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Sample records for stretcher ring elsa

  1. ELSA electron stretcher devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The use of an electron stretcher ring at the Bonn electron synchrotron is discussed. The construction of the proposed ring is described, and the costs are estimated. Possible experiments using this ring are discussed. (HSI)

  2. Broadband feedback systems for the damping of coherent beam instabilities in the stretcher ring ELSA; Breitbandige Feedback-Systeme zur Daempfung kohaerenter Strahlinstabilitaeten am Stretcherring ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Andre

    2012-12-15

    At the Electron Stretcher Facility ELSA an upgrade of the internal beam current up to 200 mA would be desirable in order to increase the intensity of the extracted electron beam for the future experimental hadron physics program. However, such an upgrade is mainly limited by the excitation of coherent beam instabilities in the stretcher ring. As active counteraction, broadband bunch-by-bunch feedback-systems for the longitudinal, as well as for both transverse planes were installed. After detection of the motion of each of the 27 4 stored bunches via beam position monitors, the systems determine independent correction signals for each bunch using digital signal processors. The amplified correction signals are applied to the beam by means of broadband longitudinal and transverse kicker structures. The detailed setup, the commissioning procedure and measurement results of the damping performance of the systems are presented. In addition, the operation of the longitudinal system during the fast energy ramp of 4 GeV/s from 1.2 GeV to 3.2 GeV is investigated.

  3. Optical beam diagnostics at the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA; Optische Strahldiagnose an der Elektronen-Stretcher-Anlage ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, Sven

    2013-10-15

    At the ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA, a resonant excitation of the horizontal particle oscillations is used to extract the electrons to the experiments. This so-called resonance extraction influences the properties of the extracted beam. The emittance, as a number of the beam quality, was determined by using synchrotron light monitors. To enable broad investigations of the emittance a system of synchrotron light monitors was set up. This system was used to measure the influence of the extraction method on the emittance. Time resolved measurements were conducted to investigate the development of the emittance during an accelerator cycle. To improve the optical beam diagnostics a new beamline to an external laboratory was constructed. There, a new high resolution synchrotron light monitor was commissioned. In addition, a streak camera has been installed to enable longitudinal diagnostics of the beam profiles. First measurements of the longitudinal charge distribution with a time resolution in the range of a few picoseconds were conducted successfully.

  4. Correction of the equilibrium orbit at the Bonn 3.5 GeV electron stretcher facility ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, J.

    1990-09-01

    A beam position monitor system is being built for the Bonn electron stretcher facility ELSA. Based on the ELSA monitor system the Closed Orbit Correction Program for Interactive Tasks COCPIT has been developed. It enables an online correction of the closed orbit and is fully integrated into the ELSA operating system which allows control of all steering and diagnostic facilities of ELSA. COCPIT implements least square and harmonic correction methods with choosable harmonic components. A statistical analysis shows which correction method is best under given circumstances. Furthermore data about the current status of the monitor system as well as the corrector system enter the correction. Monitor offsets are added to the position measurements and the corrector-dipoles maximum currents are accounted for as constraints. Computer simulations prove the proper work of COCPIT and the validity of the statistical analysis. Possibilities of a future development of COCPIT are shown. (orig.) [de

  5. Kharkov 3-GeV pulse stretcher ring as a source of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyshev, V.F.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Grigor'ev, Y.N.; Guk, I.S.; Efimov, S.V.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Mocheshnikov, N.I.; Popkov, Y.P.; Tarasenko, A.S.; Telegin, Y.N.; Chechetenko, V.F.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Titov, V.A.; Nagaenko, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The article discusses the possibility of using the pulse stretcher ring, designed at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, as a synchrotron radiation source (SRS). Comparison is made between our SRS design parameters and those of other dedicated SRSs

  6. Design of the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, C.; Noda, A.; Kimiya, Y.; Kihara, M.; Yamane, I.

    1991-01-01

    A possibility of adopting a racetrack-type design for the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project is described. This design has two long straight sections to enable to inject the H - beam and to produce a high β point for the slow extraction. (author)

  7. Design of the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, C.; Noda, A.; Kamiya, Y.; Kihara, M.; Yamane, I.

    1991-02-01

    A possibility of adopting a racetrack-type design for the compressor/stretcher ring of the Japanese Hadron Project is described. This design has two long straight sections to enable to inject the H - beam and to produce a high β point for the slow extraction. (author)

  8. The Compton polarimeter at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.

    1998-06-01

    In order to measure the degree of transverse polarization of the stored electron beam in the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA a compton polarimeter is built up. The measurement is based on the polarization dependent cross section for the compton scattering of circular polarized photons off polarized electrons. Using a high power laser beam and detecting the scattered photons a measuring time of two minutes with a statistical error of 5% is expected from numerical simulations. The design and the results of a computer controlled feedback system to enhance the laser beam stability at the interaction point in ELSA are presented. The detection of the scattered photons is based on a lead converter and a silicon-microstrip detector. The design and test results of the detector module including readout electronic and computer control are discussed. (orig.)

  9. A beam diagnostic system for ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillo, M.; Althoff, K.H.; Drachenfels, W.; Goetz, T.; Husmann, D.; Neckenig, M.; Picard, M.; Schittko, F.J.; Schauerte, W.; Wenzel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A beam diagnostic system, which is based on capacitive beam-position monitors combined with fast electronics, has been developed for the Bonn ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA. The position signal of each monitor is digitized at an adjustable sampling rate (max.: 10 MHz) and the most recent 8192 position and intensity values are buffered. This allows a wide range of different beam diagnostic measurements. The main purpose is the closed-orbit correction, which can be carried out on various time scales. To optimize the duty factor of the extracted beam, the system can also be used as a fast relative intensity monitor resolving the intensity distribution of the bunches or of the injected beam. It is designed to support betatron tune and phase measurements with very high accuracy, offering the choice to select any of the beam position monitors. This enables the measuring of many optical parameters. Furthermore any pair of suitable monitors can be used for experimental particle tracking or phase space measurements

  10. 21 CFR 880.6910 - Wheeled stretcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheeled stretcher. 880.6910 Section 880.6910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... platform mounted on a wheeled frame that is designed to transport patients in a horizontal position. The...

  11. Quality between mechanical compression on reducible stretcher versus manual compression on standard stretcher in small elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Han; Hong, Ki Jeong; Sang Do, Shin; Kim, Chu Hyun; Song, Sung Wook; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ro, Young Sun; Ahn, Ki Ok; Jang, Dayea Beatrice

    2016-08-01

    Manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during vertical transport in small elevators using standard stretcher for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest can raise concerns with diminishing quality. Mechanical CPR on a reducible stretcher (RS-CPR) that can be shortened in the length was tested to compare the CPR quality with manual CPR on a standard stretcher (SS-CPR). A randomized crossover manikin simulation was designed. Three teams of emergency medical technicians were recruited to perform serial CPR simulations using two different protocols (RS-CPR and SS-CPR) according to a randomization; the first 6 minutes of manual CPR at the scene was identical for both scenarios and two different protocols during vertical transport in a small elevator followed on a basis of cross-over assignment. The LUCAS-2 Chest Compression System (Zolife AB, Lund, Sweden) was used for RS-CPR. CPR quality was measured using a resuscitation manikin (Resusci Anne QCPR, Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway) in terms of no flow fraction, compression depth, and rate (median and IQR). A total of 42 simulations were analyzed. CPR quality did not differ significantly at the scene. No flow fraction (%) was significantly lower when the stretcher was moving in RS-CPR then SS-CPR (36.0 (33.8-38.7) vs 44.0 (36.8-54.4), P< .01). RS-CPR showed significantly better quality than SS-CPR; 93.2 (50.6-95.6) vs 14.8 (0-20.8) for adequate depth (P< 0.01), and 97.5 (96.6-98.2) vs 68.9(43.4-78.5) for adequate rate (P< .01). Mechanical CPR on a reducible stretcher during vertical transport showed significant improvement in CPR quality in terms of no-flow fraction, compression depth, and rate compared with manual CPR on a standard stretcher. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating the Use of Stretchers in Two Mobile Refuge Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberger, John R; Pollard, Jonisha P

    2016-01-01

    In a mine emergency where refuge is necessary, miners may sustain injuries that will render them unable to walk or crawl. In this situation, a miner may have to rely on others for transportation into the mobile refuge alternative (RA) while on a stretcher. Since requirements for mine first-aid stations were developed before RAs, stretchers should be evaluated to determine whether they are usable in an RA and within the physical capabilities of miners in a refuge. The size of the RA airlock is a concern, as it has not been determined if current airlocks will accommodate a miner on a stretcher. This study evaluated the time required to move three types of stretchers into two commercially available RAs. The splint stretcher had the longest average time to move into each RA as compared to the backboard and soft stretcher. This increase was mostly due to the increased time requirements for getting the splint stretcher into the airlock. For all stretchers, it took approximately two to three times longer to enter the inflatable tent-type RA compared to the rigid steel RA. Mining companies should consider how well their current first-aid implements work with their RAs and manufacturers of inflatable RAs should maximize the size of the outer doors leading into the airlock to allow an easier entry for stretchers.

  13. Development of stretcher component robots for rescue against nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yuki; Osuka, Koichi; Amano, Hisanori

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the rescue robots to rescue people in an area polluted with radioactive leakage in nuclear power institutions. In particular, we propose the rescue system which consists of a group of small mobile robots. First, small traction robots set the posture of the fainted victims to carry easily, and carry them to the safety space with the mobile robots for the stretcher composition. In this paper, we confirm that the stretcher component robots could transport and convey a 40 [kg] dummy doll. And, we also show an application usage of stretcher robot. (author)

  14. Predicting stretcher carriage: Investigating variations in bilateral carry tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Middleton, Kane J; Carstairs, Greg L; Billing, Daniel C; Caldwell, Joanne N

    2016-07-01

    Carrying a casualty on a stretcher is a critical task within military and emergency service occupations. This study evaluated the impact of manipulating carry speed and the object type in bilateral carries on the ability to predict performance and reflect the physical and physiological requirements of a unilateral stretcher carry. We demonstrated that three task-related predictive tests; a jerry can carry performed at 4.5 km h(-1)or 5.0 km h(-1) and a kettle-bell carry performed at 5.0 km h(-1) were strongly predictive of the physical and physiological demands of an individual participating as part of a four-person stretcher carry team. Therefore, bilateral predictive assessments have the utility for predicting the suitability of employees to effectively and safely conduct a four-person unilateral stretcher carry. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ELSA - tõenäoliselt parim juuratudengite ühendus maailmas / Margit Käpp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käpp, Margit

    2008-01-01

    1981. aastal asutatud Euroopa juuratudengite ühendusest The European Law Students' Association (ELSA). Artikli kirjutamisele aitasid kaasa Pille Talpsepp (ELSA Estonia president aastal 2008/2009) ja Heiki Eesmaa (ELSA Estonia asepresident seminaride ja konverentside alal)

  16. Operational amplifier based stretcher for stripline beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyey, W.C.; Kruse, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The stretcher amp was designed to accommodate existing instrumentation at the Boeing Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. The beam format for this system consists of two macropulses per second. Each macropulse contains several hundred micropulses separated by 462ns. Thus, 462ns is the upper limit to which the pulse can be stretched. The corresponding filter bandwidth would be about 3 Mhz. In the stripline data acquisition system, one of six striplines is switched to a single transient digitizer channel. Tektronix TSS46 microwave relay switches are used. The output of the TSS46 goes into stretcher amps described here. The resulting signals are digitized by Analytek 2004S or 2008S transient digitizers. The transient digitizer timing is such that it samples the negative peak of the stripline signal from each micropulse. Its analogue bandwidth is 300 Mhz. For good temperature stability and linearity, the stretcher bandwidth should be much less than 300MHz, for example 30Mhz. This defines a lower limit to the pulse width. 30Mhz was chosen for the filter bandwidth. Making the bandwidth smaller would have required more gain in the output amplifier. This would have resulted in too much noise at the output. Additionally, temperature drift and nonlinearity would also increase

  17. Erythrocyte deformation in high-throughput optical stretchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraj, Ihab; Szatmary, Alex C.; Desai, Sanjay A.; Marr, David W. M.; Eggleton, Charles D.

    2013-01-01

    Optical stretchers can be used to quantify elastic and homeostatic properties of cells. Because they can apply forces to cells without requiring direct contact, they may noninvasively measure mechanical properties related to cell and membrane health. Present-day optical stretchers are, however, limited to measurements on individual stationary cells, limiting throughput. To overcome this limitation and allow study of variations in cell populations, we recently developed and tested a microfluidic chamber that measures optical stretching parameters for erythrocytes under dynamic flowing conditions. The method uses a single linear diode laser bar and permitted measurements at low flow rates and higher throughput. Here, we numerically investigate the feasibility of further increasing the measurement rates of the optical stretcher in parameter domains where hydrodynamic and optical forces are of comparable magnitude. To do this we couple a recently implemented dynamic optical ray-tracing technique with a fluid-structure interaction solver to simulate the deformation of osmotically swollen erythrocytes in fluid flow of variable rate. Our results demonstrate that a detectable steady-state stretch is induced at nominal optical powers and flow rates. In addition, we find that flow rates can be increased significantly with no major effect on net cell stretch showing the feasibility of application of this technique at greatly increased throughputs. PMID:22680514

  18. Orthopedic stretcher with average-sized person can pass through 18-inch opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothschuetz, F. X.

    1966-01-01

    Modified Robinson stretcher for vertical lifting and carrying, will pass through an opening 18 inches in diameter, while containing a person of average height and weight. A subject 6 feet tall and weighing 200 pounds was lowered and raised out of an 18 inch diameter opening in a tank to test the stretcher.

  19. Implementing powered stretcher and load systems was a cost effective intervention to reduce the incidence rates of stretcher related injuries in a paramedic service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Daniel P; Ferron, Richard; Taylor, Cindi; McLeod, Brent; Fletcher, Steve; MacPhee, Renée S; Fischer, Steven L

    2017-07-01

    Paramedic services are considering moving towards the use of powered stretcher and load systems to reduce stretcher related injuries, but cost is perceived as a barrier. This study compared injury incidence rates, days lost, and compensation costs between Niagara Emergency Medical Service (NEMS) and Hamilton Paramedic Service (HPS) pre- (four years) and post- (one year) implementation of powered stretcher and load systems in NEMS. Prior to the intervention stretcher related musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) incidence rates averaged 20.0 (±6.8) and 17.9 (±6.4) per 100 full time equivalent (FTE), in NEMS and HPS respectively. One-year post intervention rates decreased to 4.3 per 100 FTE in NEMS, a 78% reduction. Rates modestly increased to 24.6 per 100 FTE in HPS in same period. Cost-benefit analysis estimated that the added cost to purchase powered stretcher and load systems would be recovered within their expected 7-year service life due to the reduction in compensation costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Goodloe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports. No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%. From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher’s exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events.

  1. Determination of intensity and position of the extracted electron beam at ELSA by means of high-frequency resonators; Bestimmung von Intensitaet und Position des extrahierten Elektronenstrahls an ELSA mittels Hochfrequenzresonatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Thorsten

    2012-06-15

    The electron stretcher facility ELSA provides an electron beam of a few hundred pA used for the generation of bremsstrahlung photons probing the nucleon structure in a detector setup. For the correct interpretation of the events registered, the persistence of the beam position over time is crucial. Its continuous monitoring has been enabled by setting up a measurement system based on resonant cavities. Position signals at a frequency of 1.5 GHz and below one aW of power can be abstracted from the beam without degrading its quality. After frequency down-conversion to a few kHz, a narrow bandwidth detection performed by lock-in amplifiers separates them from noise. A maximum sample rate of 9 Hz and a resolution of one tenth of a millimeter could be achieved. The position signals have to be normalized to the beam current which is monitored by another dedicated resonator. The measurement precision down to a few pA allows for the accelerator extraction mechanism to be controlled by a feedback loop in order to obtain the respective requested current. (orig.)

  2. Requirements on internal targets for the Aladdin storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of performing electron scattering experiments with polarized targets in electron storage rings is explored by considering an electron-deuteron scattering experiment at the Aladdin storage ring. It is noted that this new method is compatible with recent proposals for linac-stretcher-ring accelerator designs. A new method for producing a polarized hydrogen or deuterium target is proposed and some preliminary results are described. 21 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  3. Biomechanic evaluation of the Rola Stretcher as a passive distraction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devocht, J W; Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Spratt, K F

    2000-05-01

    Many devices have been marketed claiming to increase the mobility of the articulations of the spine with active or passive distraction. In this study, the Rola Stretcher (Unique Relief, Inc, Davenport, Iowa) and an earlier version, the True Back II (True Back, Inc, Clearwater, Fla), were evaluated to see if they have a measurable biomechanic effect on the spine. Two studies were conducted, each with 6 male participants and 6 female participants, using a stadiometer to accurately measure a person's sitting height. The increase in sitting height after using the True Back II or Rola Stretcher for 10 minutes was compared with that after lying supine for 10 minutes. A third intervention, a firm foam block cut to the same size and shape as the True Back II, was also used in this study. The Rola Stretcher had a significantly greater lengthening effect on the spine compared with supine rest (P <0050). The True Back II had a similar but lesser effect (P <.0509). Women demonstrated a greater height gain than men. The True Back II and the Rola Stretcher in particular appear to lengthen the spine after a single use of 10 minutes. The observed discrepancy between the effects in men and women may be an experimental artifact occurring as a result of less effective resetting of the posturing mechanisms in men compared with women. A trend showed the Rola Stretcher to be more effective than the foam block.

  4. From ethics of restriction to ethics of construction: ELSA research in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Nydal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in ELSA policies are marked by keywords like collaboration, integration and Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI. This article analyzes how these trends have manifested themselves in Norway with the aim to find ways to understand and respond adequately to these policy developments. Recent criticisms of ELSA strategies accompanied by arguments for a turn towards ‘post-ELSI’ research approaches hold that ELSA research was designed to maintain a sharp unproductive normative division of labor between natural scientists on the one hand and ELSA researchers on the other hand. ELSA strategies consequently have to be overcome and restructured towards collaboration, integration and RRI. Our account of the Norwegian ELSA history does not support this simple analysis of the ‘modernist’ character of early ELSA strategies. We present and analyze a shift as it took place in two successive ELSA programs in the Research Council of Norway, and argue that ELSA policies that rest only on post-ELSI analyses, risk reinventing the wheel of collaboration. By insisting on the creation of novel designing strategies, one disregards important lessons from the early phases of ELSA research, and even more importantly, fails to recognize that an ethics of construction implies different challenges for different groups of ELSA researchers.

  5. Use of skin stretchers for single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuta; Aikawa, Takeshi; Shimatsu, Taichi; Nishimura, Masaaki; Sadahiro, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    To describe the application of skin stretchers for closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomies in a dog and a cat. Clinical case report. A 12-year-old intact female Miniature Dachshund and a 13-year-old spayed female domestic short-hair cat. Skin stretchers were applied to the site of the skin adjacent to mammary glands for 2-4 days before surgery. Cable tension was adjusted every 6-8 hours to elongate the skin and to achieve primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy without tension. Wound closure after single-stage bilateral mastectomy was achieved without tension or major complication in both animals. Use of skin stretchers allows primary closure of single-stage bilateral mastectomy in dogs and cats. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  7. L'ISOLA DI ARTURO DI ELSA MORANTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Vi è una curiosa atmosfera di attesa negli anni '50, ed è questa temperie morale che Elsa Morante rappresenta e interpreta nell'Isola di Arturo. Nel romanzo la Morante ci dà veramente un ritratto intero di quegli anni, nel senso che dal testo sorge una attitudine complessa, contenente in sè la percezione del tempo in corso, ...

  8. Prospect of polarized targets in electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of performing electron scattering experiments with polarized targets in electron storage rings is discussed. Three examples of the physics which would be accessible with this novel method are given. It is noted that this new method is compatible with recent proposals for linac-stretcher-ring accelerator designs. A new method for producing a polarized hydrogen or deuterium target is proposed and some preliminary results are described. A brief summary of laser-driven polarized targets as well as conventionally-produced polarized atomic beams is included

  9. Validation and perspectives of a femtosecond laser fabricated monolithic optical stretcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Nicola; Bragheri, Francesca; Cristiani, Ilaria; Guck, Jochen; Osellame, Roberto; Whyte, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    The combination of high power laser beams with microfluidic delivery of cells is at the heart of high-throughput, single-cell analysis and disease diagnosis with an optical stretcher. So far, the challenges arising from this combination have been addressed by externally aligning optical fibres with microfluidic glass capillaries, which has a limited potential for integration into lab-on-a-chip environments. Here we demonstrate the successful production and use of a monolithic glass chip for optical stretching of white blood cells, featuring microfluidic channels and optical waveguides directly written into bulk glass by femtosecond laser pulses. The performance of this novel chip is compared to the standard capillary configuration. The robustness, durability and potential for intricate flow patterns provided by this monolithic optical stretcher chip suggest its use for future diagnostic and biotechnological applications. PMID:23082304

  10. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Sheng; Feng, Ya-Ping; Xie, Jia-Xin; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Shen, Cai-Hong; Niu, Fang; Zou, Jian; Tang, Shao-Feng; Hao, Jiang; Xu, Jia-Xiang; Xiao, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its intrinsic advantages in

  11. A novel first aid stretcher for immobilization and transportation of spine injured patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Sheng Liu

    Full Text Available Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its

  12. Study of laser pulses propagation through an ultrashort pulse amplifying systems for the development of an Offner temporal stretcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordeiro, Thiago da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The study of laser pulses propagation through an ultrashort pulses amplifying system containing dispersive and spectral modifying media was performed. The study emphasis was the development of an ultrashort pulse stretcher to replace the one inside a hybrid Ti:Sapphire/Cr:LiSAF CPA system operating at the Center for Lasers and Applications at IPEN/CNEN-SP. A spherical aberration free Offner stretcher was theoretically studied, aiming to obtain a stretching ratio larger than the one available in our system. The influence of the phase components in the amplified pulse final duration was also studied, and the bandwidth limiting elements of the system in operation were mapped, with the purpose of determining the conditions under which a new stretcher should be implemented. Based on the actual measurements, computing routines were implemented in order to determine the consequences of an ultrashort pulse travelling through a bandwidth limiting component. (author)

  13. Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers

    KAUST Repository

    Sraj, Ihab

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution induced by optical stretchers on a cell encapsulating a nucleus of different optical properties. These optical forces are shape dependent and can deform real non-rigid objects; thus resulting in dynamically changing distributions with cell and nucleus deformation. A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is a common biological cell that is of interest to the biomedical community because of its use in recombinant protein therapeutics and is an example of a nucleated cell. To this end, we model CHO cells as two concentric three-dimensional elastic capsules immersed in a fluid where the hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the immersed boundary method. We vary the inner capsule size to simulate different nucleus sizes. Our results show that the presence of a nucleus has a major effect on the force distribution on the cell surface and consequently on its net deformation. Scattering and gradient forces are reported for different nucleus sizes and the effect of nucleus size on the cell deformation is discussed quantitatively. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sraj, Ihab; Francois, Joshua; Eggleton, Charles D; Marr, David W M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution induced by optical stretchers on a cell encapsulating a nucleus of different optical properties. These optical forces are shape dependent and can deform real non-rigid objects; thus resulting in dynamically changing distributions with cell and nucleus deformation. A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is a common biological cell that is of interest to the biomedical community because of its use in recombinant protein therapeutics and is an example of a nucleated cell. To this end, we model CHO cells as two concentric three-dimensional elastic capsules immersed in a fluid where the hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the immersed boundary method. We vary the inner capsule size to simulate different nucleus sizes. Our results show that the presence of a nucleus has a major effect on the force distribution on the cell surface and consequently on its net deformation. Scattering and gradient forces are reported for different nucleus sizes and the effect of nucleus size on the cell deformation is discussed quantitatively. (paper)

  15. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  16. Using aspen for artist stretcher frames: adding value through quality service, direct marketing, and careful material selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris. Polson

    2001-01-01

    Aspen wood, when carefully selected and kiln dried, makes excellent stock for artist stretcher frames. Direct marketing techniques including the Internet and word of mouth give access to national markets, providing a more diverse and stable customer base for operations from a rural area. High-quality service, as shown by product performance and rapid order fulfillment...

  17. Measurement of the reactions γp→K+Λ and γp→K+Σ0 for photon energies up to 2.6 GeV with the SAPHIR detector at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glander, K.H.

    2003-02-01

    The reactions γp→K + Lambda and γp→K + Σ 0 were measured in the energy range from threshold up to a photon energy of 2.6 GeV. The data were taken with the SAPHIR detector at the electron stretcher facility ELSA. Results on cross sections and hyperon polarizations are presented as a function of kaon production angle and photon energy. The total cross section for Λ production shows a strong treshold enhancement wehreas the Σ 0 data have a maximum at about E γ =1.45 GeV. Cross sections together with their angular decompositions into Legendre polynomials suggest contributions from resonance production for both reactions. The K + Λ differential cross section is enhanced for backward produced kaons at E γ ∼1.45 GeV. This might be interpreted as contribution of a so called missing resonance D 13 (1895). In general, the induced polarization of Λ has negative values in the kaon forward direction and positive values in the backward direction. The magnitude varies with energy. The polarization of Σ 0 follows a similar angular and energy dependence as that of Λ, but with opposite sign. (orig.)

  18. Periodic seasonal variation of magnets level of the STB ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Shigenobu

    2003-01-01

    The Stretcher-Booster (STB) ring, a 1.2 GeV electron synchrotron, was completed in December, 1997 at the Laboratory of Nuclear Sciences (LNS), Tohoku University. The total weight more than 400 tons were placed near the STB ring, such as concrete blocks for radiation shielding and a spectrometer magnet for nuclear physics experiments after the completion of the STB ring. Re-surveying of magnets alignment was started after 2000. Very recently a new building of an experimental hall was constructed close to the building of the STB ring for use of high energy γ-ray from the electron beam. The building will give rise the changes of magnet levels due to its seasonal distortion. The measurements of the magnet level after construction are continued as well as an expected change of the closed orbit distortion (COD) in the STB ring. The serious influence of the variation of the magnet level may be a change of the beam orbit of extracted beam in the stretcher operation. Difference of the orbit distortion reaches more than 5 mm. Correlation between the COD and the seasonal change of the magnet position is not clear at the moment. However, the machine operation and the beam diagnostics are getting better recently. Continuous surveying of the magnet level will be a useful data for a feed forward correction of the beam orbit. Future subjects and prospects are discussed on surveying. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. Educational Labeling System for Atmospheres (ELSA): Python Tool Development for Archiving Under the PDS4 Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, Lynn; Hornung, Danae; Sweebe, Kathrine; Huber, Lyle; Chanover, Nancy J.; Stevenson, Zena; Berdis, Jodi; Johnson, Joni J.; Beebe, Reta F.

    2017-10-01

    The Research and Analysis programs within NASA’s Planetary Science Division now require archiving of resultant data with the Planetary Data System (PDS) or an equivalent archive. The PDS Atmospheres Node is developing an online environment for assisting data providers with this task. The Educational Labeling System for Atmospheres (ELSA) is being designed with Django/Python coding to provide an easier environment for facilitating not only communication with the PDS node, but also streamlining the process of learning, developing, submitting, and reviewing archive bundles under the new PDS4 archiving standard. Under the PDS4 standard, data are archived in bundles, collections, and basic products that form an organizational hierarchy of interconnected labels that describe the data and relationships between the data and its documentation. PDS4 labels are implemented using Extensible Markup Language (XML), which is an international standard for managing metadata. Potential data providers entering the ELSA environment can learn more about PDS4, plan and develop label templates, and build their archive bundles. ELSA provides an interface to tailor label templates aiding in the creation of required internal Logical Identifiers (URN - Uniform Resource Names) and Context References (missions, instruments, targets, facilities, etc.). The underlying structure of ELSA uses Django/Python code that make maintaining and updating the interface easy to do for our undergraduate/graduate students. The ELSA environment will soon provide an interface for using the tailored templates in a pipeline to produce entire collections of labeled products, essentially building the user’s archive bundle. Once the pieces of the archive bundle are assembled, ELSA provides options for queuing the completed bundle for peer review. The peer review process has also been streamlined for online access and tracking to help make the archiving process with PDS as transparent as possible. We discuss the

  20. The beam slow extraction from a magnetic ring of Moscow meson facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, O.A.; Malitsky, N.D.; Severgin, Yu.P.; Titov, V.A.; Shukeilo, I.A.; Aseev, V.N.; Grachev, M.I.; Lobashev, V.M.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Ponomaryov, O.V.

    1990-01-01

    The beam slow extraction from the circular accelerators or stretcher rings is generally realized by the resonant excitation of betratron oscillations. A precise betatron frequency control is proved to be quite necessary for high-efficient slow ejection. The Coulomb field turns out to have a significant influence upon the slow extraction from the high-current medium energy proton storage rings. It prevents resonant excitation at a reasonable rate and reduces the ejection efficiency. The proton storage ring of Moscow meson facility is an example of a stretcher with a noticeable beam space charge. The detailed investigation of the resonant ejection, having been performed for our stretcher, resulted in the conclusion that extracted beam average current should be limited by the value of 50 mA, which is only 10% of the linac design current. The search for the alternative version to the resonant ejection made us to analyze in details and to develop an old-fashioned method, based on the radial betatron oscillation excitation while the beam is being gradually shifted onto the thin target. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  1. Accurate offline dispersion measurement of Petawatt-class chirped pulse amplification compressor and stretcher systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, C.; Crane, J.; Halpin, J.; Heebner, J.; Kanz, V.; Phan, H.; Nissen, J.; Shverdin, M.; Hackel, R.; Dawson, J.; Messerly, M.; Siders, C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to produce energetic x-rays in the range of 10-100 keV for backlighting NIF targets. ARC will convert 4 of the 192 NIF beamlines into 8 split beams, delivering laser pulses with adjustable pulse durations from 1 ps to 50 ps at the kilo-Joule level. Adjustable time delays between the 8 beams enable X-ray 'motion-picture' capture with tens-of-picosecond resolution during the critical phases of an ICF shot. The precise alignment of stretcher-compressor pairs in energetic chirped pulse amplification (CPA) systems is tedious and requires several iterations using advanced temporal diagnostics until the shortest pulse durations and highest peak intensities are achieved. For large, energetic Petawatt laser systems with beam sizes up to 40 cm, diffraction gratings in the compressor reach meter-scale size and are difficult to precisely align. We developed a group delay diagnostic which enables accurate, offline measurements of highly dispersive components such as stretchers or compressors with sub-picosecond accuracy. This diagnostic tool enables us to simply measure each dispersive component offline, and balance the dispersion in each beamline. Furthermore it allows exactly matching the dispersion of ARC's eight, independent four-grating compressors, which is critical for producing eight identical pulses. ARC utilizes a unique, folded compressor design for maximum compactness; two 5.5 m long vacuum vessels house 8 compressors with 91 cm x 45 cm multilayer, dielectric gratings. The group delay diagnostic utilizes the phase-shift technique for measuring the dispersion characteristics of each individual element, e.g. grating stretcher, chirped fiber Bragg grating, grating compressor, material dispersion, or an entire laser system. The system uses an amplitude modulated, highly-stable, single-frequency laser, which is scanned over the spectral

  2. Carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo Henrique Sena; Santos Neto, Pedro José Dos; Santos, Itamar de Souza

    2018-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has been used in large studies as a non-invasive marker for subclinical atherosclerosis. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a cohort of 15,105 civil servants in six Brazilian cities that included CIMT evaluation in its baseline assessment. The aim of the present narrative review was to provide an overview of ELSA-Brasil CIMT articles published up to July 31, 2017. Narrative review of ELSA-Brasil CIMT studies using baseline assessment data. We searched PubMed for the terms "ELSA-Brasil" and "intima-media". This search yielded 21 published articles using CIMT data from the ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment, which were included in this review. We also present information about intima-media thickness assessment from ongoing onsite reevaluations of the study participants. Most published studies focused on the association with traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors. Studies also presented information about the ELSA-Brasil CIMT protocol at baseline and CIMT value distribution in this large sample. Analyses on the ELSA-Brasil data led to important insights on CIMT interpretation and physiology. Besides the highlighted contributions which have already been made in this field, new data gathered during the ongoing third onsite assessment will enable investigation of substantially new research questions.

  3. Magnetoresistance and noise properties of chevron stretcher detectors for field access bubble domain devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, P. K.; Oeffinger, T. R.; Chen, T. T.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were devised to study the angular variation of the resistance and noise properties of one- and two-level chevron stretcher magnetoresistive detectors for use in field access bubble memory devices. All measurements, made with an electronic system, were performed on glass or garnet samples upon which 1 micron of SiO2 was sputter-deposited, followed by 4000 A of Permalloy for the 28-micron-period devices and 0.8 microns of SiO2, followed by 3000 A of Permalloy for the 20-micron-period devices. The geometrical and drive-state dependence of the zero-state noise were studied, as was its frequency dependence. It is found that both types of detectors operate primarily in the amplitude-shift mode for drive fields of interest and that the presence of a bubble in a detector causes a magnetoresistance change equal to that produced by increasing the in-plane drive field about 8 Oe in the absence of a bubble.

  4. Work-family conflict and time use: psychometric assessment of an instrument in ELSA-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lima, Keury Thaisana Rodrigues Dos Santos; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-07-04

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the items to measure the work-family conflict and the time use for personal care and leisure, included in the baseline questionnaire of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). We evaluated temporal stability (7-14 days) using kappa statistic and the validity of the construct by the correlation of Kendall's tau with other variables. Test-retest stability was discreet to moderate and the correlations were compatible with the underlying theory. Future studies in the context of ELSA-Brazil and in other populations will complement the assessment of its relevance. RESUMO Neste estudo, avaliamos as propriedades psicométricas dos itens para mensurar o conflito trabalho-família e o uso do tempo para cuidado pessoal e lazer, incluídos no questionário da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliadas a estabilidade temporal (7-14 dias) utilizando estatística kappa e a validade do construto pela correlação tau de Kendall com outras variáveis. A estabilidade teste-reteste foi discreta a moderada e as correlações, compatíveis com a teoria subjacente. Estudos futuros no contexto do ELSA-Brasil e em outras populações complementarão a avaliação da sua pertinência.

  5. L'isola di Arturo di Elsa Morante | Moestrup | Italian Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first two novels of Elsa Morante, Menzogna e sortilegio (1948) and L'isola di Arturo(1957), have always been considered texts without any recognizable relationship to their historical context, contrary to the view expressed by the author that any literary work of value will inevitably contain a portrait of its time. The aim of ...

  6. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  7. Inertial Microfluidic Cell Stretcher (iMCS): Fully Automated, High-Throughput, and Near Real-Time Cell Mechanotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanxiang; Davis, Steven P; Yang, Fan; Paulsen, Kevin S; Kumar, Maneesh; Sinnott DeVaux, Rebecca; Wang, Xianhui; Conklin, Douglas S; Oberai, Assad; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Chung, Aram J

    2017-07-01

    Mechanical biomarkers associated with cytoskeletal structures have been reported as powerful label-free cell state identifiers. In order to measure cell mechanical properties, traditional biophysical (e.g., atomic force microscopy, micropipette aspiration, optical stretchers) and microfluidic approaches were mainly employed; however, they critically suffer from low-throughput, low-sensitivity, and/or time-consuming and labor-intensive processes, not allowing techniques to be practically used for cell biology research applications. Here, a novel inertial microfluidic cell stretcher (iMCS) capable of characterizing large populations of single-cell deformability near real-time is presented. The platform inertially controls cell positions in microchannels and deforms cells upon collision at a T-junction with large strain. The cell elongation motions are recorded, and thousands of cell deformability information is visualized near real-time similar to traditional flow cytometry. With a full automation, the entire cell mechanotyping process runs without any human intervention, realizing a user friendly and robust operation. Through iMCS, distinct cell stiffness changes in breast cancer progression and epithelial mesenchymal transition are reported, and the use of the platform for rapid cancer drug discovery is shown as well. The platform returns large populations of single-cell quantitative mechanical properties (e.g., shear modulus) on-the-fly with high statistical significances, enabling actual usages in clinical and biophysical studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. [Routines of organization of clinical tests and interviews in the ELSA-Brasil investigation center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Pinto, Karina Araújo; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana; Caetano, Edna I; Albuquerque, Liliane da Silva; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a prospective cohort study with extensive assessments throughout time. This article describes the routine of clinical tests and interviews performed with participants and the structuring of the Research Center physical space and teams. The ELSA-Brasil assumes that participants will be present at the Research Center to have the tests and interviews performed, according to standard protocols developed by this study. Considering the multiplicity of activities involved, each with specific needs for standardization, several predetermined orders of clinical tests and interviews were created. This ensured a high standard of quality in data collection without harm to participants' comfort. Each participant was previously assigned to a specific sequence of clinical tests and interviews with a predefined arrival time, mean length of stay of five to six hours and departure time.

  9. Commissioning and initial experimental program of the BGO-OD experiment at ELSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alef S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BGO-OD is a new meson photoproduction experiment at the ELSA facility of Bonn University. It aims at the investigation of non strange and strange baryon excitations, and is especially designed to be able to detect weekly bound meson-baryon type structures. The setup for the BGO-OD experiment is presented, the characteristics of the photon beam and the detector performances are shown and the initial experimental program is discussed.

  10. Afericoes e exames clinicos realizados nos participantes do ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Geraldo Mill

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve os exames clínicos realizados no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil. Alguns deles (antropometria, pressão arterial e índice tornozelo-braquial já têm uso clínico consolidado. Outros, como a velocidade de onda de pulso, variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e medida da espessura médio-intimal de carótidas, carecem de valor de referência na população brasileira não doente e podem constituir preditores importantes de desfechos cardiovasculares. A medida da pressão arterial após manobra postural foi incluída no ELSA-Brasil porque foi pouco testada em estudos epidemiológicos. O ELSA-Brasil inovou na realização do índice tornozelo-braquial, ao usar um aparelho automático em substituição à coluna de mercúrio na medida da pressão arterial, e também na medida do diâmetro ântero-posterior do lobo direito do fígado pela ultrassonografia, proposta para avaliação quantitativa da doença hepática gordurosa não-alcoólica. Os participantes são indivíduos mais jovens (a partir dos 35 anos do que em outras coortes focadas no estudo da aterosclerose subclínica. A inclusão de indivíduos mais jovens e a diversidade dos exames realizados tornam o ELSA-Brasil um estudo relevante no contexto da epidemiologia brasileira e internacional.

  11. A High Dynamic-Range Beam Position Measurement System for ELSA-2

    CERN Document Server

    Balleyguier, P; Guimbal, P; Borrion, H

    2003-01-01

    New beamlines are presently under construction for ELSA, a 20 MeV electron linac located at Bruyères-le-Châtel. These lines need a beam position measurement system filling the following requirements: small footprint, wide dynamic range, single-bunch/multi-bunch capability, simple design. We designed a compact 4-stripline sensor and an electronic treatment chain based on logarithmic amplifiers. This paper presents the design, cold and hot test results.

  12. Literêre verweer teen sentimentaliteit: Ontginning van oermotiewe in Melk (Elsa Joubert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jooste

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Elsa Joubert hou haar in Melk besig met fasette van die saambestaan van verskillende groepe mense in Afrika, dikwels Suid-Afrika. A1 die verhale in hierdie bundel het duidelike lokale verwysing en by heelwat is rasseproblematiek onder die vergrootglas. Tematies bied die verhale dus uit en uit aktualiteitsprosa en daarby is dit aktualiteite met gevoelige assosiasies, temas wat maklik oorgevoelig benader kan word.

  13. Construction and calibration studies of the SAPHIR scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrewa, D.

    1988-03-01

    For the scintillation counter system of the SAPHIR detector at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn 50 time of flight counters and 12 trigger counters have been built. Each of them has two photomultipliers, one at each side. A laser calibration system with a pulsed nitrogen laser as central light source to monitor these photomultipliers has been optimized. It was used to adjust the photomultipliers and to test their long and short time instabilities. (orig.)

  14. Design and construction of the SAPHIR detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwille, W.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Bockhorst, M. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Burbach, G. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Burgwinkel, R. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Empt, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Guse, B. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Haas, K.M. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Hannappel, J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Heinloth, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Hey, T. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Honscheid, K. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Jahnen, T. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Jakob, H.P. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Joepen, N. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Juengst, H. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Kirch, U. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.); Klein, F.J. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.)

    1994-05-15

    The design, construction, and performance of the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer SAPHIR is described. It was built for the investigation of photon-induced reactions on nucleous and light nuclei with mulit-particle final states up to photon energies of 3.1 GeV. The detector is equipped with a tagged photon beam facility and is operated at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn. (orig.)

  15. Vortex rings

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetov, D G

    2009-01-01

    This text on vortex rings covers their theoretical foundation, systematic investigations, and practical applications such as the extinction of fires at gushing oil wells. It pays special attention to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings.

