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  11. Biaxial stretching of film principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Demeuse, M T

    2011-01-01

    Biaxial (having two axes) stretching of film is used for a range of applications and is the primary manufacturing process by which products are produced for the food packaging industry. Biaxial stretching of film: principles and applications provides an overview of the manufacturing processes and range of applications for biaxially stretched films. Part one reviews the fundamental principles of biaxial stretching. After an introductory chapter which defines terms, chapters discuss equipment design and requirements, laboratory evaluations, biaxial film structures and typical industrial processes for the biaxial orientation of films. Additional topics include post production processing of biaxially stretched films, the stress-strain behaviour of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and academic investigations of biaxially stretched films. Part two investigates the applications of biaxial films including fresh cut produce, snack packaging and product labelling. A final chapter investigates potential future trends for bi...

  12. Satisfactory clinical outcome following delayed repositioning of a traumatic post-LASIK flap with dislocation and shrinkage managed by irrigation, stretching, and debridement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye-sheng; Xie, Wen-jia; Yao, Yu-feng

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To report surgical management and favorable outcome in a case with delayed repair of traumatic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flap dislocation with shrinkage and folds. Methods: A 30-year-old man with a five-year history of bilateral LASIK experienced blunt trauma to his right eye followed by decreased vision for 5 weeks. The surgical management included initially softening the flap by irrigation with balanced salt solution (BSS). The shrinkage folds were carefully and gently stretched by scraping with a 26-gauge cannula accompanied by BSS irrigation. All of the epithelial ingrowth on the flap inner surface and on the bed was thoroughly debrided by scraping and irrigation. After the flap was repositioned to match its original margin, a soft bandage contact lens was placed. Results: At his initial visit, slit-lamp microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed shrinkage of the LASIK flap with an elevated margin approximately 3 mm above the original position. The flap covered half of the pupil and had multiple horizontal folds. Two months after surgery, the flap remained well positioned with only faint streaks in the anterior stroma. The uncorrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/20 with a manifest refraction of Plano. Conclusions: For delayed repair of traumatically dislocated LASIK flaps, sufficient softening by BSS, stretching the shrinkage folds, and thorough debridement of ingrowth epithelium enable resetting the flap and provide satisfactory results. PMID:28585430

  13. Correlation between structure and conductivity in stretched Nafion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We have used coarse-grained simulation methods to investigate the effect of stretching-induced structure orientation on the proton conductivity of Nafion-like polyelectrolyte membranes. Recent experimental data on the morphology of ionomers describe Nafion as an aggregation of polymeric backbone chains forming elongated objects embedded in a continuous ionic medium. Uniaxial stretching of a recast Nafion film causes a preferential orientation of these objects in the direction of stretching. Our simulations of humid Nafion show that this has a strong effect on the proton conductivity, which is enhanced along the stretching direction, while the conductivity perpendicular to the stretched polymer backbone is strongly reduced. Stretching also causes the perfluorinated side chains to orient perpendicular to the stretching axis. The sulphonate multiplets shrink in diameter as the stretching is increased and show a spatially periodic ordering in their distribution. This in turn affects the distribution of contained water at low water contents. The water forms a continuous network with narrow bridges between small water clusters absorbed in head-group multiplets. We find the morphological changes in the stretched Nafion to be retained upon removal of the uniaxial stress.

  14. Characterization of mechanical behavior of a porcine pulmonary artery strip using a randomized uniaxial stretch and stretch-rate protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criscione John C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the experimental work in soft tissue mechanics has been focused on fitting approximate relations for specific tissue types from aggregate data on multiple samples of the tissue. Such relations are needed for modeling applications and have reasonable predictability – especially given the natural variance in specimens. There is, however, much theoretical and experimental work to be done in determining constitutive behaviors for particular specimens and tissues. In so doing, it may be possible to exploit the natural variation in tissue ultrastructure – so to relate ultrastructure composition to tissue behavior. Thus, this study focuses on an experimental method for determining constitutive behaviors and illustrates the method with analysis of a porcine pulmonary artery strip. The method characterizes the elastic part of the response (implicitly in terms of stretch and the inelastic part in terms of short term stretch history (i.e., stretch-rate Ht2, longer term stretch history Ht1, and time since the start of testing T. Methods A uniaxial testing protocol with a random stretch and random stretch-rate was developed. The average stress at a particular stretch was chosen as the hyperelastic stress response, and deviation from the mean at this particular stretch is chosen as the inelastic deviation. Multivariable Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA was utilized to verify if Ht2, Ht1, and T are important factors for characterizing the inelastic deviation. For acquiring Ht2 and Ht1, an integral function type of stretch history was employed with time constants chosen from the relaxation spectrum of an identical size strip from the same tissue with the same orientation. Finally, statistical models that characterize the inelasticity were developed at various, nominal values of stretch, and their predictive capability was examined. Results Inelastic deviation from hyperelasticity was high (31% for low stretch and declined

  15. Wrinkling instability in nanoparticle-supported graphene: implications for strain engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, William; Yamamoto, Mahito; Pierre-Louis, Olivier; Huang, Jia; Fuhrer, Michael; Einstein, Theodore

    2013-03-01

    We have carried out a systematic study of the wrinkling instability of graphene membranes supported on SiO2 substrates with randomly placed silica nanoparticles. At small nanoparticle density, monolayer graphene adheres to the substrate and is highly conformal over the nanoparticles. With increasing nanoparticle density, and decreasing nanoparticle separation to ~100 nm, graphene's elastic response dominates substrate adhesion, and elastic stretching energy is reduced by the formation of wrinkles which connect protrusions. Above a critical nanoparticle density, the wrinkles form a percolating network through the sample. As the graphene membrane is made thicker, delamination from the substrate is observed. Since the wrinkling instability acts to remove inhomogeneous in-plane elastic strains through out-of-plane buckling, our results can be used to place limits on the possible in-plane strain magnitudes that may be created in graphene to realized strain-engineered electronic structures.[2] Supported by the UMD NSF-MRSEC under Grant No. DMR 05-20471, the US ONR MURI and UMD CNAM.

  16. Effect of reinforcement element folds on stresses in NPP containment shell in the zone of technological tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, A.N.; Medvedev, V.N.; Kiselev, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    Basing on the results of experimental and calculational studies of stressed state in the zone of a technological tunnel with one-side thicker part the approximated problem solution taking into account the effect of reinforcement element folds on opening zone stressed state is obtained. The great effect of reinforcement ropes on shell stressed state in the zone of technological tunnels, which causes the necessity of its accounting during this zone design, is revealed. Special attention shoul be paid to the sections, where the stretching stresses arising as a result of bundle bending are not compensated (sections of bundle fold origin from normal trajectory)

  17. Stretched polygons in a lattice tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atapour, M [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Soteros, C E [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E6 (Canada); Whittington, S G [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada)], E-mail: atapour@mathstat.yorku.ca, E-mail: soteros@math.usask.ca, E-mail: swhittin@chem.utoronto.ca

    2009-08-14

    We examine the topological entanglements of polygons confined to a lattice tube and under the influence of an external tensile force f. The existence of the limiting free energy for these so-called stretched polygons is proved and then, using transfer matrix arguments, a pattern theorem for stretched polygons is proved. Note that the tube constraint allows us to prove a pattern theorem for any arbitrary value of f, while without the tube constraint it has so far only been proved for large values of f. The stretched polygon pattern theorem is used first to show that the average span per edge of a randomly chosen n-edge stretched polygon approaches a positive value, non-decreasing in f, as n {yields} {infinity}. We then show that the knotting probability of an n-edge stretched polygon confined to a tube goes to one exponentially as n {yields} {infinity}. Thus as n {yields} {infinity} when polygons are influenced by a force f, no matter its strength or direction, topological entanglements, as defined by knotting, occur with high probability. (fast track communication)

  18. Stretched polygons in a lattice tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atapour, M; Soteros, C E; Whittington, S G

    2009-01-01

    We examine the topological entanglements of polygons confined to a lattice tube and under the influence of an external tensile force f. The existence of the limiting free energy for these so-called stretched polygons is proved and then, using transfer matrix arguments, a pattern theorem for stretched polygons is proved. Note that the tube constraint allows us to prove a pattern theorem for any arbitrary value of f, while without the tube constraint it has so far only been proved for large values of f. The stretched polygon pattern theorem is used first to show that the average span per edge of a randomly chosen n-edge stretched polygon approaches a positive value, non-decreasing in f, as n → ∞. We then show that the knotting probability of an n-edge stretched polygon confined to a tube goes to one exponentially as n → ∞. Thus as n → ∞ when polygons are influenced by a force f, no matter its strength or direction, topological entanglements, as defined by knotting, occur with high probability. (fast track communication)

  19. Circuit topology of self-interacting chains: implications for folding and unfolding dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugler, Andrew; Tans, Sander J; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2014-11-07

    Understanding the relationship between molecular structure and folding is a central problem in disciplines ranging from biology to polymer physics and DNA origami. Topology can be a powerful tool to address this question. For a folded linear chain, the arrangement of intra-chain contacts is a topological property because rearranging the contacts requires discontinuous deformations. Conversely, the topology is preserved when continuously stretching the chain while maintaining the contact arrangement. Here we investigate how the folding and unfolding of linear chains with binary contacts is guided by the topology of contact arrangements. We formalize the topology by describing the relations between any two contacts in the structure, which for a linear chain can either be in parallel, in series, or crossing each other. We show that even when other determinants of folding rate such as contact order and size are kept constant, this 'circuit' topology determines folding kinetics. In particular, we find that the folding rate increases with the fractions of parallel and crossed relations. Moreover, we show how circuit topology constrains the conformational phase space explored during folding and unfolding: the number of forbidden unfolding transitions is found to increase with the fraction of parallel relations and to decrease with the fraction of series relations. Finally, we find that circuit topology influences whether distinct intermediate states are present, with crossed contacts being the key factor. The approach presented here can be more generally applied to questions on molecular dynamics, evolutionary biology, molecular engineering, and single-molecule biophysics.

  20. Patterns through elastic instabilities, from thin sheets to twisted ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Pascal

    Sheets embedded in a given shape by external forces store the exerted work in elastic deformations. For pure tensile forces, the work is stored as stretching energy. When the forces are compressive, several ways to store the exerted work, combining stretching and bending deformations can be explored. For large deflections, the ratio of bending, Eh3ζ2 /L4 and stretching, Ehζ4 /L4 energies, suggests that strain-free solutions should be favored for thin sheets, provided ζ2 >>h2 (where E , ζ , Land h are the elastic modulus, the deflection, a characteristic sheet size and its thickness). For uniaxially constrained sheets deriving from the Elastica, strain-free solutions are obvious, i.e., buckles, folds or wrinkles grow to absorb the stress of compression. In contrast, crumpled sheets exhibit ``origami-like'' solutions usually described as an assembly of flat polygonal facets delimitated by ridges focusing strains are observed. This type of solutions is particularly interesting since a faceted morphology is isometric to the undeformed sheet, except at those narrow ridges. In some cases however, the geometric constraints imposed by the external forces do not allow solutions with negligible strain in the deformed state. For instance, considering a circular sheet on a small drop, so thin that bending becomes negligible, i.e., Eh3 / γL2 geometry and a competition between various energy terms, involving stretching and bending modes.

  1. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completely without the help of a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual surgery to techniques like microdermabrasion and laser treatment — to reduce the appearance of stretch marks. These techniques are ...

  2. DC dynamic pull-in instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon: an energy-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul Kumar; Arora, Nitesh; Joglekar, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports an energy-based method for the dynamic pull-in instability analysis of a spherical dielectric elastomer (DE) balloon subjected to a quasi-statically applied inflation pressure and a Heaviside step voltage across the balloon wall. The proposed technique relies on establishing the energy balance at the point of maximum stretch in an oscillation cycle, followed by the imposition of an instability condition for extracting the threshold parameters. The material models of the Ogden family are employed for describing the hyperelasticity of the balloon. The accuracy of the critical dynamic pull-in parameters is established by examining the saddle-node bifurcation in the transient response of the balloon obtained by integrating numerically the equation of motion, derived using the Euler-Lagrange equation. The parametric study brings out the effect of inflation pressure on the onset of the pull-in instability in the DE balloon. A quantitative comparison between the static and dynamic pull-in parameters at four different levels of the inflation pressure is presented. The results indicate that the dynamic pull-in instability gets triggered at electric fields that are lower than those corresponding to the static instability. The results of the present investigation can find potential use in the design and development of the balloon actuators subjected to transient loading. The method developed is versatile and can be used in the dynamic instability analysis of other conservative systems of interest.

  3. Effect of Compliant Walls on Secondary Instabilities in Boundary-Layer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1991-01-01

    For aerodynamic and hydrodynamic vehicles, it is highly desirable to reduce drag and noise levels. A reduction in drag leads to fuel savings. In particular for submersible vehicles, a decrease in noise levels inhibits detection. A suggested means to obtain these reduction goals is by delaying the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in external boundary layers. For hydrodynamic applications, a passive device which shows promise for transition delays is the compliant coating. In previous studies with a simple mechanical model representing the compliant wall, coatings were found that provided transition delays as predicted from the semi-empirical e(sup n) method. Those studies were concerned with the linear stage of transition where the instability of concern is referred to as the primary instability. For the flat-plate boundary layer, the Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave is the primary instability. In one of those studies, it was shown that three-dimensional (3-D) primary instabilities, or oblique waves, could dominate transition over the coatings considered. From the primary instability, the stretching and tilting of vorticity in the shear flow leads to a secondary instability mechanism. This has been theoretical described by Herbert based on Floquet theory. In the present study, Herbert's theory is used to predict the development of secondary instabilities over isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls. Since oblique waves may be dominant over compliant walls, a secondary theory extention is made to allow for these 3-D primary instabilities. The effect of variations in primary amplitude, spanwise wavenumber, and Reynolds number on the secondary instabilities are examined. As in the rigid wall case, over compliant walls the subharmonic mode of secondary instability dominates for low-amplitude primary disturbances. Both isotropic and non-isotropic compliant walls lead to reduced secondary growth rates compared to the rigid wall results. For high frequencies

  4. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength wa...

  5. Drop dynamics on a stretched viscoelastic filament: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    Capillary pressure can destabilize a thin liquid filament during breakup into a succession of drops. Besides, the addition of a linear, high molecular weight, flexible and soluble polymer is enough to modify the morphology of this instability. In the time period preceding the breakup, the development of beads-on-a-string structures where drops are connected by thin threads is monitored. The drops dynamics involve drop formation, drop migration and drop coalescence. Experiments using a high-speed camera on stretched bridges of viscoelastic polymeric solutions were conducted for a range of viscosities and polymer concentrations. The rheological properties of the solutions are also quantified through conventional shear rheology and normal stress difference. The overall goal of this experimental investigation is to gain more insight into the formation and time evolution of the drops. The project BIOENGINE is co-financed by the European Union with the European regional development fund and by the Normandie Regional Council.

  6. Ion-hose instability in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Genoni

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. It is a phenomenon quite similar to the interaction between electron clouds and proton or positron beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2-kA, 2-μs beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (10^{-7}–10^{-6}   torr. A calculation of the linear growth by Briggs indicates that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semianalytical theory and 3D particle-in-cell simulations (using the Lsp code of the linear and nonlinear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density and spatially decreasing beam radius. We find that the number of e-foldings experienced by a given beam slice is given approximately by an analytic expression using the local channel density at the beam slice. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse since it is proportional to the ion density. We also find that growth is strongly suppressed by nonlinear effects at relatively small oscillation amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing nonlinear effects to come into play. An analogous effect has recently been noted in electron-proton instabilities in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. For DARHT-2 parameters, we find that a pressure of ≤1.5×10^{-7}   torr is needed to keep the transverse beam oscillation amplitude less than about 20% of the rms beam radius.

  7. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Louis D; Panfilov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006) and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model) with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material). Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  8. A discrete electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue: effects of stretch-activated currents and stretch conditions on restitution properties and spiral wave dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis D Weise

    Full Text Available We introduce an electromechanical model for human cardiac tissue which couples a biophysical model of cardiac excitation (Tusscher, Noble, Noble, Panfilov, 2006 and tension development (adjusted Niederer, Hunter, Smith, 2006 model with a discrete elastic mass-lattice model. The equations for the excitation processes are solved with a finite difference approach, and the equations of the mass-lattice model are solved using Verlet integration. This allows the coupled problem to be solved with high numerical resolution. Passive mechanical properties of the mass-lattice model are described by a generalized Hooke's law for finite deformations (Seth material. Active mechanical contraction is initiated by changes of the intracellular calcium concentration, which is a variable of the electrical model. Mechanical deformation feeds back on the electrophysiology via stretch-activated ion channels whose conductivity is controlled by the local stretch of the medium. We apply the model to study how stretch-activated currents affect the action potential shape, restitution properties, and dynamics of spiral waves, under constant stretch, and dynamic stretch caused by active mechanical contraction. We find that stretch conditions substantially affect these properties via stretch-activated currents. In constantly stretched medium, we observe a substantial decrease in conduction velocity, and an increase of action potential duration; whereas, with dynamic stretch, action potential duration is increased only slightly, and the conduction velocity restitution curve becomes biphasic. Moreover, in constantly stretched medium, we find an increase of the core size and period of a spiral wave, but no change in rotation dynamics; in contrast, in the dynamically stretching medium, we observe spiral drift. Our results may be important to understand how altered stretch conditions affect the heart's functioning.

  9. Stretching and jamming of finite automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer, de N.; Kourie, D.G.; Watson, B.W.; Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Watson, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present two transformations on automata, called stretching and jamming. These transformations will, under certain conditions, reduce the size of the transition table, and under other conditions reduce the string processing time. Given a finite automaton, we can stretch it by

  10. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L

    2009-05-01

    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  11. Foam topology. Bending versus stretching dominated architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, V.; Ashby, M.; Fleck, N.

    2000-01-01

    Cellular solids can deform by either the bending or stretching of the cell walls. While most cellular solids are bending-dominated, those that are stretching-dominated are much more weight-efficient for structural applications. In this study we have investigated the topological criteria that dictate the deformation mechanism of a cellular solid by analysing the rigidity (or otherwise) of pin-jointed frameworks comprising inextensional struts. We show that the minimum node connectivity for a special class of lattice structured materials to be stretching-dominated is 6 for 2D foams and 12 for 3D foams. Similarly, sandwich plates comprising of truss cores faced with planar trusses require a minimum node connectivity of 9 to undergo stretching-dominated deformation for all loading states. (author)

  12. Large-scale recumbent isoclinal folds in the footwall of the West Cycladic Detachment System (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The Pindos Zone in the Cyclades underwent Eocene high-pressure metamorphism and syn-orogenic exhumation, overprinted by Miocene low-angled extension. Although this represents a combination of likely high-strain-events, structural evidence of large-scale folding is rare. Here potential examples of such folding on Kea and Kythnos, in the Western Cyclades, are evaluated. These islands lie within the Cycladic Blueschist Nappe (lower nappe) of the Pindos Zone and in the footwall of the top-to-SSW West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). On Kea, no lithostratigraphy can be established in the 450 m thick greenschist facies mixed sedimentary-volcanoclastic-marble mylonite/phyllonite succession. On the east side of the island, lensoid marble layers frequently bifurcate, which might be reflecting early, sheared-out isoclinal folding, although no evidence of folded compositional layering has been found in potential fold-hinge zones and the bifurcation points are not arranged in a way suggestive of a fold axes parallel to the NNE-SSW oriented stretching lineation. However, at two localities, medium-scale recumbent isoclinal folding has been mapped, with NNE-SSW fold-axes exposed for up to 250 m and amplitudes of up to 170 m. On Kythnos, stretching lineations in greenschist facies rocks show a rotation from ENE-WSW in the north to NNE-SSW in the south, taken to represent a reorientation of the Eocene exhumation strain during block rotation coincident with top-to-SSW movement of the WCDS. The distribution of the three marble units that crop out in central/southern Kythnos suggest large-scale, likely isoclinal folding occurred. (1) Petroussa Lithodeme - a blue-grey calcite (BGC) marble with quartz-calcite-white-mica (QCWM) schists, forming a continuous outcrop around the island, thinning from >16m in the SE to <8m thick mylonites in the SW, overlain by grey sericite-albite-graphite-schists (Flabouria Lithodeme); (2) Rizou Lithodeme - massive grey to BGC marble, with abundant

  13. Epithelial Folding Driven by Apical or Basal-Lateral Modulation: Geometric Features, Mechanical Inference, and Boundary Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Wang, Yu-Chiun; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2017-06-20

    During embryonic development, epithelial sheets fold into complex structures required for tissue and organ functions. Although substantial efforts have been devoted to identifying molecular mechanisms underlying epithelial folding, far less is understood about how forces deform individual cells to sculpt the overall sheet morphology. Here we describe a simple and general theoretical model for the autonomous folding of monolayered epithelial sheets. We show that active modulation of intracellular mechanics along the basal-lateral as well as the apical surfaces is capable of inducing fold formation in the absence of buckling instability. Apical modulation sculpts epithelia into shallow and V-shaped folds, whereas basal-lateral modulation generates deep and U-shaped folds. These characteristic tissue shapes remain unchanged when subject to mechanical perturbations from the surroundings, illustrating that the autonomous folding is robust against environmental variabilities. At the cellular scale, how cells change shape depends on their initial aspect ratios and the modulation mechanisms. Such cell deformation characteristics are verified via experimental measurements for a canonical folding process driven by apical modulation, indicating that our theory could be used to infer the underlying folding mechanisms based on experimental data. The mechanical principles revealed in our model could potentially guide future studies on epithelial folding in diverse systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A novel strategy to identify the critical conditions for growth-induced instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javili, A; Steinmann, P; Kuhl, E

    2014-01-01

    Geometric instabilities in living structures can be critical for healthy biological function, and abnormal buckling, folding, or wrinkling patterns are often important indicators of disease. Mathematical models typically attribute these instabilities to differential growth, and characterize them using the concept of fictitious configurations. This kinematic approach toward growth-induced instabilities is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the total deformation gradient into a reversible elastic part and an irreversible growth part. While this generic concept is generally accepted and well established today, the critical conditions for the formation of growth-induced instabilities remain elusive and poorly understood. Here we propose a novel strategy for the stability analysis of growing structures motivated by the idea of replacing growth by prestress. Conceptually speaking, we kinematically map the stress-free grown configuration onto a prestressed initial configuration. This allows us to adopt a classical infinitesimal stability analysis to identify critical material parameter ranges beyond which growth-induced instabilities may occur. We illustrate the proposed concept by a series of numerical examples using the finite element method. Understanding the critical conditions for growth-induced instabilities may have immediate applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, asthma, obstructive sleep apnoea, and brain development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The longitudinal wall impedance instability in a heavy-ion fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, D.A.; Langdon, A.B.; Friedman, A.; Haber, I.

    1997-01-01

    For more than ten years [J. Bisognano, I. Haber, L. Smith, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 2501 (1983)], the longitudinal wall impedance instability was thought to be a serious threat to the success of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion. This instability is a open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes instability, driven by the impedance of the induction modules used to accelerate the beam. Early estimates of the instability growth rate predicted tens of e-folds due to the instability which would modulate the current and increase the longitudinal momentum spread and prevent focusing the ion beam on the small spot needed at the target. We have simulated this instability using an r-z particle-in-cell code which includes a model for the module impedance. These simulations, using driver parameters, show that growth due to the instability is smaller than in previous calculations. We have seen that growth is mainly limited to one head to tail transit by a space-charge wave. In addition, the capacitive component of the module impedance, which was neglected in the early work of Lee [E. P. Lee, Proc. Linear Accelerator Conference, (UCRL-86452), Santa Fe, NM, 1981] significantly reduces the growth rate. We have also included in the simulation intermittently applied axial confining fields which are thought to be the major source of perturbations to seed the longitudinal instability. Simulations show the beam can adjust to a systematic error in the longitudinal confining fields while a random error excites the most unstable wavelength of the instability. These simulations show that the longitudinal instability must be taken into account in a driver design, but it is not the major factor it was once thought to be. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Nitta, Nao; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    Flow cytometry is an indispensable method for valuable applications in numerous fields such as immunology, pathology, pharmacology, molecular biology, and marine biology. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy is superior to conventional flow cytometry methods for its capability to acquire high-quality images of single cells at a high-throughput exceeding 10,000 cells per second. This makes it possible to extract copious information from cellular images for accurate cell detection and analysis with the assistance of machine learning. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy has proven its effectivity in various applications, including microalga-based biofuel production, evaluation of thrombotic disorders, as well as drug screening and discovery. In this review, we discuss the principles and recent advances of optofluidic time-stretch microscopy.

  17. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  18. BUOYANCY INSTABILITIES IN A WEAKLY COLLISIONAL INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Matthew W.; Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S., E-mail: kunz@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tamarab@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is a weakly collisional plasma in which the transport of heat and momentum occurs primarily along magnetic-field lines. Anisotropic heat conduction allows convective instabilities to be driven by temperature gradients of either sign: the magnetothermal instability (MTI) in the outskirts of clusters and the heat-flux buoyancy-driven instability (HBI) in their cooling cores. We employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities, self-consistently including the effects of anisotropic viscosity (i.e., Braginskii pressure anisotropy), anisotropic conduction, and radiative cooling. We find that, in all but the innermost regions of cool-core clusters, anisotropic viscosity significantly impairs the ability of the HBI to reorient magnetic-field lines orthogonal to the temperature gradient. Thus, while radio-mode feedback appears necessary in the central few Multiplication-Sign 10 kpc, heat conduction may be capable of offsetting radiative losses throughout most of a cool core over a significant fraction of the Hubble time. Magnetically aligned cold filaments are then able to form by local thermal instability. Viscous dissipation during cold filament formation produces accompanying hot filaments, which can be searched for in deep Chandra observations of cool-core clusters. In the case of MTI, anisotropic viscosity leads to a nonlinear state with a folded magnetic field structure in which field-line curvature and field strength are anti-correlated. These results demonstrate that, if the HBI and MTI are relevant for shaping the properties of the ICM, one must self-consistently include anisotropic viscosity in order to obtain even qualitatively correct results.

  19. The Complexity of Folding Self-Folding Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Menachem; Pinson, Matthew B.; Murugan, Arvind

    2017-10-01

    Why is it difficult to refold a previously folded sheet of paper? We show that even crease patterns with only one designed folding motion inevitably contain an exponential number of "distractor" folding branches accessible from a bifurcation at the flat state. Consequently, refolding a sheet requires finding the ground state in a glassy energy landscape with an exponential number of other attractors of higher energy, much like in models of protein folding (Levinthal's paradox) and other NP-hard satisfiability (SAT) problems. As in these problems, we find that refolding a sheet requires actuation at multiple carefully chosen creases. We show that seeding successful folding in this way can be understood in terms of subpatterns that fold when cut out ("folding islands"). Besides providing guidelines for the placement of active hinges in origami applications, our results point to fundamental limits on the programmability of energy landscapes in sheets.

  20. Mechanical stretching for tissue engineering: two-dimensional and three-dimensional constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Brandon D; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Lim, Jung Yul

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols.

  1. Immediate effects of different types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwi S; Kim, Daeho; Park, Jihong

    2018-01-01

    Since different types of stretching exercises may alter athletic performance, we compared the effects of three types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash. Sixteen male collegiate badminton players performed one of three different stretching exercises in a counterbalanced order on different days. Static stretching had seven typical stretches, while dynamic stretching involved nine dynamic movements, and resistance dynamic stretching was performed with weighted vests and dumbbells. Before and after each stretching exercise, subjects performed 20 trials of jump smashes. Dependent measurements were the jump heights during jump smashes, velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks, and drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks. To test the effects of each stretching exercise, we performed mixed model ANOVAs and calculated between-time effect sizes (ES). Each stretching exercise improved the jump heights during jump smashes (type main effect: F(2,75)=1.19, P=0.31; static stretching: 22.1%, Pjump-smashed shuttlecocks (type main effect: F(2,75)=2.18, P=0.12; static stretching: 5.7%, P=0.61, ES=0.39; dynamic stretching: 3.4%, P=0.94, ES=0.28; resistance dynamic stretching: 6%, P=0.50, ES=0.66). However, there were no differences among the stretching exercises for any measurement. The drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks did not change (interaction: F(2,75)=0.88, P=0.42). All stretching exercises improved badminton jump smash performance, but we could not determine the best protocol. Since badminton requires high-speed movement and explosive force, we suggest performing dynamic stretching or resistance dynamic stretching.

  2. Lattice stretching bistability and dynamic heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A. V.; Zolotaryuk, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional lattice model is suggested to describe the experimentally observed plateau in force-stretching diagrams for some macromolecules. This chain model involves the nearest-neighbor interaction of a Morse-like potential (required to have a saturation branch) and a harmonic second......-neighbor coupling. Under an external stretching applied to the chain ends, the intersite Morse-like potential results in the appearance of a double-well potential within each chain monomer, whereas the interaction between the second neighbors provides a homogeneous bistable (degenerate) ground state, at least...... stretched bonds with a double-well potential. This case allows us to explain the existence of a plateau in the force-extension diagram for DNA and α-helix protein. Finally, the soliton dynamics are studied in detail....

  3. Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety.

  4. The Complexity of Folding Self-Folding Origami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menachem Stern

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Why is it difficult to refold a previously folded sheet of paper? We show that even crease patterns with only one designed folding motion inevitably contain an exponential number of “distractor” folding branches accessible from a bifurcation at the flat state. Consequently, refolding a sheet requires finding the ground state in a glassy energy landscape with an exponential number of other attractors of higher energy, much like in models of protein folding (Levinthal’s paradox and other NP-hard satisfiability (SAT problems. As in these problems, we find that refolding a sheet requires actuation at multiple carefully chosen creases. We show that seeding successful folding in this way can be understood in terms of subpatterns that fold when cut out (“folding islands”. Besides providing guidelines for the placement of active hinges in origami applications, our results point to fundamental limits on the programmability of energy landscapes in sheets.

  5. Alfven-ion-cyclotron instability in the central cell of TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.C.; Baldwin, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The central cell of TMX may require hot-ion injection. The resulting velocity-space anisotropy together with the length of the central homogeneous region raise the possibility of convective AIC instability. In this report we demonstrate that the Rosenbluth criterion of less than a thousand-fold amplitude amplification per pass can be satisfied by ion distributions which nevertheless have sufficient anisotropy to be confined within the central cell

  6. Bruxism: Is There an Indication for Muscle-Stretching Exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw, Simone; de Wijer, Anton; Creugers, Nico Hj; Kalaykova, Stanimira I

    Bruxism is a common phenomenon involving repetitive activation of the masticatory muscles. Muscle-stretching exercises are a recommended part of several international guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders and may be effective in management of the jaw muscle activity that gives rise to bruxism. However, most studies of muscle-stretching exercises have mainly focused on their influence on performance (eg, range of motion, coordination, and muscle strength) of the limb or trunk muscles of healthy individuals or individuals with sports-related injuries. Very few have investigated stretching of the human masticatory muscles and none muscle-stretching exercises in the management of (sleep) bruxism. This article reviews the literature on muscle-stretching exercises and their potential role in the management of sleep bruxism or its consequences in the musculoskeletal system.

  7. Three-Fold Embedding: Farm Development in Relation to Its Socio-Material Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Methorst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding heterogeneity in farm development strategies is important in order to design effective policies and support programs to increase the sustainability of agriculture in relation to its socio-material context. Using a unique case study of 102 dairy farmers in The Netherlands, all operating in a highly similar socio-material context, this paper studies the differences in the relation of farms with the socio-material context. To this end, the concept of three-fold embedding is developed and tested using the ideal-typical characteristics of three patterns of farm development that were identified in the case study: (1 maximising total milk production; (2 optimising milk production using mainly on-farm resources; and (3 diversified on-farm production. Three-fold embedding was conceptualised in relation to the following dimensions: (1 value chain relations; (2 socio-cultural relations; and (3 natural resource relations, while using a scale ranging from a Close to a Stretched set of relations. The concept of three-fold embedding proves to be useful to identify in a non-normative and non-binary manner meaningful differences between patterns of farm development. These differences relate to differences in opportunity identification and strategic decision-making. The concept supports a relational perspective in studying farm strategy development using a sociology of entrepreneurship approach.

  8. Stretch induced endothelin-1 secretion by adult rat astrocytes involves calcium influx via stretch-activated ion channels (SACs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrow, Lyle W.; Suchyna, Thomas M.; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Endothelin-1 expression by adult rat astrocytes correlates with cell proliferation. → Stretch-induced ET-1 is inhibited by GsMtx-4, a specific inhibitor of Ca 2+ permeant SACs. → The less specific SAC inhibitor streptomycin also inhibits ET-1 secretion. → Stretch-induced ET-1 production depends on a calcium influx. → SAC pharmacology may provide a new class of therapeutic agents for CNS pathology. -- Abstract: The expression of endothelins (ETs) and ET-receptors is often upregulated in brain pathology. ET-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, also inhibits the expression of astrocyte glutamate transporters and is mitogenic for astrocytes, glioma cells, neurons, and brain capillary endothelia. We have previously shown that mechanical stress stimulates ET-1 production by adult rat astrocytes. We now show in adult astrocytes that ET-1 production is driven by calcium influx through stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) and the ET-1 production correlates with cell proliferation. Mechanical stimulation using biaxial stretch ( 2+ threshold. This coupling of mechanical stress to the astrocyte endothelin system through SACs has treatment implications, since all pathology deforms the surrounding parenchyma.

  9. Resonant Drag Instabilities in protoplanetary disks: the streaming instability and new, faster-growing instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.

  10. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  11. On broadened definitions of instability for stars in thermal imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The classical theory of stability of dynamical systems is employed to demonstrate that traditional definitions of pulsational instability cannot be directly applied to stars in thermal imbalance. In particular, it is shown that, for the case of thermal imbalance, pulsational displacements and pulsational velocities have separate and distinct e-folding times. This being true, a broadened set of definitions becomes necessary, and such a set is formulated again with reference to the classical theory. In accordance with the new definitions, it is argued that the development of observable pulsations requires as a necessary condition infinitesimal instability of both absolute displacement and velocity. If either one is unstable without the other, this constitutes a class of (probably) non-pulsational instability, not previously treated in the astrophysical literature. Finally, it is shown that the stability of stars in thermal imbalance may be evaluated according to the present definitions by employing either of two existing theories - the energy approach due to Demaret (1974; 1975; 1976) or the small perturbation technique of Cox et al. (1973). (Auth.)

  12. An analytic study of the perpendicularly propagating electromagnetic drift instabilities in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yansong; Kulsrud, Russell; Ji, Hantao

    2008-01-01

    A local linear theory is proposed for a perpendicularly propagating drift instability driven by relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory takes into account local cross-field current, pressure gradients, and modest collisions as in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment [M. Yamada et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)]. The unstable waves have very small group velocities in the direction of the pressure gradient, but have a large phase velocity near the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions in the direction of the cross-field current. By taking into account the electron-ion collisions and applying the theory in the Harris sheet, we establish that this instability could be excited near the center of the Harris sheet and have enough e-foldings to grow to large amplitude before it propagates out of the unstable region. Comparing with the other magnetic reconnection related instabilities (lower-hybrid-drift instability, modified two-stream instability, etc.) studied previously, we believe the instability we found is a favorable candidate to produce anomalous resistivity because of its unique wave characteristics, such as electromagnetic component, large phase velocity, and small group velocity in the cross-current-layer direction.

  13. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail , and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  14. Static stretching does not alter pre and post-landing muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Wesley R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Static stretching may result in various strength and power deficiencies. Prior research has not determined, however, if static stretching causes a change in muscle activation during a functional task requiring dynamic stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if static stretching has an effect on mean pre and postlanding muscle (vastus medialis VM, vastus lateralis VL, medial hamstring MH, and biceps femoris BF activity. Methods 26 healthy, physically active subjects were recruited, from which 13 completed a 14-day static stretching regimen for the quadriceps and hamstrings. Using the data from the force plate and EMG readings, a mean of EMG amplitude was calculated for 150 msec before and after landing. Each trial was normalized to an isometric reference position. Means were calculated for the VM, VL, MH, and BF from 5 trials in each session. Measures were collected pre, immediately following the 1st stretching session, and following 2 weeks of stretching. Results A 14-day static stretching regimen resulted in no significant differences in pre or postlanding mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing either acutely or over a 14-day period. Conclusions Static stretching, done acutely or over a 14-day period does not result in measurable differences of mean EMG amplitude during a drop landing. Static stretching may not impede dynamic stability of joints about which stretched muscles cross.

  15. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2011-03-01

    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Summary of the stretching tectonics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dagan

    1994-01-01

    The rise of stretching tectonics is established on the basis of recent structural geology theory, the establishment of metamorphic nucleus complex structural model on one hand plays an important promoting art to the development of stretching structure, on the other hand, it needs constant supplement and perfection in practice. Metamorphic nucleus complex is the carrier of comparatively deep geological information in vertical section of the crust and has wide distribution in the era of south China. Evidently, it can be taken as the 'key' to understanding the deep and studying the basement, Strengthening the study will play the important promoting role to the deep prospecting. The study of stretching tectonics is not only limited within the range of structure and metamorphism, but combine with the studies of sedimentation, magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization, thus form a new field of tectonic geology of self-developing system

  17. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Serin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of different stretching exercises on vertical jump performance. A total of 14 national male athletes sporting in the elite level took part in the study. The age average of the participants was 20.25±1.03 year, the average height was 1.80±.08 m, the average body weight was 77.14±18.91 kg, average of sporting age was 9.87±3.31 year and the average number of participation in international games was 10.0±3.31. As stretching protocol: Method 1 (5 minutes of jogging and 2 minutes of active rest followed by Method 2 (static stretching for 4 different muscle groups 3 repetitions for 15 seconds of static stretching, rest for 10 seconds between groups and then consecutively, Method 3 (Dynamic stretching exercises with 3 repetitions for 15 seconds and 10 seconds rest between different muscle groups were applied in the study. The vertical jump performance before and after different stretching exercises of the participants was determined by means of the vertical jump test using the smart speed lite system. Before and after the training of all athletes, HR was recorded with a heart rate monitor (RS 800, Polar Vantage NV, Polar Electro Oy, Finland with 5 seconds intervals. Before the study, the chest band of the heartbeat monitor was placed on the chest of the athlete and the HR was recorded from the monitor. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program was used for evaluation and calculation of the data. In this study in addition to descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation paired samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the vertical jump performance of the participants before and after different stretching exercises. As a result, this study showed that; applying the dynamic and static stretching exercises consecutively affected the vertical jump performance 4.5 cm positively (p<.05. It is suggested that different dynamic and static stretching exercises should be included in the vertical jump.

  18. A case of successfully cured carcinoma of the true vocal folds in the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivarov, G.; Tomov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective and subject of the study: Laryngeal carcinoma is a socially significant malignancy in our country as well. Between 1981 and 2010, standardized morbidity (global standard) of 100,000 in Bulgaria increased in men from 6.4 to 9.1, and in women - from 0.3 to 0.7. Recently, a number of reports were published, showing that timely individualized treatment leads to definitive curing of patients with this disease. Methods used: A 37 years old man was hospitalized with a complaint of dysphonia persisting despite conservative treatment for two months. Results: Objectively thickened vocal folds were observed. In this case, the left one was uneven, bruised and with unrestricted mobility. The histological examination of the biopsy material shows moderately differentiated spinocellular carcinoma in the left and squamous papilloma T1 No Mx - in the right fold. A planned hemylarringectomy was performed. Intraoperatively, a susceptible stretch in the right vocal fold was detected, proved in two weeks to be squamous cell carcinoma. A lower tracheotomy was performed, followed by telangatherapy alone. The four-year follow-up indicates a favorable course of the disease and a lack of relapse. Conclusion: The combination of surgical intervention with telegamma therapy in cases of isolated carcinoma of the true vocal folds in the larynx can be applied to strictly selected patients in order to achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes. [bg

  19. A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The objective of this study was to determine whether IDT could modify lumbar curvature in healthy young adults compared with stretching exercises used currently in clinical practice. None of previous studies have provided data that conventional stretching interventions could modify spinal curvatures. However, this study provides the first evidence that a specific form of a Japanese stretching intervention can acutely modify the spinal curvatures. We compared the effects of IDT, a Japanese stretching intervention (n=9 males), with a conventional stretching routine (n=9 males) used widely in clinics to modify pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis (LL) angle. We measured thoracic kyphosis (TK) and LL angles 3 times during erect standing using the Spinal Mouse before and after each intervention. IDT consisted of: (1) hip joint correction, (2) pelvic tilt correction, (3) lumbar alignment correction, and (4) squat exercise stretch. The control group performed hamstring stretches while (1) standing and (2) sitting. IDT increased LL angle to 25.1 degrees (±5.9) from 21.2 degrees (±6.9) (P=0.047) without changing TK angle (pretest: 36.8 degrees [±6.9]; posttest: 36.1 degrees [±6.5]) (P=0.572). The control group showed no changes in TK (P=0.819) and LL angles (P=0.744). IDT can thus be effective for increasing LL angle, hence anterior pelvic tilt. Such modifications could ameliorate low back pain and improve mobility in old adults with an unfavorable pelvic position.

  20. The influence of stretching on tensile strength and solubility of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikens, D.; Bleijenberg, A.C.A.M.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.J.M.; Barentsen, W.M.

