WorldWideScience

Sample records for stretchable electronic device

  1. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  2. Recent developments of truly stretchable thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Chi, Zhihe; Yang, Zhan; Chen, Xiaojie; Arnold, Michael S; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Jiarui; Chi, Zhenguo; Aldred, Matthew P

    2018-03-29

    Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e.g. buckling), and the whole device can be bent, twisted, or stretched to meet the demands for practical applications, which are beyond the capability of conventional flexible devices that can only bend or twist. Recently, great achievements have been made toward truly stretchable electronics. Here, the contribution of this review is an effort to provide a panoramic view of the latest progress concerning truly stretchable electronic devices, of which we give special emphasis to three kinds of thin film electronic and optoelectronic devices: (1) thin film transistors, (2) electroluminescent devices (including organic light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells and perovskite light-emitting diodes), and (3) photovoltaics (including organic photovoltaics and perovskite solar cells). We systematically discuss the device design and fabrication strategies, the origin of device stretchability and the relationship between the electrical and mechanical behaviors of the devices. We hope that this review provides a clear outlook of these attractive stretchable devices for a broad range of scientists and attracts more researchers to devote their time to this interesting research field in both industry and academia, thus encouraging more intelligent lifestyles for human beings in the coming future.

  3. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  4. Fabrication Approaches to Interconnect Based Devices for Stretchable Electronics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Nagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials. These basic principles however have spawned a myriad of materials systems wherein future application engineers need to find their way. This paper reports a literature study on the spectrum of different approaches towards stretchable electronics, discusses standardization of characteristic tests together with their reports and estimates matureness for industry. Patterned copper foils that are embedded in elastomeric sheets, which are closest to conventional electronic circuits processing, make up one end of the spectrum. Furthest from industry are the more recent circuits based on intrinsically stretchable liquid metals. These show extremely promising results, however, as a technology, liquid metal is not mature enough to be adapted. Printing makes up the transition between both ends, and is also well established on an industrial level, but traditionally not linked to creating electronics. Even though a certain level of maturity was found amongst the approaches that are reviewed herein, industrial adaptation for consumer electronics remains unpredictable without a designated break-through commercial application.

  5. Fabrication Approaches to Interconnect Based Devices for Stretchable Electronics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Steven; Deferme, Wim

    2018-03-03

    Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials. These basic principles however have spawned a myriad of materials systems wherein future application engineers need to find their way. This paper reports a literature study on the spectrum of different approaches towards stretchable electronics, discusses standardization of characteristic tests together with their reports and estimates matureness for industry. Patterned copper foils that are embedded in elastomeric sheets, which are closest to conventional electronic circuits processing, make up one end of the spectrum. Furthest from industry are the more recent circuits based on intrinsically stretchable liquid metals. These show extremely promising results, however, as a technology, liquid metal is not mature enough to be adapted. Printing makes up the transition between both ends, and is also well established on an industrial level, but traditionally not linked to creating electronics. Even though a certain level of maturity was found amongst the approaches that are reviewed herein, industrial adaptation for consumer electronics remains unpredictable without a designated break-through commercial application.

  6. Ultra-stretchable Interconnects for high-density stretchable electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafqat, S.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Savov, A.; Joshi, S.; Dekker, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2017-01-01

    The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE) promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for

  7. Progress and Prospects in Stretchable Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jiangxin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electroluminescent (EL devices are a new form of mechanically deformable electronics that are gaining increasing interests and believed to be one of the essential technologies for next generation lighting and display applications. Apart from the simple bending capability in flexible EL devices, the stretchable EL devices are required to withstand larger mechanical deformations and accommodate stretching strain beyond 10%. The excellent mechanical conformability in these devices enables their applications in rigorous mechanical conditions such as flexing, twisting, stretching, and folding.The stretchable EL devices can be conformably wrapped onto arbitrary curvilinear surface and respond seamlessly to the external or internal forces, leading to unprecedented applications that cannot be addressed with conventional technologies. For example, they are in demand for wide applications in biomedical-related devices or sensors and soft interactive display systems, including activating devices for photosensitive drug, imaging apparatus for internal tissues, electronic skins, interactive input and output devices, robotics, and volumetric displays. With increasingly stringent demand on the mechanical requirements, the fabrication of stretchable EL device is encountering many challenges that are difficult to resolve. In this review, recent progresses in the stretchable EL devices are covered with a focus on the approaches that are adopted to tackle materials and process challenges in stretchable EL devices and delineate the strategies in stretchable electronics. We first introduce the emission mechanisms that have been successfully demonstrated on stretchable EL devices. Limitations and advantages of the different mechanisms for stretchable EL devices are also discussed. Representative reports are reviewed based on different structural and material strategies. Unprecedented applications that have been enabled by the stretchable EL devices are