  16. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 10- 7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close range and in real time in planetary rings.We review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk) and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally confined arcs at Neptune, Saturn, and Jupiter. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.Planetary rings have shown themselves to be useful as detectors of planetary processes around them, including the planetary magnetic field and interplanetary impactors as well as the gravity of nearby perturbing moons. Experimental rings science has made great progress in recent decades, especially numerical simulations of self-gravity wakes and other processes but also laboratory investigations of coefficient of restitution and spectroscopic ground truth. The age of self-sustained ring systems is a matter of

  17. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Afericoes e exames clinicos realizados nos participantes do ELSA-Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Geraldo Mill; Karina Pinto; Rosane Harter Griep; Alessandra Goulart; Murilo Foppa; Paulo A Lotufo; Marcelo K Maestri; Antonio Luiz Ribeiro; Rodrigo Varejao Andreao; Eduardo Miranda Dantas; Ilka Oliveira; Sandra C Fuchs; Roberto de Sa Cunha; Isabela M Bensenor

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo descreve os exames clínicos realizados no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Alguns deles (antropometria, pressão arterial e índice tornozelo-braquial) já têm uso clínico consolidado. Outros, como a velocidade de onda de pulso, variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e medida da espessura médio-intimal de carótidas, carecem de valor de referência na população brasileira não doente e podem constituir preditores importantes de desfechos cardiovasculares. A medida da ...

  19. Lattice Modification of a 1.2 GeV STB Ring for Generation of High Energy Gamma-Rays Using Internal Target Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Hinode, Fujio; Kawai, Masayuki; Kurihara, Akira; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Mutoh, Masakatsu; Nanao, Masashi; Shibasaki, Yoshinobu; Shinto, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Takumi

    2005-01-01

    A 1.2 GeV Stretcher-Booster Ring (STB ring) has been routinely operated at Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS), Tohoku University. The STB ring has functions of a pulse-beam stretcher and a booster-storage ring. In the booster-storage operation, high energy gamma-ray beam generated via bremsstrahlung from internal target wire is utilized for experiments of nuclear physics. Some fractions of circulating electrons are also deflected in the target wire due to Coulomb scattering without significant loss of the energy. The scattered electrons that are not getting out of the dynamic aperture once can circulate in the ring. Such electrons, however, would hit the chamber walls and supports of the target wire during further turns, because they have very large betatron amplitude. Consequently the Coulomb scattered electrons must be a source of significant background and may cause a degradation of gamma-ray beam quality. The quality of the gamma-ray beam has been improved by modifying the lattice functions of the ring, ...

  20. Storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Gerald K.

    1963-04-15

    The development of storage rings is discussed. Advantages of such devices are pointed out as well as their limits, requirements, and design and fabrication problems. Information gained by the operation of small electron storage rings is included, and three experiments are proposed for colliding-beam facilities. (D.C.W.)

  1. The Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) Programme: Parental Perceptions of Its Impact in School and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Lucy; Claridge, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) programme is an example of an individualised intervention to support pupils experiencing a range of social and emotional needs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore parents' constructions of several aspects of the programme: its aims and how these are achieved; its impact on children,…

  2. L’estetica dell’ebreo e del cristiano nei racconti de Lo scialle andaluso di Elsa Morante

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascio, G.

    2007-01-01

    Quest’articolo indaga alcuni elementi fisiognomici ricorrenti nelle figure che popolano le novelle de Lo scialle andaluso di Elsa Morante. Cioè, qui suggeriamo l’ipotesi che nel piano narrativo ci sia una categorizzazione estetica che si riversa nel progetto dei contenuti e si proponga di dedurre i

  3. Tunnustati parimaid üliõpilasteadlasi / Elsa Suuster, Marit Alas, Annely Aleksejev ; küsitlenud Vilma Rauniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Putku, Elsa, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Vestlus üliõpilaste teadustööde riikliku konkursi kolme laureaadiga, kelle uurimistöö oli tehtud Saare maakonnas. Nendeks on Elsa Suuster ja Annely Aleksejev Eesti Maaülikoolist ning Marit Alas Tallinna Ülikoolist

  4. Questionario do ELSA-Brasil: desafios na elaboracao de instrumento multidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Chor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta o processo de elaboração do questionário utilizado no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil. Iniciamos pelo relato sobre a "Seleção de Temas" abordados no questionário, cujo conteúdo teria que abranger o conhecimento disponível acerca da complexa rede de causalidade dos desfechos de interesse, assim como possibilitar a comparabilidade com estudos semelhantes. Contextualizamos a "tradução e a adaptação de instrumentos de medida", necessárias no caso de escalas de avaliação de vizinhanças, do instrumento para diagnóstico de transtornos depressivos e de ansiedade, e do questionário de frequência alimentar. A seguir, comentamos os critérios que nortearam a "ordem dos blocos temáticos" e finalmente a importância prática dos "pré-testes e estudos-piloto". As relações entre o conjunto de informações reunidas no ELSA poderão constituir contribuição original sobre os fatores que causam ou agravam os desfechos de interesse no contexto brasileiro, assim como sobre seus fatores de proteção.

  5. Rotinas de organizacao de exames e entrevistas no centro de investigacao ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela M Bensenor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil é um estudo de coorte prospectivo com avaliações abrangentes ao longo do tempo. O artigo descreve a rotina de exames e entrevistas realizados pelo participante, assim como a estruturação da área física e da equipe dos Centros de Pesquisa. O ELSA-Brasil pressupõe o comparecimento do participante ao Centro de Pesquisa para a realização dos exames e entrevistas segundo protocolos padronizados desenvolvidos pelo estudo. Considerando a multiplicidade de atividades envolvidas, cada uma delas com suas necessidades particulares de padronização, foram criadas várias ordenações pré-determinadas de exames e entrevistas. Isso possibilitou um elevado padrão de qualidade na coleta dos dados sem prejuízo do conforto ao participante. Cada participante era previamente designado para uma sequência de exames e entrevistas com horário de chegada, tempo de permanência médio de cinco a seis horas e horário de saída previamente definidos.

  6. A polarized sup 3 He internal target for storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Poolman, H R; Bulten, H J; Doets, M; Ent, R; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Geurts, D G; Harvey, M; Mul, F A

    2000-01-01

    A polarized sup 3 He internal target was employed at the internal target facility of the Amsterdam electron Pulse Stretcher and Storage ring (AmPS) at the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (NIKHEF). The unique features of internal targets such as chemical and isotopic purity, high and rapidly reversible polarization, and the ability to manipulate the target spin orientation were successfully demonstrated. A nuclear polarization of 0.50 (0.42) at a sup 3 He gas flow of 1.0 (2.0)x10 sup 1 sup 7 at s sup - sup 1 could be obtained. Operation at a nominal flow of 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 at s sup - sup 1 resulted in a target thickness of 0.7x10 sup 1 sup 5 at cm sup - sup 2 at a target temperature of 17 K.

  7. Determinantal rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bruns, Winfried

    1988-01-01

    Determinantal rings and varieties have been a central topic of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. Their study has attracted many prominent researchers and has motivated the creation of theories which may now be considered part of general commutative ring theory. The book gives a first coherent treatment of the structure of determinantal rings. The main approach is via the theory of algebras with straightening law. This approach suggest (and is simplified by) the simultaneous treatment of the Schubert subvarieties of Grassmannian. Other methods have not been neglected, however. Principal radical systems are discussed in detail, and one section is devoted to each of invariant and representation theory. While the book is primarily a research monograph, it serves also as a reference source and the reader requires only the basics of commutative algebra together with some supplementary material found in the appendix. The text may be useful for seminars following a course in commutative ring theory since a ...

  8. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  9. Vascular ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trachea) and esophagus can lead to breathing and digestive problems. The more the ring presses down, the more severe the symptoms will be. Breathing problems may include: ... Digestive symptoms are rare, but may include: Choking Difficulty ...

  10. Conception, construction, and taking into operation of a pre-accelerator system at ELSA; Konzeption, Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme eines neuen Vorbeschleunigersystems an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarner, Fabian

    2011-11-25

    In order to enhance the operating capabilities of the Bonn University Accelerator Facility ELSA by a single pulse mode, a new injector was designed, built up and successfully commissioned. In addition, the new injector was designed to provide an unpolarized electron beam with increased current to the external hadron physics experiments. For this purpose, the injector will produce an 1-3 microseconds long pulse of 900 mA beam current or a single electron bunch with 1.5 A pulse current. For single bunch operation, a 1.5 ns long pulse is produced by a thermal electron source, then compressed and pre-accelerated by a subsequent resonator and a four-cell travelling wave buncher. After acceleration of the electrons in the main linac, the natural broadening of the energy distribution in the particle ensemble due to the acceleration process will be reduced by an energy compressor system. By the succeeding optical elements in the transfer beamline, the beam is guided to the synchrotron, taking into account the requirements for injection into the synchrotron including its acceptance. Finally, the first beam of the new LINAC1 section was successfully used to irradiate ammonia for preparation as polarized target material for the COMPASS experiment and to irradiate detector components of the DEPFET project. (orig.)

  11. Extraction of High Charge Electron Bunch from the ELSA RF Injector Comparison Between Simulation and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, J; Binet, A; Lagniel, J M; Le Flanchec, V; Pichoff, N

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme based on a photoinjector and a RF linear accelerator operating at 352 MHz has been recently proposed as a versatile radiographic facility. Beam pulses of 60 ns duration contain 20 succesive electron bunches which will be extracted at 2.5 MeV from a photoinjector then accelerated through the next structure to the final energy of 51 MeV. Bunches carrying 100 nC are required for this purpose. As a first demonstrating step, 50 nC electron bunches have been produced and accelerated to 2.5 MeV with the 144 MHz ELSA photoinjector at Bruyères le Chatel. For this experiment, we compare the results and the numerical simulations made with PARMELA, MAGIC and MAFIA codes.

  12. Moeller scattering with unpolarized electrons for the development of a Moeller polarimeter at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffer, C.

    1992-07-01

    In future experiments with polarized electrons are planned at ELSA, so it is necessary to measure the polarisation of the extracted electron beam. One possibility is to use the method of Moeller-scattering. A suitable arrangement with two lucite Cerenkov-detectors has been investigated and Moeller-scattering with unpolarized electrons has been studied. A low noise-to-signal-ratio in the time spectra allowed to separate Moeller events from background. Therefore it was possible to observe the linear dependence of Moeller-scattering-events on the atomic number of the target foil and on the current of the extracted electron beam. With regard to planned experiments it was important to show that the separation of the Moeller-electrons from the primary beam by the use of one single dipole magnet has been succesful. (orig.) [de

  13. [Strategies and development of quality assurance and control in the ELSA-Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Passos, Valéria Maria; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Vigo, Alvaro; Nunes, Maria Angélica

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a cohort study composed of 15,105 adults followed up in order to assess the development of chronic diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Its size, multicenter nature and the diversity of measurements required effective and efficient mechanisms of quality assurance and control. The main quality assurance activities (those developed before data collection) were: careful selection of research instruments, centralized training and certification, pretesting and pilot studies, and preparation of operation manuals for the procedures. Quality control activities (developed during data collection and processing) were performed more intensively at the beginning, when routines had not been established yet. The main quality control activities were: periodic observation of technicians, test-retest studies, data monitoring, network of supervisors, and cross visits. Data that estimate the reliability of the obtained information attest that the quality goals have been achieved.

  14. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Oliveira Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010 with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%; "fruits and vegetables" (25%; "pastry shop" (24%; and "diet/light" (5% The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  15. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  16. Adaptacao transcultural e confiabilidade de medidas de caracteristicas autorreferidas de vizinhanca no ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o processo de adaptação de escalas de medida de características de vizinhança para o português brasileiro. MÉTODOS: As dimensões abordadas foram coesão social, ambiente propício para atividade física, disponibilidade de alimentos saudáveis, segurança em relação a crimes, violência percebida e vitimização. No processo de adaptação foram avaliados aspectos de equivalência entre as escalas originais e respectivas versões para o português. A confiabilidade teste-reteste foi avaliada em submostra de 261 participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil que responderam ao mesmo questionário em dois momentos distintos em um intervalo de tempo de sete a 14 dias entre as duas aplicações. RESULTADOS: Os aspectos de equivalência avaliados mostraram-se adequados. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse variou entre 0,83 (IC95% 0,78;0,87 para Coesão Social e 0,90 (IC95% 0,87;0,92 para Ambiente para Atividade Física. As escalas apresentaram consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach que variaram entre 0,60 e 0,84. CONCLUSÕES: As medidas autorreferidas de características de vizinhança tiveram reprodutibilidade muito boa e boa consistência interna. Os resultados sugerem que essas escalas podem ser utilizadas em estudos com população brasileira que apresente características similares àquelas do ELSA-Brasil.

  17. [Experience of importation of equipment for research in the ELSA-Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cristiana Paula Matos de; Aquino, Estela M L; Mota, Eduardo L A; Mota, Fábio Batista; Braga, Valéria Cerqueira Campos; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Silva, Gabriela Feiden; Souza, Angelita Gomes de; Oliveira, Rosalba

    2013-06-01

    Policies that promote research in health were established in the last decade, developing the Brazilian scientific production. This development has not been accompanied by an improvement in the legal-institutional framework, thus hindering the development of research projects, including equipment importation activities. The present study aimed to analyze the equipment importation process for the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A case study was performed with data collected from internal ELSA-Brasil documents in five Investigation Centers and their respective supporting foundations. The following importation documents were analyzed: pulse wave velocity, bioimaging and retinography. Additionally, non-structured interviews with researchers and key informers were conducted in the foundations. Data were treated and organized into three stages: administrative-operational, exchange rate, and fiscal. Lengths of duration of these stages were calculated comparatively among centers. The need to standardize equipment in a multicenter study required a joint action of implementing institutions and foundations. Of all pieces of equipment analyzed, the first stage was administrative-operational, with a varying duration (minimum of eight, maximum of 101, and mean of 55 days) which was longer when legal opinions were included. The second stage was the exchange rate, which was longer than the former and did not pose any obstacles to the process (minimum of 11, maximum of 381, and mean of 196 days). The third stage was fiscal, which was the longest one (minimum of 43, maximum of 388, and mean of 215.5 days), due to the release of equipment without registration into the country. There were other factors that posed obstacles: inexperience of investigation centers and institutions in networking; inadequacy of the national legislation on scientific research particularities; and the lack of specialized professionals in scientific project management. The results

  18. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pereira Tognon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective: To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods: Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results: From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4% were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61% were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4% cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19, and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85. For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91. Conclusion: There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting.

  19. Microvascular endothelial function and cognitive performance: The ELSA-Brasil cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Luisa; Bos, Daniel; Araujo, Larissa Fortunato; Ikram, M Arfan; Ribeiro, Antonio Lp; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2018-02-01

    Impaired microvascular endothelial function may be implicated in the etiology of cognitive decline. Yet, current data on this association are inconsistent. Our objective is to investigate the relation of microvascular endothelial function to cognitive performance in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. A total of 1521 participants from ELSA-Brasil free of dementia underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) to quantify microvascular endothelial function (PAT-ratio and mean baseline pulse amplitude (BPA)) and cognitive tests that covered the domains of memory, verbal fluency, and executive function at baseline. Cognitive tests in participants aged 55 years old and above were repeated during the second examination (mean follow-up: 3.5 (0.3) years). Linear regression and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the association between endothelial function, global cognitive performance, and performance on specific cognitive domains. In unadjusted cross-sectional analyses, we found that BPA and PAT-ratio were associated with worse global cognitive performance (mean difference for BPA: -0.07, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.03, p<0.01; mean difference for PAT-ratio: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.01; 0.20, p=0.02), worse performance on learning, recall, and word recognition tests (BPA: -0.87, 95% CI: -1.21; -0.52, p<0.01; PAT-ratio: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.80; 2.36, p<0.01), and only BPA was associated with worse performance in verbal fluency tests (-0.70, 95% CI: -1.19; -0.21, p<0.01). Adjustments for age, sex, and level of education rendered the associations statistically non-significant. Longitudinally, there was no association between microvascular endothelial and cognitive functions. The associations between microvascular endothelial function and cognition are explained by age, sex, and educational level. Measures of microvascular endothelial function may be of limited value with regard to preclinical cognitive deficits.

  20. Consumption of alcohol and blood pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Nathália Miguel Teixeira; Mill, José Geraldo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Viana, Maria Carmen; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2018-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of excessive use of alcohol represents damages to society in general. In turn, arterial hypertension is the main attributable risk factor premature life lost years and disability. To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and high blood pressure in participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A baseline data of total of 7,655 participants volunteers between 35 and 74 years of age, of both genders, in six educational and research institutions of three different regions of the country were interviewed between 2008-2010. Socioeconomic, haemodynamic, anthropometric and health data were collected in the research centers of ELSA-Brasil. The presence of high blood pressure was identified when the systolic blood pressure was ≥140 mm Hg and/or the diastolic was ≥90 mm Hg. Alcohol consumption was estimated and categorized regarding consumption and pattern of ingestion. The Student's t-test, chi-squared and logistic regression tests were used for analysis, including potential co-variables of the model, and a 5% significance level was adopted. A dose-response relation was observed for the consumption of alcohol (g/week) in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Alcohol consumption was associated with high blood pressure in men who reported moderate (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.35-2.11) and excessive (OR = 2.70; 95%CI 2.04-3.59) consumption. Women have nearly three times more chance of presenting elevated blood pressure when presenting excessive consumption (OR = 2.86, 95%CI 1.77-4.63), and binge drinkers who drink more than 2 to 3 times a month have approximately 70% more chance of presenting with elevated blood pressure, after adjusting for consumption of drinks with meals. The consumption of alcohol beverages increases the odds of elevated blood pressure, especially among excessive drinkers. Therefore alcohol consumption needs a more robust regulation in view of its impact on population

  1. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  2. Ideal cardiovascular health score at the ELSA-Brasil baseline and its association with sociodemographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucas B M; Silva, Bianca L S; Garcia, Ana P; Oliveira, Renata A M; Barreto, Sandhi M; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2018-03-01

    The American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (ICH) define criteria for seven metrics, four classified as lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity, smoking and body-mass index) and four classified as health factors (smoking, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol). We aimed to analyze ICH scores at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment and the associations with sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, race, educational level, and family income). We analyzed 13,356 ELSA-Brasil participants without cardiovascular disease using quasi-Poisson regression models to study the association between the ICH score and sociodemographic characteristics. Mean ICH scores were 2.5±1.3. Only 1047 (7.8%) participants had 5 or more ICH metrics. In adjusted models, age 65-74years was associated with lower ICH scores (-35.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -37.6% to -33.1%) compared to age 35-44years. Women had higher ICH scores compared to men (+13.8%; 95%CI: +11.8% to +15.7%), mainly due to differences in the health factor ICH metrics. Participants of Black race had lower ICH scores compared to those of White race (-9.4%; 95%CI: -11.8% to -7.0%). Individuals with less than high school education had lower ICH scores than college-educated individuals (-17.2%; 95%CI: -20.0% to -14.2%). Low (<1245 USD) family income was also associated with lower ICH scores compared to those with high (≥3320 USD) family income (-4.4%, 95%CI: -7.2% to -1.6%). We found a low proportion of individuals with 5 or more ICH metrics. Age, sex, race, educational level and income were associated with ICH scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ring accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Faehl, R.

    1983-01-01

    We present two-dimensional simulations in (r-z) and r-theta) cylinderical geometries of imploding-liner-driven accelerators of rings of charged particles. We address issues of azimuthal and longitudinal stability of the rings. We discuss self-trapping designs in which beam injection and extraction is aided by means of external cusp fields. Our simulations are done with the 2-1/2-D particle-in-cell plasma simulation code CLINER, which combines collisionless, electromagnetic PIC capabilities with a quasi-MHD finite element package

  4. Topological rings

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, S

    1993-01-01

    This text brings the reader to the frontiers of current research in topological rings. The exercises illustrate many results and theorems while a comprehensive bibliography is also included. The book is aimed at those readers acquainted with some very basic point-set topology and algebra, as normally presented in semester courses at the beginning graduate level or even at the advanced undergraduate level. Familiarity with Hausdorff, metric, compact and locally compact spaces and basic properties of continuous functions, also with groups, rings, fields, vector spaces and modules, and with Zorn''s Lemma, is also expected.

  5. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  6. Ring interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malykin, Grigorii B; Zhurov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the creation of a comprehensive formalism for quantitative description of polarized modes' linear interaction in modern single-mode optic fibers. The theory of random connections between polarized modes, developed in the monograph, allows calculations of the zero shift deviations for a fiber ring interferometer. The monograph addresses also the

  7. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Ara?jo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings duri...

  8. The Python user interface of the elsA cfd software: a coupling framework for external steering layers

    OpenAIRE

    Lazareff, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Python--elsA user interface of the elsA cfd (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software has been developed to allow users to specify simulations with confidence, through a global context of description objects grouped inside scripts. The software main features are generated documentation, context checking and completion, and helpful error management. Further developments have used this foundation as a coupling framework, allowing (thanks to the descriptive approach) the coupling of external a...

  9. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, but not Commuting Physical Activity, is Associated with Cardiovascular Risk among ELSA-Brasil Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila M A; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-01-01

    Despite reports in the literature that both leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and commuting physical activity (CPA) can promote health benefits, the literature lacks studies comparing the associations of these domains of physical activity with cardiovascular risk scores. To investigate the association between LTPA and CPA with different cardiovascular risk scores in the cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. Cross-sectional study with data from 13,721 participants of both genders, aged 35-74 years, free of cardiovascular disease, from ELSA Brazil. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Five cardiovascular risk scores were used: Framingham score - coronary heart disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - coronary heart disease (LDL-C); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (cholesterol); Framingham score - cardiovascular disease (body mass index, BMI); and pooled cohort equations for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Associations adjusted for confounding variables between physical activity and different cardiovascular risk scores were analyzed by logistic regression. Confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) was considered. LTPA is inversely associated with almost all cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, while CPA shows no statistically significant association with any of them. Dose-response effect in association between LTPA and cardiovascular risk scores was also found, especially in men. LTPA was shown to be associated with the cardiovascular risk scores analyzed, but CPA not. The amount of physical activity (duration and intensity) was more significantly associated, especially in men, with cardiovascular risk scores in ELSA-Brasil.

  10. Reprodutibilidade da pressao arterial medida no ELSA-Brasil com a monitorizacao pressorica de 24h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rangel Nascimento

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a reprodutibilidade da pressão arterial casual de participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil e confirmar o diagnóstico pressórico pela monitorização. MÉTODOS: A pressão arterial casual foi medida em aparelho oscilométrico. Uma subamostra dos participantes do estado do Espírito Santo (N = 255 foi reavaliada com igual metodologia de uma a dez semanas após; além disso, foi realizada monitorização. O diagnóstico de hipertensão seguiu os pontos de corte de 140/90 mmHg ou 130/80 mmHg para a pressão casual e na monitorização, respectivamente. A hipertensão do jaleco branco foi definida pela presença hipertensão na medida casual e normotensão na monitorização e o inverso para a hipertensão mascarada. RESULTADOS: Os dados referem-se a 230 participantes que nas duas ocasiões estavam sem medicação (N1 = 153 ou sob a mesma medicação anti-hipertensiva (N2 = 77. No N1, a normotensão casual foi confirmada em 120 dos 134 pela monitorização. No N2, a monitorização confirmou o controle pressórico em 43 dos 54 participantes com pressão controlada pela medida casual. A concordância geral de diagnósticos entre a pressão casual e monitorada foi de 78% (kappa = 0,44. No grupo N1, seis indivíduos (4% apresentaram hipertensão do jaleco branco e 23 (25%, mascarada. CONCLUSÕES: A concordância de diagnósticos entre a pressão arterial casual e a monitorada foi moderada. A padronização rigorosa da medida casual adotada no ELSA-Brasil foi capaz de reduzir a hipertensão do jaleco branco. A alta frequência de hipertensão mascarada sugere que a medida pressórica da monitorização indique grau elevado de estresse no trabalho.

  11. Electrocardiographic Findings in Brazilian Adults without Heart Disease: ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcelo Martins; Brant, Luisa C C; Padilha-da-Silva, José Luiz; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Vasconcelo-Silva, Paulo R; Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz Pinho

    2017-11-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used in population-based studies. However, there are few studies on electrocardiographic findings in Latin America and in Brazil. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprised 15,105 participants (35-74 years) from six Brazilian capitals. To describe electrocardiographic findings in Brazilian adults without heart disease, stratified by sex, age and race/skin color. Cross-sectional study with baseline data of 11,094 adults (44.5% men) without heart disease from ELSA-Brasil. The ECGs were recorded with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine and stored at the Pyramis System. ECG analysis was automatically performed using the Glasgow University software. A descriptive analysis of heart rate (HR), P, QRS and T waves' duration, PR and QT intervals, and P, R and T axes was performed. After stratification by sex, race/color and age, the groups were compared by the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the behavior of electrocardiographic parameters over age. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities defined by the Minnesota code were manually revised. Medians values of the electrocardiographic parameters were different between men and women: HR 63 vs. 66 bpm, PR 164 vs.158 ms, QT corrected 410 vs. 421 ms, QRS duration 92 vs. 86 ms, P-wave duration 112 vs. 108 ms, P-wave axis 54 vs. 57 degrees, R-wave axis 35 vs. 39 degrees, T-wave axis 39 vs. 45 degrees (p < 0.001 for all). The 2nd and the 98th percentiles of each variable were also obtained, and graphs were constructed to illustrate the behavior of the electrocardiographic findings over age of participants stratified by sex and race/skin color. The values for the electrocardiographic measurements herein described can be used as reference for Brazilian adults free of heart disease, stratified by sex. Our results suggest that self-reported race/skin color have no significant influence on

  12. Entrevista a la Doctora Elsa Meinardi. (pág. 1-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Orlay Valbuena Ussa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrevistador: Édgar Orlay Valbuena Ussa (Profesor Departamento de Biología de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (Colombia y Director de la revista Aprovechando la participación de la doctora Meinardi, el pasado mes de Octubre, en el IV Congreso Internacional de Formación de Profesores de Ciencias en Bogotá, Bio-Grafía tuvo la oportunidad de entrevistarla, abordando asuntos relativos a la Enseñanza de la Biología y más concretamente lo que atañe a la formación de profesores de Biología. La profesora Elsa es Licenciada en Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad de Buenos Aires y doctora en Ciencias Biológicas de la misma universidad. Actualmente coordina el grupo de investigación Didáctica de la Biología de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad de Buenos Aires.

  13. Aspectos eticos em estudos longitudinais: o caso do ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela M L Aquino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Historicamente a discussão acerca da eticidade dos atos em pesquisas com seres humanos privilegiou os estudos experimentais, pelo maior potencial de danos aos sujeitos envolvidos. Todavia, os estudos observacionais também envolvem riscos e suscitam questões relevantes. Neste artigo pretende-se apresentar e discutir aspectos éticos do desenvolvimento do ELSA-Brasil, um estudo longitudinal e multicêntrico, com financiamento público, no qual os sujeitos da pesquisa e pesquisadores pertencem às mesmas instituições. São descritos os procedimentos adotados para atender às exigências e compromissos éticos e a casuística que orientou as ações segundo seus princípios norteadores (beneficência, autonomia e justiça social. São apresentados alguns problemas morais que exigiram ponderação sobre riscos e benefícios na confluência com os objetivos do estudo e comentam-se peculiaridades de um estudo longitudinal e seus potenciais benefícios.

  14. Comite de publicacoes em estudo multicentrico e sistema informatizado de apoio - publiELSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Sa Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O comitê de publicações de um estudo multicêntrico visa organizar as propostas de artigos, garantindo: amplo acesso aos dados, qualidade e precedência. Foi desenvolvido um sistema online de informação e gerenciamento de propostas de estudos - o publiELSA - , composto por três módulos: (i submissão e aprovação da proposta; (ii acompanhamento da proposta aprovada; e (iii relatórios consolidados. O primeiro permite a qualquer interessado buscar e conhecer artigos já publicados e em andamento, e submeter novas propostas. O processo de aprovação e transferência dos dados para o pesquisador responsável é organizado nessa etapa. O segundo módulo visa ao monitoramento das propostas aprovadas até sua publicação final e o terceiro permite buscas e visualização de propostas e artigos. O sistema tem aspectos inovadores, sobretudo o incentivo à cooperação entre os diversos pesquisadores, por meio da circulação de informes sobre cada proposta submetida. Estimula-se assim a interação dos diferentes olhares e experiências envolvidos nesta pesquisa.

  15. Association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension: findings from the ELSA-Brasil study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Miranda Mendes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available “Pardos” and blacks in Brazil and blacks in the USA are at greater risk of developing arterial hypertension than whites, and the causes of this inequality are still little understood. Psychosocial and contextual factors, including racial discrimination, are indicated as conditions associated with this inequality. The aim of this study was to identify the association between perceived racial discrimination and hypertension. The study evaluated 14,012 workers from the ELSA-Brazil baseline population. Perceived discrimination was measured by the Lifetime Major Events Scale, adapted to Portuguese. Classification by race/color followed the categories proposed by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. Hypertension was defined by standard criteria. The association between the compound variable - race/racial discrimination - and hypertension was estimated by Poisson regression with robust variance and stratified by the categories of body mass index (BMI and sex. Choosing white women as the reference group, in the BMI 25kg/m2 and men in any BMI category, no effect of racial discrimination was identified. Despite the differences in point estimates of prevalence of hypertension between “pardo” women who reported and those who did not report discrimination, our results are insufficient to assert that an association exists between racial discrimination and hypertension.

  16. Obesity, abdominal obesity and migraine: a cross-sectional analysis of ELSA-Brasil baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Passos, Valeria M; Molina, Maria del Carmen; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-04-01

    Most studies assessing the association between migraine and obesity have shown conflicting results. We aimed to evaluate the association between obesity and migraine in ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 individuals aged 35-74 years. We assessed migraine using a validated questionnaire based on International Headache Society criteria and anthropometric measurements using standard techniques. Migraine was categorized as daily and non-daily. World Health Organization criteria were used to categorize overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity (AbO). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using multivariate logistic regression models to study the association between migraine and obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), compared to controls without migraine. We found an association between daily migraine and obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.86; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.12-3.09). Although the presence of AbO was not associated with migraine, interaction models showed that the association between obesity and daily migraine remained strong only in the absence of AbO diagnosis, notably in individuals aged 35-49 years. In our large sample of individuals aged 35 years or older, obesity, but not AbO, was associated with daily migraine. AbO influenced the association between BMI and daily migraine in migraineurs aged 35-49 years. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype and nutritional factors: a study with participants of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana Rodrigues de; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between fat and fiber intakes and the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype (HWP). Cross-sectional survey conducted from the baseline of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health Adult (ELSA-Brasil). Anthropometric measurements were conducted and the body mass index was calculated (BMI). Participants were classified according to the presence of HWP when waist circumference ≥ 102 and ≥ 88 cm, respectively, in men and women, and triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dL. Fat and fiber intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral variables were collected through a questionnaire. The χ² test, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression were performed with significance level of 5%. There was no association between fiber and fat intakes with HWP. A lower prevalence of HWP among men was observed (IRR = 0.959; 95%CI 0.948 - 0.969). A higher prevalence of HWP was observed in participants with low physical activity (OR = 1.039, 95%CI 1.021 - 1.057), smoking history (OR = 1.044, 95%CI 1.031 - 1.057), lower per capita income (IRR = 1.035; 95%CI 1.022 - 1.049) and obesity (OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.305 - 1.341). Fat and fiber intakes were not associated with HWP. A higher prevalence of HWP was found in obese, but no association was found between intake of fat and fiber and phenotype.

  18. What Factors Explain Bicycling and Walking for Commuting by ELSA-Brasil Participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Dos Santos, Clarice Alves; de Almeida, Rogerio Tosta; da Silva, Ianne Tayrine Martins; Griep, Rosane Harter; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Patrão, Ana Luísa; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking in adult participants from ELSA-Brasil (Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). Cross-sectional. Six teaching/research institutions throughout Brazil. A total of 15 105 civil servants. Commuting by bicycling and walking was analyzed using the long-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A hierarchical model containing possible factors associated with commuting by bicycling and walking was constructed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Considering the 2 forms of commuting, 66% of the participants were being considered inactive or insufficiently active. In women, being "heavier," feeling unsafe practicing physical activity, and being a former smoker were factors negatively associated with commuting by bicycling and walking. In men, active commuting was less common among those who were overweight or had abdominal obesity, those with a negative perception of safety, and those reporting that there was nowhere suitable in the neighborhood to practice physical activity. Obesity and negative perceptions in the neighborhood are associated with inactive or insufficiently active commuting. The relevance of this finding for public health is reinforce developing policies aimed at promoting health in Brazil and in other countries with similar characteristics.

  19. Duration of depressive symptoms and mortality risk: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Zaninotto, Paola; Walters, Kate; Kivimäki, Mika; Demakakos, Panayotes; Biddulph, Jane; Kumari, Meena; De Oliveira, Cesar; Gallacher, John; Batty, G David

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between the duration of depressive symptoms and mortality remains poorly understood. To examine whether the duration of depressive symptoms is associated with mortality risk. Data (n= 9560) came from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We assessed depressive symptom duration as the sum of examinations with an eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of ⩾3; we ascertained mortality from linking our data to a national register. Relative to those participants who never reported symptoms, the age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratios for elevated depressive symptoms over 1, 2, 3 and 4 examinations were 1.41 (95% CI 1.15-1.74), 1.80 (95% CI 1.44-2.26), 1.97 (95% CI 1.57-2.47) and 2.48 (95% CI 1.90-3.23), respectively (Pfor trend <0.001). This graded association can be explained largely by differences in physical activity, cognitive function, functional impairments and physical illness. In this cohort of older adults, the duration of depressive symptoms was associated with mortality in a dose-response manner. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Technological innovation and humanitarianism in the transport of war wounded: Nicasio Landa's report on a new elastic suspension system for stretchers (Pamplona, May 29, 1875)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, Jon; García-Reyes, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In May 1875, in the midst of a bloody civil conflict in Spain known as the Third Carlist War, Nicasio Landa, a medical officer with Military Health, wrote a report requesting authorization for the Spanish Red Cross, of which he was Inspector General, to adopt a new elastic suspension system for stretchers that he had designed, developed and tested. Intended above all for use in farm wagons - still the most widely-used method of transporting the wounded at the time - it was an inexpensive, sturdy mechanism that improved patient comfort and could also be installed in ambulance carriages, railway carriages and hospital ships. An annotated version of the report is included, preceded by a presentation of its contents.

  2. Aferições e exames clínicos realizados nos participantes do ELSA-Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Mill,Jose Geraldo; Pinto,Karina; Griep,Rosane Härter; Goulart,Alessandra; Foppa,Murilo; Lotufo,Paulo A; Maestri,Marcelo K; Ribeiro,Antonio Luiz; Andreão,Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas,Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira,Ilka; Fuchs,Sandra C; Cunha,Roberto de Sá; Bensenor,Isabela M

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo descreve os exames clínicos realizados no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Alguns deles (antropometria, pressão arterial e índice tornozelo-braquial) já têm uso clínico consolidado. Outros, como a velocidade de onda de pulso, variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e medida da espessura médio-intimal de carótidas, carecem de valor de referência na população brasileira não doente e podem constituir preditores importantes de desfechos cardiovasculares. A medida da ...

  3. Aferições e exames clínicos realizados nos participantes do ELSA-Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Mill, José Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Maestri, Marcelo K.

    2013-01-01

    p. 54-62 Este artigo descreve os exames clínicos realizados no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Alguns deles (antropometria, pressão arterial e índice tornozelo-braquial) já têm uso clínico consolidado. Outros, como a velocidade de onda de pulso, variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e medida da espessura médio-intimal de carótidas, carecem de valor de referência na população brasileira não doente e podem constituir preditores importantes de desfechos cardiovasculares. ...

  4. Ringing phenomenon of the fiber ring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Diqing; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe

    2007-08-01

    A resonator fiber-optic gyro (R-FOG) is a high-accuracy inertial rotation sensor based on the Sagnac effect. A fiber ring resonator is the core sensing element in the R-FOG. When the frequency of the fiber ring resonator input laser is swept linearly with time, ringing of the output resonance curve is observed. The output field of the fiber ring resonator is derived from the superposition of the light transmitted through the directional coupler directly and the multiple light components circulated in the fiber ring resonator when the frequency of the laser is swept. The amplitude and phase of the output field are analyzed, and it is found that the difference in time for different light components in the fiber ring resonator to reach a point of destructive interference causes the ringing phenomenon. Finally the ringing phenomenon is observed in experiments, and the experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis well.

  5. Experiencia de importacao de equipamentos para pesquisa no ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Paula Matos de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Políticas de fomento à pesquisa em saúde foram estabelecidas na última década, avançando a produção científica nacional. Tal movimento não foi acompanhado do aperfeiçoamento do arcabouço legal-institucional, dificultando o desenvolvimento dos projetos de pesquisa. Isso inclusive no que tange às atividades de importação de equipamentos. O objetivo deste artigo foi analisar o processo de importação de equipamentos para o Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de caso, com dados coletados em documentos internos do ELSA-Brasil em cinco Centros de Investigação e respectivas fundações de apoio. Foram analisados documentos de importação de: velocidade de onda de pulso, bioimagem e retinografia. Adicionalmente, foram realizadas entrevistas não estruturadas com pesquisadores e informantes chave nas fundações. Os dados foram tratados e organizados em três etapas: administrativa-operacional, cambial e fiscal. Foram calculados os intervalos de duração dessas etapas de modo comparativo entre os centros. RESULTADOS: A necessidade de padronização dos equipamentos em estudo multicêntrico exigiu atuação conjunta de instituições executoras e fundações. Dos equipamentos analisados, a primeira etapa, a administrativa-operacional, teve duração variada (mínimo 8 e máximo de 101, com média de 55 dias, sendo mais demorada quando incluía pareceres jurídicos. A segunda etapa, a cambial, mais longa que a primeira, não apresentou entraves ao processo (mínimo 11 e máximo 381, média de 196 dias. A terceira etapa, a fiscal, foi a mais longa (mínimo 43 e máximo 388 dias, média de 215,5 dias, devido à liberação dos equipamentos sem registro no País. Outros fatores que representaram entraves: inexperiência dos centros de investigação e das instituições em trabalhar em rede; inadequação da legislação nacional às especificidades da pesquisa científica; e falta

  6. Education plays a greater role than age in cognitive test performance among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M. de Azeredo Passos (Valéria Maria); L. Giatti (Luana); I.M. Bensenor (Isabela M.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); R.C. de Figueiredo (Roberta Carvalho); D. Chor (Dora); M.I. Schmidt (Maria Inês); S.M. Barreto (Sandhi Maria)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Brazil has gone through fast demographic, epidemiologic and nutritional transitions and, despite recent improvements in wealth distribution, continues to present a high level of social and economic inequality. The ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study, aimed at investigating

  7. Reliability of Cognitive Tests of ELSA-Brasil, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cognitive function evaluation entails the use of neuropsychological tests, applied exclusively or in sequence. The results of these tests may be influenced by factors related to the environment, the interviewer or the interviewee. Objectives: We examined the test-retest reliability of some tests of the Brazilian version from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease. Methods: The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre study of civil servants (35-74 years of age from public institutions across six Brazilian States. The same tests were applied, in different order of appearance, by the same trained and certified interviewer, with an approximate 20-day interval, to 160 adults (51% men, mean age 52 years. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the measures; and a dispersion graph was used to examine the patterns of agreement between them. Results: We observed higher retest scores in all tests as well as a shorter test completion time for the Trail Making Test B. ICC values for each test were as following: Word List Learning Test (0.56, Word Recall (0.50, Word Recognition (0.35, Phonemic Verbal Fluency Test (VFT, 0.61, Semantic VFT (0.53 and Trail B (0.91. The Bland-Altman plot showed better correlation of executive function (VFT and Trail B than of memory tests. Conclusions: Better performance in retest may reflect a learning effect, and suggest that retest should be repeated using alternate forms or after longer periods. In this sample of adults with high schooling level, reliability was only moderate for memory tests whereas the measurement of executive function proved more reliable.