    1971-01-01

    The strength of wet-spun poly(vinyl alcohol) (pva) fibres is given as function of bath-stretching, wet-stretching and hot-stretching. In the two equations derived for strength of wet-stretching and hot-stretching the complex influence of the bath-stretching and hot-stretching is demonstrated. The

  1. Mechanical stretching effect on the actuator performance of cellulose electroactive paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Yun, Ki-Ju; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical stretching effect on the actuating performance of electroactive cellulose paper (EAPap) was studied. A lattice elongation of cellulose fibrils due to in-plane tensile stress along the stretching direction was observed by the x-ray diffraction method. The shrinkage of the fibril diameter as a function of stretching ratio was confirmed by surface and cross-sectional images. While the actuator performance in terms of bending displacement decreased as the stretching ratio increased, the resonance frequency linearly increased as the stretching ratio increased, which was compared with the theoretical frequency data found from a cantilever beam model. The actuator efficiency was evaluated from the electrical input power consumption and the mechanical output power of an EAPap actuator. It was revealed that the stretching process increased the electro-mechanical efficiency of the EAPap actuator. The mechanism of the influence of the stretching effect on the performance of an EAPap actuator is discussed

  2. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  3. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Talita; Beraldinelle, Roberta; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP) Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax). The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when pwomen (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63%) compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%). Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and studies of this ability in individuals with communication disorders must be intensified.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of an extremely rapid protein folding reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, T; Schmid, F X

    1996-12-24

    The cold-shock protein CspB from Bacillus subtilis is a very small beta-barrel protein, which folds with a time constant of 1 ms (at 25 degrees C) in a U reversible N two-state reaction. To elucidate the energetics of this extremely fast reaction we investigated the folding kinetics of CspB as a function of both temperature and denaturant concentration between 2 and 45 degrees C and between 1 and 8 M urea. Under all these conditions unfolding and refolding were reversible monoexponential reactions. By using transition state theory, data from 327 kinetic curves were jointly analyzed to determine the thermodynamic activation parameters delta H H2O++, delta S H2O++, delta G H2O++, and delta C p H2O++ for unfolding and refolding and their dependences on the urea concentration. 90% of the total change in heat capacity and 96% of the change in the m value (m = d delta G/d[urea]) occur between the unfolded state and the activated state. This suggests that for CspB the activated state of folding is unusually well structured and almost equivalent to the native protein in its interactions with the solvent. As a consequence of this native-like activated state a strong temperature-dependent enthalpy/entropy compensation is observed for the refolding kinetics, and the barrier to refolding shifts from being largely enthalpic at low temperature to largely entropic at high temperature. This shift originates not from the changes in the folding protein chains itself, but from the changes in the protein-solvent interactions. We speculate that the absence of intermediates and the native-like activated state in the folding of CspB are correlated with the small size and the structural type of this protein. The stabilization of a small beta-sheet as in CspB requires extensive non-local interactions, and therefore incomplete sheets are unstable. As a consequence, the critical activated state is reached only very late in folding. The instability of partially folded structure is a means to

  6. ACUTE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON THE WINGATE TEST PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L. Franco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different stretching exercises on the performance of the traditional Wingate test (WT. Fifteen male participants performed five WT; one for familiarization (FT, and the remaining four after no stretching (NS, static stretching (SS, dynamic stretching (DS, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF. Stretches were targeted for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles. Peak power (PP, mean power (MP, and the time to reach PP (TP were calculated. The MP was significantly lower when comparing the DS (7.7 ± 0.9 W/kg to the PNF (7.3 ± 0.9 W/kg condition (p < 0.05. For PP, significant differences were observed between more comparisons, with PNF stretching providing the lowest result. A consistent increase of TP was observed after all stretching exercises when compared to NS. The results suggest the type of stretching, or no stretching, should be considered by those who seek higher performance and practice sports that use maximal anaerobic power.

  7. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  8. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.

  9. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  10. Upper Limb Static-Stretching Protocol Decreases Maximal Concentric Jump Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of an upper limb static-stretching (SS protocol on the maximal concentric jump performance. We recruited 25 young healthy, male, resistance trained individuals (stretched group, n = 15 and control group, n = 10 in this study. The randomized between group experimental protocol consisted of a three trials of maximal concentric jump task, before and after a SS of the upper limb. Vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF and surface electromyography (sEMG of both gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and vastus lateralis (VL were acquired. An extensive SS was employed consisting of ten stretches of 30 seconds, with 15 seconds of rest, and 70-90% of the point of discomfort (POD. ANOVA (2x2 (group x condition was used for shoulder joint range of motion (ROM, vGRF and sEMG. A significant interaction for passive ROM of the shoulder joint revealed significant increases between pre- and post-SS protocol (p < 0.001. A significant interaction demonstrated decreased peak force and an increased peak propulsion duration between pre- and post-stretching only for stretch group (p = 0.021, and p = 0.024, respectively. There was a significant main effect between groups (stretch and control for peak force for control group (p = 0.045. Regarding sEMG variables, there were no significant differences between groups (control versus stretched or condition (pre-stretching versus post-stretching for the peak amplitude of RMS and IEMG for both muscles (VL and GL. In conclusion, an acute extensive SS can increase the shoulder ROM, and negatively affect both the propulsion duration and peak force of the maximal concentric jump, without providing significant changes in muscle activation.

  11. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  12. Guidelines for Stretch Flanging Advanced High Strength Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Chintamani, J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are currently being considered for use in closure and structural panels in the automotive industry because of their high potential for affordable weight reduction and improved performance. AHSS such as dual phase steels are currently being used in some vehicle platforms. From a manufacturing perspective, stretch flanging during stamping is an important deformation mode requiring careful consideration of geometry and the die process. This paper presents some geometric and process guidelines for stretch flanging AHSS. Hole expansion experiments were conducted to determine the failure limit for a sheared edge condition. Effects of punching clearance, prestrain and prior strain path on hole expansion were explored in these experiments. In addition, dynamic explicit FE calculations using LS-DYNA were also conducted for a typical stretch flange by varying some key geometric parameters. The experimental and FEA results were then analyzed to yield process and geometric guidelines to enable successful stretch flanging of AHSS

  13. Stretching skeletal muscle: chronic muscle lengthening through sarcomerogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Zöllner

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle responds to passive overstretch through sarcomerogenesis, the creation and serial deposition of new sarcomere units. Sarcomerogenesis is critical to muscle function: It gradually re-positions the muscle back into its optimal operating regime. Animal models of immobilization, limb lengthening, and tendon transfer have provided significant insight into muscle adaptation in vivo. Yet, to date, there is no mathematical model that allows us to predict how skeletal muscle adapts to mechanical stretch in silico. Here we propose a novel mechanistic model for chronic longitudinal muscle growth in response to passive mechanical stretch. We characterize growth through a single scalar-valued internal variable, the serial sarcomere number. Sarcomerogenesis, the evolution of this variable, is driven by the elastic mechanical stretch. To analyze realistic three-dimensional muscle geometries, we embed our model into a nonlinear finite element framework. In a chronic limb lengthening study with a muscle stretch of 1.14, the model predicts an acute sarcomere lengthening from 3.09[Formula: see text]m to 3.51[Formula: see text]m, and a chronic gradual return to the initial sarcomere length within two weeks. Compared to the experiment, the acute model error was 0.00% by design of the model; the chronic model error was 2.13%, which lies within the rage of the experimental standard deviation. Our model explains, from a mechanistic point of view, why gradual multi-step muscle lengthening is less invasive than single-step lengthening. It also explains regional variations in sarcomere length, shorter close to and longer away from the muscle-tendon interface. Once calibrated with a richer data set, our model may help surgeons to prevent muscle overstretch and make informed decisions about optimal stretch increments, stretch timing, and stretch amplitudes. We anticipate our study to open new avenues in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery and enhance

  14. Static versus dynamic stretching: Chronic and acute effects on Agility performance in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Taleb-Beydokhti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute and chronic effects of static & dynamic stretching protocols on agility performance in amateur handball players. Twelve male amateur handball players (age: 19.66 ± 4.02 years old, weight: 67.12 ± 8.73 kg, height: 178.29 ± 7.81 cm participated in this study. The athletes were randomly allocated into two groups: static stretching or dynamic stretching. All of them underwent an initial evaluation and were submitted to the first intervention. They were evaluated once again and at the end of 12 training sessions. The results analyzed using ANOVA showed that there was a significant decrease in agility time after dynamic stretching against no stretching in the acute phase; but, there were no significant differences between dynamic stretching and no stretching in the chronic phase. In addition, there was no a significant difference between no stretching and static stretching in the acute phase; while, There was a significant decrease in agility time after no stretching against static stretching in the chronic phase. It was concluded that acute dynamic stretching as part of a warm-up may decrease agility time performance, whereas static stretching seems to increase agility time performance. Consequently, the acute and chronic static stretching should not be performed prior to an explosive athletic performance. Keywords: Handball, Agility, Dynamic stretching, Static stretching

  15. Flips for 3-folds and 4-folds

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, Alessio

    2007-01-01

    This edited collection of chapters, authored by leading experts, provides a complete and essentially self-contained construction of 3-fold and 4-fold klt flips. A large part of the text is a digest of Shokurov's work in the field and a concise, complete and pedagogical proof of the existence of 3-fold flips is presented. The text includes a ten page glossary and is accessible to students and researchers in algebraic geometry.

  16. Ex vivo stretch reveals altered mechanical properties of isolated dystrophin-deficient hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Barnabei

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a progressive and fatal disease of muscle wasting caused by loss of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. In the heart, DMD results in progressive cardiomyopathy and dilation of the left ventricle through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Previous reports have shown that loss of dystrophin causes sarcolemmal instability and reduced mechanical compliance of isolated cardiac myocytes. To expand upon these findings, here we have subjected the left ventricles of dystrophin-deficient mdx hearts to mechanical stretch. Unexpectedly, isolated mdx hearts showed increased left ventricular (LV compliance compared to controls during stretch as LV volume was increased above normal end diastolic volume. During LV chamber distention, sarcomere lengths increased similarly in mdx and WT hearts despite greater excursions in volume of mdx hearts. This suggests that the mechanical properties of the intact heart cannot be modeled as a simple extrapolation of findings in single cardiac myocytes. To explain these findings, a model is proposed in which disruption of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex perturbs cell-extracellular matrix contacts and promotes the apparent slippage of myocytes past each other during LV distension. In comparison, similar increases in LV compliance were obtained in isolated hearts from β-sarcoglycan-null and laminin-α(2 mutant mice, but not in dysferlin-null mice, suggesting that increased whole-organ compliance in mdx mice is a specific effect of disrupted cell-extracellular matrix contacts and not a general consequence of cardiomyopathy via membrane defect processes. Collectively, these findings suggest a novel and cell-death independent mechanism for the progressive pathological LV dilation that occurs in DMD.

  17. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  18. GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, E. P.; Rosner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  19. Stretching single fibrin fibers hampers their lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lucioni, Tomas; Li, Rongzhong; Bonin, Keith; Cho, Samuel S; Guthold, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots, whose main structural component is a mesh of microscopic fibrin fibers, experience mechanical strain from blood flow, clot retraction and interactions with platelets and other cells. We developed a transparent, striated and highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue (a styrenic block copolymer) to investigate how mechanical strain affects lysis of single, suspended fibrin fibers. In this suspended fiber assay, lysis manifested itself by fiber elongation, thickening (disassembly), fraying and collapse. Stretching single fibrin fibers significantly hampered their lysis. This effect was seen in uncrosslinked and crosslinked fibers. Crosslinking (without stretching) also hampered single fiber lysis. Our data suggest that strain is a novel mechanosensitive factor that regulates blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis) at the single fiber level. At the molecular level of single fibrin molecules, strain may distort, or hinder access to, plasmin cleavage sites and thereby hamper lysis. Fibrin fibers are the major structural component of a blood clot. We developed a highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue and a suspended fibrin fiber lysis assay to investigate the effect of stretching on single fibrin fibers lysis. The key findings from our experiments are: 1) Fibers thicken and elongate upon lysis; 2) stretching strongly reduces lysis; 3) this effect is more pronounced for uncrosslinked fibers; and 4) stretching fibers has a similar effect on reducing lysis as crosslinking fibers. At the molecular level, strain may distort plasmin cleavage sites, or restrict access to those sites. Our results suggest that strain may be a novel mechanobiological factor that regulates fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. RNA folding: structure prediction, folding kinetics and ion electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhijie; Zhang, Wenbing; Shi, Yazhou; Wang, Fenghua

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the "traditional" functions such as gene storage, transport and protein synthesis, recent discoveries reveal that RNAs have important "new" biological functions including the RNA silence and gene regulation of riboswitch. Such functions of noncoding RNAs are strongly coupled to the RNA structures and proper structure change, which naturally leads to the RNA folding problem including structure prediction and folding kinetics. Due to the polyanionic nature of RNAs, RNA folding structure, stability and kinetics are strongly coupled to the ion condition of solution. The main focus of this chapter is to review the recent progress in the three major aspects in RNA folding problem: structure prediction, folding kinetics and ion electrostatics. This chapter will introduce both the recent experimental and theoretical progress, while emphasize the theoretical modelling on the three aspects in RNA folding.

  1. Characterizing the stretch-flangeability of hot rolled multiphase steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, N.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Gao, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hole expansion tests are commonly used to characterize the edge stretching limit of a material. Traditionally, a conical punch is used to expand a punched hole until a through-thickness crack appears. However, many automotive stretch flanging operations involve in-plane edge stretching that is best captured with a flat punch. In this paper, hole expansion tests were carried out on two different hot-rolled multiphase steels using both flat and conical punches. The fracture mechanisms for both punch types were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  2. Kinematics of tectonic fracture development during regional folding in sandstones of the Kamlial Formation, Khushalgarh, northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayab, M.

    2005-01-01

    Systematic relationships between the fracture orientation and fold geometry in sedimentary rocks have been used to explain the development of synfolding fractures. Based on field observations at the Khushalgarh syncline, located east of the Kohat Plateau, we proposed that the orientation of fractures was influenced dominantly by two tectonic fracture sets, that is, the NE-SW and NW-SE. The NE-SW fracture set dominantly formed as mode 1 (tensile), where as, the NW-SE fracture set developed as mode 11 (shear) conjugate fractures. The NE-SW trending fractures follow the axis of the syncline, whereas, the NW-SE fracture about crosscuts the fold axis. Most of the NE-SW fractures abut against the NW-SW fracture set. Based on the orientation and crosscutting relationship, their modes in response to stress, we conclude that the NE-SW trending fractures formed early than those of NW-SE fracture set. Though, both the fracture sets are formed during the folding, we suggest that they were not formed at the same time. Their crosscutting relationship suggests that they developed sequentially rather than synchronously. Our interpretations support the laboratory-based models where only one fracture orientation (or set of fractures with one orientation) form in response to single stress. However, as the stress distribution in folded strata changes over time new fractures of distinct orientations can form during or late in the folding history. We conclude that the sandstone units underwent bedding-parallel extension during folding, where bedding is stretched to accommodate extension. Parallel to the fold axis orientation. Bending of the limbs is a likely mechanism for the development of observed NE-SW trending fractures during folding, whereas the NW-SE fractures developed late in the folded history. (author)

  3. Enhanced Age Strengthening of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr Alloy via Pre-Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjun Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-stretching was carried out to modify the microstructure of Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy to enhance its age strengthening. The results indicated that more heterogeneous nucleation sites can be provided by the high density of dislocations caused by the plastic pre-stretching deformation, as well as speeding up the growth rate of precipitates. Comparison of microstructure in non-pre-stretched specimens after artificial aging showed that pre-stretched specimens exhibited a higher number density of precipitates. The fine and coarse plate-shaped precipitates were found in the matrix. Due to an increase in the number density of precipitates, the dislocation slipping during the deformation process is effectively hindered, and the matrix is strengthened. The yield strength stabilizes at 4% pre-stretching condition, and then the evolution is stable within the error bars. The 8% pre-stretched specimens can achieve an ultimate tensile strength of 297 MPa. However, further pre-stretching strains after 8% cannot supply any increase in strength. Tensile fracture surfaces of specimens subjected to pre-stretching strain mainly exhibit a trans-granular cleavage fracture. This work indicated that a small amount of pre-stretching strain can further increase strength of alloy and also effectively enhance the formation of precipitates, which can expand the application fields of this alloy.

  4. Duration Dependent Effect of Static Stretching on Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Alizadeh Ebadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect of static stretching on hamstring and quadriceps muscles’ isokinetic strength when applied for various durations to elite athletes, to investigate the effect of different static stretching durations on isokinetic strength, and finally to determine the optimal stretching duration. Fifteen elite male athletes from two different sport branches (10 football and five basketball participated in this study. Experimental protocol was designed as 17 repetitive static stretching exercises for hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups according to the indicated experimental protocols; ((A 5 min jogging; (B 5 min jogging followed by 15 s static stretching; (C 5 min jogging followed by 30 s static stretching; (D 5 min jogging, followed by static stretching for 45 s. Immediately after each protocol, an isokinetic strength test consisting of five repetitions at 60°/s speed and 20 repetitions at 180°/s speed was recorded for the right leg by the Isomed 2000 device. Friedman variance analysis test was employed for data analysis. According to the analyzes, it was observed that 5 min jogging and 15 s stretching exercises increased the isokinetic strength, whereas 30 and 45 s stretching exercises caused a decrease.

  5. The influence of foot position on stretching of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Ryan M; Nawoczenski, Deborah A; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hulin; DiGiovanni, Benedict F

    2007-07-01

    A recent study found nonweightbearing stretching exercises specific to the plantar fascia to be superior to the standard program of weightbearing Achilles tendon-stretching exercises in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. The present study used a cadaver model to demonstrate the influence of foot and ankle position on stretching of the plantar fascia. Twelve fresh-frozen lower-leg specimens were tested in 15 different configurations representing various combinations of ankle and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint dorsiflexion, midtarsal transverse plane abduction and adduction, and forefoot varus and valgus. Measurements were recorded by a differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) implanted into the medial band of the plantar fascia, and primary measurement was a percent deformation of the plantar fascia (stretch) with respect to a reference position (90 degrees ankle dorsiflexion, 0 degrees midtarsal and forefoot orientation, and 0 degrees MTP dorsiflexion). Ankle and MTP joint dorsiflexion produced a significant increase (14.91%) in stretch compared to the position of either ankle dorsiflexion alone (9.31% increase, p plantar fascia tissue-specific stretching exercises and lends support to the use of ankle and MTP joint dorsiflexion when employing stretching protocols for nonoperative treatment in patients with chronic proximal plantar fasciitis.

  6. Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. NSF AGS-1261659, Vilas Associates Award, NSF-Teragrid Project TG-PHY110016.

  7. Interset stretching does not influence the kinematic profile of consecutive bench-press sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Izquierdo, Mikel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Calvo, Gustavo; Sainz, Nuria; Abadía, Olaia; Herrero, Azael J

    2010-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role of interset stretching on the time course of acceleration portion AP and mean velocity profile during the concentric phase of 2 bench-press sets with a submaximal load (60% of the 1 repetition maximum). Twenty-five college students carried out, in 3 different days, 2 consecutive bench-press sets leading to failure, performing between sets static stretching, ballistic stretching, or no stretching. Acceleration portion and lifting velocity patterns of the concentric phase were not altered during the second set, regardless of the stretching treatment performed. However, when velocity was expressed in absolute terms, static stretching reduced significantly (p velocity during the second set compared to the first one. Therefore, if maintenance of a high absolute velocity over consecutive sets is important for training-related adaptations, static stretching should be avoided or replaced by ballistic stretching.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of stretch-flange forming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinotti, N.; Shakeri, H.R.; Worswick, M.J.; Truttmann, S.; Finn, M.J.; Jain, M.; Lloyd, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Simulations of stretch flange forming operations are undertaken using explicit dynamic finite element calculations incorporating anisotropic yield criteria. Simple circular stretch flanges utilizing a single circular punch to expand the cut-out were considered. Experiments were performed using 101mm diameter tooling on AA 5754 and AA 5182 aluminum alloy sheets, with varying cut-out and gauge size. Metallurgical aspects of the formability of these aluminum alloys and damage mechanisms were studied. Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to study ductile fracture behaviour in these materials during the forming operation. The limit strains obtained from the circular stretch flange formability experiments are compared to forming limit diagram (FLD) data from hemispherical dome specimens. (author)

  9. Influence of material ductility and crack surface roughness on fracture instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khezrzadeh, Hamed; Wnuk, Michael P; Yavari, Arash

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a stability analysis for fractal cracks. First, the Westergaard stress functions are proposed for semi-infinite and finite smooth cracks embedded in the stress fields associated with the corresponding self-affine fractal cracks. These new stress functions satisfy all the required boundary conditions and according to Wnuk and Yavari's (2003 Eng. Fract. Mech. 70 1659-74) embedded crack model they are used to derive the stress and displacement fields generated around a fractal crack. These results are then used in conjunction with the final stretch criterion to study the quasi-static stable crack extension, which in ductile materials precedes the global failure. The material resistance curves are determined by solving certain nonlinear differential equations and then employed in predicting the stress levels at the onset of stable crack growth and at the critical point, where a transition to the catastrophic failure occurs. It is shown that the incorporation of the fractal geometry into the crack model, i.e. accounting for the roughness of the crack surfaces, results in (1) higher threshold levels of the material resistance to crack propagation and (2) higher levels of the critical stresses associated with the onset of catastrophic fracture. While the process of quasi-static stable crack growth (SCG) is viewed as a sequence of local instability states, the terminal instability attained at the end of this process is identified with the global instability. The phenomenon of SCG can be used as an early warning sign in fracture detection and prevention.

  10. Stretch activates myosin light chain kinase in arterial smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barany, K.; Rokolya, A.; Barany, M.

    1990-01-01

    Stretching of porcine carotid arterial muscle increased the phosphorylation of the 20 kDa myosin light chain from 0.23 to 0.68 mol [32P]phosphate/mol light chain, whereas stretching of phorbol dibutyrate treated muscle increased the phosphorylation from 0.30 to 0.91 mol/mol. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping was used to identify the enzyme involved in the stretch-induced phosphorylation. Quantitation of the [32P]phosphate content of the peptides revealed considerable light chain phosphorylation by protein kinase C only in the phorbol dibutyrate treated arterial muscle, whereas most of the light chain phosphorylation was attributable to myosin light chain kinase. Upon stretch of either the untreated or treated muscle, the total increment in [32P]phosphate incorporation into the light chain could be accounted for by peptides characteristic for myosin light chain kinase catalyzed phosphorylation, demonstrating that the stretch-induced phosphorylation is caused by this enzyme exclusively

  11. Improvement in gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors using microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Kwang-Won; Cho, Won-Ju, E-mail: chowj@kw.ac.kr [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1, Wolgye-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-24

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) post-deposition-annealing (PDA) treatment on the gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) and compared the results with a conventional thermal annealing PDA treatment. The MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs exhibited enhanced electrical performance as well as improved long-term stability with increasing microwave power. The positive turn-on voltage shift (ΔV{sub ON}) as a function of stress time with positive bias and varying temperature was precisely modeled on a stretched-exponential equation, suggesting that charge trapping is a dominant mechanism in the instability of MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs. The characteristic trapping time and average effective barrier height for electron transport indicate that the MWI-PDA treatment effectively reduces the defects in a-IGZO TFTs, resulting in a superior resistance against gate bias stress.

  12. Improvement in gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Kwang-Won; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) post-deposition-annealing (PDA) treatment on the gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) and compared the results with a conventional thermal annealing PDA treatment. The MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs exhibited enhanced electrical performance as well as improved long-term stability with increasing microwave power. The positive turn-on voltage shift (ΔV ON ) as a function of stress time with positive bias and varying temperature was precisely modeled on a stretched-exponential equation, suggesting that charge trapping is a dominant mechanism in the instability of MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs. The characteristic trapping time and average effective barrier height for electron transport indicate that the MWI-PDA treatment effectively reduces the defects in a-IGZO TFTs, resulting in a superior resistance against gate bias stress

  13. Convective Heat Transfer Scaling of Ignition Delay and Burning Rate with Heat Flux and Stretch Rate in the Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    To better evaluate the buoyant contributions to the convective cooling (or heating) inherent in normal-gravity material flammability test methods, we derive a convective heat transfer correlation that can be used to account for the forced convective stretch effects on the net radiant heat flux for both ignition delay time and burning rate. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone heater to minimize buoyant effects while at the same time providing a forced stagnation flow on the sample, which ignites and burns as a ceiling fire. Ignition delay and burning rate data is correlated with incident heat flux and convective heat transfer and compared to results from other test methods and fuel geometries using similarity to determine the equivalent stretch rates and thus convective cooling (or heating) rates for those geometries. With this correlation methodology, buoyant effects inherent in normal gravity material flammability test methods can be estimated, to better apply the test results to low stretch environments relevant to spacecraft material selection.

  14. Stretch-sensitive paresis and effort perception in hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinti, Maria; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie; Burke, David; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-01

    In spastic paresis, stretch applied to the antagonist increases its inappropriate recruitment during agonist command (spastic co-contraction). It is unknown whether antagonist stretch: (1) also affects agonist recruitment; (2) alters effort perception. We quantified voluntary activation of ankle dorsiflexors, effort perception, and plantar flexor co-contraction during graded dorsiflexion efforts at two gastrocnemius lengths. Eighteen healthy (age 41 ± 13) and 18 hemiparetic (age 54 ± 12) subjects performed light, medium and maximal isometric dorsiflexion efforts with the knee flexed or extended. We determined dorsiflexor torque, Root Mean Square EMG and Agonist Recruitment/Co-contraction Indices (ARI/CCI) from the 500 ms peak voluntary agonist recruitment in a 5-s maximal isometric effort in tibialis anterior, soleus and medial gastrocnemius. Subjects retrospectively reported effort perception on a 10-point visual analog scale. During gastrocnemius stretch in hemiparetic subjects, we observed: (1) a 25 ± 7 % reduction of tibialis anterior voluntary activation (maximum reduction 98 %; knee extended vs knee flexed; p = 0.007, ANOVA); (2) an increase in dorsiflexion effort perception (p = 0.03, ANCOVA). Such changes did not occur in healthy subjects. Effort perception depended on tibialis anterior recruitment only (βARI(TA) = 0.61, p hemiparesis, voluntary ability to recruit agonist motoneurones is impaired--sometimes abolished--by antagonist stretch, a phenomenon defined here as stretch-sensitive paresis. In addition, spastic co-contraction increases effort perception, an additional incentive to evaluate and treat this phenomenon.

  15. Collisionless Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and vortex-induced reconnection in the external region of the Earth magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegoraro, F; Faganello, M; Califano, F

    2008-01-01

    In a magnetized plasma streaming with a non uniform velocity, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability plays a major role in mixing different plasma regions and in stretching the magnetic field lines leading to the formation of layers with a sheared magnetic field where magnetic field line reconnection can take place. A relevant example is provided by the formation of a mixing layer between the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind at low latitudes during northward periods. In the considered configuration, in the presence of a magnetic field nearly perpendicular to the plane defined by the velocity field and its inhomogeneity direction, velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which advects and distorts the magnetic field configuration. If the Alfven velocity associated to the in-plane magnetic field is sufficiently weak with respect to the variation of the fluid velocity in the plasma, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generates fully rolled-up vortices which advect the magnetic field lines into a complex configuration, causing the formation of current layers along the inversion curves of the in-plane magnetic field component. Pairing of the vortices generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is a well know phenomenon in two-dimensional hydrodynamics. Here we investigate the development of magnetic reconnection during the vortex pairing process and show that completely different magnetic structures are produced depending on how fast the reconnection process develops on the time scale set by the pairing process.

  16. Acute effect of passive static stretching on lower-body strength in moderately trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergley, Jeffrey C

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was conducted to determine the acute effect of passive static stretching (PSS) of the lower-body musculature on lower-body strength in a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat exercise in young (18-24 years.) moderately trained men (n = 17). Two supervised warm-up treatments were applied before each performance testing session using a counterbalanced design on nonconsecutive days. The first treatment consisted of an active dynamic warm-up (AD) with resistance machines (i.e., leg extension/leg flexion) and free weights (i.e., barbell squat), whereas the second treatment added PSS of the lower body plus the AD treatment. One repetition maximum was determined using the maximum barbell squat following a progressive loading protocol. Subjects were also asked to subjectively evaluate their lower-body stability during 1RM testing sessions for both the AD and PSS treatments. A significant decrease in 1RM (8.36%) and lower-body stability (22.68%) was observed after the PSS treatment. Plausible explanations for this observation may be related to a more compliant muscle tendon unit and/or altered or impaired neurologic function in the active musculature. It is also possible that strength was impaired by the PSS because of joint instability. The findings of this study suggest that intensive stretching such as lower-body PSS should be avoided before training the lower body or performing the 1RM in the squat exercise in favor of an AD dynamic warm-up using resistance training equipment in the lower-body musculature.

  17. Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke

    1983-01-01

    A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)

  18. Effect of spinal manipulative therapy with stretching compared with stretching alone on full-swing performance of golf players: a randomized pilot trial☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Soraya M.V.; Chibana, Yumi E.T.; Giavarotti, Leandro; Compagnoni, Débora S.; Shiono, Adriana H.; Satie, Janice; Bracher, Eduardo S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been a steady growth of chiropractic treatment using spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) that aims to increase the performance of athletes in various sports. This study evaluates the effect of SMT by chiropractors on the performance of golf players. Methods Golfers of 2 golf clubs in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. They were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: Group I received a stretch program, and group II received a stretch program in addition to SMT. Participants in both groups performed the same standardized stretching program. Spinal manipulative therapy to dysfunctional spinal segments was performed on group II only. All golfers performed 3 full-swing maneuvers. Ball range was considered as the average distance for the 3 shots. Treatment was performed after the initial measurement, and the same maneuvers were performed afterward. Each participant repeated these procedures for a 4-week period. Student t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and 1-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with significance level of 5% were used to analyze the study. Results Forty-three golfers completed the protocol. Twenty participants were allocated to group I and 23 to group II. Average age, handicap, and initial swing were comparable. No improvement of full-swing performance was observed during the 4 sessions on group I (stretch only). An improvement was observed at the fourth session of group II (P = .005); when comparing the posttreatment, group II had statistical significance at all phases (P = .003). Conclusions Chiropractic SMT in association with muscle stretching may be associated with an improvement of full-swing performance when compared with muscle stretching alone. PMID:19948307

  19. Ca2+ influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Naohiko; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Takahara, Norihiro; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca 2+ signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca 2+ elevation is mainly via Ca 2+ influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca 2+ influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca 2+ ] i transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca 2+ ] i . The stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was attenuated in Ca 2+ -free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd 3+ , ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca 2+ ] i elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca 2+ influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP

  20. Investigating the role of musical genre in human perception of music stretching resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Chaokun

    2017-01-01

    To stretch a music piece to a given length is a common demand in people's daily lives, e.g., in audio-video synchronization and animation production. However, it is not always guaranteed that the stretched music piece is acceptable for general audience since music stretching suffers from people's perceptual artefacts. Over-stretching a music piece will make it uncomfortable for human psychoacoustic hearing. The research on music stretching resistance attempts to estimate the maximum stretchab...

  1. Lewis lung carcinoma regulation of mechanical stretch-induced protein synthesis in cultured myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Carson, James A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stretch can activate muscle and myotube protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. While it has been established that tumor-derived cachectic factors can induce myotube wasting, the effect of this catabolic environment on myotube mechanical signaling has not been determined. We investigated whether media containing cachectic factors derived from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) can regulate the stretch induction of myotube protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes preincubated in control or LLC-derived media were chronically stretched. Protein synthesis regulation by anabolic and catabolic signaling was then examined. In the control condition, stretch increased mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis. The LLC treatment decreased basal mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis and attenuated the stretch induction of protein synthesis. LLC media increased STAT3 and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in myotubes, independent of stretch. Both stretch and LLC independently increased ERK1/2, p38, and NF-κB phosphorylation. In LLC-treated myotubes, the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 rescued the stretch induction of protein synthesis. Interestingly, either leukemia inhibitory factor or glycoprotein 130 antibody administration caused further inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in stretched myotubes. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibition increased basal mTORC1 signaling activity and protein synthesis in LLC-treated myotubes, but did not restore the stretch induction of protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that LLC-derived cachectic factors can dissociate stretch-induced signaling from protein synthesis through ERK1/2 and p38 signaling, and that glycoprotein 130 signaling is associated with the basal stretch response in myotubes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Effects of special composite stretching on the swing of amateur golf players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Wan; Yeo, Yun-Ghi; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed.

  3. Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovsky, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)

  4. Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Cold Stretched STS 304 Welded Joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won; Na, Seong Hyeon; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kyun; Kim, Ki Dong [Korea Gas Coporation R& D Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    STS 304 steel is used as pressure vessel material, and although it exhibits excellent mechanical characteristics at a low temperature, it is heavier than other materials. To address this issue, a method using cold-stretching techniques for STS 304 can be applied. In this study, a cold-stretching part and welded joint specimen were directly obtained from a cold-stretching pressure vessel manufactured according to ASME code. Fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out at room temperature and -170℃ using the compliance method for stress ratios of 0.1 and 0.5. The results indicate that crack growth rate of the welded joint is higher than that of the cold-stretching part within the same stress intensity factor range. The outcome of this work is expected to serve as a basis for the development of a cold-stretched STS 304 pressure vessel.

  5. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Louzada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax. The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP and jitter of period (JittP average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63% compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%. Conclusion: Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and

  6. Kinetic instabilities in relativistic plasmas: the Harris instability revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautz, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma instabilities that generate aperiodic fluctuations are of outstanding importance in the astrophysical context. Two prominent examples are the electromagnetic Weibel instability and the electrostatic Harris instability, which operate in initially non-magnetized and magnetized plasmas, respectively. In this talk, the original formulation of the Harris instability will be reviewed and generalizations will be presented such as the inclusion of (1) relativistic effects, (2) ion effects, and (3) mode coupling. It will be shown that, with these modifications, a powerful method has been developed for the determination of both the existence and the growth rate of low-frequency instabilities. Applications can be found in astrophysical jets, where the rest frame can be used and so no parallel motion is present. At the end of the talk, how the particle composition of gamma-ray burst jets can be predicted using the Harris technique. (author)

  7. Carpal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G.

    2006-01-01

    This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  9. Polydimethylsiloxane Injection Laryngoplasty for Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Francesco; Bettini, Margherita; Botti, Cecilia; Busi, Giulia; Tassi, Sauro; Malagoli, Andrea; Molteni, Gabriele; Trebbi, Marco; Luppi, Maria Pia; Bergamini, Giuseppe; Presutti, Livio

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the long-term objective, perceptive, and subjective outcomes after endoscopic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) injection laryngoplasty in unilateral vocal fold paralysis. A retrospective study carried out between January 2008 and January 2012. Head and Neck Department, University Hospital of Modena, Modena, Italy. This was a retrospective analysis of 26 patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent endoscopic injection of PDMS under general anesthesia. A voice evaluation protocol was performed for all patients, which included videolaryngostroboscopy, maximum phonation time, fundamental frequency, analysis of the harmonic structure of the vowel /a/ and the word /aiuole/, Grade of Dysphonia, Instability, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, and Strain scale, and Voice Handicap Index. The protocol was performed before surgery, in the immediate postoperative period, and at least 3 years after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 73 months (range 39-119 months). The statistical analysis showed a significant improvement (P injection laryngoplasty with PDMS guarantees long-lasting effects over time. No complications were reported in our series. Injection laryngoplasty with PDMS can be considered to be a minimally invasive and safe technique for the treatment of unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Moreover, it allows very good and stable results to be obtained over time, avoiding repeated treatments and improving the quality of life of the patients. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effectiveness of manual stretching in the treatment of plantar heel pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Ben

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plantar heel pain is a commonly occurring foot complaint. Stretching is frequently utilised as a treatment, yet a systematic review focusing only on its effectiveness has not been published. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness of stretching on pain and function in people with plantar heel pain. Methods Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and The Cochrane Library were searched from inception to July 2010. Studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria were independently assessed, and their quality evaluated using the modified PEDro scale. Results Six studies including 365 symptomatic participants were included. Two compared stretching with a control, one study compared stretching to an alternative intervention, one study compared stretching to both alternative and control interventions, and two compared different stretching techniques and durations. Quality rating on the modified Pedro scale varied from two to eight out of a maximum of ten points. The methodologies and interventions varied significantly between studies, making meta-analysis inappropriate. Most participants improved over the course of the studies, but when stretching was compared to alternative or control interventions, the changes only reached statistical significance in one study that used a combination of calf muscle stretches and plantar fascia stretches in their stretching programme. Another study comparing different stretching techniques, showed a statistically significant reduction in some aspects of pain in favour of plantar fascia stretching over calf stretches in the short term. Conclusions There were too few studies to assess whether stretching is effective compared to control or other interventions, for either pain or function. However, there is some evidence that plantar fascia stretching may be more effective than Achilles tendon stretching alone in the short-term. Appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, utilizing validated outcome

  11. Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob

    2018-04-01

    The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.

  12. Weak depth and along-strike variations in stretching from a multi-episodic finite stretching model: Evidence for uniform pure-shear extension in the opening of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Zhongjie; Song, Haibin

    2013-12-01

    The South China Sea is widely believed to have been opened by seafloor spreading during the Cenozoic. The details of its lithospheric extension are still being debated, and it is unknown whether pure, simple, or conjunct shears are responsible for the opening of the South China Sea. The depth-dependent and along-strike extension derived from the single-stage finite stretching model or instantaneous stretching model is inconsistent with the observation that the South China Sea proto-margins have experienced multi-episodic extension since the Late Cretaceous. Based on the multi-episodic finite stretching model, we present the amount of lithosphere stretching at the northern continental margin of the South China Sea for different depth scales (upper crust, whole crust and lithosphere) and along several transects. The stretching factors are estimated by integrating seven deep-penetration seismic profiles, the Moho distribution derived from gravity modeling, and the tectonic subsidence data for 41 wells. The results demonstrate that the amount of stretching increases rapidly from 1.1 at the continent shelf to over 3.5 at the lower slope, but the stretching factors at the crust and lithosphere scales are consistent within error (from the uncertainty in paleobathymetry and sea-level change). Furthermore, the along-strike variation in stretching factor is within the range of 1.11-1.9 in west-east direction, accompanied by significant west-east differences in the thickness of high-velocity layers (HVLs) within the lowermost crust. This weak along-strike variation of the stretching factor is most likely produced by the preexisting contrasts in the composition and thermal structure of the lithosphere. The above observations suggest that the continental extension in the opening of the South China Sea mainly takes the form of a uniform pure shear rather than depth-dependent stretching.

  13. All-passive pixel super-resolution of time-stretch imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Antony C. S.; Ng, Ho-Cheung; Bogaraju, Sharat C. V.; So, Hayden K. H.; Lam, Edmund Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2017-03-01

    Based on image encoding in a serial-temporal format, optical time-stretch imaging entails a stringent requirement of state-of-the-art fast data acquisition unit in order to preserve high image resolution at an ultrahigh frame rate — hampering the widespread utilities of such technology. Here, we propose a pixel super-resolution (pixel-SR) technique tailored for time-stretch imaging that preserves pixel resolution at a relaxed sampling rate. It harnesses the subpixel shifts between image frames inherently introduced by asynchronous digital sampling of the continuous time-stretch imaging process. Precise pixel registration is thus accomplished without any active opto-mechanical subpixel-shift control or other additional hardware. Here, we present the experimental pixel-SR image reconstruction pipeline that restores high-resolution time-stretch images of microparticles and biological cells (phytoplankton) at a relaxed sampling rate (≈2-5 GSa/s)—more than four times lower than the originally required readout rate (20 GSa/s) — is thus effective for high-throughput label-free, morphology-based cellular classification down to single-cell precision. Upon integration with the high-throughput image processing technology, this pixel-SR time-stretch imaging technique represents a cost-effective and practical solution for large scale cell-based phenotypic screening in biomedical diagnosis and machine vision for quality control in manufacturing.

  14. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re-ent......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  15. A Novel Non-Planar Transverse Stretching Process for Micro-Porous PTFE Membranes and Resulting Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Y.-H.

    2018-02-26

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-porous membranes were prepared from PTFE fine powder through extruding, rolling, and uniaxial longitudinally stretching. In contrast to conventional planar transverse stretching, a novel 3D mold design of non-planar transverse stretching process was employed in this study to produce micro-porous structure. The morphology, membrane thickness, mean pore size, and porosity of the PTFE membrane were investigated. The results show that the non-planar transverse stretched membranes exhibit more uniform average pore diameter with thinner membrane thickness. Morphological changes induced by planar and non-planar transverse stretching for pore characteristics were investigated. The stretching conditions, stretching temperature and rate, affect the stretched membrane. Increasing temperature facilitated the uniformity of pore size and uniformity of membrane thickness. Moreover, increase in stretching rate resulted in finer pore size and thinner membrane.

  16. Theory of high-force DNA stretching and overstretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, C; Nelson, P C

    2003-05-01

    Single-molecule experiments on single- and double-stranded DNA have sparked a renewed interest in the force versus extension of polymers. The extensible freely jointed chain (FJC) model is frequently invoked to explain the observed behavior of single-stranded DNA, but this model does not satisfactorily describe recent high-force stretching data. We instead propose a model (the discrete persistent chain) that borrows features from both the FJC and the wormlike chain, and show that it resembles the data more closely. We find that most of the high-force behavior previously attributed to stretch elasticity is really a feature of the corrected entropic elasticity; the true stretch compliance of single-stranded DNA is several times smaller than that found by previous authors. Next we elaborate our model to allow coexistence of two conformational states of DNA, each with its own stretch and bend elastic constants. Our model is computationally simple and gives an excellent fit through the entire overstretching transition of nicked, double-stranded DNA. The fit gives the first value for the bend stiffness of the overstretched state. In particular, we find the effective bend stiffness for DNA in this state to be about 12 nm k(B)T, a value quite different from either the B-form or single-stranded DNA.