  8. Stretchable bioelectronics for medical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights recent advances in soft and stretchable biointegrated electronics. A renowned group of authors address key ideas in the materials, processes, mechanics, and devices of soft and stretchable electronics; the wearable electronics systems; and bioinspired and implantable biomedical electronics. Among the topics discussed are liquid metals, stretchable and flexible energy sources, skin-like devices, in vitro neural recording, and more. Special focus is given to recent advances in extremely soft and stretchable bio-inspired electronics with real-world clinical studies that validate the technology. Foundational theoretical and experimental aspects are also covered in relation to the design and application of these biointegrated electronics systems. This is an ideal book for researchers, engineers, and industry professionals involved in developing healthcare devices, medical tools and related instruments relevant to various clinical practices.

  9. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  10. Stretchable antenna for wearable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Shamim, Atif; Ghaffar, Farhan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for stretchable antennas that can be used for applications such as wearable electronics. In one example, a stretchable antenna includes a flexible support structure including a lateral spring section having a proximal

  11. Self-similar and fractal design for stretchable electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John A.; Fan, Jonathan; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui

    2017-04-04

    The present invention provides electronic circuits, devices and device components including one or more stretchable components, such as stretchable electrical interconnects, electrodes and/or semiconductor components. Stretchability of some of the present systems is achieved via a materials level integration of stretchable metallic or semiconducting structures with soft, elastomeric materials in a configuration allowing for elastic deformations to occur in a repeatable and well-defined way. The stretchable device geometries and hard-soft materials integration approaches of the invention provide a combination of advance electronic function and compliant mechanics supporting a broad range of device applications including sensing, actuation, power storage and communications.

  12. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics.

  13. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics. PMID:27547485

  14. Conductive Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics, Sensors and Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seo Noh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been a wide variety of efforts to develop conductive elastomers that satisfy both mechanical stretchability and electrical conductivity, as a response to growing demands on stretchable and wearable devices. This article reviews the important progress in conductive elastomers made in three application fields of stretchable technology: stretchable electronics, stretchable sensors, and stretchable energy harvesters. Diverse combinations of insulating elastomers and non-stretchable conductive materials have been studied to realize optimal conductive elastomers. It is noted that similar material combinations and similar structures have often been employed in different fields of application. In terms of stretchability, cyclic operation, and overall performance, fields such as stretchable conductors and stretchable strain/pressure sensors have achieved great advancement, whereas other fields like stretchable memories and stretchable thermoelectric energy harvesting are in their infancy. It is worth mentioning that there are still obstacles to overcome for the further progress of stretchable technology in the respective fields, which include the simplification of material combination and device structure, securement of reproducibility and reliability, and the establishment of easy fabrication techniques. Through this review article, both the progress and obstacles associated with the respective stretchable technologies will be understood more clearly.

  15. Fully Printed Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suoming

    good reliability under bending conditions owing to the ultrathin polyimide substrate as well as the superior mechanical flexibility of the gate dielectric and carbon nanotube network. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that by using two types of SWCNT samples with different optical absorption characteristics, the photoresponse exhibits unique wavelength selectivity, as manifested by the good correlation between the responsive wavelengths of the devices with the absorption peaks of the corresponding carbon nanotubes. All the proposed materials above together with the unique direct printing process may offer an entry into more sophisticated flexible or stretchable electronic systems with monolithically integrated sensors, actuators, and displays for real life applications.

  16. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  17. Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jonathan A; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Zhang, Yihui; Liu, Zhuangjian; Cheng, Huanyu; Falgout, Leo; Bajema, Mike; Coleman, Todd; Gregoire, Dan; Larsen, Ryan J; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Stretchable electronics provide a foundation for applications that exceed the scope of conventional wafer and circuit board technologies due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The range of possibilities is predicated on the development of device architectures that simultaneously offer advanced electronic function and compliant mechanics. Here we report that thin films of hard electronic materials patterned in deterministic fractal motifs and bonded to elastomers enable unusual mechanics with important implications in stretchable device design. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek and other fractal constructs to yield space-filling structures of electronic materials, including monocrystalline silicon, for electrophysiological sensors, precision monitors and actuators, and radio frequency antennas. These devices support conformal mounting on the skin and have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that fractal-based layouts represent important strategies for hard-soft materials integration.