  8. Intragenerational Social Mobility and Changes in Blood Pressure: Longitudinal Analysis From the ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Griep, Rosane H; Clarke, Philippa J; Fonseca, Maria J M; Barreto, Sandhi M; Giatti, Luana; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, Jose G; Pacheco, Antonio G; Chor, Dora

    2018-02-09

    During the past 4 decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure (BP) levels have shifted from high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the association of intragenerational social mobility with changes in BP and also with the incidence of hypertension over a 4-year follow-up. Data for 6,529 baseline participants from ELSA-Brasil born between 1938 and 1975 were used. Based on a social mobility matrix, occupational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation (stable high; upward; downward; stable low). Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medication. Hypertensive participants at baseline were excluded. Mixed effects regression models were used. Compared to the stable high group, the downwardly mobile group showed a higher increase over time in both SBP (β = 1.49, 95% CI 0.60; 2.37) and DBP (β = 0.96, 95% CI 0.32; 1.59) after adjustments for background characteristics and also proximal risk factors such as health-related behaviors and body mass index as time-dependent covariates, and diabetes. In contrast, upward mobility had no influence on BP changes (β = 0.67, 95% CI -0.07; 1.41 for SBP, and β = 0.47, 95% CI -0.05; 1.00 for DBP). Social mobility was not associated with the incidence of hypertension. We showed socioeconomic inequalities in BP progression over the life course. The longitudinal changes in BP varied by social mobility groups in the context of low- and middle-income countries, where high BP has become most prevalent. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2018. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in a healthy adult sample: The ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Cunha, Roberto S; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Chór, Dora; Griep, Rosane H; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Barreto, Sandhi M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-15

    Aging declines essential physiological functions, and the vascular system is strongly affected by artery stiffening. We intended to define the age- and sex-specific reference values for carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) in a sample free of major risk factors. The ELSA-Brasil study enrolled 15,105 participants aged 35-74years. The healthy sample was achieved by excluding diabetics, those over the optimal and normal blood pressure levels, body mass index ≤18.5 or ≥25kg/m 2 , current and former smokers, and those with self-report of previous cardiovascular disease. After exclusions, the sample consisted of 2158 healthy adults (1412 women). Although cf-PWV predictors were similar between sex (age, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate), cf-PWV was higher in men (8.74±1.15 vs. 8.31±1.13m/s; adjusted for age and MAP, PBrasil population (n=15,105) increased by twice the age-related slope of cf-PWV growth, regardless of sex (0.0919±0.182 vs. 0.0504±0.153m/s per year for men, 0.0960±0.173 vs. 0.0606±0.139m/s per year for women). cf-PWV is different between men and women and even in an optimal and normal range of MAP and free of other classical risk factors for arterial stiffness, reference values for cf-PWV should take into account MAP levels. Also, the presence of major risk factors in the general population doubles the age-related rise in cf-PWV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Orthostatic hypotension and cognitive function: cross-sectional results from the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemoto, Claudia K; Baena, Cristina P; Mill, Jose G; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela

    2018-03-20

    The association between orthostatic hypotension (OH) and cognitive impairment is controversial, and most studies have investigated older white adults from Western Europe and the United States. Therefore, we investigated the association between OH and cognitive performance in a large and racially diverse sample of adults using cross-sectional data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). OH was defined when systolic blood pressures (SBP) decreased 20 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased 10 mmHg from supine to standing position. We investigated the association between OH and composite global cognition, memory, verbal fluency (VF), and Trail Making test z-scores, using multiple linear regression models. We also investigated the association of orthostatic hypertension and SBP/DBP changes with cognitive performance, as well as the interaction between OH and compensatory heart rate (HR) after postural change on cognitive performance. We evaluated 12,826 participants (mean age=51.5±9.0 years, 46% male, 53% white). Participants with OH (4% of the sample) had poorer z-scores for VF (β=-0.108, 95% CI=-0.189; -0.025, p=0.01) than participants without OH. Orthostatic hypertension was also associated with worse performance on the VF test (β=-0.080, 95% CI=-0.157; -0.003, p=0.04). SBP orthostatic change had a non-linear association with VF. The interaction terms between OH and compensatory increase in HR for the Trail Making Test z-score (p=0.09) was borderline significant, suggesting that participants who lack compensatory HR after postural change might have poorer performance. OH and orthostatic hypertension were associated with poorer performance on the VF test in participants from Brazil.

  11. ASSOCIATIVE RINGS SOLVED AS LIE RINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Smirnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has proved that an associative ring which is solvable of a n- class as a Lie ring has a nilpotent ideal of the nilpotent class not more than 3×10n–2  and a corresponding quotient ring satisfies an identity [[x1, x2, [x3, x4

  12. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  13. Time From Smoking Cessation and Inflammatory Markers: New Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Analysis of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Flávia Soares; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane V; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Giatti, Luana

    2017-07-01

    The time for inflammatory markers of former smokers to revert to never smoker levels is still controversial, ranging from 5 to 20 years. We aimed to determine the time from smoking cessation for white blood cell (WBC) count and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to return to those of never-smokers, after adjusting for confounding factors and for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline participants of ELSA-Brasil. We used linear regression analysis and generalized linear models with gamma distribution and logarithmic link function to estimate the association of WBC count and CRP levels with time from smoking cessation. The following confounding factors were considered: sex, age, education, SHS, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, BMI, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: After all adjustments, time from smoking cessation smoking cessation ≥ 5 and smoking cessation smoking cessation for CRP and 10 years after for WBC. The results may add to the arsenal health professionals have to encourage their patients to quit smoking, as some harms from smoking appear to revert to never-smokers' level sooner than previously reported. Longitudinal studies should confirm our findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Luana; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-20

    The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant's closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants' age, sex and education category. The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country.

  15. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  16. Logistica de coleta e transporte de material biologico e organizacao do laboratorio central no ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia G Fedeli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil é um estudo de coorte multicêntrico com o objetivo de identificar os fatores de risco associados ao diabetes tipo 2 e à doença cardiovascular na população brasileira. O artigo descreve as estratégias de coleta, processamento, transporte e de controle de qualidade dos exames de sangue e urina no ELSA. O estudo optou pela centralização dos exames em um único laboratório. O processamento das amostras foi realizado nos laboratórios locais, reduzindo o peso do material a ser transportado e diminuindo os custos do transporte para o laboratório central no Hospital da Universidade de São Paulo. O estudo incluiu exames para avaliação de diabetes, resistência à insulina, dislipidemias, alterações eletrolíticas, hormônios tireoidianos, ácido úrico, alterações de enzimas hepáticas, inflamação e hemograma completo. Além desses exames, foram estocados DNA de leucócitos, amostras de urina, plasma e soro. O laboratório central realizou aproximadamente 375.000 exames.

  17. A counting silicon microstrip detector for precision compton polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Doll, D W; Hillert, W; Krüger, H; Stammschroer, K; Wermes, N

    2002-01-01

    A detector for the detection of laser photons backscattered off an incident high-energy electron beam for precision Compton polarimetry in the 3.5 GeV electron stretcher ring ELSA at Bonn University has been developed using individual photon counting. The photon counting detector is based on a silicon microstrip detector system using dedicated ASIC chips. The produced hits by the pair converted Compton photons are accumulated rather than individually read out. A transverse profile displacement can be measured with mu m accuracy rendering a polarization measurement of the order of 1% on the time scale of 10-15 min possible.

  18. Stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  19. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  20. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Angelo Vieira

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92, compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98. Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  1. Plant regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants of Tolumnia Louise Elmore 'Elsa'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Jen-Tsung; Chung, Hsiao-Hang; Chang, Wei-Chin

    2018-01-22

    Tolumnia genus (equitant Oncidium) is a group of small orchids with vivid flower color. Thousands of hybrids have been registered on Royal Horticulture Society and showed great potential for ornamental plant market. The aim of this study is to establish an efficient method for in vitro propagation. Leaf explants taken from in vitro-grown plants were used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis on a modified 1/2 MS medium supplemented with five kinds of cytokinins, 2iP, BA, kinetin, TDZ and zeatin at 0.3, 1 and 3 mg l -1 in darkness. TDZ at 3 mg l -1 gave the highest percentage of explants with somatic globular embryos after 90 days of culture. It was found that 2,4-D and light regime highly retarded direct somatic embryogenesis and showed 95-100% of explant browning. Histological observations revealed that the leaf cells divided into meristematic cells firstly, followed by somatic proembryos, and then somatic globular embryos. Eventually, somatic embryos developed a bipolar structure with the shoot apical meristem and the root meristem. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf explants was asynchronously. The somatic embryos were found on the leaf tip, the adaxial surface and also the mesophyll through a cleft, and it reflected the heterogeneity of the explant. The 90-day-old globular embryos were detached from the parent explants and transferred onto a hormone-free 1/2 MS medium in light condition for about 1 month to obtain 1-cm-height plantlets. After another 3 months for growth, the plantlets were potted with Sphagnum moss and were acclimatized in a shaded greenhouse. After 1 month of culture, the survival rate was 100%. In this report, a protocol for efficient regenerating a Tolumnia orchid, Louise Elmore 'Elsa', was established via direct somatic embryogenesis and might reveal an alternative approach for mass propagation of Tolumnia genus in orchid industry.

  2. Consumo de antioxidantes em participantes do ELSA-Brasil: resultados da linha de base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Galvão Teixeira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar o consumo habitual de antioxidantes (vitaminas A, E e C, selênio e zinco e identificar fatores associados ao baixo consumo em adultos. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 14.660 participantes (35 a 74 anos da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil. O consumo de antioxidantes e energia total foi determinado por Questionário de Frequência Alimentar e analisado com auxílio do software NDSR. O consumo dos antioxidantes foi ajustado pela energia total e dividido em quintis. Variáveis socioeconômicas foram analisadas e incluídas no modelo de regressão logística para identificar fatores associados ao baixo consumo. Resultados: O consumo energético (kcal/dia foi maior em homens (3.152 ± 1.026 versus 2.613 ± 905; p < 0,001 enquanto que o consumo de todos os antioxidantes (principalmente as vitaminas A e C e o selênio foi maior em mulheres. O baixo consumo de antioxidantes se associou significativamente ao sexo masculino (OR = 3,5; IC95% 3,11 - 4,0, à menor escolaridade (OR = 3,1; IC95% 2,42 - 3,87, à menor renda (OR = 4,4; IC95% 3,67 - 5,36, à menor faixa etária (OR = 5,5; IC95% 4,27 - 7,16, ao estado de magreza (OR = 2,7; IC95% 1,36 - 5,18, ao relato do não uso de suplemento (OR = 1,95; IC95% 1,6 - 2,38 como polivitamínicos e minerais e a não alteração de hábitos alimentares nos últimos seis meses (OR = 2,0; IC95% 1,75 - 2,29. Conclusão: O maior consumo de frutas e legumes está envolvido no maior consumo de antioxidantes em mulheres. As políticas para aumento do consumo desses nutrientes precisam ser dirigidas para os segmentos de menores renda, escolaridade e faixa etária.

  3. Real Closed Rings and Real Closed * Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Capco, Jose

    2007-01-01

    Here we try to distinguish and compare different notions of real closedness mainly one developed by N. Schwartz in his Habilitationschrift and the other developed by A. Sankaranand K. Varadarajan which we shall call real closed *. We stick to the definition of real closed rings as defined and characterized N. Schwartz and we try to determine and characterize real closed rings that are real closed *. The main result is that real closed rings have unique real closure * and that real closure of ...

  4. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  5. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  7. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to build a predictive model for detecting undiagnosed diabetes - ELSA-Brasil: accuracy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues Olivera

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a wide range of serious health complications that have a major impact on overall health. The aims here were to develop and validate predictive models for detecting undiagnosed diabetes using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil and to compare the performance of different machine-learning algorithms in this task. DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to develop predictive models using data from ELSA-Brasil. METHODS: After selecting a subset of 27 candidate variables from the literature, models were built and validated in four sequential steps: (i parameter tuning with tenfold cross-validation, repeated three times; (ii automatic variable selection using forward selection, a wrapper strategy with four different machine-learning algorithms and tenfold cross-validation (repeated three times, to evaluate each subset of variables; (iii error estimation of model parameters with tenfold cross-validation, repeated ten times; and (iv generalization testing on an independent dataset. The models were created with the following machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and random forest. RESULTS: The best models were created using artificial neural networks and logistic regression. These achieved mean areas under the curve of, respectively, 75.24% and 74.98% in the error estimation step and 74.17% and 74.41% in the generalization testing step. CONCLUSION: Most of the predictive models produced similar results, and demonstrated the feasibility of identifying individuals with highest probability of having undiagnosed diabetes, through easily-obtained clinical data.

  8. Association Between Short-Term Systolic Blood Pressure Variability and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in ELSA-Brasil Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adèle H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fujita, André; Goulart, Alessandra C; Chor, Dora; Mill, José G; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-10-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), but few studies have explored the association between BP variability and CIMT. We aimed to investigate this association in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 7,215 participants (56.0% women) without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) or antihypertensive use. We included 10 BP readings in varying positions during a 6-hour visit. We defined BP variability as the SD of these readings. We performed a 2-step analysis. We first linearly regressed the CIMT values on main and all-order interaction effects of the variables age, sex, body mass index, race, diabetes diagnosis, dyslipidemia diagnosis, family history of premature CVD, smoking status, and ELSA-Brasil site, and calculated the residuals (residual CIMT). We used partial least square path analysis to investigate whether residual CIMT was associated with BP central tendency and BP variability. Systolic BP (SBP) variability was significantly associated with residual CIMT in models including the entire sample (path coefficient [PC]: 0.046; P < 0.001), and in women (PC: 0.046; P = 0.007) but not in men (PC: 0.037; P = 0.09). This loss of significance was probably due to the smaller subsample size, as PCs were not significantly different according to sex. We found a small but significant association between SBP variability and CIMT values. This was additive to the association between SBP central tendency and CIMT values, supporting a role for high short-term SBP variability in atherosclerosis. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to build a predictive model for detecting undiagnosed diabetes - ELSA-Brasil: accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, André Rodrigues; Roesler, Valter; Iochpe, Cirano; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Vigo, Álvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a wide range of serious health complications that have a major impact on overall health. The aims here were to develop and validate predictive models for detecting undiagnosed diabetes using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) and to compare the performance of different machine-learning algorithms in this task. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to develop predictive models using data from ELSA-Brasil. After selecting a subset of 27 candidate variables from the literature, models were built and validated in four sequential steps: (i) parameter tuning with tenfold cross-validation, repeated three times; (ii) automatic variable selection using forward selection, a wrapper strategy with four different machine-learning algorithms and tenfold cross-validation (repeated three times), to evaluate each subset of variables; (iii) error estimation of model parameters with tenfold cross-validation, repeated ten times; and (iv) generalization testing on an independent dataset. The models were created with the following machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and random forest. The best models were created using artificial neural networks and logistic regression. -These achieved mean areas under the curve of, respectively, 75.24% and 74.98% in the error estimation step and 74.17% and 74.41% in the generalization testing step. Most of the predictive models produced similar results, and demonstrated the feasibility of identifying individuals with highest probability of having undiagnosed diabetes, through easily-obtained clinical data.

  10. Groups, rings, modules

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    This classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The treatment presupposes some familiarity with sets, groups, rings, and vector spaces. The four-part approach begins with examinations of sets and maps, monoids and groups, categories, and rings. The second part explores unique factorization domains, general module theory, semisimple rings and modules, and Artinian rings. Part three's topics include localization and tensor products, principal ideal domains, and applications of fundamental theorem. The fourth and final part covers algebraic field extensions

  11. Gender and psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyle in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2017-08-28

    It has been estimated that over 50% of the premature deaths occurring in Western countries can be attributed to causes rooted in lifestyle. In turn, leading a healthy lifestyle has also been associated with a wide range of psychosocial factors. Today, it is known that these differ among men and women. The present article aimed to identify, from a gender-based perspective, the psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort, the largest study concerning adult health conducted in Latin America to date. This cross-sectional study was conducted using ELSA-Brasil baseline data, collected between 2008 and 2010. Six Brazilian public higher education and research institutions. The ELSA-Brasil cohort consists of approximately 15 000 employees (8218 women and 6887 men), both currently working and retired. The lifestyle indicator was constructed by summing the scores attributed to four different behaviours. The women of the ELSA-Brasil cohort have healthier lifestyles than men. In women, strong associations were found between a healthy lifestyle and age 60 years or older, Asian race and university level of education or higher. In men, being 60 years or older, of Asian or Caucasian race, having a high-school equivalent level of education or higher, being retired, having a housekeeper, having a good or very good self-perception of health and being satisfied with body image were the psychosocial factors associated with leading a healthy lifestyle. The factors that influenced healthy lifestyles were found to differ among men and women, a fact that must be addressed when developing programmes designed to promote health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  13. Temporal laser pulse manipulation using multiple optical ring-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An optical pulse stretcher and a mathematical algorithm for the detailed calculation of its design and performance is disclosed. The optical pulse stretcher has a plurality of optical cavities, having multiple optical reflectors such that an optical path length in each of the optical cavities is different. The optical pulse stretcher also has a plurality of beam splitters, each of which intercepts a portion of an input optical beam and diverts the portion into one of the plurality of optical cavities. The input optical beam is stretched and a power of an output beam is reduced after passing through the optical pulse stretcher and the placement of the plurality of optical cavities and beam splitters is optimized through a model that takes into account optical beam divergence and alignment in the pluralities of the optical cavities. The optical pulse stretcher system can also function as a high-repetition-rate (MHz) laser pulse generator, making it suitable for use as a stroboscopic light source for high speed ballistic projectile imaging studies, or it can be used for high speed flow diagnostics using a laser light sheet with digital particle imaging velocimetry. The optical pulse stretcher system can also be implemented using fiber optic components to realize a rugged and compact optical system that is alignment free and easy to use.

  14. Physics of quantum rings

    CERN Document Server

    Fomin, Vladimir M

    2013-01-01

    This book deals with a new class of materials, quantum rings. Innovative recent advances in experimental and theoretical physics of quantum rings are based on the most advanced state-of-the-art fabrication and characterization techniques as well as theoretical methods. The experimental efforts allow to obtain a new class of semiconductor quantum rings formed by capping self-organized quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Novel optical and magnetic properties of quantum rings are associated with non-trivial topologies at the nanoscale. An adequate characterization of quantum rings is po

  15. Reprodutibilidade e validade relativa do Questionário de Frequência Alimentar do ELSA-Brasil Reproducibilidad y validez relativa del Cuestionario de Frecuencia Alimentaria del ELSA-Brasil Reproducibility and relative validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire used in the ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Manato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a reprodutibilidade e a validade do Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (QFA utilizado no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil. Foram aplicados três registros alimentares e um QFA em dois momentos no período de um ano (n = 281. Valores de energia e nutrientes dos registros alimentares foram deatenuados e Log transformados. Para avaliação da reprodutibilidade e validade foi aplicado o teste de correlação intraclasse (CCI e calculados percentuais de concordância do consumo de nutrientes após categorização por tercis. Na avaliação da reprodutibilidade, coeficientes de CCI variaram de 0,55-0,83 para proteína e vitamina E, respectivamente; na avaliação da validade, variaram de 0,20-0,72 para selênio e cálcio, respectivamente. Concordâncias exata e adjacente entre métodos variaram de 82,9% para vitamina E a 89% para lipídio e cálcio (média = 86%. Foi encontrada uma discordância média de 13,6%. Conclui-se que o QFA ELSA-Brasil apresenta confiabilidade satisfatória para todos nutrientes e validade relativa razoável para energia, macronutrientes, cálcio, potássio e vitaminas E e C.Se evaluó la reproducibilidad y la validez del Cuestionario de Frecuencia Alimentaria (QFA, utilizado en el Estudio Longitudinal de Salud de Adultos (ELSA-Brasil. Se aplicaron tres registros alimentarios y un QFA en dos momentos durante el período de un año (n = 281. Valores de energía y nutrientes de los registros alimentarios se realizaron sin atenuación y log transformados. Para la evaluación de la reproducibilidad y validez se aplicó el test de Correlación Intraclase (CCI y se calcularon los porcentajes de concordancia del consumo de nutrientes tras la categorización por terciles. En la evaluación de la reproducibilidad, coeficientes de CCI variaron de 0,55-0,83 en el caso la proteína y vitamina E, respectivamente; en la evaluación de la validez, variaron de 0,20-0,72 en el selenio y calcio

  16. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  17. Token Ring Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ionescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ring topology is a simple configuration used to connect processes that communicate among themselves. A number of network standards such as token ring, token bus, and FDDI are based on the ring connectivity. This article will develop an implementation of a ring of processes that communicate among themselves via pipe links. The processes are nodes in the ring. Each process reads from its standard input and writes in its standard output. N-1 process redirects the its standard output to a standard input of the process through a pipe. When the ring-structure is designed, the project can be extended to simulate networks or to implement algorithms for mutual exclusion

  18. Token ring technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This report provides an overview of the IBM Token-Ring technology and products built by IBM and compatible vendors. It consists of two sections: 1. A summary of the design trade-offs for the IBM Token-Ring. 2. A summary of the products of the major token-ring compatible vendors broken down by adapters and components, wiring systems, testing, and new chip technology.

  19. Spannungsgesteuerter Ring-Oszillator

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Z.; Thiede, A.

    1999-01-01

    The oscillator (1) of integrated monolithic design has several analogue amplifier units (2) connected in a ring. The individual amplifiers are frequency selective in regard to a resonance frequency. The phase displacements of the amplifiers are chosen so that the total phase displacement over the ring at the resonance frequencies of the amplifiers amounts to 3600 or a whole number multiple of that. The number of amplifiers selected corresponds to the overall quality factor for the ring oscill...

  20. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  1. Vortex and source rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field, vector potential and velocity gradient of a vortex ring is derived in this chapter. The Biot-Savart law for the vector potential and velocity is expressed in a first section. Then, the flow is derived at specific locations: on the axis, near the axis and in the far field where...... is dedicated to vortex rings. Source rings are only briefly mentioned....

  2. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy

  3. The ring laser gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, W. W.; Gea-Banacloche, J.; Pedrotti, L. M.; Sanders, V. E.; Schleich, W.; Scully, M. O.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a review of both active and passive ring laser devices. The operating principles of the ring laser are developed and discussed, with special emphasis given to the problems associated with the achievement of greater sensitivity and stability. First-principle treatments of the nature of quantum noise in the ring laser gyro and various methods designed to avoid low-rotation-rate lock-in are presented. Descriptions of state-of-the-art devices and current and proposed applications (including a proposed test of metric theories of gravity using a passive cavity ring laser) are given.

  4. Spelling Errors as a Cry of Protest. The Idiosyncratic Language of the Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Chiappini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analysing the spelling oddities in the still widely unknown corpus of the German-American poet Elsa von-Freytag Loringhoven (1874-1927. Such irregularities prove too widespread in her poetic work merely to be ascribed to her German origins, especially since her English was otherwise proficient, and since she had native speaker friends willing to proofread her writings. Although ‘the Baroness’ only learnt English in her thirties, recidivism in the misspelling of some particular words motivates further investigation. The Baroness’s poetic language is so rich in misspellings, mistranslations, coinages, portmanteau words and unusual idioms, that it is idiosyncratic and unique; clearly, a lack of proficiency in the English language cannot be identified as the (only cause. Indeed, in a letter to Djuna Barnes, she declared: “It is written like half mad in syntax […] I am half mad – as is only sensible”. While such a statement is not to be taken literally, it is still true that the Baroness’s intolerance of social prescriptions, her alluring performances and daring behaviour caused her to be labelled as “hysteric, perverted and mad.” (Gammel 2003: 57 Spelling errors and other oddities in her corpus should therefore be reframed in a wider, programmatic intention to challenge the English language specifically, and verbal expression in general; ultimately, linguistic errors are one of the most interesting manifestations of her uncompromising non-acquiescence to rules.

  5. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-12-17

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  6. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  7. EBT ring physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1980-04-01

    This workshop attempted to evaluate the status of the current experimental and theoretical understanding of hot electron ring properties. The dominant physical processes that influence ring formation, scaling, and their optimal behavior are also studied. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the 27 included papers

  8. Children of Sex Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia; Baird, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Outlines three major differentiating categories of children who were sexually abused by sex rings: level of fear, ability to trust, and disclosure confusion. Addresses denial and resistance regarding child sexual exploitation by a ring among practitioners in the child welfare system. (Author/BB)

  9. Illustration of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration shows a close-up of Saturn's rings. These rings are thought to have formed from material that was unable to form into a Moon because of tidal forces from Saturn, or from a Moon that was broken up by Saturn's tidal forces.

  10. Relativistic ring models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujevic, Maximiliano [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Letelier, Patricio S.; Vogt, Daniel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica, Estatistica e Computacao Cientifica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Relativistic thick ring models are constructed using previously found analytical Newtonian potential-density pairs for flat rings and toroidal structures obtained from Kuzmin-Toomre family of discs. This was achieved by inflating previously constructed Newtonian ring potentials using the transformation |z|{yields}{radical}z{sup 2} + b{sup 2}, and then finding their relativistic analog. The models presented have infinite extension but the physical quantities decays very fast with the distance, and in principle, one could make a cut-off radius to consider it finite. In particular, we present systems with one ring, two rings and a disc with a ring. Also, the circular velocity of a test particle and its stability when performing circular orbits are presented in all these models. Using the Rayleigh criterion of stability of a fluid at rest in a gravitational field, we find that the different systems studied present a region of non-stability that appears in the intersection of the disc and the ring, and between the rings when they become thinner. (author)

  11. Imaging rings in ring imaging Cherenkov counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Blair N

    2002-11-25

    The general concepts used to form images in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters are described and their performance properties compared. Particular attention is paid to issues associated with imaging in the time dimension, especially in Detectors of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRCs).

  12. Rings and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bland, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of rings and modules that goes beyond what one normally obtains in a graduate course in abstract algebra. In addition to the presentation of standard topics in ring and module theory, it also covers category theory, homological algebra and even more specialized topics like injective envelopes and projective covers, reflexive modules and quasi-Frobenius rings, and graded rings and modules. The book is a self-contained volume written in a very systematic style: allproofs are clear and easy for the reader to understand and allarguments are based onmaterials contained in the book. A problem sets follow each section. It is suitable for graduate and PhD students who have chosen ring theory for their research subject.

  13. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Sabrina Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors.To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil.A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods.The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21 and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56. The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79. Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of a noninvasive hepatic ultrasound score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Carvalho Goulart

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Noninvasive strategies for evaluating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD have been investigated over the last few decades. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new hepatic ultrasound score for NAFLD in the ELSA-Brasil study. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Diagnostic accuracy study conducted in the ELSA center, in the hospital of a public university. METHODS: Among the 15,105 participants of the ELSA study who were evaluated for NAFLD, 195 individuals were included in this sub-study. Hepatic ultrasound was performed (deep beam attenuation, hepatorenal index and anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe and compared with the hepatic steatosis findings from 64-channel high-resolution computed tomography (CT. We also evaluated two clinical indices relating to NAFLD: the fatty liver index (FLI and the hepatic steatosis index (HSI. RESULTS: Among the 195 participants, the NAFLD frequency was 34.4%. High body mass index, high waist circumference, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with high hepatic attenuation and large anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, but not with the hepatorenal index. The hepatic ultrasound score, based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, presented the best performance for NAFLD screening at the cutoff point ≥ 1 point; sensitivity: 85.1%; specificity: 73.4%; accuracy: 79.3%; and area under the curve (AUC 0.85; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.78-0.91]. FLI and HSI presented lower performance (AUC 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69-0.83 than CT. CONCLUSION: The hepatic ultrasound score based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe has good reproducibility and accuracy for NAFLD screening.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of a noninvasive hepatic ultrasound score for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Oliveira, Ilka Regina Souza de; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Santos, Maira Solange Camara dos; Santos, Itamar Souza; Martines, Brenda Margatho Ramos; Meireles, Danilo Peron; Martines, João Augusto dos Santos; Misciagna, Giovanni; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive strategies for evaluating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been investigated over the last few decades. Our aim was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new hepatic ultrasound score for NAFLD in the ELSA-Brasil study. Diagnostic accuracy study conducted in the ELSA center, in the hospital of a public university. Among the 15,105 participants of the ELSA study who were evaluated for NAFLD, 195 individuals were included in this sub-study. Hepatic ultrasound was performed (deep beam attenuation, hepatorenal index and anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe) and compared with the hepatic steatosis findings from 64-channel high-resolution computed tomography (CT). We also evaluated two clinical indices relating to NAFLD: the fatty liver index (FLI) and the hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Among the 195 participants, the NAFLD frequency was 34.4%. High body mass index, high waist circumference, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with high hepatic attenuation and large anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, but not with the hepatorenal index. The hepatic ultrasound score, based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe, presented the best performance for NAFLD screening at the cutoff point ≥ 1 point; sensitivity: 85.1%; specificity: 73.4%; accuracy: 79.3%; and area under the curve (AUC 0.85; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.78-0.91)]. FLI and HSI presented lower performance (AUC 0.76; 95% CI: 0.69-0.83) than CT. The hepatic ultrasound score based on hepatic attenuation and the anteroposterior diameter of the right hepatic lobe has good reproducibility and accuracy for NAFLD screening.

  16. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.

  17. Ring chromosome 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, Jens Michael; Petersen, M B

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation...... with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of cases with ring chromosome 13 with identified breakpoints, could neither support the theory of distinct clinical...

  18. Faithfully quadratic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dickmann, M

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the authors extend the classical algebraic theory of quadratic forms over fields to diagonal quadratic forms with invertible entries over broad classes of commutative, unitary rings where -1 is not a sum of squares and 2 is invertible. They accomplish this by: (1) Extending the classical notion of matrix isometry of forms to a suitable notion of T-isometry, where T is a preorder of the given ring, A, or T = A^2. (2) Introducing in this context three axioms expressing simple properties of (value) representation of elements of the ring by quadratic forms, well-known to hold in

  19. The g-2 ring

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The precise measurement of "g-2", the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, required a special muon storage ring with electrostatic focussing and very accurate knowledge of the magnetic bending field. For more details see under photo 7405430.

  20. Saturn's dynamic D ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, M.M.; Burns, J.A.; Showalter, M.R.; Porco, C.C.; Nicholson, P.D.; Bosh, A.S.; Tiscareno, M.S.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Clark, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has provided the first clear images of the D ring since the Voyager missions. These observations show that the structure of the D ring has undergone significant changes over the last 25 years. The brightest of the three ringlets seen in the Voyager images (named D72), has transformed from a narrow, <40-km wide ringlet to a much broader and more diffuse 250-km wide feature. In addition, its center of light has shifted inwards by over 200 km relative to other features in the D ring. Cassini also finds that the locations of other narrow features in the D ring and the structure of the diffuse material in the D ring differ from those measured by Voyager. Furthermore, Cassini has detected additional ringlets and structures in the D ring that were not observed by Voyager. These include a sheet of material just interior to the inner edge of the C ring that is only observable at phase angles below about 60??. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) instruments onboard Cassini show the D ring contains a variety of different particle populations with typical particle sizes ranging from 1 to 100 microns. High-resolution images reveal fine-scale structures in the D ring that appear to be variable in time and/or longitude. Particularly interesting is a remarkably regular, periodic structure with a wavelength of ??? 30 ?? km extending between orbital radii of 73,200 and 74,000 km. A similar structure was previously observed in 1995 during the occultation of the star GSC5249-01240, at which time it had a wavelength of ??? 60 ?? km. We interpret this structure as a periodic vertical corrugation in the D ring produced by differential nodal regression of an initially inclined ring. We speculate that this structure may have formed in response to an impact with a comet or meteoroid in early 1984. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A stretcher and holder module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guazzoni, P.; Taiocchi, G.; Zetta, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the general structure and performance of a compact module, designed to strech anf hold analog signals up to several hundreds of microseconds, without remarkable changes in the pulse height and shape, and to provide a convenient interface between detector systems and data acquisition equipments

  2. The ELSA - Flood - Stack: A reconstruction from the laminated sediments of Eifel Maar structures during the last 60 000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunck, Heiko; Sirocko, Frank; Albert, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    events from 60 000 years until present times and indicates variable periodicities of flood activity linked to predominant climatic and anthropogenic development. It turns out that low vegetation coverage related to Greenland Stadial phases or anthropogenic impact is the main cause for the development of flood layers in maar sediments, while precipitation plays only a secondary role. References Brunck, H., Albert, J., Sirocko, F., 2015 (in press). The ELSA - Flood - Stack: A reconstruction from the laminated sediments of Eifel Maar structures during the last 60 000 years. Global and Planetary Change, Elsevier. Sirocko, F., Knapp, H., Dreher, F., Förster, M., Albert, J., Brunck, H., Veres, D., Dietrich, S., Zech, M., Hambach, U., Röhner, M., Rudert, S., Schwibus, K., Adams, C., Sigl, P., 2015 (in press). The ELSA-Vegetation-Stack: Reconstruction of Landscape Evolution Zones (LEZ) from laminated Eifel maar sediments of the last 60 000 years. Global and Planetary Change, Elsevier.

  3. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  4. Storage ring group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Storage Ring Group set out to identify and pursue salient problems in accelerator physics for heavy ion fusion, divorced from any particular reference design concept. However, it became apparent that some basic parameter framework was required to correlate the different study topics. As the Workshop progressed, ring parameters were modified and updated. Consequently, the accompanying papers on individual topics will be found to refer to slightly varied parameters, according to the stage at which the different problems were tackled

  5. Matrimonial ring structures

    OpenAIRE

    Hamberger, Klaus; Houseman, Michael; Daillant, Isabelle; White, Douglas R.; Barry, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with matrimonial rings, a particular kind of cycles in kinship networks which result when spouses are linked to each other by ties of consanguinity or affinity. By taking a network-analytic perspective, the paper endeavours to put this classical issue of structural kinship theory on a general basis, such as to allow conclusions which go beyond isolated discussions of particular ring types (like "cross-cousin marriage", "sister exchange", and so forth). The paper provides a def...

  6. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2017-07-13

    Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption "never or almost never", "≤1 cup/day", "2-3 cups/day", "≥3 cups/day", and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  7. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackel Aguiar Mendes de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV remain controversial. Method: A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008–2010 from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35–74, based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption “never or almost never”, “≤1 cup/day”, “2–3 cups/day”, “≥3 cups/day”, and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. Results: The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.1, and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Conclusion: Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  8. Associations of Cigarette Smoking With Subclinical Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Al-Rifai, Mahmoud; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Duncan, Bruce B; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-06-24

    There is a need to identify sensitive biomarkers of early tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of smoking status, burden, time since quitting, and intensity, with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied 14 103 participants without clinical cardiovascular disease in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). We evaluated baseline cross-sectional associations between smoking parameters and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, and coronary artery calcium [CAC]). The cohort included 1844 current smokers, 4121 former smokers, and 8138 never smokers. Mean age was 51.7±8.9 years; 44.8% were male. After multivariable adjustment, compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher levels of hsCRP (β=0.24, 0.19-0.29 mg/L; P 0 (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.30; P 0 were lower with increasing time since quitting ( P 0 ( P =0.03) after adjusting for duration of smoking. Strong associations were observed between smoking status, burden, and intensity with inflammation (hsCRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, CAC). These markers of early cardiovascular disease injury may be used for the further study and regulation of traditional and novel tobacco products. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Gender aspects of the relationship between migraine and cardiovascular risk factors: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and migraine is controversial and might be different in both genders. These associations were evaluated in Brazilian middle-aged men and women from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cross-sectional relationship between our main outcome, which was migraine headache (definite, probable and overall), and CVRF was evaluated in the total sample and according to gender. We calculated frequencies and odds ratios (95% CI) for this relationship using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses in crude, age-adjusted and multivariable models adjusted by potential confounders. Of 14,953 individuals who completed the data about headache and CVRF, the frequency of one-year migraine was of 29.5% (22.5% in women and 7.0% in men). In the multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, an inverse association between hypertension (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.79), metabolic syndrome (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99) and definite migraine were confirmed for men, but not for women. In the opposite direction, a positive association between migraine headaches (definite, probable and overall) and dyslipidemia (overall migraine OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.38) was observed only for women, but not for men. A gender influence on the relationship between migraine and CVRF was verified in the ELSA-Brasil. © International Headache Society 2015.

  10. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  11. Almost ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This book develops thorough and complete foundations for the method of almost etale extensions, which is at the basis of Faltings' approach to p-adic Hodge theory. The central notion is that of an "almost ring". Almost rings are the commutative unitary monoids in a tensor category obtained as a quotient V-Mod/S of the category V-Mod of modules over a fixed ring V; the subcategory S consists of all modules annihilated by a fixed ideal m of V, satisfying certain natural conditions. The reader is assumed to be familiar with general categorical notions, some basic commutative algebra and some advanced homological algebra (derived categories, simplicial methods). Apart from these general prerequisites, the text is as self-contained as possible. One novel feature of the book - compared with Faltings' earlier treatment - is the systematic exploitation of the cotangent complex, especially for the study of deformations of almost algebras.

  12. Decay ring design

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, A; Bouquerel, E; Hancock, S; Jensen, E

    The study of the neutrino oscillation between its different flavours needs pureand very intense fluxes of high energy, well collimated neutrinos with a welldetermined energy spectrum. A dedicated machine seems to be necessarynowadays to reach the required flux. A new concept based on the β-decayof radioactive ions which were accelerated in an accelerator chain was thenproposed. After ion production, stripping, bunching and acceleration, the unstableions are then stored in a racetrack-shaped superconducting decay ring.Finally, the ions are accumulated in the decay ring until being lost. The incomingbeam is merged to the stored beam by using a specific RF system, whichwill be presented here.We propose here to study some aspects of the decay ring, such as its opticalproperties, its RF system or the management of the losses which occur in thering (mainly by decay or by collimation).

  13. Measurement of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} for photon energies up to 2.65 GeV with the SAPHIR detector at ELSA; Messung der Reaktion {gamma}p {yields} K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} fuer Photonenergien bis 2.65 GeV mit dem SAPHIR-Detektor an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawall, R.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction {gamma}p {yields} K{sup 0}{sigma}{sup +} was measured with the SAPHIR-detector at ELSA during the run periods 1997 and 1998. Results were obtained for cross sections in the photon energy range from threshold up to 2.65 GeV for all production angles and for the {sigma}{sup +}-polarization. Emphasis has been put on the determination and reduction of the contributions of background reactions and the comparison with other measurements and theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  14. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  15. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  16. Lattices for antiproton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autin, B.

    1984-01-01

    After a description of the constraints imposed by the cooling of Antiprotons on the lattice of the rings, the reasons which motivate the shape and the structure of these machines are surveyed. Linear and non-linear beam optics properties are treated with a special amplification to the Antiproton Accumulator. (orig.)

  17. Flushing Ring for EDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earwood, L.

    1985-01-01

    Removing debris more quickly lowers cutting time. Operation, cutting oil and pressurized air supplied to ring placed around workpiece. Air forces oil through small holes and agitates oil as it flows over workpiece. High flow rate and agitation dislodge and remove debris. Electrical discharge removes material from workpiece faster.

  18. SXLS storage ring design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray lithography has emerged as a strong candidate to meet the demands of ever finer linewidths on integrated circuits, particularly for linewidths less than .25 microns. Proximity printing X-ray lithography makes use of soft X-rays to shadow print an image of a mask onto a semiconductor wafer to produce integrated circuits. To generate the required X-rays in sufficient quantities to make commercial production viable, electron storage rings have been proposed as the soft X-ray sources. Existing storage rings have been used to do the initial development work and the success of these efforts has led the lithographers to request that new rings be constructed that are dedicated to X-ray lithography. As a result of a series of workshops held at BNL [10.3] which were attended by both semiconductor and accelerator scientists, the following set of zeroth order specifications' on the light and electron beam of a storage ring for X-ray lithography were developed: critical wavelength of light: λ c = 6 to 10 angstroms, white light power: P = 0.25 to 2.5 watts/mrad, horizontal collection angle per port: θ = 10 to 50 mrad, electron beam sizes: σ x ∼ σ y y ' < 1 mrad

  19. Ring Bubbles of Dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi; White, Don J.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The article discusses how dolphins create and play with three types of air-filled vortices. The underlying physics is discussed. Photographs and sketches illustrating the dolphin's actions and physics are presented. The dolphins engage in this behavior on their own initiative without food reward. These behaviors are done repeatedly and with singleminded effort. The first type is the ejection of bubbles which, after some practice on the part of the dolphin, turn into toroidal vortex ring bubbles by the mechanism of baroclinic torque. These bubbles grow in radius and become thinner as they rise vertically to the surface. One dolphin would blow two in succession and guide them to fuse into one. Physicists call this a vortex reconnection. In the second type, the dolphins first create an invisible vortex ring in the water by swimming on their side and waving their tail fin (also called flukes) vigorously. This vortex ring travels horizontally in the water. The dolphin then turns around, finds the vortex and injects a stream of air into it from its blowhole. The air "fills-out" the core of the vortex ring. Often, the dolphin would knock-off a smaller ring bubble from the larger ring (this also involves vortex reconnection) and steer the smaller ring around the tank. One other dolphin employed a few other techniques for planting air into the fluke vortex. One technique included standing vertically in the water with tail-up, head-down and tail piercing the free surface. As the fluke is waved to create the vortex ring, air is entrained from above the surface. Another technique was gulping air in the mouth, diving down, releasing air bubbles from the mouth and curling them into a ring when they rose to the level of the fluke. In the third type, demonstrated by only one dolphin, the longitudinal vortex created by the dorsal fin on the back is used to produce 10-15 foot long helical bubbles. In one technique she swims in a curved path. This creates a dorsal fin vortex since

  20. FUZZY RINGS AND ITS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyati Karyati

    2017-01-01

      One of algebraic structure that involves a binary operation is a group that is defined  an un empty set (classical with an associative binary operation, it has identity elements and each element has an inverse. In the structure of the group known as the term subgroup, normal subgroup, subgroup and factor group homomorphism and its properties. Classical algebraic structure is developed to algebraic structure fuzzy by the researchers as an example semi group fuzzy and fuzzy group after fuzzy sets is introduced by L. A. Zadeh at 1965. It is inspired of writing about semi group fuzzy and group of fuzzy, a research on the algebraic structure of the ring is held with reviewing ring fuzzy, ideal ring fuzzy, homomorphism ring fuzzy and quotient ring fuzzy with its properties. The results of this study are obtained fuzzy properties of the ring, ring ideal properties fuzzy, properties of fuzzy ring homomorphism and properties of fuzzy quotient ring by utilizing a subset of a subset level  and strong level  as well as image and pre-image homomorphism fuzzy ring.   Keywords: fuzzy ring, subset level, homomorphism fuzzy ring, fuzzy quotient ring

  1. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  2. Association between Body Image Dissatisfaction and Self-Rated Health, as Mediated by Physical Activity and Eating Habits: Structural Equation Modelling in ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira da Silva, Patricia; Miguez Nery Guimarães, Joanna; Härter Griep, Rosane; Caetano Prates Melo, Enirtes; Maria Alvim Matos, Sheila; Del Carmem Molina, Maria; Maria Barreto, Sandhi; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria

    2018-04-18

    This study investigated whether the association between body image dissatisfaction and poor self-rated health is mediated by insufficient physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. The participants were 6727 men and 8037 women from the baseline (2008–2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil). Structural equation modelling was used. Associations were found between body image dissatisfaction and poor self-rated health in both sexes. Insufficient physical activity was a mediator. However, unhealthy eating habits were found to exert a mediator effect only via insufficient physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction was found to associate, both directly and possibly indirectly, with poor self-rated health, mediated by insufficient physical activity and unhealthy eating habits. Accordingly, encouraging physical activity and healthy eating can contribute to reducing body image dissatisfaction and favour better self-rated health.