  17. The Acute Effects of Upper Extremity Stretching on Throwing Velocity in Baseball Throwers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF stretching of the shoulder internal rotators on throwing velocity. Subjects. 27 male throwers (mean age = 25.1 years old, SD = 2.4 with adequate knowledge of demonstrable throwing mechanics. Study Design. Randomized crossover trial with repeated measures. Methods. Subjects warmed up, threw 10 pitches at their maximum velocity, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 stretching protocols (static, PNF, or no stretch, and then repeated their 10 pitches. Velocities were recorded after each pitch and average and peak velocities were recorded after each session. Results. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. No significant interaction between stretching and throwing velocity was observed. Main effects for time were not statistically significant. Main effects for the stretching groups were statistically significant. Discussion. Results suggest that stretching of the shoulder internal rotators did not significantly affect throwing velocity immediately after stretching. This may be due to the complexity of the throwing task. Conclusions. Stretching may be included in a thrower's warm-up without any effects on throwing velocity. Further research should be performed using a population with more throwing experience and skill.

  18. Efficacy of hamstring stretching programs in schoolchildren. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Alberto BECERRA FERNANDEZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present review was to examine the scientific literature on the effects of physical education-based stretching programs on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren aged 6-11 years. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from ten electronic databases dated up through May 2015. Of the 25 potentially relevant articles identified and retrieved for more detailed evaluation, only eight studies were included in the present review because they met the inclusion criteria. The overall results showed that incorporating hamstring stretching as a part of physical education classes produces a significant improvement in the scores of the tests: straight leg raise and classic sit-and-reach, for the experimental groups, but not for control groups. Stretching programs can be included in Physical Education classes, specifically during the warm-up and the cool down periods in order to improve hamstring extensibility. Although it seems that the stretching exercises in the warm-up period could be less effective in gaining flexibility in school children. Studies that use a stretching volume between 4 and 7 minutes per session and 2-4 training classes per week, obtain statistically significant improvements on the levels of hamstring flexibility in the experimental groups. However, after a five-week detraining period, children revert back to their initial flexibility levels. Therefore, it seems appropriate that physical education teachers should implement stretching programs to improve the students´ flexibility during the Physical Education classes.

  19. Implementation of a controller for linear positioners applicable in optical fiber stretching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillo Piedra, Andres Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    A low cost controller is implemented for linear positioners applicable in optic fiber stretching. The possibility of using a donated equipment is evaluated by the Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica. The equipment is required by the non-linear photonic research laboratory (NLPR-LAB) for stretching of micro structured fiber. The process has required a slow and precise stretching, so the controllers must be precisely programmed to rotate the motors at different speeds. Donated equipment is evaluated to see if it is possible to use for fiber stretching [es

  20. Post-activation depression of soleus stretch reflexes in healthy and spastic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Klinge, Klaus; Crone, Clarissa

    2007-01-01

    Reduced depression of transmitter release from Ia afferents following previous activation (post-activation depression) has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of spasticity. However, the effect of this mechanism on the myotatic reflex and its possible contribution to increased...... reflex excitability in spastic participants has not been tested. To investigate these effects, we examined post-activation depression in Soleus H-reflex responses and in mechanically evoked Soleus stretch reflex responses. Stretch reflex responses were evoked with consecutive dorsiflexion perturbations...... of the soleus stretch reflex and H-reflex decreased as the interval between the stimulus/perturbation was decreased. Similarly, the stretch-evoked torque decreased. In the spastic participants, the post-activation depression of both reflexes and the stretch-evoked torque was significantly smaller than...

  1. Damage percolation during stretch flange forming of aluminum alloy sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengtao; Worswick, Michael J.; Keith Pilkey, A.; Lloyd, David J.

    2005-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE)-damage percolation model was employed to simulate stretch flange forming of aluminum alloys AA5182 and AA5754. Material softening and strain gradients were captured using a Gurson-based FE model. FE results were then fed into the so-called damage percolation code, from which the damage development was modelled within measured microstructures. The formability of the stretch flange samples was predicted based upon the onset of catastrophic failure triggered by profuse void coalescence within the measured second-phase particle field. Damage development is quantified in terms of crack and void areal fractions, and compared to metallographic results obtained from interrupted stretch flange specimens. Parametric study is conducted on the effect of void nucleation strain in the prediction of formability of stretch flanges to "calibrate" proper nucleation strains for both alloys.

  2. The energy landscapes of repeat-containing proteins: topology, cooperativity, and the folding funnels of one-dimensional architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego U Ferreiro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeat-proteins are made up of near repetitions of 20- to 40-amino acid stretches. These polypeptides usually fold up into non-globular, elongated architectures that are stabilized by the interactions within each repeat and those between adjacent repeats, but that lack contacts between residues distant in sequence. The inherent symmetries both in primary sequence and three-dimensional structure are reflected in a folding landscape that may be analyzed as a quasi-one-dimensional problem. We present a general description of repeat-protein energy landscapes based on a formal Ising-like treatment of the elementary interaction energetics in and between foldons, whose collective ensemble are treated as spin variables. The overall folding properties of a complete "domain" (the stability and cooperativity of the repeating array can be derived from this microscopic description. The one-dimensional nature of the model implies there are simple relations for the experimental observables: folding free-energy (DeltaG(water and the cooperativity of denaturation (m-value, which do not ordinarily apply for globular proteins. We show how the parameters for the "coarse-grained" description in terms of foldon spin variables can be extracted from more detailed folding simulations on perfectly funneled landscapes. To illustrate the ideas, we present a case-study of a family of tetratricopeptide (TPR repeat proteins and quantitatively relate the results to the experimentally observed folding transitions. Based on the dramatic effect that single point mutations exert on the experimentally observed folding behavior, we speculate that natural repeat proteins are "poised" at particular ratios of inter- and intra-element interaction energetics that allow them to readily undergo structural transitions in physiologically relevant conditions, which may be intrinsically related to their biological functions.

  3. Coherent time-stretch transformation for real-time capture of wideband signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brandon W; Madni, Asad M; Jalali, Bahram

    2013-09-09

    Time stretch transformation of wideband waveforms boosts the performance of analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors by slowing down analog electrical signals before digitization. The transform is based on dispersive Fourier transformation implemented in the optical domain. A coherent receiver would be ideal for capturing the time-stretched optical signal. Coherent receivers offer improved sensitivity, allow for digital cancellation of dispersion-induced impairments and optical nonlinearities, and enable decoding of phase-modulated optical data formats. Because time-stretch uses a chirped broadband (>1 THz) optical carrier, a new coherent detection technique is required. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate coherent time stretch transformation; a technique that combines dispersive Fourier transform with optically broadband coherent detection.

  4. Hydromagnetic instability in a stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruskal, M D; Gottlieb, M B; Johnson, J L; Goldman, L M [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    It was noted that when there is a uniform externally imposed longitudinal field much larger than the field of the discharge current, one should expect instabilities in the form of a lateral displacement of the plasma column into a helix of large pitch. At the wavelength of fastest growth the e-folding time approximates the time it takes a sound wave in the plasma to traverse the radius of the plasma column. This problem has been re-examines under the conditions which might be expected to occur in the stellarator during ohmic heating, including the presence of external conductors. The theory is applied to the stellarator; and it is shown that the external conductors are in fact unimportant. The important effects due to the finite length of the Machine are discussed and the effects of more general current distributions are considered. The results from the experiments are given.

  5. A YEAST SPECIFIC INSERTION AMIDST OBG FOLD IS CRITICAL FOR THE MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION OF Mtg2p IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Mehra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein expression in mitochondria is carried out by ribosomes that are distinct from their cytosolic counterpart. Mitochondrial ribosomes are made of individual proteins having distinct lineages: those with clear bacterial orthologues, those conserved in eukaryotes only and proteins that are species specific. MTG2 is the mitochondrial member of the universally conserved Obg family of GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which associates with and regulates mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit assembly. In this study we demonstrate that MTG2, in addition to the universally conserved OBG and GTPase domains, has an essential yeast specific insertion domain positioned within the N terminal OBG fold. Cells expressing mtg2∆201-294, deleted for the insertion domain are not able to support cellular respiration. In addition, we show that large stretches of amino acids can be inserted into MTG2 at the end of the yeast specific insertion domain and the OBG fold without perturbing its cellular functions, consistent with the insertion domain folding into a species specific protein binding platform.

  6. Ca{sup 2+} influx and ATP release mediated by mechanical stretch in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Naohiko [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Ito, Satoru, E-mail: itori@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Furuya, Kishio [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Takahara, Norihiro [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Naruse, Keiji [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sokabe, Masahiro [Mechanobiology Laboratory, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Uniaxial stretching activates Ca{sup 2+} signaling in human lung fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} elevation is mainly via Ca{sup 2+} influx. • Mechanical strain enhances ATP release from fibroblasts. • Stretch-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx is not mediated by released ATP or actin cytoskeleton. - Abstract: One cause of progressive pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated wound healing after lung inflammation or damage in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanical forces are considered to regulate pulmonary fibrosis via activation of lung fibroblasts. In this study, the effects of mechanical stretch on the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) and ATP release were investigated in primary human lung fibroblasts. Uniaxial stretch (10–30% in strain) was applied to fibroblasts cultured in a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Following stretching and subsequent unloading, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} transiently increased in a strain-dependent manner. Hypotonic stress, which causes plasma membrane stretching, also transiently increased the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. The stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free solution. In contrast, the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by a 20% stretch was not inhibited by the inhibitor of stretch-activated channels GsMTx-4, Gd{sup 3+}, ruthenium red, or cytochalasin D. Cyclic stretching induced significant ATP releases from fibroblasts. However, the stretch-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation was not inhibited by ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase or a purinergic receptor antagonist suramin. Taken together, mechanical stretch induces Ca{sup 2+} influx independently of conventional stretch-sensitive ion channels, the actin cytoskeleton, and released ATP.

  7. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  8. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  9. Optimal stretching in the reacting wake of a bluff body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinge; Tithof, Jeffrey; Nevins, Thomas D; Colón, Rony O; Kelley, Douglas H

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally study spreading of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction behind a bluff body in a laminar flow. Locations of reacted regions (i.e., regions with high product concentration) correlate with a moderate range of Lagrangian stretching and that range is close to the range of optimal stretching previously observed in topologically different flows [T. D. Nevins and D. H. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 164502 (2016)]. The previous work found optimal stretching in a closed, vortex dominated flow, but this article uses an open flow and only a small area of appreciable vorticity. We hypothesize that optimal stretching is common in advection-reaction-diffusion systems with an excitation threshold, including excitable and bistable systems, and that the optimal range depends on reaction chemistry and not on flow shape or characteristic speed. Our results may also give insight into plankton blooms behind islands in ocean currents.

  10. Detection of chromosomal instability in α-irradiated and bystander human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnaiya, Brian; Jenkins-Baker, Gloria; Bigelow, Alan; Marino, Stephen; Geard, Charles R.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing evidence biological responses to ionizing radiation are not confined to those cells that are directly hit, but may be seen in the progeny at subsequent generations (genomic instability) and in non-irradiated neighbors of irradiated cells (bystander effects). These so called non-targeted phenomena would have significant contributions to radiation-induced carcinogenesis, especially at low doses where only a limited number of cells in a population are directed hit. Here we present data using a co-culturing protocol examining chromosomal instability in α-irradiated and bystander human fibroblasts BJ1-htert. At the first cell division following exposure to 0.1 and 1 Gy α-particles, irradiated populations demonstrated a dose dependent increase in chromosome-type aberrations. At this time bystander BJ1-htert populations demonstrated elevated chromatid-type aberrations when compared to controls. Irradiated and bystander populations were also analyzed for chromosomal aberrations as a function of time post-irradiation. When considered over 25 doublings, all irradiated and bystander populations had significantly higher frequencies of chromatid aberrations when compared to controls (2-3-fold over controls) and were not dependent on dose. The results presented here support the link between the radiation-induced phenomena of genomic instability and the bystander effect

  11. Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Vocal Fold Paralysis On this page: What is vocal fold ... Where can I get additional information? What is vocal fold paralysis? Structures involved in speech and voice production ...

  12. Time stretch and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Barland, Stéphane; Broderick, Neil; Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2017-06-01

    Observing non-repetitive and statistically rare signals that occur on short timescales requires fast real-time measurements that exceed the speed, precision and record length of conventional digitizers. Photonic time stretch is a data acquisition method that overcomes the speed limitations of electronic digitizers and enables continuous ultrafast single-shot spectroscopy, imaging, reflectometry, terahertz and other measurements at refresh rates reaching billions of frames per second with non-stop recording spanning trillions of consecutive frames. The technology has opened a new frontier in measurement science unveiling transient phenomena in nonlinear dynamics such as optical rogue waves and soliton molecules, and in relativistic electron bunching. It has also created a new class of instruments that have been integrated with artificial intelligence for sensing and biomedical diagnostics. We review the fundamental principles and applications of this emerging field for continuous phase and amplitude characterization at extremely high repetition rates via time-stretch spectral interferometry.

  13. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC AND STATIC STRETCHING WITHIN GENERAL AND ACTIVITY SPECIFIC WARM-UP PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Samson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of static and dynamic stretching protocols within general and activity specific warm-ups. Nine male and ten female subjects were tested under four warm-up conditions including a 1 general aerobic warm-up with static stretching, 2 general aerobic warm-up with dynamic stretching, 3 general and specific warm-up with static stretching and 4 general and specific warm-up with dynamic stretching. Following all conditions, subjects were tested for movement time (kicking movement of leg over 0.5 m distance, countermovement jump height, sit and reach flexibility and 6 repetitions of 20 metre sprints. Results indicated that when a sport specific warm-up was included, there was an 0.94% improvement (p = 0.0013 in 20 meter sprint time with both the dynamic and static stretch groups. No such difference in sprint performance between dynamic and static stretch groups existed in the absence of the sport specific warm-up. The static stretch condition increased sit and reach range of motion (ROM by 2.8% more (p = 0.0083 than the dynamic condition. These results would support the use of static stretching within an activity specific warm-up to ensure maximal ROM along with an enhancement in sprint performance

  14. Contact of a spherical probe with a stretched rubber substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frétigny, Christian; Chateauminois, Antoine

    2017-07-01

    We report on a theoretical and experimental investigation of the normal contact of stretched neo-Hookean substrates with rigid spherical probes. Starting from a published formulation of surface Green's function for incremental displacements on a prestretched, neo-Hookean, substrate [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 56, 2957 (2008), 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.07.002], a model is derived for both adhesive and nonadhesive contacts. The shape of the elliptical contact area together with the contact load and the contact stiffness are predicted as a function of the in-plane stretch ratios λx and λy of the substrate. The validity of this model is assessed by contact experiments carried out using an uniaxally stretched silicone rubber. For stretch ratio below about 1.25, a good agreement is observed between theory and experiments. Above this threshold, some deviations from the theoretical predictions are induced as a result of the departure of the mechanical response of the silicone rubber from the neo-Hokeean description embedded in the model.

  15. Periostin inhibits mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis in osteoblast-like MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai-Wen; Yao, Chung-Chen; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Shieh, Hao-Ying; Chen, Yi-Jane

    2018-04-01

    Appropriate mechanical stress plays an important role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, whereas high-level mechanical stress may be harmful and compromise cell survival. Periostin, a matricellular protein, is essential in maintaining functional integrity of bone and collagen-rich connective tissue in response to mechanical stress. This study investigated whether or not high-level mechanical stretch induces cell apoptosis and the regulatory role of periostin in mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were seeded onto Bio-Flex I culture plates and subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching (15% elongation, 0.1 Hz) in a Flexercell tension plus system-5000. The same process was applied to cells pre-treated with exogenous human recombinant periostin before mechanical stretching. We used a chromatin condensation and membrane permeability dead cell apoptosis kit to evaluate the stretch-induced cell responses. Expression of caspase-3 and cPARP was examined by immunofluorescent stain and flow cytometry. The expression of periostin in MG-63 cells is involved in the TGF-β signaling pathway. High-level cyclic mechanical stretch induced apoptotic responses in MG-63 osteoblastic cells. The percentages of apoptotic cells and cells expressing cPARP protein increased in the groups of cells subjected to mechanical stretch, but these responses were absent in the presence of exogenous periostin. Our study revealed that high-level mechanical stretch induces apoptotic cell death, and that periostin plays a protective role against mechanical stretch-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle P Blum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle

  17. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  18. Stretch activates human myometrium via ERK, caldesmon and focal adhesion signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for myometrial activation from the quiescent pregnant state to the active contractile state during labor has hindered the development of effective therapies for preterm labor. Myometrial stretch has been implicated clinically in the initiation of labor and the etiology of preterm labor, but the molecular mechanisms involved in the human have not been determined. We investigated the mechanisms by which gestation-dependent stretch contributes to myometrial activation, by using human uterine samples from gynecologic hysterectomies and Cesarean sections. Here we demonstrate that the Ca requirement for activation of the contractile filaments in human myometrium increases with caldesmon protein content during gestation and that an increase in caldesmon phosphorylation can reverse this inhibitory effect during labor. By using phosphotyrosine screening and mass spectrometry of stretched human myometrial samples, we identify 3 stretch-activated focal adhesion proteins, FAK, p130Cas, and alpha actinin. FAK-Y397, which signals integrin engagement, is constitutively phosphorylated in term human myometrium whereas FAK-Y925, which signals downstream ERK activation, is phosphorylated during stretch. We have recently identified smooth muscle Archvillin (SmAV as an ERK regulator. A newly produced SmAV-specific antibody demonstrates gestation-specific increases in SmAV protein levels and stretch-specific increases in SmAV association with focal adhesion proteins. Thus, whereas increases in caldesmon levels suppress human myometrium contractility during pregnancy, stretch-dependent focal adhesion signaling, facilitated by the ERK activator SmAV, can contribute to myometrial activation. These results suggest that focal adhesion proteins may present new targets for drug discovery programs aimed at regulation of uterine contractility.

  19. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

  20. Optical tweezers stretching of chromatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pope, L.H.; Bennink, Martin L.; Greve, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Recently significant success has emerged from exciting research involving chromatin stretching using optical tweezers. These experiments, in which a single chromatin fibre is attached by one end to a micron-sized bead held in an optical trap and to a solid surface or second bead via the other end,

  1. Acute effects of 15min static or contract-relax stretching modalities on plantar flexors neuromuscular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Nicolas; Kouassi, Blah Y L; Desbrosses, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of 15 min static or sub-maximal contract-relax stretching modalities on the neuromuscular properties of plantar flexor muscles. Ten male volunteers were tested before and immediately after 15 min static or contract-relax stretching programs of plantar flexor muscles (20 stretches). Static stretching consisted in 30s stretches to the point of discomfort. For the contract-relax stretching modality, subjects performed 6s sub-maximal isometric plantar flexion before 24s static stretches. Measurements included maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVT) and the corresponding electromyographic activity of soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles (RMS values), as well as maximal peak torque (Pt) elicited at rest by single supramaximal electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. After 15 min stretching, significant MVT and SOL RMS decreases were obtained (-6.9+/-11.6% and -6.5+/-15.4%, respectively). No difference was obtained between stretching modalities. Pt remained unchanged after stretching. MG RMS changes were significantly different between stretching modalities (-9.4+/-18.3% and +3.5+/-11.6% after static and contract-relax stretching modalities, respectively). These findings indicated that performing 15 min static or contract-relax stretching had detrimental effects on the torque production capacity of plantar flexor muscles and should be precluded before competition. Mechanisms explaining this alteration seemed to be stretch modality dependent. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Stretching Diagnostics and Mixing Properties In The Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, B.; Shuckburgh, E.

    The "finite size Lyapunov exponent" and the "effective diffusivity" are two diagnos- tics of mixing which have been recently introduced to investigate atmospheric flows. Both have been used to successfully identify the barriers to transport, for instance at the edge of the stratospheric polar vortex. Here we compare the two diagnostics in detail. The equivalent length has the advantage of arising as a mixing quantification from a rigid theoretical framework, however it has the disadvantage of being an aver- age quantity (the average around a tracer contour). The finite size Lyapunov exponent may be defined at any point in the flow, and quantifies the stretching properties expe- rienced by a fluid parcel both in its past and future evolution. In particular, the lines of maximum stretching at any time delineate the building blocks of the chaotic stirring. However the interpretation of the finite size Lyapunov exponent as a mixing time is less direct and depends on the alignment of tracer contours with the stretching lines.

  3. Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability

  4. Stretch-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is regulated by Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylow, Lykke; Møller, Lisbeth L V; Kleinert, Maximilian; Richter, Erik A; Jensen, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    Rac1 regulates stretch-stimulated (i.e. mechanical stress) glucose transport in muscle. Actin depolymerization decreases stretch-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Rac1 is a required part of the mechanical stress-component of the contraction-stimulus to glucose transport in skeletal muscle. An alternative to the canonical insulin signalling pathway for glucose transport is muscle contraction/exercise. Mechanical stress is an integrated part of the muscle contraction/relaxation cycle, and passive stretch stimulates muscle glucose transport. However, the signalling mechanism regulating stretch-stimulated glucose transport is not well understood. We recently reported that the actin cytoskeleton regulating GTPase, Rac1, was activated in mouse muscle in response to stretching. Rac1 is a regulator of contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose transport, however, its role in stretch-stimulated glucose transport and signalling is unknown. We therefore investigated whether stretch-induced glucose transport in skeletal muscle required Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton. We used muscle-specific inducible Rac1 knockout mice as well as pharmacological inhibitors of Rac1 and the actin cytoskeleton in isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. In addition, the role of Rac1 in contraction-stimulated glucose transport during conditions without mechanical load on the muscles was evaluated in loosely hanging muscles and muscles in which cross-bridge formation was blocked by the myosin ATPase inhibitors BTS and Blebbistatin. Knockout as well as pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 reduced stretch-stimulated glucose transport by 30-50% in soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle. The actin depolymerizing agent latrunculin B similarly decreased glucose transport in response to stretching by 40-50%. Rac1 inhibition reduced contraction-stimulated glucose transport by 30-40% in tension developing muscle but did not affect contraction-stimulated glucose transport in

  5. Possible stretched exponential parametrization for humidity absorption in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacinliyan, A; Skarlatos, Y; Sahin, G; Atak, K; Aybar, O O

    2009-04-01

    Polymer thin films have irregular transient current characteristics under constant voltage. In hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, the irregularity is also known to depend on the humidity absorbed by the polymer sample. Different stretched exponential models are studied and it is shown that the absorption of humidity as a function of time can be adequately modelled by a class of these stretched exponential absorption models.

  6. Process Parameter Identification in Thin Film Flows Driven by a Stretching Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyananda Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a thin liquid film over a heated stretching surface is considered in this study. Due to a potential nonuniform temperature distribution on the stretching sheet, a temperature gradient occurs in the fluid which produces surface tension gradient at the free surface of the thin film. As a result, the free surface deforms and these deformations are advected by the flow in the stretching direction. This work focuses on the inverse problem of reconstructing the sheet temperature distribution and the sheet stretch rate from observed free surface variations. This work builds on the analysis of Santra and Dandapat (2009 who, based on the long-wave expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations, formulate a partial differential equation which describes the evolution of the thickness of a film over a nonisothermal stretched surface. In this work, we show that after algebraic manipulation of a discrete form of the governing equations, it is possible to reconstruct either the unknown temperature field on the sheet and hence the resulting heat transfer or the stretching rate of the underlying surface. We illustrate the proposed methodology and test its applicability on a range of test problems.

  7. The acute effect of static and dynamic stretching during warm-ups on anaerobic performance in trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rouhollah haghshenas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of static stretching, dynamic stretching and no stretching methods on power and speed in volleyball players. Therefore, Twenty-four volleyball players (height: 173.29 ± 7.81 m; mass: 62.12 ± 8.73 kg; age: 22.66 ± 4.02 years; experience: 3.27 ± 6.37 were tested for speed performance using the 20 meter sprint test and also for power using vertical jump test after static stretching, dynamic stretching and no stretching. The results analyzed using ANOVA showed that There was a significant increase in height jump after dynamic stretching against static stretching. But, there were no significant differences between no stretching and static stretching groups. In addition, there was a significant decrease in time 20 meter sprint after dynamic stretching against static stretching and no stretching groups. The results of this study suggest that it may be desirable for volleyball players to perform dynamic exercises before the performance of activities that require a high power output.

  8. Stretch-dependent slow force response in isolated rabbit myocardium is Na+ dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Dirk; Stumme, Burkhard; Maier, Lars S; Luers, Claus; Bers, Donald M; Pieske, Burkert

    2003-03-15

    Stretch induces functional and trophic effects in mammalian myocardium via various signal transduction pathways. We tested stretch signal transduction on immediate and slow force response (SFR) in rabbit myocardium. Experiments were performed in isolated right ventricular muscles from adult rabbit hearts (37 degrees C, 1 Hz stimulation rate, bicarbonate-buffer). Muscles were rapidly stretched from 88% of optimal length (L88) to near optimal length (L98) for functional analysis. The resulting immediate and slow increases in twitch force (first phase and SFR, respectively) were assessed at reduced [Na+]o or without and with blockade of stretch activated ion channels (SACs), angiotensin-II (AT1) receptors, endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptors, Na+/H+-exchange (NHE1), reverse mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX), or Na+/K+-ATPase. The effects of stretch on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-load were characterized using rapid cooling contractures (RCCs). Intracellular pH was measured in BCECF-AM loaded muscles, and action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. On average, force increased to 216+/-8% of the pre-stretch value during the immediate phase, followed by a further increase to 273+/-10% during the SFR (n=81). RCCs significantly increased during SFR, whereas pH and APD did not change. Neither inhibition of SACs, AT1, or ET(A) receptors affected the stretch-dependent immediate phase nor SFR. In contrast, SFR was reduced by NHE inhibition and almost completely abolished by reduced [Na+]o or inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, whereas increased SFR was seen after raising [Na+]i by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. The data demonstrate the existence of a delayed, Na+- and Ca2+-dependent but pH and APD independent SFR to stretch in rabbit myocardium. This inotropic response appears to be independent of autocrine/paracrine AT1 or ET(A) receptor activation, but mediated through stretch-induced activation of NHE and reverse mode NCX.

  9. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  10. Instability of expanded simple tandem repeats is induced in cell culture by a variety of agents: N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea, benzo(a)pyrene, etoposide and okadaic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Parfett, Craig [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Healy, Caroline [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Douglas, George R. [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L. [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada)]. E-mail: Carole_Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2006-06-25

    Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) sequences have proven useful biomarkers to detect genotoxicity in vivo. Their high sensitivity has been used to assess environmentally relevant doses of mutagens such as ionizing radiation, DNA alkylating agents and airborne particulate pollution, for germline mutations in mouse assays. The mutagenic response involves size alteration of these ESTR loci induced by agents causing a variety of cellular damage. The mechanistic aspects of this induced instability remain unclear and have not been studied in detail. Mechanistic knowledge is important to help understand the relevance of increased ESTR mutation frequencies. In this study, we applied a murine cell culture system to examine induced response to four agents exhibiting different modes of toxic action including: N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (ENU), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), okadaic acid and etoposide at slightly sub-toxic levels. We used single-molecule-polymerase chain reaction (SM-PCR) to assess the relative mutant frequency after 4-week chemical treatments at the Ms6-hm ESTR sequence of cultured C3H/10T1/2 cells (a mouse embryonic cell line). Increased mutation was observed with both 0.64 mM ENU (1.95-fold increase, P < 0.0001), 1 {mu}M benzo(a)pyrene (1.87-fold increase, P = 0.0006) and 3 nM etoposide (1.89-fold increase, P = 0.0003). The putative ESTR mutagen okadaic acid (1.27-fold increase, P = 0.2289), administered at 0.5 nM, did not affect the C3H/10T1/2 Ms6-hm locus. Therefore, agents inducing small and bulky adducts, and indirectly causing strand breaks through inhibition of topoisomerase, caused similar induction of instability at an ESTR locus at matched toxicities. As size spectra for induced mutations were identical, the data indicate that although these chemicals exhibit distinct modes of action, a similar indirect process is influencing ESTR instability. In contrast, a potent tumour promoter that is a kinase inhibitor does not contribute to induced ESTR instability in

  11. Instability of expanded simple tandem repeats is induced in cell culture by a variety of agents: N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea, benzo(a)pyrene, etoposide and okadaic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzos, Aris; Parfett, Craig; Healy, Caroline; Douglas, George R.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2006-01-01

    Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) sequences have proven useful biomarkers to detect genotoxicity in vivo. Their high sensitivity has been used to assess environmentally relevant doses of mutagens such as ionizing radiation, DNA alkylating agents and airborne particulate pollution, for germline mutations in mouse assays. The mutagenic response involves size alteration of these ESTR loci induced by agents causing a variety of cellular damage. The mechanistic aspects of this induced instability remain unclear and have not been studied in detail. Mechanistic knowledge is important to help understand the relevance of increased ESTR mutation frequencies. In this study, we applied a murine cell culture system to examine induced response to four agents exhibiting different modes of toxic action including: N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (ENU), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), okadaic acid and etoposide at slightly sub-toxic levels. We used single-molecule-polymerase chain reaction (SM-PCR) to assess the relative mutant frequency after 4-week chemical treatments at the Ms6-hm ESTR sequence of cultured C3H/10T1/2 cells (a mouse embryonic cell line). Increased mutation was observed with both 0.64 mM ENU (1.95-fold increase, P < 0.0001), 1 μM benzo(a)pyrene (1.87-fold increase, P = 0.0006) and 3 nM etoposide (1.89-fold increase, P = 0.0003). The putative ESTR mutagen okadaic acid (1.27-fold increase, P = 0.2289), administered at 0.5 nM, did not affect the C3H/10T1/2 Ms6-hm locus. Therefore, agents inducing small and bulky adducts, and indirectly causing strand breaks through inhibition of topoisomerase, caused similar induction of instability at an ESTR locus at matched toxicities. As size spectra for induced mutations were identical, the data indicate that although these chemicals exhibit distinct modes of action, a similar indirect process is influencing ESTR instability. In contrast, a potent tumour promoter that is a kinase inhibitor does not contribute to induced ESTR instability in cell

  12. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  13. Genomic instability following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.

    2001-01-01

    Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Twisting and Stretching on Magneto Resistance and Spin Filtration in CNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent quantum transport properties in twisted carbon nanotube and stretched carbon nanotube are calculated using density functional theory (DFT and non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF formulation. Twisting and stretching have no effect on spin transport in CNTs at low bias voltages. However, at high bias voltages the effects are significant. Stretching restricts any spin-up current in antiparallel configuration (APC, which results in higher magneto resistance (MR. Twisting allows spin-up current almost equivalent to the pristine CNT case, resulting in lower MR. High spin filtration is observed in PC and APC for pristine, stretched and twisted structures at all applied voltages. In APC, at low voltages spin filtration in stretched CNT is higher than in pristine and twisted ones, with pristine giving a higher spin filtration than twisted CNT.

  15. Effect of Ankle Positioning During Hamstring Stretches for Improving Straight Leg Hip Flexion Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin G; Benjamin, Peter J; Selkow, Noelle M

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effects of stretching the hamstrings with the ankle in either a plantar-flexed (PF) or dorsiflexed (DF) position for improving straight leg hip flexion range of motion (ROM) over a 4-week period. Randomized, single-blinded, pretest, posttest design. Athletic training facility. Each limb of 34 asymptomatic individuals (15 males, 19 females) was randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups. Twenty-four limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in DF, 24 limbs received hamstring stretches with the ankle in PF, and 20 limbs received no stretch (control). Ankle position (PF, DF) during hamstring stretching. We measured pretest and posttest passive straight leg hip flexion ROM with the test ankle in a neutral position. For the intervention groups, the test limb was passively stretched with the ankle held in end range DF or PF for their respective group. Each stretch was held for 30 seconds for a total of 3 applications. Two treatment sessions were completed per week for a total of 4 weeks. The control limbs received no stretching during the 4-week period. We conducted 1-way analyses of covariance to determine significant changes in ROM between groups (P hamstrings in either PF or DF improve straight leg hip ROM compared with a control group. The results of this study should be considered by clinicians when determining the optimal stretching techniques aimed at increasing hamstring length.

  16. Acute Effect of Different Combined Stretching Methods on Acceleration and Speed in Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiri-Khorasani Mohammadtaghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different stretching methods, during a warm-up, on the acceleration and speed of soccer players. The acceleration performance of 20 collegiate soccer players (body height: 177.25 ± 5.31 cm; body mass: 65.10 ± 5.62 kg; age: 16.85 ± 0.87 years; BMI: 20.70 ± 5.54; experience: 8.46 ± 1.49 years was evaluated after different warm-up procedures, using 10 and 20 m tests. Subjects performed five types of a warm-up: static, dynamic, combined static + dynamic, combined dynamic + static, and no-stretching. Subjects were divided into five groups. Each group performed five different warm-up protocols in five non-consecutive days. The warm-up protocol used for each group was randomly assigned. The protocols consisted of 4 min jogging, a 1 min stretching program (except for the no-stretching protocol, and 2 min rest periods, followed by the 10 and 20 m sprint test, on the same day. The current findings showed significant differences in the 10 and 20 m tests after dynamic stretching compared with static, combined, and no-stretching protocols. There were also significant differences between the combined stretching compared with static and no-stretching protocols. We concluded that soccer players performed better with respect to acceleration and speed, after dynamic and combined stretching, as they were able to produce more force for a faster execution.

  17. Flow of viscous fluid along an exponentially stretching curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Okechi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the boundary layer analysis of flow induced by rapidly stretching curved surface with exponential velocity. The governing boundary value problem is reduced into self-similar form using a new similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using shooting and Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical results depicts that the fluid velocity as well as the skin friction coefficient increases with the surface curvature, similar trend is also observed for the pressure. The dimensionless wall shear stress defined for this problem is greater than that of a linearly stretching curved surface, but becomes comparably less for a surface stretching with a power-law velocity. In addition, the result for the plane surface is a special case of this study when the radius of curvature of the surface is sufficiently large. The numerical investigations presented in terms of the graphs are interpreted with the help of underlying physics of the fluid flow and the consequences arising from the curved geometry. Keywords: Boundary layer flow, Curved surface, Exponential stretching, Curvature

  18. Directional Cell Migration in Response to Repeated Substratum Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimura, Chika; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Migration properties such as anterior-posterior polarity, directionality, and velocity are regulated not only by the reception of a chemoattractant but also by sensing mechanical inputs from the external environment. In this review, we describe the mechanical response of migrating cells, particularly under repeated stretching of the elastic substratum, highlighting the fact that there appear to be two independent mechanosensing systems that generate the polarity needed for migration. Cells that have no stress fibers, such as Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, migrate perpendicular to the stretching direction via myosin II localization. Cells that do possess stress fibers, however, such as fish keratocytes, migrate parallel to the stretching via a stress-fiber-dependent process.

  19. Acid and stretch, but not capsaicin, are effective stimuli for ATP release in the porcine bladder mucosa: Are ASIC and TRPV1 receptors involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadananda, Prajni; Kao, Felicity C L; Liu, Lu; Mansfield, Kylie J; Burcher, Elizabeth

    2012-05-15

    Stretch-evoked ATP release from the bladder mucosa is a key event in signaling bladder fullness. Our aim was to examine whether acid and capsaicin can also release ATP and to determine the receptors involved, using agonists and antagonists at TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). Strips of porcine bladder mucosa were exposed to acid, capsaicin or stretch. Strip tension was monitored. Bath fluid was collected for ATP measurement. Gene expression of ASICs and TRPV1 in porcine bladders was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Stretch stimulus (150% of original length) repeatedly and significantly increased ATP release to approximately 45 times basal release. Acid (pH 6.5, 6.0, 5.6) contracted mucosal strips and also increased ATP release up to 30-fold, without evidence of desensitization. Amiloride (0.3 μM) reduced the acid-evoked ATP release by approximately 70%, while capsazepine (10 μM) reduced acid-evoked ATP release at pH 6.0 and pH 5.6 (by 68% and 61%, respectively). Capsaicin (0.1-10 μM) was ineffective in causing ATP release, and also failed to contract porcine mucosal or detrusor strips. Gene expression for ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and TRPV1 was seen in the lateral wall, dome, trigone and neck of both detrusor and mucosa. In conclusion, stretch and acid induce ATP release in the porcine bladder mucosa, but capsaicin is ineffective. The pig bladder is a well-known model for the human bladder, however these data suggest that it should be used with caution, particularly for TRPV1 related studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On prediction of OH stretching frequencies in intramolecularly hydrogen bonded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    OH stretching frequencies are investigated for a series of non-tautomerizing systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Effective OH stretching wavenumbers are predicted by the application of empirical correlation procedures based on the results of B3LYP/6-31G(d) theoretical calculations...

  1. Optimization of path length stretching in Monte Carlo calculations for non-leakage problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Path length stretching (or exponential biasing) is a well known variance reduction technique in Monte Carlo calculations. It can especially be useful in shielding problems where particles have to penetrate a lot of material before being tallied. Several authors sought for optimization of the path length stretching parameter for detection of the leakage of neutrons from a slab. Here the adjoint function behaves as a single exponential function and can well be used to determine the stretching parameter. In this paper optimization is sought for a detector embedded in the system, which changes the adjoint function in the detector drastically. From literature it is known that the combination of path length stretching and angular biasing can result in appreciable variance reduction. However, angular biasing is not generally available in general purpose Monte Carlo codes and therefore we want to restrict ourselves to the application of pure path length stretching and finding optimum parameters for that. Nonetheless, the starting point for our research is the zero-variance scheme. In order to study the solution in detail the simplified monoenergetic two-direction model is adopted, which allows analytical solutions and can still be used in a Monte Carlo simulation. Knowing the zero-variance solution analytically, it is shown how optimum path length stretching parameters can be derived from it. It results in path length shrinking in the detector. Results for the variance in the detector response are shown in comparison with other patterns for the stretching parameter. The effect of anisotropic scattering on the path length stretching parameter is taken into account. (author)

  2. Cyclic mechanical stretch enhances BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Tang, Yinhong; Song, Jinlin; Lei, Mingxing; Liang, Panpan; Fu, Tiwei; Su, Xudong; Zhou, Pengfei; Yang, Li; Huang, Enyi

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mechanical stretch can enhance the bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9)-induced osteogenic differentiation in MSCs. Recombinant adenoviruses were used to overexpress the BMP9 in C3H10T1/2 MSCs. Cells were seeded onto six-well BioFlex collagen I-coated plates and subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch [6% elongation at 60 cycles/minute (1 Hz)] in a Flexercell FX-4000 strain unit for up to 12 hours. Immunostaining and confocal microscope were used to detect cytoskeleton organization. Cell cycle progression was checked by flow cytometry. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured with a Chemiluminescence Assay Kit and was quantified with a histochemical staining assay. Matrix mineralization was examined by Alizarin Red S Staining. Mechanical stretch induces cytoskeleton reorganization and inhibits cell proliferation by preventing cells entry into S phase of the cell cycle. Although mechanical stretch alone does not induce the osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 MSCs, co-stimulation with mechanical stretch and BMP9 enhances alkaline phosphatase activity. The expression of key lineage-specific regulators (e.g., osteocalcin (OCN), SRY-related HMG-box 9, and runt-related transcription factor 2) is also increased after the co-stimulation, compared to the mechanical stretch stimulation along. Furthermore, mechanical stretch augments the BMP9-mediated bone matrix mineralization of C3H10T1/2 MSCs. Our results suggest that mechanical stretch enhances BMP9-induced osteoblastic lineage specification in C3H10T1/2 MSCs.

  3. Triclade: influence of a sinuous secondary instability on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, M.; Griffond, J.

    2004-01-01

    Occurrence of a secondary instability developing after the Richtmyer-Meshkov (primary) instability is emphasized thanks to numerical simulations with the TRICLADE code. We are mainly considering 2D perturbations describes by trigonometric function cosine or [cosine]. However, the 3D case is also tackled. The sinuous secondary instability is characterized by the loss of the symmetries in the direction normal to the interface at its crests. It reduces the late time growing rate of the 'mushrooms' formed by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. Related simplified problems, like symmetrical Riemann problems or the Mallier-Maslowe array of counter-rotating vortices, allow us to perform 2D linear stability analysis. Thus, we show that the sinuous secondary instability is not a numerical artifact and that is comes from the continuous incompressible velocity field in the interface region. This instability implies temporal limitations for the validity of single mode simulations; therefore multimode simulations are necessary to study the ]ate-time behaviour of interfaces bitted by shocks. (authors)

  4. Stagnation point flow on bioconvection nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking surface with velocity and thermal slip effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sze Qi; Aman, Fazlina; Mansur, Syahira

    2017-09-01

    Nanofluid containing nanometer sized particles has become an ideal thermal conductivity medium for the flow and heat transfer in many industrial and engineering applications due to their high rate of heat transfer. However, swimming microorganisms are imposed into the nanofluid to overcome the instability of nanoparticles due to a bioconvection phenomenon. This paper investigates the stagnation point flow on bioconvection heat transfer of a nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking surface containing gyrotactic microorganisms. Velocity and thermal slip effects are the two conditions incorporated into the model. Similarity transformation is applied to reduce the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically. The results are displayed in the form of graphs and tables. The effects of these governing parameters on the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, local Sherwood number and the local density of the motile microorganisms are analysed and discussed in details.

  5. Crustal Stretching Style and Lower Crust Flow of the South China Sea Northern Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Dong, D.; Runlin, D.