  18. Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jonathan A.; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Zhang, Yihui; Liu, Zhuangjian; Cheng, Huanyu; Falgout, Leo; Bajema, Mike; Coleman, Todd; Gregoire, Dan; Larsen, Ryan J.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-02-01

    Stretchable electronics provide a foundation for applications that exceed the scope of conventional wafer and circuit board technologies due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The range of possibilities is predicated on the development of device architectures that simultaneously offer advanced electronic function and compliant mechanics. Here we report that thin films of hard electronic materials patterned in deterministic fractal motifs and bonded to elastomers enable unusual mechanics with important implications in stretchable device design. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek and other fractal constructs to yield space-filling structures of electronic materials, including monocrystalline silicon, for electrophysiological sensors, precision monitors and actuators, and radio frequency antennas. These devices support conformal mounting on the skin and have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that fractal-based layouts represent important strategies for hard-soft materials integration.

  19. Stretchable and Soft Electronics using Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity. Liquid metals have been used for stretchable wires and interconnects, reconfigurable antennas, soft sensors, self-healing circuits, and conformal electrodes. In contrast to Hg, liquid metals based on gallium have low toxicity and essentially no vapor pressure and are therefore considered safe to handle. Whereas most liquids bead up to minimize surface energy, the presence of a surface oxide on these metals makes it possible to pattern them into useful shapes using a variety of techniques, including fluidic injection and 3D printing. In addition to forming excellent conductors, these metals can be used actively to form memory devices, sensors, and diodes that are completely built from soft materials. The properties of these materials, their applications within soft and stretchable electronics, and future opportunities and challenges are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Controlled buckling structures in semiconductor interconnects and nanomembranes for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Meitl, Matthew; Sun, Yugang; Ko, Heung Cho; Carlson, Andrew; Choi, Won Mook; Stoykovich, Mark; Jiang, Hanqing; Huang, Yonggang; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Zhu, Zhengtao; Menard, Etienne; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2014-05-20

    In an aspect, the present invention provides stretchable, and optionally printable, components such as semiconductors and electronic circuits capable of providing good performance when stretched, compressed, flexed or otherwise deformed, and related methods of making or tuning such stretchable components. Stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits preferred for some applications are flexible, in addition to being stretchable, and thus are capable of significant elongation, flexing, bending or other deformation along one or more axes. Further, stretchable semiconductors and electronic circuits of the present invention are adapted to a wide range of device configurations to provide fully flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Stretchable antenna for wearable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-04-13

    Various examples are provided for stretchable antennas that can be used for applications such as wearable electronics. In one example, a stretchable antenna includes a flexible support structure including a lateral spring section having a proximal end and at a distal end; a metallic antenna disposed on at least a portion of the lateral spring section, the metallic antenna extending along the lateral spring section from the proximal end; and a metallic feed coupled to the metallic antenna at the proximal end of the lateral spring section. In another example, a method includes patterning a polymer layer disposed on a substrate to define a lateral spring section; disposing a metal layer on at least a portion of the lateral spring section, the metal layer forming an antenna extending along the portion of the lateral spring section; and releasing the polymer layer and the metal layer from the substrate.

  2. Stretchable electronics for wearable and high-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, Daniel; Shannon, Lesley; Gray, Bonnie L.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in the development of novel materials and fabrication processes are resulting in an increased number of flexible and stretchable electronics applications. This evolving technology enables new devices that are not readily fabricated using traditional silicon processes, and has the potential to transform many industries, including personalized healthcare, consumer electronics, and communication. Fabrication of stretchable devices is typically achieved through the use of stretchable polymer-based conductors, or more rigid conductors, such as metals, with patterned geometries that can accommodate stretching. Although the application space for stretchable electronics is extensive, the practicality of these devices can be severely limited by power consumption and cost. Moreover, strict process flows can impede innovation that would otherwise enable new applications. In an effort to overcome these impediments, we present two modified approaches and applications based on a newly developed process for stretchable and flexible electronics fabrication. This includes the development of a metallization pattern stamping process allowing for 1) stretchable interconnects to be directly integrated with stretchable/wearable fabrics, and 2) a process variation enabling aligned multi-layer devices with integrated ferromagnetic nanocomposite polymer components enabling a fully-flexible electromagnetic microactuator for large-magnitude magnetic field generation. The wearable interconnects are measured, showing high conductivity, and can accommodate over 20% strain before experiencing conductive failure. The electromagnetic actuators have been fabricated and initial measurements show well-aligned, highly conductive, isolated metal layers. These two applications demonstrate the versatility of the newly developed process and suggest potential for its furthered use in stretchable electronics and MEMS applications.