  3. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  4. e-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    e-læring kan defineres på ganske mange måder. Ordet e-læring består jo tydeligt nok af to elementer. E + læring ligesom e-handel eller e-banking, og umiddelbart vil de fleste nok sige, at det så handler om læring vha. internettet. I bidraget advokeres for en læringsmæssig frem for normativ tilgang....

  5. Design of low energy ring(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, Antoine

    During the last two years, several upgrades of the initial baseline scenario were studied with the aim of increasing the average intensity of ion beams in the accelerator chain of the Beta Beam complex. This is the reason why the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) specifications were reconsidered many times [1], [2], [3].General considerations on the optical design were presented at the Beta Beam Task Meetings held at CERN and at Saclay in 2005 [4]. More detailed beam optics studies were performed during the next months. Lattices, RF system parameters, multi-turn injection scheme, fast extraction, closed orbit correction and chromaticity correction systems were proposed for different versions of the RCS [5], [6], [7].Finally, the RCS specifications have stabilized in November 2006 after the fourth Beta Beam Task Meeting when it was decided to fix the maximum magnetic rigidity of ion beams to 14.47 T.m (3.5 GeV equivalent proton energy) and to adopt a ring physical radius of 40 m in order to facilitate injectio...

  6. Consumption of ultra-processed food and obesity: cross sectional results from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda Marcelina; Giatti, Luana; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; de Oliveira Cardoso, Letícia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2018-04-12

    To verify if the intake of ultra-processed foods is associated with higher BMI and waist circumference (WC) among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. Cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil baseline (2008-2010). Dietary information obtained through an FFQ was classified according to characteristics of food processing (NOVA) and used to estimate the percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods (i.e. industrial formulations, elaborated from food processing, synthetic constituents and food additives) to individuals' total energy intake. BMI and WC and their respective cut-off points served as response variables. Associations were estimated through linear and multinomial logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounders and total energy intake. Six Brazilian capital cities, 2008-2010. Active and retired civil servants, aged 35-64 years, from universities and research organizations (n 8977). Ultra-processed foods accounted for 22·7 % of total energy intake. After adjustments, individuals in the fourth quartile of percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods presented (β; 95 % CI) a higher BMI (0·80; CI 0·53, 1·07 kg/m2) and WC (1·71; 1·02, 2·40 cm), and higher chances (OR; 95 % CI) of being overweight (1·31; 1·13, 1·51), obese (1·41; 1·18, 1·69) and having significantly increased WC (1·41; 1·20, 1·66), compared with those in the first quartile. All associations suggest a dose-response gradient. Results indicate the existence of associations between greater energy contribution from ultra-processed foods and higher BMI and WC, which are independent of total energy intake. These findings corroborate public policies designed to reduce the intake of this type of food.

  7. Gender-specific association between night-work exposure and type-2 diabetes: results from longitudinal study of adult health, ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chor, Dora; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes is a multifactorial disease of increasing prevalence. The literature suggests an impact of night work on metabolic components, though the relationship with diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to investigate gender-specific associations between night work and type-2 diabetes (DM2) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cohort comprised 15 105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years. Baseline assessments (2008-2010) included clinical and laboratory measurements and interviews on sociodemographic, occupational, and health characteristics. In the baseline sample (N=14 427), 19.6% were classified as having DM2 and 20.5% as having IGT. Mean age was 52.1 (SD 9.1) years. A total of 2041 participants worked at night for 1-20 years and 687 for >20 years. Among women exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work after adjustments for potential confounders, including obesity, the odds ratios (OR) derived from multinomial logistic regression for DM2 and IGT were 1.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39-1.45] and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.99), respectively. Among men exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work, the OR for DM2 and IGT were 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.01), respectively. The association between years of night work and diabetes is stronger among women than men. Longitudinal studies from ELSA-Brasil will be able to corroborate or refute these findings.

  8. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coffee Consumption and Coronary Artery Calcium Score: Cross-Sectional Results of ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreia M; Steluti, Josiane; Goulart, Alessandra C; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Marchioni, Dirce M

    2018-03-24

    Available evidence for the relationship between coffee intake and subclinical atherosclerosis is limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). This cross-sectional study is based on baseline data from participants of the ELSA-Brasil cohort. Only participants living in São Paulo, Brazil, who underwent a CAC measurement (n=4426) were included. Coffee consumption was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. CAC was detected with computed tomography and expressed as Agatston units. CAC was further categorized as an Agatson score ≥100 (CAC ≥100). In multiple logistic regression analysis considering intake of coffee and smoking status interaction, significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption (>3 cups/d) and CAC≥100 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.85 [95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.24] for ≤1 cup/d; OR: 0.73 [95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.05] for 1-3 cups/d; OR: 0.33 [95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.65] for >3 cups/d). Moreover, there was a statistically significant interaction effect for coffee consumption and smoking status ( P =0.028 for interaction). After stratification by smoking status, the analysis revealed a lower OR of coronary calcification in never smokers drinking >3 cups/d (OR: 0.37 [95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.91]), whereas among current and former smokers, the intake of coffee was not significantly associated with coronary calcification. Habitual consumption of >3 cups/d of coffee decreased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis among never smokers. The consumption of coffee could exert a potential beneficial effect against coronary calcification, particularly in nonsmokers. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M da; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G; Moreira, Rodrigo de C; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls-FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events.

  11. Circulating early biomarkers of atherogenesis in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Barreto, Sandhi; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to describe the distribution of selected biomarkers according to age and sex, adjusted for HOMA-IR and adiposity, in a subset of middle-aged individuals of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA without diabetes mellitus or CVD. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 998 participants of the ELSA-Brasil without diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. In addition to the traditional risk factors, several biomarkers concentrations were compared according to sex, age groups (35-44; 45-54 yrs) and HOMA-IR tertiles. Linear regression was used to examine independent associations of sex and age with selected novel biomarkers, adjusted for body adiposity and HOMA-IR. Fifty-five percent were women. Men had higher mean values of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, worse lipid profile and higher E-selectin and lower leptin concentrations than women; while women had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol and leptin than men. Mean values of waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) increased with age in both sexes. Leptin and E-selectin concentrations increased across HOMA-IR tertiles. Independent associations of Apo B with age were found only in male sex, while of leptin with body mass index and HOMA-IR, and of E-selectin with HOMA-IR in both sexes. In conclusion, our data indicate age, sex, adiposity and, consequently, insulin resistance, influence circulating levels of Apo B, leptin and E-selectin, suggesting that those aspects should be taken into consideration when assessing these parameters for research or clinical purposes in individuals at relatively low cardiometabolic risk.

  12. Clean elements in abelian rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equivalent to being clean for an abelian ring is 'topologically boolean'. In line with [1] we say that a ring R (not necessarily commutative) is right (resp. left) topologically boolean, or a right (resp. left) tb-ring for short, if for every pair of distinct maximal right (resp. left) ideals of R there is an idempotent in exactly one of them.

  13. Ring Confidential Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Noether

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a method of hiding transaction amounts in the strongly decentralized anonymous cryptocurrency Monero. Similar to Bitcoin, Monero is a cryptocurrency which is distributed through a proof-of-work “mining” process having no central party or trusted setup. The original Monero protocol was based on CryptoNote, which uses ring signatures and one-time keys to hide the destination and origin of transactions. Recently the technique of using a commitment scheme to hide the amount of a transaction has been discussed and implemented by Bitcoin Core developer Gregory Maxwell. In this article, a new type of ring signature, A Multilayered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature is described which allows one to include a Pedersen Commitment in a ring signature. This construction results in a digital currency with hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation. The author would like to note that early drafts of this were publicized in the Monero Community and on the #bitcoin-wizards IRC channel. Blockchain hashed drafts are available showing that this work was started in Summer 2015, and completed in early October 2015. An eprint is also available at http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1098.

  14. SOR-ring failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Hideo

    1981-01-01

    It was in the autumn of 1976 that the SOR-ring (synchrotron radiation storage ring) has commenced the regular operation. Since then, the period when the operation was interrupted due to the failures of SOR-ring itself is in total about 8 weeks. Failures and accidents have occurred most in the vacuum system. Those failure experiences are described on the vacuum, electromagnet, radio-frequency acceleration and beam transport systems with their interrupted periods. The eleven failures in the vacuum system have been reported, such as bellows breakage in a heating-evacuating period, leakage from the bellows of straight-through valves (made in U.S.A. and Japan), and leakage from the joint flange of the vacuum system. The longest interruption was 5 weeks due to the failure of a domestically manufactured straight-through valve. The failures of the electromagnet system involve the breakage in a cooling water system, short circuit of a winding in the Q magnet power transformer, blow of a fuse protecting the deflection magnet power source by the current less than the rating, and others. The failures of the RF acceleration system include the breakage of an output electronic tube the breakage of a cavity ceramic, RF voltage fluctuation due to the contact deterioration at a cavity electrode, and the failure of grid bias power source. It is necessary to select the highly reliable components for the vacuum system because the vacuum system failures require longer time for recovery, and very likely to induce secondary and tertiary failures. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Femtoslicing in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat

    2005-01-01

    The generation of ultrashort synchrotron radiation pulses by laser-induced energy modulation of electrons and their subsequent transverse displacement, now dubbed "femtoslicing," was demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley. More recently, a femtoslicing user facility was commissioned at the BESSY storage ring in Berlin, and another project is in progress at the Swiss Light Source. The paper reviews the principle of femtoslicing, its merits and shortcomings, as well as the variations of its technical implementation. Various diagnostics techniques to detect successful laser-electron interaction are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  16. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  17. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  18. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Saturn ring temperature variations with approaching ring equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Leyrat, C.; Flandes, A.; Altobelli, N.; Pilorz, S.; Ferrari, C.; Edgington, S.

    2009-04-01

    Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has acquired a wide-ranging set of thermal measurements of Saturn's main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division) at solar elevations ranging from less than one degree to 24 degrees. At Saturn equinox in August the solar elevation angle will reach zero as the sun traverses from the south to north side of the rings. For the data acquired to date, temperatures were retrieved for the lit and unlit rings over a variety of ring geometries that include solar elevation, as well as spacecraft elevation, phase angle and local hour angle. To first order, the largest temperature changes on the lit face of the rings are driven by variations in phase angle while differences in temperature with changing spacecraft elevation and local time are a secondary effect. Decreasing ring temperature with decreasing solar elevation are observed for both the lit and unlit faces of the rings after phase angle and local time effects are taken into account. As the solar elevation continues to decrease, the ring temperatures are decreasing in a non-linear fashion. The difference in temperature between the lit and unlit sides of the rings is decreasing also with decreasing solar elevation. Using ring thermal models developed by Leyrat we extrapolate to the expected minimum ring temperatures at equinox for our planned CIRS ring observations. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  1. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  2. NRL ion ring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Golden, J.; Drobot, A.; Mahaffey, R.A.; Marsh, S.J.; Pasour, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment is under way to form a storng proton ring using the 200 ka, 1.2 MeV, 50 nsec hollow proton beam recently generated at NRL. The 5 m long magnetic field configuration consists of a magnetic cusp, a compressing magnetic field, a gate field and a magnetic mirror. The midplane value of the magnetic mirror is such that the major radius of the ring will be about 10 cm. The degree of field reversal that will be achieved with 5 x 10 16 protons per pulse from the existing beam depends upon the field reversal is possible with the 600 kA proton beam that would be generated from the low inductance coaxial triode coupled to the upgraded Gamble II generator. The propagation and trapping of an intense proton beam in the experimental magnetic field configuration is investigated numerically. The results show that the self magnetic has a very pronounced effect on the dynamics of the gyrating protons

  3. On thickness of Saturn rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, Andre; Laques, Pierre; Lecacheux, Jean; Servan, Bernard; Despiau, Raymond; Michet, Daniel; Renard, Leopold

    1980-01-01

    Electronographic plates of Saturn were taken during the transit of the Earth through the ring plane. Observing conditions were more favorable than those prevailing in 1966. Thanks to the quality of the detectors and the telescopes, it has been possible to make a more precise photometric determination of the brightness of the ring seen edge on and to measure the brightness variation with respect to the distance to the center of the planet. Extrapolating to the case where the elevation of the Earth above the ring plane is strictly zero, we deduce an apparent photometric ring thickness equal to 1.5+-0.3 km. For an homogeneous layer of small particles colliding inelastically, theory predicts a thickness of the order of a few particles radii, i.e. a few tens of meters. The observed brightness could be explained by the E ring, the brightness of large chunks, condensations and warping of the ring [fr

  4. Saturn's Rings and Associated Ring Plasma Cavity: Evidence for Slow Ring Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    We re-examine the radio and plasma wave observations obtained during the Cassini Saturn orbit insertion period, as the spacecraft flew over the northern ring surface into a radial distance of 1.3 Rs (over the C-ring). Voyager era studies suggest the rings are a source of micro-meteoroid generated plasma and dust, with theorized peak impact-created plasma outflows over the densest portion of the rings (central B-ring). In sharp contrast, the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave System (RPWS) observations identify the presence of a ring-plasma cavity located in the central portion of the B-ring, with little evidence of impact-related plasma. While previous Voyager era studies have predicted unstable ion orbits over the C- ring, leading to field-aligned plasma transport to Saturns ionosphere, the Cassini RPWS observations do not reveal evidence for such instability-created plasma fountains. Given the passive ring loss processes observed by Cassini, we find that the ring lifetimes should extend >10(exp 9) years, and that there is limited evidence for prompt destruction (loss in <100 Myrs).

  5. Caustic rings of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the infall of collisionless dark matter onto isolated galaxies produce a series of caustic rings in the halo dark matter distribution. The properties of these caustics are investigated. It is found in particular that the density profile of the caustic behaves as the inverse distance to the ring. Bumps in the rotation curve of NGC 3198 are interpreted as due to caustic rings of dark matter

  6. Acceleration of magnetized plasma rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, D.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    One scheme is considered, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focussing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force F/sub a/ = kappa U/sub m//R (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  7. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and

  8. Integrated Ring Resonators The Compendium

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, Dominik G

    2007-01-01

    The optical filter, which has emerged in the last few years in integrated optics, is resonator based. Ring-resonator filters do not require facets or gratings for optical feedback and are thus particularly suited for monolithic integration with other components. Ring resonators find applications not only in optical networks, but also as sensors. The required passband shape of ring resonator-filters can be custom designed by the use of configurations of various ring coupled resonators. This book describes the current state-of-the-art on these devices with respect to design, fabrication and application.

  9. ring og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, B.; Rattleff, Pernille; Høyrup, S.

    State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen.......State of the art inden for forskning om læring på arbejdspladsen samt gennemgang af læringsteori og refleksionsbegrebet hos Dewey, Dreyfus, Schön, Argyris, Kolb, Jarvis, Mezirow og Brookfield. Afsluttes med diskussion af syntetiseret model for læring på arbejdspladsen....

  10. Coiffured black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Ross, Simon F.; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new type of hair on supersymmetric black string and black ring solutions, which produces the largest known violation of black hole uniqueness, parameterized by an arbitrary function and hence an infinite number of continuous parameters. The new solutions can have non-trivial density profiles for the electric fields along the horizon, and yet have a geometry that is regular, although generically not infinitely differentiable, at the horizon. Both neutral and charged probes can cross the horizon without experiencing divergent forces. We also find restricted examples, parameterized by a few arbitrary continuous parameters, where the charge densities fluctuate but the metric does not and hence is completely differentiable. Our new class of solutions owes its existence to a mechanism reminiscent of the Q-ball: in the simplest examples the metric has more symmetry than the matter that supports it.

  11. Ring-constrained Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Karras, Panagiotis; Mamoulis, Nikos

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel spatial join operator, the ring-constrained join (RCJ). Given two sets P and Q of spatial points, the result of RCJ consists of pairs (p, q) (where p ε P, q ε Q) satisfying an intuitive geometric constraint: the smallest circle enclosing p and q contains no other points in P, Q....... This new operation has important applications in decision support, e.g., placing recycling stations at fair locations between restaurants and residential complexes. Clearly, RCJ is defined based on a geometric constraint but not on distances between points. Thus, our operation is fundamentally different...... from the conventional distance joins and closest pairs problems. We are not aware of efficient processing algorithms for RCJ in the literature. A brute-force solution requires computational cost quadratic to input size and it does not scale well for large datasets. In view of this, we develop efficient...

  12. On separable extensions of group rings and quaternion rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the present paper are (1 to give a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the separable idempotent for a separable group ring extension RG(R may be a non-commutative ring, and (2 to give a full description of the set of separable idempotents for a quaternion ring extension RQ over a ring R, where Q are the usual quaternions i,j,k and multiplication and addition are defined as quaternion algebras over a field. We shall show that RG has a unique separable idempotent if and only if G is abelian, that there are more than one separable idempotents for a separable quaternion ring RQ, and that RQ is separable if and only if 2 is invertible in R.

  13. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  14. Serum uric acid is associated with better executive function in men but not in women: Baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela

    2017-06-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) may protect against free radical stress damage and was previously linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence in middle-aged adults is scarce. We sought to analyze whether SUA is associated with cognitive performance in apparently healthy middle-aged participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. We excluded participants older than age 65, those taking allopurinol, benzbromarone, or medications that could impair cognitive performance, those with previous stroke, and those with incomplete data on cognitive tests or SUA. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word List Memory Test (CERAD-WLMT), the Semantic Fluency Test (SFT), and the Trail Making Test version B (TMT) were used as dependent variables. Sex-specific linear regression models were used to assess the association between SUA and cognitive tests, adjusted by age, education, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, coronary heart disease, renal function, depression, aspirin use, thyroid function, and menopausal status (in women). We used the Bonferroni procedure to control for the false discovery rate associated with multiple comparisons. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6751 women and 5464 men. Mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the sample was 49.6 (SD 7.4) years for men and 49.9 (SD 7.3) years for women. The majority of men (52%) and women (51%) were white. Mean SUA value was 4.75 (SD 1.16) mg/dL in women and 6.44 (SD 1.39) mg/dL in men. Multivariate linear models showed no association in women and a significant inverse association between SUA levels and TMT (β=-3.106, 95% CI=-4.594; -1.618, p=0.0004) in men. In a middle-aged subset population, SUA is associated with better performance on an executive function test in men, but not in women in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Usefulness of circulating E-selectin to early detection of the atherosclerotic process in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis evaluated whether determination of E-selectin concentrations could identify deterioration of cardiometabolic risk profile or subclinical atherosclerosis in individuals at low-to-moderate risk included in The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA-Brasil. A sample of 984 individuals from ELSA-Brasil (35-54 years) without cardiovascular disease or diabetes was stratified according to E-selectin tertiles. Traditional risk factors, inflammatory markers and categories of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were evaluated across the tertiles by ANOVA or Chi-squared test. In linear regression models, associations of E-selectin levels with insulin resistance index, adjusted for age, sex and adiposity were tested. The mean age of the participants was 45.8 (SD 4.9) years and 55 % were women. Mean values of age, anthropometric data, biochemical variables and inflammatory status increased across E-selectin tertiles. Also, a gradual deterioration of the cardiometabolic profile was reflected by increments in frequencies (95 % CI) of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) [53.7 % (48.5-58.8), 61.0 % (56.1-66.5) and 64.2 % (59.0-69.4), p = 0.019], hypertension [18.0 % (14.1-22.8), 19.8 % (15.4-24.6) and 24.8 % (20.4-29.9), p = 0.048], pre-diabetes [62.5 % (57.4-68.3), 63.1 % (58.4-69.6) and 73.8 % (68.8-78.3), p = 0.003] and hypertriglyceridemia [22.4 % (17.9-27.2), 27.3 % (22.5-32.8) and 33.4 % (28.3-38.5), p = 0.013]. Insulinemia and HOMA-IR were independently associated with E-selectin concentration. A greater proportion of individuals with CAC scores different from zero was found in the third tertile when compared with the first and second tertiles (16.1 versus 11 %, p = 0.04, respectively). Direct associations of E-selectin with traditional risk factors slightly above their normal ranges, components of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and presence of CAC suggest that this biomarker may indicate an initial

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto de Miranda, É J F; Bittencourt, M S; Pereira, A C; Goulart, A C; Santos, I S; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2016-10-01

    Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is scarce data about subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with SCH. We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We included subjects with normal thyroid function (TSH: 0.4-4.0 mIU/l, and normal free thyroxine (FT4): 0.8-1.9 ng/dl) and SCH (TSH ≥ 4.0 mIU/l and normal FT4) evaluated for IMT in a cross-sectional analysis. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and those with a history of cardiovascular disease. We performed logistic and linear regression models to evaluate the association with IMT (mean values and categorized at the 75th percentile) as a dependent variable and SCH as an independent variable, adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors. From 8623 subjects (median age of 50 years; interquartile range: 44-57), 4624 (53.6%) were women, 8095 (93.9%) were euthyroid, and 528 (6.1%) had SCH. Groups varied in age, body mass index, Framingham risk score, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, as well as, IMT, that were all higher in SCH compared to euthyroid participants. SCH is associated with IMT as a continuous variable (β = 0.010, P = 0.036) and IMT >75th percentile: OR = 1.30 (95% CI = 1.06-1.59) in logistic models. Individuals with SCH presented higher IMT compared with euthyroid subjects, even after adjustment for potential confounders. IMT was independently associated with SCH in the baseline of the ELSA-Brasil study. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DELPHI's Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    The hundreds of mirrors around this Ring Imaging Cherenkov Chamber reflect cones of light created by fast moving particles to a detector. The velocity of a particle can be measured by the size of the ring produced on the detector. DELPHI, which ran from 1989 to 2000 on the LEP accelerator, was primarily concerned with particle identification.

  18. Caustic rings of dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Sikivie, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the infall of collisionless dark matter onto isolated galaxies produces a series of caustic rings in the halo dark matter distribution. The properties of these caustics are investigated. The density profile of the caustic is derived for a specific case. Bumps in the rotation curve of NGC 3198 are interpreted as due to caustic rings of dark matter.

  19. Pyrimidine-pyridine ring interconversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der H.C.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses the pyrimidine-to-pyridine ring transformation and pyridine-to-pyrimidine ring transformation. In nucleophile-induced pyrimidine-to-pyridine rearrangements, two types of reactions can be distinguished depending on the structure of the nucleophile: (1) reactions in which the

  20. Binomial Rings: Axiomatisation, Transfer and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xantcha, Qimh Richey

    2011-01-01

    Hall's binomial rings, rings with binomial coefficients, are given an axiomatisation and proved identical to the numerical rings studied by Ekedahl. The Binomial Transfer Principle is established, enabling combinatorial proofs of algebraical identities. The finitely generated binomial rings are completely classified. An application to modules over binomial rings is given.

  1. Burnside Rings of Fusion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Sune Precht

    In this thesis we study the interactions between saturated fusion systems and group actions of the underlying p-groups. For a saturated fusion system F on a finite p-group S we construct the Burnside ring of F in terms of the finite S-sets whose actions respect the structure of the fusion system...... of Burnside rings given by multiplication with the characteristic idempotent, and we show that this map is the transfer map previously constructed. Applying these results, we show that for every saturated fusion system the ring generated by all (non-idempotent) characteristic elements in the p-local double...... Burnside ring is isomorphic to the p-local Burnside ring of the fusion system, and we disprove a conjecture by Park-Ragnarsson-Stancu on the composition product of fusion systems....

  2. Ionization cooling ring for muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palmer

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical ionization cooling rings could lead to lower cost or improved performance in neutrino factory or muon collider designs. The ring modeled here uses realistic three-dimensional fields. The performance of the ring compares favorably with the linear cooling channel used in the second U.S. Neutrino Factory Study. The normalized 6D emittance of an ideal ring is decreased by a factor of approximately 240, compared with a factor of only 15 for the linear channel. We also examine such real-world effects as windows on the absorbers and rf cavities and leaving empty lattice cells for injection and extraction. For realistic conditions the ring decreases the normalized 6D emittance by a factor of 49.

  3. Evaluation of ring impedance of the Photon Factory storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, T.; Izawa, M.; Tokumoto, S.; Hori, Y.; Sakanaka, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Kobayakawa, H.

    1992-05-01

    The loss parameters of the ducts in the Photon Factory (PF) storage ring were evaluated using the wire method and the code TBCI. Both the measurement and the calculation were done for a different bunch length (σ) ranging from 23 to 80 ps. The PF ring impedance was estimated to be |Z/n|=3.2 Ω using the broadband impedance model. The major contribution to the impedance comes from the bellows and the gate valve sections. Improvements of these components will lower the ring impedance by half. (author)

  4. Devlopments of components for the detector driving system of the PANDA calorimeter and studies on the photoproduction of excited η mesons with the CB/ELSA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This PhD thesis (written in German language) consists of two parts: The first part describes developments for the Detector Control System of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector. An alarm and current border regulation system has been developed for this to ensure the correct functioning of the detector and to prevent damages. In addition, a database system (endcap production database) has been created to accompany the construction of the forward endcap and archive the characteristics of the photodetectors. The second part deals with the investigation into excited η mesons using the data measured with the CB/ELSA experiment. The distribution of the η' production angle in the decay channel η'→ ηπ 0 π 0 has been calculated for the first time within the beam photo energy range of 2500 to 2950 MeV. Furthermore, the relative effective cross section of the η(1405) to the η' could be determined to 0.16±0.05 (3.2σ). This shows evidence for a more complex nature of the η(1405).

  5. Association between maternal education and blood pressure: mediation evidence through height components in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Bensenor, Isabela M; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-05-01

    Maternal education influences skeletal growth and offspring adult blood pressure (BP). Height components are negatively associated with BP in high-income countries. To evaluate the association between maternal education and offspring adult systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), assessing whether different height components might mediate such an association. Simple mediation modelling was used to evaluate the maternal education-offspring SBP/DBP association, estimating the contribution of offspring height components, in a cross-sectional sample of 13 571 Brazilians aged 34-75 from the ELSA-Brasil study. After full adjustment for confounders, and compared to participants whose mothers received low education, those whose mothers received high education had, on average, 0.2 mm Hg lower SBP (95% CI = -0.274, -0.132), as result of the link between maternal education and offspring adult height which, in turn, influenced SBP. Thus, 18-26% of the maternal education-SBP association occurred indirectly, through height, trunk and leg length, alternatively. Better maternal education might influence higher leg and trunk lengths in offspring, which, in turn, might contribute to prevent higher BP in adults. The negative height-BP association reported in high-income countries is also present in a middle-income country with more recent economic development.

  6. Cross-sectional study of sleep quantity and quality and amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive function in an ageing population: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle A; Wright, Hayley; Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and cognitive function in younger and older individuals from an ageing population. 3,968 male and 4,821 female white participants, aged 50 years and over, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were studied. Information on sleep quality and quantity as well as both amnestic (memory, ACF) and non-amnestic (non-memory, nACF) function was available at Wave 4 (2008). Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the relationship between sleep and cognitive function. After adjustment for multiple confounders in the younger group (50-64 years) duration of sleep explained 15.2% of the variance in ACF (p = 0.003) and 20.6% of nACF (p = 0.010). In the older group (65+ years) the estimates were 21.3% (psleep quality, there was a statistically significant association between sleep quality and both ACF (psleep quality in the study sample including both age groups: pSleep quality explained between 15.1% and 25.5% of the variance in cognition. The interaction with age was independent of duration of sleep. At any level of sleep duration there was a steeper association between sleep quality and ACF in the older than the younger group. The associations between sleep disturbances and cognitive function vary between younger and older adults. Prospective studies will determine the temporal relationships between sleep disturbances and changes in cognition in different age groups.

  7. The discrepancy between social isolation and loneliness as a clinically meaningful metric: findings from the Irish and English longitudinal studies of ageing (TILDA and ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, J E; Kenny, R A; Lawlor, B A; Steptoe, A; Kee, F

    2017-06-01

    Scant evidence is available on the discordance between loneliness and social isolation among older adults. We aimed to investigate this discordance and any health implications that it may have. Using nationally representative datasets from ageing cohorts in Ireland (TILDA) and England (ELSA), we created a metric of discordance between loneliness and social isolation, to which we refer as Social Asymmetry. This metric was the categorised difference between standardised scores on a scale of loneliness and a scale of social isolation, giving categories of: Concordantly Lonely and Isolated, Discordant: Robust to Loneliness, or Discordant: Susceptible to Loneliness. We used regression and multilevel modelling to identify potential relationships between Social Asymmetry and cognitive outcomes. Social Asymmetry predicted cognitive outcomes cross-sectionally and at a two-year follow-up, such that Discordant: Robust to Loneliness individuals were superior performers, but we failed to find evidence for Social Asymmetry as a predictor of cognitive trajectory over time. We present a new metric and preliminary evidence of a relationship with clinical outcomes. Further research validating this metric in different populations, and evaluating its relationship with other outcomes, is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Development of a multi-keV Compton source on ELSA linac and optimization with a photons piling-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaleil, Annaig

    2016-01-01

    X-ray sources based on inverse Compton scattering process produce tunable near-monochromatic and highly directive X-rays. Recent advances in laser and accelerator technologies make the development of such very compact hard X-ray sources possible. These sources are particularly attractive in several applications such as medical imaging, cancer therapy or culture-heritage study, currently performed in size-limited infrastructures. The main objective of this thesis is the development of an inverse Compton scattering source on the ELSA linac of CEA at Bruyeres-le-Chatel as a calibration tool for ultra-fast detectors. A non-resonant cavity was designed to multiply the number of emitted X-ray photons. The laser optical path is folded to pile-up laser pulses at the interaction point, thus increasing the interaction probability. Another way of optimizing the X-ray yield consists in increasing the electron bunch density at the interaction point, which is strongly dependent on the electron energy. A facility up-grade was performed to increase the electron energy up to 30 MeV. The X-ray output gain obtained thanks to this system was measured and compared with calculated expectations and 3D PIC simulations. (author) [fr

  9. The Association between Antidepressant Medications and Coronary Heart Disease in Brazil: A Cross-sectional Analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eKemp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have highlighted associations between use of antidepressant medications and coronary heart disease (CHD. Tricyclic antidepressants are not recommended in patients with CHD as they may increase morbidity and mortality. However, this class of antidepressants are freely prescribed in public health pharmacies, while access to other classes of antidepressants is restricted in Brazil. Here we examine the associations between antidepressant use and prevalent CHD in a large cohort from Brazil. Methods: Participants included 14,994 civil servants aged 35 to 74 from the baseline assessment of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. CHD (n=710 included stable angina, myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization. Univariate (unadjusted and multivariate (adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Results: After full adjustment for covariates, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA use (n=156 was associated with a 2-fold increase in prevalent CHD, relative to non-use (n=14,076. Additional sensitivity analysis revealed a three-fold association for myocardial infarction (OR: 2.962, 95% CI: 1.413-6.210 and coronary revascularization (OR: 2.915, 95% CI: 1.275-6.662. There were no significant associations between antidepressant use and stable angina pectoris. Conclusions: Findings highlight a strong association between TCA use and prevalent CHD. While the cross-sectional design is an important limitation of the present study, findings have important implications for the treatment of cardiac patients in Brazil.

  10. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Aline Araújo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Chor, Dora

    2017-08-17

    To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil - Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto ) have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week) spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income. The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  11. Thyrotropin and free thyroxine levels and coronary artery disease: cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, E J F Peixoto; Bittencourt, M S; Staniak, H L; Sharovsky, R; Pereira, A C; Foppa, M; Santos, I S; Lotufo, P A; Benseñor, I M

    2018-03-15

    Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and coronary artery disease (CAD) is scarce. We aimed to analyze the association between thyroid function and CAD using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We included subjects with normal thyroid function (0.4-4.0 mIU/L, and normal free thyroxine, FT4, or 0.8 to 1.9 ng/dL), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHypo; TSH>4.0 mIU/L and normal FT4), and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHyper; TSH4, and segment severity score (SSS) >4 of coronary arteries as the dependent variables, and quintiles of TSH and FT4 as the independent variables, adjusted for demographical data and cardiovascular risk factors. We included 767 subjects, median age 58 years (IQR=55-63), 378 (49.3%) women, 697 euthyroid (90.9%), 57 (7.4%) with SCHypo, and 13 (1.7%) with SCHyper. No association between TSH and FT4 quintiles and CAD prevalence was noted. Similarly, no association between TSH levels and the extent or severity of CAD, represented by SIS>4 and SSS>4 were seen. Restricting analysis to euthyroid subjects did not alter the results. TSH levels were not significantly associated with the presence, extent, or severity of CAD in a middle-aged healthy population.

  12. Decay ring status / studies

    CERN Document Server

    Chance, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of "beta-beams" is to produce highly energetic pure electron neutrino and anti-neutrino beams coming from β-decay of radioactive ions. In CERN baseline, after accelerating, the ions 6He2+ and 18Ne10+ are stored in a racetrack-shaped-decay ring until they are lost [1]. Consequently, the injection compensates the losses which occurred between two cycles. Two main loss sources were identified: the β decay and the injection scheme. After giving the optics, we will see how to protect the magnetic elements from the decay products. The injections scheme will be then detailed with its implications. We will see that the injection process makes a collimation section in energy necessary. Since the magnetic elements are not perfect, we will take into account the magnet misalignment and the multipole defects in the dipoles. We will talk then about the closed orbit distortion due to misalignment defects and about the long-term transverse stability with the dynamic aperture.

  13. JAERI storage ring JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, H.; Harada, S.; Yanagida, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Nagai, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Mashiko, K.; Ishizaki, N.; Tayama, H.

    1990-01-01

    A design study for a next generation 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility is in progress in Japan, and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) have join forces in this project. A compact electron storage ring JSR has been under construction in the linac building in the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI to serve for studies of various kind of accelerator technologies, examination of insertion devices and beam monitors, and training of young researchers. This paper describes the lattice design, injection system, magnets, vacuum system, RF system, control system and beam monitors and presents some operation results regarding the electron beam injection and storage. The JSR is presently in good condition concerning it's fundamental functions such as injection, storage at around 150 MeV and 300 MeV, and acceleration from 150 MeV and 300 MeV. Photon induced gas desorption is still large because the vacuum chamber has not been aged heavily by synchrotron radiation. (N.K.)

  14. Is the bell ringing?

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    During the Nobel prize-winning UA1 experiment, scientists in the control room used to ring a bell if a particularly interesting event had occurred. Today, the “CMS Exotica hotline” routine produces a daily report that lists the exotic events that were recorded the day before.   Display of an event selected by the Exotica routine. Take just a very small fraction of the available data (max. 5%); define the events that you want to keep and set the parameters accordingly; run the Exotica routine and only look at the very few images that the system has selected for you. This is the recipe that a small team of CMS researchers has developed to identify the signals coming from possible new physics processes. “This approach does not replace the accurate data analysis on the whole set of data. However, it is a very fast and effective way to focus on just a few events that are potentially very interesting”, explains Maurizio Pierini (CERN), who developed the...

  15. Particle properties and processes in Uranus' rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.; Brahic, A.; Burns, J. A.; Marouf, Essam A.

    1991-01-01

    The particle properties and processes in the Uranian rings are analyzed from Voyager observations and ground-based data. Occultation observations of the epsilon ring are interpreted to yield an effective size of the ring particles that exceeds 70 cm, a surface mass density that exceeds 80 g/sq cm, and a ring vertical thickness greater than tens of meters for solid ice particles. The particles forming the classic rings are dark and gray, with albedo of 0.014 +/-0.004. It is argued that the small amount of dust that exists in the classical rings and between the rings in bands is created by erosion of ring particles and unseen satellites resulting from collisions and micrometeoroid bombardment. As proposed for regions of the other known ring systems, new ring material can be continually created by the destruction of small moons near the rings, which may explain the youthful appearance of the Uranian rings.

  16. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation

  17. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Weon-Yoo

    2014-06-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its treatment algorithm, and corresponding cases involving unstable pelvic ring injury.

  18. Distributively generated matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    It is known that if R is a near ring with identity then (I,+) is abelian if (I + ,+) is abelian and (I,+) is abelian if (I*,+) is abelian [S.J. Abbasi, J.D.P. Meldrum, 1991]. This paper extends these results. We show that if R is a distributively generated near ring with identity then (I,+) is included in Z(R), the center of R, if (I + ,+) is included in Z(M n (R)), the center of matrix near ring M n (R). Furthermore (I,+) is included in Z(R) if (I*,+) is included in Z(M n (R)). (author). 5 refs

  19. Researches on the Piston Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehihara, Keikiti

    1944-01-01

    In internal combustion engines, steam engines, air compressors, and so forth, the piston ring plays an important role. Especially, the recent development of Diesel engines which require a high compression pressure for their working, makes, nowadays, the packing action of the piston ring far more important than ever. Though a number of papers have been published in regard to researches on the problem of the piston ring, none has yet dealt with an exact measurement of pressure exerted on the cylinder wall at any given point of the ring. The only paper that can be traced on this subject so far is Mr. Nakagawa's report on the determination of the relative distribution of pressure on the cylinder wall, but the measuring method adopted therein appears to need further consideration. No exact idea has yet been obtained as to how the obturation of gas between the piston and cylinder, the frictional resistance of the piston, and the wear of the cylinder wall are affected by the intensity and the distribution of the radial pressure of the piston ring. Consequently, the author has endeavored, by employing an apparatus of his own invention, to get an exact determination of the pressure distribution of the piston ring. By means of a newly devised ring tester, to which piezoelectricity of quartz was applied, the distribution of the radial pressure of many sample rings on the market was accurately determined. Since many famous piston rings show very irregular pressure distribution, the author investigated and achieved a manufacturing process of the piston ring which will exert uniform pressure on the cylinder wall. Temperature effects on the configuration and on the mean spring power have also been studied. Further, the tests were performed to ascertain how the gas tightness of the piston ring may be affected by the number or spring power. The researches as to the frictional resistance between the piston ring and the cylinder wall were carried out, too. The procedure of study, and

  20. SMARANDACHE NON-ASSOCIATIVE RINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2002-01-01

    An associative ring is just realized or built using reals or complex; finite or infinite by defining two binary operations on it. But on the contrary when we want to define or study or even introduce a non-associative ring we need two separate algebraic structures say a commutative ring with 1 (or a field) together with a loop or a groupoid or a vector space or a linear algebra. The two non-associative well-known algebras viz. Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are mainly built using a vecto...

  1. Deceleration of electron rings by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, U.; Hofmann, I.; Merkel, P.; Reiser, M.