    2017-12-01

    There is a controversy about crustal stretching style of the South China Sea (SCS) northern margin mainly due to considerable uncertainty of stretching factor estimation, for example, as much as 40% of upper crust extension (Walsh et al., 1991) would be lost by seismic profiles due to poor resolution. To discover and understand crustal stretching style and lower crustal flow on the whole, we map the Moho and Conrad geometries based on gravity inversion constrained by deep seismic profiles, then according to the assumption of upper and lower crust initial thickness, upper and lower crust stretching factors are estimated. According to the comparison between upper and lower crust stretching factors, the SCS northern margin could be segmented into three parts, (1) sediment basins where upper crust is stretched more than lower crust, (2) COT regions where lower crust is stretched more than upper crust, (3) other regions where the two layers have similar stretching factors. Stretching factor map shows that lower crust flow happened in both of COT and sediment basin regions where upper crust decouples with lower crust due to high temperature. Pressure contrast by sediment loading in basins and erosion in sediment-source regions will lead to lower crust flow away from sediment sink to source. Decoupled and fractured upper crust is stretched further by sediment loading and the following compensation would result in relatively thick lower crust than upper crust. In COT regions with thin sediment coverage, low-viscosity lower crust is easier to thin in extensional environment, also the lower crust tends to flow away induced by magma upwelling. Therefore, continental crust on the margin is not stretching in a constant way but varies with the tectonic setting changes. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41506055, 41476042) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities China (No.17CX02003A).

  6. Sequence-length variation of mtDNA HVS-I C-stretch in Chinese ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Dang, Yong-hui; Yan, Chun-xia; Liu, Yan-ling; Deng, Ya-jun; Fulton, David J R; Chen, Teng

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment-I (HVS-I) C-stretch variations and explore the significance of these variations in forensic and population genetics studies. The C-stretch sequence variation was studied in 919 unrelated individuals from 8 Chinese ethnic groups using both direct and clone sequencing approaches. Thirty eight C-stretch haplotypes were identified, and some novel and population specific haplotypes were also detected. The C-stretch genetic diversity (GD) values were relatively high, and probability (P) values were low. Additionally, C-stretch length heteroplasmy was observed in approximately 9% of individuals studied. There was a significant correlation (r=-0.961, Ppopulations. The results from the Fst and dA genetic distance matrix, neighbor-joining tree, and principal component map also suggest that C-stretch could be used as a reliable genetic marker in population genetics.

  7. Mechanical stretching stimulates collagen synthesis via down-regulating SO2/AAT1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Yu, Wen; Liu, Yan; Chen, Selena; Huang, Yaqian; Li, Xiaohui; Liu, Cuiping; Zhang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenzhen; Du, Jie; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2)/ aspartate aminotransferase 1 (AAT1) pathway in stretch-induced excessive collagen expression and its mechanism. The mechanical stretch downregulated SO2/AAT1 pathway and increased collagen I and III protein expression. Importantly, AAT1 overexpression blocked the increase in collagen I and III expression, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- β1) expression and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 induced by stretch, but AAT1 knockdown mimicked the increase in collagen I and III expression, TGF- β1 expression and phosphorylation of Smad2/3 induced by stretch. Mechanistically, SB431542, a TGF-β1/Smad2/3 inhibitor, eliminated excessive collagen I and III accumulation induced by AAT1 knockdown, stretch or stretch plus AAT1 knockdown. In a rat model of high pulmonary blood flow-induced pulmonary vascular collagen accumulation, AAT1 expression and SO2 content in lung tissues of rat were reduced in shunt rats with high pulmonary blood flow. Supplement of SO2 derivatives inhibited activation of TGF- β1/Smad2/3 pathway and alleviated the excessive collagen accumulation in lung tissues of shunt rats. The results suggested that deficiency of endogenous SO2/AAT1 pathway mediated mechanical stretch-stimulated abnormal collagen accumulation via TGF-β1/Smad2/3 pathway. PMID:26880260

  8. Structural analysis of the Hasan-Robat marbles as traces of folded basement in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    Cherty marbles of Hasan-Robat area, northwest of Isfahan, in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran preserves evidences of multiple deformational events. The Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone is the inner crystalline zone of the Zagros Orogen, which has been highly deformed and exhumed during continental collision between the Arabian Plate and Central Iran. The Hasan-Robat area is an example of the exposed Precambrian-Paleozoic basement rocks that stretched along two NW-SE-trending faults and located in the inner part of the HasanRobat positive flower strcuture. The Hasan-Robat marbles record a complex shortening and shearing history. This lead to the development of disharmonic ptygmatic folds with vertical to sub-vertical axes and some interference patterns of folding that may have been created from deformations during the Pan-African Orogeny and later phases. Based on this research, tectonic evolution of the Hasan-Robat area is interpreted as the product of three major geotectonic events that have been started after Precambrian to Quaternary: (1) old deformation phases (2) contractional movements and (3) strike-slip movements. Different sets and distributions of joints, faults and folds are confirmed with effect of several deformational stages of the area and formation of the flower structure.

  9. The temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability in borderline personality disorder patients' everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip S; Reinhard, Iris; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Bohus, Martin; Holtmann, Jana; Eid, Michael; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2017-11-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined by a pervasive pattern of instability. Although there is ample empirical evidence that unstable self-esteem is associated with a myriad of BPD-like symptoms, self-esteem instability and its temporal dynamics have received little empirical attention in patients with BPD. Even worse, the temporal interplay of affective instability and self-esteem instability has been neglected completely, although it has been hypothesized recently that the lack of specificity of affective instability in association with BPD might be explained by the highly intertwined temporal relationship between affective and self-esteem instability. To investigate self-esteem instability, its temporal interplay with affective instability, and its association with psychopathology, 60 patients with BPD and 60 healthy controls (HCs) completed electronic diaries for 4 consecutive days during their everyday lives. Participants reported their current self-esteem, valence, and tense arousal levels 12 times a day in approximately one-hr intervals. We used multiple state-of-the-art statistical techniques and graphical approaches to reveal patterns of instability, clarify group differences, and examine the temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability. As hypothesized, instability in both self-esteem and affect was clearly elevated in the patients with BPD. In addition, self-esteem instability and affective instability were highly correlated. Both types of instability were related to general psychopathology. Because self-esteem instability could not fully explain affective instability and vice versa and neither affective instability nor self-esteem instability was able to explain psychopathology completely, our findings suggest that these types of instability represent unique facets of BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Gate voltage and drain current stress instabilities in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors with an asymmetric graphene electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonwoo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The gate voltage and drain current stress instabilities in amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs having an asymmetric graphene electrode structure are studied. A large positive shift in the threshold voltage, which is well fitted to a stretched-exponential equation, and an increase in the subthreshold slope are observed when drain current stress is applied. This is due to an increase in temperature caused by power dissipation in the graphene/a-IGZO contact region, in addition to the channel region, which is different from the behavior in a-IGZO TFTs with a conventional transparent electrode.

  11. DNA analysis by single molecule stretching in nanofluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abad, E.; Juarros, A.; Retolaza, A.

    2011-01-01

    Imprint Lithography (NIL) technology combined with a conventional anodic bonding of the silicon base and Pyrex cover. Using this chip, we have performed single molecule imaging on a bench-top fluorescent microscope system. Lambda phage DNA was used as a model sample to characterize the chip. Single molecules of λ-DNA......Stretching single DNA molecules by confinement in nanofluidic channels has attracted a great interest during the last few years as a DNA analysis tool. We have designed and fabricated a sealed micro/nanofluidic device for DNA stretching applications, based on the use of the high throughput Nano...... stained with the fluorescent dye YOYO-1 were stretched in the nanochannel array and the experimental results were analysed to determine the extension factor of the DNA in the chip and the geometrical average of the nanochannel inner diameter. The determination of the extension ratio of the chip provides...

  12. Baroclinic Instability in the Solar Tachocline for Continuous Vertical Profiles of Rotation, Effective Gravity, and Toroidal Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Peter A., E-mail: gilman@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We present results from an MHD model for baroclinic instability in the solar tachocline that includes rotation, effective gravity, and toroidal field that vary continuously with height. We solve the perturbation equations using a shooting method. Without toroidal fields but with an effective gravity declining linearly from a maximum at the bottom to much smaller values at the top, we find instability at all latitudes except at the poles, at the equator, and where the vertical rotation gradient vanishes (32.°3) for longitude wavenumbers m from 1 to >10. High latitudes are much more unstable than low latitudes, but both have e -folding times that are much shorter than a sunspot cycle. The higher the m and the steeper the decline in effective gravity, the closer the unstable mode peak to the top boundary, where the energy available to drive instability is greatest. The effect of the toroidal field is always stabilizing, shrinking the latitude ranges of instability as the toroidal field is increased. The larger the toroidal field, the smaller the longitudinal wavenumber of the most unstable disturbance. All latitudes become stable for a toroidal field exceeding about 4 kG. The results imply that baroclinic instability should occur in the tachocline at latitudes where the toroidal field is weak or is changing sign, but not where the field is strong.

  13. Tearing instabilities in turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial

  14. Review of two-phase instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Seo, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jeong

    1997-06-01

    KAERI is carrying out a development of the design for a new type of integral reactors. The once-through helical steam generator is important design features. The study on designs and operating conditions which prevent flow instability should precede the introduction of one-through steam generator. Experiments are currently scheduled to understand two-phase instability, evaluate the effect of each design parameter on the critical point, and determine proper inlet throttling for the prevention of instability. This report covers general two-phase instability with review of existing studies on this topics. The general classification of two phase flow instability and the characteristics of each type of instability are first described. Special attention is paid to BWR core flow instability and once-through steam generator instability. The reactivity feedback and the effect of system parameters are treated mainly for BWR. With relation to once-through steam generators, the characteristics of convective heating and dryout point oscillation are first investigated and then the existing experimental studies are summarized. Finally chapter summarized the proposed correlations for instability boundary conditions. (author). 231 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs

  15. The static actuation of dielectric elastomer actuators: how does pre-stretch improve actuation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofod, Guggi

    2008-01-01

    It has previously been shown that providing dielectric elastomer actuators with a level of pre-stretch can improve properties such as breakdown strength, actuation strain and efficiency. The actuation in such actuators depends on an interplay between the highly nonlinear hyperelastic stress-strain behaviour with the electrostatic Maxwell's stress; however, the direct effects of pre-stretch on the electromechanical coupling have still not been investigated in detail. We compare several experimental results found in the literature on the hyperelastic parameters of the Ogden model for the commonly used material VHB 4910, and introduce a more detailed and thus more accurate fit to a previous uniaxial stress-strain experiment. Electrostatic actuation models for a pure shear cuboid dielectric elastomer actuator with pre-stretch are introduced, for both intensive and extensive variables. For both intensive and extensive variables the constant strain (blocked stress or force) as well as the actuation strain is presented. It is shown how in the particular case of isotropic amorphous elastomers the pre-stretch does not affect the electromechanical coupling directly, and that the enhancement in actuation strain due to pre-stretch occurs through the alteration of the geometrical dimensions of the actuator. Also, the presence of the optimum load is explained as being due to the plateau region in the force-stretch curve, and it is shown that pre-stretch is not able to affect its position. Finally, it is shown how the simplified Ogden fit leads to entirely different conclusions for actuation strain in terms of extensive variables as does the detailed fit, emphasizing the importance of employing accurate hyperelastic models for the stress-stretch behaviour of the elastomer.

  16. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  17. Acute effect of different stretching methods on flexibility and jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, G; Smirniotou, A; Tsiganos, G; Tsopani, D; Di Cagno, A; Tsolakis, Ch

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 3 different warm up methods of stretching (static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform) on flexibility and legs power-jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts. Eighteen competitive artistic gymnasts were recruited to participate in this study. Subjects were exposed to each of 3 experimental stretching conditions: static stretching (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF), and stretching exercises on a Vibration platform (S+V). Flexibility assessed with sit and reach test (S & R) and jumping performance with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) and were measured before, immediately after and 15 min after the interventions. Significant differences were observed for flexibility after all stretching conditions for S+V (+1.1%), SS (+5.7%) and PNF (+6.8%) (P=0.000), which remained higher 15 min after interventions (S+V (1.1%), SS (5.3%) and PNF (5.5%), respectively (P=0.000). PNF stretching increased flexibility in competitive gymnasts, while S+V maintained jumping performance when both methods were used as part of a warm-up procedure.

  18. MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not

  19. Acute effects of static stretching on peak and end-range hamstring-to-quadriceps functional ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Arabaci, Ramiz; Akova, Bedrettin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if static stretching influences peak and end-range functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H/Q) strength ratios in elite women athletes. METHODS: Eleven healthy female athletes in an elite competitive level participated to the study. All the participants fulfilled the static stretching or non-stretching (control) intervention protocol in a randomized design on different days. Two static unassisted stretching exercises, one in standing and one in sitting position, were used to stretch both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles during these protocols. The total time for the static stretching was 6 ± 1 min. The isokinetic peak torque measurements for the hamstring and quadriceps muscles in eccentric and concentric modes and the calculations for the functional H/Q strength ratios at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s were made before (pre) and after (post) the control or stretching intervention. The strength measurements and functional strength ratio calculations were based during the entire- and end-range of knee extension. RESULTS: The pre-test scores for quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and end range values were not significantly different between the groups (P > 0.05). Subsequently, although the control group did not exhibit significant changes in quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (P > 0.05), static stretching decreased eccentric and concentric quadriceps muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P hamstring muscle strength at both the 60°/s and 180°/s test speeds (P 0.05). Furthermore, the functional H/Q strength ratios exhibited no significant alterations during the entire and end ranges of knee extension both in the static stretching or the control intervention (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: According to our results, static stretching routine does not influence functional H/Q ratio. Athletes can confidently perform static stretching during their warm-up routines. PMID:26495249

  20. The effects of static stretch duration on the flexibility of hamstring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of static stretch duration on the flexibility of hamstring muscles. NA Odunaiya, TK Hamzat, OF Ajayi. Abstract. The effects of duration of a static stretching protocol (Intervention) on hamstrings tightness were evaluated. Sixty purposively sampled subjects with unilateral hamstring tightness that had no history of low ...

  1. The acute effects of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility in young female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Warcup, Caisa N; Seeley, Matthew K; Eggett, Dennis; Feland, Jeffery B

    2018-01-10

    While stretching with vibration has been shown to improve static flexibility; the effect of stretching with vibration on dynamic flexibility is not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of stretching with vibration on acute dynamic flexibility and jump height in novice and advanced competitive female gymnasts during a split jump. Female gymnast (n=27, age: 11.5 ± 1.7 years, Junior Olympic levels 5-10) participated in this cross-over study. Dynamic flexibility during gymnastic split jumps were video recorded and analyzed with Dartfish software. All participants completed both randomized stretching protocols with either the vibration platform turned on (VIB) (frequency of 30 Hz and 2 mm amplitude) or off (NoVIB) separated by 48 h. Participants performed 4 sets of three stretches on the vibration platform. Each stretch was held for 30 s with 5 s rest for a total of 7 min of stretch. Split jump flexibility decreased significantly from pre to post measurement in both VIB (-5.8°±5.9°) (p<0.001) and NoVIB (-2.6°±6.1°) (p=0.041) conditions (adjusted for gymnast level). This effect was greatest in lower skill level gymnasts (p=0.003), while the highest skill level gymnasts showed no significant decrease in the split jump (p=0.105). Jump height was not significantly different between conditions (p=0.892) or within groups (p=0.880). An acute session of static stretching with or without vibration immediately before performance does not alter jump height. Stretching with vibration immediately prior to gymnastics competition decreases split jump flexibility in lower level gymnasts more than upper level gymnasts.

  2. Mechanical stretch endows mesenchymal stem cells stronger angiogenic and anti-apoptotic capacities via NFκB activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhuoli; Gan, Xueqi; Fan, Hongyi; Yu, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been broadly used for tissue regeneration and repair due to their broad differentiation potential and potent paracrine properties such as angiogenic capacity. Strategies to increase their survival rate after transplantation and the angiogenic ability are of priority for the utility of MSCs. In this study, we found that mechanical stretch (10% extension, 30 cycles/min cyclic stretch) preconditioning increase the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction. In addition, mechanical stretch also increases the survival rate of mesenchymal stem cells under nutrients deprivation. Consistent with the increase VEGFA expression and resistance to apoptosis, nuclear localization of NFκB activity p65 increased upon mechanical stretch. Inhibition of NFκB activity by BAY 11-708 blocks the pro-angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis function of mechanical stretch. Taken together, our findings here raise the possibility that mechanical stretch preconditioning might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Mechanical stretch increases the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction in MSCs. • Mechanical stretch increases the survival rate of MSCs under nutrients deprivation. • Mechanical stretch manipulates MSCs via the activation of NFκB.

  3. Mechanical stretch endows mesenchymal stem cells stronger angiogenic and anti-apoptotic capacities via NFκB activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhuoli; Gan, Xueqi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fan, Hongyi [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Applied Mechanics, College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Haiyang, E-mail: yhyang6812@foxmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been broadly used for tissue regeneration and repair due to their broad differentiation potential and potent paracrine properties such as angiogenic capacity. Strategies to increase their survival rate after transplantation and the angiogenic ability are of priority for the utility of MSCs. In this study, we found that mechanical stretch (10% extension, 30 cycles/min cyclic stretch) preconditioning increase the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction. In addition, mechanical stretch also increases the survival rate of mesenchymal stem cells under nutrients deprivation. Consistent with the increase VEGFA expression and resistance to apoptosis, nuclear localization of NFκB activity p65 increased upon mechanical stretch. Inhibition of NFκB activity by BAY 11-708 blocks the pro-angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis function of mechanical stretch. Taken together, our findings here raise the possibility that mechanical stretch preconditioning might enhance the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Mechanical stretch increases the angiogenic capacity via VEGFA induction in MSCs. • Mechanical stretch increases the survival rate of MSCs under nutrients deprivation. • Mechanical stretch manipulates MSCs via the activation of NFκB.

  4. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Blalock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.

  5. Probabilistic model of ligaments and tendons: Quasistatic linear stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, M.

    2009-03-01

    Ligaments and tendons have a significant role in the musculoskeletal system and are frequently subjected to injury. This study presents a model of collagen fibers, based on the study of a statistical distribution of fibers when they are subjected to quasistatic linear stretching. With respect to other methodologies, this model is able to describe the behavior of the bundle using less ad hoc hypotheses and is able to describe all the quasistatic stretch-load responses of the bundle, including the yield and failure regions described in the literature. It has two other important results: the first is that it is able to correlate the mechanical behavior of the bundle with its internal structure, and it suggests a methodology to deduce the fibers population distribution directly from the tensile-test data. The second is that it can follow fibers’ structure evolution during the stretching and it is possible to study the internal adaptation of fibers in physiological and pathological conditions.

  6. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  7. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  8. Muscle oxygenation and fascicle length during passive muscle stretching in ballet-trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, A; Fujita, E; Ikegawa, S; Kuno-Mizumura, M

    2011-07-01

    Muscle stretching transiently decreases muscle-blood flow corresponding to a muscle extension. It may disturb a balance between muscular oxygen demand and oxygen supply to muscles and reduce muscle oxygenation. However, muscle-stretching training may improve blood circulatory condition, resulting in the maintained muscle oxygenation during muscle stretching. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in muscle-blood volume (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) during muscle stretching determined by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ballet-trained (BT) and untrained (C) subjects. 11 BT women who regularly perform muscle stretching and 11 C women participated in this study. Fascicle lengths, tHb and TOI in the tibialis anterior muscle were measured during passive plantar flexion from ankle joint angles of 120° (baseline) to 140°, 160°, the maximal comfortable position without pain (CP), and the maximal position (MP). At 160°, the % fascicle-length change from baseline was significantly lower in the BT than the C group, however, for the changes in tHb and TOI the significant interaction effect between the 2 groups was not detected. On the other hand, although the increases in the fascicle length from baseline to CP and MP were greater in BT than C, the tHb and TOI reductions were comparable between groups. We concluded that it appears that BT can extend their muscles without excessive reduction in muscle-blood volume and muscle oxygenation at relatively same but absolutely greater muscle-stretching levels than C. The attenuation in these indices during high-level muscle stretching may be associated with the repetitive muscle stretching of long-term ballet training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Effects of Combining Running and Practical Duration Stretching on Proprioceptive Skills of National Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Párraga-Montilla, Juan Antonio; Molina-Flores, Enrique M; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2018-06-01

    Romero-Franco, N, Párraga-Montilla, JA, Molina-Flores, EM, and Jiménez-Reyes, P. Effects of combining running and practical duration stretching on proprioceptive skills of national sprinters. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Practical duration stretching after aerobic activities is a recommended component of the first part of warm-up because of its effects on performance. However, its effects on proprioceptive skills are unknown. This study aimed to analyze the effects of running and practical duration static stretching (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on postural balance and the joint position sense (JPS) of national sprinters. Thirty-two national sprinters were randomly classified into a SS group (n = 11), DS group (n = 11), or control group (n = 10). Static stretching performed 5 minutes of running and short-duration (20 seconds) static stretches; DS performed 5 minutes of running and short-duration dynamic (20 seconds) stretches; and the control group performed 5 minutes of running. Before and after the intervention, unipedal static postural balance and knee JPS were evaluated. Static stretching exhibited a more centralized center of pressure in the medial-lateral plane for unipedal static postural balance in right-leg support after stretching (p = 0.005, d = 1.24), whereas DS showed values further from the center after stretching for the same unipedal support compared with baseline (p = 0.042, d = 0.49), and the control group remained stable (p > 0.05). Joint position sense did not show significant differences in any group (p > 0.05). In conclusion, combining running and practical duration SS may be beneficial for right-leg postural stabilization, whereas DS may be partly and slightly deleterious. Both SS and DS combined with running and running alone have neutral effects on knee JPS. Sports professionals should consider running and practical duration SS as part of the warm-up of sprinters to partly improve unipedal static postural balance.

  10. Caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jianing; Chen, Shulan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Guirong; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Wenxin; Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Shuangyu; Yuan, Xiao

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that mandibular growth, which is caused by a variety of functional appliances, is considered to be the result of both neuromuscular and skeletal adaptations. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that apoptosis plays an important role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle function. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis that is induced by stretch continues to be incompletely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), a newly defined signaling pathway, initiates apoptosis. This study seeks to determine if caspase-12 is involved in stretch-induced apoptosis mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in myoblast and its underlying mechanism. Apoptosis was assessed by Hochest staining, DAPI staining and annexin V binding and PI staining. ER chaperones, such as GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12, were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Furthermore, caspase-12 inhibitor was used to value the mechanism of the caspase-12 pathway. Apoptosis of myoblast, which is subjected to cyclic stretch, was observed in a time-dependent manner. We found that GRP78 mRNA and protein were significantly increased and CHOP and caspase-12 were activated in myoblast that was exposed to cyclic stretch. Caspase-12 inhibition reduced stretch-induced apoptosis, and caspase-12 activated caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. We concluded that caspase-12 played an important role in stretch-induced apoptosis that is associated by endoplasmic reticulum stress by activating caspase-3.

  11. Relativistic gravitational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures

  12. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  13. Improving protein fold recognition by extracting fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwei; Zhang, Haicang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Wang, Chao; Kong, Lupeng; Sun, Shiwei; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo

    2017-12-01

    Accurate recognition of protein fold types is a key step for template-based prediction of protein structures. The existing approaches to fold recognition mainly exploit the features derived from alignments of query protein against templates. These approaches have been shown to be successful for fold recognition at family level, but usually failed at superfamily/fold levels. To overcome this limitation, one of the key points is to explore more structurally informative features of proteins. Although residue-residue contacts carry abundant structural information, how to thoroughly exploit these information for fold recognition still remains a challenge. In this study, we present an approach (called DeepFR) to improve fold recognition at superfamily/fold levels. The basic idea of our approach is to extract fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts of proteins using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) technique. Based on these fold-specific features, we calculated similarity between query protein and templates, and then assigned query protein with fold type of the most similar template. DCNN has showed excellent performance in image feature extraction and image recognition; the rational underlying the application of DCNN for fold recognition is that contact likelihood maps are essentially analogy to images, as they both display compositional hierarchy. Experimental results on the LINDAHL dataset suggest that even using the extracted fold-specific features alone, our approach achieved success rate comparable to the state-of-the-art approaches. When further combining these features with traditional alignment-related features, the success rate of our approach increased to 92.3%, 82.5% and 78.8% at family, superfamily and fold levels, respectively, which is about 18% higher than the state-of-the-art approach at fold level, 6% higher at superfamily level and 1% higher at family level. An independent assessment on SCOP_TEST dataset showed consistent

  14. From Static Stretching to Dynamic Exercises: Changing the Warm-Up Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, pre-exercise static stretching seems to have become common practice and routine. However, research suggests that it is time for a paradigm shift--that pre-exercise static stretching be replaced with dynamic warm-up exercises. Research indicates that a dynamic warm-up elevates body temperature, decreases muscle and joint…

  15. Conjugate Heat Transfer of Mixed Convection for Viscoelastic Fluid Past a Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Hsiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A conjugate heat transfer problem of a second-grade viscoelastic fluid past a stretching sheet has been studied. Governing equations include heat conduction equation of a stretching sheet, continuity equation, momentum equation, and energy equation of a second-grade fluid, analyzed by a combination of a series expansion method, the similarity transformation, and a second-order accurate finite-difference method. These solutions are used to iterate with the heat conduction equation of the stretching sheet to obtain distributions of the local convective heat transfer coefficient and the stretching sheet temperature. Ranges of dimensionless parameters, the Prandtl number Pr, the elastic number E and the conduction-convection coefficient Ncc are from 0.001 to 10, 0.0001 to 0.01, and 0.5 to 2.0, respectively. A parameter G, which is used to represent the dominance of the buoyant effect, is present in governing equations. Results indicated that elastic effect in the flow could increase the local heat transfer coefficient and enhance the heat transfer of a stretching sheet. In addition, same as the results from Newtonian fluid flow and conduction analysis of a stretching sheet, a better heat transfer is obtained with a larger Ncc, G, and E.

  16. Cross-bridge mechanism of residual force enhancement after stretching in a skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Youjiro

    2018-01-01

    A muscle model that uses a modified Langevin equation with actomyosin potentials was used to describe the residual force enhancement after active stretching. Considering that the new model uses cross-bridge theory to describe the residual force enhancement, it is different from other models that use passive stretching elements. Residual force enhancement was simulated using a half sarcomere comprising 100 myosin molecules. In this paper, impulse is defined as the integral of an excess force from the steady isometric force over the time interval for which a stretch is applied. The impulse was calculated from the force response due to fast and slow muscle stretches to demonstrate the viscoelastic property of the cross-bridges. A cross-bridge mechanism was proposed as a way to describe the residual force enhancement on the basis of the impulse results with reference to the compliance of the actin filament. It was assumed that the period of the actin potential increased by 0.5% and the amplitude of the potential decreased by 0.5% when the half sarcomere was stretched by 10%. The residual force enhancement after 21.0% sarcomere stretching was 6.9% of the maximum isometric force of the muscle; this value was due to the increase in the number of cross-bridges.

  17. Barriers to performing stretching exercises among Korean-Chinese female migrant workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Wilbur, JoEllen; Chae, Duckhee; Lee, Kyongeun; Lee, Meenhye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers to performing stretching exercise experienced by Korean-Chinese female migrant workers during a community-based 12-week stretching exercise intervention trial. Qualitative secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone counseling interview transcripts from 27 middle-aged, Korean-Chinese migrant women workers. A semistructured interview question asking barriers to performing stretching exercise was given to women who did not adhere to recommended stretching exercise. During the 12-week home-based stretching exercise intervention trial, six telephone calls were made to participants biweekly to elicit barriers to performing stretching exercise. Directed content analysis approach was utilized using three barrier categories: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and work-related environmental factors based on the ecological model. Participants experienced an average of 2.5 barriers during the study period. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time and lack of motivation, and interpersonal barriers included no family to provide support and also a feeling resistance from coworkers. Work-related environmental barriers included frequent job changes, long working hours, lack of rest time, and unpredictable job demands. The findings highlight that migrant workers in Korea face unique work-related difficulties which present barriers to exercise. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Structural development and stress evolution of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system, southwestern Greater Caucasus, Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.; Russo, E.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    The southern front of the Greater Caucasus is quite rectilinear in plan view, with the exception of part of the Rioni Basin, where marine and continental deposits of Cretaceous-Neogene age were locally folded and uplifted; this resulted in the formation of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system that extends 45 km into the foreland. Although previous studies suggested that this system has developed only since Miocene times, our new detailed and systematic field measurements of brittle and ductile structures show a very complex history, consisting in four main phases of brittle deformation and folding, dated from Eocene to Quaternary times. We collected microtectonic data at 248 faults, and calculated the related paleostress tensors. The first two phases which we document here, predated folding and were characterised by dominant transcurrent faulting and subordinate reverse motions; the greatest principal stress σ1 was perpendicular and later parallel to the mountain belt. Afterwards, NW-SE, E-W and NE-SW trending, south-vergent asymmetrical folds started to form. In the western sector of the study area, folds are sinuous in plan view, whereas to the east they show a left-stepping, en-échelon geometry. Another two, brittle deformation phases took place after the folding, due to the activity of a set of right-lateral, strike-slip faults that strike NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively, as well as by left-lateral strike-slip faults, mostly striking NW-SE, NE-SW and NNE-SSW. These two additional phases were produced by a NE-SW to N-S trending σ1. The arcuate belt is marked by along-strike variations in the tectonic regime and deformation geometry, plus belt-parallel stretching. Based on our field data, integrated with published analogue models, we suggest a possible explanation for the Rioni structure, in terms of the oblique, asymmetric indentation of an upper crustal blocks moving to the SSW.

  19. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  20. Individually programmable cell stretching microwell arrays actuated by a Braille display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamotani, Yoko; Bersano-Begey, Tommaso; Kato, Nobuhiro; Tung, Yi-Chung; Huh, Dongeun; Song, Jonathan W; Takayama, Shuichi

    2008-06-01

    Cell culture systems are often static and are therefore nonphysiological. In vivo, many cells are exposed to dynamic surroundings that stimulate cellular responses in a process known as mechanotransduction. To recreate this environment, stretchable cell culture substrate systems have been developed, however, these systems are limited by being macroscopic and low throughput. We have developed a device consisting of 24 miniature cell stretching chambers with flexible bottom membranes that are deformed using the computer-controlled, piezoelectrically actuated pins of a Braille display. We have also developed efficient image capture and analysis protocols to quantify morphological responses of the cells to applied strain. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were found to show increasing degrees of alignment and elongation perpendicular to the radial strain in response to cyclic stretch at increasing frequencies of 0.2, 1, and 5 Hz, after 2, 4, and 12h. Mouse myogenic C2C12 cells were also found to align in response to the stretch, while A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells did not respond to stretch.

  1. To Stretch and Search for Better Ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-06-01

    There's a lot to do to get each issue of this Journal ready for publication, and there's a lot that can go awry during that process. We the editorial staff do our utmost to make certain that each issue is the best it can possibly be, but, of necessity, a lot of our effort is focused on solving problems, correcting errors, and avoiding pitfalls. It is not surprising that we sometimes lose sight of the bigger picture--all of the things that came out as well as or better than we hoped they would. Therefore it gives us great pleasure when a reader applauds (and thereby rewards) our efforts. One such communication inspired this editorial. I have appreciated the extra effort put forward by the staff to make the Journal really come alive. The high quality of the Journal serves as an incentive to chemical educators to stretch and search for better ways to inspire our students. I fervently hope that we do encourage you "to stretch and search for better ways", not only to inspire students but in everything you do. Stretching and searching for better ways is what life, science, chemistry, and teaching are all about, and it is a wonderfully stimulating and exciting way to approach anything and everything. Sometimes, though, one's ability to stretch is akin to that of a rubber band exposed too long to sunlight. Change becomes a threat or a burden instead of an opportunity. This often happens in one area but not others, as in the case of someone doing original research but whose lecture notes are yellow with age, or someone who experiments with new teaching approaches but neglects the latest chemical discoveries. Whatever its manifestation, failure to stretch and search for better ways is a great loss, both for the individual directly involved and for others. Fortunately there are many who continually stretch and search, often in conjunction with JCE. For example, some time ago the Chair of the Board of Publication, Jerry Bell, challenged Journal readers to become Journal

  2. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy and Stretching for Baseball Players With Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lane B; Thigpen, Charles A; Hawkins, Richard J; Beattie, Paul F; Shanley, Ellen

    Baseball players displaying deficits in shoulder range of motion (ROM) are at increased risk of arm injury. Currently, there is a lack of consensus regarding the best available treatment options to restore shoulder ROM. Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching will result in clinically significant deficit reductions when compared with self-stretching alone. Controlled laboratory study. Shoulder ROM and humeral torsion were assessed in 60 active baseball players (mean age, 19 ± 2 years) with ROM deficits (nondominant - dominant, ≥15°). Athletes were randomly assigned to receive a single treatment of instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching (n = 30) or self-stretching only (n = 30). Deficits in internal rotation, horizontal adduction, and total arc of motion were compared between groups immediately before and after a single treatment session. Treatment effectiveness was determined by mean comparison data, and a number-needed-to-treat (NNT) analysis was used for assessing the presence of ROM risk factors. Prior to intervention, players displayed significant ( P < 0.001) dominant-sided deficits in internal rotation (-26°), total arc of motion (-18°), and horizontal adduction (-17°). After the intervention, both groups displayed significant improvements in ROM, with the instrumented manual therapy plus self-stretching group displaying greater increases in internal rotation (+5°, P = 0.010), total arc of motion (+6°, P = 0.010), and horizontal adduction (+7°, P = 0.004) compared with self-stretching alone. For horizontal adduction deficits, the added use of instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching decreased the NNT to 2.2 (95% CI, 2.1-2.4; P = 0.010). Instrumented manual therapy with self-stretching significantly reduces ROM risk factors in baseball players with motion deficits when compared with stretching alone. The added benefits of manual therapy may help to reduce ROM deficits in clinical scenarios where stretching alone is

  3. [Current trends in the effects of stretching: application to physical exercise in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yasumasa; Ohta, Masanori; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    A review of the Survey on the State of Employees' Health by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2008) shows that the most commonly implemented aspect as an activity of worksite health promotion is "Health counseling", and the second is "Workplace physical exercise." Physical exercise, "Taiso", is acceptable and sustainable for workers, as it is easy to do in a group or alone. Various modes of stretching are implemented for workplace physical exercise. However, articles suggesting negative or contradictory effects of stretching have increased in recent years. Several review articles have revealed that static stretching may induce impairments of muscle power performance and no stretching will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. There are various aims of workplace physical exercise, so we have to consider the situational method when we apply stretching to occupational health.

  4. Effectiveness of passive stretching versus hold relax technique in flexibility of hamstring muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of passive stretching and hold relax technique in the flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: A total of 80 normal healthy female subjects between age group 20-30 years referred to the department of physiotherapy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, sampling method being convenient sampling. The subjects were randomly divided in two groups i.e. passive stretching group (n=40 and PNF group (n=40 and given passive stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique respectively. Active knee extension range was measured before and after the intervention by goniometer. Results: t test showed a highly significant (p=0.000 increase in range of motion in PNF group. Conclusion: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique is more effective in increasing hamstring flexibility than the passive stretching.

  5. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  6. Acute effect of static stretching on muscle force in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Demantova Gurjão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effect of static stretching on the peak rate of force development (PRFD and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC in older women. Ten women (68.5 ± 7.0 years; 70.9 ± 8.1 kg; 159.4 ± 6.0 cm; body mass index: 28.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2 were studied. MVC and PRFD were determined by leg press exercise before and after the control or stretching condition (three sets of 30 seconds of static stretching of the quadriceps on two different days (interval of 24 hours. PRFD was determined as the steepest slope of the curve, calculated within regular windows of 20 milliseconds (∆force/∆time for the first 200 milliseconds after the onset of contraction. MVC was determined as the highest value recorded in each set. Only one condition was tested on each day and the order of application of each condition was determined randomly. The stretching intensity was evaluated by the muscle pain threshold. Four post-condition assessments (post-treatment, 10, 20, and 30 minutes were performed to monitor muscle strength. ANCOVA 2x5, followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test, showed no significant interactions between conditions vs. times (P > 0.05 for PRFD or MVC. In conclusion, acute bouts of static stretching of the quadriceps femoris do not affect the ability of rapid and maximum muscle force production in older women.

  7. Prolonged passive static stretching-induced innervation zone shift in biceps brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a bout of repeated and prolonged passive static stretching on the innervation zone (IZ) location of the human biceps brachii muscle. Eleven men performed 12 sets of 100-s passive stretches on their biceps brachii. Before (Pre) and immediately after (Post) the stretching intervention, isometric strength was tested during the maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the forearm flexors. The subjects also performed several separate isometric forearm flexion muscle actions at 30%, 50%, and 70% of their predetermined MVCs for examining the locations of the IZ at different contraction intensities. The IZ was identified through multi-channel surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from a linear electrode array. The stretching intervention induced an average of 10% isometric strength loss for the forearm flexors (mean±SD: Pre-MVC vs. Post-MVC=332.12±59.40 N vs. 299.53±70.51 N; p<0.001). In addition, the average IZ shift was nearly 4.5 mm in average in the proximal direction. However, this shift was not specific to the contraction intensity. We believe that the IZ shift was caused by the elongation of the entire muscle-tendon unit in the proximal direction. Therefore, caution should be taken when using surface EMG technique to examine possible changes in the EMG variables after a stretching protocol, as these variables can be contaminated by the shift of the IZ.

  8. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Symptoms of Knee Instability as Risk Factors for Recurrent Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Michael C; Tolstykh, Irina; Shakoor, Najia; Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D T; Segal, Neil A; Lewis, Cora; Felson, David T

    2016-08-01

    Whether knee instability contributes to the increased risk of falls and fractures observed in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA) has not been studied. We examined the association of knee buckling with the risk of falling and fall-related consequences in older adults with, or at high risk for, knee OA. At the 60-month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, men and women ages 55-84 years were asked about knee buckling in the past 3 months and whether they fell when a knee buckled. Falls and fall-related injuries in the past 12 months and balance confidence were assessed at 60 and 84 months. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of knee buckling with falls and their consequences. A total of 1,842 subjects (59% women, mean ± SD age 66.9 ± 7.8 years, and body mass index 30.3 ± 5.7) were included. At 60 months 16.8% reported buckling and at 84 months 14.1% had recurrent (≥2) falls. Bucklers at 60 months had a 1.6- to 2.5-fold greater odds of recurrent falls, fear of falling, and poor balance confidence at 84 months. Those who fell when a knee buckled at baseline had a 4.5-fold, 2-fold, and 3-fold increased odds 2 years later of recurrent falls, significant fall injuries, and fall injuries that limited activity, respectively, and were 4 times more likely to have poor balance confidence. Interventions that reduce knee buckling may help prevent falls, fall-related injuries, and adverse psychological consequences of falls in persons with knee OA. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  10. Symptoms of Knee Instability are Risk Factors for Recurrent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Michael C; Tolstykh, Irina; Shakoor, Najia; Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D.T.; Segal, Neil A; Lewis, Cora; Felson, David T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Whether knee instability contributes to the increased risk of falls and fractures observed in persons with knee osteoarthritis (OA) has not been studied. We examined the association of knee buckling with the risk of falling and fall-related consequences in older adults with, or at high risk for, knee OA. Methods At the 60 month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, men and women ages 55 to 84 were asked about knee buckling in the past 3 months and whether they fell when a knee buckled. Falls and fall-related injuries in the past 12 months and balance confidence were assessed at 60 and 84 months. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association of knee buckling with falls and their consequences. Results 1,842 subjects (59% women, mean [SD] age= 66.9 [7.8] and BMI= 30.3 [5.7]) were included. At 60 months 16.8% reported buckling and at 84 months 14.1% had recurrent (≥2) falls. Bucklers at 60 months had a 1.6 to 2.5-fold greater odds of recurrent falls, fear of falling and poor balance confidence at 84 months. Those who fell when a knee buckled at baseline had a 4.5-fold, 2-fold and 3-fold increased odds two years later of recurrent falls, significant fall injuries and fall injuries that limited activity, respectively, and were 4 times more likely to have poor balance confidence. Conclusion Interventions that reduce knee buckling may help prevent falls, fall-related injuries and adverse psychological consequences of falls in persons with knee OA. PMID:26853236

  11. Intraplaque stretch in carotid atherosclerotic plaque--an effective biomechanical predictor for subsequent cerebrovascular ischemic events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhao Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stretch is a mechanical parameter, which has been proposed previously to affect the biological activities in different tissues. This study explored its utility in determining plaque vulnerability. METHODS: One hundred and six patients with mild to moderate carotid stenosis were recruited in this study (53 symptomatic and 53 asymptomatic. High resolution, multi-sequence magnetic resonance (MR imaging was performed to delineate various plaque components. Finite element method was used to predict high stretch concentration within the plaque. RESULTS: During a two-year follow-up, 11 patients in symptomatic group and 3 in asymptomatic group experienced recurrent cerebrovascular events. Plaque stretch at systole and stretch variation during one cardiac cycle was greater in symptomatic group than those in the asymptomatic. Within the symptomatic group, a similar trend was observed in patients with recurrent events compared to those without. CONCLUSION: Plaques with high stretch concentration and large stretch variation are associated with increased risk of future cerebrovascular events.

  12. Biochemical analysis of force-sensitive responses using a large-scale cell stretch device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Derrick J; Ewald, Makena L; Kim, Timothy; Yamada, Soichiro

    2017-09-03

    Physical force has emerged as a key regulator of tissue homeostasis, and plays an important role in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and disease progression. Currently, the details of protein interactions under elevated physical stress are largely missing, therefore, preventing the fundamental, molecular understanding of mechano-transduction. This is in part due to the difficulty isolating large quantities of cell lysates exposed to force-bearing conditions for biochemical analysis. We designed a simple, easy-to-fabricate, large-scale cell stretch device for the analysis of force-sensitive cell responses. Using proximal biotinylation (BioID) analysis or phospho-specific antibodies, we detected force-sensitive biochemical changes in cells exposed to prolonged cyclic substrate stretch. For example, using promiscuous biotin ligase BirA* tagged α-catenin, the biotinylation of myosin IIA increased with stretch, suggesting the close proximity of myosin IIA to α-catenin under a force bearing condition. Furthermore, using phospho-specific antibodies, Akt phosphorylation was reduced upon stretch while Src phosphorylation was unchanged. Interestingly, phosphorylation of GSK3β, a downstream effector of Akt pathway, was also reduced with stretch, while the phosphorylation of other Akt effectors was unchanged. These data suggest that the Akt-GSK3β pathway is force-sensitive. This simple cell stretch device enables biochemical analysis of force-sensitive responses and has potential to uncover molecules underlying mechano-transduction.