  3. Carbon Nanotube Flexible and Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Wang, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    The low-cost and large-area manufacturing of flexible and stretchable electronics using printing processes could radically change people's perspectives on electronics and substantially expand the spectrum of potential applications. Examples range from personalized wearable electronics to large-area smart wallpapers and from interactive bio-inspired robots to implantable health/medical apparatus. Owing to its one-dimensional structure and superior electrical property, carbon nanotube is one of the most promising material platforms for flexible and stretchable electronics. Here in this paper, we review the recent progress in this field. Applications of single-wall carbon nanotube networks as channel semiconductor in flexible thin-film transistors and integrated circuits, as stretchable conductors in various sensors, and as channel material in stretchable transistors will be discussed. Lastly, state-of-the-art advancement on printing process, which is ideal for large-scale fabrication of flexible and stretchable electronics, will also be reviewed in detail.

  4. A stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar; Pecht, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Stretchable electronics can offer an added degree of design freedom and generate products with unprecedented capabilities. Stretchable conductive ink serving as interconnect, is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This paper focuses on the development of a stretchable and screen printable conductive ink which could be stretched more than 500 cycles at 20% strain while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. The screen printable and stretchable conductive ink developed in this paper marks an important milestone for this nascent technology.

  5. Free form CMOS electronics: Physically flexible and stretchable

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-07

    Free form (physically flexible and stretchable) electronics can be used for applications which are unexplored today due to the rigid and brittle nature of the state-of-the-art electronics. Therefore, we show integration strategy to rationally design materials, processes and devices to transform advanced complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics into flexible and stretchable one while retaining their high performance, energy efficiency, ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density, reliability and performance over cost benefit to expand its applications for wearable, implantable and Internet-of-Everything electronics.

  6. Mechanical Designs for Inorganic Stretchable Circuits in Soft Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuodao; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical concepts and designs in inorganic circuits for different levels of stretchability are reviewed in this paper, through discussions of the underlying mechanics and material theories, fabrication procedures for the constituent microscale/nanoscale devices, and experimental characterization. All of the designs reported here adopt heterogeneous structures of rigid and brittle inorganic materials on soft and elastic elastomeric substrates, with mechanical design layouts that isolate large deformations to the elastomer, thereby avoiding potentially destructive plastic strains in the brittle materials. The overall stiffnesses of the electronics, their stretchability, and curvilinear shapes can be designed to match the mechanical properties of biological tissues. The result is a class of soft stretchable electronic systems that are compatible with traditional high-performance inorganic semiconductor technologies. These systems afford promising options for applications in portable biomedical and health-monitoring devices. Mechanics theories and modeling play a key role in understanding the underlining physics and optimization of these systems.

  7. CMOS-Technology-Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics can dramatically enhance the application of electronics for the emerging Internet of Everything applications where people, processes, data and devices will be integrated and connected, to augment quality of life

  8. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Weichen; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Rastak, Reza; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Chung, Jong Won; Niu, Simiao; Feig, Vivian R; Lopez, Jeffery; Lei, Ting; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yeongin; Foudeh, Amir M; Ehrlich, Anatol; Gasperini, Andrea; Yun, Youngjun; Murmann, Boris; Tok, Jeffery B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-03-01

    Skin-like electronics that can adhere seamlessly to human skin or within the body are highly desirable for applications such as health monitoring, medical treatment, medical implants and biological studies, and for technologies that include human-machine interfaces, soft robotics and augmented reality. Rendering such electronics soft and stretchable-like human skin-would make them more comfortable to wear, and, through increased contact area, would greatly enhance the fidelity of signals acquired from the skin. Structural engineering of rigid inorganic and organic devices has enabled circuit-level stretchability, but this requires sophisticated fabrication techniques and usually suffers from reduced densities of devices within an array. We reasoned that the desired parameters, such as higher mechanical deformability and robustness, improved skin compatibility and higher device density, could be provided by using intrinsically stretchable polymer materials instead. However, the production of intrinsically stretchable materials and devices is still largely in its infancy: such materials have been reported, but functional, intrinsically stretchable electronics have yet to be demonstrated owing to the lack of a scalable fabrication technology. Here we describe a fabrication process that enables high yield and uniformity from a variety of intrinsically stretchable electronic polymers. We demonstrate an intrinsically stretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre. The transistors have an average charge-carrier mobility comparable to that of amorphous silicon, varying only slightly (within one order of magnitude) when subjected to 100 per cent strain for 1,000 cycles, without current-voltage hysteresis. Our transistor arrays thus constitute intrinsically stretchable skin electronics, and include an active matrix for sensory arrays, as well as analogue and digital circuit elements. Our process offers a