    1976-02-01

    The deceleration of intense relativistic electron rings by ions created by impact ionization in the electron rings is calculated analytically and numerically. It turns out that the stopping of rings with initial axial velocities of about β 0 = 0.1 is possible under conditions that easily can be realized experimentally in the Maryland ERA. The stopping length of the electron rings, however, depends sensitively on the initial axial ring velocities β 0 (as β 0 3 ). If the method of ring deceleration by ions is used, the reproducibility of the initial ring parameters (especially that of β 0 ) should be very good to get reliable electron ring loading and acceleration. (orig.) [de

  2. Minimal Gromov-Witten rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyjalkowski, V V

    2008-01-01

    We construct an abstract theory of Gromov-Witten invariants of genus 0 for quantum minimal Fano varieties (a minimal class of varieties which is natural from the quantum cohomological viewpoint). Namely, we consider the minimal Gromov-Witten ring: a commutative algebra whose generators and relations are of the form used in the Gromov-Witten theory of Fano varieties (of unspecified dimension). The Gromov-Witten theory of any quantum minimal variety is a homomorphism from this ring to C. We prove an abstract reconstruction theorem which says that this ring is isomorphic to the free commutative ring generated by 'prime two-pointed invariants'. We also find solutions of the differential equation of type DN for a Fano variety of dimension N in terms of the generating series of one-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants

  3. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  4. Quasi-isochronous storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, D.; Forest, E.; Pellegrini, C.; Amiry, A.

    1993-01-01

    A study is made of the single-particle dynamics of an electron-positron storage ring where the phase-slip factor is made small in order to make the ring nearly isochronous and reduce the bunch length. What is found is that a quasi-isochronous ring makes it possible to obtain a bunch length in the millimeter range, about one order of magnitude shorter than present values. In this study we have extended the work of others on isochronous storage rings by quantitatively including higher-order terms in the longitudinal equations of motion. Scaling laws are then derived relating the linear term with the next-highest-order term. These scaling laws, which are derived from a two-dimensional Hamiltonian (one dimension of position and one of momentum), establish criteria for stability. These scaling laws are then checked with full six-dimensional tracking on one particular lattice

  5. ring i familien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen diskutere de senere års eksplosionsagtig interesse for børns læring i familien, og sætter et kritisk lys på den snævre investeringslogik (læring skal give afkast i form af økonomisk produktivitet), der har ledsaget mange af de programmer, der er sat i gang for at fremme denne ”familielær......Artiklen diskutere de senere års eksplosionsagtig interesse for børns læring i familien, og sætter et kritisk lys på den snævre investeringslogik (læring skal give afkast i form af økonomisk produktivitet), der har ledsaget mange af de programmer, der er sat i gang for at fremme denne...

  6. Ring lasers - a brief history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Used these days in inertial navigation, ring lasers are also used in recording the tiniest variations in the Earth's spin, as well in detecting earthquakes and even the drift of continents. How did it all begin?

  7. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  8. The Composition of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Cuzzi, J.; Filacchione, G.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Curchin, J. M.; Hoefen, T. M.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K. H.; Nelson, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has obtained a unique collection of data about Saturn's rings, as it has observed the rings from 0 to 180 degrees in phase angle, and on both lit and unlit sides. Identification of trace contaminants, especially organic compounds, requires that spectra of the rings be uncontaminated by light from Saturn. The Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) has acquired 0.35 to 5.1 micron, high spatial resolution spectroscopic data near the shadow of Saturn on the rings where scattered light is at a minimum. At low phase angles, the ring spectra show classic crystalline-ice spectral features except for a contaminant causing a UV absorption. VIMS spectra at 180-degree phase angle are generally flat, with only a weak positive feature at 2.86 microns in spectra of the F-ring. The general transmission decrease is due to large ring particles completely blocking light. The 2.86-micron feature indicates the presence of fine ice dust, where the ice's index of refraction is near 1.0, and light is not refracted or diffracted. There are no indications of interparticle scattering in the VIMS data at any phase angle. The lack of interparticle scattering indicates that the dense A and B rings must be very thin, approaching a monolayer, but rigorous constraints have yet to be modeled. Previous studies used tholins and amorphous carbon for the contaminant causing the UV absorption, but these models display additional absorptions and spectral structure in the near infrared not seen in VIMS data. Clark et al. (Icarus, v193, p372, 2008) modeled the changing blue peak and UV absorber observed on Phoebe, Iapetus, Hyperion, and Dione with amorphous carbon and nano-sized hematite. Nanohematite has muted spectral features compared to larger grained hematite, due to crystal field effects at the surfaces of small grains. Nanohematite has a strong UV absorber that matches the steep UV slope observed in spectra of Saturn's rings and has no strong IR absorptions

  9. Elsa Rodríguez Cidre. Cautivas troyanas. El mundo femenino fragmentado en las tragedias de Eurípides : Ediciones del Copista, Córdoba, 2010, 392 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Zamperetti Martín, Deidamia Sofía

    2012-01-01

    Elsa Rodríguez Cidre, Doctora en Letras por la Universidad de Buenos Aires e investigadora del CONICET, es especialista en el discurso femenino en la tragedia griega, particularmente en la obra de Eurípides. El libro que aquí se presenta es la publicación de su tesis doctoral realizada bajo la dirección de Elena Huber y defendida en diciembre de 2007 en la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras de la UBA donde la autora se desempeña como Profesora Adjunta del Área de Griego.

  10. Collector ring project at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinskii, A; Blell, U; Dimopoulou, C; Gorda, O; Leibrock, H; Litvinov, S; Laier, U; Schurig, I; Weinrich, U; Berkaev, D; Koop, I; Starostenko, A; Shatunov, P

    2015-01-01

    The collector ring is a dedicated ring for fast cooling of ions coming from separators at the FAIR project. To accommodate optimal technical solutions, a structure of a magnet lattice was recently reviewed and modified. Consequently, more appropriate technical solutions for the main magnets could be adopted. A general layout and design of the present machine is shown. The demanding extraction schemes have been detailed and open design issues were completed. (paper)

  11. Synlig læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Introduktionen af John Hatties synlig læring i den danske skoleverden møder stadig meget kritik. Mange lærere og pædagoger oplever synlig læring som en tornado, der vil opsuge og ødelægge deres særlige danske udgave af den kontinentale dannelsestænkning, didaktik og pædagogik. Spørgsmålet er om...

  12. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PARSA, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8degree angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3degree angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design

  13. Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-02-01

    We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

  14. Resonance capture and Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, C.W.

    1986-05-01

    We have assigned the resonances apparently responsible for the stabilization of the Saturn's shepherd satellites and for the substructure seen in the F-ring and the ringlets in the C-ring. We show that Saturn's narrow ringlets have a substructure determined by three-body resonances with Saturn's ringmoons and the sun. We believe such resonances have important implications to satellite formation. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Ring insertions as light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Bending magnets can be inserted in the long straight sections of electron storage rings to produce synchrotron radiation. If the design is carefully proportioned, the bending magnets create only a small perturbation of the properties of the ring. The resulting spectra have favorable optical properties as sources for spectroscopy and diffraction studies. The characteristics of the source are discussed, and the geometrical requirements of the magnets are presented

  16. Commuting Π-regular rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sahebi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ‎$R$ is called commuting regular ring (resp‎. ‎semigroupif‎ for each $x,y\\in R$ there exists $a\\in R$‎ such that$xy=yxayx$‎. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we introduce the concept of‎‎commuting $\\pi$-regular rings (resp‎. ‎semigroups and‎‎study various properties of them.

  17. The Circular RFQ Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of storage ring for the accumulation of intense beams of light and heavy ions at low energy. The new concept is a natural development of the combined features of conventional storage rings and ion traps, and is basically a linear RFQ bent on itself. The advantages are: smaller beam dimensions, higher beam intensity, and a more compact storage device

  18. Standard Fibre Optic Ring LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, N. C. L.

    1985-08-01

    The paper begins with a reminder of the particular need for standards in LANs. We then describe the requirements of High Integrity LANs. Current developments in LAN standards are then outlined. It is argued that the requirements of industrial LANs lead ideally to reconfiguring fibre optic rings, for which there are two major emerging standards. These two (IEEE 802.5 and ANSI FDDI) and the Cambridge Ring are discussed and compared. One implementation - the HILAN is discussed.

  19. Of Rings and Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA) , Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG) and the DESPA and DASGAL laboratories of the Observatoire de Paris in France, in collaboration with ESO. The CONICA infra-red camera was built, under an ESO contract, by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) (Heidelberg) and the Max-Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) (Garching) in Germany, in collaboration with ESO. Saturn - Lord of the rings ESO PR Photo 04a/02 ESO PR Photo 04a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 460 x 400 pix - 54k] [Normal - JPEG: 1034 x 800 pix - 200k] Caption : PR Photo 04a/02 shows the giant planet Saturn, as observed with the VLT NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics instrument on December 8, 2001; the distance was 1209 million km. It is a composite of exposures in two near-infrared wavebands (H and K) and displays well the intricate, banded structure of the planetary atmosphere and the rings. Note also the dark spot at the south pole at the bottom of the image. One of the moons, Tethys, is visible as a small point of light below the planet. It was used to guide the telescope and to perform the adaptive optics "refocussing" for this observation. More details in the text. Technical information about this photo is available below. This NAOS/CONICA image of Saturn ( PR Photo 04a/02 ), the second-largest planet in the solar system, was obtained at a time when Saturn was close to summer solstice in the southern hemisphere. At this moment, the tilt of the rings was about as large as it can be, allowing the best possible view of the planet's South Pole. That area was on Saturn's night side in 1982 and could therefore not be photographed during the Voyager encounter. The dark spot close to the South Pole is a remarkable structure that measures approximately 300 km across. It was only recently observed in visible light from the ground with a telescope at the Pic du Midi Observatory in the Pyrenees (France) - this is the first infrared image to

  20. Rhythmic ring-ring stacking drives the circadian oscillator clockwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yong-Gang; Tseng, Roger; Kuo, Nai-Wei; LiWang, Andy

    2012-10-16

    The oscillator of the circadian clock of cyanobacteria is composed of three proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, which together generate a self-sustained ∼24-h rhythm of phosphorylation of KaiC. The mechanism propelling this oscillator has remained elusive, however. We show that stacking interactions between the CI and CII rings of KaiC drive the transition from the phosphorylation-specific KaiC-KaiA interaction to the dephosphorylation-specific KaiC-KaiB interaction. We have identified the KaiB-binding site, which is on the CI domain. This site is hidden when CI domains are associated as a hexameric ring. However, stacking of the CI and CII rings exposes the KaiB-binding site. Because the clock output protein SasA also binds to CI and competes with KaiB for binding, ring stacking likely regulates clock output. We demonstrate that ADP can expose the KaiB-binding site in the absence of ring stacking, providing an explanation for how it can reset the clock.

  1. Accretion in Saturn's F Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, B. K.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, G.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's F ring is the solar system's principal natural laboratory for direct observation of accretion and disruption processes. The ring resides in the Roche zone, where tidal disruption competes with self-gravity, which allows us to observe the lifecycle of moonlets. Just as nearby moons create structure at the B ring edge (Esposito et al. 2012) and the Keeler gap (Murray 2007), the F ring "shepherding" moons Prometheus and Pandora stir up ring material and create observably changing structures on timescales of days to decades. In fact, Beurle et al (2010) show that Prometheus makes it possible for "distended, yet gravitationally coherent clumps" to form in the F ring, and Barbara and Esposito (2002) predicted a population of ~1 km bodies in the ring. In addition to the observations over the last three decades, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) has detected 27 statistically significant features in 101 occultations by Saturn's F ring since July 2004. Seventeen of those 27 features are associated with clumps of ring material. Two features are opaque in occultation, which makes them candidates for solid objects, which we refer to as Moonlets. The 15 other features partially block stellar signal for 22 m to just over 3.7 km along the radial expanse of the occultation. Upon visual inspection of the occultation profile, these features resemble Icicles, thus we will refer to them as such here. The density enhancements responsible for such signal attenuations are likely due to transient clumping of material, evidence that aggregations of material are ubiquitous in the F ring. Our lengthy observing campaign reveals that Icicles are likely transient clumps, while Moonlets are possible solid objects. Optical depth is an indicator of clumping because more-densely aggregated material blocks more light; therefore, it is natural to imagine moonlets as later evolutionary stage of icicle, when looser clumps of material compact to form a feature that appears

  2. Double acting stirling engine piston ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1986-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  3. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  4. Structure and dynamics of ringed galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buta, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In many spiral and SO galaxies, single or multiple ring structures are visible in the disk. These inner rings (r), outer rings (R), and nuclear rings (nr) were investigated by means of morphology, photometry, and spectroscopy in order to provide basic data on a long neglected phenomenon. The metric properties of each ring are investigated and found to correlate with the structure of the parent galaxy. When properly calibrated, inner rings in barred (SB) systems can be used as geometric extragalactic distance indicators to distances in excess of 100 Mpc. Other statistics are presented that confirm previous indications that the rings have preferred shapes, relative sizes, and orientations with respect to bars. A survey is made of the less homogeneous non-barred (SA) ringed systems, and the causes of the inhomogeneity are isolated. It is shown that rings can be identified in multiple-ring SA systems that are exactly analogous to those in barred spirals

  5. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Olmos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH, and free thyroxine (FT4 if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11. Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49 and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23. Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  6. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  7. Associations of life course socioeconomic position and job stress with carotid intima-media thickness. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, Lidyane V; Giatti, Luana; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; Benseñor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-09-01

    The association between life course socioeconomic position (SEP) and subclinical atherosclerosis is not consistent across studies. Socioeconomic adversities early in life are related to an increased probability of a low occupational grade and more stressful jobs in adulthood. However, the role of job stress in explaining the life course social gradient in subclinical atherosclerosis is unknown. To examine whether life course SEP is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and to investigate whether this association is partially mediated by job stress. This study used baseline data (2008-2010) for 8806 current workers from ELSA-Brasil. Maternal education, social class of first occupation and social class of current occupation were used to evaluate childhood, youth and adulthood SEP, respectively. Accumulation of risk across the life course was also evaluated. Job stress was assessed by the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Directed acyclic graph and linear regression models were used. Low childhood SEP was associated with increased IMT only in women, but low youth and adulthood SEP were associated with higher IMT in both genders. The simultaneous adjustment for all SEP indicators showed that only adulthood SEP continued to be associated with IMT. However, higher IMT values were observed among men and women sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. High-strain jobs and low job control were not associated with IMT independent of SEP. Our results support a model of the cumulative effects of exposures to SEP across the life span because the highest IMT values were observed in individuals sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. We did not find that job stress explained the association between life course SEP and IMT, suggesting that strategies to address socioeconomic inequalities in CVD should target additional steps beyond reducing job stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross-sectional study of sleep quantity and quality and amnestic and non-amnestic cognitive function in an ageing population: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and cognitive function in younger and older individuals from an ageing population. METHODS: 3,968 male and 4,821 female white participants, aged 50 years and over, from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA were studied. Information on sleep quality and quantity as well as both amnestic (memory, ACF and non-amnestic (non-memory, nACF function was available at Wave 4 (2008. Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate the relationship between sleep and cognitive function. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple confounders in the younger group (50-64 years duration of sleep explained 15.2% of the variance in ACF (p = 0.003 and 20.6% of nACF (p = 0.010. In the older group (65+ years the estimates were 21.3% (p<0.001 and 25.6% (p<0.001, respectively. For sleep quality, there was a statistically significant association between sleep quality and both ACF (p<0.001 and nACF (p<0.001 in the older age group, but not in the younger age group (p = 0.586 and p = 0.373, respectively; interaction between age and sleep quality in the study sample including both age groups: p<0.001 for ACF and p = 0.018 for nACF. Sleep quality explained between 15.1% and 25.5% of the variance in cognition. The interaction with age was independent of duration of sleep. At any level of sleep duration there was a steeper association between sleep quality and ACF in the older than the younger group. CONCLUSIONS: The associations between sleep disturbances and cognitive function vary between younger and older adults. Prospective studies will determine the temporal relationships between sleep disturbances and changes in cognition in different age groups.

  9. Proposed criteria for the identification of polycystic ovary syndrome following menopause: An ancillary study of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Ligia; de Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas; Aquino, Estela M L

    2015-07-01

    To propose plausible criteria with which to identify menopausal women with PCOS. A cross-sectional study involving the baseline data of 713 menopausal women at admission to the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. PCOS was identified by the presence of two of three criteria. (1) A history of amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea (OL) (regular intermenstrual intervals ≥35 days during reproductive life); (2) clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism (HA), identified by a score ≥5 points in a hirsutism questionnaire constructed and validated for women in this age group, or total or free testosterone ≥ the 95th percentile for women considered normal; (3) insulin resistance (IR) (a homeostatic model assessment [HOMA] index≥2.2). Validation was performed using probable epidemiological endpoints. According to these criteria, 7.6% of the women in the sample had PCOS. Of these, 7.4% had HA and OL, 72.2% had HA and IR, 14.8% had OL and IR and 5.6%, had HA, OL and IR. Women with PCOS were younger, had had fewer pregnancies and entered menopause earlier. Positive associations were found between PCOS and overweight (PR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.18-1.46), obesity (1.44; 1.01-2.06), carbohydrate metabolism disorders (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus) (1.30; 1.03-1.65), and with diabetes alone (1.41; 0.83-2.39), although this latter association failed to reach statistical significance. The women selected in accordance with these criteria had the characteristics of PCOS that are not only expected, but also widely associated with this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Race and Resting-State Heart Rate Variability in Brazilian Civil Servants and the Mediating Effects of Discrimination: An ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew H; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Pereira, Alexandre C; Santos, Itamar S; Dantas, Eduardo M; Mill, José G; Chor, Dora; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans are characterized by higher heart rate variability (HRV), a finding ostensibly associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, these findings are at odds with other evidence that blacks have worse cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we examine associations in a large cohort from the ELSA-Brasil study and determined whether these effects are mediated by discrimination. Three groups were compared on the basis of self-declared race: "black" (n = 2,020), "brown" (n = 3,502), and "white" (n = 6,467). Perceived discrimination was measured using a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Resting-state HRV was extracted from 10-minute resting-state electrocardiograms. Racial differences in HRV were determined by regression analyses weighted by propensity scores, which controlled for potentially confounding variables including age, sex, education, and other health-related information. Nonlinear mediation analysis quantified the average total effect, comprising direct (race-HRV) and indirect (race-discrimination-HRV) pathways. Black participants displayed higher HRV relative to brown (Cohen's d = 0.20) and white participants (Cohen's d = 0.31). Brown relative to white participants also displayed a small but significantly higher HRV (Cohen's d = 0.14). Discrimination indirectly contributed to the effects of race on HRV. This large cohort from the Brazilian population shows that HRV is greatest in black, followed by brown, relative to white participants. The presence of higher HRV in these groups may reflect a sustained compensatory psychophysiological response to the adverse effects of discrimination. Additional research is needed to determine the health consequences of these differences in HRV across racial and ethnic groups.

  11. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  12. Gender, time use and overweight and obesity in adults: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lucia; da Conceição Chagas Almeida, Maria; Barreto, Rosane Sousa; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-01-01

    Perceived time constraints have been highlighted in sociological studies as representing a core issue in determining quality of life. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that gender inequalities regarding insufficiency of time play a role in the development of overweight and obesity in adults. The study used baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), which monitors a cohort of 15,105 civil servants of 35 to 74 years of age. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure due to professional and domestic duties, as detailed in a structured questionnaire, comprised the main exposure variable. The outcome variable was overweight/obesity measured according to body mass index. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. A greater proportion of women compared to men reported insufficient time for personal care and leisure (34.5% versus 23.8%, respectively). The prevalence of overweight was greater in men, while obesity was more common in women. Insufficient time for personal care and leisure was associated with overweight (PR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.04-1.61) and obesity (PR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.28-2.12) only in women working over 40 hours/week. No significant association was found for males. These results suggest that the length of the working week influences factors underlying weight gain, possibly issues linked to behavior and/or stress mechanisms. The fact that such an association was restricted to women suggests that the results originate from gender inequalities involving relationships between time and health. The findings of this study provide data on which to base public policies aimed at encouraging the redistribution of domestic responsibilities in the direction of gender equity, as well as macrosocial policies such as providing public schools for workers' children.

  13. Predicting cardiometabolic disturbances from waist-to-height ratio: findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Marcelo; Chor, Dóra; Braga, José Uéleres; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting cardiometabolic outcomes and compare cut-off points for Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional study. WHtR areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with those for BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The outcomes of interest were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriacylglycerolaemia and presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (≥2 MetS). Cut-offs for WHtR were compared and validity measures were estimated for each point. Teaching and research institutions in six Brazilian state capitals, 2008-2010. Women (n 5026) and men (n 4238) aged 35-54 years who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at baseline. WHtR age-adjusted AUC ranged from 0·68 to 0·72 in men and 0·69 to 0·75 in women, with smaller AUC for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and the largest for ≥2 MetS. WHtR performed better than BMI for practically all outcomes; better than WHR for hypertension in both sexes; and displayed larger AUC than WC in predicting diabetes mellitus. It also offered better discriminatory power for ≥2 MetS in men; and was better than WC, but not WHR, in women. Optimal cut-off points of WHtR were 0·55 (women) and 0·54 (men), but they presented high false-negative rate compared with 0·50. We recommend using WHtR (which performed similarly to, or better than, other available indices of adiposity) as an anthropometric index with good discriminatory power for cardiometabolic outcomes in Brazilian adults, indicating the already referenced limit of WHtR≥0·50.

  14. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-04-22

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008-2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35-74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic.

  15. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Weon-Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its...

  16. Ring wormholes via duality rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. Gibbons

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We apply duality rotations and complex transformations to the Schwarzschild metric to obtain wormhole geometries with two asymptotically flat regions connected by a throat. In the simplest case these are the well-known wormholes supported by phantom scalar field. Further duality rotations remove the scalar field to yield less well known vacuum metrics of the oblate Zipoy–Voorhees–Weyl class, which describe ring wormholes. The ring encircles the wormhole throat and can have any radius, whereas its tension is always negative and should be less than −c4/4G. If the tension reaches the maximal value, the geometry becomes exactly flat, but the topology remains non-trivial and corresponds to two copies of Minkowski space glued together along the disk encircled by the ring. The geodesics are straight lines, and those which traverse the ring get to the other universe. The ring therefore literally produces a hole in space. Such wormholes could perhaps be created by negative energies concentrated in toroidal volumes, for example by vacuum fluctuations.

  17. Dream of Isochronous Ring Again

    CERN Document Server

    Hama, H

    2005-01-01

    More than 20 years ago, D.A.G. Deacon proposed an isochronous storage ring for FEL to avoid bunch heating and decreasing instantaneous gain [1]. Some of low momentum compaction (alpha) operations have been carried out, and recently coherent infrared radiation are observed on a 3rd generation light source. Because the 3rd generation rings are optimized to obtain very low emittance beam, the dispersion function in the arc sections are much reduced by introducing large bending radius, so that those are very big machines. Meanwhile N.A. Vinokurov et al. recently proposed a ring type SASE FEL based on a complete isochronous bending transport [2]. At least, experimental and theoretical study of the isochronous ring so far suggests nonlinear effects resulted from higher order dispersion and chromaticity declines the "complete" isochronous system. On the other hand, in a wavelength region of THz, tolerance of the path length along a turn of the ring seems to be within our reach. A concept to preserve of a form factor...

  18. Primitivity and weak distributivity in near rings and matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-08-01

    This paper shows the structure of matrix near ring constructed over a weakly distributive and primative near ring. It is proved that a weakly distributive primitive near ring is a ring and the matrix near rings constructed over it is also a bag. (author). 14 refs

  19. Comparison of a short version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire with its long version--a cross-sectional analysis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannato, Livia Welter; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the preferred instrument for obtaining dietary information in epidemiological studies. A short form of the FFQ was compared with the original version that was used in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), and also with three 24-hour dietary recalls. Cross-sectional study carried out in six Brazilian state capitals. Multiple linear regression was used to reduce the original food and drink list of the FFQ, which had contained 114 food items. The frequency of consumption and nutritional composition of the foods were also taken into consideration. To assess the validity of the shortened FFQ, the energy and nutrients values of the 24-hour dietary recalls were deattenuated and log-transformed. The list of the FFQ of ELSA-Brasil was reduced to 76 food items. The intraclass correlation coefficients in the validation study ranged from 0.17 (selenium) to 0.66 (calcium). The number of items was reduced by 33%, while still maintaining relatively good capacity to measure energy and selected nutrients.

  20. Proton storage ring summer workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Cooper, R.K.

    1977-10-01

    During the week of August 16, 1976 a Workshop was held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) on the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) for the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNRF). Written contributions were solicited from each of the participants in the Workshop, and the contributions that were received are presented. The papers do not represent polished or necessarily complete work, but rather represent ''first cuts'' at their respective areas. Topics covered include: (1) background information on the storage ring; (2) WNRF design; (3) rf transient during filling; (4) rf capture; (5) beam bunch compression; (6) transverse space charge limits; (7) transverse resistive instability in the PSR; (8) longitudinal resistive instability; (9) synchrotron frequency splitting; (10) E Quintus Unum--off resonance; (11) first harmonic bunching in the storage ring; (12) kicker considerations; (13) beam extraction; (14) ferrite kicker magnets; and (15) E Quintus Unum: a possible ejection scheme

  1. Adiabatic compression of ion rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrabee, D.A.; Lovelace, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study has been made of the compression of collisionless ion rings in an increasing external magnetic field, B/sub e/ = zB/sub e/(t), by numerically implementing a previously developed kinetic theory of ring compression. The theory is general in that there is no limitation on the ring geometry or the compression ratio, lambdaequivalentB/sub e/ (final)/B/sub e/ (initial)> or =1. However, the motion of a single particle in an equilibrium is assumed to be completely characterized by its energy H and canonical angular momentum P/sub theta/ with the absence of a third constant of the motion. The present computational work assumes that plasma currents are negligible, as is appropriate for a low-temperature collisional plasma. For a variety of initial ring geometries and initial distribution functions (having a single value of P/sub theta/), it is found that the parameters for ''fat'', small aspect ratio rings follow general scaling laws over a large range of compression ratios, 1 3 : The ring radius varies as lambda/sup -1/2/; the average single particle energy as lambda/sup 0.72/; the root mean square energy spread as lambda/sup 1.1/; and the total current as lambda/sup 0.79/. The field reversal parameter is found to saturate at values typically between 2 and 3. For large compression ratios the current density is found to ''hollow out''. This hollowing tends to improve the interchange stability of an embedded low β plasma. The implications of these scaling laws for fusion reactor systems are discussed

  2. Tree rings and radiocarbon calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbetti, M.

    1999-01-01

    Only a few kinds of trees in Australia and Southeast Asia are known to have growth rings that are both distinct and annual. Those that do are therefore extremely important to climatic and isotope studies. In western Tasmania, extensive work with Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) has shown that many living trees are more than 1,000 years old, and that their ring widths are sensitive to temperature, rainfall and cloud cover (Buckley et al. 1997). At the Stanley River there is a forest of living (and recently felled) trees which we have sampled and measured. There are also thousands of subfossil Huon pine logs, buried at depths less than 5 metres in an area of floodplain extending over a distance of more than a kilometre with a width of tens of metres. Some of these logs have been buried for 50,000 years or more, but most of them belong to the period between 15,000 years and the present. In previous expeditions in the 1980s and 1990s, we excavated and sampled about 350 logs (Barbetti et al. 1995; Nanson et al. 1995). By measuring the ring-width patterns, and matching them between logs and living trees, we have constructed a tree-ring dated chronology from 571 BC to AD 1992. We have also built a 4254-ring floating chronology (placed by radiocarbon at ca. 3580 to 7830 years ago), and an earlier 1268-ring chronology (ca. 7,580 to 8,850 years ago). There are many individuals, or pairs of logs which match and together span several centuries, at 9,000 years ago and beyond

  3. Superconducting proton ring for PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, E.

    1979-01-01

    A powerful new facility for colliding beam physics could be provided by adding a proton storage ring in the range of several hundred GeV to the electron-positron storage ring PETRA at DESY. This can be achieved in an economic way utilizing the PETRA tunnel and taking advantage of the higher magnetic fields of superconducting magnets which would be placed above or below the PETRA magnets. A central field of 4 Tesla in the bending magnets corresponds to a proton energy of 225 GeV. (orig.)

  4. INVITED TALK: Dynamics Of Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    2011-04-01

    Planetary rings are the only nearby astrophysical disks, and the only disks that have been investigated by spacecraft (especially the Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn). Although there are significant differences between rings and other disks, chiefly the large planet/ring mass ratio that greatly enhances the flatness of rings (aspect ratios as small as 1e-7), understanding of disks in general can be enhanced by understanding the dynamical processes observed at close-range and in real-time in planetary rings. We will review the known ring systems of the four giant planets, as well as the prospects for ring systems yet to be discovered. We will then review planetary rings by type. The A, B, and C rings of Saturn, plus the Cassini Division, comprise our solar system's only dense broad disk and host many phenomena of general application to disks including spiral waves, gap formation, self-gravity wakes, viscous overstability and normal modes, impact clouds, and orbital evolution of embedded moons. Dense narrow rings are found both at Uranus (where they comprise the main rings entirely) and at Saturn (where they are embedded in the broad disk), and are the primary natural laboratory for understanding shepherding and self-stability. Narrow dusty rings, likely generated by embedded source bodies, are surprisingly found to sport azimuthally-confined arcs both at Saturn, Jupiter, and Neptune. Finally, every known ring system includes a substantial component of diffuse dusty rings.

  5. Devlopments of components for the detector driving system of the PANDA calorimeter and studies on the photoproduction of excited η mesons with the CB/ELSA experiment; Entwicklung von Komponenten fuer das Detektorsteuersystem des PANDA-Kalorimeters und Studien zur Photoproduktion angeregter η-Mesonen mit dem CB/ELSA-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triffterer, Tobias

    2016-01-28

    This PhD thesis (written in German language) consists of two parts: The first part describes developments for the Detector Control System of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector. An alarm and current border regulation system has been developed for this to ensure the correct functioning of the detector and to prevent damages. In addition, a database system (endcap production database) has been created to accompany the construction of the forward endcap and archive the characteristics of the photodetectors. The second part deals with the investigation into excited η mesons using the data measured with the CB/ELSA experiment. The distribution of the η' production angle in the decay channel η'→ ηπ{sup 0}π{sup 0} has been calculated for the first time within the beam photo energy range of 2500 to 2950 MeV. Furthermore, the relative effective cross section of the η(1405) to the η' could be determined to 0.16±0.05 (3.2σ). This shows evidence for a more complex nature of the η(1405).

  6. Soft Neutrosophic Ring and Soft Neutrosophic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophic rings and neutrosophic fields to soft sets and construct soft neutrosophic rings and soft neutrosophic fields. We also extend neutrosophic ideal theory to form soft neutrosophic ideal over a neutrosophic ring and soft neutrosophic ideal of a soft neutrosophic ring. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of soft neutrosophic rings and soft neutrosophic fields and display many properties of these. At the end of this paper we gave soft neutrosophic ring homomorphism.

  7. Thomson's Jumping Ring Over a Long Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2018-03-01

    The classic jumping ring apparatus consists of a coil with an iron core that extends out of the coil. A copper or aluminum ring placed over the iron core jumps upward when AC power is applied to the coil. In this paper we will examine a modified design of the jumping ring apparatus, called the "long-coil design." It allows the ring to jump upward or downward, depending on the starting position of the ring. These features shed significant light on the study of the force that causes the ring to jump.

  8. E-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2001-01-01

    E-læring er et modeord og et mantra. Undervisning bliver ikke automatisk bedre af, at der sættes et ”e-” foran. Forbedring og fornyelse af undervisningen er betinget af, at vi forstår computermediets muligheder og skaber forandring ved at tilpasse det til de undervisningsformer, vi ønsker....

  9. ring og it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Antologien er et bidrag til didaktiske diskussioner om brug af f.eks. programpakker til sprogundervisning, præsentationsprogrammel og konferencesystemer på de videregående uddannelser. Antologien diskuterer ideen om, at multimediale medier og internettet kan understøtte læring, undervisning og ...

  10. Ring laser frequency biasing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A ring laser cavity including a magnetically saturable member for differentially phase shifting the contradirectional waves propagating in the laser cavity, the phase shift being produced by the magneto-optic interaction occurring between the light waves and the magnetization in the cavity forming component as the light waves are reflected therefrom is described

  11. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  12. Wands of the Black Ring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravda, Vojtěch; Pravdová, Alena

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2005), s. 1277-1287 ISSN 0001-7701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP202/03/P017; GA AV ČR KJB1019403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : algebraic classification * Petrov classification * black ring Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2005

  13. On commutativity theorems for rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. S. Abujabal

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Let R be an associative ring with unity. It is proved that if R satisfies the polynomial identity [xny−ymxn,x]=0(m>1,n≥1, then R is commutative. Two or more related results are also obtained.

  14. Spin dynamics in electron synchrotrons; Spindynamik in Elektronensynchrotronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jan Felix

    2017-07-14

    Providing spin polarized particle beams with circular accelerators requires the consideration of depolarizing resonances which may significantly reduce the desired degree of polarization at specific beam energies. The corresponding spin dynamical effects are typically analyzed with numerical methods. In case of electron beams the influence of the emission of synchrotron radiation has to be taken into account. On short timescales, as in synchrotrons with a fast energy ramp or in damping rings, spin dynamics are investigated with spin tracking algorithms. This thesis presents the spin tracking code Polematrix as a versatile tool to study the impact of synchrotron radiation on spin dynamics. Spin tracking simulations have been performed based on the well established particle tracking code Elegant. The numerical studies demonstrate effects which are responsible for beam depolarization: Synchrotron side bands of depolarizing resonances and decoherence of spin precession. Polematrix can be utilized for any electron accelerator with minimal effort as it imports lattice files from the tracking programs MAD-X or Elegant. Polematrix has been published as open source software. Currently, the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA at Bonn University is the only electron synchrotron worldwide providing a polarized beam. Integer and intrinsic depolarizing resonances are compensated with dedicated countermeasures during the fast energy ramp. Polarization measurements from ELSA demonstrate the particular spin dynamics of electrons and confirm the results of the spin tracking code Polematrix.

  15. Seidel aberrations in grating pulse stretchers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyhlídka, Štěpán; Kramer, Daniel; Kalinchenko, Galina; Rus, Bedřich

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 26 (2016), s. 30421-30432 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0091; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OP VK 1 LaserSys(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0091; ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrafast optics * pulse compression Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  16. International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tree ring data from the International Tree Ring Data Bank and World Data Center for Paleoclimatology archives. Data include raw treering measurements (most are...

  17. Planetary science: Shepherds of Saturn's ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crida, Aurélien

    2015-09-01

    Saturn's F ring is chaperoned on both sides by the tiny moons Prometheus and Pandora. Numerical simulations show that this celestial ballet can result from the collision of two aggregates that evolved out of Saturn's main rings.

  18. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  19. Education plays a greater role than age in cognitive test performance among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo Passos, Valéria Maria; Giatti, Luana; Bensenor, Isabela; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Chor, Dora; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-10-09

    Brazil has gone through fast demographic, epidemiologic and nutritional transitions and, despite recent improvements in wealth distribution, continues to present a high level of social and economic inequality. The ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study, aimed at investigating cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, offers a great opportunity to assess cognitive decline in this aging population through time-sequential analyses drawn from the same battery of tests over time. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of sex, age and education on cognitive tests performance of the participants at baseline. Analyses pertain to 14,594 participants with aged 35 to 74 years, who were functionally independent and had no history of stroke or use of neuroleptics, anticonvulsants, cholinesterase inhibitors or antiparkinsonian agents. Mean age was 52.0 ± 9.0 years and 54.2% of participants were women. Cognitive tests included the word memory tests (retention, recall and recognition), verbal fluency tests (VFT, animals and letter F) and Trail Making Test B. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to determine the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the distribution of the final score of each test. Women had significant and slightly higher scores than men in all memory tests and VFT, but took more time to perform Trail B. Reduced performance in all tests was seen with an increase age and, more importantly, with decrease level of education. The word list and VFT scores decreased at about one word for every 10 years of age; whereas higher-educated participants scored four words more on the word list test, and six or seven more correct words on VFT, when compared to lower-educated participants. Additionally, the oldest and less educated participants showed significant lower response rates in all tests. The higher influence of education than age in this Brazilian population reinforce the need for caution in analyzing and diagnosing cognitive impairments based

  20. Sex-specific associations of birth weight with measures of adiposity in mid-to-late adulthood: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockenbach, G; Luft, V C; Mueller, N T; Duncan, B B; Stein, M C; Vigo, Á; Matos, S M A; Fonseca, M J M; Barreto, S M; Benseñor, I M; Appel, L J; Schmidt, M I

    2016-08-01

    To investigate sex-specific associations of birth weight with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in mid-to-late adulthood. ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study of adults aged 35-74 years affiliated with universities or research institutions of six capital cities in Brazil. After exclusions, we investigated 11 636 participants. Socio-demographic factors and birth weight were obtained by interview. All anthropometry was directly measured at baseline. We categorized birth weight as low (⩽2.5 kg); normal (2.5-4 kg) and high (⩾4 kg). We performed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous outcomes and ordinal logistic regression for categorical adiposity outcomes. We examined interaction on the multiplicative scale by sex and by race. High birth weight uniformly predicted greater overall and central obesity in men and women. However, low (vs normal) birth weight, in ANCOVA models adjusted for participant age, family income, race, education, maternal education, and maternal and paternal history of diabetes, was associated with lower BMI, WC and WHR means for men, but not for women (Pinteraction=0.01, <0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively). In similarly adjusted ordinal logistic regression models, odds of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.65, 0.46-0.90) and of being in the high (vs low) tertile of WC (OR=0.66, 0.50-0.87) and of WHR (OR=0.79, 0.60-1.03) were lower for low (vs normal) birth weight men, but trended higher (BMI: OR=1.18, 0.92-1.51; WC: OR=1.21, 0.97-1.53; WHR: OR=1.44, 1.15-1.82) for low (vs normal) birth weight women. In this Brazilian sample of middle-aged and elderly adults who have lived through a rapid nutritional transition, low birth weight was associated with adult adiposity in a sex-specific manner. In men, low birth weight was associated with lower overall and central adult adiposity, while in women low birth weight was generally associated with greater central adiposity.