  13. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverde, Joseph R; Pfister, Bryan J

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  14. Developmental Axon Stretch Stimulates Neuron Growth While Maintaining Normal Electrical Activity, Intracellular Calcium Flux, and Somatic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Loverde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18 % applied over 5 minutes. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25 % strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  15. Parametric instability and wave turbulence driven by tidal excitation of internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the stability of stratified fluid layers undergoing homogeneous and periodic tidal deformation. We first introduce a local model which allows to study velocity and buoyancy fluctuations in a Lagrangian domain periodically stretched and sheared by the tidal base flow. While keeping the key physical ingredients only, such a model is efficient to simulate planetary regimes where tidal amplitudes and dissipation are small. With this model, we prove that tidal flows are able to drive parametric subharmonic resonances of internal waves, in a way reminiscent of the elliptical instability in rotating fluids. The growth rates computed via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are in very good agreement with WKB analysis and Floquet theory. We also investigate the turbulence driven by this instability mechanism. With spatio-temporal analysis, we show that it is a weak internal wave turbulence occurring at small Froude and buoyancy Reynolds numbers. When the gap between the excitation and the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequencies is increased, the frequency spectrum of this wave turbulence displays a -2 power law reminiscent of the high-frequency branch of the Garett and Munk spectrum (Garrett & Munk 1979) which has been measured in the oceans. In addition, we find that the mixing efficiency is altered compared to what is computed in the context of DNS of stratified turbulence excited at small Froude and large buoyancy Reynolds numbers and is consistent with a superposition of waves.

  16. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  17. NoFold: RNA structure clustering without folding or alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sarah A; Kim, Junhyong

    2014-11-01

    Structures that recur across multiple different transcripts, called structure motifs, often perform a similar function-for example, recruiting a specific RNA-binding protein that then regulates translation, splicing, or subcellular localization. Identifying common motifs between coregulated transcripts may therefore yield significant insight into their binding partners and mechanism of regulation. However, as most methods for clustering structures are based on folding individual sequences or doing many pairwise alignments, this results in a tradeoff between speed and accuracy that can be problematic for large-scale data sets. Here we describe a novel method for comparing and characterizing RNA secondary structures that does not require folding or pairwise alignment of the input sequences. Our method uses the idea of constructing a distance function between two objects by their respective distances to a collection of empirical examples or models, which in our case consists of 1973 Rfam family covariance models. Using this as a basis for measuring structural similarity, we developed a clustering pipeline called NoFold to automatically identify and annotate structure motifs within large sequence data sets. We demonstrate that NoFold can simultaneously identify multiple structure motifs with an average sensitivity of 0.80 and precision of 0.98 and generally exceeds the performance of existing methods. We also perform a cross-validation analysis of the entire set of Rfam families, achieving an average sensitivity of 0.57. We apply NoFold to identify motifs enriched in dendritically localized transcripts and report 213 enriched motifs, including both known and novel structures. © 2014 Middleton and Kim; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  18. Genomic instability and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, John B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)

  19. Genomic instability and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, John B

    2003-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)

  20. Kink and kink-like waves in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper theoretically investigates kink and kink-like waves propagating in pre-stretched Mooney-Rivlin viscoelastic rods. In the constitutive modeling, the Cauchy stress tensor is assumed to consist of an elastic part and a dissipative part. The asymptotic method is adopted to simplify the nonlinear dynamic equations in the limit of finite-small amplitude and long wavelength. Using the reductive perturbation method, we further derive the well-known far-field equation (i.e. the KdV-Burgers equation, to which two kinds of explicit traveling wave solutions are presented. Examples are given to show the influences of pre-stretch and viscosity on the wave shape and wave velocity. It is shown that pre-stretch could be an effective method for modulating the two types of waves. In addition, such waves may be utilized to measure the viscosity coefficient of the material. The competition between the effects of pre-stretch and viscosity on the kink and kink-like waves is also revealed.

  1. Glycoprotein folding and quality-control mechanisms in protein-folding diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P. Ferris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of proteins – from translation to folding to export – encompasses a complex set of events that are exquisitely regulated and scrutinized to ensure the functional quality of the end products. Cells have evolved to capitalize on multiple post-translational modifications in addition to primary structure to indicate the folding status of nascent polypeptides to the chaperones and other proteins that assist in their folding and export. These modifications can also, in the case of irreversibly misfolded candidates, signal the need for dislocation and degradation. The current Review focuses on the glycoprotein quality-control (GQC system that utilizes protein N-glycosylation and N-glycan trimming to direct nascent glycopolypeptides through the folding, export and dislocation pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A diverse set of pathological conditions rooted in defective as well as over-vigilant ER quality-control systems have been identified, underlining its importance in human health and disease. We describe the GQC pathways and highlight disease and animal models that have been instrumental in clarifying our current understanding of these processes.

  2. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch...... was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...

  3. Mixing driven by transient buoyancy flows. I. Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, W. M. B.; Zhong, H.; Batur, C.

    2018-05-01

    Mixing of two miscible liquids juxtaposed inside a cavity initially separated by a divider, whose buoyancy-driven motion is initiated via impulsive perturbation of divider motion that can generate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, is investigated experimentally. The measured Lagrangian history of interface motion that contains the continuum mechanics of mixing shows self-similar nearly Gaussian length stretch distribution for a wide range of control parameters encompassing an approximate Hele-Shaw cell to a three-dimensional cavity. Because of the initial configuration of the interface which is parallel to the gravitational field, we show that at critical initial potential energy mixing occurs through the stretching of the interface, which shows frontogenesis, and folding, owing to an overturning motion that results in unstable density stratification and produces an ideal condition for the growth of the single wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The initial perturbation of the interface and flow field generates the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and causes kinks at the interface, which grow into deep fingers during overturning motion and unfold into local whorl structures that merge and self-organize into the Rayleigh-Taylor morphology (RTM) structure. For a range of parametric space that yields two-dimensional flows, the unfolding of the instability through a supercritical bifurcation yields an asymmetric pairwise structure exhibiting smooth RTM that transitions to RTM fronts with fractal structures that contain small length scales for increasing Peclet numbers. The late stage of the RTM structure unfolds into an internal breakwave that breaks down through wall and internal collision and sets up the condition for self-induced sloshing that decays exponentially as the two fluids become stably stratified with a diffusive region indicating local molecular diffusion.

  4. Linear response of stretch-affected premixed flames to flow oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.Y.; Law, C.K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lieuwen, T. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The linear response of 2D wedge-shaped premixed flames to harmonic velocity disturbances was studied, allowing for the influence of flame stretch manifested as variations in the local flame speed along the wrinkled flame front. Results obtained from analyzing the G-equation show that the flame response is mainly characterized by a Markstein number {sigma}{sub C}, which measures the curvature effect of the wrinkles, and a Strouhal number, St{sub f}, defined as the angular frequency of the disturbance normalized by the time taken for the disturbance to propagate the flame length. Flame stretch is found to become important when the disturbance frequency satisfies {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{sup 2}{proportional_to} O(1), i.e. St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1/2}). Specifically, for disturbance frequencies below this order, stretch effects are small and the flame responds as an unstretched one. When the disturbance frequencies are of this order, the transfer function, defined as the ratio of the normalized fluctuation of the heat release rate to that of the velocity, is contributed mostly from fluctuations of the flame surface area, which is now affected by stretch. Finally, as the disturbance frequency increases to St{sub f}{proportional_to} O({sigma}{sub C}{sup -1}), i.e. {sigma}{sub C}St{sub f}{proportional_to} O(1), the direct contribution from the stretch-affected flame speed fluctuation to the transfer function becomes comparable to that of the flame surface area. The present study phenomenologically explains the experimentally observed filtering effect in which the flame wrinkles developed at the flame base decay along the flame surface for large frequency disturbances as well as for thermal-diffusively stable and weakly unstable mixtures. (author)

  5. The Effect of Static Stretch on Elastin Degradation in Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ming-Jay; Choi, Myunghwan; Yun, Seok Hyun; Zhang, Yanhang

    2013-01-01

    Previously we have shown that gradual changes in the structure of elastin during an elastase treatment can lead to important transition stages in the mechanical behavior of arteries [1]. However, in vivo arteries are constantly being loaded due to systolic and diastolic pressures and so understanding the effects of loading on the enzymatic degradation of elastin in arteries is important. With biaxial tensile testing, we measured the mechanical behavior of porcine thoracic aortas digested with a mild solution of purified elastase (5 U/mL) in the presence of a static stretch. Arterial mechanical properties and biochemical composition were analyzed to assess the effects of mechanical stretch on elastin degradation. As elastin is being removed, the dimensions of the artery increase by more than 20% in both the longitude and circumference directions. Elastin assays indicate a faster rate of degradation when stretch was present during the digestion. A simple exponential decay fitting confirms the time constant for digestion with stretch (0.11±0.04 h−1) is almost twice that of digestion without stretch (0.069±0.028 h−1). The transition from J-shaped to S-shaped stress vs. strain behavior in the longitudinal direction generally occurs when elastin content is reduced by about 60%. Multiphoton image analysis confirms the removal/fragmentation of elastin and also shows that the collagen fibers are closely intertwined with the elastin lamellae in the medial layer. After removal of elastin, the collagen fibers are no longer constrained and become disordered. Release of amorphous elastin during the fragmentation of the lamellae layers is observed and provides insights into the process of elastin degradation. Overall this study reveals several interesting microstructural changes in the extracellular matrix that could explain the resulting mechanical behavior of arteries with elastin degradation. PMID:24358135

  6. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  7. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered

  8. Thermal shrinkage for shoulder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Alison P; Warren, Russell F; Petrigliano, Frank A; Doward, David A; Cordasco, Frank A; Altchek, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2011-07-01

    Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent shoulder stabilization surgery with thermal capsular shrinkage using a monopolar radiofrequency device. Follow-up included a subjective outcome questionnaire, discussion of pain, instability, and activity level. Mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range 2.0-4.7 years). The thermal capsular shrinkage procedure failed due to instability and/or pain in 31% of shoulders at a mean time of 39 months. In patients with unidirectional anterior instability and those with concomitant labral repair, the procedure proved effective. Patients with multidirectional instability had moderate success. In contrast, four of five patients with isolated posterior instability failed. Thermal capsular shrinkage has been advocated for the treatment of shoulder instability, particularly mild to moderate capsular laxity. The ease of the procedure makes it attractive. However, our retrospective review revealed an overall failure rate of 31% in 80 patients with 2-year minimum follow-up. This mid- to long-term cohort study adds to the literature lacking support for thermal capsulorrhaphy in general, particularly posterior instability. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11420-010-9187-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  9. Mechanical stretch modulates microRNA 21 expression, participating in proliferation and apoptosis in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian tao Song

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Stretch affects vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis, and several responsible genes have been proposed. We tested whether the expression of microRNA 21 (miR-21 is modulated by stretch and is involved in stretch-induced proliferation and apoptosis of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed that elevated stretch (16% elongation, 1 Hz increased miR-21 expression in cultured HASMCs, and moderate stretch (10% elongation, 1 Hz decreased the expression. BrdU incorporation assay and cell counting showed miR-21 involved in the proliferation of HASMCs mediated by stretch, likely by regulating the expression of p27 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb. FACS analysis revealed that the complex of miR-21 and programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4 participated in regulating apoptosis with stretch. Stretch increased the expression of primary miR-21 and pre-miR-21 in HASMCs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA demonstrated that stretch increased NF-κB and AP-1 activities in HASMCs, and blockade of AP-1 activity by c-jun siRNA significantly suppressed stretch-induced miR-21 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic stretch modulates miR-21 expression in cultured HASMCs, and miR-21 plays important roles in regulating proliferation and apoptosis mediated by stretch. Stretch upregulates miR-21 expression at least in part at the transcription level and AP-1 is essential for stretch-induced miR-21 expression.

  10. Parameters Controlling Dimensional Accuracy of Aluminum Extrusions Formed in Stretch Bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringbing, Henry Ako; Welo, Torgeir

    2007-01-01

    For stretch formed components used in the automotive industry, such as bumper beams, it is of primary importance to control parameters affecting dimensional accuracy. The variations in geometry and mechanical properties induced in extrusion and stretch forming lead to subsequent dimensional inaccuracy of the final product. In this work, tensile and compression samples were taken at three different positions along AA7108W extruded profiles in order to determine material parameters for a constitutive model particularly suited for strong texture materials. In addition, geometry were measured and analyzed statistically in order to study its impact on local cross sectional distortions (sagging) and springback in stretch bending of a bumper beam. These full scale experiments were combined with analytical and numerical simulations to quantify the impact of each basic parameter on product quality. It is concluded that this methodology provides a means to systematically control the product quality by focusing on reducing the acceptance limits of the main parameters controlling basic mechanisms in stretch forming. Despite the assumptions and simplifications made in order to make the analytical expressions solvable, the approach has proven its capability in establishing accurate closed-form expressions including the main influential parameters

  11. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  12. Shoulder instability in professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lance E; Asnis, Peter D; Griffith, Matthew H; Granito, David; Berkson, Eric M; Gill, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Shoulder instability is a common problem in American football players entering the National Football League (NFL). Treatment options include nonoperative and surgical stabilization. This study evaluated how the method of treatment of pre-NFL shoulder instability affects the rate of recurrence and the time elapsed until recurrence in players on 1 NFL team. Retrospective cohort. Medical records from 1980 to 2008 for 1 NFL team were reviewed. There were 328 players included in the study who started their career on the team and remained on the team for at least 2 years (mean, 3.9 years; range, 2-14 years). The history of instability prior to entering the NFL and the method of treatment were collected. Data on the occurrence of instability while in the NFL were recorded to determine the rate and timing of recurrence. Thirty-one players (9.5%) had a history of instability prior to entering the NFL. Of the 297 players with no history of instability, 39 (13.1%) had a primary event at a mean of 18.4 ± 22.2 months (range, 0-102 months) after joining the team. In the group of players with prior instability treated with surgical stabilization, there was no statistical difference in the rate of recurrence (10.5%) or the timing to the instability episode (mean, 26 months) compared with players with no history of instability. Twelve players had shoulder instability treated nonoperatively prior to the NFL. Five of these players (41.7%) had recurrent instability at a mean of 4.4 ± 7.0 months (range, 0-16 months). The patients treated nonoperatively had a significantly higher rate of recurrence (P = 0.02) and an earlier time of recurrence (P = 0.04). The rate of contralateral instability was 25.8%, occurring at a mean of 8.6 months. Recurrent shoulder instability is more common in NFL players with a history of nonoperative treatment. Surgical stabilization appears to restore the rate and timing of instability to that of players with no prior history of instability.

  13. Comparison between static stretching and the Pilates method on the flexibility of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Campos de; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2016-10-01

    Flexibility decreases with advancing age and some forms of exercise, such as static stretching and Pilates, can contribute to the improvement of this physical ability. To compare the effects of static stretching and Pilates on the flexibility of healthy older women, over the age of 60 years. Thirty-two volunteers were randomized into two groups (Static stretching or Pilates) to perform exercises for 60 min, twice a week, for three months. Evaluations to analyze the movements of the trunk (flexion and extension), hip flexion and plantar and dorsiflexion of the ankle were performed before and after the intervention, using a fleximeter. The static stretching exercises improved the trunk flexion and hip flexion movements, while the Pilates improved all evaluated movements. However, over time, the groups presented differences only for the trunk extension movement. For some body segments, Pilates may be more effective for improving flexibility in older women compared to static stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of free radicals and stress signalling in persistent genomic instability induced by long wavelength UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipson, R.; McMillan, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Induction of persistent genomic instability has commonly been investigated with ionising radiation. It has been characterised as a decrease in plating efficiency, and an increase in chromosomal aberrations and mutation frequency in the progeny of cells that survive the initial irradiation. We now present data demonstrating the phenomenon following exposure to long-wavelength solar UV-A (320-400nm) radiation at environmentally relevant doses. Using the spontaneously immortalised human skin keratinocyte line, HaCaT, we observed a significant decrease in plating efficiency (77 +/- 2% of control), and increase in micronuclei (2.5 fold) and mutation frequency (2 fold), 7 days after the initial radiation insult. Modification of UV-A-induced instability by incubation with exogenous catalase implicated reactive oxygen species (ROS), in-particular hydrogen peroxide, in the production and/or maintenance of the phenomenon. Assessment of anti-oxidant enzymes revealed a significant increase in glutathione-s-transferase activity (158 +/- 4% of control) at day 7 in the irradiated cell population, which was inhibited by incubation with exogenous catalase (97 +/- 3%), providing further evidence for an ROS-mediated pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of UV-A-induced micronuclei at day 7 by the flavonoid-containing-protein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) indicates that the NADPH oxidase family of enzymes may be involved in this phenomenon. Measurement of superoxide production by the cytochrome c reduction assay revealed that the irradiated cell population produce 50% more superoxide than the unirradiated controls, and that incubation with DPI led to a preferential reduction in superoxide production in the UV-A treated population at day 7. Finally, NADPH oxidase activity is increased significantly over controls in UV-A-treated cells. These data demonstrate that oxidative stress, analogous to that produced by ionising radiation, induces persistent genomic instability through a

  15. Characterization of energy flow and instability development in two-dimensional simulations of hollow z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; McLenithan, K.D.; Deeney, C.; Chandler, G.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Matzen, M.K.; Roderick, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) Eulerian Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) code has been used to simulate imploding z pinches for three experiments fielded on the Los Alamos Pegasus II capacitor bank [J. C. Cochrane et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Third International Conference, London, United Kingdom 1993 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), p. 381] and the Sandia Saturn accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Second International Conference, Laguna Beach, 1989 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] and Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. These simulations match the experimental results closely and illustrate how the code results may be used to track the flow of energy in the simulation and account for the amount of total radiated energy. The differences between the calculated radiated energy and power in 2-D simulations and those from zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) Lagrangian simulations (which typically underpredict the total radiated energy and overpredict power) are due to the radially extended nature of the plasma shell, an effect which arises from the presence of magnetically driven Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities. The magnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities differ substantially from hydrodynamically driven instabilities and typical measures of instability development such as e-folding times and mixing layer thickness are inapplicable or of limited value. A new measure of global instability development is introduced, tied to the imploding plasma mass, termed open-quotes fractional involved mass.close quotes Examples of this quantity are shown for the three experiments along with a discussion of the applicability of this measure. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Plasma physics and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.

    1981-01-01

    These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)

  17. Design considerations and challenges for mechanical stretch bioreactors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2016-05-01

    With the increase in average life expectancy and growing aging population, lack of functional grafts for replacement surgeries has become a severe problem. Engineered tissues are a promising alternative to this problem because they can mimic the physiological function of the native tissues and be cultured on demand. Cyclic stretch is important for developing many engineered tissues such as hearts, heart valves, muscles, and bones. Thus a variety of stretch bioreactors and corresponding scaffolds have been designed and tested to study the underlying mechanism of tissue formation and to optimize the mechanical conditions applied to the engineered tissues. In this review, we look at various designs of stretch bioreactors and common scaffolds and offer insights for future improvements in tissue engineering applications. First, we summarize the requirements and common configuration of stretch bioreactors. Next, we present the features of different actuating and motion transforming systems and their applications. Since most bioreactors must measure detailed distributions of loads and deformations on engineered tissues, techniques with high accuracy, precision, and frequency have been developed. We also cover the key points in designing culture chambers, nutrition exchanging systems, and regimens used for specific tissues. Since scaffolds are essential for providing biophysical microenvironments for residing cells, we discuss materials and technologies used in fabricating scaffolds to mimic anisotropic native tissues, including decellularized tissues, hydrogels, biocompatible polymers, electrospinning, and 3D bioprinting techniques. Finally, we present the potential future directions for improving stretch bioreactors and scaffolds. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:543-553, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. High throughput web inspection system using time-stretch real-time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanju

    Photonic time-stretch is a novel technology that enables capturing of fast, rare and non-repetitive events. Therefore, it operates in real-time with ability to record over long period of time while having fine temporal resolution. The powerful property of photonic time-stretch has already been employed in various fields of application such as analog-to-digital conversion, spectroscopy, laser scanner and microscopy. Further expanding the scope, we fully exploit the time-stretch technology to demonstrate a high throughput web inspection system. Web inspection, namely surface inspection is a nondestructive evaluation method which is crucial for semiconductor wafer and thin film production. We successfully report a dark-field web inspection system with line scan speed of 90.9 MHz which is up to 1000 times faster than conventional inspection instruments. The manufacturing of high quality semiconductor wafer and thin film may directly benefit from this technology as it can easily locate defects with area of less than 10 microm x 10 microm where it allows maximum web flow speed of 1.8 km/s. The thesis provides an overview of our web inspection technique, followed by description of the photonic time-stretch technique which is the keystone in our system. A detailed explanation of each component is covered to provide quantitative understanding of the system. Finally, imaging results from a hard-disk sample and flexible films are presented along with performance analysis of the system. This project was the first application of time-stretch to industrial inspection, and was conducted under financial support and with close involvement by Hitachi, Ltd.

  19. Reducing charging effects in scanning electron microscope images by Rayleigh contrast stretching method (RCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Ismail, W Z; Sim, K S; Tso, C P; Ting, H Y

    2011-01-01

    To reduce undesirable charging effects in scanning electron microscope images, Rayleigh contrast stretching is developed and employed. First, re-scaling is performed on the input image histograms with Rayleigh algorithm. Then, contrast stretching or contrast adjustment is implemented to improve the images while reducing the contrast charging artifacts. This technique has been compared to some existing histogram equalization (HE) extension techniques: recursive sub-image HE, contrast stretching dynamic HE, multipeak HE and recursive mean separate HE. Other post processing methods, such as wavelet approach, spatial filtering, and exponential contrast stretching, are compared as well. Overall, the proposed method produces better image compensation in reducing charging artifacts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prolonged static stretching does not influence running economy despite changes in neuromuscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sarah J; Bailey, David M; Folland, Jonathan P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of prolonged static stretching (SS) on running economy. Ten male runners (VO2(peak) 60.1 +/- 7.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 10 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2(peak) before and after SS and no stretching interventions. For the stretching intervention, each leg was stretched unilaterally for 40 s with each of eight different exercises and this was repeated three times. Respiratory gas exchange was measured throughout the running exercise with an automated gas analysis system. On a separate day, participants were tested for sit and reach range of motion, isometric strength and countermovement jump height before and after SS. The oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate responses to running were unaffected by the stretching intervention. This was despite a significant effect of SS on neuromuscular function (sit and reach range of motion, +2.7 +/- 0.6 cm; isometric strength, -5.6% +/- 3.4%; countermovement jump height -5.5% +/- 3.4%; all P influence running economy despite changes in neuromuscular function.

  1. Folding of multidomain proteins: biophysical consequences of tethering even in apparently independent folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arviv, Oshrit; Levy, Yaakov

    2012-12-01

    Most eukaryotic and a substantial fraction of prokaryotic proteins are composed of more than one domain. The tethering of these evolutionary, structural, and functional units raises, among others, questions regarding the folding process of conjugated domains. Studying the folding of multidomain proteins in silico enables one to identify and isolate the tethering-induced biophysical determinants that govern crosstalks generated between neighboring domains. For this purpose, we carried out coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two two-domain constructs from the immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold. Each of these was experimentally shown to behave as the "sum of its parts," that is, the thermodynamic and kinetic folding behavior of the constituent domains of these constructs seems to occur independently, with the folding of each domain uncoupled from the folding of its partner in the two-domain construct. We show that the properties of the individual domains can be significantly affected by conjugation to another domain. The tethering may be accompanied by stabilizing as well as destabilizing factors whose magnitude depends on the size of the interface, the length, and the flexibility of the linker, and the relative stability of the domains. Accordingly, the folding of a multidomain protein should not be viewed as the sum of the folding patterns of each of its parts, but rather, it involves abrogating several effects that lead to this outcome. An imbalance between these effects may result in either stabilization or destabilization owing to the tethering. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Spontaneous Unfolding-Refolding of Fibronectin Type III Domains Assayed by Thiol Exchange: THERMODYNAMIC STABILITY CORRELATES WITH RATES OF UNFOLDING RATHER THAN FOLDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Riddhi; Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P; Oas, Terrence G

    2017-01-20

    Globular proteins are not permanently folded but spontaneously unfold and refold on time scales that can span orders of magnitude for different proteins. A longstanding debate in the protein-folding field is whether unfolding rates or folding rates correlate to the stability of a protein. In the present study, we have determined the unfolding and folding kinetics of 10 FNIII domains. FNIII domains are one of the most common protein folds and are present in 2% of animal proteins. FNIII domains are ideal for this study because they have an identical seven-strand β-sandwich structure, but they vary widely in sequence and thermodynamic stability. We assayed thermodynamic stability of each domain by equilibrium denaturation in urea. We then assayed the kinetics of domain opening and closing by a technique known as thiol exchange. For this we introduced a buried Cys at the identical location in each FNIII domain and measured the kinetics of labeling with DTNB over a range of urea concentrations. A global fit of the kinetics data gave the kinetics of spontaneous unfolding and refolding in zero urea. We found that the folding rates were relatively similar, ∼0.1-1 s -1 , for the different domains. The unfolding rates varied widely and correlated with thermodynamic stability. Our study is the first to address this question using a set of domains that are structurally homologous but evolved with widely varying sequence identity and thermodynamic stability. These data add new evidence that thermodynamic stability correlates primarily with unfolding rate rather than folding rate. The study also has implications for the question of whether opening of FNIII domains contributes to the stretching of fibronectin matrix fibrils. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Identification of the Process of Dynamic Stretching of Threads in Warp Knitting Technology Part II: Experimental Identification of the Process of Stretching Threads, with Verification of Rheological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prążyńska Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is a continuation of the first part of the publication, concerning the theoretical analysis of sensitivity of rheological models of dynamically stretched thread. This part presents the experimental research on the characteristics of stretching forces as a function of time, in the context of comparing the obtained results with theoretical data.

  4. THUNDER Piezoelectric Actuators as a Method of Stretch-Tuning an Optical Fiber Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Fox, Robert L.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Childers, Brooks A.

    2000-01-01

    A method of stretching optical fiber holds interest for measuring strain in smart structures where the physical displacement may be used to tune optical fiber lasers. A small, light weight, low power tunable fiber laser is ideal for demodulating strain in optical fiber Bragg gratings attached to smart structures such as the re-usable launch vehicle that is being developed by NASA. A method is presented for stretching optical fibers using the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators invented at NASA Langley Research Center. THUNDER actuators use a piezoelectric layer bonded to a metal backing to enable the actuators to produce displacements larger than the unbonded piezoelectric material. The shift in reflected optical wavelength resulting from stretching the fiber Bragg grating is presented. Means of adapting THUNDER actuators for stretching optical fibers is discussed, including ferrules, ferrule clamp blocks, and plastic hinges made with stereo lithography.

  5. FUZZY BASED CONTRAST STRETCHING FOR MEDICAL IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. Raja Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrast Stretching is an important part in medical image processing applications. Contrast is the difference between two adjacent pixels. Fuzzy statistical values are analyzed and better results are produced in the spatial domain of the input image. The histogram mapping produces the resultant image with less impulsive noise and smooth nature. The probabilities of gray values are generated and the fuzzy set is determined from the position of the input image pixel. The result indicates the good performance of the proposed fuzzy based stretching. The inverse transform of the real values are mapped with the input image to generate the fuzzy statistics. This approach gives a flexible image enhancement for medical images in the presence of noises.

  6. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  7. Extrinsic stretching narrowing and anterior indentation of the rectosigmoid junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, A.; Fataar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five cases of extrinsic narrowing or anterior indentation of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) have been studied. The RSJ lies directly behind the pouch of Douglas which is a favoured site for peritoneal metastasis, abscess and endometriosis. Any space-occupying lesion of sufficient size at this site will indent the anterior aspects of the RSJ. Causes include distension or tumour of the ileum or sigmoid colon, gross ascites (when the patient is erect), and tumours below the pelvic peritonium, such as gynaecological neoplasm and internal iliac artery aneurysm. When a desmoplastic metastasis in the pouch of Douglas infiltrates the outer layers of the RSJ, the fibrosis produces an eccentric shortening on its anterior aspect, which in turn causes a pleating of the mucosa with the folds radiating towards the shortened area. This is also seen with primary pelvic carcinomas directly adherent to the rectum, endometriosis with repeated bleeding and increasing eccentric, submucosal fibrosis, and chronic abscess in the pouch of Douglas. Not all extrinsic narrowing of the RSJ are pathological. One case of anterior indentation followed operation for rectal prolapse. Ten additional cases showed narrowing due to a technical artefact air-distended colon rising into the upper abdomen to cause stretching at the RSJ. As with ascites, this narrowing due to 'high-rise sigmoid' disappeared when the patients became recumbent and the colonic air redistributed. (author)

  8. CLIMATE INSTABILITY ON TIDALLY LOCKED EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Manga, Michael [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: edwin.kite@gmail.com [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    Feedbacks that can destabilize the climates of synchronously rotating rocky planets may arise on planets with strong day-night surface temperature contrasts. Earth-like habitable planets maintain stable surface liquid water over geologic time. This requires equilibrium between the temperature-dependent rate of greenhouse-gas consumption by weathering, and greenhouse-gas resupply by other processes. Detected small-radius exoplanets, and anticipated M-dwarf habitable-zone rocky planets, are expected to be in synchronous rotation (tidally locked). In this paper, we investigate two hypothetical feedbacks that can destabilize climate on planets in synchronous rotation. (1) If small changes in pressure alter the temperature distribution across a planet's surface such that the weathering rate goes up when the pressure goes down, a runaway positive feedback occurs involving increasing weathering rate near the substellar point, decreasing pressure, and increasing substellar surface temperature. We call this feedback enhanced substellar weathering instability (ESWI). (2) When decreases in pressure increase the fraction of surface area above the melting point (through reduced advective cooling of the substellar point), and the corresponding increase in volume of liquid causes net dissolution of the atmosphere, a further decrease in pressure will occur. This substellar dissolution feedback can also cause a runaway climate shift. We use an idealized energy balance model to map out the conditions under which these instabilities may occur. In this simplified model, the weathering runaway can shrink the habitable zone and cause geologically rapid 10{sup 3}-fold atmospheric pressure shifts within the habitable zone. Mars may have undergone a weathering runaway in the past. Substellar dissolution is usually a negative feedback or weak positive feedback on changes in atmospheric pressure. It can only cause runaway changes for small, deep oceans and highly soluble atmospheric

  9. CLIMATE INSTABILITY ON TIDALLY LOCKED EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kite, Edwin S.; Manga, Michael; Gaidos, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Feedbacks that can destabilize the climates of synchronously rotating rocky planets may arise on planets with strong day-night surface temperature contrasts. Earth-like habitable planets maintain stable surface liquid water over geologic time. This requires equilibrium between the temperature-dependent rate of greenhouse-gas consumption by weathering, and greenhouse-gas resupply by other processes. Detected small-radius exoplanets, and anticipated M-dwarf habitable-zone rocky planets, are expected to be in synchronous rotation (tidally locked). In this paper, we investigate two hypothetical feedbacks that can destabilize climate on planets in synchronous rotation. (1) If small changes in pressure alter the temperature distribution across a planet's surface such that the weathering rate goes up when the pressure goes down, a runaway positive feedback occurs involving increasing weathering rate near the substellar point, decreasing pressure, and increasing substellar surface temperature. We call this feedback enhanced substellar weathering instability (ESWI). (2) When decreases in pressure increase the fraction of surface area above the melting point (through reduced advective cooling of the substellar point), and the corresponding increase in volume of liquid causes net dissolution of the atmosphere, a further decrease in pressure will occur. This substellar dissolution feedback can also cause a runaway climate shift. We use an idealized energy balance model to map out the conditions under which these instabilities may occur. In this simplified model, the weathering runaway can shrink the habitable zone and cause geologically rapid 10 3 -fold atmospheric pressure shifts within the habitable zone. Mars may have undergone a weathering runaway in the past. Substellar dissolution is usually a negative feedback or weak positive feedback on changes in atmospheric pressure. It can only cause runaway changes for small, deep oceans and highly soluble atmospheric gases. Both

  10. Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs

  11. Micropatterning stretched and aligned DNA for sequence-specific nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Cecilia Anna Paulette

    Techniques for fabricating nanostructured materials can be categorized as either "top-down" or "bottom-up". Top-down techniques use lithography and contact printing to create patterned surfaces and microfluidic channels that can corral and organize nanoscale structures, such as molecules and nanorods in contrast; bottom-up techniques use self-assembly or molecular recognition to direct the organization of materials. A central goal in nanotechnology is the integration of bottom-up and top-down assembly strategies for materials development, device design; and process integration. With this goal in mind, we have developed strategies that will allow this integration by using DNA as a template for nanofabrication; two top-down approaches allow the placement of these templates, while the bottom-up technique uses the specific sequence of bases to pattern materials along each strand of DNA. Our first top-down approach, termed combing of molecules in microchannels (COMMIC), produces microscopic patterns of stretched and aligned molecules of DNA on surfaces. This process consists of passing an air-water interface over end adsorbed molecules inside microfabricated channels. The geometry of the microchannel directs the placement of the DNA molecules, while the geometry of the airwater interface directs the local orientation and curvature of the molecules. We developed another top-down strategy for creating micropatterns of stretched and aligned DNA using surface chemistry. Because DNA stretching occurs on hydrophobic surfaces, this technique uses photolithography to pattern vinyl-terminated silanes on glass When these surface-, are immersed in DNA solution, molecules adhere preferentially to the silanized areas. This approach has also proven useful in patterning protein for cell adhesion studies. Finally, we describe the use of these stretched and aligned molecules of DNA as templates for the subsequent bottom-up construction of hetero-structures through hybridization

  12. Instability in Chad

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    ...) and the Darfur region of Sudan have fled violence in their own countries and now live in refugee camps in eastern Chad With Chadian security forces stretched thin, the threat of bandit attacks...

  13. ′Sure closure′-skin stretching system, our clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramania K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In clinical practice of reconstructive surgery one of the problems one routinely comes across is skin and soft tissue defects, which require coverage. Coverage of such wounds requires primary/secondary closure, skin grafting or flaps. The objective of our clinical series was to assess the efficacy of sure closure skin stretching system for closure of defects which otherwise would have required major flap cover or skin grafting. Methods: Our series included five patients with different causes and types of wound defects namely: 1. Post-traumatic soft tissue defect on dorsum of hand. 2. Post fasciotomy wound on leg (anterolateral aspect. 3. Abdominal wound dehiscence following surgery for enterocutaneous fistula. 4. Leg soft tissue defect following dehiscence of fasciocutaneous flap. 5. Secondary defect following harvesting a lateral arm/forearm free flap. The device was applied to skin edges after preparing the wound under local anesthesia and the skin edges were brought together by turning the skin-stretching knob. After adequate approximation of the edges of the wound it was sutured by conventional suturing techniques. Results: All the wounds could be successfully closed using the skin stretching system in our series. The time taken for the closure ranged from 2 to 48 h. Conclusions: Sure closure skin stretching system is an effective device for closing some of the skin defects which otherwise would have required skin flaps or grafts. In all the patients wound closure could be achieved by this method and was carried out under local anesthesia. Use of this technique is simple and helps to reduce the morbidity and cost of treatment by allowing the reconstructive surgeon to avoid using major flaps or grafts.

  14. Stretching of Active Muscle Elicits Chronic Changes in Multiple Strain Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Anthony David; Richmond, Dominic; Talbot, Chris; Mina, Minas; Baross, Anthony William; Blazevich, Anthony John

    2016-07-01

    The muscle stretch intensity imposed during "flexibility" training influences the magnitude of joint range of motion (ROM) adaptation. Thus, stretching while the muscle is voluntarily activated was hypothesized to provide a greater stimulus than passive stretching. The effect of a 6-wk program of stretch imposed on an isometrically contracting muscle (i.e., qualitatively similar to isokinetic eccentric training) on muscle-tendon mechanics was therefore studied in 13 healthy human volunteers. Before and after the training program, dorsiflexion ROM, passive joint moment, and maximal isometric plantarflexor moment were recorded on an isokinetic dynamometer. Simultaneous real-time motion analysis and ultrasound imaging recorded gastrocnemius medialis muscle and Achilles tendon elongation. Training was performed twice weekly and consisted of five sets of 12 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions at 10°·s. Significant increases (P tendon stiffness) was detected (-1.5%, P > 0.05), a significant increase in tendon stiffness (31.2%, P tendon stiffness simultaneous with significant increases in tendon stiffness and decreases in passive muscle stiffness indicates that tissue-specific effects were elicited.

  15. Enhanced micronucleus formation in the descendants of {gamma}-ray-irradiated tobacco cells: Evidence for radiation-induced genomic instability in plant cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Yuichiro, E-mail: yokota.yuichiro@jaea.go.jp [Life Science and Biotechnology Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Funayama, Tomoo; Hase, Yoshihiro [Life Science and Biotechnology Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hamada, Nobuyuki [Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Narumi, Issay [Life Science and Biotechnology Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    Ionizing radiation-induced genomic instability has been documented in various end points such as chromosomal aberrations and mutations, which arises in the descendants of irradiated mammalian or yeast cells many generations after the initial insult. This study aimed at addressing radiation-induced genomic instability in higher plant tobacco cells. We thus investigated micronucleus (MN) formation and cell proliferation in tobacco cells irradiated with {gamma}-rays and their descendants. In {gamma}-irradiated cells, cell cycle was arrested at G{sub 2}/M phase at around 24 h post-irradiation but released afterward. In contrast, MN frequency peaked at 48 h post-irradiation. Almost half of 40 Gy-irradiated cells had MN at 48 h post-irradiation, but proliferated as actively as sham-irradiated cells up to 120 h post-irradiation. Moreover, the descendants that have undergone at least 22 generations after irradiation still showed a two-fold MN frequency compared to sham-irradiated cells. This is the direct evidence for radiation-induced genomic instability in tobacco cells.

  16. Helical instability in film blowing process: Analogy to buckling instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Sung; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2017-12-01

    The film blowing process is one of the most important polymer processing operations, widely used for producing bi-axially oriented film products in a single-step process. Among the instabilities observed in this film blowing process, i.e., draw resonance and helical motion occurring on the inflated film bubble, the helical instability is a unique phenomenon portraying the snake-like undulation motion of the bubble, having the period on the order of few seconds. This helical instability in the film blowing process is commonly found at the process conditions of a high blow-up ratio with too low a freezeline position and/or too high extrusion temperature. In this study, employing an analogy to the buckling instability for falling viscous threads, the compressive force caused by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the film bubble is introduced into the simulation model along with the scaling law derived from the force balance between viscous force and centripetal force of the film bubble. The simulation using this model reveals a close agreement with the experimental results of the film blowing process of polyethylene polymers such as low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene.

  17. Pre-Stretched Low Equivalent Weight PFSA Membranes with Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing (Angela); Wycisk, Ryszard; Kish, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    for the morphological changes to be permanent. For 825 EW PFSA, stretching increased the polymer crystallinity by 22.5%, with a reduction in methanol permeability and a small increase in proton conductivity. In direct methanol fuel cell tests at 60◦C with 1.0 M methanol, the power density at 0.4 V with a DR = 4...... stretched 825 EW membrane (72 mW/cm2) was considerably greater than that obtained with a solution-cast membrane (28 mW/cm2) or with a commercial Nafion 117 membrane (55 mW/cm2). For 733 EW PFSA, stretching promoted the formation of ordered ionic domains leading to an increase in proton conductivity...

  18. Functional Instability of the Ankle Joint: Etiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan ÖRSÇELİK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ankle sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. Chronic ankle instability is a common complication of ankle sprains. Two causes of chronic ankle instability are mechanical instability and functional instability. It is important to understand functional instability etiopathogenesis of the ankle joint in order to guide diagnosis and treatment. This article aims to understand the etiopathogenesis of functional ankle instability.

  19. Genomic Instability Promoted by Overexpression of Mismatch Repair Factors in Yeast: A Model for Understanding Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujani; Dinh, Timothy A; Alani, Eric

    2018-04-13

    Mismatch repair (MMR) proteins act in spellchecker roles to excise misincorporation errors that occur during DNA replication. Curiously, large-scale analyses of a variety of cancers showed that increased expression of MMR proteins often correlated with tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and early recurrence. To better understand these observations, we used the TCGA and GENT databases to analyze MMR protein expression in cancers. We found that the MMR genes MSH2 and MSH6 are overexpressed more frequently than MSH3 , and that MSH2 and MSH6 are often co-overexpressed as a result of copy number amplifications of these genes. These observations encouraged us to test the effects of upregulating MMR protein levels in baker's yeast, where we can sensitively monitor genome instability phenotypes associated with cancer initiation and progression. Msh6 overexpression (2 to 4-fold) almost completely disrupted mechanisms that prevent recombination between divergent DNA sequences by interacting with the DNA polymerase processivity clamp PCNA and by sequestering the Sgs1 helicase. Importantly, co-overexpression of Msh2 and Msh6 (∼8-fold) conferred, in a PCNA interaction dependent manner, several genome instability phenotypes including increased mutation rate, increased sensitivity to the DNA replication inhibitor hydroxyurea and the DNA damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide, and elevated loss of heterozygosity. Msh2 and Msh6 co-overexpression also altered the cell cycle distribution of exponentially growing cells, resulting in an increased fraction of unbudded cells, consistent with a larger percentage of cells in G1. These novel observations suggested that overexpression of MSH factors affected the integrity of the DNA replication fork, causing genome instability phenotypes that could be important for promoting cancer progression. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  20. Development of Aluminum-Lithium 2195 Gores by the Stretch Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Chen, P. S.; Gorti, S.; Salvail, P.