  1. Measurement of beam asymmetries in the reaction γp → pπ0η with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutz, Eric Paul-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The photoproduction of mesons off the nucleon provides an excellent tool to gain further insight into the structure of baryons and their excitation spectrum. A large number of final states yielding various resonance contributions are accessible in photoproduction experiments. Especially in the regime of high-lying resonances, the photoproduction of multi-meson final states is of increasing importance, giving access to sequential decays of such resonances via e.g. Δ(1232)P 33 or N(1535)S 11 in the intermediate state. For a complete understanding of the processes involved, however, it is insufficient to measure only unpolarized total and differential cross sections. The extraction of polarization observables from data obtained using polarized beams and targets is mandatory to constrain theoretical models and analyses and to uniquely determine the amplitudes participating in a given process. This work presents the analysis of data taken with the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at the accelerator facility ELSA in Bonn, using a linearly polarized photon beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The detector system is optimized for the detection of multi-photon final states. The data has been selected for the reaction γp → pπ 0 η → p4γ for an incoming photon energy range of 970 MeV to 1650 MeV. In this range, photon polarizations of up to 50% have been achieved. From this data, all polarization observables accessible with a linearly polarized photon beam and an unpolarized target have been extracted. This includes the beam asymmetry sum, determined as a function of various invariant masses and angles using a quasi two-body approach, along with the three-body asymmetries I c and I s . The latter two observables are unique to the acoplanar kinematics of multi-meson final states and have been measured for the first time within this work. The comparison of the results to solutions derived from various theoretical frameworks demonstrates the sensitivity of the

  2. Measurement of beam asymmetries in the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{eta} with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutz, Eric Paul-Maria

    2011-07-01

    The photoproduction of mesons off the nucleon provides an excellent tool to gain further insight into the structure of baryons and their excitation spectrum. A large number of final states yielding various resonance contributions are accessible in photoproduction experiments. Especially in the regime of high-lying resonances, the photoproduction of multi-meson final states is of increasing importance, giving access to sequential decays of such resonances via e.g. {delta}(1232)P{sub 33} or N(1535)S{sub 11} in the intermediate state. For a complete understanding of the processes involved, however, it is insufficient to measure only unpolarized total and differential cross sections. The extraction of polarization observables from data obtained using polarized beams and targets is mandatory to constrain theoretical models and analyses and to uniquely determine the amplitudes participating in a given process. This work presents the analysis of data taken with the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at the accelerator facility ELSA in Bonn, using a linearly polarized photon beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The detector system is optimized for the detection of multi-photon final states. The data has been selected for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{eta} {yields} p4{gamma} for an incoming photon energy range of 970 MeV to 1650 MeV. In this range, photon polarizations of up to 50% have been achieved. From this data, all polarization observables accessible with a linearly polarized photon beam and an unpolarized target have been extracted. This includes the beam asymmetry sum, determined as a function of various invariant masses and angles using a quasi two-body approach, along with the three-body asymmetries I{sup c} and I{sup s}. The latter two observables are unique to the acoplanar kinematics of multi-meson final states and have been measured for the first time within this work. The comparison of the results to solutions derived from various theoretical

  3. Association between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality: results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Dóra; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; Giatti, Luana; Bensenor, Isabela; Del Carmen Bisi Molina, Maria; Aquino, Estela M L; Diez-Roux, Ana; de Pina Castiglione, Débora; Santos, Simone M

    2016-08-09

    The study explores associations between perceived neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and diet quality, which in Latin America and Brazil have been scarcely studied and with inconsistent results. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 14,749 individuals who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto, ELSA-Brasil) baseline. The study included current and retired civil servants, aged between 35 and 74 years, from universities and research institutes in six Brazilian states. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form was used to characterize physical activity during leisure time and commuting; additional questions assessed how often fruit and vegetables were consumed, as a proxy for diet quality. Neighbourhood characteristics were evaluated by the "Walking Environment" and "Availability of Healthy Foods" scales originally used in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Associations were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Perceiving a more walkable neighbourhood was positively associated with engaging in leisure time physical activity and doing so for longer weekly. Compared with those who saw their neighbourhood as less walkable, those who perceived it as more walkable had 1.69 (95 % CI 1.57-1.83) and 1.39 (1.28-1.52) greater odds of engaging in leisure time physical activity for more than 150 min/week or up to 150 min/week (vs. none), respectively. Perceiving a more walkable neighbourhood was also positively associated with transport-related physical activity. The same pattern was observed for diet: compared with participants who perceived healthy foods as less available in their neighbourhood, those who saw them as more available had odds 1.48 greater (1.31-1.66) of eating fruits, and 1.47 greater (1.30-1.66) of eating vegetables, more than once per day. Perceived walkability and neighbourhood availability of healthy food were

  4. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, pCoffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult

  5. Associations of dairy intake with glycemia and insulinemia, independent of obesity, in Brazilian adults: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmer, Michele; Pereira, Mark A; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Del Carmen B Molina, Maria; Alvim, Sheila; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B

    2015-04-01

    Inverse associations between dairy intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes have been shown, but more studies are needed, especially from low- and middle-income countries. The objective was to describe the association between dairy products and direct measures of glycemic status in adults without known diabetes. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) includes 15,105 adults, aged 35-74 y, enrolled from universities and research institutions in 6 Brazilian capital cities. We excluded participants with a known diabetes diagnosis, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Dairy consumption was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire, and we computed servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy. Associations with fasting blood glucose (FG) and fasting insulin, 2-h postload glucose (PG), 2-h postload insulin (PI), glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed through multivariable linear regression analysis with adjustment for demographic characteristics, behavioral risk factors, other dietary factors, and anthropometric measurements. The sample size after exclusions was 10,010. The intake of total dairy was inversely associated with FG (linear β for dairy servings/d = -0.46 ± 0.2 mg/dL), PG (-1.25 ± 0.5 mg/dL), PI (-1.52 ± 0.6 mg/dL), Hb A1c (-0.02 ± 0.0%), and HOMA-IR (-0.04 ± 0.0) after adjustment for all covariates (P obesity status, and dairy fat amount (reduced-fat vs. full-fat dairy). Fermented dairy products showed particularly strong inverse associations with the outcomes, with adjusted differences for a 1-serving/d increment of -0.24 (95% CI: -0.46, -0.02) mg/dL for FG, -0.86 (-1.42, -0.30) mg/dL for PG, and -0.01% (-0.02%, 0.00%) for Hb A1c. Myristic acid was the only nutrient that appeared to mediate the association between dairy intake and glycemia. Dairy intake, especially fermented dairy, was inversely associated with measures of glycemia and insulinemia in

  6. Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Xiaoqing

    2010-06-01

    Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.

  7. On P-coherent endomorphism rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of M R has a pseudokernel in add M R ; S is a left -coherent ring if and ...

  8. Tree-ring anomalies in Toona ciliata

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Ingo; Banks, John Charles Gripper

    2006-01-01

    New increment core samples of Toona ciliata collected in the Australian tropics and subtropics compared to already existing material from the Upper Kangaroo Valley, near Sydney exhibit distinct differences in tree-ring structures. This necessitated a closer examination of the wood anatomy, possible false rings and the species’ crossdating capacity in northeast Australia. During tree-ring analysis two growth anomalies (extensive zones of narrow and indistinct rings) and three types of false ri...

  9. The Hi-Ring DCN Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization......We will review recent work on the proposed hierarchical ring-based architecture (HiRing) proposed for data center networks. We will discuss the architecture and initial demonstrations of optical switching performance and time-domain synchronization...

  10. Random Implantation of Asymmetric Intracorneal Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peris-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracorneal ring employment for treating ectasia is widespread. Although the mechanism of action of intracorneal rings in the regularization of the corneal surface after its implantation is well known in most cases, there are still many doubts. We present a case of implanted intracorneal rings, where, despite the peculiar position of the rings, the patient gains lines of visual acuity and keratoconus remains stable.

  11. Edge-on View of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    TOP - This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope snapshot of Saturn with its rings barely visible. Normally, astronomers see Saturn with its rings tilted. Earth was almost in the plane of Saturn's rings, thus the rings appear edge-on.In this view, Saturn's largest moon, Titan, is casting a shadow on Saturn. Titan's atmosphere is a dark brown haze. The other moons appear white because of their bright, icy surfaces. Four moons - from left to right, Mimas, Tethys, Janus, and Enceladus - are clustered around the edge of Saturn's rings on the right. Two other moons appear in front of the ring plane. Prometheus is on the right edge; Pandora, on the left. The rings also are casting a shadow on Saturn because the Sun was above the ring plane.BOTTOM - This photograph shows Saturn with its rings slightly tilted. The moon called Dione, on the lower right, is casting a long, thin shadow across the whole ring system due to the setting Sun on the ring plane. The moon on the upper left of Saturn is Tethys.Astronomers also are studying the unusual appearance of Saturn's rings. The bottom image displays a faint, narrow ring, the F-ring just outside the main ring, which normally is invisible from Earth. Close to the edge of Saturn's disk, the front section of rings seem brighter and more yellow than the back due to the additional lumination by yellowish Saturn.The color images were assembled from separate exposures taken August 6 (top) and November 17 (bottom), 1995 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  12. Optical fiber having wave-guiding rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerly, Michael J [Danville, CA; Dawson, Jay W [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA; Barty, Christopher P. J. [Hayward, CA

    2011-03-15

    A waveguide includes a cladding region that has a refractive index that is substantially uniform and surrounds a wave-guiding region that has an average index that is close to the index of the cladding. The wave-guiding region also contains a thin ring or series of rings that have an index or indices that differ significantly from the index of the cladding. The ring or rings enable the structure to guide light.

  13. Familial transmission of a ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael

    1987-01-01

    A ring chromosome 21 was found in a phenotypically normal mother and her son. The clinical findings in the son were bilateral retention of the testes and a slightly delayed puberty onset. Consequences of a ring formation of a chromosome 21 in phenotypically normal patients are presented...... and discussed, and the previously reported cases of familially transmitted G-group ring chromosomes are reviewed....

  14. Self-gravitation in Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, H.; Lukkari, J.

    1982-01-01

    In a ring-shaped collisional system self-gravitation reduces the equilibrium values of the geometric and optical thickness. In Saturn's rings both effects are appreciable. The previously found discrepancy between the calculated profile and the observed profile of the rings is chiefly caused by the omission of self-gravitation. (Auth.)

  15. Anomalous dark growth rings in black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Long; David W. Trimpey; Michael C. Wiemann; Susan L. Stout

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous dark growth rings have been observed in black cherry (Prunus serotina) sawlogs from northwestern Pennsylvania making the logs unsuitable for veneer products. Thirty-six cross sections with dark rings, each traceable to one of ten stands, were obtained from a local mill and sections were dated and annual ring widths were measured. One or...

  16. A Ring Construction Using Finite Directed Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardzell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an interesting class of noncommutative rings which can be constructed using finite directed graphs. This construction also creates a vector space. These structures provide undergraduate students connections between ring theory and graph theory and, among other things, allow them to see a ring unity element that looks quite…

  17. Laser driven structured quantum rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglia, Giuseppe; Corso, Pietro Paolo; De Giovannini, Umberto; Fiordilino, Emilio; Frusteri, Biagio

    2015-06-01

    In this work we study harmonic emission from structured quantum rings (SQRs). In SQRs, electrons trapped in two-dimensional structures are further confined by an external potential composed of N scattering centers arranged on a circle. We build a suitable one-dimensional model Hamiltonian describing this class of systems and analytically solve the associated Schödinger equation. We find that the solution can be expressed in terms of Mathieu functions and focus on the specific case of N = 6. By exactly solving the time-dependent Schödinger equation, we then show how the harmonic response to linearly polarized lasers strongly depends on the ring physical parameters. The results illustrate how the additional degrees of freedom introduced by these parameters provide important handles to control the emitted spectrum that in some cases extends into the XUV region.

  18. Fiber Ring Optical Gyroscope (FROG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a one meter diameter fiber ring optical gyro, using 1.57 kilometers of single mode fiber, are described. The various noise components: electronic, thermal, mechanical, and optical, were evaluated. Both dc and ac methods were used. An attempt was made to measure the Earth rotation rate; however, the results were questionable because of the optical and electronic noise present. It was concluded that fiber ring optical gyroscopes using all discrete components have many serious problems that can only be overcome by discarding the discrete approach and adapting an all integrated optic technique that has the laser source, modulator, detector, beamsplitters, and bias element on a single chip.

  19. Behavioral Mapless Navigation Using Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Randall P.; Miller, Samuel A.; Bradley, Arthur T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents work on the development and implementation of a novel approach to robotic navigation. In this system, map-building and localization for obstacle avoidance are discarded in favor of moment-by-moment behavioral processing of the sonar sensor data. To accomplish this, we developed a network of behaviors that communicate through the passing of rings, data structures that are similar in form to the sonar data itself and express the decisions of each behavior. Through the use of these rings, behaviors can moderate each other, conflicting impulses can be mediated, and designers can easily connect modules to create complex emergent navigational techniques. We discuss the development of a number of these modules and their successful use as a navigation system in the Trinity omnidirectional robot.

  20. Livslang læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Pædagogisk sociologi beskæftiger sig blandt andet med de politiske rammebetingelser for opdragelse, undervisning, socialisering og uddannelse. I dette kapitel præsenteres en komparativ undersøgelse af EU’s politik med hensyn til livslang læring på den ene side, og den danske politik og lovgivning...... tilgang kaldet ‘What is the problem represented to be?’...

  1. ring og vejledning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjørn, Lone

    Formålet med kompendiet om forskellige aspekter omkring sproglig læring er at ruste de studerende til studiet på en højere læreranstalt; at højne effektiviteten i deres sproglige læringsproces; at lære de studerende at arbejde uafhængigt af underviseren; at give de studerende de nødvendige redska...

  2. Two superconducting storage rings: ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The general features of the design and the status of the ISABELLE storage ring project at the present time are reported. It brings up to date the results reported at the National Particle Accelerator Conference in March 1977. The most significant change since that time has been an upgrading of the energy of the overall facility, and acceptance of the project by the Department of Energy

  3. ring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  4. ring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Georgsen, Marianne

    I denne rapport tilbyder vi et indblik i det gennemførte projekt, og forfatterne har valgt nogle forhold ud, som belyses og diskuteres, mens andre ikke berøres eller diskuteres nævneværdigt i denne rapport. Det skyldes blandt andet projektets mange facetter, som dækker både læring, teknologi, pæd...

  5. Progressiv læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    undervisningen. • At der afsættes tid til implementeringen, og at det gøres tydeligt, at implementering tager tid. • At organiseringen af undervisningen på skolerne tilpasses, så det letter anvendelsen af principperne i Progressiv Læring. • At lærernes kompetenceudvikling er forankret på skolen både emnemæssigt...

  6. Construction of a FASTBUS data-acquisition system for the ELAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, A.

    1992-06-01

    To use the FASTBUS data acquisition system for the experiment ELAN at the electron stretcher accelerator ELSA a new software tool has been developed. This tool manages to readout parallel CAMAC with a VME front-end-processor and FASTBUS with the special FASTBUS processor segment AEB. Both processors are connected by a 32 bit high speed VSB data bus. (orig.) [de

  7. Early-life nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: gender-specific associations from a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskiewicz, Bruna Lucas; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; do Amaral, Joana Ferreira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Giatti, Luana

    2018-02-19

    In the present study we investigated gender-specific associations of low birth weight (LBW) and shorter relative leg length with metabolic syndrome (MetS) after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health-related behaviours. We also investigated whether these associations are independent of age at menarche and BMI at 20 years old. Cross-sectional analysis. Baseline data from 12 602 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), 2008-2010. MetS was defined according to the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. LBW (nutritional status as estimated by LBW and lower leg length in childhood was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS, although LBW was a significant factor only among women.

  8. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  9. Multi-wavelength studies of Saturn's rings to constrain ring particle properties and ring structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, L.; Deau, E.; Morishima, R.; Filacchione, G.; Hedman, M.; Nicholson, P.; Colwell, J.; Bradley, T.

    2012-04-01

    A great deal can be learned about the nature of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths by modeling the changes in brightness, color and temperature with changing viewing geometry over a wide range of wavelengths, from ultraviolet through the thermal infrared. Data from Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) and Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) are jointly being studied using scans of the lit and unlit main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division) at multiple geometries and solar elevations. Using multi-wavelength data sets allow us to test different thermal models by combining the effects of particle albedo, regolith grain size and surface roughness with thermal emissivity and inertia, particle spin rate and spin axis orientation. With the high spatial resolution of the Cassini data it is now possible to analyze these effects at smaller spatial scales and characterize regions such as the C ring plateaus and ringlets, where albedo differences may be present. In the CIRS data, over a range of solar elevations from -23 degrees to -8 degrees, the bulk of the temperature variations are confined primarily to phase angle. Only small temperature differences are observed with changing spacecraft elevation. Similar behavior is seen in the ISS color data. Color and temperature dependence with changing solar elevation angle are also observed. VIMS observations show that the IR ice absorption band depths are (almost) independent of phase angle, out to ~140 deg phase, suggesting that interparticle light scattering is relatively unimportant except at very high phase angles. These results imply that the individual properties of the ring particles may play a larger role than the collective properties of the rings, in particular at visible wavelengths. The temperature and color variation with phase angle may be a result of scattering within the regolith and on possibly rough surfaces

  10. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  11. Ring with changeable radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collica, C.; Epifano, L.; Farella, R.

    1976-01-01

    A ring for housing a disc of radiation measuring material is described comprising a band having a circular shape and a housing integral with the band. The housing comprises a hollow cylindrical section substantially normal to the band surface and terminating in an inwardly disposed annular flange which defines a substantially circular aperture. In a preferred embodiment of the invention a retaining protrusion formed on the inside of the cylindrical section and spaced from the annular flange is provided to retain a plurality of discs mounted in the housing in layered fashion

  12. Storage ring proton EDM experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 10^-29 e-cm.  The strength of the method originates from the fact that there are high intensity polarized proton beams available and the fact that the so-called geometric phase systematic error background cancels with clock-wise and counter-clock-wise storage possible in electric rings. The ultimate sensitivity of the method is 10^-30 e-cm. At this level it will either detect a non-zero EDM or it will eliminate electro-weak baryogenesis.

  13. Longitudinal dynamics in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The single-particle equations of motion are derived for charged particles in a storage ring. Longitudinal space charge is included in the potential assuming an infinitely conducting circular beam pipe with a distributed inductance. The framework uses Hamilton's equations with the canonical variables phi and W. The Twiss parameters for longitudinal motion are also defined for the small amplitude synchrotron oscillations. The space-charge Hamiltonian is calculated for both parabolic bunches and ''matched'' bunches. A brief analysis including second-harmonic rf contributions is also given. The final sections supply calculations of dynamical quantities and particle simulations with the space-charge effects neglected

  14. Interface-læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interface-læring er den læringsoplevelse, der kan opstå i grænsefladen mellem to væsensforskellige læringsmiljøer, når de mødes og griber ind i hinanden. Et gymnasium og et museum er eksempler på to sådanne læringsmiljøer. Artiklen præsenterer nogle af de væsentligste resultater fra min ph.d. afh...

  15. Boom and Bust Cycles in Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.; Meinke, B. K.; Sremcevic, M.; Albers, N.

    2010-12-01

    Cassini UVIS occultation data show clumping in Saturn’s F ring and at the B ring outer edge, indicating aggregation and disaggregation at these locations perturbed by Mimas and Prometheus. Timescales range from hours to months. The maximum clumping lags the moon by roughly π in the forcing frame. This indicates a direct relation between the moon and the ring clumping. We propose that the collective behavior of the ring particles resembles a predator-prey system: the aggregate mean size is the prey, which feeds the velocity dispersion; conversely, increasing dispersion breaks up the aggregates. For realistic values of the parameters this creates a limit cycle behavior, as for the ecology of foxes and hares or the boom-bust economic cycle. Solving for the long-term behavior of this forced system gives a periodic response at the perturbing frequency, with a phase lag roughly consistent with the UVIS occultation measurements. We conclude that the agitation by the moons at both these locations in the F ring and at the B ring outer edge drives aggregation and disaggregation in the forcing frame. This agitation of the ring material allows fortuitous formation of solid objects from the temporary clumps, via stochastic processes like compaction, adhesion, sintering or reorganization that drives the denser parts of the aggregate to the center or ejects the lighter elements. These more persistent objects would then orbit at the Kepler rate. Such processes can create the equinox objects seen at the B ring edge and in the F ring, explain the ragged nature of those ring regions and allow for rare events to aggregate ring particles into solid objects, recycling the ring material and extending the ring lifetime.

  16. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hahn, R.; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Heber, O.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schippers, S.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Sieber, T.; Shornikov, A.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Ullrich, J.; Urbain, X.; Vogel, S.; Wilhelm, P.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm-3 is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10-14 mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  17. Replantation of ring avulsion amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of ring avulsion injuries is a challenge because of the long segment damage to the vessels and intrinsic damage caused to soft tissues at the proximal edge of the amputation. Eight patients with total ring avulsion amputations underwent microsurgical replantation in the period 1994 to 2002. Arterial repair was done by direct vessel suture in three patients, interposition vein grafts in two and cross anastomosis of the digital arteries in three patients. Venous anastomosis was carried out by mobilization and direct suture in seven patients and vessel transfer from the adjacent finger in one patient. Seven of the eight replantations were successful, while one patient had a partial failure. At a minimum follow-up of one year, these patients showed good functional and cosmetic recovery. All successful patients were happy with the outcome and none have requested for amputation, even those whose results were not functionally adequate. However, in addition to technical factors, it is important to evaluate the patient's motivation to undergo not only the long surgery, but also multiple secondary procedures and regular supervised physiotherapy. We also describe a simple method which prevents the soft tissues inside the degloved digit from becoming wrapped around the K wire during bony fixation, thus making one step of this technically challenging procedure a little easier.

  18. New diols with imidazoquinazoline ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszkowska, Agnieszka; Klasek, Antonin; Pawlędzio, Sylwia; Trzybiński, Damian; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Zarzyka, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    The objective of these studies was to synthesize and characterize new diols with an imidazoquinazoline ring. New diols were obtained in reactions of 2,6-bis-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-1-phenylimidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione with excess of ethylene glycol or in reaction of 1-phenyl-2H,6H-imidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione with 2-M excess of ethylene oxide. The products were isolated at high yield and characterized by instrumental methods (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, MS-ESI, UV, TGA). The structure of 2,6-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-phenylimidazo[1,5-c]quinazoline-3,5-dione (BEFIQ) was also investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. BEFIQ crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with two molecules in the asymmetric unit of the crystal lattice. The nature of the packing of molecules in the crystal lattice of BEFIQ was investigated by Hirshfeld surface analysis. The described methods enable the synthesis of new diols with an imidazoquinazoline ring. The new diols are quite soluble in typical organic solvents. Therefore, they can be used as raw materials for the synthesis of thermally stable polymers, and they can also have biological activity.

  19. A first course in noncommutative rings

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, T Y

    2001-01-01

    A First Course in Noncommutative Rings, an outgrowth of the author's lectures at the University of California at Berkeley, is intended as a textbook for a one-semester course in basic ring theory. The material covered includes the Wedderburn-Artin theory of semisimple rings, Jacobson's theory of the radical, representation theory of groups and algebras, prime and semiprime rings, local and semilocal rings, perfect and semiperfect rings, etc. By aiming the level of writing at the novice rather than the connoisseur and by stressing th the role of examples and motivation, the author has produced a text that is suitable not only for use in a graduate course, but also for self- study in the subject by interested graduate students. More than 400 exercises testing the understanding of the general theory in the text are included in this new edition.

  20. Foundations of commutative rings and their modules

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fanggui

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the basics and recent developments of commutative algebra. A glance at the contents of the first five chapters shows that the topics covered are ones that usually are included in any commutative algebra text. However, the contents of this book differ significantly from most commutative algebra texts: namely, its treatment of the Dedekind–Mertens formula, the (small) finitistic dimension of a ring, Gorenstein rings, valuation overrings and the valuative dimension, and Nagata rings. Going further, Chapter 6 presents w-modules over commutative rings as they can be most commonly used by torsion theory and multiplicative ideal theory. Chapter 7 deals with multiplicative ideal theory over integral domains. Chapter 8 collects various results of the pullbacks, especially Milnor squares and D+M constructions, which are probably the most important example-generating machines. In Chapter 9, coherent rings with finite weak global dimensions are probed, and the local ring of weak gl...

  1. Report of the eRHIC Ring-Ring Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschenauer, E. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brennan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palmer, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Parker, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tepikian, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Willeke, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-13

    This report evaluates the ring-ring option for eRHIC as a lower risk alternative to the linac-ring option. The reduced risk goes along with a reduced initial luminosity performance. However, a luminosity upgrade path is kept open. This upgrade path consists of two branches, with the ultimate upgrade being either a ring-ring or a linac-ring scheme. The linac-ring upgrade could be almost identical to the proposed linac-ring scheme, which is based on an ERL in the RHIC tunnel. This linac-ring version has been studied in great detail over the past ten years, and its significant risks are known. On the other hand, no detailed work on an ultimate performance ring-ring scenario has been performed yet, other than the development of a consistent parameter set. Pursuing the ring-ring upgrade path introduces high risks and requires significant design work that is beyond the scope of this report.

  2. ring og den kulturhistoriske skole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig

    2007-01-01

    -forskere uddrager den grundlæggende forståelse af forholdet mellem læring og udvikling. Nemlig at læring og udvikling indgår i en dialektisk enhed og virker gensidigt ind på hinanden - dog således at læring kommer ført, den trækker udviklingen med sig og så at sige leder udviklingen. Vygotskys tese vedrørende...

  3. On the potential of large ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, G. E.; Hurst, R. B.; Schreiber, K. U.

    2007-11-01

    We describe a new ring laser with area A = 833 m 2 and update performance statistics for several such machines. Chaio and Anandan [R.Y. Chaio, J. Anandan, Gen. Relat. Gravit. 14 (1982) 515-521] judged ring lasers inferior to matter interferometers as possible detectors of gravitational waves. However, we note that geophysically interesting results have been obtained from large ring lasers and that there is still a lot of room for improvements.

  4. Arkitektur krop og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, E.; Coninck-Smith, N. D.; Pedersen, S. H.

    Når vi taler om læring, tænker vi sædvanligvis på resultatet af bevidst tilrettelagt undervisningsforløb. Megen læring sker imidlertid ubevidst via den påvirkning, omgivelserne øver på vores kroppe og vores sanser. I arkitektur, krop og læring gives en teoretisk og analytisk fremstilling af forsk......, Gebauer, Wulf, Lorentzer, Merleau-Ponty, Barth, Ehn....

  5. RRF rings which are not LRF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All the rings we consider will be associative rings with an identity element 1 TИ 0 and all the modules considered will be unital modules. In what follows A denotes a ring, mod-A. (respectively A-mod) will denote the category of right (respectively left) A-modules. Recall (Definition 2.1 in [9]) that an A-module M is said to be ...

  6. Relatively Orthocomplemented Skew Nearlattices in Rickart Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cīırulis Jānis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A class of (right Rickart rings, called strong, is isolated. In particular, every Rickart *-ring is strong. It is shown in the paper that every strong Rickart ring R admits a binary operation which turns R into a right normal band having an upper bound property with respect to its natural order ≤; such bands are known as right normal skew nearlattices. The poset (R, ≤ is relatively orthocomplemented; in particular, every initial segment in it is orthomodular.

  7. Saturn’s ring temperatures at equinox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Ferrari, C.; Morishima, R.

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the thermal emission of Saturn's rings is challenging due to the numerous heating sources as well as the structural properties of the disk and of the particles that are closely related. At equinox, however, the main rings are externally heated by Saturn alone and the problem is somewhat simplified. We test the abilities of our current models to reproduce the temperatures observed with the Cassini CIRS instrument around equinox in August 2009. A simple semi-analytic model which includes mutual shadowing effects can mostly explain the radial profile of the equinox ring temperatures, except the model predicts lower temperatures than those observed for the A ring. The temperature variation at a given saturnocentric radius is primarily caused by observational geometry variations relative to Saturn. The observed temperature increases with decreasing Saturn-ring-observer angle. In addition, we found evidence that the leading hemispheres of particles are warmer than the trailing hemispheres at least for the C ring and probably for the A and B rings as well. This is explained if some fraction of particles has spin rates lower than the synchronous rotation rate as predicted by N-body simulations. The spin model for a monolayer ring (Ferrari, C., Leyrat, C., 2006, Astron. Astrophys. 447, 745-760) can fit the temperature variations with spacecraft longitude observed in the C ring with currently known thermal properties and a mixing of slow and fast rotators. The multilayer model (Morishima, R., Salo, H., Ohtsuki, K., 2009, Icarus 201, 634-654) can reproduce the temperatures of the B and C rings but gives A ring temperatures that are significantly lower than those observed as does the simple semi-analytic model. More advanced models which take into account self-gravity wakes may explain the A ring temperature behavior.

  8. Parameter Scan for the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Papaphilippou, Y; Korostelev, M

    2008-01-01

    Triggered by the RF frequency reduction of the CLIC main linac cavities, the damping ring parameters had to be reevaluated and the rings performance adapted to the new luminosity requirements. In view of a staged approach for reaching the ultimate energy of the collider, the dependence of the rings output emittances under the influence of Intrabeam Scattering is evaluated with respect to different beam characteristics such as bunch population, beam energy, coupling and longitudinal beam characteristics.

  9. Design of Piston Ring Friction Tester Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2006-01-01

    One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing the frictio......One of the major prerequisites for calculating piston ring friction is a good description of the tribological situation. Piston rings operate in three different lubrication regimes and the theoretical models should be capable to describe this. A very important condition for describing...... the frictional behavior of a piston ring correctly is knowledge about the amount of lubricant present. For piston rings the external load may be established by measuring the pressure distribution, i.e. the pressure drop in the piston ring package. Speed and temperature may also be established. The amount...... available is reflected in the friction absorbed in the bearing. The following properties will be measured: Oil fillm thickness - along liner (axial variation), oil film thickness - along piston ring (circumferential variation), piston tilt, temperature of piston rings and liner, pressure at piston lands...

  10. Forandringslæring med autismediagnoser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafson, Kari Ingrid; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2013-01-01

    Rasmus’ ændringer i læring, selvforståelse og tilhørsforhold perspektiveres med andre ASF-diagnostiseredes læring udforsket bl.a. gennem gruppeinterviews i regi af Asperger-foreningen. Artiklen byder således på et alternativ i form af at forstå forandringslæring som overskridende læring, med langt større...... hvor fx Asperger-foreningen, lærere og skolebørns- og unges-fællesskaber, samt forældrene er vigtige aktører i overskridelsen af marginalisering....

  11. Corneal iron ring after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Akata, F; Gürelik, G; Adigüzel, U; Akpinar, M; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    1999-05-01

    To report the incidence and course of corneal iron deposition after hyperopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Gazi University, Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey. Between January 1995 and December 1997, 62 eyes had PRK to correct hyperopia. Nine eyes developed corneal iron ring 5 to 8 months (mean 6.25 months +/- 1.3 [SD]) after PRK for hyperopia. The rings persisted during the mean follow-up of 19 +/- 11.09 months. The ring-shaped iron deposition after PRK for hyperopia must be differentiated from the Fleischer ring. Our results suggest that the slitlamp findings of peripheral corneal iron deposition in hyperopic PRK patients correlate with achieved correction.

  12. Multiplication modules over non-commutative rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuganbaev, A A

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that each submodule of a multiplication module over a regular ring is a multiplicative module. If A is a ring with commutative multiplication of right ideals, then each projective right ideal is a multiplicative module, and a finitely generated A-module M is a multiplicative module if and only if all its localizations with respect to maximal right ideals of A are cyclic modules over the corresponding localizations of A. In addition, several known results on multiplication modules over commutative rings are extended to modules over not necessarily commutative rings

  13. Status of the SLC damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.M.; Davies-White, W.A.; Delahaye, J.P.

    1985-06-01

    Electron beams of full design energy 1.21 GeV and nearly full design intensity 4 x 10 10 particles/pulse (design 5 x 10 10 ) have been extracted from the Stanford Linac and successfully stored in the electron damping ring. Beams of less intensity have been extracted from the ring and reinjected into the Linac. The present intensity limits are not thought to be fundamental. The operating experience with the electron ring and the status of the construction of the positron ring will be discussed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  15. Mechanical support of a ceramic gas turbine vane ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.; Mosher, Daniel A.; Holowczak, John E.; Reinhardt, Gregory E.

    2010-07-27

    An assembly for mounting a ceramic turbine vane ring onto a turbine support casing comprises a first metal clamping ring and a second metal clamping ring. The first metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a first side of a tab member of the ceramic turbine vane ring. The second metal clamping ring is configured to engage with a second side of the tab member such that the tab member is disposed between the first and second metal clamping rings.

  16. Ring opening metathesis polymerization catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, R.H.; Johnson, L.K.; Novak, B.M.; Hillmyer, M.; Benedicto, A.; France, M.; Nguyen, S.T. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Over the past eight years, a number of new catalysts for the ring opening metathesis polymerization of cyclic olefins have been developed. These catalysts are simple organometallic complexes containing metal carbon multiple bonds that in most cases polymerize olefins by a living process. These catalysts have been used to prepare a family of near monodispersed and structurally homogeneous polymers, a series of telechelic polymers with controlled molecular weight and functionality and triblock polymers with segments with potentially interesting electronic properties. A series of new group VIII catalysts are being developed that allow a wide range of functionality to be incorporated into the polymer side chains. The same catalysts can also be used in the synthesis of fine chemicals.

  17. Main ring transition crossing simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourbanis, I.; Ng, King-Yuen.

    1990-10-01

    We used ESME to simulate transition crossing in the Main Ring (MR). For the simulations, we followed the MR 29 cycle used currently for bar p production with a flat top of 120 GeV. In Sect. II, some inputs are discussed. In Sect. III, we present simulations with space charge turned off so that the effect of nonlinearity can be studied independently. When space charge is turned on in Sect. IV, we are faced with the problem of statistical errors due to binning, an analysis of which is given in the Appendices. Finally in Sects. V and VI, the results of simulations with space charge are presented and compared with the experimental measurements. 7 refs., 6 figs

  18. Low-emittance Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron radiation on particle motion in storage rings are discussed. In the absence of radiation, particle motion is symplectic, and the beam emittances are conserved. The inclusion of radiation effects in a classical approximation leads to emittance damping: expressions for the damping times are derived. Then, it is shown that quantum radiation effects lead to excitation of the beam emittances. General expressions for the equilibrium longitudinal and horizontal (natural) emittances are derived. The impact of lattice design on the natural emittance is discussed, with particular attention to the special cases of FODO-, achromat- and theoretical-minimum-emittance-style lattices. Finally, the effects of betatron coupling and vertical dispersion (generated by magnet alignment and lattice tuning errors) on the vertical emittance are considered.

  19. What confines the rings of Saturn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Philip D.; El Moutamid, Maryame; Longaretti, Pierre-Yves; Burns, Joseph A.

    2017-10-01

    The viscous spreading of planetary rings is believed to be counteracted by satellite torques, either through an individual resonance or through overlapping resonances (when the satellite is close to the ring edge). For the A ring of Saturn, it has been commonly believed that the satellite Janus alone can prevent the ring from spreading via its 7:6 Lindblad resonance. We discuss this common misconception and show that, in reality, the A ring is confined by the contributions from the group of satellites Pan, Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, and Mimas, whose resonances gradually decrease the angular momentum flux transported outward through the ring via density and bending waves. We further argue that this decrease in angular momentum flux occurs through the mechanism of ‘flux reversal’.We find that the Janus 7:6 torque is relatively feeble, as is the comparable torque of the nearby small satellite Atlas, each amounting to less than one-tenth of the angular momentum transport carried by the A ring. But the cumulative torques of the many other satellite resonances in the A ring sufficiently reduce the angular momentum flux through the rings so that the torques due to Janus and Atlas are effective in confining the outer edge of the ring.Furthermore, we use the magnitude of the satellites’ resonance torques to estimate the effective viscosity profile across the A ring, showing that it decreases from ~50 cm2 s-1 at the inner edge to less than ~11 cm2 s-1 at the outer edge. The gradual estimated decrease of the angular momentum flux and effective viscosity are roughly consistent with results obtained by balancing the shepherding torques from Pan and Daphnis with the viscous torque at the edges of the Encke and Keeler gaps, as well as the edge of the A ring.On the other hand, the Mimas 2:1 Lindblad resonance alone seems to be capable of confining the edge of the B ring, and contrary to the situation in the A ring, we show that the effective viscosity

  20. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  1. Electron beam cooling at a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, and an electrostatic storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tetsumi

    2006-01-01

    At the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), a magnetic storage ring, TARN II, with an electron cooler was operated from 1989 to 1999, while an electrostatic storage ring with a small electron cooler has been operational since 2000. In this paper, the electron cooling at TARN II and the electrostatic storage ring is described. (author)

  2. Two cases of halo scalp ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douri, Thaer Hasan

    2016-11-15

    Halo scalp ring (HSR) is a rare form of non-scarring annular alopecia that is attributed to caput succedaneum. It arises perinatally because of prolonged pressure on the scalp by the cervix during or before the delivery. We report two new cases of halo scalp ring in full term pregnancy - newborns.

  3. Two cases of halo scalp ring

    OpenAIRE

    Douri, Thaer Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Halo scalp ring (HSR) is a rare form of non-scarring annular alopecia that is attributed to caput succedaneum. It arises perinatally because of prolonged pressure on the scalp by the cervix during or before the delivery. We report two new cases of halo scalp ring in full term pregnancy - newborns.

  4. Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove a local duality for some schemes associated to a 2-dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an -dimensional local field in the sense of Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case =0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.

  5. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  6. Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an n-dimensional local field in the sense of. Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case n = 0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.

  7. Counteracting ring formation in rotary kilns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisaroni, M.; Sadi, R.; Lahaye, D.

    Avoiding the formation of rings in rotary kilns is an issue of primary concern to the cement production industry. We developed a numerical combustion model that revealed that in our case study rings are typically formed in zones of maximal radiative heat transfer. This local overheating causes the

  8. The King's Ring: A Matter of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterrett, Joseph William

    2018-01-01

    This essay examines the material and social effects of an exchange of trust between a king, Henry VIII, and his counsellor, Thomas Cranmer in Shakespeare and Fletcher’s All is True. The ring that the King gives Cranmer is both nothing and everything: nothing in that it could be anything, any ring...

  9. Familial transmission of a ring chromosome 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael

    1987-01-01

    A ring chromosome 21 was found in a phenotypically normal mother and her son. The clinical findings in the son were bilateral retention of the testes and a slightly delayed puberty onset. Consequences of a ring formation of a chromosome 21 in phenotypically normal patients are presented...

  10. Coefficient rings of formal group laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchstaber, V M; Ustinov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We describe the coefficient rings of universal formal group laws which arise in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and their application to mathematical physics. We also describe the homomorphisms of these coefficient rings coming from reductions of one formal group law to another. The proofs are based on the number-theoretic properties of binomial coefficients. Bibliography: 37 titles

  11. Ring chromosome 13 and ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsu, Elif; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Gül; Ipekçi, Belkıs

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum.

  12. Ring Chromosome 13 and Ambiguous Genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Özsu, Elif; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Gül; İpekçi, Belkıs

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum.

  13. On P-coherent endomorphism rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let M R be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of M R . It is shown ... Author Affiliations. Li-Xin Mao1. Institute of Mathematics, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167, People's Republic of China ...

  14. The Fine Structure of Herman Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We study the geometric structure of the boundary of Herman rings in a model family of Blaschke products of degree 3 (up to quasiconformal deformation). Shishikura’s quasiconformal surgery relates the Herman ring to the Siegel disk of a quadratic polynomial. By studying the regularity properties...

  15. On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2009-06-01

    We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  16. Piecewise catenarian and going between rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Brodmann, M.

    1980-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to prove the following theorem. Let R be a noetherian ring and n a nonnegative integer. Then R[X1, ••• ,Xn] is a going-between ring (=GB) iff R is GB and is (n+l)-piecewise catenarian.

  17. The decay of confined vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, K. C.; Niebel, C. L.; Jung, S.; Vlachos, P. P.

    2012-07-01

    Vortex rings are produced during the ejection of fluid through a nozzle or orifice, which occurs in a wide range of biological conditions such as blood flow through the valves of the heart or through arterial constrictions. Confined vortex ring dynamics, such as these, have not been previously studied despite their occurrence within the biological flow conditions mentioned. In this work, we investigate laminar vortex rings using particle image velocimetry and develop a new semi-empirical model for the evolution of vortex ring circulation subject to confinement. Here we introduce a decay parameter β which exponentially grows with increasing vortex ring confinement ratio, the ratio of the vortex ring diameter ( D VR) to the confinement diameter ( D), with the relationship β=4.38 exp(9.5D_VR/D), resulting in a corresponding increase in the rate of vortex ring circulation decay. This work enables the prediction of circulation decay rate based on confinement, which is important to understanding naturally occurring confined vortex ring dynamics.

  18. Cooling rings for TeV colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-02-01

    Consideration is given to quantum fluctuations, intra beam scattering, cooling rates, and ring acceptance in order to see if one can obtain a normalized emittance of 10 -8 in any plausible cooling ring. It is concluded that only a small gain is obtained by varying the partition functions, but a very significant gain is made by using higher bending fields. The ring is found to get bigger if the magnet apertures are increased. The ring diameter is found to increase if the momentum spread of the beam is reduced. It is shown that the power can be reduced by allowing a high beamstrahlung energy loss resulting in higher current in the cooling ring. Parameters are also given for a 10 -7 m radian emittance case

  19. Monlithic nonplanar ring oscillator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Alan C. (Inventor); Byer, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A monolithic nonplanar ring oscillator having an optically isotropic solid-state laser body for propagating laser radiation about a nonplanar ring path internal to the laser body is disclosed. The monolithic laser body is configured to produce a 2N reflection nonplanar ring light path, where N is an integer greater than or equal to 2, comprising 2N-1 total internal reflections and one reflection at a coupler in a single round trip. Undirectional traveling wave oscillation of the laser is induced by the geometry of the nonplanar ring path together with the effect of an applied magnetic field and partial polarizer characteristics of the oblique reflection from the coupler. The 6-reflection nonplanar ring oscillator makes possible otpimal unidirectional oscillation (low loss for the oscillating direction of propagation and, simultaneously high loss for the nonoscillating direction of propagation) in monolithic NPROs using materials with index of refraction smaller than the square root of 3, for example, laser glass.

  20. Observation of "fairy rings" in the lowlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sadowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the formation of fairy rings by Agaricales were performed in the year·s 1971-1974 in forest meadows and reserves in Dziekanów Leśny and on agricultural mowed ones in Kazuń near Warsaw. During 240 observations 378 maps were made. In forest meadows 15 species formed rings and on agricultural mowed meadows 22 species. Many species formed rings considerably affecting the growth of vascular plants. This caused the formation of distinct zone.s parallel to the lines of fructifications. Many more species formed rings without affecting the growth and species composition of vascular plants. The appearance of fairy rings and the analysis of the reasons for their occurrence may facilitate in a certain sense the investigation of the speed and way of growth of mycelium in the soil.

  1. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoy CF

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available R Karl Malcolm, Susan M Fetherston, Clare F McCoy, Peter Boyd, Ian MajorSchool of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.Keywords: controlled release, sustained release, antiretroviral, dapivirine, SILCS diaphragm, silicone elastomer, thermoplastic

  2. An evolving view of Saturn's dynamic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J N; Burns, J A; Charnoz, S; Clark, R N; Colwell, J E; Dones, L; Esposito, L W; Filacchione, G; French, R G; Hedman, M M; Kempf, S; Marouf, E A; Murray, C D; Nicholson, P D; Porco, C C; Schmidt, J; Showalter, M R; Spilker, L J; Spitale, J N; Srama, R; Sremcević, M; Tiscareno, M S; Weiss, J

    2010-03-19

    We review our understanding of Saturn's rings after nearly 6 years of observations by the Cassini spacecraft. Saturn's rings are composed mostly of water ice but also contain an undetermined reddish contaminant. The rings exhibit a range of structure across many spatial scales; some of this involves the interplay of the fluid nature and the self-gravity of innumerable orbiting centimeter- to meter-sized particles, and the effects of several peripheral and embedded moonlets, but much remains unexplained. A few aspects of ring structure change on time scales as short as days. It remains unclear whether the vigorous evolutionary processes to which the rings are subject imply a much younger age than that of the solar system. Processes on view at Saturn have parallels in circumstellar disks.