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum-Lithium alloy 2195 exhibits higher mechanical properties and lower density than aluminum alloy 2219, which is the current baseline material for Space Launch System (SLS) cryogenic tank components. Replacement of Al 2219 with Al-Li 2195 would result in substantial weight savings, as was the case when this replacement was made on the shuttle external tank. A key component of cryogenic tanks are the gores, which are welded together to make the rounded ends of the tanks. The required thicknesses of these gores depend on the specific SLS configuration and may exceed the current experience base in the manufacture of such gores by the stretch forming process. Here we describe the steps taken to enhance the formability of Al-Li 2195 by optimizing the heat treatment and stretch forming processes for gore thicknesses up to 0.75", which envelopes the maximum expected gore thicknesses for SLS tanks. An annealing treatment, developed at Marshall Space Flight Center, increased the forming range and strain hardening exponent of Al-Li 2195 plates. Using this annealing treatment, one 0.525" thick and two 0.75" thick gores were manufactured by the stretch forming process. The annealing treatment enabled the stretch forming of the largest ever cross sectional area (thickness x width) of an Al-Li 2195 plate achieved by the manufacturer. Mechanical testing of the gores showed greater than expected ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, modulus, and elongation values. The gores also exhibited acceptable fracture toughness at room and LN2 temperatures. All of the measured data indicate that the stretch formed gores have sufficient material properties to be used in flight domes.

  1. Chromosomal instability induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.F.; Marder, B.A.; Day, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence indicating genomic instability can manifest multiple generations after cellular exposure to DNA damaging agents. For instance, some cells surviving exposure to ionizing radiations show delayed reproductive cell death, delayed mutation and / or delayed chromosomal instability. Such instability, especially chromosome destabilization has been implicated in mutation, gene amplification, cellular transformation, and cell killing. To investigate chromosomal instability following DNA damage, we have used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal rearrangements in a human/hamster somatic hybrid cell line following exposure to ionizing radiation. Delayed chromosomal instability was detected when multiple populations of uniquely arranged metaphases were observed in clonal isolates raised from single cells. The relationship between delayed chromosomal destabilization and other endpoints of genomic instability, namely; delayed mutation and gene amplification will be discussed, as will the potential cytogenetic and molecular mechanisms contributing to delayed chromosomal instability

  2. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  3. Optical stretching on chip with acoustophoretic prefocusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Laub Busk, L.; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in the microchannel. Trapping and manipulation is demonstrated for dielectric beads. In addition, we show trapping, manipulation and stretching of red blood cells and vesicles, whereby we extract the elastic properties of these objects. Our design points towards the construction of a low-cost, high-throughput lab...

  4. Comparison electrical stimulation and passive stretching for blood glucose control type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsianti, Rika Wahyuni; Parman, Dewy Haryanti; Lesmana, Hendy

    2018-04-01

    Physical exercise is one of the cornerstones for management and treatment type 2 diabetes mellitus. But not all people are able to perform physical exercise because of their physical limitation condition. The strategy for those people in this study is electrical stimulation and passive stretching. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of electrical stimulation and passive stretching to lowering blood glucose level. 20 subjects is divided into electrical stimulation and passive stretching group. The provision of electrical stimulation on lower extremities muscles for 30 minutes for electrical stimulation group (N=10). And other underwent passive stretching for 30 minutes (N=10). The result shows that blood glucose level is decrease from 192.9 ± 10.7087 mg/dL to 165.3 ± 10.527 mg/dL for electrical stimulation intervention group while for the passive stretching group the blood glucose decrease from 153 ± 12.468 mg/dL to 136.1 ± 12.346 mg/dL. Both electrical stimulation and passive stretching are effective to lowering blood glucose level and can be proposed for those people restricted to perform exercise.

  5. Sites of instability in the human TCF3 (E2A) gene adopt G-quadruplex DNA structures in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan D.; Fleetwood, Sara; Berroyer, Alexandra; Kim, Nayun; Larson, Erik D.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of highly stable four-stranded DNA, called G-quadruplex (G4), promotes site-specific genome instability. G4 DNA structures fold from repetitive guanine sequences, and increasing experimental evidence connects G4 sequence motifs with specific gene rearrangements. The human transcription factor 3 (TCF3) gene (also termed E2A) is subject to genetic instability associated with severe disease, most notably a common translocation event t(1;19) associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The sites of instability in TCF3 are not randomly distributed, but focused to certain sequences. We asked if G4 DNA formation could explain why TCF3 is prone to recombination and mutagenesis. Here we demonstrate that sequences surrounding the major t(1;19) break site and a region associated with copy number variations both contain G4 sequence motifs. The motifs identified readily adopt G4 DNA structures that are stable enough to interfere with DNA synthesis in physiological salt conditions in vitro. When introduced into the yeast genome, TCF3 G4 motifs promoted gross chromosomal rearrangements in a transcription-dependent manner. Our results provide a molecular rationale for the site-specific instability of human TCF3, suggesting that G4 DNA structures contribute to oncogenic DNA breaks and recombination. PMID:26029241

  6. Mechanical stretch induces MMP-2 release and activation in lung endothelium: role of EMMPRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseneen, Nadia A; Vaday, Gayle G; Zucker, Stanley; Foda, Hussein D

    2003-03-01

    High-volume mechanical ventilation leads to ventilator-induced lung injury. This type of lung injury is accompanied by an increased release and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). To investigate the mechanism leading to the increased MMP release, we systematically studied the effect of mechanical stretch on human microvascular endothelial cells isolated from the lung. We exposed cells grown on collagen 1 BioFlex plates to sinusoidal cyclic stretch at 0.5 Hz using the Flexercell system with 17-18% elongation of cells. After 4 days of cell stretching, conditioned media and cell lysate were collected and analyzed by gelatin, casein, and reverse zymograms as well as Western blotting. RT-PCR of mRNA extracted from stretched cells was performed. Our results show that 1) cyclic stretch led to increased release and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-1; 2) the activation of MMP-2 was accompanied by an increase in membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP) and inhibited by a hydroxamic acid-derived inhibitor of MMPs (Prinomastat, AG3340); and 3) the MMP-2 release and activation were preceded by an increase in production of extracellular MMP inducer (EMMPRIN). These results suggest that cyclic mechanical stretch leads to MMP-2 activation through an MT1-MMP mechanism. EMMPRIN may play an important role in the release and activation of MMPs during lung injury.

  7. Self-induced stretch syncope of adolescence: a video-EEG documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, Michel; Thomas, Pierre

    2007-12-01

    We present the first video-EEG documentation, with ECG and EMG features, of stretch syncope of adolescence in a young, healthy 16-year-old boy. Stretch syncope of adolescence is a rarely reported, benign cause of fainting in young patients, which can be confused with epileptic seizures. In our patient, syncopes were self-induced to avoid school. Dynamic transcranial Doppler showed evidence of blood flow decrease in both posterior cerebral arteries mimicking effects of a Valsalva manoeuvre. Dynamic angiogram of the vertebral arteries was normal. Hypotheses concerning the physiopathology are discussed. [Published with video sequences].

  8. METODE ACTIVE ISOLATED STRETCHING (AIS DAN METODE HOLD RELAX STRETCHING (HRS SAMA EFEKTIF DALAM MENINGKATKAN FLEKSIBILITAS OTOT HAMSTRING PADA MAHASISWA AKADEMI FISIOTERAPI WIDYA HUSADA SEMARANG YANG MENGALAMI HAMSTRING MUSCLE TIGHTNESS (HMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad alfajri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Students with Hamstring Muscle Tightness (HMTs will be at risk of Anterior Crusiatum Ligament (ACL, Low Back Pain (LBP and also Plantar Faciitis. One of the efforts to reduce tightness and improve hamstring muscle flexibility is stretching. Active Isolated Stretching (AIS and Hold Relax Stretching (HRS are the methods of influential stretching to improve muscle flexibility. The goal of the research is to prove that AIS method is equally effective with the HRS method to improve hamstring muscle flexibility to the HMTs patients. The research method was true experimental with pre and post test group design. The research was conducted for 3 weeks and the samples are 23 students in range of 18-25 years old students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang which divided into 2 groups; AIS group (n= 12 and HRS group (n= 11. The research used Sit and Reach Test (SRT as the measurement instrument. The result of the research was the average result of AIS group used SRT before treatment was 1.75 cm, SB= 4.309 and after treatment was 10. 58 cm, SB = 8. 005 within p= 0.000 (p 0.05. Those explain that the improvement of hamstring muscle flexibility to the two groups does not show any significant difference. Conclusion from this study was active isolated stretching method and hold relax stretching method are equally effective to improving muscle flexibility of hamstring muscle tightness students of physical therapy in Physical Therapy Academy of Widya Husada Semarang.

  9. Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)

  10. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  11. Twist-stretch profiles of DNA chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Helical molecules change their twist number under the effect of a mechanical load. We study the twist-stretch relation for a set of short DNA molecules modeled by a mesoscopic Hamiltonian. Finite temperature path integral techniques are applied to generate a large ensemble of possible configurations for the base pairs of the sequence. The model also accounts for the bending and twisting fluctuations between adjacent base pairs along the molecules stack. Simulating a broad range of twisting conformation, we compute the helix structural parameters by averaging over the ensemble of base pairs configurations. The method selects, for any applied force, the average twist angle which minimizes the molecule’s free energy. It is found that the chains generally over-twist under an applied stretching and the over-twisting is physically associated to the contraction of the average helix diameter, i.e. to the damping of the base pair fluctuations. Instead, assuming that the maximum amplitude of the bending fluctuations may decrease against the external load, the DNA molecule first over-twists for weak applied forces and then untwists above a characteristic force value. Our results are discussed in relation to available experimental information albeit for kilo-base long molecules.

  12. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Hitomi, Hirofumi, E-mail: hitomi@kms.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Lei, Bai; Nakano, Daisuke [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Deguchi, Kazushi; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu [Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan); Ma, Hong [Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Griendling, Kathy K. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nishiyama, Akira [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Insulin resistance and hypertension have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the roles of insulin and mechanical force in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) remodeling. We investigated the contribution of mechanical stretch to insulin-induced VSMC proliferation. Thymidine incorporation was stimulated by insulin in stretched VSMCs, but not in un-stretched VSMCs. Insulin increased 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation in both stretched and un-stretched VSMCs. Mechanical stretch augmented insulin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt phosphorylation. Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinase and Src attenuated insulin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation, as well as thymidine incorporation, whereas 2-deoxy-glucose incorporation was not affected by these inhibitors. Moreover, stretch augmented insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor expression, although it did not alter the expression of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1. Insulin-induced ERK and Akt activation, and thymidine incorporation were inhibited by siRNA for the IGF-1 receptor. Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via upregulation of IGF-1 receptor, and downstream Src/EGF receptor-mediated ERK and Akt activation. Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor expression was also augmented in hypertensive rats. These results provide a basis for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertensive patients with hyperinsulinemia. -- Highlights: {yields} Mechanical stretch augments insulin-induced VSMC proliferation via IGF-1 receptor. {yields} Src/EGFR-mediated ERK and Akt phosphorylation are augmented in stretched VSMCs. {yields} Similar to in vitro experiment, IGF-1 receptor is increased in hypertensive rats. {yields} Results provide possible mechanisms of vascular remodeling in hypertension with DM.

  13. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF STATIC AND DYNAMIC STRETCHING EXERCISE TO IMPROVE FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLES AMONG NON ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibi Paul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stretching exercises have been routinely used in persons with hamstring tightness and athletes to increase flexibility of muscle and to reduce joint injuries. Many studies have reported effect of static and dynamic stretching on flexibility of this muscle. Finding the best method to improve flexibility of hamstring muscle is important for athletes and individuals to reduce their injuries. Objective of the study was to find out the effect of static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle and also to compare the effect of static and dynamic stretching exercise on flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: This was a comparative experimental study with seventy four female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 37 subjects in each group. Static stretching exercise and dynamic stretching exercise were given as intervention program for four weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of restricted range of movement for knee extension was measured using goniometry and documented separately for both group. Result: In experimental and control group, pre-post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility with P<0.0001, for right and left side. Comparative study between experimental and control group found that static stretching exercise have significant effect in increase of hamstring flexibility for right and left side with P<0.04. Conclusion: This study concluded that static stretching exercise is more effective to improve hamstring flexibility compared to dynamic stretching exercise.

  14. Dynamical Instability and Soliton Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartavenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of dynamical instability and clustering (stable fragments formation) in a breakup of excited nuclear systems are considered from the points of view of the soliton concept. It is noted that the volume (spinodal) instability can be associated with nonlinear terms, and the surface (Rayleigh-Taylor type) instability, with the dispersion terms in the evolution equations. The spinodal instability and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability may compensate each other and lead to stable quasi-soliton type objects. The simple analytical model is presented to illustrate this physical picture. The time evolution of an initially compressed cold nuclear system is analysed in the framework of the inverse mean-field method. It is demonstrated that the nonlinearity and dispersion terms of the evolution equations can lead to clusterization in the final channel. 8 p

  15. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  16. Modification of permeability of frog perineurium to [14C]-sucrose by stretch and hypertonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method has been developed to determine quantitatively the permeability of the perineurium to radiotracers at room temperature. The permeability to [ 14 C]sucrose of the isolated perineurium of the sciatic nerve of the frog, Rana pipiens, was measured at rest length, when the perineurium was stretched and after the perineurium had been subjected to hypertonic treatment. Mean permeability at rest length was calculated to be 5.6 +- 0.27 (S.E.M., n=45)x10 -7 cm/sec, and both stretch and hypertonic treatment increased the permeability. A 10% stretch increased permeability reversibly, whereas a 20% stretch or immersion of the perineurium in a hypertonic bath increased permeability irreversibly. Altered permeability under these conditions might be related to changes in the ultrastructure of tight junctions in the perineurium. (Auth.)

  17. Glass ionomer application for vocal fold augmentation: Histopathological analysis on rabbit vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Sule; Tuzuner, Arzu; Callıoglu, Elif Ersoy; Yumusak, Nihat; Arslan, Necmi; Baltacı, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of glass ionomer cement (GIC) as an injection material for vocal fold augmentation and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Ten adult New Zealand rabbits were used. Under general anesthesia, 0.1-cc GIC was injected to one vocal fold and the augmentation of vocal fold was observed. No injection was applied to the opposite side, which was accepted as the control group. The animals were sacrificed after 3 months and the laryngeal specimens were histopathologically evaluated. The injected and the noninjected control vocal folds were analyzed. The GIC particles were observed in histological sections on the injected side, and no foreign body giant cells, granulomatous inflammation, necrosis, or marked chronic inflammation were detected around the glass ionomer particles. Mild inflammatory reactions were noticed in only two specimens. The noninjected sides of vocal folds were completely normal. The findings of this study suggest that GIC is biocompatible and may be further investigated as an alternative injection material for augmentation of the vocal fold. Further studies are required to examine the viscoelastic properties of GIC and the long-term effects in experimental studies. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. A comparison of two stretching programs for hamstring muscles: A randomized controlled assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, Christophe; Wolfs, Sébastien; Chevalier, Madeline; Granado, Caroline; Grosdent, Stéphanie; Depas, Yannick; Roussel, Nathalie; Hage, Renaud; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Most parameters regarding hamstring flexibility training programs have been investigated; however, the joint (i.e. hip or knee) on which the stretching should preferentially be focused needs to be further explored. This randomized controlled assessor-blinded study aimed to investigate the influence of this parameter. We randomly assigned 111 asymptomatic participants with tight hamstring muscles in three groups: a control group and two groups following a different home-based 8-week (five 10-minute sessions per week) hamstring stretching program (i.e. stretching performed by flexing the hip while keeping the knee extended [SH] or by first flexing the hip with a flexed knee and then extending the knee [SK]). Range of motion (ROM) of hip flexion and knee extension were measured before and after the stretching program by means of the straight leg raising test and the passive knee extension angle test, respectively. Eighty-nine participants completed the study. A significant increase in ROM was observed at post-test. Analyses showed significant group-by-time interactions for changes regarding all outcomes. Whereas the increase in hip flexion and knee extension ROM was higher in the stretching groups than in the CG (especially for the SH group p 0.05). In conclusion, the fact that both stretching programs resulted in similar results suggests no influence of the joint at which the stretching is focused upon, as assessed by the straight leg raising and knee extension angle tests.

  19. PREFACE Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers Protein folding: lessons learned and new frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Rohit V.; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-03-01

    In appropriate physiological milieux proteins spontaneously fold into their functional three-dimensional structures. The amino acid sequences of functional proteins contain all the information necessary to specify the folds. This remarkable observation has spawned research aimed at answering two major questions. (1) Of all the conceivable structures that a protein can adopt, why is the ensemble of native-like structures the most favorable? (2) What are the paths by which proteins manage to robustly and reproducibly fold into their native structures? Anfinsen's thermodynamic hypothesis has guided the pursuit of answers to the first question whereas Levinthal's paradox has influenced the development of models for protein folding dynamics. Decades of work have led to significant advances in the folding problem. Mean-field models have been developed to capture our current, coarse grain understanding of the driving forces for protein folding. These models are being used to predict three-dimensional protein structures from sequence and stability profiles as a function of thermodynamic and chemical perturbations. Impressive strides have also been made in the field of protein design, also known as the inverse folding problem, thereby testing our understanding of the determinants of the fold specificities of different sequences. Early work on protein folding pathways focused on the specific sequence of events that could lead to a simplification of the search process. However, unifying principles proved to be elusive. Proteins that show reversible two-state folding-unfolding transitions turned out to be a gift of natural selection. Focusing on these simple systems helped researchers to uncover general principles regarding the origins of cooperativity in protein folding thermodynamics and kinetics. On the theoretical front, concepts borrowed from polymer physics and the physics of spin glasses led to the development of a framework based on energy landscape theories. These

  20. Simulation of stretch forming with intermediate heat treatments of aircraft skins - A physically based modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; Miroux, Alexis; Wisselink, H.H.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2011-01-01

    In the aerospace industry stretch forming is often used to produce skin parts. During stretch forming a sheet is clamped at two sides and stretched over a die, such that the sheet gets the shape of the die. However for complex shapes it is necessary to use expensive intermediate heat-treatments in

  1. Muscular and stato-kinetic functions rehabilitation by means of subaquatic stretching (hydrostretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltàn Pàsztay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stretching is a physical therapeutical way for maintaining the standard parameters of the body functions from a tender to anadvanced age. The most important parameter that is influenced by the different techniques of stretching, especially byhydrostretching, is flexibility. This article presents the technique and the effects of hydrostretching on human body (onmuscular balance, strength, muscular metabolism and circulation.

  2. Experimental study on the deformation of erythrocytes under optically trapping and stretching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.P.; Li Chuan; Lai, A.C.K.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of erythrocytes is studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, prepared silica microbeads are attached to the surface of spherically swollen erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) at room temperature (25 deg. C). The cells are then stretched by single laser beam via the microbeads. The relation of deformation and stretching force is quantitatively assessed by the image processing of digital pictures. Meanwhile, a physical model for an axisymmetric cell is introduced to study its deformation by different level of stretching force. By comparing the experimental and numerical data, stiffness of the cell membrane can be determined and the optimal values are found to agree with other studies by different techniques such as micropipette aspiration or high frequency electric field

  3. Anomalies in the coil-stretch transition of flexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Aishani; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2018-03-01

    The flow-induced coil-stretch transition of high molecular weight polymers has generally been held to be of first order. But evidence of significant slowing down in the rate at which the polymers relax to equilibrium in the vicinity of the transition suggests that the thermodynamic character of the transition may be less clear-cut. The above slowing down effect is actually characteristic of a second-order transition, and it points to the existence of a broad spectrum of conformational states in the transition region, analogous to the existence of fluctuations of all length scales at a critical point. In this paper, using a path integral approach based on a free-draining finitely extensible chain model, we calculate various polymer properties as a function of elongational flow as a way of exploring different statistical mechanical details of the coil-stretch transition. These properties include the molecular weight dependence of the flow-extension curve of the polymer, the distribution of its steady-state end-to-end distances, and the characteristic relaxation time τR of these distances. Among other findings, our calculations indicate that the coil-stretch transition is discontinuous in the N → ∞ limit, that the effective free energy of the chain is unimodal at all values of the flow, becoming broad and flat in the immediate vicinity of the transition, and that the ratio of τR to the Rouse relaxation time increases abruptly at the transition before eventually reaching a plateau value at large flow strengths. These aspects of the coil-stretch transition place it among a larger class of unconventional nominally first-order single chain transitions that include the adsorption transition of surface-tethered polymers and the escape transition of compressed polymers.

  4. Influence of UV and Gamma radiations on the induced birefringence of stretched poly(vinyl) alcohol foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechifor, Cristina-Delia; Zelinschi, Carmen Beatrice; Dorohoi, Dana-Ortansa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of our paper is to evidence the influence of Gamma and UV radiations on the induced birefringence of poly(vinyl alcohol) stretched foils. Thin foils of PVA were prepared and dried without modifying their surfaces. The polymeric foils were irradiated from 15 min to 6 h using UV and Gamma radiations. The induced by stretching under heating birefringence of PVA films was measured at λ = 589.3 nm with a Babinet Compensator. Physico-chemical processes (photo stabilization, photo degradation, oxidation) induced by irradiation of polymer matrix influence both the stretching degree and the anisotropy of etired foils. An increase of birefringence versus the stretching ratio of the PVA foils was evidenced for all studied samples. The dependence of the birefringence on the exposure time, stretching ratio and nature of radiation was also confirmed.

  5. Hyperglycemia Augments the Adipogenic Transdifferentiation Potential of Tenocytes and Is Alleviated by Cyclic Mechanical Stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Fu; Huang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Chao, Yuan-Hung

    2017-12-28

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with damage to tendons, which may result from cellular dysfunction in response to a hyperglycemic environment. Tenocytes express diminished levels of tendon-associated genes under hyperglycemic conditions. In contrast, mechanical stretch enhances tenogenic differentiation. However, whether hyperglycemia increases the non-tenogenic differentiation potential of tenocytes and whether this can be mitigated by mechanical stretch remains elusive. We explored the in vitro effects of high glucose and mechanical stretch on rat primary tenocytes. Specifically, non-tenogenic gene expression, adipogenic potential, cell migration rate, filamentous actin expression, and the activation of signaling pathways were analyzed in tenocytes treated with high glucose, followed by the presence or absence of mechanical stretch. We analyzed tenocyte phenotype in vivo by immunohistochemistry using an STZ (streptozotocin)-induced long-term diabetic mouse model. High glucose-treated tenocytes expressed higher levels of the adipogenic transcription factors PPAR γ and C/EBPs. PPARγ was also highly expressed in diabetic tendons. In addition, increased adipogenic differentiation and decreased cell migration induced by high glucose implicated a fibroblast-to-adipocyte phenotypic change. By applying mechanical stretch to tenocytes in high-glucose conditions, adipogenic differentiation was repressed, while cell motility was enhanced, and fibroblastic morphology and gene expression profiles were strengthened. In part, these effects resulted from a stretch-induced activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and a concomitant inactivation of Akt. Our results show that mechanical stretch alleviates the augmented adipogenic transdifferentiation potential of high glucose-treated tenocytes and helps maintain their fibroblastic characteristics. The alterations induced by high glucose highlight possible pathological mechanisms for diabetic tendinopathy

  6. Tail modeling in a stretched magnetosphere 1. Methods and transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is developed for representing the magnetospheric field B as a distorted dipole field. Because delxB = 0 must be maintained,such a distortion may be viewed as a transformation of the vector potential A. The simplest form is a one-dimensional ''stretch transformation'' along the x axis, a generalization of a method introduced by Voigt. The transformation is concisely represented by the ''stretch function'' f(x), which is also a convenient tool for representing features of the substorm cycle. Onedimensional stretch transformations are extended to spherical, cylindrical, and parabolic coordinates and then to arbitrary coordinates. It is next shown that distortion transformations can be viewed as mappings of field lines from one pattern to another: Euler potentials are used in the derivation, but the final result only requires knowledge of the field and not of the potentials. General transformations in Cartesian and arbitrary coordinates are then derived,and applications to field modeling, field line motion, MHD modeling, and incompressible fluid dynamics are considered. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  7. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions

  8. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  9. Character of decay instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute

  10. Prediction of Ductile Failure in the Stretch-Forming of AA2024 Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallellano, C.; Guzman, C.; Garcia-Lomas, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    A number of ductile failure criteria are nowadays being used to predict the formability of aluminium alloy sheets. Generally speaking, integral criteria (e.g. those proposed by Cockcroft and Latham, Brozzo et al., Oyane et al Chaouadi et al., etc.) have been probed to work well when the principal strains are of opposite sign, i.e. in the left side of the Forming Limit Diagram (FLD). However, when tensile biaxial strains are present, as occurs in stretch-forming practice, their predictions are usually very poor and even non-conservatives. As an alternative, local criteria, such as the classical Tresca's and Bressan and Williams' criteria, have demonstrated a good capability to predict the failure in some automotive aluminum alloys under stretching. The present work analyses experimentally and numerically the failure in AA2024-T3 sheets subjected to biaxial stretching. A series of out-of-plane stretching tests have been simulated using ABAQUS. The experimental and the numerical FLD for different failure criteria are compared. The influence on the failure of the hydrostatic pressure and the normal stress to the fracture plane is also discussed

  11. A Novel Stretch Sensor to Measure Venous Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrpailyne Wankhar

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic venous insufficiency is a debilitating condition causing varicose veins and venous ulcers. The pathophysiology includes reflux and venous obstruction. The diagnosis is often made by clinical examination and confirmed by Venous Doppler studies. Plethysmography helps to quantitatively examine the reflux and diagnose the burden of deep venous pathology to better understand venous hemodynamics, which is not elicited by venous duplex examination alone. However, most of these tests are qualitative, expensive, and not easily available. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential use of a novel stretch sensor in the assessment of venous hemodynamics during different maneuvers by measuring the change in calf circumference. We designed the stretch sensor by using semiconductor strain gauges pasted onto a small metal bar to form a load cell. The elastic and Velcro material attached to the load cell form a belt. It converts the change in limb circumference to a proportional tension (force of distension when placed around the calf muscle. We recorded the change in limb circumference from arrays of stretch sensors by using an in-house data acquisition system. We calculated the venous volume (VV, venous filling index (VFI, ejection fraction (EF and residual venous volume (RVV on two normal subjects and on two patients to assess venous hemodynamics. The values (VV > 60 ml, VFI 60%, RVV 2ml/s, EF 35% in patients were comparable to those reported in the literature.

  12. Acute effect of different time periods of passive static stretching on the hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Anelize; de Vasconcelos, Gabriela Souza; Lima, Claudia Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several factors are associated with the presence of chronic low back pain; one of them is the flexibility of the hamstring muscles that influences the posture of the pelvic spine. Investigate the influence of two different time periods of passive static stretching on the flexibility of the hamstring. Forty-six physiotherapy students were divided into two groups performing stretching exercises: 30 s and 60 s duration. The collections consisted of: (1) pre-test: evaluation of the flexibility of the hip and knee, using a manual goniometer by means of the following tests: Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR), Passive Hip Flexion Test (PHFT) and Modified Knee Extension Test (MKET), (2) intervention: stretching with different runtimes, (3) post-test: reappraisal of flexibility, conducted immediately after the intervention. Significant difference was observed intra groups, group that did stretching exercises lasting 30 seconds (G30) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.003 and MKET p = 0.000) and group that did stretching exercises lasting 60 seconds (G60) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.001 and MKET p = 0.002). Comparing the groups, no significant difference was found (SLR p = 0.307; PHFT p = 0.904; MKET p = 0.132). Thus it can be inferred that 30 seconds are sufficient for increased flexibility of young women. Therefore the time-treatment sessions can be optimized. Only the acute effect of stretching was observed; further investigation of the long-term effect is required.

  13. Hemodynamic responses during and after multiple sets of stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tainah P; Farinatti, Paulo T V; Rubini, Ercole C; Silva, Elirez B; Monteiro, Walace D

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the acute hemodynamic responses to multiple sets of passive stretching exercises performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. Fifteen healthy men aged 21 to 29 years with poor flexibility performed stretching protocols comprising 10 sets of maximal passive unilateral hip flexion, sustained for 30 seconds with equal intervals between sets. Protocols without and with the Valsalva maneuver were applied in a random counterbalanced order, separated by 48-hour intervals. Hemodynamic responses were measured by photoplethysmography pre-exercise, during the stretching sets, and post-exercise. The effects of stretching sets on systolic and diastolic blood pressure were cumulative until the fourth set in protocols performed with and without the Valsalva maneuver. The heart rate and rate pressure product increased in both protocols, but no additive effect was observed due to the number of sets. Hemodynamic responses were always higher when stretching was performed with the Valsalva maneuver, causing an additional elevation in the rate pressure product. Multiple sets of unilateral hip flexion stretching significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product values. A cumulative effect of the number of sets occurred only for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, at least in the initial sets of the stretching protocols. The performance of the Valsalva maneuver intensified all hemodynamic responses, which resulted in significant increases in cardiac work during stretching exercises.

  14. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with convective boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2016 physics pp. 3–17. Stretched flow of Carreau nanofluid with ... fluid over a flat plate subjected to convective surface condition. ... the steady laminar boundary layer flow over a permeable plate with a convective boundary.

  15. The passive hamstring stretch test: clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, J W

    1979-03-28

    The passive hamstring stretch test is described. Using a modified goniometer it is shown that independent measurements taken by trained examiners approximate very closely to each other. This establishes the test as a valid objective measurement. The possible value of this test as a research tool in low back pain problems is discussed.

  16. Alternative splicing and expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene in osteoblasts under mechanical stretch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Chengyu; WANG Yuanliang; ZHANG Bingbing; TANG Liling; PAN Jun; LUO Yanfeng; JIANG Peng; LI Dajun

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation,and its expression is induced by mechanical stretch,thus IGF-1 has been considered an effector molecule that links mechanical stimulation and local tissue responses. In this study, a mechanical stretching device was designed to apply physiological level static or cyclic stretching stimulation to osteoblasts.Different isoforms of IGF-1 mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from the cells using respective primers and these amplified products were sequenced. An isoform of IGF-1 splicing product was found to be selectively produced by osteoblasts under stretching stimulation. This IGF-1 isoform had identical sequence with the mechano growth factor (MGF) which was originally identified in muscle cells. Regulations of the expression of the liver-type IGF (L.IGF-1) and MGF in osteoblasts under stretch stimulation were further studied using semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Stretch stimulation was found to promot the expression of IGF-1 (L.IGF-1 and MGF), and for both isoforms expression was more effectively stimulated by cyclic stretch than static stretch. MGF was detected only in osteoblasts subjected to mechanical stretch,suggesting MGF was a stretch sensitive growth factor.Expression of MGF peaked earlier than that of L.IGF-1, which was similar to their regulation in muscie and suggested similar roles of MGF and L.IGF-1in bone as in muscle cells. The functions of MGF and L.IGF-1 in osteoblasts shall be established by further experimental studies.

  17. A study of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic heart valves using a novel biaxial stretch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Masjedi, Shirin; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2017-11-01

    In aortic valves, biaxial cyclic stretch is known to modulate cell differentiation, extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and organization. We designed a novel bioreactor that can apply independent and precise stretch along radial and circumferential directions in a tissue culture environment. While this bioreactor can be used for either native or engineered tissues, this study determined matrix remodeling and strain distribution of aortic cusps after culturing under biaxial stretch for 14 days. The contents of collagen and glycosaminoglycans were determined using standard biochemical assays and compared with fresh controls. Strain fields in static cusps were more uniform than those in stretched cusps, which indicated degradation of the ECM fibers. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly elevated in the static control as compared to fresh or stretched cusps, but no difference was observed in collagen content among the groups. The strain profile of freshly isolated fibrosa vs. ventricularis and left, right, and noncoronary cusps were also determined by Digital Image Correlation technique. Distinct strain patterns were observed under stretch on fibrosa and ventricularis sides and among the three cusps. This work highlights the critical role of the anisotropic ECM structure for proper functions of native aortic valves and the beneficial effects of biaxial stretch for maintenance of the native ECM structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  19. History of shoulder instability surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman

    2016-02-01

    The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.

  20. Ionospheric modification and parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fejer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Thresholds and linear growth rates for stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering and for the parametric decay instability are derived by using arguments of energy transfer. For this purpose an expression for the ponderomotive force is derived. Conditions under which the partial pressure force due to differential dissipation exceeds the ponderomotive force are also discussed. Stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are weakly excited by existing incoherent backscatter radars. The parametric decay instability is strongly excited in ionospheric heating experiments. Saturation theories of the parametric decay instability are therefore described. After a brief discussion of the purely growing instability the effect of using several pumps is discussed as well as the effects of inhomogenicity. Turning to detailed theories of ionospheric heating, artificial spread F is discussed in terms of a purely growing instability where the nonlinearity is due to dissipation. Field-aligned short-scale striations are explained in terms of dissipation of the parametrically excited Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations): they might be further amplified by an explosive instability (except the magnetic equator). Broadband absorption is probably responsible for the 'overshoot' effect: the initially observed level of parametrically excited Langmuir waves is much higher than the steady state level

  1. STRETCHING EXERCISES - EFFECT ON PASSIVE EXTENSIBILITY AND STIFFNESS IN SHORT HAMSTRINGS OF HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HALBERTSMA, JPK; GOEKEN, LNH

    Passive muscle stretch tests are common practice in physical therapy and rehabilitation medicine. However, the effects of stretching exercises are not well known. With an instrumental straight-leg-raising set-up the extensibility, stiffness, and electromyographic activity of the hamstring muscles

  2. Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: gorji@ipm.ir, E-mail: shosseini@shahroodut.ac.ir, E-mail: shossein@ipm.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, P.O. Box 3619995161 Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.

  3. Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D.; Simons, P.; Kuchta, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI

  4. Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))

    2009-04-15

    We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.

  5. Quantification of fold growth of frontal antiforms in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretis, Bernhard; Bartl, Nikolaus; Graseman, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros fold and thrust belt is a seismically active orogen, where actual kinematic models based on GPS networks suggest a north-south shortening between Arabian and Eurasian in the order of 1.5-2.5 cm/yr. Most of this deformation is partitioned in south-southwest oriented folding and thrusting with northwest-southeast to north-south trending dextral strike slip faults. The Zagros fold and thrust belt is of great economic interest because it has been estimated that this area contains about 15% of the global recoverable hydrocarbons. Whereas the SE parts of the Zagros have been investigated by detailed geological studies, the NW extent being part of the Republic of Iraq have experienced considerably less attention. In this study we combine field work and remote sensing techniques in order to investigate the interaction of erosion and fold growth in the area NE of Erbil (Kurdistan, Iraq). In particular we focus on the interaction of the transient development of drainage patterns along growing antiforms, which directly reflects the kinematics of progressive fold growth. Detailed geomorphological studies of the Bana Bawi-, Permam- and Safeen fold trains show that these anticlines have not developed from subcylindrical embryonic folds but they have merged from different fold segments that joined laterally during fold amplification. This fold segments with length between 5 and 25 km have been detected by mapping ancient and modern river courses that initially cut the nose of growing folds and eventually got defeated leaving behind a wind gap. Fold segments, propagating in different directions force rivers to join resulting in steep gorges, which dissect the merging fold noses. Along rapidly lateral growing folds (e.g. at the SE end of the Bana Bawi Anticline) we observed "curved wind gaps", a new type of abandoned river course, where form of the wind gap mimics a formed nose of a growing antiform. The inherited curved segments of uplifted curved river courses strongly

  6. Feedback stabilization of plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cap, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the theoretical and experimental aspects of feedback stabilization. After giving an outline of a general theoretical model for electrostatic instabilities the author provides a theoretical analysis of the suppression of various types of instability. Experiments which have been carried out on the feedback stabilization of various types of plasma instability are reported. An extensive list of references is given. (B.R.H.)

  7. Comparison of the effects of local cryotherapy and passive cross-body stretch on extensibility in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Choung, Sung-Dae; Kim, Si-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA) using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort. Key PointsLocal cryotherapy (LC) decreased the

  8. Calcineurin /NFAT activation-dependence of leptin synthesis and vascular growth in response to mechanical stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Soudani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims- Hypertension and obesity are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease. They are both associated with high leptin levels and have been shown to promote vascular hypertrophy, through the RhoA/ROCK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Calcineurin/NFAT activation also induces vascular hypertrophy by upregulating various genes. This study aimed to decipher whether a crosstalk exists between the RhoA/ROCK pathway, Ca+2/calcineurin/NFAT pathway, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the process of mechanical stretch-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC hypertrophy and leptin synthesis. Methods and Results- Rat portal vein (RPV organ culture was used to investigate the effect of mechanical stretch and exogenous leptin (3.1 nM on VSMC hypertrophy and leptin synthesis. Results showed that stretching the RPV significantly upregulated leptin secretion, mRNA and protein expression, which were inhibited by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine (10 μM, the selective calcineurin inhibitor FK506 (1 nM and the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (1 μM. The transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (0.1M and the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (1 mM significantly decreased stretch-induced leptin protein expression. Mechanical stretch or leptin caused an increase in wet weight changes and protein synthesis, considered as hypertrophic markers, while they were inhibited by FK506 (0.1 nM; 1 nM. In addition, stretch or exogenous leptin significantly increased calcineurin activity and MCIP1 expression whereas leptin induced NFAT nuclear translocation in VSMCs. Moreover, in response to stretch or exogenous leptin, the Rho inhibitor C3 exoenzyme (30 ng/mL, the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 (10 μM, and the actin depolymerization agents Latrunculin B (50 nM and cytochalasin D (1 μM reduced calcineurin activation and NFAT nuclear translocation. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited by FK506 and C3. Conclusions- Mechanical stretch-induced VSMC hypertrophy and leptin

  9. A mutation in the centriole-associated protein centrin causes genomic instability via increased chromosome loss in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Wallace F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of centrioles in mitotic spindle function remains unclear. One approach to investigate mitotic centriole function is to ask whether mutation of centriole-associated proteins can cause genomic instability. Results We addressed the role of the centriole-associated EF-hand protein centrin in genomic stability using a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin mutant that forms acentriolar bipolar spindles and lacks the centrin-based rhizoplast structures that join centrioles to the nucleus. Using a genetic assay for loss of heterozygosity, we found that this centrin mutant showed increased genomic instability compared to wild-type cells, and we determined that the increase in genomic instability was due to a 100-fold increase in chromosome loss rates compared to wild type. Live cell imaging reveals an increased rate in cell death during G1 in haploid cells that is consistent with an elevated rate of chromosome loss, and analysis of cell death versus centriole copy number argues against a role for multipolar spindles in this process. Conclusion The increased chromosome loss rates observed in a centrin mutant that forms acentriolar spindles suggests a role for centrin protein, and possibly centrioles, in mitotic fidelity.

  10. Multifragmentation: Surface instabilities or statistical decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Delis, D.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1992-11-01

    Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations show multifragmentation that seems to originate from surface instabilities. These instabilities are traced to a sheet instability caused by the proximity interaction. Experimental data, on the other hand, suggest that multifragmentation may be dominated by phase space

  11. The effects of ramp stretches on active contractions in intact mammalian fast and slow muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, G; Ranatunga, K W

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a ramp stretch (amplitude muscle fibre length (L0), speed twitch tension and twitch tension re-development were examined in intact mammalian (rat) fast and slow muscle fibre bundles. The experiments were done in vitro at 20 degrees C and at an initial sarcomere length of 2.68 microm. In both fibre types, a stretch applied during the rising phase of the twitch response (including the time of stimulation) increased the re-developed twitch tension (15-35%). A stretch applied before the stimulus had little or no effect on the twitch myogram in fast muscle fibres, but it increased the twitch tension (approximately 5%) in slow muscle fibres. A similar stretch had little or no effect on tetanic tension in either muscle fibre type. In general, the results indicate that the contractile-activation mechanism may be stretch sensitive and this is particularly pronounced in slow muscle fibres. Recorded at a high sampling rate and examined at an appropriate time scale, the transitory tension response to a stretch rose in at least two phases; an initial rapid tension rise to a break (break point tension, P1a) followed by a slower tension rise (apparent P2a) to a peak reached at the end of the stretch. Plotted against stretch velocity, P1a tension increased in direct proportion to stretch velocity (viscous-like) whereas, P2a tension (calculated as peak tension minus P1a tension) increased with stretch velocity to a plateau (visco-elastic). Examined at the peak of a twitch, P1a tension had a slope (viscosity coefficient) of 1.8 kN m(-2) per L0 s(-1) in fast fibres and 4.7 kN m(-2) per L0 s(-1) in slow muscle fibres. In the same preparations, P2a tension had a relaxation time of 8 ms in the fast muscle fibres and 25 ms in the slow muscle fibres. The amplitudes of both tension components scaled with the instantaneous twitch tension in qualitatively the same way as the instantaneous fibre stiffness. These fast/slow fibre type differences probably reflect differences in

  12. Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Stafilidis, S; Tilp, M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. On MHD nonlinear stretching flow of Powell–Eyring nanomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of Powell–Eyring nanomaterial bounded by a nonlinear stretching sheet. Novel features regarding thermophoresis and Brownian motion are taken into consideration. Powell–Eyring fluid is electrically conducted subject to non-uniform applied magnetic field. Assumptions of small magnetic Reynolds number and boundary layer approximation are employed in the mathematical development. Zero nanoparticles mass flux condition at the sheet is selected. Adequate transformation yield nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The developed nonlinear systems have been computed through the homotopic approach. Effects of different pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration fields are studied and analyzed. Further numerical data of skin friction and heat transfer rate is also tabulated and interpreted. Keywords: Powell–Eyring fluid, Magnetohydrodynamics, Nanomaterial, Nonlinear stretching surface

  14. Neutron star pulsations and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, L.

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational radiation (GR) drives an instability in certain modes of rotating stars. This instability is strong enough in the case of the r-modes to cause their amplitudes to grow on a timescale of tens of seconds in rapidly rotating neutron stars. GR emitted by these modes removes angular momentum from the star at a rate which would spin it down to a relatively small angular velocity within about one year, if the dimensionless amplitude of the mode grows to order unity. A pedagogical level discussion is given here on the mechanism of GR instability in rotating stars, on the relevant properties of the r-modes, and on our present understanding of the dissipation mechanisms that tend to suppress this instability in neutron stars. The astrophysical implications of this GR driven instability are discussed for young neutron stars, and for older systems such as low mass x-ray binaries. Recent work on the non-linear evolution of the r-modes is also presented. (author)

  15. Multifragmentation: surface instabilities or statistical decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Delis, D.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov calculations show multifragmentation that seems to originate from surface instabilities. These instabilities are traced to a sheet instability caused by the proximity interaction. Experimental data, on the other hand, suggest that multifragmentation may be dominated by phase space. (author)

  16. Dynamic ultrasound of peroneal tendon instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lionel; Guillo, Stéphane; Poussange, Nicolas; Pele, Eric; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudière, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Ankle snapping may be caused by peroneal tendon instability. Anterior instability occurs after traumatic superior peroneal retinaculum injury, whereas peroneal tendon intrasheath subluxation is atraumatic. Whereas subluxation is mainly dynamic, ultrasound allows for the diagnosis and classification of peroneal instability because it allows for real-time exploration. The purpose of this review is to describe the anatomic and physiologic bases for peroneal instability and to heighten the role of dynamic ultrasound in the diagnosis of snapping.