  3. Semi-algebraic function rings and reflectors of partially ordered rings

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The book lays algebraic foundations for real geometry through a systematic investigation of partially ordered rings of semi-algebraic functions. Real spectra serve as primary geometric objects, the maps between them are determined by rings of functions associated with the spectra. The many different possible choices for these rings of functions are studied via reflections of partially ordered rings. Readers should feel comfortable using basic algebraic and categorical concepts. As motivational background some familiarity with real geometry will be helpful. The book aims at researchers and graduate students with an interest in real algebra and geometry, ordered algebraic structures, topology and rings of continuous functions.

  4. Electro-optical hybrid slip ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, En

    2005-11-01

    The slip ring is a rotary electrical interface, collector, swivel or rotary joint. It is a physical system that can perform continuous data transfer and data exchange between a stationary and a rotating structure. A slip ring is generally used to transfer data or power from an unrestrained, continuously rotating electro-mechanical system in real-time, thereby simplifying operations and eliminating damage-prone wires dangling from moving joints. Slip rings are widely used for testing, evaluating, developing and improving various technical equipment and facilities with rotating parts. They are widely used in industry, especially in manufacturing industries employing turbo machinery, as in aviation, shipbuilding, aerospace, defense, and in precise facilities having rotating parts such as medical Computerized Tomography (CT) and MRI scanners and so forth. Therefore, any improvement in slip ring technology can impact large markets. Research and development in this field will have broad prospects long into the future. The goal in developing the current slip ring technology is to improve and increase the reliability, stability, anti-interference, and high data fidelity between rotating and stationary structures. Up to now, there have been numerous approaches used for signal and data transfer utilizing a slip ring such as metal contacts, wires, radio transmission, and even liquid media. However, all suffer from drawbacks such as data transfer speed limitations, reliability, stability, electro-magnetic interference and durability. The purpose of the current research is to break through these basic limitations using an optical solution, thereby improving performance in current slip ring applications. This dissertation introduces a novel Electro-Optical Hybrid Slip Ring technology, which makes "through the air" digital-optical communication between stationary and rotating systems a reality with high data transfer speed, better reliability and low interference susceptibility

  5. Galactic rings revisited - I. CVRHS classifications of 3962 ringed galaxies from the Galaxy Zoo 2 Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Rings are important and characteristic features of disc-shaped galaxies. This paper is the first in a series that re-visits galactic rings with the goals of further understanding the nature of the features and for examining their role in the secular evolution of galaxy structure. The series begins with a new sample of 3962 galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo 2 citizen science data base, selected because zoo volunteers recognized a ring-shaped pattern in the morphology as seen in Sloan Digital Sky Survey colour images. The galaxies are classified within the framework of the Comprehensive de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble-Sandage system. It is found that zoo volunteers cued on the same kinds of ring-like features that were recognized in the 1995 Catalogue of Southern Ringed Galaxies. This paper presents the full catalogue of morphological classifications, comparisons with other sources of classifications and some histograms designed mainly to highlight the content of the catalogue. The advantages of the sample are its large size and the generally good quality of the images; the main disadvantage is the low physical resolution that limits the detectability of linearly small rings such as nuclear rings. The catalogue includes mainly inner and outer disc rings and lenses. Cataclysmic (`encounter-driven') rings (such as ring and polar ring galaxies) are recognized in less than 1 per cent of the sample.

  6. Wear Analysis of Top Piston Ring to Reduce Top Ring Reversal Bore Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ilanthirayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The piston rings are the most important part in engine which controls the lubricating oil consumption and blowby of the gases. The lubricating film of oil is provided to seal of gases towards crankcase and also to give smooth friction free translatory motion between rings and liner. Of the three rings present top ring is more crucial as it does the main work of restricting gases downwards the crankcase. Boundary lubrication is present at the Top dead centre (TDC and Bottom dead centre (BDC of the liner surface. In addition to this, top ring is exposed to high temperature gases which makes the oil present near the top ring to get evaporated and decreasing its viscosity, making metal-metal contact most of the time. Due to this at TDC, excess wear happens on the liner which is termed as Top ring reversal bore wear. The wear rate depends upon many parameters such as lubrication condition, viscosity index, contact type, normal forces acting on ring, geometry of ring face, surface roughness, material property. The present work explores the wear depth for different geometries of barrel ring using Finite Element model with the help of Archard wear law and the same is validated through experimentation. The study reveals that Asymmetric barrel rings have less contact pressure which in turn reduces the wear at Top dead centre.

  7. Hyperautofluorescent ring in eyes with macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato T

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tatsuhiko Sato, Kazuyuki Emi, Yui Osawa, Hajime Bando Osaka Rosai Hospital Clinical Research Center for Occupational Sensory Organ Disability, Sakai, Japan Background: Fundus autofluorescence studies in eyes with macular holes (MHs have shown a hyperautofluorescent spot corresponding to the hole and a hypoautofluorescent ring corresponding to the fluid cuff surrounding the hole. The purpose of this report is to present three cases of MH with a different fundus autofluorescence pattern. Case reports: Case 1 was a 62-year-old woman who did not know the duration of the MH in her left eye. Her decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.08. The left eye had a one-half disc diameter MH with a depigmented ring surrounding the area of the fluid cuff. Fundus autofluorescence showed a hyperautofluorescent ring corresponding to the depigmented ring. After vitrectomy, fundus autofluorescence showed the same size hyperautofluorescent ring despite the decreased size of the opened MH. Case 2 was a 69-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with MH in the right eye 13 years earlier. Her decimal BCVA was 0.1. The right eye had a one-half disc diameter MH with a depigmented ring surrounding the area of the fluid cuff. Fundus autofluorescence showed a hyperautofluorescent ring corresponding to the depigmented ring. Postoperative fundus autofluorescence showed the same size hyperautofluorescent ring despite the hole being closed. The decimal BCVA was 0.2 in her right eye 6 months after vitrectomy. Case 3 was a 71-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with MH in the right eye 15 years earlier. Her decimal BCVA was 0.1. The right eye had a one-half disc diameter MH with a depigmented ring which corresponded with a hyperautofluorescent ring. Postoperative fundus autofluorescence showed the same size hyperautofluorescent ring despite the hole being closed. The decimal BCVA was 0.2 in her right eye 6 months after vitrectomy. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a

  8. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  9. Common pass decentered annular ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, D. A.; Waite, T. R.

    1985-04-30

    An optical resonator having an annular cylindrical gain region for use in a chemical laser or the like in which two ring-shaped mirrors having substantially conical reflecting surfaces are spaced apart along a common axis of revolution of the respective conical surfaces. A central conical mirror reflects incident light directed along said axis radially outwardly to the reflecting surface of a first one of the ring-shaped mirrors. The radial light rays are reflected by the first ring mirror to the second ring mirror within an annular cylindrical volume concentric with said common axis and forming a gain region. Light rays impinging on the second ring mirror are reflected to diametrically opposite points on the same conical mirror surfaces and back to the first ring mirror through the same annular cylindrical volume. The return rays are then reflected by the conical mirror surface of the first ring mirror back to the central conical mirror. The mirror surfaces are angled such that the return rays are reflected back along the common axis by the central mirror in a concentric annular cylindrical volume. A scraper mirror having a central opening centered on said axis and an offset opening reflects all but the rays passing through the two openings in an output beam. The rays passing through the second opening are reflected back through the first opening to provide feedback.

  10. Nilradicals of skew Hurwitz series of rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ‎For a ring endomorphism α of a ring R, ‎Krempa called α a rigid endomorphism if aα(a=0 implies a = 0 for a in R. ‎A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. ‎In this paper‎, ‎we extend the α-rigid property of a ring R to the upper nilradical N_r(R of R. ‎For an endomorphism α and the upper nilradical N_r(R of a ring R, ‎we introduce the condition (*: ‎N_r(R is a α-ideal of R and aα(a in N_r(R implies a in N_r(R for a in R. ‎We study characterizations of a ring R with an endomorphism α satisfying the condition (*, ‎and we investigate their related properties‎. ‎The connections between the upper nilradical of R and the upper nilradical of the skew Hurwitz series ring (HR,α of R are also investigated‎.

  11. Ring enhancement in contrast enhancement computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inatsuki, Shinichi; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Miyake, Hidetoshi

    1979-01-01

    Ring enhancement was examined in 11 lesions, 61 patients, we experienced. The frequency of ring enhancement observed in cerebral abscesses and tumors and the characteristics and the differential points of each disease were obtained. The frequency of ring enhancement was 54% in metastatic cerebral tumor, 56% in glioblastoma and astrocytoma (grade III) and 100% in cerebral abscess. Glioblastoma and astrocytoma (grade III) differed from other diseases in having distorted rings with poor uniform thickness. Although there was a great similarity between the computed tomographic picture of metastatic cerebral tumor and that of cerebral abscess, the ring in cerebral abscess was clearer, thin and uniform, and the peripheral edema in cerebral abscess was weak in general. In cerebral infarct, peripheral edema and mass effect of the ring were not observed or slightly observed, if any. Considering only the characteristics of the rings, there are differences between each diseases, and differentiation seems to be possibly performed. In practice, however, it is not necessarily easy to make a differential diagnosis. Clinical results should be carefully managed. (Kumagai, M.)

  12. Dynamics of the Uranian Gamma Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.; Rimlinger, Thomas; Hahn, Joseph M.

    2017-10-01

    The planet Uranus is surrounded by a unique ring system consisting of ten narrow ringlets as well as several broad sheets of dust. The brightest of these rings is bracketed by a pair of satellites, Cordelia and Ophelia, that may serve to help confine the ring radially. Searches for smaller satellites near the other narrow rings, however, have been unsuccessful. Hamilton et. al. 2016 and Rimlinger et al. 2016 have argued that the eccentric and/or inclined uranian ringlets self confine radially by a combination of ringlet gravity and viscous forces. Importantly, no shepherd satellites are required in this model.We apply these ideas to the uranian gamma ring, a particularly strange ringlet which has, in addition to the standard elliptical shape, a superposed m=0 breathing mode (French et. al. 1988). In a pure m=0 mode, the particles in an elliptical ring all reach pericenter at the same times giving the ring a circular appearance. The particles remain synced in phase and all move outward reaching apocenter simultaneously. Thus the ring appears circular at any given time, but the radius of the circle seems to increase and decrease - it breathes. We investigate first the dynamics of the pure m=0 mode and show that the equilibrium is stable against small perturbations. We are currently moving toward a more sophisticated stability analysis for the real gamma ring with its unusual combination of normal modes. We will detail our results to date and will report on our progress toward an origin scenario for this obscure but interesting ringlet.

  13. Migration of Star Clusters and Nuclear Rings

    OpenAIRE

    van de Ven, Glenn; Chang, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Star clusters that form in nuclear rings appear to be at slightly larger radii than the gas. We argue that the star clusters move out from the gas in which they are formed because of satellite-disk tidal interactions. In calculating the dynamics of this star cluster and gas ring system, we include the effects of dynamical friction of the background stars in the host galaxy on the star cluster, and inflowing gas along the bar onto the nuclear ring at the two contact points. We show that the fi...

  14. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  15. Wind turbine ring/shroud drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Ralph W.

    2005-10-04

    A wind turbine capable of driving multiple electric generators having a ring or shroud structure for reducing blade root bending moments, hub loads, blade fastener loads and pitch bearing loads. The shroud may further incorporate a ring gear for driving an electric generator. In one embodiment, the electric generator may be cantilevered from the nacelle such that the gear on the generator drive shaft is contacted by the ring gear of the shroud. The shroud also provides protection for the gearing and aids in preventing gear lubricant contamination.

  16. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  17. Nitrile O-ring Cracking: A Case of Vacuum Flange O-ring Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Craig

    2016-07-01

    A review of recent nitrile O-ring failures in ISO-KF vacuum flange connections in glovebox applications is presented. An investigation of a single “isolated” o-ring failure leads to the discovery of cracked nitrile o-rings in a glovebox atmospheric control unit. The initial cause of the o-ring failure is attributed to ozone degradation. However, additional investigation reveals nitrile o-ring cracking on multiple gloveboxes and general purpose piping, roughly 85% of the nitrile o-rings removed for inspection show evidence of visible cracking after being in service for 18 months or less. The results of material testing and ambient air testing is presented, elevated ozone levels are not found. The contributing factors of o-ring failure, including nitrile air sensitivity, inadequate storage practices, and poor installation techniques, are discussed. A discussion of nitrile o-ring material properties, the benefits and limitations, and alternate materials are discussed. Considerations for o-ring material selection, purchasing, storage, and installation are presented in the context of lessons learned from the nitrile o-ring cracking investigation. This paper can be presented in 20 minutes and does not require special accommodations or special audio visual devices.

  18. Reproducibilidad del strain longitudinal global del ventrículo izquierdo por ecocardiografía bidimensional speckle tracking: Estudio Longitudinal de Salud del Adulto (ELSA-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Cañon-Montañez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Introducción: Se han propuesto técnicas ecocardiográficas avanzadas como el strain longitudinal global por ecocardiografía bidimensional speckle tracking para la detección de alteraciones precoces de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo. La evaluación de la reproducibilidad del strain longitudinal global es fundamental para su aplicación clínica en diferentes escenarios. Objetivo: Estimar la reproducibilidad del strain longitudinal global del ventrículo izquierdo en individuos de un estudio de cohorte del Brasil. Métodos: La reproducibilidad del strain longitudinal global del ventrículo izquierdo fue evaluada mediante lectura y análisis de imágenes de ecocardiografía de una muestra aleatoria de 50 participantes de la línea de base del Estudio Longitudinal de Salud del Adulto (ELSA-Brasil. Resultados: Los participantes tenían una edad promedio de 49,7 ± 7,3 años, 54% eran mujeres y la media del strain longitudinal global fue –19,5% ± 1,9%. La reproducibilidad interobservador de la medida del strain longitudinal global mostró un coeficiente de variación de 7,4% y un coeficiente de correlación intraclase de 0,76 (IC 95%: 0,61, 0,86. El análisis del acuerdo interobservador de las medidas del strain longitudinal global mediante el método de Bland & Altman evidenció un promedio de diferencias de 0,1% ± 1,4% y unos límites de acuerdo superior de 2,9 e inferior de –2,7. Conclusiones: Hubo una reproducibilidad adecuada de las medidas del strain longitudinal global del ventrículo izquierdo en participantes del ELSA-Brasil y los valores fueron similares a los reportados en otros estudios epidemiológicos longitudinales. Los hallazgos refuerzan la utilidad del strain longitudinal global como un índice clínico de deformación miocárdica, capaz de detectar alteraciones subclínicas de la contractilidad mioc

  19. Work-family conflict, lack of time for personal care and leisure, and job strain in migraine: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; Santos, Itamar S; Rotenberg, Lucia; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Goulart, Alessandra C; Aquino, Estela M; Benseñor, Isabela

    2016-11-01

    Work-family conflict and time scarcity may affect health. We investigated the association between these issues and migraine, taking into account job strain. Baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (6,183 women; 5,664 men) included four indicators of work-family conflict: time- and strain-based interference of work with family (TB-WFC, SB-WFC), interference of family with work (FWC) and lack of time for personal care and leisure (LOT). Migraine was classified according to International Headache Society criteria. Among women, definite migraine was associated with SB-WFC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.55), FWC (OR = 1.32; 1.00-1.75), and LOT (OR = 1.30; 1.08-1.58). Probable migraine was associated with SB-WFC (OR = 1.17; 1.00-1.36). High psychological job demands and low social support interacted with LOT in association with definite migraine. Among men, probable migraine was associated with LOT (OR = 1.34; 1.09-1.64), and there were interactions between job strain and WFC for probable migraine. Balancing the demands of professional and domestic spheres could be highly relevant in the management of migraines. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:987-1000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos

  1. Proton storage ring: man/machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lander, R.F.; Clout, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The human interface of the Proton Storage Ring Control System at Los Alamos is described in some detail, together with the software environment in which operator interaction programs are written. Some examples of operator interaction programs are given

  2. Sapphire Ring Resonator For Microwave Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Sapphire dielectric ring resonator operating in "whispering-gallery" mode helps to stabilize frequency and phase of microwave oscillator. Reduces phase noise appreciably at room temperature and promises unprecedented stability of phase at cryogenic temperatures.

  3. Polarized gas targets for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    It is widely recognized that polarized gas targets in electron storage rings represent a new opportunity for precision nuclear physics studies. New developments in polarized target technology specific to internal applications will be discussed. In particular, polarized gas targets have been used in the VEPP-3 electron ring in Novosibirsk. A simple storage cell was used to increase the total target thickness by a factor of 15 over the simple gas jet target from an atomic beam source. Results from the initial phase of this project will be reported. In addition, the plans for increasing the luminosity by an additional order or magnitude will be presented. The application of this work to polarized hydrogen and deuterium targets for the HERA ring will be noted. The influence of beam-induced depolarization, a phenomena encountered in short-pulse electron storage rings, will be discussed. Finally, the performance tests of laser-driven sources will be presented. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  4. A non-Abelian black ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We construct a supersymmetric black ring solution of SU(2 N=1, d=5 Super-Einstein–Yang–Mills (SEYM theory by adding a distorted BPST instanton to an Abelian black ring solution of the same theory. The change cannot be observed from spatial infinity: neither the mass, nor the angular momenta or the values of the scalars at infinity differ from those of the Abelian ring. The entropy is, however, sensitive to the presence of the non-Abelian instanton, and it is smaller than that of the Abelian ring, in analogy to what happens in the supersymmetric colored black holes recently constructed in the same theory and in N=2, d=4 SEYM. By taking the limit in which the two angular momenta become equal we derive a non-Abelian generalization of the BMPV rotating black-hole solution.

  5. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  6. Collins' bypass for the main ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1982-01-01

    Design of the bypass for the main ring at Fermilab is discussed. Specific design features discussed include space, path length, geometric closure, matching of betatron functions, and external dispersion. Bypass parameters are given

  7. On Learning Ring-Sum-Expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Simon, H. -U.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of learning ring-sum-expansions from examples is studied. Ring-sum-expansions (RSE) are representations of Boolean functions over the base {#123;small infinum, (+), 1}#125;, which reflect arithmetic operations in GF(2). k-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions containing only monomials...... of length at most k:. term-RSE is the class of ring-sum-expansions having at most I: monomials. It is shown that k-RSE, k>or=1, is learnable while k-term-RSE, k>2, is not learnable if RPnot=NP. Without using a complexity-theoretical hypothesis, it is proven that k-RSE, k>or=1, and k-term-RSE, k>or=2 cannot...

  8. Ethinyl Estradiol and Etonogestrel Vaginal Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or stand with one leg up on a chair, step, or other object. Choose the position that ... contraceptive ring.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you ...

  9. A dynamic, rotating ring current around Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S M; Sergis, N; Mitchell, D G; Hamilton, D C; Krupp, N

    2007-12-13

    The concept of an electrical current encircling the Earth at high altitudes was first proposed in 1917 to explain the depression of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field during geomagnetic storms. In situ measurements of the extent and composition of this current were made some 50 years later and an image was obtained in 2001 (ref. 6). Ring currents of a different nature were observed at Jupiter and their presence inferred at Saturn. Here we report images of the ring current at Saturn, together with a day-night pressure asymmetry and tilt of the planet's plasma sheet, based on measurements using the magnetospheric imaging instrument (MIMI) on board Cassini. The ring current can be highly variable with strong longitudinal asymmetries that corotate nearly rigidly with the planet. This contrasts with the Earth's ring current, where there is no rotational modulation and initial asymmetries are organized by local time effects.

  10. From coffee ring to spherulites ring of poly(ethylene oxide) film from drying droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinchun; Zhang, Xuerong; Qiu, Maibo; Wei, Yan; Zhou, Qiong; Huang, Di

    2018-03-01

    We discuss how the "spherulites ring" morphology and "coffee ring" profile of PEO film formed by the drying droplet at glass substrate with different heating rate. Upon increasing the heating rate of substrate, it is found that deposited PEO film from drying droplet shows the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology. The main mechanism for this phenomenon is proposed to be an enhanced Marangoni convection which is induced by the increased solute concentration gradient and reduced viscous force above 70 °C. A simple formation mechanism of the unusually observed "coffee ring" profile and "spherulites ring" morphology is proposed. These findings can be exploited to trace the center of Marangoni convection, with potential applications in designing the spherulite patterns of crystalline polymer films in ink-jet printing and self-assembly fields.

  11. Vaginal rings for menopausal symptom relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballagh, Susan A

    2004-01-01

    The vagina is an alternative delivery site of sex steroids for menopausal women. New ring technology provides continuous and consistent delivery of steroids for up to 3 months. Rings rest on the pelvic floor muscles in a nearly horizontal position and are usually imperceptible. Steroid is delivered directly into the systemic circulation which may result in less alteration of coagulation/fibrinolysis pathways as seen with transdermal hormone therapy. Fewer adverse effects are noted when progesterone is applied vaginally, possibly due to lower serum levels of metabolites such as alloprenanolone. Women often switch to a ring for the longer dosing interval but also appreciate the reduced messiness. Over 5700 healthy US women who evaluated an unmedicated ring as a drug delivery platform found it very acceptable independent of age or prior use of barrier contraceptives. Marketed rings in the US include: (i) a ring for systemic and vaginal menopausal therapy that provides average serum estradiol levels of 40.6 pg/mL for the 0.05 mg and 76 pg/mL for the 0.1 mg dose; (ii) a ring for urogenital menopausal symptoms only that minimally elevates serum estradiol, usually within the menopausal range, treating atrophic vaginitis and urethritis; and (iii) a ring labelled for contraception that provides ethinyl estradiol 15 microg and etonogestrel 120 microg appropriate for nonsmoking perimenopausal women. A ring for combination hormone therapy and another releasing progesterone for contraception in lactating women have been reported in the literature, but are not yet available commercially. These may offer future options for hormone therapy. Women with a uterus receiving estrogen, even in low doses, should be given progestogen to prevent endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma. Even women who have had an endometrial ablation are likely to have some endometrial tissue remaining since long-term amenorrhoea is uncommon. Since no marketed combination ring product is available, other forms

  12. Nonexistence of extremal de Sitter black rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Marcus; Woolgar, Eric

    2017-11-01

    We show that near-horizon geometries in the presence of a positive cosmological constant cannot exist with ring topology. In particular, de Sitter black rings with vanishing surface gravity do not exist. Our result relies on a known mathematical theorem which is a straightforward consequence of a type of energy condition for a modified Ricci tensor, similar to the curvature-dimension conditions for the m-Bakry-Émery-Ricci tensor.

  13. A Review of Piston Compression Ring Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Mishra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents studies related to piston compression ring tribology and the theoretical and experimental works developed to analyze ring-liner contact friction. The literatures revealed that the simulation and experimental work are more independently investigated. The correlation of modeling output with experimental output is presented in limited number of research works. The experimental work to capture data from a running engine is also in basic level.

  14. Prometheus Induced Vorticity in Saturn's F Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Phil J.; Kusmartsev, Feo V.

    2016-11-01

    Saturn's rings are known to show remarkable real time variability in their structure. Many of which can be associated to interactions with nearby moons and moonlets. Possibly the most interesting and dynamic place in the rings, probably in the whole Solar System, is the F ring. A highly disrupted ring with large asymmetries both radially and azimuthally. Numerically non-zero components to the curl of the velocity vector field (vorticity) in the perturbed area of the F ring post encounter are witnessed, significantly above the background vorticity. Within the perturbed area rich distributions of local rotations is seen located in and around the channel edges. The gravitational scattering of ring particles during the encounter causes a significant elevated curl of the vector field above the background F ring vorticity for the first 1-3 orbital periods post encounter. After 3 orbital periods vorticity reverts quite quickly to near background levels. This new found dynamical vortex life of the ring will be of great interest to planet and planetesimals in proto-planetary disks where vortices and turbulence are suspected of having a significant role in their formation and migrations. Additionally, it is found that the immediate channel edges created by the close passage of Prometheus actually show high radial dispersions in the order 20-50 cm/s, up to a maximum of 1 m/s. This is much greater than the value required by Toomre for a disk to be unstable to the growth of axisymmetric oscillations. However, an area a few hundred km away from the edge shows a more promising location for the growth of coherent objects.

  15. Ring oscillator switching noise under NBTI wearout

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández García, Raúl; Gil Galí, Ignacio; Ruiz, José María; Morata Cariñena, Marta

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the switching noise of a CMOS ring oscillator has been analysed when their pFETs are subjected to negative bias temperature instability (NBTI). The impact of pFET under NBTI has been experimentally quantified whereas CMOS ring oscillator frequency and the switching noise has been analysed by means of electrical full-model simulation. The results show that the impact on the electromagnetic compatibility behaviour increases with NBTI wearout. Peer Reviewed

  16. Collective Effects in the CLIC Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Korostelev, Maxim S; Schulte, Daniel; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2005-01-01

    The small emittance, short bunch length, and high current in the CLIC damping ring could give rise to collective effects which degrade the quality of the extracted beam. In this paper, we survey a number of possible instabilities and estimate their impact on the ring performance. The effects considered include fast beam-ion instability, coherent synchrotron radiation, Touschek scattering, intrabeam scattering, resistive-wall wake fields, and electron cloud.

  17. Eelgrass fairy rings: sulfide as inhibiting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Jens; Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2014-01-01

    specifically, for the apparent die- off of eelgrass shoots on the inner side of the rings. The fairy rings were up to 15 m in diameter consisting of 0.3- to 1-m-wide zones of sea grass shoots at densities of up to 1,200 shoots m−2 and rooted in an up to 10-cm-thick sediment layer. On the outer side, shoots...

  18. Power cocentralizing generalized derivations on prime rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ring it follows that [R,R] ⊆ L. This follows from pp. 4–5 in [6], Lemma 2 and Proposition 1 in [4] and Theorem 4 in [8]. 2. The case of inner generalized derivations on prime rings. We dedicate this section to prove the theorem in case both the generalized derivations. H and G are inner, that is there exist b, c, p, q ∈ U such that ...

  19. Integral Ring Carbon-Carbon Piston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved structure for a reciprocating internal combustion engine or compressor piston fabricate from carbon-carbon composite materials is disclosed. An integral ring carbon-carbon composite piston, disclosed herein, reduces the need for piston rings and for small clearances by providing a small flexible, integral component around the piston that allows for variation in clearance due to manufacturing tolerances, distortion due to pressure and thermal loads, and variations in thermal expansion differences between the piston and cylinder liner.

  20. Characteristics of an Integrated Optics Ring Resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    water before polishing. A 3/4 inch pitch polishing lap is prepared using 50% soft optical pitch. The pitch is melted and poured onto a flat metal lap. To...working on the devel- Typical lae powers for laser writing range from 8 pW to OPawnt Of a ring interferometer in glass, consisting Of a ring 0.5 mW

  1. Computerspil og læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2015-01-01

    Game-based learning og gamification er ord, der ofte optræder i forbindelse med computerspil og læring. Denne artikel vil analytisk undersøge, hvordan computerspil og læring går i forbindelse med hinanden. Artikel tager afsæt i Gregory Batesons læringsteori og læser denne igennem det kommercielle...

  2. Inelastic neutron scattering from superconducting rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time the differential cross section for the inelastic magnetic neutron scattering by superconducting rings is derived taking account of the interaction of the neutron magnetic moment with the magnetic field generated by the superconducting current. Calculations of the scattering cross section are carried out for cold neutrons and thin film rings from type-II superconductors with the magnetic fields not exceeding the first critical field.

  3. Latest on polarization in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The field of beam polarization in electron storage rings is making rapid progress in recent several years. This report is an attempt to summarize some of these developments concerning how to produce and maintain a high level of beam polarization. Emphasized will be the ideas and current thoughts people have on what should and could be done on electron rings being designed at present such as HERA, LEP and TRISTAN. 23 references

  4. Tannakian duality over Dedekind rings and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Nguyen Dai; Hai, Phùng Hô

    2013-01-01

    We establish a duality between flat affine group schemes and rigid tensor categories equipped with a neutral fiber functor (called Tannakian lattice), both defined over a Dedekind ring. We use this duality and the known Tannakian duality due to Saavedra to study morphisms between flat affine group schemes. Next, we apply our new duality to the category of stratified sheaves on a smooth scheme over a Dedekind ring R to define the relative differential fundamental group scheme of the given sche...

  5. Ring Avulsion Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 40). The average TAM for patients with a class III injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 168.2 (n = 170), and the average 2-point discrimination was 10.5 (n = 97). Ring avulsion injuries are commonly classified with the Urbaniak class system. Outcomes are superior for class I and II injuries, and there are select class III injuries that can be treated with replantation. Shared decision making with patients is imperative to determine whether replantation is appropriate.

  6. SNS RING STUDY AT THE AGS BOOSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, S.Y.; AHRENS, L.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; FEDOTOV, A.; GARDNER, C.; LEE, Y.Y.; LUCCIO, A.; MALITSKY, N.; ROSER, T.; WENG, W.T.; WEI, J.; ZENO, K.; REECE, K.; WANG, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    During the g-2 run at the BNL AGS in early 2000, a 200 MeV storage-ring-like magnetic cycle has been set-up and tuned at the Booster in preparing for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring study. In this article, we report the progress of the machine set-up, tuning, some preliminary studies, and the future plan

  7. Control of ring lasers by means of coupled cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Abitan, Haim; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Variable phase coupling to an external ring is used to control a unidirectional ring laser. The observed behavior of the coupled rings is explained theoretically. We have found experimentally that by quickly changing the phase of the feedback from the external ring it is possible to Q-switch the ......-switch the ring laser. Also, at certain values of the phase of the feedback in the external ring, instabilities in the total system occur and oscillations arise in the ring laser.......Variable phase coupling to an external ring is used to control a unidirectional ring laser. The observed behavior of the coupled rings is explained theoretically. We have found experimentally that by quickly changing the phase of the feedback from the external ring it is possible to Q...

  8. Achieving Translationally Invariant Trapped Ion Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Erik; Li, Hao-Kun; Noel, Crystal; Hemmerling, Boerge; Zhang, Xiang; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    We present the design and implementation of a novel surface ion trap design in a ring configuration. By eliminating the need for wire bonds through the use of electrical vias and using a rotationally invariant electrode configuration, we have realized a trap that is able to trap up to 20 ions in a ring geometry 45um in diameter, 400um above the trap surface. This large trapping height to ring diameter ratio allows for global addressing of the ring with both lasers and electric fields in the chamber, thereby increasing our ability to control the ring as a whole. Applying compensating electric fields, we measure very low tangential trap frequencies (less than 20kHz) corresponding to rotational barriers down to 4mK. This measurement is currently limited by the temperature of the ions but extrapolation indicates the barrier can be reduced much further with more advanced cooling techniques. Finally, we show that we are able to reduce this energy barrier sufficiently such that the ions are able to overcome it either through thermal motion or rotational motion and delocalize over the full extent of the ring. This work was funded by the Keck Foundation and the NSF.

  9. INJECTION EFFICIENCY IN COMPTON RING NESTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Gladkikh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available NESTOR is the hard X-ray source that is under commissioning at NSC KIPT. NESTOR based on the Compton scattering of laser photons on relativistic electrons. The structure of the facility can be represented as the following components: a linear accelerator, a transport channel, a storage ring, and a laser-optical system. Electrons are stored in the storage ring for energy of 40-200 MeV. Inevitable alignment errors of magnetic elements are strongly effect on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. These errors lead to a shift of the equilibrium orbit relative to the ideal one. Significant shift of the equilibrium orbit could lead to loss of the beam on physical apertures. Transverse sizes of electron and laser beams are only few tens of microns at the interaction point. The shift of electron beam at the interaction point could greatly complicate the operation adjustment of storage ring without sufficient beam position diagnostic system. This article presents the simulation results of the efficiency of electron beam accumulation in the NESTOR storage ring. Also, this article is devoted to electron beam dynamics due to alignment errors of magnetic element in the ring.

  10. Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnos Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bird ringing datasets constitute possibly the largest source of temporal and spatial information on vertebrate taxa available on the globe. Initially, the method was invented to understand avian migration patterns. However, data deriving from bird ringing has been used in an array of other disciplines including population monitoring, changes in demography, conservation management and to study the effects of climate change to name a few. Despite the widespread usage and importance, there are no guidelines available specifically describing the practice of data management, preparation and analyses of ringing datasets. Here, we present the first of a series of comprehensive tutorials that may help fill this gap. We describe in detail and through a real-life example the intricacies of data cleaning and how to create a data table ready for analyses from raw ringing data in the R software environment. Moreover, we created and present here the R package; ringR, designed to carry out various specific tasks and plots related to bird ringing data. Most methods described here can also be applied to a wide range of capture-recapture type data based on individual marking, regardless to taxa or research question.

  11. Rings of non-spherical, axisymmetric bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akash; Nadkarni-Ghosh, Sharvari; Sharma, Ishan

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of rings around bodies whose shapes depart considerably from that of a sphere. To this end, we have developed a new self-gravitating discrete element N-body code, and employed a local simulation method to simulate a patch of the ring. The central body is modeled as a symmetric (oblate or prolate) ellipsoid, or defined through the characteristic frequencies (circular, vertical, epicyclic) that represent its gravitational field. Through our simulations we explore how a ring's behavior - characterized by dynamical properties like impact frequency, granular temperature, number density, vertical thickness and radial width - varies with the changing gravitational potential of the central body. We also contrast properties of rings about large central bodies (e.g. Saturn) with those of smaller ones (e.g. Chariklo). Finally, we investigate how the characteristic frequencies of a central body, restricted to being a solid of revolution with an equatorial plane of symmetry, affect the ring dynamics. The latter process may be employed to qualitatively understand the dynamics of rings about any symmetric solid of revolution.

  12. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping; Zhang Lin-Xi

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond (S 2 )/(Nb 2 ) and the shape factor (δ*) depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type. With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity C v , and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas—liquid—solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  13. Systematic Search for Rings around Kepler Planet Candidates: Constraints on Ring Size and Occurrence Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Masataka; Masuda, Kento; Kawahara, Hajime; Suto, Yasushi

    2018-05-01

    We perform a systematic search for rings around 168 Kepler planet candidates with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios that are selected from all of the short-cadence data. We fit ringed and ringless models to their light curves and compare the fitting results to search for the signatures of planetary rings. First, we identify 29 tentative systems, for which the ringed models exhibit statistically significant improvement over the ringless models. The light curves of those systems are individually examined, but we are not able to identify any candidate that indicates evidence for rings. In turn, we find several mechanisms of false positives that would produce ringlike signals, and the null detection enables us to place upper limits on the size of the rings. Furthermore, assuming the tidal alignment between axes of the planetary rings and orbits, we conclude that the occurrence rate of rings larger than twice the planetary radius is less than 15%. Even though the majority of our targets are short-period planets, our null detection provides statistical and quantitative constraints on largely uncertain theoretical models of the origin, formation, and evolution of planetary rings.

  14. Mechanical improvement of metal reinforcement rings for a finite ring-shaped superconducting bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Guang; Zhou, You-He

    2018-03-01

    As a key technique, reinforcement of type-II superconducting bulks with metal rings can efficiently improve their mechanical properties to enhance the maximum trapped field. In this paper, we study the magnetostrictive and fracture behaviors of a finite superconducting ring bulk reinforced by three typical reinforcing structures composed of metal rings during the magnetizing process by means of the minimization of magnetic energy and the finite element method. After a field-dependent critical current density is adopted, the magnetostriction, pinning-induced stress, and crack tip stress intensity factor are calculated considering the demagnetization effects. The results show that the mechanical properties of the ring bulk are strongly dependent on the reinforcing structure and the material and geometrical parameters of the metal rings. Introducing the metal ring can significantly reduce the hoop stress, and the reduction effect by internal reinforcement is much improved relative to external reinforcement. By comparison, bilateral reinforcement seems to be the best candidate structure. Only when the metal rings have particular Young's modulus and radial thickness will they contribute to improve the mechanical properties the most. In addition, if an edge crack is pre-existing in the ring bulk, the presence of metal rings can effectively avoid crack propagation since it reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor by nearly one order of magnitude.

  15. Surface roughness of Saturn's rings and ring particles inferred from thermal phase curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Ryuji; Turner, Neal; Spilker, Linda

    2017-10-01

    We analyze thermal phase curves of all the main rings of Saturn (the A, B, C rings, and the Cassini division) measured by both the far-IR and mid-IR detectors of the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). All the rings show temperature increases toward zero phase angle, known as an opposition effect or thermal beaming. For the C ring and Cassini division, which have low optical depths, intra-particle shadowing is considered the dominant mechanism causing the effect. On the other hand, the phase curves of the optically thick B and A rings steepen significantly with decreasing absolute solar elevation angle from 21° to 14°, suggesting inter-particle shadowing plays an important role in these rings. We employ an analytic roughness model to estimate the degrees of surface roughness of the rings or ring particles. For optically thin rings, an isolated particle covered by spherical segment craters is employed while for the thick rings we approximate a packed particle layer as a slab covered by craters. The particles in the thin rings are found to have generally rough surfaces, except in the middle C ring. Across the C ring, the optical depth correlates with the degree of surface roughness. This may indicate that surface roughness comes mainly from particle clumping, while individual particles have rather smooth surfaces. For the optically thick rings, the surface roughness of the particle layer is found to be moderate. The modeled phase curves of optically thick rings are shallow if the phase angle change is primarily due to change of observer azimuthal angle. On the other hand, the phase curves are steep if the phase angle change is due to change of observer elevation angle, as inter-particle shadows become visible at higher observer elevation. In addition, the area of shadowed facets increases with decreasing solar elevation angle. These combined effects explain the large seasonal change of the phase curve steepness observed for the thick rings. The degrees

  16. Mechanical improvement of metal reinforcement rings for a finite ring-shaped superconducting bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Guang Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a key technique, reinforcement of type-II superconducting bulks with metal rings can efficiently improve their mechanical properties to enhance the maximum trapped field. In this paper, we study the magnetostrictive and fracture behaviors of a finite superconducting ring bulk reinforced by three typical reinforcing structures composed of metal rings during the magnetizing process by means of the minimization of magnetic energy and the finite element method. After a field-dependent critical current density is adopted, the magnetostriction, pinning-induced stress, and crack tip stress intensity factor are calculated considering the demagnetization effects. The results show that the mechanical properties of the ring bulk are strongly dependent on the reinforcing structure and the material and geometrical parameters of the metal rings. Introducing the metal ring can significantly reduce the hoop stress, and the reduction effect by internal reinforcement is much improved relative to external reinforcement. By comparison, bilateral reinforcement seems to be the best candidate structure. Only when the metal rings have particular Young’s modulus and radial thickness will they contribute to improve the mechanical properties the most. In addition, if an edge crack is pre-existing in the ring bulk, the presence of metal rings can effectively avoid crack propagation since it reduces the crack tip stress intensity factor by nearly one order of magnitude.

  17. Novel manifestations of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in quantum rings and Moebius rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    - An overview is given on the recent experimental and theoretical advancements in studies of novel manifestations of the Aharonov-Bohm quantum-interference effect for excitons confined to self assembled quantum rings and other semiconductor nanostructures with ring-like states of charge carriers as well as for electrons in Moebius rings at the micro- and nanoscale. The exciton Aharonov-Bohm effect can be effectively controlled by an out-of-plane magnetic field, a vertical electric field, a spin disorder. A 'delocalization-to-localization' transition for the electron ground state occurs in a Moebius ring as it is made more inhomogeneous. (authors)

  18. Particle sizes in Saturn's rings from UVIS stellar occultations 1. Variations with ring region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J. E.; Esposito, L. W.; Cooney, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) includes a high speed photometer (HSP) that has observed stellar occultations by Saturn's rings with a radial resolution of ∼10 m. In the absence of intervening ring material, the time series of measurements by the HSP is described by Poisson statistics in which the variance equals the mean. The finite sizes of the ring particles occulting the star lead to a variance that is larger than the mean due to correlations in the blocking of photons due to finite particle size and due to random variations in the number of individual particles in each measurement area. This effect was first exploited by Showalter and Nicholson (1990) with the stellar occultation observed by Voyager 2. At a given optical depth, a larger excess variance corresponds to larger particles or clumps that results in greater variation of the signal from measurement to measurement. Here we present analysis of the excess variance in occultations observed by Cassini UVIS. We observe differences in the best-fitting particle size in different ring regions. The C ring plateaus show a distinctly smaller effective particle size, R, than the background C ring, while the background C ring itself shows a positive correlation between R and optical depth. The innermost 700 km of the B ring has a distribution of excess variance with optical depth that is consistent with the C ring ramp and C ring but not with the remainder of the B1 region. The Cassini Division, while similar to the C ring in spectral and structural properties, has different trends in effective particle size with optical depth. There are discrete jumps in R on either side of the Cassini Division ramp, while the C ring ramp shows a smooth transition in R from the C ring to the B ring. The A ring is dominated by self-gravity wakes whose shadow size depends on the occultation geometry. The spectral ;halo; regions around the strongest density waves in the A ring correspond to

  19. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  20. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  1. α-Skew π-McCoy Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Abduldaim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of α-skew McCoy rings, we introduce the concept of α-skew π-McCoy rings, and we study the relationships with another two new generalizations, α-skew π1-McCoy rings and α-skew π2-McCoy rings, observing the relations with α-skew McCoy rings, π-McCoy rings, α-skew Armendariz rings, π-regular rings, and other kinds of rings. Also, we investigate conditions such that α-skew π1-McCoy rings imply α-skew π-McCoy rings and α-skew π2-McCoy rings. We show that in the case where R is a nonreduced ring, if R is 2-primal, then R is an α-skew π-McCoy ring. And, let R be a weak (α,δ-compatible ring; if R is an α-skew π1-McCoy ring, then R is α-skew π2-McCoy.