  17. Collective instabilities of self-gravitating systems, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Takahara, Fumio; Ikeuchi, Satoru

    1975-01-01

    The instability modes of rotating self-gravitating systems are investigated on the assumption of infinitely long cylinder. The systems under consideration are a collisionless stellar system with anisotropic velocity dispersion and a gaseous system with anisotropic pressure. In the collisionless stellar system, the Jeans instability mode and the Harris instability mode exist. The dispersion relation is solved numerically and the following results are obtained: the Harris instability occurs even in the region where Wu did not treat, and although its growth rate amounts to the order of angular velocity of the system for sufficient anisotropy, the Harris instability always accompanies the Jeans instability and the latter is always greater than the former in growth rate. In the gaseous system exist the Jeans instability mode and a certain overstable mode, which are different from the Harris instability mode. It is shown that the overstable mode occurs due to coupling of modes. In relation to these results, some problems in galactic structure are discussed. (auth.)

  18. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  19. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-09

    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.

  20. Genomic instability and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian Streffer

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Cancer, genetic mutations and developmental abnormalities are apparently associated with an increased genomic instability. Such phenomena have been frequently shown in human cancer cells in vitro and in situ. It is also well-known that individuals with a genetic predisposition for cancer proneness, such as ataxia telangiectesia, Fanconi anaemia etc. demonstrate a general high genomic instability e.g. in peripheral lymphocytes before a cancer has developed. Analogous data have been found in mice which develop a specific congenital malformation which has a genetic background. Under these aspects it is of high interest that ionising radiation can increase the genomic instability of mammalian cells after exposures in vitro an in vivo. This phenomenon is expressed 20 to 40 cell cycles after the exposure e.g. by de novo chromosomal aberrations. Such effects have been observed with high and low LET radiation, high LET radiation is more efficient. With low LET radiation a good dose response is observed in the dose range 0.2 to 2.0 Gy, Recently it has been reported that senescence and genomic instability was induced in human fibroblasts after 1 mGy carbon ions (1 in 18 cells are hit), apparently bystander effects also occurred under these conditions. The instability has been shown with DNA damage, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutation and cell death. It is also transferred to the next generation of mice with respect to gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations and congenital malformations. Several mechanisms have been discussed. The involvement of telomeres has gained interest. Genomic instability seems to be induced by a general lesion to the whole genome. The transmission of one chromosome from an irradiated cell to an non-irradiated cell leads to genomic instability in the untreated cells. Genomic instability increases mutation rates in the affected cells in general. As radiation late effects (cancer, gene mutations and congenital

  1. A Novel Non-Planar Transverse Stretching Process for Micro-Porous PTFE Membranes and Resulting Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, S.-C.; Wang, T.-J.; Guo, J.

    2018-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-porous membranes were prepared from PTFE fine powder through extruding, rolling, and uniaxial longitudinally stretching. In contrast to conventional planar transverse stretching, a novel 3D mold design of non

  2. Monorail snare technique for the recovery of stretched platinum coils: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, David; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Deshmukh, Vivek R; McDougall, Cameron G

    2005-07-01

    Coil stretching represents a potentially hazardous technical complication not infrequently encountered during the embolization of cerebral aneurysms. Often, the stretched coil cannot be advanced into the aneurysm or withdrawn intact. The operator is then forced to attempt to retract the damaged coil, which may result in coil breakage, leaving behind a significant length of potentially thrombogenic stretched coil material within the parent vessel. To overcome this problem, we devised a technique to snare the distal, unstretched, intact portion of the platinum coil by use of the indwelling microcatheter and stretched portion of the coil as a monorail guide. We have used this technique successfully in four patients to snare coils stretched during cerebral aneurysm embolization. Three of these patients were undergoing Neuroform (Boston Scientific/Target, Fremont, CA) stent-supported coil embolization of unruptured aneurysms. In all cases, the snare was advanced easily to the targeted site for coil engagement by use of the microcatheter as a monorail guide. Once the intact distal segment of the coil was ensnared, coil removal was uneventful, with no disturbance of the remainder of the indwelling coil pack or Neuroform stent. A 2-mm Amplatz Goose Neck microsnare (Microvena Corp., White Bear Lake, MN) was placed through a Prowler-14 microcatheter (Cordis Corp., Miami, FL). The hub of the indwelling SL-10 microcatheter (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) was then cut away with a scalpel, leaving the coil pusher wire intact, and removed. The open 2-mm snare was then advanced over the outside of the coil pusher wire and microcatheter. The snare and Prowler-14 microcatheter were then advanced into the guiding catheter (6- or 7-French) as a unit over the indwelling SL-10 microcatheter. By use of the SL-10 microcatheter and coil as a "monorail" guide, the snare was advanced over and beyond the microcatheter and the stretched portion of the coil until the snare was in position to

  3. Cation-induced folding of alginate-bearing bilayer gels: an unusual example of spontaneous folding along the long axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athas, Jasmin C; Nguyen, Catherine P; Kummar, Shailaa; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2018-04-04

    The spontaneous folding of flat gel films into tubes is an interesting example of self-assembly. Typically, a rectangular film folds along its short axis when forming a tube; folding along the long axis has been seen only in rare instances when the film is constrained. Here, we report a case where the same free-swelling gel film folds along either its long or short axis depending on the concentration of a solute. Our gels are sandwiches (bilayers) of two layers: a passive layer of cross-linked N,N'-dimethylyacrylamide (DMAA) and an active layer of cross-linked DMAA that also contains chains of the biopolymer alginate. Multivalent cations like Ca2+ and Cu2+ induce these bilayer gels to fold into tubes. The folding occurs instantly when a flat film of the gel is introduced into a solution of these cations. The likely cause for folding is that the active layer stiffens and shrinks (because the alginate chains in it get cross-linked by the cations) whereas the passive layer is unaffected. The resulting mismatch in swelling degree between the two layers creates internal stresses that drive folding. Cations that are incapable of cross-linking alginate, such as Na+ and Mg2+, do not induce gel folding. Moreover, the striking aspect is the direction of folding. When the Ca2+ concentration is high (100 mM or higher), the gels fold along their long axis, whereas when the Ca2+ concentration is low (40 to 80 mM), the gels fold along their short axis. We hypothesize that the folding axis is dictated by the inhomogeneous nature of alginate-cation cross-linking, i.e., that the edges get cross-linked before the faces of the gel. At high Ca2+ concentration, the stiffer edges constrain the folding; in turn, the gel folds such that the longer edges are deformed less, which explains the folding along the long axis. At low Ca2+ concentration, the edges and the faces of the gel are more similar in their degree of cross-linking; therefore, the gel folds along its short axis. An analogy

  4. Assessing the stretch-blow moulding FE simulation of PET over a large process window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G. H.; Yan, S.

    2017-10-01

    Injection stretch blow moulding has been extensively researched for numerous years and is a well-established method of forming thin-walled containers. This paper is concerned with validating the finite element analysis of the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process in an effort to progress the development of injection stretch blow moulding of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Extensive data was obtained experimentally over a wide process window accounting for material temperature, air flow rate and stretch-rod speed while capturing cavity pressure, stretch-rod reaction force, in-mould contact timing and material thickness distribution. This data was then used to assess the accuracy of the correlating FE simulation constructed using ABAQUS/Explicit solver and an appropriate user-defined viscoelastic material subroutine. Results reveal that the simulation was able to pick up the general trends of how the pressure, reaction force and in-mould contact timings vary with the variation in preform temperature and air flow rate. Trends in material thickness were also accurately predicted over the length of the bottle relative to the process conditions. The knowledge gained from these analyses provides insight into the mechanisms of bottle formation, subsequently improving the blow moulding simulation and potentially providing a reduction in production costs.

  5. A workplace stretching program. Physiologic and perception measurements before and after participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T M

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a primary prevention program in the workplace targeted to prevent muscle strains. Physiologic and perception measurements were taken before and after participation in a stretching program developed to improve flexibility through conditioning. A one group pre-test post-test design was used with 60 employees enrolled in a 36 session stretching program in the workplace. Flexibility was measured by a flexibility profile including the sit and reach test, bilateral body rotation measurements, and shoulder rotation measurements. A statistically significant increase was found in all flexibility measurements at the conclusion of the study for the participants as a total group. Perception, as measured by the Fox Physical Self Perception Profile, was statistically significant in relation to participants' perceptions of their body attractiveness, physical conditioning, and overall self worth at the program's conclusion. In addition, participants who completed the program had zero occurrences of musculoskeletal injuries during the 2 month period. The results of this study suggest that continued development and implementation of stretching programs in the workplace may benefit employees by increasing flexibility and potentially preventing injuries due to muscle strains. Stretching programs in the workplace also may improve components of employees' perceptions of their physical bodies.

  6. Fibril orientation redistribution induced by stretching of cellulose nanofibril hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josefsson, Gabriella; Gamstedt, E. Kristofer; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Mushi, Ngesa Ezekiel

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical performance of materials reinforced by cellulose nanofibrils is highly affected by the orientation of these fibrils. This paper investigates the nanofibril orientation distribution of films of partly oriented cellulose nanofibrils. Stripes of hydrogel films were subjected to different amount of strain and, after drying, examined with X-ray diffraction to obtain the orientation of the nanofibrils in the films, caused by the stretching. The cellulose nanofibrils had initially a random in-plane orientation in the hydrogel films and the strain was applied to the films before the nanofibrils bond tightly together, which occurs during drying. The stretching resulted in a reorientation of the nanofibrils in the films, with monotonically increasing orientation towards the load direction with increasing strain. Estimation of nanofibril reorientation by X-ray diffraction enables quantitative comparison of the stretch-induced orientation ability of different cellulose nanofibril systems. The reorientation of nanofibrils as a consequence of an applied strain is also predicted by a geometrical model of deformation of nanofibril hydrogels. Conversely, in high-strain cold-drawing of wet cellulose nanofibril materials, the enhanced orientation is promoted by slipping of the effectively stiff fibrils

  7. Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.

  8. Voz e posição de prega vocal em homens com paralisia unilateral de prega vocal Voice and vocal fold position in men with unilateral vocal fold paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schwarz

    2011-12-01

    was found in the paramedian position in 45.83% of the cases; in the intermediary position in 25%; lateral in 20.83%, and it was in the median position in 4.16%; the dysphonia resulting from the UVFP was characterized by moderate hoarseness, roughness and stress in the voice; breathiness (most had severe breathiness; weakness and instability(mostly mild; the position of the paralyzed vocal fold had a significant influence on the general degree of vocal deviation. CONCLUSION: The general degree of dysphonia is associated with the paralyzed vocal fold position; dysphonia is characterized by hoarseness, breathiness, roughness and stress of moderate to severe levels.

  9. Spherical images and inextensible curved folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffen, Keith A.

    2018-02-01

    In their study, Duncan and Duncan [Proc. R. Soc. London A 383, 191 (1982), 10.1098/rspa.1982.0126] calculate the shape of an inextensible surface folded in two about a general curve. They find the analytical relationships between pairs of generators linked across the fold curve, the shape of the original path, and the fold angle variation along it. They present two special cases of generator layouts for which the fold angle is uniform or the folded curve remains planar, for simplifying practical folding in sheet-metal processes. We verify their special cases by a graphical treatment according to a method of Gauss. We replace the fold curve by a piecewise linear path, which connects vertices of intersecting pairs of hinge lines. Inspired by the d-cone analysis by Farmer and Calladine [Int. J. Mech. Sci. 47, 509 (2005), 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2005.02.013], we construct the spherical images for developable folding of successive vertices: the operating conditions of the special cases in Duncan and Duncan are then revealed straightforwardly by the geometric relationships between the images. Our approach may be used to synthesize folding patterns for novel deployable and shape-changing surfaces without need of complex calculation.

  10. Origin of the blue shift of the CH stretching band for 2-butoxyethanol in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Keiichi

    2006-07-26

    The blue shift of the isolated CD stretching band of 2-butoxyethanol (C4E1), which is observed for the aqueous solution during the dilution process, has been investigated by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Mono-deuterium-labeled C4E1's were employed to remove the severe overlapping among the CH stretching bands. The isolated CD stretching mode of the alpha-methylene in the butoxy group shows a large blue shift, while those of the beta-methylene and methyl groups are not largely shifted. The spectral simulation results for the C4E1/H2O complexes indicate that the large blue shift of the CD stretching band of the butoxy group arises mainly from the hydration of the ether oxygen atom.

  11. Thermal Shrinkage for Shoulder Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Alison P.; Warren, Russell F.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Doward, David A.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Altchek, David W.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal capsular shrinkage was popular for the treatment of shoulder instability, despite a paucity of outcomes data in the literature defining the indications for this procedure or supporting its long-term efficacy. The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical evaluation of radiofrequency thermal capsular shrinkage for the treatment of shoulder instability, with a minimum 2-year follow-up. From 1999 to 2001, 101 consecutive patients with mild to moderate shoulder instability underwent...

  12. Tibialis anterior stretch reflex in early stance is suppressed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuur, Abraham T; Christensen, Mark Schram; Sinkjær, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A rapid plantar flexion perturbation in the early stance phase of walking elicits a large stretch reflex in tibialis anterior (TA). In this study we use repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to test if this response is mediated through a transcortical pathway. TA stretch...

  13. Stretched exponential distributions in Nature and Economy: ``Fat tails'' with characteristic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Laherrère, Jean; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    To account quantitatively for many reported ``natural'' fat tail distributions in Nature and Economy, we propose the stretched exponential family as a complement to the often used power law distributions. It has many advantages, among which to be economical with only two adjustable parameters with clear physical interpretation. Furthermore, it derives from a simple and generic mechanism in terms of multiplicative processes. We show that stretched exponentials describe very well the distributi...

  14. Transient photoresponse in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films under stretched exponential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiajun; Adler, Alexander U.; Mason, Thomas O.; Bruce Buchholz, D.; Chang, R. P. H.; Grayson, M.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated transient photoresponse and Hall effect in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films and observed a stretched exponential response which allows characterization of the activation energy spectrum with only three fit parameters. Measurements of as-grown films and 350 K annealed films were conducted at room temperature by recording conductivity, carrier density, and mobility over day-long time scales, both under illumination and in the dark. Hall measurements verify approximately constant mobility, even as the photoinduced carrier density changes by orders of magnitude. The transient photoconductivity data fit well to a stretched exponential during both illumination and dark relaxation, but with slower response in the dark. The inverse Laplace transforms of these stretched exponentials yield the density of activation energies responsible for transient photoconductivity. An empirical equation is introduced, which determines the linewidth of the activation energy band from the stretched exponential parameter β. Dry annealing at 350 K is observed to slow the transient photoresponse.

  15. The effect of streptomycin on stretch-induced electrophysiological changes of isolated acute myocardial infarcted hearts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lu; Cao, Jun-xian; Xie, Rong-sheng; Li, Jia; Han, Ying; Zhu, Li-qun; Dai, Ying-nan

    2007-08-01

    To explore whether the stretch of ischaemic myocardium could modulate the electrophysiological characteristics, especially repolarization via mechanoelectric feedback (MEF), as well as the effect of streptomycin (SM) on these changes. Methods Thirty-six wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n = 9), SM group (n = 9), myocardial infarction (MI) group (n = 9), and MI + SM group (n = 9). After perfused on Langendorff, the isolated hearts were stretched for 5s by a ballon inflation of 0.2mL. After being stretched, the effect of the stretch was observed for 30s, including the 20, 20-70, 70, and 90% monophasic action potential duration (MAPD), i.e. MAPD(20), MAPD(20-70), MAPD(70), and MAPD(90), respectively, premature ventricular beats (PVB), and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Results The stretch caused a decrease in MAPD(20-70) (both P 0.05, except MAPD(20-70) between the control and SM groups, P maintenance of malignant arrhythmias. SM could significantly inhibit the occurrence of arrhythmias, which may correlate with the effect on blocking stretch-activated ion channels.

  16. Pearling Instabilities of a Viscoelastic Thread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblais, A.; Velikov, K. P.; Bonn, D.

    2018-05-01

    Pearling instabilities of slender viscoelastic threads have received much attention, but remain incompletely understood. We study the instabilities in polymer solutions subject to uniaxial elongational flow. Two distinctly different instabilites are observed: beads on a string and blistering. The beads-on-a-string structure arises from a capillary instability whereas the blistering instability has a different origin: it is due to a coupling between stress and polymer concentration. By varying the temperature to change the solution properties we elucidate the interplay between flow and phase separation.

  17. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  18. An economical analysis of stretch-out for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, M.; Mascarenhas, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    An economical assessment of Angra 1 fuel cycle stretch-out is performed by means of NUCOST 1.0, a PWR power cost calculation code. International basic costs and an interest rate of 10%a were utilized. During the natural part of the fuel cycle an hypothetical capacity factor of 70% and in the stretch-out part a decrease in Plant's thermal efficiency have also been taken into account. The neutronic data were generated by FASER, MULTIMEDIUM, MEDIUM and PINPOW code system, simulating Angra 1 in the CAOC (constant Axial-Offset Control) operation. Assumming no proplems in the Plant's strecth-out phase, an optimum extension pont of 1 MWd/kg would be attained, what affords an US$700,000 savings by cycle when fuel and operation and maintenance costs are considered. (author) [pt

  19. Automation of a single-DNA molecule stretching device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl; Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Tommerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    We automate the manipulation of genomic-length DNA in a nanofluidic device based on real-time analysis of fluorescence images. In our protocol, individual molecules are picked from a microchannel and stretched with pN forces using pressure driven flows. The millimeter-long DNA fragments free...

  20. Transient filament stretching rheometer I: force balance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The filament stretching device which is used increasingly as an apparatus for measuring extensional properties of polymeric liquids isanalysed. A force balance that includes the effects of inertia and surface tension is derived.The force balance may be used to correct for the effects of inertia...

  1. Acute Effects of Static vs. Ballistic Stretching on Strength and Muscular Fatigue Between Ballet Dancers and Resistance-Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Camila D; Brown, Lee E; Wong, Megan A; Leyva, Whitney D; Pinto, Ronei S; Cadore, Eduardo L; Ruas, Cassio V

    2016-11-01

    Lima, CD, Brown, LE, Wong, MA, Leyva, WD, Pinto, RS, Cadore, EL, and Ruas, CV. Acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3220-3227, 2016-Stretching is used to increase joint range of motion, but the acute effects can decrease muscle strength. However, this may depend on the population or mode of stretching. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static vs. ballistic stretching on strength and muscular fatigue between ballet dancers and resistance-trained women. Fifteen resistance-trained women (age 23.8 ± 1.80 years, mass 67.47 ± 7.77 kg, height 168.30 ± 5.53 cm) and 12 ballet dancers (age 22.8 ± 3.04 years, mass 58.67 ± 5.65 kg, height 168.00 ± 7.69 cm) performed 5 days of testing. The first day was control (no stretching), whereas the other 4 days were static or ballistic stretching in a counterbalanced order. Range of motion, strength, and fatigue tests were also performed. Both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in hamstrings strength after static (102.71 ± 2.67 N·m) and ballistic stretching (99.49 ± 2.61 N·m) compared with control (113.059 ± 3.25 N·m), with no changes in quadriceps strength. For fatigue, only ballet dancers demonstrated a decrease from control (71.79 ± 4.88%) to ballistic (65.65 ± 8.19%), but no difference with static (65.01 ± 12.29%). These findings suggest that stretching decreases hamstrings strength similarly in ballet dancers and resistance-trained women, with no differences between modes of stretching. However, ballistic stretching only decreased muscular fatigue in ballet dancers, but not in resistance-trained women. Therefore, no stretching should be performed before strength performance. However, ballistic stretching may decrease acute muscular fatigue in ballet dancers.

  2. Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges

  3. Effects of hamstring stretch with pelvic control on pain and work ability in standing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun-Il; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2016-11-21

    Hamstring tightness induces posterior pelvic tilt and decreased lumbar lordosis, which can result in low back painOBJECTIVE: We investigated effects of hamstring stretch with pelvic control on pain and work ability in standing workers. One hundred adult volunteers from a standing workers were randomly assigned to pelvic control hamstring stretching (PCHS) (n = 34), general hamstring stretching (GHS) (n = 34), control (n = 32) groups. The control group was performed self-home exercise. All interventions were conducted 3 days per week for 6 weeks, and included in the hamstring stretching and lumbopelvic muscle strengthening. Outcomes were evaluated through the visual analog scale (VAS), straight leg raise test (SLR), sit and reach test (SRT), Oswestry disability index (ODI), and work ability index (WAI). Significant difference in VAS, SLR, SRT, ODI, and WAI were found in the PCHS and GHS groups. The control group was a significant difference only in ODI. The PCHS group showed a greater difference than the GHS group and control group in VAS, SLR, SRT, and ODI. The pelvic control hamstring stretch exercise would be more helpful in back pain reduction and improvement of work ability in an industrial setting.

  4. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.B.; Hilko, B.; Panarella, E.

    1994-01-01

    The spherical pinch (SP) concept is an outgrowth of the inertial confinement model (ICF). Unlike the ICF where instabilities, especially the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, have been studied extensively, the instability study of the spherical pinch has just begun. The Raleigh-Taylor instability is investigated for the first time in the SP in the present work. By using the simple condition for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability ∇p · ∇p < O (density and pressure gradients have opposite direction), we have qualitatively identified the regions for development of instabilities in the SP. It is found that the explosion phase (central discharge) is stable and instabilities take place in the imploding phase. However, the growth rate for the instability is not in exponential form, and the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not prevent the main shock wave from converging to the center of the sphere

  5. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  6. The Considere condition and rapid stretching of linear and branched polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, Gareth H; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    to larger Hencky strains as the number of branches is increased. Numerical computations at finite Deborah numbers also show that there is an optimal range of deformation rates over which homogeneous extensions can be maintained to large strain. We also consider other rapid homogeneous stretching...... deformations, such as biaxial and planar stretching, and show that the degree of stabilization afforded by inclusion of material with long-chain branching is a sensitive function of the imposed mode of deformation....

  7. Time-stretch microscopy based on time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chi; Xu, Yiqing; Wei, Xiaoming; Tsia, Kevin K.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time-stretch microscopy has emerged as an ultrafast optical imaging concept offering the unprecedented combination of the imaging speed and sensitivity. However, dedicated wideband and coherence optical pulse source with high shot-to-shot stability has been mandated for time-wavelength mapping—the enabling process for ultrahigh speed wavelength-encoded image retrieval. From the practical point of view, exploiting methods to relax the stringent requirements (e.g., temporal stability and coherence) for the source of time-stretch microscopy is thus of great value. In this paper, we demonstrated time-stretch microscopy by reconstructing the time-wavelength mapping sequence from a wideband incoherent source. Utilizing the time-lens focusing mechanism mediated by a narrow-band pulse source, this approach allows generation of a wideband incoherent source, with the spectral efficiency enhanced by a factor of 18. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, time-stretch imaging with the scan rate as high as MHz and diffraction-limited resolution is achieved based on the wideband incoherent source. We note that the concept of time-wavelength sequence reconstruction from wideband incoherent source can also be generalized to any high-speed optical real-time measurements, where wavelength is acted as the information carrier

  8. Invited Review. Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fansler, Todd D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reuss, D. L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sick, V. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dahms, R. N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Our article reviews systematic research on combustion instabilities (principally rare, random misfires and partial burns) in spray-guided stratified-charge (SGSC) engines operated at part load with highly stratified fuel -air -residual mixtures. Results from high-speed optical imaging diagnostics and numerical simulation provide a conceptual framework and quantify the sensitivity of ignition and flame propagation to strong, cyclically varying temporal and spatial gradients in the flow field and in the fuel -air -residual distribution. For SGSC engines using multi-hole injectors, spark stretching and locally rich ignition are beneficial. Moreover, combustion instability is dominated by convective flow fluctuations that impede motion of the spark or flame kernel toward the bulk of the fuel, coupled with low flame speeds due to locally lean mixtures surrounding the kernel. In SGSC engines using outwardly opening piezo-electric injectors, ignition and early flame growth are strongly influenced by the spray's characteristic recirculation vortex. For both injection systems, the spray and the intake/compression-generated flow field influence each other. Factors underlying the benefits of multi-pulse injection are identified. Finally, some unresolved questions include (1) the extent to which piezo-SGSC misfires are caused by failure to form a flame kernel rather than by flame-kernel extinction (as in multi-hole SGSC engines); (2) the relative contributions of partially premixed flame propagation and mixing-controlled combustion under the exceptionally late-injection conditions that permit SGSC operation on E85-like fuels with very low NOx and soot emissions; and (3) the effects of flow-field variability on later combustion, where fuel-air-residual mixing within the piston bowl becomes important.

  9. Instability following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and

  10. Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness

  11. Summary of longitudinal instabilities workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, R.

    1976-01-01

    A five-day ISABELLE workshop on longitudinal instabilities was held at Brookhaven, August 9-13, 1976. About a dozen outside accelerator experts, both from Europe and the U.S.A., joined the local staff for discussions of longitudinal instabilities in ISABELLE. An agenda of talks was scheduled for the first day of the workshop. Later during the week, a presentation was given on the subject ''A more rigorous treatment of Landau damping in longitudinal beam instabilities''. A few progress meetings were held in which disagreements regarding calculations of coupling impedances were clarified. A summary session was held on the last day. Heavy emphasis was put on single bunched beam instabilities in the microwave region extending above the cut-off frequency of the ISABELLE vacuum chamber.

  12. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...... exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie...

  13. SVM-Fold: a tool for discriminative multi-class protein fold and superfamily recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Iain; Ie, Eugene; Kuang, Rui; Weston, Jason; Stafford, William Noble; Leslie, Christina

    2007-05-22

    Predicting a protein's structural class from its amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem in computational biology. Much recent work has focused on developing new representations for protein sequences, called string kernels, for use with support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. However, while some of these approaches exhibit state-of-the-art performance at the binary protein classification problem, i.e. discriminating between a particular protein class and all other classes, few of these studies have addressed the real problem of multi-class superfamily or fold recognition. Moreover, there are only limited software tools and systems for SVM-based protein classification available to the bioinformatics community. We present a new multi-class SVM-based protein fold and superfamily recognition system and web server called SVM-Fold, which can be found at http://svm-fold.c2b2.columbia.edu. Our system uses an efficient implementation of a state-of-the-art string kernel for sequence profiles, called the profile kernel, where the underlying feature representation is a histogram of inexact matching k-mer frequencies. We also employ a novel machine learning approach to solve the difficult multi-class problem of classifying a sequence of amino acids into one of many known protein structural classes. Binary one-vs-the-rest SVM classifiers that are trained to recognize individual structural classes yield prediction scores that are not comparable, so that standard "one-vs-all" classification fails to perform well. Moreover, SVMs for classes at different levels of the protein structural hierarchy may make useful predictions, but one-vs-all does not try to combine these multiple predictions. To deal with these problems, our method learns relative weights between one-vs-the-rest classifiers and encodes information about the protein structural hierarchy for multi-class prediction. In large-scale benchmark results based on the SCOP database, our code weighting approach

  14. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Graph-representation of oxidative folding pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaján László

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of oxidative folding combines the formation of native disulfide bond with conformational folding resulting in the native three-dimensional fold. Oxidative folding pathways can be described in terms of disulfide intermediate species (DIS which can also be isolated and characterized. Each DIS corresponds to a family of folding states (conformations that the given DIS can adopt in three dimensions. Results The oxidative folding space can be represented as a network of DIS states interconnected by disulfide interchange reactions that can either create/abolish or rearrange disulfide bridges. We propose a simple 3D representation wherein the states having the same number of disulfide bridges are placed on separate planes. In this representation, the shuffling transitions are within the planes, and the redox edges connect adjacent planes. In a number of experimentally studied cases (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor, the observed intermediates appear as part of contiguous oxidative folding pathways. Conclusions Such networks can be used to visualize folding pathways in terms of the experimentally observed intermediates. A simple visualization template written for the Tulip package http://www.tulip-software.org/ can be obtained from V.A.

  16. Comparison of the Effects of Local Cryotherapy and Passive Cross-Body Stretch on Extensibility in Subjects with Posterior Shoulder Tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyue-nam Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR range of motion (ROM greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group. Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort.

  17. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Le Sant

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography.The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%, semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2% and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%, but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%. Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh.This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury.

  18. Elastography Study of Hamstring Behaviors during Passive Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sant, Guillaume; Ates, Filiz; Brasseur, Jean-Louis; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mechanical properties of hamstring muscles are usually inferred from global passive torque/angle relationships, in combination with adjoining tissues crossing the joint investigated. Shear modulus measurement provides an estimate of changes in muscle-tendon stiffness and passive tension. This study aimed to assess the passive individual behavior of each hamstring muscle in different stretching positions using shear wave elastography. Methods/Results The muscle shear modulus of each hamstring muscle was measured during a standardized slow passive knee extension (PKE, 80% of maximal range of motion) on eighteen healthy male volunteers. Firstly, we assessed the reliability of the measurements. Results were good for semitendinosus (ST, CV: 8.9%-13.4%), semimembranosus (SM, CV: 10.3%-11.2%) and biceps femoris long-head (BF-lh, CV: 8.6%-13.3%), but not for biceps femoris short-head (BF-sh, CV: 20.3%-44.9%). Secondly, we investigated each reliable muscle in three stretch positions: 70°, 90° and 110° of hip flexion. The results showed different values of shear modulus for the same amount of perceived stretch, with the highest measurements in the high-flexed hip situation. Moreover, individual muscles displayed different values, with values increasing or BF-lh, SM and ST, respectively. The inter-subject variability was 35.3% for ST, 27.4% for SM and 30.2% for BF-lh. Conclusion This study showed that the hip needs to be high-flexed to efficiently tension the hamstrings, and reports a higher muscle-tendon stress tolerance at 110° of hip angle. In addition muscles have different passive behaviors, and future works will clarify if it can be linked with rate of injury. PMID:26418862

  19. Understanding ensemble protein folding at atomic detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Stefan; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2008-01-01

    Although far from routine, simulating the folding of specific short protein chains on the computer, at a detailed atomic level, is starting to become a reality. This remarkable progress, which has been made over the last decade or so, allows a fundamental aspect of the protein folding process to be addressed, namely its statistical nature. In order to make quantitative comparisons with experimental kinetic data a complete ensemble view of folding must be achieved, with key observables averaged over the large number of microscopically different folding trajectories available to a protein chain. Here we review recent advances in atomic-level protein folding simulations and the new insight provided by them into the protein folding process. An important element in understanding ensemble folding kinetics are methods for analyzing many separate folding trajectories, and we discuss techniques developed to condense the large amount of information contained in an ensemble of trajectories into a manageable picture of the folding process. (topical review)

  20. The effectiveness of combined prescription of ankle–foot orthosis and stretching program for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab A.E. Sallam

    2016-01-01

    Combined prescription of night-stretch ankle–foot orthosis and stretching exercises for plantar flexors and fascia had greater therapeutic effects compared with each treatment alone. Stretching exercises alone are not beneficial in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis.

  1. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.

    2013-12-01

    Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.

  3. Curved Piezoelectric Actuators for Stretching Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Assemblies containing curved piezoceramic fiber composite actuators have been invented as means of stretching optical fibers by amounts that depend on applied drive voltages. Piezoceramic fiber composite actuators are conventionally manufactured as sheets or ribbons that are flat and flexible, but can be made curved to obtain load-carrying ability and displacement greater than those obtainable from the flat versions. In the primary embodiment of this invention, piezoceramic fibers are oriented parallel to the direction of longitudinal displacement of the actuators so that application of drive voltage causes the actuator to flatten, producing maximum motion. Actuator motion can be transmitted to the optical fiber by use of hinges and clamp blocks. In the original application of this invention, the optical fiber contains a Bragg grating and the purpose of the controlled stretching of the fiber is to tune the grating as part of a small, lightweight, mode-hop-free, rapidly tunable laser for demodulating strain in Bragg-grating strain-measurement optical fibers attached to structures. The invention could also be used to apply controllable tensile force or displacement to an object other than an optical fiber.

  4. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stretching is often used in clinical practice for a variety of purposes, including pain therapy. The possible mechanism behind the effect of stretching remains to be clarified. AIM: To investigate whether 4 weeks of unilateral stretching of the calf muscles would affect local...... and central pain sensitivity. METHOD: This study was a randomized assessor-blinded clinical study. Healthy participants (age 18 to 40) were included and randomized. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to perform 2 stretching exercises targeting the calf muscles; 3 times 30 seconds, 7 days...... a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using...

  5. Functional results after external vocal fold medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Denk, Doris-Maria; Bigenzahn, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    A persistent insufficiency of glottal closure is mostly a consequence of a unilateral vocal fold movement impairment. It can also be caused by vocal fold atrophy or scarring processes with regular bilateral respiratory vocal fold function. Because of consequential voice, breathing, and swallowing impairments, a functional surgical treatment is required. The goal of the study was to outline the functional results after medialization thyroplasty with the titanium vocal fold medialization implant according to Friedrich. In the period of 1999 to 2001, an external vocal fold medialization using the titanium implant was performed on 28 patients (12 women and 16 men). The patients were in the age range of 19 to 84 years. Twenty-two patients had a paralysis of the left-side vocal fold, and six patients, of the right-side vocal fold. Detailed functional examinations were executed on all patients before and after the surgery: perceptive voice sound analysis according to the "roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness" method, judgment of the s/z ratio and voice dysfunction index, voice range profile measurements, videostroboscopy, and pulmonary function tests. In case of dysphagia/aspiration, videofluoroscopy of swallowing was also performed. The respective data were statistically analyzed (paired t test, Wilcoxon-test). All patients reported on improvement of voice, swallowing, and breathing functions postoperatively. Videostroboscopy revealed an almost complete glottal closure after surgery in all of the patients. All voice-related parameters showed a significant improvement. An increase of the laryngeal resistance by the medialization procedure could be excluded by analysis of the pulmonary function test. The results confirm the external medialization of the vocal folds as an adequate method in the therapy of voice, swallowing, and breathing impairment attributable to an insufficient glottal closure. The titanium implant offers, apart from good tissue tolerability, the

  6. Relativistic centrifugal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.

    2018-03-01

    Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.

  7. Post-injury stretch promotes recovery in a rat model of muscle damage induced by lengthening contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomohiro; Agata, Nobuhide; Itoh, Yuta; Inoue-Miyazu, Masumi; Mizumura, Kazue; Sokabe, Masahiro; Taguchi, Toru; Kawakami, Keisuke

    2017-06-30

    We investigated the cellular mechanisms and therapeutic effect of post-injury stretch on the recovery process from muscle injury induced by lengthening contractions (LC). One day after LC, a single 15-min bout of muscle stretch was applied at an intensity of 3 mNm. The maximal isometric torque was measured before and at 2-21 days after LC. The myofiber size was analyzed at 21 days after LC. Developmental myosin heavy chain-immunoreactive (dMHC-ir) cells, a marker of regenerating myofibers, were observed in the early recovery stage (2-5 days after LC). We observed that LC-induced injury markedly decreased isometric torque and myofiber size, which recovered faster in rats that underwent stretch than in rats that did not. Regenerating myofiber with dMHC-ir cells was observed earlier in rats that underwent stretch. These results indicate that post-injury stretch may facilitate the regeneration and early formation of new myofibers, thereby promoting structural and functional recovery from LC-induced muscle injury.

  8. Towards clinical application of RayStretch for heterogeneity corrections in LDR permanent 125I prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, Fernando; Ballester, Facundo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Siebert, Frank-André; Vijande, Javier

    RayStretch is a simple algorithm proposed for heterogeneity corrections in low-dose-rate brachytherapy. It is built on top of TG-43 consensus data, and it has been validated with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In this study, we take a real clinical prostate implant with 71 125 I seeds as reference and we apply RayStretch to analyze its performance in worst-case scenarios. To do so, we design two cases where large calcifications are located in the prostate lobules. RayStretch resilience under various calcification density values is also explored. Comparisons against MC calculations are performed. Dose-volume histogram-related parameters like prostate D 90 , rectum D 2cc , or urethra D 10 obtained with RayStretch agree within a few percent with the detailed MC results for all cases considered. The robustness and compatibility of RayStretch with commercial treatment planning systems indicate its applicability in clinical practice for dosimetric corrections in prostate calcifications. Its use during intraoperative ultrasound planning is foreseen. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stretched inverse opal colloid crystal substrates-induced orientation of fibroblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y C; Tang, Z M; Feng, Z Q; Xie, Z Y; Gu, Z Z

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in studying the interaction between mammalian cells and nanometer-sized structures. However, the effect of nanostructures on cell behavior, such as cell morphology and alignment, is still largely unknown. Inverse opal colloid crystal substrates, which can be stretched to produce nano-scale pore structures of different degrees of orientation, serve as a convenient model system to study the effect of nanotopography on cell morphology and cell alignment. In this work, we fabricated inverse opal colloidal crystal films that were either unstretched or stretched to three, four or six times their original length, producing pore structures of increasing degree of orientation. Human dermal fibroblast-fetal (HDF-f) cells were seeded and cultured on these four types of substrates. The results from fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that cells showed the highest degree of alignment when cultured on inverse opal colloid crystal films that were stretched the most (six times original length). The results also demonstrated that the orientation of nanostructures could affect both the morphology and growth direction of fibroblasts. The ability to control the direction of cell growth through the engineering of nanostructures could have important applications in tissue engineering, especially for tissues with anisotropic structures, such as cardiac muscle, blood vessel, tendon and ligament.

  10. Stretched inverse opal colloid crystal substrates-induced orientation of fibroblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y C; Tang, Z M; Feng, Z Q; Xie, Z Y; Gu, Z Z, E-mail: gu@seu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in studying the interaction between mammalian cells and nanometer-sized structures. However, the effect of nanostructures on cell behavior, such as cell morphology and alignment, is still largely unknown. Inverse opal colloid crystal substrates, which can be stretched to produce nano-scale pore structures of different degrees of orientation, serve as a convenient model system to study the effect of nanotopography on cell morphology and cell alignment. In this work, we fabricated inverse opal colloidal crystal films that were either unstretched or stretched to three, four or six times their original length, producing pore structures of increasing degree of orientation. Human dermal fibroblast-fetal (HDF-f) cells were seeded and cultured on these four types of substrates. The results from fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated that cells showed the highest degree of alignment when cultured on inverse opal colloid crystal films that were stretched the most (six times original length). The results also demonstrated that the orientation of nanostructures could affect both the morphology and growth direction of fibroblasts. The ability to control the direction of cell growth through the engineering of nanostructures could have important applications in tissue engineering, especially for tissues with anisotropic structures, such as cardiac muscle, blood vessel, tendon and ligament.

  11. History and Physical Examination for Shoulder Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Col Chad A

    2017-09-01

    Glenohumeral instability frequently occurs in young active individuals especially those engaged in athletic and military activities. With advanced imaging and arthroscopic evaluation, our understanding of the injury patterns associated with instability has significantly improved. The majority of instability results from a traumatic anterior event which presents with common findings in the history, examination, and imaging studies. As such, a comprehensive evaluation of the patient is important to correctly diagnose the instability patterns and thus provide appropriate treatment intervention. With the correct diagnosis and improved surgical techniques, the majority of patients with instability can return to preinjury levels.