  2. On rings generating supernilpotent and special atoms | France ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We study prime rings which generate supernilpotent (respectively special) atoms, that is, atoms of the lattice of all supernilpotent (respectively special) radicals. A prime ring A is called a **-ring if the smallest special class containing A is closed under semiprime homomorphic images of A. A semiprime ring A whose every ...

  3. Rings Related to Special Atoms | France-Jackson | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract unavailable at this time... Mathematics Subject Classification (1991): 16A21, 16A12 Keywords: ring, special atoms, atoms, *k-ring, prime ring, *-ring, Jacobson, artinia, essential extension, homomorphic image, ideals. Quaestiones Mathematicae 24(1) 2001, 105–109 ...

  4. Temperature histories from tree rings and corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.R. [Tree-Ring Lab., Palisades, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Recent temperature trends in long tree-ring and coral proxy temperature histories are evaluated and compared in an effort to objectively determine how anomalous twentieth century temperature changes have been. These histories mostly reflect regional variations in summer warmth from the tree rings and annual warmth from the corals. In the Northern Hemisphere. the North American tree-ring temperature histories and those from the north Polar Urals, covering the past 1000 or more years, indicate that the twentieth century has been anomalously warm relative to the past. In contrast, the tree-ring history from northern Fennoscandia indicates that summer temperatures during the {open_quote}Medieval Warm Period{close_quote} were probably warmer on average than those than during this century. In the Southern Hemisphere, the tree-ring temperature histories from South America show no indication of recent warming, which is in accordance with local instrumental records. In contrast, the tree-ring, records from Tasmania and New Zealand indicate that the twentieth century has been unusually warm particularly since 1960. The coral temperature histories from the Galapagos Islands and the Great Barrier Reef are in broad agreement with the tree-ring temperature histories in those sectors, with the former showing recent cooling and the latter showing recent warming that may be unprecedented. Overall, the regional temperature histories evaluated here broadly support the larger-scale evidence for anomalous twentieth century warming based on instrumental records. However, this warming cannot be confirmed as an unprecedented event in all regions. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A note on derivations in semiprime rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vukman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove in this note the following result. Let n>1 be an integer and let R be an n!-torsion-free semiprime ring with identity element. Suppose that there exists an additive mapping D:R→R such that D(xn=∑j=1nxn−jD(xxj−1 is fulfilled for all x∈R. In this case, D is a derivation. This research is motivated by the work of Bridges and Bergen (1984. Throughout, R will represent an associative ring with center Z(R. Given an integer n>1, a ring R is said to be n-torsion-free if for x∈R, nx=0 implies that x=0. Recall that a ring R is prime if for a,b∈R, aRb=(0 implies that either a=0 or b=0, and is semiprime in case aRa=(0 implies that a=0. An additive mapping D:R→R is called a derivation if D(xy=D(xy+xD(y holds for all pairs x,y∈R and is called a Jordan derivation in case D(x2=D(xx+xD(x is fulfilled for all x∈R. Every derivation is a Jordan derivation. The converse is in general not true. A classical result of Herstein (1957 asserts that any Jordan derivation on a prime ring with characteristic different from two is a derivation. A brief proof of Herstein's result can be found in 1988 by Brešar and Vukman. Cusack (1975 generalized Herstein's result to 2-torsion-free semiprime rings (see also Brešar (1988 for an alternative proof. For some other results concerning derivations on prime and semiprime rings, we refer to Brešar (1989, Vukman (2005, Vukman and Kosi-Ulbl (2005.

  6. Analysis list: RING1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RING1 Breast,Epidermis,Prostate + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/h...g19/target/RING1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/RING1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/RING1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RING1....Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RING1.Epidermis....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/RING1.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.j

  7. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Verification of Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring(SEA Ring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the verification is to test the efficacy and ability of the Sediment Ecotoxicity Assessment Ring (SEA Ring) to evaluate the toxicity of contaminants in the sediment, at the sediment-water interface, and WC to organisms that live in those respective environments.

  8. The combined contraceptive ring NuvaRing and spermicide co-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, T; Mulders, T M T

    2003-04-01

    The effects of nonoxynol-9 on etonogestrel and ethinylestradiol release and absorption from NuvaRing were studied in 12 subjects for two cycles: one control and one interaction cycle (nonoxynol-9 was administered on day 8). Nonoxynol-9 had no effect on release or absorption and, consequently, serum levels. Therefore, nonoxynol-9 did not compromise the contraceptive efficacy of NuvaRing.

  9. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency range...

  10. Cassini UVIS Observations Show Active Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L.; Colwell, J. E.; UVIS Team

    2004-12-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) is part of the remote sensing payload of the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft. This spectrograph includes channels for extreme UV and far UV spectroscopic imaging, high speed photometry of stellar occultations, solar EUV occultation, and a hydrogen/deuterium absorption cell. We report our initial results from UVIS observations of Saturn's rings. Dynamic interactions between neutrals, ions, rings, moons and meteoroids produce a highly structured and time variable Saturn system Oxygen in the Saturn system dominates the magnetosphere. Observed fluctuations indicate close interactions with plasma sources. Stochastic events in the E ring may be the ultimate source. The spectral signature of water ice is seen on Phoebe and in Saturn's rings. Water ice is mixed non-uniformly with darker constituents. The high structure of the UV ring reflectance argues that collisional transport dominates ballistic transport in darkening the rings. Our preliminary results support the idea that rings are recycled fragments of moons: the current processes are more important than history and initial conditions. The spectra along the UVIS SOI radial scan indicate varying amounts of water ice. In the A ring, the ice fraction increases outward to a maximum at the outer edge. This large-scale variation is consistent with initially pure ice that has suffered meteoritic bombardment over the age of the Solar system (Cuzzi and Estrada 1998). We also see variations over scales of 1000 - 3000 km, which cannot be explained by this mechanism. Ballistic transport of spectrally neutral extrinsic pollutants from meteoroids striking the rings has a typical throw distance of 6000 km (Durisen et al 1989), too long to explain this finer structure. We propose a class of smaller renewal events, in which a small moon residing within the rings is shattered by an external impactor (Colwell and Esposito 1993, Barbara and Esposito 2002, Esposito and Colwell 2003). The

  11. A Summary and Status of the SNS Ring Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mapes, Michael; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Ladd, Peter; Rank, Jim; Smart, Loralie; Todd, Robert J; Weiss, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring is designed to accumulate high intensity protons. The SNS ring vacuum system consists of the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line, Accumulator Ring and the Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) line. The Accumulator ring has a circumference of 248m with 4 arcs and 4 straight sections, while the RTBT and HEBT have a total length of 350m of beam transport line. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10-9

  12. Light-Ring Stability for Ultracompact Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Pedro V. P.; Berti, Emanuele; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2017-12-01

    We prove the following theorem: axisymmetric, stationary solutions of the Einstein field equations formed from classical gravitational collapse of matter obeying the null energy condition, that are everywhere smooth and ultracompact (i.e., they have a light ring) must have at least two light rings, and one of them is stable. It has been argued that stable light rings generally lead to nonlinear spacetime instabilities. Our result implies that smooth, physically and dynamically reasonable ultracompact objects are not viable as observational alternatives to black holes whenever these instabilities occur on astrophysically short time scales. The proof of the theorem has two parts: (i) We show that light rings always come in pairs, one being a saddle point and the other a local extremum of an effective potential. This result follows from a topological argument based on the Brouwer degree of a continuous map, with no assumptions on the spacetime dynamics, and, hence, it is applicable to any metric gravity theory where photons follow null geodesics. (ii) Assuming Einstein's equations, we show that the extremum is a local minimum of the potential (i.e., a stable light ring) if the energy-momentum tensor satisfies the null energy condition.

  13. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-01-01

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10 12 antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  14. Report of the New Rings Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, S.D.; Dugan, G.; Marriner, J.

    1987-10-19

    We have taken the approach here of trying to understand both the feasibility and practicality of varied options for new rings at Fermilab, rather than trying to produce a single detailed design. In other words, this document is not a design report and should not be construed as such. Our perception of the potential needs for new rings (in order of priority) is as follows: Antiproton Storage and/or Recovery: A facility for storing up to 4 x 10/sup 12/ antiprotons is needed. Recovery of antiprotons from the collider becomes a viable option if the luminosity is indeed dominated by emittance dilution rather than beam loss. New or Post-Booster: The goal here would be to inject into the existing Main Ring above transition. Improved performance of the Main Ring would be anticipated. New Main Ring: Advantages would include better emittance preservation, a faster cycle time for antiproton production, and the removal of interference/backgrounds at the B0 and D0 detectors. We discuss in this paper various scenarios based on one or more combinations of the above possibilities. 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. The Vibration Ring. Phase 1; [Seedling Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Krantz, Timothy L.; Delap, Damon C.; Stringer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The vibration ring was conceived as a driveline damping device to prevent structure-borne noise in machines. It has the appearance of a metal ring, and can be installed between any two driveline components like an ordinary mechanical spacer. Damping is achieved using a ring-shaped piezoelectric stack that is poled in the axial direction and connected to an electrical shunt circuit. Surrounding the stack is a metal structure, called the compression cage, which squeezes the stack along its poled axis when excited by radial driveline forces. The stack in turn generates electrical energy, which is either dissipated or harvested using the shunt circuit. Removing energy from the system creates a net damping effect. The vibration ring is much stiffer than traditional damping devices, which allows it to be used in a driveline without disrupting normal operation. In phase 1 of this NASA Seedling Fund project, a combination of design and analysis was used to examine the feasibility of this concept. Several designs were evaluated using solid modeling, finite element analysis, and by creating prototype hardware. Then an analytical model representing the coupled electromechanical response was formulated in closed form. The model was exercised parametrically to examine the stiffness and loss factor spectra of the vibration ring, as well as simulate its damping effect in the context of a simplified driveline model. The results of this work showed that this is a viable mechanism for driveline damping, and provided several lessons for continued development.

  16. Adhesion rings surround invadopodia and promote maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Branch

    2012-06-01

    Invasion and metastasis are aggressive cancer phenotypes that are highly related to the ability of cancer cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM. At the cellular level, specialized actin-rich structures called invadopodia mediate focal matrix degradation by serving as exocytic sites for ECM-degrading proteinases. Adhesion signaling is likely to be a critical regulatory input to invadopodia, but the mechanism and location of such adhesion signaling events are poorly understood. Here, we report that adhesion rings surround invadopodia shortly after formation and correlate strongly with invadopodium activity on a cell-by-cell basis. By contrast, there was little correlation of focal adhesion number or size with cellular invadopodium activity. Prevention of adhesion ring formation by inhibition of RGD-binding integrins or knockdown (KD of integrin-linked kinase (ILK reduced the number of ECM-degrading invadopodia and reduced recruitment of IQGAP to invadopodium actin puncta. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed that the rate of extracellular MT1-MMP accumulation at invadopodia was greatly reduced in both integrin-inhibited and ILK-KD cells. Conversely, KD of MT1-MMP reduced invadopodium activity and dynamics but not the number of adhesion-ringed invadopodia. These results suggest a model in which adhesion rings are recruited to invadopodia shortly after formation and promote invadopodium maturation by enhancing proteinase secretion. Since adhesion rings are a defining characteristic of podosomes, similar structures formed by normal cells, our data also suggest further similarities between invadopodia and podosomes.

  17. On Stellar Flash Echoes from Circular Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert; Mukherjee, Oindabi

    2018-01-01

    A flash -- or any episode of variability -- that occurs in the vicinity of a circular ring might be seen several times later, simultaneously, as echoes on the ring. Effective images of the flash are created and annihilated in pairs, with as many as four flash images visible concurrently. Videos detailing sequences of image pair creation, tandem motion, and subsequent image annihilation are shown, given simple opacity and scattering assumptions. It is proven that, surprisingly, images from a second pair creation event always annihilate with images from the first. Caustic surfaces between flash locations yielding two and four images are computed. Although such ring echos surely occur, their practical detection might be difficult as it could require dedicated observing programs involving sensitive photometry of extended objects. Potential flash sources include planetary and interstellar gas and dust rings near and around variable stars, flare stars, novae, supernovae, and GRBs. Potentially recoverable information includes size, distance, temporal history, and angular isotropy of both the ring and flash.

  18. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  19. Algebraic coding theory over finite commutative rings

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Steven T

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained introduction to algebraic coding theory over finite Frobenius rings. It is the first to offer a comprehensive account on the subject. Coding theory has its origins in the engineering problem of effective electronic communication where the alphabet is generally the binary field. Since its inception, it has grown as a branch of mathematics, and has since been expanded to consider any finite field, and later also Frobenius rings, as its alphabet. This book presents a broad view of the subject as a branch of pure mathematics and relates major results to other fields, including combinatorics, number theory and ring theory. Suitable for graduate students, the book will be of interest to anyone working in the field of coding theory, as well as algebraists and number theorists looking to apply coding theory to their own work.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Piston Ring Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felter, Christian Lotz

    2006-01-01

    and the angle between the normals of the solid and the free surface. The numerical model is compared with the results from an analytical solution of Reynolds equation for a fixed incline slider bearing. Then results from a more compli- cated simulation of piston ring lubrication is given and discussed.......This paper describes a numerical method that can be used to model the lubrication of piston rings. Classical lubrication theory is based on the Reynolds equation which is ap- plicable to confined geometries and open geometries where the flooding conditions are known. Lubrication of piston rings...... on solids and the equilibrium of stresses on the free surface. It is assumed that the surrounding gas phase has zero viscosity. Surface tension can be included in the model if necessary. The contact point where the three phases solid, liquid, and gas intersect is updated based on the velocity of the solid...

  1. Interferometric output coupling of ring optical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, S; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate the successful deployment of an antiresonant ring (ARR) interferometer within a ring optical resonator and its use for absolute optimization of output power. The integration of the ARR interferometer in a folded arm of the ring oscillator provides continuously variable output coupling over broad spectral range and under any operating conditions. We demonstrate the technique using a picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO), where we show continuously adjustable output coupling and optimization of the output power for different pump power conditions, from 3.5 W to 13.5 W. By operating the OPO under an optimized output coupling at 14 W of pump power, we obtain >5 W of extracted signal power, more than 2.6 times that with a ~5% conventional output coupler. We also show that the inclusion of the ARR interferometer has no detrimental effect on the spatial, temporal, and spectral characteristics of OPO output.

  2. Tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A new tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts in the past millennium that may have contributed to the decline of some pre-Hispanic civilizations. Although there is other evidence of droughts during the past millennium, the paleoclimate record had gaps. Stahle et al. used core samples from Montezuma bald cypress trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Querétaro, Mexico, to develop a 1238-year tree ring chronology. They reconstructed the soil moisture record from the tree ring growth patterns. The new record provides the first dated, annually resolved climate record for Mexico and Central America spanning this time period.(Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046472, 2011)

  3. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  4. Antiproton chain of the FAIR storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, T; Kamerdzhiev, V; Lehrach, A; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D; Stassen, R; Stockhorst, H; Herfurth, F; Lestinsky, M; Litvinov, Yu A; Steck, M; Stöhlker, T

    2015-01-01

    In the Modularized Start Version of the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt Germany, the 3 GeV antiprotons are precooled in the collector ring and accumulated in the high energy storage ring (HESR). They are further accelerated to 14 GeV or decelerated to 1 GeV for the experiments with a high-density internal target. The powerful beam cooling devices, stochastic cooling and electron cooling will support the provision of a high-resolution antiproton beam. The other option of FAIR is to prepare the low energy, 300 keV antiproton beam connecting the existing storage rings ESR and CRYRING with HESR. Beam physics issues related with these concepts are described. (paper)

  5. Control System of the Small Isochronous ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix Marti; Eduard Pozdeyev

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the control system of the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) developed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU). SIR is a small-scale experiment that simulates the dynamics of intense beams in large accelerators. A 20 to 30 keV hydrogen or deuterium ion bunch is injected in the ring, extracted after a variable number of turns and its longitudinal profile is studied. Information about the electronics used and software written to control different injection line, ring and extraction line elements is included. Some of these elements are magnets, electrostatic quadrupoles, electric and magnetic correctors, scanning wires, emittance measurement system, chopper and a fast Faraday cup.

  6. Beam Diagnostics of the Small Isochronous Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix Marti; Eduard Pozdeyev

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the beam diagnostic systems in the Small Isochronous Ring (SIR) developed and built at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU). SIR is a small-scale experiment that simulates the dynamics of intense beams in large accelerators. A 20 to 30 keV hydrogen or deuterium ion bunch is injected in the ring, extracted after a variable number of turns and its longitudinal profile is studied. Some of the diagnostic tools available in SIR include an emittance measurement system in the injection line, scanning wires in different sections of the ring, phosphor screens at the injection and extraction points and a fast Faraday cup in the extraction line. The design of these systems and the kind of beam information they provide are discussed in detail.

  7. Ion production and trapping in electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckstern, R.C.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1979-08-01

    The electron beam in the VUV and X-ray rings of NSLS will ionize residual gas by collisions. Positive ions will be produced with low velocity, and will be attracted by the electron beam to the beam axis. If they are trapped in stable (transverse) orbits, they may accumulate, thereby increasing the ν/sub x,z/ of the individual electrons. Since the accumulated ions are unlikely to be of uniform density, a spread in ν/sub x,z/ will also occur. Should these effects be serious, it may be necessary to introduce clearing electrodes, although this may increase Z/n in the rings, thereby adding to longitudinal instability problems. The seriousness of the above effect for the VUV and X-ray rings is estimated

  8. Nonlinear dynamics aspects of modern storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleman, R.H.G.; Kheifets, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the nonlinearity of storage rings becomes an essential problem as the design parameters of each new machine are pushed further and further. Yet the familiar methods of classical mechanics do not allow determination of single particle orbits over reasonable lengths of time. It is also argued that the single particle dynamics of a storage ring is possibly one of the cleanest and simplest nonlinear dynamical systems available with very few degrees of freedom. Hence, reasons are found for accelerator physicists to be interested in nonlinear dynamics and for researchers in nonlinear dynamics to be interested in modern storage rings. The more familiar methods of treating nonlinear systems routinely used in acclerator theory are discussed, pointing out some of their limitations and pitfalls. 39 refs., 1 fig

  9. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    This special section of Fluid Dynamics Research includes five articles on vortex rings in both classical and quantum fluids. The leading scientists of the field describe the trends in and the state-of-the-art development of experiments, theories and numerical simulations of vortex rings. The year 2008 was the 150th anniversary of 'vortex motion' since Hermann von Helmholtz opened up this field. In 1858, Helmholtz published a paper in Crelle's Journal which put forward the concept of 'vorticity' and made the first analysis of vortex motion. Fluid mechanics before that was limited to irrotational motion. In the absence of vorticity, the motion of an incompressible homogeneous fluid is virtually equivalent to a rigid-body motion in the sense that the fluid motion is determined once the boundary configuration is specified. Helmholtz proved, among other things, that, without viscosity, a vortex line is frozen into the fluid. This Helmholtz's law immediately implies the preservation of knots and links of vortex lines and its implication is enormous. One of the major trends of fluid mechanics since the latter half of the 20th century is to clarify the topological meaning of Helmholtz's law and to exploit it to develop theoretical and numerical methods to find the solutions of the Euler equations and to develop experimental techniques to gain an insight into fluid motion. Vortex rings are prominent coherent structures in a variety of fluid motions from the microscopic scale, through human and mesoscale to astrophysical scales, and have attracted people's interest. The late professor Philip G Saffman (1981) emphasized the significance of studies on vortex rings. One particular motion exemplifies the whole range of problems of vortex motion and is also a commonly known phenomenon, namely the vortex ring or smoke ring. Vortex rings are easily produced by dropping drops of one liquid into another, or by puffing fluid out of a hole, or by exhaling smoke if one has the skill

  10. The exotic exchange of smoke rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, Antti J.

    2006-01-01

    Smoke rings are fascinating, to humans and animals alike. Experienced cigarette smokers blow them for entertainment while dolphins play with air-filled underwater rings that know how to puff. Smoke ring machines can be bought from science gadget shops and Lord Kelvin explains in a paper [Lord Kelvin, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Vol. VI (1867), p. 94; reprinted in Philos. Mag. Vol. XXXIV (1867), p. 15] how one can be constructed from a cardboard box. Even Mount Etna [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/696953.stm] and our Sun [http://spacescience.com/headlines/y2000/ast03feb 1 .htm] are known to be sources of huge smoke rings. But a smoke ring is not only fun to watch. It is also an organized structure with the ability to engage in complex acts, best exemplified by the leapfrogging motion of two smoke rings. Here we propose that the leapfrogging actually encodes very important Physics: It is a direct three dimensional generalization of the motion that in the two dimensional context is responsible for exotic exchange statistics which rules the properties of structures and materials such as quantum Hall systems and high-temperature superconductors. By employing very simple and universal concepts with roots in the hydrodynamical Euler equation, the universal law that describes the properties of fluids and gases, we argue that three dimensional exotic exchange statistics is commonplace. Our observations could have far reaching consequences in fluids and gases which are subject to the laws of quantum mechanics, from helium superfluids to Bose-Einstein condensed alkali gases and even metallic hydrogen in its liquid phases. (author)

  11. Dynamics of rings around elongated bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Leiva, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Santos Sanz, Pablo; Renner, Stefan; El Moutamid, Maryame; Berard, Diane; Desmars, Josselin; Meza, Erick; Rossi, Gustavo; Braga-Ribas, Felipe; Camargo, Julio; Vieira-Martins, Roberto; Morales, Nicolas; Duffard, Rene; Colas, Francois; Maquet, Lucie; Bouley, Sylvain; Bath, Karl-Ludwig; Beisker, Wolfgang; Dauverge, Jean-Luc; Kretlow, Mike; Chariklo Occultations Team; Haumea Occultation Team

    2017-10-01

    Dense and narrow rings are encountered around small bodies like the Centaur object Chariklo, and possibly Chiron. The rings and central bodies can be studied in great details thanks to stellar occultations, which accuracies at the km-level. Here we present new results from three high-quality occultations by Chariklo observed in 2017. They provide new insights on the ring geometry and Chariklo's shape. Data are currently being analyzed, but preliminary results are consistent with a triaxial model for Chariklo, with semi-axes a>b>c, where (a-b) may reach values as large as 10-15 km, depending on the model.Such large values induce a strong coupling between the body and an initial collisional debris disk from which the rings emerged. This coupling stems from Lindblad resonances between the ring particle mean motion and Chariklo's spin rate. We find that the resonances clear the corotation zone (estimated to lie at about 215 km from Chariklo's center) in very short time scales (centuries) and pushes the material well beyond the 3/2 resonance - that lies at an estimated radius of 280 km, thus consistent with the radius of Chariklo's main ring C1R, 390 km.Other cases will be examined in view of multi-chord stellar occultations by Trans-Neptunian Objects successfully observed in 2017, as they provide constraints for the presence of material around these bodies. Results and dynamical implications will be presented.Part of this work has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's H2020 2014-2020 ERC grant Agreement n°669416 "Lucky Star"

  12. Lateglacial environmental variability from Swiss tree rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub, Matthias; Büntgen, Ulf; Kaiser, Klaus Felix

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of annually resolved environmental variations during the Allerød interstadial is presented using 81 fossil Scots pine tree-ring series from Gaenziloo and Landikon, near Zurich, Switzerland. The absolute age of the trees ranges between 11,920 and 10,610 14C BP, which was determined...... by wiggle-matching radiocarbon ages to the Cariaco 14C data set. From the two sites we created a composite floating Allerød chronology on the basis of their 632 years of overlap (r = 0.57), after individual spline detrending. Merging both data sets resulted in a Lateglacial tree-ring chronology covering...

  13. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  14. Polarization calculations for electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    1988-05-01

    A computer program called SMILE has been developed to calculate the equilibrium polarization in a high-energy electron storage ring. It can calculate spin resonances to arbitrary orders, in principle. Results of polarization calculations are shown for a variety of storage ring models, to elucidate various aspects of the behaviour of the polarization, such as the effects of machine symmetry, beam energy spread, and transverse momentum recoils, etc. Reasonable agreement is obtained with some experimental data from measurements at SPEAR. 12 refs., 12 figs

  15. Socialt ansvarlig markedsføring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, Rene Franz

    2008-01-01

    Samarbejde mellem juridiske froskere fra ASB, datalogiske forskere fra AAU samt den geostatiske virksomhed GEOMATIC skal sikre, at udviklingen af markedsføring til nye mobile teknologier sker på en etisk og socialt ansvarlig måde og ikke overskrider forbrugernes privatsfære.......Samarbejde mellem juridiske froskere fra ASB, datalogiske forskere fra AAU samt den geostatiske virksomhed GEOMATIC skal sikre, at udviklingen af markedsføring til nye mobile teknologier sker på en etisk og socialt ansvarlig måde og ikke overskrider forbrugernes privatsfære....

  16. Vortex rings and the solar granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Observations indicate that solar granules have the flow topology of updraft vortex loops. We interpret granule behavior in terms of the mutual and self-interactions of such loops. In particular, the expansion phase that granules commonly undergo is explained by the self-expansion of a vortex ring in a stratified fluid. For a range of granular parameters, we find that the expansion velocity of a vortex ring varies from 0.7 to 1.5 times the maximum surface flow velocity, in agreement with granule observations. We also present speculation on the nature of granule fragmentation.

  17. Computers in nonassociative rings and algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Robert E

    1977-01-01

    Computers in Nonassociative Rings and Algebras provides information pertinent to the computational aspects of nonassociative rings and algebras. This book describes the algorithmic approaches for solving problems using a computer.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the concept of a symmetrized power of a group representation. This text then presents data structures and other computational methods that may be useful in the field of computational algebra. Other chapters consider several mathematical ideas, including identity processing in nonassociative algebras, str

  18. Asymmetric Laser Radiant Cooling in Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    Laser pulses with small spatial and temporal dimensions can interact with a fraction of the electron bunches circulating in Compton storage rings. We studied synchrotron dynamics of such bunches when laser photons scatter off from the electrons with energy higher than the synchronous energy. In this case of ‘asymmetric cooling', as shown theoretically, the stationary energy spread is much smaller than under conditions of regular scattering; the oscillations are damped faster. Coherent oscillations of large amplitude may be damped in one synchrotron period, which makes this method feasible for injection the bunches into a ring in the longitudinal phase space. The theoretical results are validated with simulations.

  19. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  20. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  1. Pure phase decoherence in a ring geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z.; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2010-01-01

    We study the dynamics of pure phase decoherence for a particle hopping around an N-site ring, coupled both to a spin bath and to an Aharonov-Bohm flux which threads the ring. Analytic results are found for the dynamics of the influence functional and of the reduced density matrix of the particle, both for initial single wave-packet states, and for states split initially into two separate wave packets moving at different velocities. We also give results for the dynamics of the current as a function of time.

  2. Cadmium Toxicity to Ringed Seals (Phoca hispida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, R.; Riget, F. F.

    Cadmium concentrations in kidneys from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from North West Greenland (Qaanaaq) are high. Concentrations range at level known to induce renal toxic effects (mainly tubulopathy) and demineralisation (osteopenia) of the skeletal system (Fanconi's Syndrome) in humans as well...... as laboratory mammals. We have studied possible cadmium induced histopathological changes in the kidneys as well as a demineralisation of the skeletal system (DXA-scanning of lumbal vertebraes). No obvious cadmium induced toxic changes were found. Food composition and physiological adaptations may explain...... the absence of toxic effects of cadmium in ringed seal...

  3. Work-Family Conflict and Self-Rated Health: the Role of Gender and Educational Level. Baseline Data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; van Diepen, Cornelia; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Camelo, Lidyane V; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Aquino, Estela M; Chor, Dóra

    2016-06-01

    This study examined gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and self-rated health and evaluated the effect of educational attainment. We used baseline data from ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of civil servants from six Brazilian state capitals. Our samples included 12,017 active workers aged 34-72 years. Work-family conflict was measured by four indicators measuring effects of work on family, effects of family in work and lack of time for leisure and personal care. Women experienced more frequent work-family conflict, but in both genders, increased work-family conflict directly correlated with poorer self-rated health. Women's educational level interacted with three work-family conflict indicators. For time-based effects of work on family, highly educated women had higher odds of suboptimal self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.99) than less educated women (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.42). For strain-based effects of work on family, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 1.91 (95 % CI 1.48-2.47) and OR = 1.40 (95 % CI 1.12-1.75), respectively. For lack of time for leisure and personal care, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 2.60 (95 % CI = 1.95-3.47) and OR = 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.90-1.38), respectively. Women's education level affects the relationship between work-family conflict and self-rated health. The results may contribute to prevention activities.

  4. The relationship between migraine and lipid sub-fractions among individuals without cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J; Jones, Steven; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Recent studies have explored the relationship between dyslipidemia and migraine in a cardiovascular context. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between lipids, lipoprotein subfractions and migraine according to aura symptoms in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods 1,560 women and 1,595 men, without CVD or lipid disorders requiring medication, underwent a baseline clinical assessment. Total-cholesterol and its sub-fractions (LDL, VLDL and HDL subclass cholesterol); triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol [TRL-C (VLDL 1+2 -C VLDL 3 -C + IDL-C)] were determined by vertical auto profile (VAP). We also calculated logarithmic LDL density ratio [LLDR = ln ((LDL 3 -C + LDL 4 -C)/(LDL 1 -C + LDL 2 -C))], T-Chol/HDL-C and triglycerides/HDL-C ratios. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained to evaluate the relationship between lipids tertiles and migraine for both sexes. Results Main findings revealed positive associations between migraine without aura (MO) and the highest tertiles of VLDL-C (OR, 1.61; 95%CI, 1.07-2.40) and TRL-C (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.03-2.34) in women. In men, the highest tertile of VLDL 3 -C (OR, 3.87; 95%CI, 1.23-12.19) was positively associated with MO, as well. Conclusions In middle-aged participants without CVD or lipid disorders requiring medication, the worst lipid profile was determined by the highest levels of TRL-C and their cholesterol-rich remnants in migraineurs without aura for both sexes.

  5. Rings Research in the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. A.; Tiscareno, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    The study of planetary ring systems forms a key component of planetary science for several reasons: 1) The evolution and current states of planets and their satellites are affected in many ways by rings, while 2) conversely, properties of planets and moons and other solar system populations are revealed by their effects on rings; 3) highly structured and apparently delicate ring systems may be bellwethers, constraining various theories of the origin and evolution of their entire planetary system; and finally, 4) planetary rings provide an easily observable analogue to other astrophysical disk systems, enabling real “ground truth” results applicable to disks much more remote in space and/or time, including proto-planetary disks, circum-stellar disks, and even galaxies. Significant advances have been made in rings science in the past decade. The highest-priority rings research recommendations of the last Planetary Science Decadal Survey were to operate and extend the Cassini orbiter mission at Saturn; this has been done with tremendous success, accounting for much of the progress made on key science questions, as we will describe. Important progress in understanding the rings of Saturn and other planets has also come from Earth-based observational and theoretical work, again as prioritized by the last Decadal Survey. However, much important work remains to be done. At Saturn, the Cassini Solstice Mission must be brought to a successful completion. Priority should also be placed on sending spacecraft to Neptune and/or Uranus, now unvisited for more than 20 years. At Jupiter and Pluto, opportunities afforded by visiting spacecraft capable of studying rings should be exploited. On Earth, the need for continued research and analysis remains strong, including in-depth analysis of rings data already obtained, numerical and theoretical modeling work, laboratory analysis of materials and processes analogous to those found in the outer solar system, and continued Earth

  6. Mitral annuloplasty ring suture forces: Impact of surgeon, ring, and use conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Eric L; Bloodworth, Charles H; Siefert, Andrew W; Easley, Thomas F; Takayama, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Tomonori; Gorman, Robert C; Gorman, Joseph H; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2018-01-01

    The study objective was to quantify the effect of ring type, ring-annulus sizing, suture position, and surgeon on the forces required to tie down and constrain a mitral annuloplasty ring to a beating heart. Physio (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) or Profile 3D (Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) annuloplasty rings were instrumented with suture force transducers and implanted in ovine subjects (N = 23). Tie-down forces and cyclic contractile forces were recorded and analyzed at 10 suture positions and at 3 levels of increasing peak left ventricular pressure. Across all conditions, tie-down force was 2.7 ± 1.4 N and cyclic contractile force was 2.0 ± 1.2 N. Tie-down force was not meaningfully affected by any factor except surgeon. Significant differences in overall and individual tie-down forces were observed between the 2 primary implanting surgeons. No other factors were observed to significantly affect tie-down force. Contractile suture forces were significantly reduced by ring-annulus true sizing. This was driven almost exclusively by Physio cases and by reduction along the anterior aspect, where dehiscence is less common clinically. Contractile suture forces did not differ significantly between ring types. However, when undersizing, Profile 3D forces were significantly more uniform around the annular circumference. A suture's tie-down force did not correlate to its eventual contractile force. Mitral annuloplasty suture loading is influenced by ring type, ring-annulus sizing, suture position, and surgeon, suggesting that reports of dehiscence may not be merely a series of isolated errors. When compared with forces known to cause suture dehiscence, these in vivo suture loading data aid in establishing potential targets for reducing the occurrence of ring dehiscence. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Basin-ring spacing on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R.J.; Spudis, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    Radial spacing between concentric rings of impact basins that lack central peaks is statistically similar and nonrandom on the Moon, Mercury, and Mars, both inside and outside the main ring. One spacing interval, (2.0 ?? 0.3)0.5D, or an integer multiple of it, dominates most basin rings. Three analytical approaches yield similar results from 296 remapped or newly mapped rings of 67 multi-ringed basins: least-squares of rank-grouped rings, least-squares of rank and ring diameter for each basin, and averaged ratios of adjacent rings. Analysis of 106 rings of 53 two-ring basins by the first and third methods yields an integer multiple (2 ??) of 2.00.5D. There are two exceptions: (1) Rings adjacent to the main ring of multi-ring basins are consistently spaced at a slightly, but significantly, larger interval, (2.1 ?? 0.3)0.5D; (2) The 88 rings of 44 protobasins (large peak-plus-inner-ring craters) are spaced at an entirely different interval (3.3 ?? 0.6)0.5D. The statistically constant and target-invariant spacing of so many rings suggests that this characteristic may constrain formational models of impact basins on the terrestrial planets. The key elements of such a constraint include: (1) ring positions may not have been located by the same process(es) that formed ring topography; (2) ring location and emplacement of ring topography need not be coeval; (3) ring location, but not necessarily the mode of ring emplacement, reflects one process that operated at the time of impact; and (4) the process yields similarly-disposed topographic features that are spatially discrete at 20.5D intervals, or some multiple, rather than continuous. These four elements suggest that some type of wave mechanism dominates the location, but not necessarily the formation, of basin rings. The waves may be standing, rather than travelling. The ring topography itself may be emplaced at impact by this and/or other mechanisms and may reflect additional, including post-impact, influences. ?? 1987

  8. Single patent vessel over an embedded ring: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Bassim; Samargandi, Osama A; Aljaaly, Hattan A; Makhdom, Asim M

    2013-01-01

    Embedded ring injury is rarely encountered in clinical practice, and most of the few reported cases share common features, including deliberate neglect, mental illness, poor social support, female gender, and adult age group. Ischemia has never been reported in such injuries. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with a completely embedded ring in the right index finger and a partially embedded ring in the left ring finger. Revascularization after ring embedment probably explains the intact vessel that was observed on the outer aspect of the embedded ring during surgical exploration of the right index finger.

  9. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  10. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  11. Rings with finite Gorenstein injective dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we prove that for any associative ring R, and for any left R-module M with nite projective dimension, the Gorenstein injective dimension GidRM equals the usual injective dimension idRM. In particular, if GidRR is nite, then also idRR is nite, and thus R is Gorenstein (provided that ...

  12. Antiprotons in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    High-sensitivity electronics for TTl and ring 2 had been developed and installed, the original experimental stochastic cooling systems in the ISR were rebuilt and considerably improved, the split-field magnet (SFM) vacuum chamber was modified, some steering dipoles were designed, made and installed, and finally innumerable interlocks and computer programs were revised for antiproton operation. (orig./HSI)

  13. Inauguration ceremony for the Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    The inauguration ceremony for the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) was held on 16 October 1971. Kjell Johnsen is seen in the picture handing a symbolic key to the ISR to Edoardo Amaldi. From left to right on the podium: Victor Frederik Weisskopf, former Director-General; M Antonioz; Willibald Jentschke as Director-General of CERN, and on the other side Werner Heisenberg.

  14. Volumes and surface areas of pendular rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.

    1958-01-01

    A packing of spheres is taken as a suitable model of porous media. The packing may be regular and the sphere size may be uniform, but in general, both should be random. Approximations are developed to give the volumes and surface areas of pendular rings that exist at points of sphere contact. From these, the total free volume and interfacial specific surface area are derived as expressive of the textural character of the packing. It was found that the log-log plot of volumes and surface areas of pendular rings vary linearly with the angle made by the line joining the sphere centers and the line from the center of the largest sphere to the closest edge of the pendular ring. The relationship, moreover, was found not to be very sensitive to variation in the size ratio of the spheres in contact. It also was found that the addition of pendular ring material to various sphere packings results in an unexpected decrease in the surface area of the boundaries that confine the resulting pore space. ?? 1958 The American Institute of Physics.

  15. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...

  16. DIE RING In diens van onderlinge sorg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kerk (Spoelstra 1989:248). Wanneer gemeentes in kerkverband met mekaar tree, en as 'n eerste uitdrukking hiervan in ringsverband vergader (in hulle eie omgewing), is dit in gehoorsaamheid aan hulle God se opdrag. Die ring het dus opsig self reeds 'n getuienisfunksie en mag daarom nie opsioneel raak nie. 8. DIE WEG ...

  17. Kac's ring: The case of four colours

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-15

    Mar 15, 2017 ... Abstract. We present an instance from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics which combines increase in entropy and finite Poincaré recurrence time. The model we consider is a variation of the well-known Kac's ring where we consider balls of four colours. As is known, Kac introduced this model where balls ...

  18. Cherenkov ring imaging using a television digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Peisert, A.; Sauli, F.; Cavestro, A.; Vascon, M.; Zanella, G.

    1981-01-01

    A Cherenkov ring imaging device using as photon detector a multistep spark chamber coupled to a television digitizer is described. Results of a test run using triethylamine as photo-ionizing vapour are presented, as well as preliminary results obtained with a new vapour having an extremely low ionization potential. (orig.)

  19. Almagest, a new trackless ring finding algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamanna, G.

    2014-01-01

    A fast ring finding algorithm is a crucial point to allow the use of RICH in on-line trigger selection. The present algorithms are either too slow (with respect to the incoming data rate) or need the information coming from a tracking system. Digital image techniques, assuming limited computing power (as for example Hough transform), are not perfectly robust for what concerns the noise immunity. We present a novel technique based on Ptolemy's theorem for multi-ring pattern recognition. Starting from purely geometrical considerations, this algorithm (also known as “Almagest”) allows fast and trackless rings reconstruction, with spatial resolution comparable with other offline techniques. Almagest is particularly suitable for parallel implementation on multi-cores machines. Preliminary tests on GPUs (multi-cores video card processors) show that, thanks to an execution time smaller than 10 μs per event, this algorithm could be employed for on-line selection in trigger systems. The user case of the NA62 RICH trigger, based on GPU, will be discussed. - Highlights: • A new algorithm for fast multiple ring searching in RICH detectors is presented. • The Almagest algorithm exploits the computing power of Graphics processers (GPUs). • A preliminary implementation for on-line triggering in the NA62 experiment shows encouraging results

  20. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.