  12. Electromagnetic theory of the radiative Pierce instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klochkov, D.N.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made of the radiative Pierce instability of a relativistic electron beam propagating in a waveguide in the presence of an infinitely strong magnetic field. The perturbation theory is used to find the growth rates and conditions of instability over a broad range of the beam current. It is shown that, under the Pierce boundary conditions, the instability is Raman in nature, and there is no current threshold for the instability. This allows the instability saturation level to be accurately determined from the condition for the violation of the Cherenkov resonance and the radiation efficiency to be estimated

  13. Radiation-induced instability of human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.N.; Demina, Eh.A.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is dedicated to the phenomenon of radiation-induced genomic instability where the increased level of genomic changes in the offspring of irradiated cells is characteristic. Particular attention is paid to the problems of genomic instability induced by the low-dose radiation, role of the bystander effect in formation of radiation-induced instability, and its relationship with individual radiosensitivity. We believe that in accordance with the paradigm of modern radiobiology the increased human individual radiosensitivity can be formed due to the genome instability onset and is a significant risk factor for radiation-induced cancer

  14. Lamb's plane problem in a thermo-elastic micropolar medium with stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Chadha

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the Lamb plane problem in a thermo-elastic micropolar medium with the effect of stretch. The problem is solved for an arbitrary, normal load distribution by using the double Fourier transform. The displacement components, force stress, couple stress, vector first moment and the temperature field are determined for a half space subjected to an arbitrary normal load. Two special cases of a horizontal force and a torque which are oscillating with a frequency ω have been investigated. It is shown that results of this analysis reduce to those without stretch.

  15. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/μm) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  16. MR imaging in sports-related glenohumeral instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woertler, Klaus; Waldt, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related shoulder pain and injuries represent a common problem. In this context, glenohumeral instability is currently believed to play a central role either as a recognized or as an unrecognized condition. Shoulder instabilities can roughly be divided into traumatic, atraumatic, and microtraumatic glenohumeral instabilities. In athletes, atraumatic and microtraumatic instabilities can lead to secondary impingement syndromes and chronic damage to intraarticular structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is superior to conventional MR imaging in the diagnosis of labro-ligamentous injuries, intrinsic impingement, and SLAP (superior labral anteroposterior) lesions, and thus represents the most informative imaging modality in the overall assessment of glenohumeral instability. This article reviews the imaging criteria for the detection and classification of instability-related injuries in athletes with special emphasis on the influence of MR findings on therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  17. Stiffness of individual quadriceps muscle assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography during passive stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently it has not been possible to isolate the mechanical behavior of individual muscles during passive stretching. Muscle shear modulus (an index of muscle stiffness measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography can be used to estimate changes in stiffness of an individual muscle. The aims of the present study were (1 to determine the shear modulus–knee angle relationship and the slack angle of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO, rectus femoris (RF, and vastus lateralis (VL muscles; (2 to determine whether this differs between the muscles. Methods: Nine male rowers took part in the study. The shear modulus of VMO, RF, and VL muscles was measured while the quadriceps was passively stretched at 3°/s. The relationship between the muscle shear modulus and knee angle was plotted as shear modulus–knee angle curve through which the slack angle of each muscle was determined. Results: The shear modulus of RF was higher than that of VMO and VL when the muscles were stretched over 54° (all p  0.05. The slack angle was similar among the muscles: 41.3° ± 10.6°, 44.3° ± 9.1°, and 44.3° ± 5.6° of knee flexion for VMO, RF, and VL, respectively (p = 0.626. Conclusion: This is the first study to experimentally determine the muscle mechanical behavior of individual heads of the quadriceps during passive stretching. Different pattern of passive tension was observed between mono- and bi-articular muscles. Further research is needed to determine whether changes in muscle stiffness are muscle-specific in pathological conditions or after interventions such as stretching protocols. Keywords: Muscle tension, Optimal length, Shear modulus, Slack angle, Stretch, Ultrasonography, Vastus lateralis, Vastus medialis

  18. Taylor instability in rhyolite lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B. A.; Krantz, W. B.; Fink, J. H.; Dickinson, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A refined Taylor instability model is developed to describe the surface morphology of rhyolite lava flows. The effect of the downslope flow of the lava on the structures resulting from the Taylor instability mechanism is considered. Squire's (1933) transformation is developed for this flow in order to extend the results to three-dimensional modes. This permits assessing why ridges thought to arise from the Taylor instability mechanism are preferentially oriented transverse to the direction of lava flow. Measured diapir and ridge spacings for the Little and Big Glass Mountain rhyolite flows in northern California are used in conjunction with the model in order to explore the implications of the Taylor instability for flow emplacement. The model suggests additional lava flow features that can be measured in order to test whether the Taylor instability mechanism has influenced the flows surface morphology.

  19. Tracking Code for Microwave Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability

  20. Tip opening of premixed bunsen flames: Extinction with negative stretch and local Karlovitz number

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Tranmanh

    2015-04-01

    The characteristics of tip openings in premixed bunsen flames have been studied experimentally by measuring OH radicals from laser-induced fluorescence and tip curvatures from chemiluminescent images. Results showed that the tip opening occurred at a constant equivalence ratio and was independent of the jet velocity in propane/air mixtures. The observation of a local extinction phenomenon of the negatively stretched flame due to the flame curvature could not be consistently explained based on flame stretch or the Karlovitz number, since they varied appreciably with the jet velocity. The concept of the local Karlovitz number (KaL) was introduced, which is defined as the ratio of the characteristic reaction time in the normal direction for a stretched flame to the characteristic flow time in the tangential direction for the stretched flame. The local Karlovitz number maintained a constant value under tip opening conditions, irrespective of the jet velocity. Tip opening occurred at a reasonably constant local Karlovitz number of about ~1.72 when the nitrogen dilution level in propane and n-butane fuels was varied.

  1. Randomized Trial of Modified Stretching Exercise Program for Menstrual Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huei-Mein; Hu, Hsou-Mei

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a modified stretching exercise program on young women with menstrual low back pain. Overall, 127 young women were randomly assigned to the experimental ( n = 63) and control ( n = 64) groups. The experimental group followed the modified stretching exercise program, whereas the control group performed their usual activities. At 1, 4, 8, and 12 months, the experimental group had significantly lower scores on the visual analog scale for pain (95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.73, 1.96]; p < .05) and the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire than the control group (95% CI = [0.68, 2.03]; p < .001). At 12 months, the experimental group showed significantly higher exercise self-efficacy than the control group (95% CI = [-6.87, 0.62]; p = .003). These findings can be used to enhance self-care capabilities by using the modified stretching exercise program for young women with menstrual low back pain.

  2. Melting heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow towards a stretching/shrinking sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachok, Norfifah; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer from a warm, laminar liquid flow to a melting stretching/shrinking sheet. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, before being solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. Effects of the melting parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter and Prandtl number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Different from a stretching sheet, it is found that the solutions for a shrinking sheet are non-unique.

  3. A comparison of RNA folding measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Paul P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few decades there has been a great deal of discussion concerning whether or not noncoding RNA sequences (ncRNAs fold in a more well-defined manner than random sequences. In this paper, we investigate several existing measures for how well an RNA sequence folds, and compare the behaviour of these measures over a large range of Rfam ncRNA families. Such measures can be useful in, for example, identifying novel ncRNAs, and indicating the presence of alternate RNA foldings. Results Our analysis shows that ncRNAs, but not mRNAs, in general have lower minimal free energy (MFE than random sequences with the same dinucleotide frequency. Moreover, even when the MFE is significant, many ncRNAs appear to not have a unique fold, but rather several alternative folds, at least when folded in silico. Furthermore, we find that the six investigated measures are correlated to varying degrees. Conclusion Due to the correlations between the different measures we find that it is sufficient to use only two of them in RNA folding studies, one to test if the sequence in question has lower energy than a random sequence with the same dinucleotide frequency (the Z-score and the other to see if the sequence has a unique fold (the average base-pair distance, D.

  4. Adaptation of the dermal collagen structure of human skin and scar tissue in response to stretch: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, Pauline D.; Schouten, Hennie J.; Tigchelaar-Gutter, Wikky; van Marle, Jan; van Noorden, Cornelis J.; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Surgeons are often faced with large defects that are difficult to close. Stretching adjacent skin can facilitate wound closure. In clinical practice, intraoperative stretching is performed in a cyclical or continuous fashion. However, exact mechanisms of tissue adaptation to stretch remain unclear.

  5. Corona-induced electrohydrodynamic instabilities in low conducting liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, F.; Perez, A.T. [Depto. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n. 41012, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-06-01

    The rose-window electrohydrodynamic (EHD) instability has been observed when a perpendicular field with an additional unipolar ion injection is applied onto a low conducting liquid surface. This instability has a characteristic pattern with cells five to 10 times greater than those observed in volume instabilities caused by unipolar injection. We have used corona discharge from a metallic point to perform some measurements of the rose-window instability in low conducting liquids. The results are compared to the linear theoretical criterion for an ohmic liquid. They confirmed that the minimum voltage for this instability is much lower than that for the interfacial instability in high conducting liquids. This was predicted theoretically in the dependence of the critical voltage as a function of the non-dimensional conductivity. It is shown that in a non-ohmic liquid the rose window appears as a secondary instability after the volume instability. (orig.)

  6. Instability and star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru

  7. Short pulse generation from a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator with optical time-stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi; Wei, Xiaoming; Du, Shuxin; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K; Xu, Yiqing

    2018-04-16

    We propose a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator assisted with optical time-stretch. Thanks to the lately developed optical time-stretch technique, the onset oscillating spectral components can be temporally dispersed across the pump envelope and further compete for the parametric gain with the other parts of onset oscillating sidebands within the pump envelope. By matching the amount of dispersion in optical time-stretch with the pulse width of the quasi-CW pump and oscillating one of the parametric sidebands inside the fiber cavity, we numerically show that the fiber parametric oscillator can be operated in a single pulse regime. By varying the amount of the intracavity dispersion, we further verify that the origin of this single pulse mode-locking regime is due to the optical pulse stretching and compression.

  8. Secondary instabilities of hypersonic stationary crossflow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Joshua B.

    A sharp, circular 7° half-angle cone was tested in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at 6° angle of attack. Using a variety of roughness configurations, measurements were made using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and fast pressure sensors. High-frequency secondary instabilities of the stationary crossflow waves were detected near the aft end of the cone, from 110° to 163° from the windward ray. At least two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities were measured. The secondary instabilities have high coherence between upstream and downstream sensor pairs. In addition, the amplitudes of the instabilities increase with the addition of roughness elements near the nose of the cone. Two of the measured instabilities were captured over a range of axial Reynolds numbers of about 1 - 2 million, with amplitudes ranging from low to turbulent breakdown. For these instabilities, the wave speed and amplitude growth can be calculated. The wave speeds were all near the edge velocity. Measured growth before breakdown for the two instabilities are between e3 and e4 from background noise levels. The initial linear growth rates for the instabilities are near 50 /m. Simultaneous measurement of two frequency bands of the secondary instabilities was made during a single run. It was found that each mode was spatially confined within a small azimuthal region, and that the regions of peak amplitude for one mode correspond to regions of minimal amplitude for the other.

  9. RNAiFold: a web server for RNA inverse folding and molecular design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter; Dotu, Ivan

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic biology and nanotechnology are poised to make revolutionary contributions to the 21st century. In this article, we describe a new web server to support in silico RNA molecular design. Given an input target RNA secondary structure, together with optional constraints, such as requiring GC-content to lie within a certain range, requiring the number of strong (GC), weak (AU) and wobble (GU) base pairs to lie in a certain range, the RNAiFold web server determines one or more RNA sequences, whose minimum free-energy secondary structure is the target structure. RNAiFold provides access to two servers: RNA-CPdesign, which applies constraint programming, and RNA-LNSdesign, which applies the large neighborhood search heuristic; hence, it is suitable for larger input structures. Both servers can also solve the RNA inverse hybridization problem, i.e. given a representation of the desired hybridization structure, RNAiFold returns two sequences, whose minimum free-energy hybridization is the input target structure. The web server is publicly accessible at http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAiFold, which provides access to two specialized servers: RNA-CPdesign and RNA-LNSdesign. Source code for the underlying algorithms, implemented in COMET and supported on linux, can be downloaded at the server website.

  10. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  11. The Magnetohydrodynamic Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid past a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Slip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahira Mansur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet with velocity, thermal, and solutal slip boundary conditions is studied. Numerical solutions to the governing equations were obtained using a shooting method. The skin friction coefficient and the local Sherwood number increase as the stretching/shrinking parameter increases. However, the local Nusselt number decreases with increasing the stretching/shrinking parameter. The range of the stretching/shrinking parameter for which the solution exists increases as the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. For the shrinking sheet, the skin friction coefficient increases as the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. For the stretching sheet, it decreases when the velocity slip parameter and the magnetic parameter increase. The local Nusselt number diminishes as the thermal slip parameter increases while the local Sherwood number decreases with increasing the solutal slip parameter. The local Nusselt number is lower for higher values of Lewis number, Brownian motion parameter, and thermophoresis parameter.

  12. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Direct and inverted repeats elicit genetic instability by both exploiting and eluding DNA double-strand break repair systems in mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina A Wojcik

    Full Text Available Repetitive DNA sequences with the potential to form alternative DNA conformations, such as slipped structures and cruciforms, can induce genetic instability by promoting replication errors and by serving as a substrate for DNA repair proteins, which may lead to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. However, the contribution of each of the DSB repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and single-strand annealing (SSA, to this sort of genetic instability is not fully understood. Herein, we assessed the genome-wide distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in the Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli genomes, and determined the types and frequencies of genetic instability induced by direct and inverted repeats, both in the presence and in the absence of HR, NHEJ, and SSA. All three genomes are strongly enriched in direct repeats and modestly enriched in inverted repeats. When using chromosomally integrated constructs in M. smegmatis, direct repeats induced the perfect deletion of their intervening sequences ~1,000-fold above background. Absence of HR further enhanced these perfect deletions, whereas absence of NHEJ or SSA had no influence, suggesting compromised replication fidelity. In contrast, inverted repeats induced perfect deletions only in the absence of SSA. Both direct and inverted repeats stimulated excision of the constructs from the attB integration sites independently of HR, NHEJ, or SSA. With episomal constructs, direct and inverted repeats triggered DNA instability by activating nucleolytic activity, and absence of the DSB repair pathways (in the order NHEJ>HR>SSA exacerbated this instability. Thus, direct and inverted repeats may elicit genetic instability in mycobacteria by 1 directly interfering with replication fidelity, 2 stimulating the three main DSB repair pathways, and 3 enticing L5 site-specific recombination.

  14. Direct and inverted repeats elicit genetic instability by both exploiting and eluding DNA double-strand break repair systems in mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Ewelina A; Brzostek, Anna; Bacolla, Albino; Mackiewicz, Pawel; Vasquez, Karen M; Korycka-Machala, Malgorzata; Jaworski, Adam; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences with the potential to form alternative DNA conformations, such as slipped structures and cruciforms, can induce genetic instability by promoting replication errors and by serving as a substrate for DNA repair proteins, which may lead to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, the contribution of each of the DSB repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR), non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA), to this sort of genetic instability is not fully understood. Herein, we assessed the genome-wide distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in the Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli genomes, and determined the types and frequencies of genetic instability induced by direct and inverted repeats, both in the presence and in the absence of HR, NHEJ, and SSA. All three genomes are strongly enriched in direct repeats and modestly enriched in inverted repeats. When using chromosomally integrated constructs in M. smegmatis, direct repeats induced the perfect deletion of their intervening sequences ~1,000-fold above background. Absence of HR further enhanced these perfect deletions, whereas absence of NHEJ or SSA had no influence, suggesting compromised replication fidelity. In contrast, inverted repeats induced perfect deletions only in the absence of SSA. Both direct and inverted repeats stimulated excision of the constructs from the attB integration sites independently of HR, NHEJ, or SSA. With episomal constructs, direct and inverted repeats triggered DNA instability by activating nucleolytic activity, and absence of the DSB repair pathways (in the order NHEJ>HR>SSA) exacerbated this instability. Thus, direct and inverted repeats may elicit genetic instability in mycobacteria by 1) directly interfering with replication fidelity, 2) stimulating the three main DSB repair pathways, and 3) enticing L5 site-specific recombination.

  15. Passive Repetitive Stretching for a Short Duration within a Week Increases Myogenic Regulatory Factors and Myosin Heavy Chain mRNA in Rats' Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Kamikawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretching is a stimulation of muscle growth. Stretching for hours or days has an effect on muscle hypertrophy. However, differences of continuous stretching and repetitive stretching to affect muscle growth are not well known. To clarify the difference of continuous and repetitive stretching within a short duration, we investigated the gene expression of muscle-related genes on stretched skeletal muscles. We used 8-week-old male Wistar rats ( for this study. Animals medial gastrocnemius muscle was stretched continuously or repetitively for 15 min daily and 4 times/week under anesthesia. After stretching, muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted. Then, reverse transcriptional quantitative real-time PCR was done to evaluate the mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic myosin heavy chain (MyHC. Muscles, either stretched continuously or repetitively, increased mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic MyHC more than unstretched muscles. Notably, repetitive stretching resulted in more substantial effects on embryonic MyHC gene expression than continuous stretching. In conclusion, passive stretching for a short duration within a week is effective in increasing myogenic factor expression, and repetitive stretching had more effects than continuous stretching for skeletal muscle on muscle growth. These findings are applicable in clinical muscle-strengthening therapy.

  16. Hydro-osmotic Instabilities in Active Membrane Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Izzi, Sami C.; Rowlands, George; Sens, Pierre; Turner, Matthew S.

    2018-03-01

    We study a membrane tube with unidirectional ion pumps driving an osmotic pressure difference. A pressure-driven peristaltic instability is identified, qualitatively distinct from similar tension-driven Rayleigh-type instabilities on membrane tubes. We discuss how this instability could be related to the function and biogenesis of membrane bound organelles, in particular, the contractile vacuole complex. The unusually long natural wavelength of this instability is in agreement with that observed in cells.

  17. Kinetic partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing, E-mail: wbzhang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China)

    2014-01-14

    RNA folding kinetics is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding kinetics of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding kinetics of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding kinetics for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the kinetic partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.

  18. Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research...... issues that represent unsolved aeroelostic instability problems for wind turbines. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  19. Modification of Spastic Stretch Reflexes at the Elbow by Flexion Synergy Expression in Individuals With Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jacob G; Stienen, Arno H; Drogos, Justin M; Dewald, Julius P

    2018-03-01

    To systematically characterize the effect of flexion synergy expression on the manifestation of elbow flexor stretch reflexes poststroke, and to relate these findings to elbow flexor stretch reflexes in individuals without neurologic injury. Controlled cohort study. Academic medical center. Participants (N=20) included individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke (n=10) and a convenience sample of individuals without neurologic or musculoskeletal injury (n=10). Participants with stroke were interfaced with a robotic device that precisely manipulated flexion synergy expression (by regulating shoulder abduction loading) while delivering controlled elbow extension perturbations over a wide range of velocities. This device was also used to elicit elbow flexor stretch reflexes during volitional elbow flexor activation, both in the cohort of individuals with stroke and in a control cohort. In both cases, the amplitude of volitional elbow flexor preactivation was matched to that generated involuntarily during flexion synergy expression. The amplitude of short- and long-latency stretch reflexes in the biceps brachii, assessed by electromyography, and expressed as a function of background muscle activation and stretch velocity. Increased shoulder abduction loading potentiated elbow flexor stretch reflexes via flexion synergy expression in the paretic arm. Compared with stretch reflexes in individuals without neurologic injury, paretic reflexes were larger at rest but were approximately equal to control muscles at matched levels of preactivation. Because flexion synergy expression modifies stretch reflexes in involved muscles, interventions that reduce flexion synergy expression may confer the added benefit of reducing spasticity during functional use of the arm. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Strain Rate on Microscopic Deformation Behavior of High-density Polyethylene under Uniaxial Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Takumitsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic deformation behaviors such as the load sharing and the molecular orientation of high-density polyethylene under uniaxial stretching at various strain rates were investigated by using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The chains within crystalline phase began to orient toward the stretching direction beyond the yielding region and the orientation behavior was not affected by the strain rate. While the stretching stress along the crystalline chains was also not affected by the strain rate, the peak shifts of the Raman bands at 1130, 1418, 1440 and 1460 cm-1, which are sensitive to the interchain interactions obviously, depended on the strain rate; the higher strain rates lead to the stronger stretching stress or negative pressure on the crystalline and amorphous chains. These effects of the strain rate on the microscopic deformation was associated with the cavitation and the void formation leading to the release of the internal pressure.

  1. Self-folding origami at any energy scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Stern, Menachem; Carruthers Ferrero, Alexandra; Witten, Thomas A.; Chen, Elizabeth; Murugan, Arvind

    2017-05-01

    Programmable stiff sheets with a single low-energy folding motion have been sought in fields ranging from the ancient art of origami to modern meta-materials research. Despite such attention, only two extreme classes of crease patterns are usually studied; special Miura-Ori-based zero-energy patterns, in which crease folding requires no sheet bending, and random patterns with high-energy folding, in which the sheet bends as much as creases fold. We present a physical approach that allows systematic exploration of the entire space of crease patterns as a function of the folding energy. Consequently, we uncover statistical results in origami, finding the entropy of crease patterns of given folding energy. Notably, we identify three classes of Mountain-Valley choices that have widely varying `typical' folding energies. Our work opens up a wealth of experimentally relevant self-folding origami designs not reliant on Miura-Ori, the Kawasaki condition or any special symmetry in space.

  2. Clinical and radiological instability following standard fenestration discectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascarenhas Amrithlal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-surgical lumbar instability is an established complication but there is limited evidence in the literature regarding the incidence of lumbar instability following fenestration and discectomy. We analyzed our results following fenestration discectomy with a special focus on instability. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three patients between the age of 17 and 52 years who had undergone fenestration discectomy for a single-level lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse were followed-up for a period of 1-5 years. The criteria for instability included "instability catch,", "painful catch," and "apprehension." The working capacity of the patient and the outcome score of the surgery were assessed by means of the Oswestry disability score and the Prolo economic and functional outcome score. Flexion-extension lateral radiographs were taken and analyzed for abnormal tilt and translation. Results: Of the 83 patients included, 70 were men and 13 were women, with an average age of 37.35 years (17-52 years at 5 years follow-up. Clinical instability was seen in 10 (12.04% patients. Radiological instability was noted in 29 (34.9% patients. Only six (60% of the 10 patients who demonstrated clinical instability had radiological evidence of instability. Twenty (68.96% patients with radiological instability were asymptomatic. Three (10.34% patients with only radiological instability had unsatisfactory outcome. The Oswestry scoring showed an average score of 19.8%. Mild disability was noted in 59 (71.08% patients and moderate disability was seen in 24 (28.91% patients. None of the patients had severe disability. These outcomes were compared with the outcomes in other studies in the literature for microdiscectomy and the results were found to be comparable. Conclusion: The favorable outcome of this study is in good agreement with other studies on microdiscectomy. Clinical instability in 12.04% of the patients is in agreement with other studies. Radiological

  3. Anatomy and Histology of an Epicanthal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Hwang, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the precise anatomical and histological detail of the epicanthal fold.Thirty-two hemifaces of 16 Korean adult cadavers were used in this study (30 hemifaces with an epicanthal fold, 2 without an epicanthal fold). In 2 patients who had an epicanthoplasty, the epicanthal folds were sampled.In a dissection, the periorbital skin and subcutaneous tissues were removed and the epicanthal fold was observed in relation to each part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Specimens including the epicanthal fold were embeddedin in paraffin, sectioned at 10 um, and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. The horizontal section in the level of the paplebral fissure was made and the prepared slides were observed under a light microscope.In the specimens without an epicanthal fold, no connection between the upper preseptal muscle and the lower preseptal muscle was found. In the specimens with an epicanthal fold, a connection of the upper preseptal muscle to the lower preseptal muscle was observed. It was present in all 15 hemifaces (100%). There was no connection between the pretarsal muscles. In a horizontal section, the epicanthal fold was composed of 3 compartments: an outer skin lining, a core structure, and an innerskin lining. The core structure was mainly composed of muscular fibers and fibrotic tissue and they were intermingled.Surgeons should be aware of the anatomical details of an epicanthal fold. In removing or reconstructing an epicanthal fold, the fibromuscular core band should also be removed or reconstructed.

  4. Piezo Is Essential for Amiloride-Sensitive Stretch-Activated Mechanotransduction in Larval Drosophila Dorsal Bipolar Dendritic Sensory Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslak, Thomas J; Watson, Sonia; Thompson, Karen J; Shenton, Fiona C; Bewick, Guy S; Armstrong, J Douglas; Jarman, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Stretch-activated afferent neurons, such as those of mammalian muscle spindles, are essential for proprioception and motor co-ordination, but the underlying mechanisms of mechanotransduction are poorly understood. The dorsal bipolar dendritic (dbd) sensory neurons are putative stretch receptors in the Drosophila larval body wall. We have developed an in vivo protocol to obtain receptor potential recordings from intact dbd neurons in response to stretch. Receptor potential changes in dbd neurons in response to stretch showed a complex, dynamic profile with similar characteristics to those previously observed for mammalian muscle spindles. These profiles were reproduced by a general in silico model of stretch-activated neurons. This in silico model predicts an essential role for a mechanosensory cation channel (MSC) in all aspects of receptor potential generation. Using pharmacological and genetic techniques, we identified the mechanosensory channel, DmPiezo, in this functional role in dbd neurons, with TRPA1 playing a subsidiary role. We also show that rat muscle spindles exhibit a ruthenium red-sensitive current, but found no expression evidence to suggest that this corresponds to Piezo activity. In summary, we show that the dbd neuron is a stretch receptor and demonstrate that this neuron is a tractable model for investigating mechanisms of mechanotransduction.

  5. Numerical MHD study for plasmoid instability in uniform resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tohru; Kondoh, Koji; Zenitani, Seiji

    2017-11-01

    The plasmoid instability (PI) caused in uniform resistivity is numerically studied with a MHD numerical code of HLLD scheme. It is shown that the PI observed in numerical studies may often include numerical (non-physical) tearing instability caused by the numerical dissipations. By increasing the numerical resolutions, the numerical tearing instability gradually disappears and the physical tearing instability remains. Hence, the convergence of the numerical results is observed. Note that the reconnection rate observed in the numerical tearing instability can be higher than that of the physical tearing instability. On the other hand, regardless of the numerical and physical tearing instabilities, the tearing instability can be classified into symmetric and asymmetric tearing instability. The symmetric tearing instability tends to occur when the thinning of current sheet is stopped by the physical or numerical dissipations, often resulting in the drastic changes in plasmoid chain's structure and its activity. In this paper, by eliminating the numerical tearing instability, we could not specify the critical Lundquist number Sc beyond which PI is fully developed. It suggests that Sc does not exist, at least around S = 105.

  6. Numerical study of jets secondary instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancher, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation is a contribution to the study of the transition to turbulence in open shear flows. Results from direct numerical simulations are interpreted within the framework of hydrodynamic stability theory. The first chapter is an introduction to the primary and secondary instabilities observed in jets and mixing layers. The numerical method used in the present study is detailed in the second chapter. The dynamics of homogeneous circular jets subjected to stream wise and azimuthal perturbations are investigated in the third chapter. A complete scenario describing the evolution of the jet is proposed with emphasis on the dynamics of vorticity within the flow. In the fourth chapter a parametric study reveals a three-dimensional secondary instability mainly controlled in the linear regime by the Strouhal number of the primary instability. In the nonlinear regime the dynamics of the azimuthal harmonies are described by means of model equations and are linked to the formation of stream wise vortices in the braid. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the convective or absolute nature of the secondary instabilities in plane shear layers. It is shown that there are flow configurations for which the two-dimensional secondary instability (pairing) is absolute even though the primary instability (Kelvin-Helmholtz) is convective. Some preliminary results concerning the three-dimensional secondary instabilities arc presented at the end of this chapter. The last chapter summarizes the main results and examines possible extensions of this work. (author) [fr

  7. Instability of g-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A white dwarf model with M = 6 solar masses, Te = 12,000 K, and L = 1.2 x 10 to the 31st erg/sec provided by Cox has been tested for linear stability of radial oscillations. The radial mode instability first reported for this model by Cox, et al. (1979) has been confirmed. The growth rates obtained are comparable to the rates found by Cox. A sequence of l = 2 g-modes has also been found to be unstable. The e-folding times range from around 10 to the 11th periods for a 137 second mode (1 radial node) to less than 100 periods for a 629 second mode (17 nodes). It is likely that the latter rate is too high because the eigenfunction has been forced to vanish at the non-zero inner radius of the model, at which the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is barely less than the mode frequency.

  8. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  9. WELLBORE INSTABILITY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.

  10. Nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.; Drake, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the nonlinear behavior of the radiative condensation instability is presented in a simple one-dimensional magnetized plasma. It is shown that the radiative condensation is typically a nonlinear instability---the growth of the instability is stronger once the disturbance reaches finite amplitude. Moreover, classical parallel thermal conduction is insufficient by itself to saturate the instability. Radiative collapse continues until the temperature in the high density condensation falls sufficiently to reduce the radiation rate

  11. About the magneto-acoustic instabilities in mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonkov, A.V.; Timofeev, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic of a plasma in mirrors anisotropy of io on distribution function versus velocities may results in the drive of magneto-acoustic instabilities. This instability, in contast to the well known Alyven oscillation instability, is driven on ion cyclotron frequency harmonics The instability in question has been possibly observed during the experiments a at the tmx device, where the oscillations have been excited both at the ion cycl tron frequency and harmonics

  12. A general approach to optomechanical parametric instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.; Barsotti, L.; Fritschel, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple feedback description of parametric instabilities which can be applied to a variety of optical systems. Parametric instabilities are of particular interest to the field of gravitational-wave interferometry where high mechanical quality factors and a large amount of stored optical power have the potential for instability. In our use of Advanced LIGO as an example application, we find that parametric instabilities, if left unaddressed, present a potential threat to the stability of high-power operation.

  13. Oriented Morphology and Anisotropic Transport in Uniaxially Stretched Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Park; J Li; G Divoux; L Madsen; R Moore

    2011-12-31

    Relations between morphology and transport sensitively govern proton conductivity in perfluorsulfonate ionomers (PFSIs) and thus determine useful properties of these technologically important materials. In order to understand such relations, we have conducted a broad systematic study of H{sup +}-form PFSI membranes over a range of uniaxial extensions and water uptakes. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy, uniaxial deformation induces a strong alignment of ionic domains along the stretching direction. We correlate ionic domain orientation to transport using pulsed-field-gradient {sup 1}H NMR measurements of water diffusion coefficients along the three orthogonal membrane directions. Intriguingly, we observe that uniaxial deformation enhances water transport in one direction (parallel-to-draw direction) while reducing it in the other two directions (two orthogonal directions relative to the stretching direction). We evaluate another important transport parameter, proton conductivity, along two orthogonal in-plane directions. In agreement with water diffusion experiments, orientation of ionic channels increases proton conduction along the stretching direction while decreasing it in the perpendicular direction. These findings provide valuable fodder for optimal application of PFSI membranes as well as for the design of next generation polymer electrolyte membranes.

  14. The review on tessellation origami inspired folded structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chai Chen; Keong, Choong Kok

    2017-10-01

    Existence of folds enhances the load carrying capacity of a folded structure which makes it suitable to be used for application where large open space is required such as large span roof structures and façade. Folded structure is closely related to origami especially the tessellation origami. Tessellation origami provides a folded configuration with facetted surface as a result from repeated folding pattern. Besides that, tessellation origami has flexible folding mechanism that produced a variety of 3-dimensional folded configurations. Despite the direct relationship between fold in origami and folded structure, the idea of origami inspired folded structure is not properly reviewed in the relevant engineering field. Hence, this paper aims to present the current studies from related discipline which has direct relation with application of tessellation origami in folded structure. First, tessellation origami is properly introduced and defined. Then, the review covers the topic on the origami tessellation design suitable for folded structure, its modeling and simulation method, and existing studies and applications of origami as folded structure is presented. The paper also includes the discussion on the current issues related to each topic.

  15. A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji

    Study Design: Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Objectives: Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The

  16. Methods for thermal inactivation of pathogens in mozzarella: a comparison between stretching and pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Raimundo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of stretching in the reduction of pathogens when compared to milk pasteurization, the official method to ensure safe cheese production. Whole buffalo milk was contaminated with Mycobacterium fortuitum, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Part of the milk was used in mozzarella production and the other part was submitted to holder pasteurization. Pathogens were quantified before and after thermal processing (mozzarella stretching and milk pasteurization. Pasteurization and stretching led to the following reductions in log cycles, respectively: 4.0 and 6.3 for Mycobacterium sp.; 6.0 and 8.4 for Listeria sp.; >6.8 and 4.5 for Staphylococcus sp.; and >8.2 and 7.5 for Salmonella sp.

  17. IMPROVING VERTICAL AND LATERAL RESOLUTION BY STRETCH-FREE, HORIZON-ORIENTED IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The pre-stack Kirchhoff migration is implemented for delivering wavelet stretch-free imaged data, if the migration is (ideally limited to the wavelet corresponding to a target horizon. Avoiding wavelet stretch provides long-offset imaged data, far beyond what is reached in conventional migration and results in images from the target with improved vertical and lateral resolution and angular illumination. Increasing the range of imaged offsets also increases the sensitivity to event-crossing, velocity errors and anisotropy. These issues must be addressed to fully achieve the greatest potential of this technique. These ideas are further illustrated with a land survey seismic data application in Texas, U.S.

  18. Multiple refraction switches realized by stretching elastomeric scatterers in sonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of out-of-plane pre-stretch on the 2D sonic crystal with stretchable elastomeric scatterers is explored. The hyperelastic scatterers are characterized by a compressible neo-Hookean model. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN map is adopted to obtain the band structure and equi-frequency contours. We focus on the first passband and find that a variety of switching functionalities for refraction behaviors can be realized in selected frequencies under a specific pre-stretch range. These refraction switches enable an active control of wave propagation and are applicable in advanced technologies where switchable and multifunctional sonic crystals are required.

  19. Tidal instability in exoplanetary systems evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gal P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new element is proposed to play a role in the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems: the tidal (or elliptical instability. It comes from a parametric resonance and takes place in any rotating fluid whose streamlines are (even slightly elliptically deformed. Based on theoretical, experimental and numerical works, we estimate the growth rate of the instability for hot-jupiter systems, when the rotation period of the star is known. We present the physical process, its application to stars, and preliminary results obtained on a few dozen systems, summarized in the form of a stability diagram. Most of the systems are trapped in the so-called "forbidden zone", where the instability cannot grow. In some systems, the tidal instability is able to grow, at short timescales compared to the system evolution. Implications are discussed in the framework of misaligned transiting systems, as the rotational axis of the star would be unstable in systems where this elliptical instability grows.

  20. Study of the solvent effects on the molecular structure and Cdbnd O stretching vibrations of flurbiprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Nalan; Pir, Hacer; Sagdinc, Seda

    2012-12-01

    The effects of 15 solvents on the C=O stretching vibrational frequency of flurbiprofen (FBF) were determined to investigate solvent-solute interactions. Solvent effects on the geometry and C=O stretching vibrational frequency, ν(C=O), of FBF were studied theoretically at the DFT/B3LYP and HF level in combination with the polarizable continuum model and experimentally using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The calculated C=O stretching frequencies in the liquid phase are in agreement with experimental values. Moreover, the wavenumbers of ν(C=O) of FBF in different solvents have been obtained and correlated with the Kirkwood-Bauer-Magat equation (KBM), the solvent acceptor numbers (ANs), and the linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The solvent-induced stretching vibrational frequency shifts displayed a better correlation with the LSERs than with the ANs and KBM.

  1. Stretched-exponential decay functions from a self-consistent model of dielectric relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Rypdal, K.

    2008-01-01

    There are many materials whose dielectric properties are described by a stretched exponential, the so-called Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) relaxation function. Its physical origin and statistical-mechanical foundation have been a matter of debate in the literature. In this Letter we suggest a model of dielectric relaxation, which naturally leads to a stretched exponential decay function. Some essential characteristics of the underlying charge conduction mechanisms are considered. A kinetic description of the relaxation and charge transport processes is proposed in terms of equations with time-fractional derivatives

  2. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Saturation of equatorial inertial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other

  4. Generalized laser filamentation instability coupled to cooling instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.; Wong, J.; Garrison, J.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the propagation of laser light in an initially slightly nonuniform plasma. The classical dispersion relation for the laser filamentation growth rate (see e.g., B. Langdon, in the 1980 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Program Annual Report, pp. 3-56, UCRL-50021-80, 1981) can be generalized to include other acoustical effects. For example, we find that the inclusion of potential imbalances in the heating and cooling rates of the ambient medium due to density and temperature perturbations can cause the laser filamentation mode to bifurcate into a cooling instability mode at long acoustic wavelengths. We also attempt to study semi-analytically the nonlinear evolution of this and related instabilities. These results have wide applications to a variety of chemical gas lasers and phenomena related to laser-target interactions (e.g., jet-like behavior)

  5. Faraday instability on patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Rubinstein, Gregory; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2013-11-01

    We show how micro-scale surface patterning can be used to control the onset of the Faraday instability in thin liquid films. It is well known that when a liquid film on a planar substrate is subject to sufficient vibrational accelerations, the free surface destabilizes, exhibiting a family of non-linear standing waves. This instability remains a canonical problem in the study of spontaneous pattern formation, but also has practical uses. For example, the surface waves induced by the Faraday instability have been studied as a means of enhanced damping for mechanical vibrations (Genevaux et al. 2009). Also the streaming within the unstable layer has been used as a method for distributing heterogeneous cell cultures on growth medium (Takagi et al. 2002). In each of these applications, the roughness of the substrate significantly affects the unstable flow field. We consider the effect of patterned substrates on the onset and behavior of the Faraday instability over a range of pattern geometries and feature heights where the liquid layer is thicker than the pattern height. Also, we describe a physical model for the influence of patterned roughness on the destabilization of a liquid layer in order to improve the design of practical systems which exploit the Faraday instability.

  6. Coupled-bunch instabilities in the APS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, L.

    1991-01-01

    A study of coupled bunch instabilities for the APS storage ring is presented. The instabilities are driven by the higher-order modes of the fifteen 352-MHz single-cell RF cavities. These modes are modeled using the 2-D cavity program URMEL. The program ZAP is then used to estimate the growth time of the instabilities for an equally-spaced bunch pattern. The cavity modes most responsible for the instabilities will be singles out for damping. 7 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in solar spicules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ebadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magneto hydrodynamic waves, propagating along spicules, may become unstable and the expected instability is of Kelvin-Helmholtz type. Such instability can trigger the onset of wave turbulence leading to an effective plasma heating and particle acceleration. In present study, two-dimensional magneto hydrodynamic simulations performed on a Cartesian grid is presented in spicules with different densities, moving at various speeds depending on their environment. Simulations being applied in this study show the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and transition to turbulent flow in spicules. Development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability leads to momentum and energy transport, dissipation, and mixing of fluids. When magnetic fields are involved, field amplification is also possible to take place

  8. Model of oscillatory instability in vertically-homogeneous atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Rutkevich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence and repeatability of tornadoes could be straightforwardly explained if there existed instability, responsible for their formation. However, it is well known that convection is the only instability in initially stable air, and the usual convective instability is not applicable for these phenomena. In the present paper we describe an instability in the atmosphere, which can be responsible for intense vortices. This instability appears in a fluid with Coriolis force and dissipation and has oscillatory behaviour, where the amplitude growth is accompanied by oscillations with frequency comparable to the growth rate of the instability. In the paper, both analytical analysis of the linear phase of the instability and nonlinear simulation of the developed stage of the air motion are addressed. This work was supported by the RFBR grant no. 09-05-00374-a.

  9. Experimental observations of flow instabilities and rapid mixing of two dissimilar viscoelastic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiong Yap Gan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Viscoelastically induced flow instabilities, via a simple planar microchannel, were previously used to produce rapid mixing of two dissimilar polymeric liquids (i.e. at least a hundredfold different in shear viscosity even at a small Reynolds number. The unique advantage of this mixing technology is that viscoelastic liquids are readily found in chemical and biological samples like organic and polymeric liquids, blood and crowded proteins samples; their viscoelastic properties could be exploited. As such, an understanding of the underlying interactions will be important especially in rapid microfluidic mixing involving multiple-stream flow of complex (viscoelastic fluids in biological assays. Here, we use the same planar device to experimentally show that the elasticity ratio (i.e. the ratio of stored elastic energy to be relaxed between two liquids indeed plays a crucial role in the entire flow kinematics and the enhanced mixing. We demonstrate here that the polymer stretching dynamics generated in the upstream converging flow and the polymer relaxation events occurring in the downstream channel are not exclusively responsible for the transverse flow mixing, but the elasticity ratio is also equally important. The role of elasticity ratio for transverse flow instability and the associated enhanced mixing were illustrated based on experimental observations. A new parameter Deratio = Deside / Demain (i.e. the ratio of the Deborah number (De of the sidestream to the mainstream liquids is introduced to correlate the magnitude of energy discontinuity between the two liquids. A new Deratio-Demain operating space diagram was constructed to present the observation of the effects of both elasticity and energy discontinuity in a compact manner, and for a general classification of the states of flow development.

  10. Effectiveness of Plantar Fascia-Specific Stretching Exercises in Plantar Fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim Özer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Plantar fasciitis (PF is a painful and disabling disease that affects the quality of life and daily activities of patients and it is the most common cause of heel pain in adults. In primary treatment, conservative treatment is suggested and different conservative options are described in the literature. In our study, we evaluated the efficacy of plantar fascia-specific stretching exercises in the treatment of PF. Methods: Twenty-nine feet - 21 patients with the mean age of 49.3 years were included in the study. The mean length of follow-up was 19.8 months and the mean length of exercise period was 4.94 months. Non-weight bearing plantar fascia-specific stretching exercise was done twice daily, for 10 times at each session. In addition to exercises, silicone heel pad and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID were added. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for pain evaluation. Results: Full recovery detected in 15 feet in 10 patients (52% and a decrease in pain was seen in 10 feet in 8 patients (34%. There was no response in 4 feet in 3 patients (14%. There was statistically significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment visual analog scale scores (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Plantar fascia-specific stretching exercise is an effective treatment option in PF.