  9. Wearable Intrinsically Soft, Stretchable, Flexible Devices for Memories and Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Krishna; Garofalo, Erik; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2018-01-27

    A recent trend in the development of high mass consumption electron devices is towards electronic textiles (e-textiles), smart wearable devices, smart clothes, and flexible or printable electronics. Intrinsically soft, stretchable, flexible, Wearable Memories and Computing devices (WMCs) bring us closer to sci-fi scenarios, where future electronic systems are totally integrated in our everyday outfits and help us in achieving a higher comfort level, interacting for us with other digital devices such as smartphones and domotics, or with analog devices, such as our brain/peripheral nervous system. WMC will enable each of us to contribute to open and big data systems as individual nodes, providing real-time information about physical and environmental parameters (including air pollution monitoring, sound and light pollution, chemical or radioactive fallout alert, network availability, and so on). Furthermore, WMC could be directly connected to human brain and enable extremely fast operation and unprecedented interface complexity, directly mapping the continuous states available to biological systems. This review focuses on recent advances in nanotechnology and materials science and pays particular attention to any result and promising technology to enable intrinsically soft, stretchable, flexible WMC.

  10. Mogul-Patterned Elastomeric Substrate for Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Byeol; Bae, Chan-Wool; Duy, Le Thai; Sohn, Il-Yung; Kim, Do-Il; Song, You-Joon; Kim, Youn-Jea; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2016-04-01

    A mogul-patterned stretchable substrate with multidirectional stretchability and minimal fracture of layers under high stretching is fabricated by double photolithography and soft lithography. Au layers and a reduced graphene oxide chemiresistor on a mogul-patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate are stable and durable under various stretching conditions. The newly designed mogul-patterned stretchable substrate shows great promise for stretchable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Xu, Jie; Wang, Weichen; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Rastak, Reza; Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Chung, Jong Won; Niu, Simiao; Feig, Vivian R.; Lopez, Jeffery; Lei, Ting; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yeongin; Foudeh, Amir M.; Ehrlich, Anatol; Gasperini, Andrea; Yun, Youngjun; Murmann, Boris; Tok, Jeffery B.-H.; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-03-01

    Skin-like electronics that can adhere seamlessly to human skin or within the body are highly desirable for applications such as health monitoring, medical treatment, medical implants and biological studies, and for technologies that include human-machine interfaces, soft robotics and augmented reality. Rendering such electronics soft and stretchable—like human skin—would make them more comfortable to wear, and, through increased contact area, would greatly enhance the fidelity of signals acquired from the skin. Structural engineering of rigid inorganic and organic devices has enabled circuit-level stretchability, but this requires sophisticated fabrication techniques and usually suffers from reduced densities of devices within an array. We reasoned that the desired parameters, such as higher mechanical deformability and robustness, improved skin compatibility and higher device density, could be provided by using intrinsically stretchable polymer materials instead. However, the production of intrinsically stretchable materials and devices is still largely in its infancy: such materials have been reported, but functional, intrinsically stretchable electronics have yet to be demonstrated owing to the lack of a scalable fabrication technology. Here we describe a fabrication process that enables high yield and uniformity from a variety of intrinsically stretchable electronic polymers. We demonstrate an intrinsically stretchable polymer transistor array with an unprecedented device density of 347 transistors per square centimetre. The transistors have an average charge-carrier mobility comparable to that of amorphous silicon, varying only slightly (within one order of magnitude) when subjected to 100 per cent strain for 1,000 cycles, without current-voltage hysteresis. Our transistor arrays thus constitute intrinsically stretchable skin electronics, and include an active matrix for sensory arrays, as well as analogue and digital circuit elements. Our process offers a

  12. Self-grafting carbon nanotubes on polymers for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Piero; Moyanova, Slavianka; Pavone, Luigi; Fazi, Laura; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Rapone, Bruno; Gaglione, Anderson; Senesi, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    Elementary bidimensional circuitry made of single-wall carbon-nanotube-based conductors, self-grafted on different polymer films, is accomplished in an attempt to develop a simple technology for flexible and stretchable electronic devices. Unlike in other studies of polymer-carbon nanotube composites, no chemical functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes is necessary for stable grafting onto several polymeric surfaces, suggesting viable and cheap fabrication technologies for stretchable microdevices. Electrical characterization of both unstretched and strongly stretched conductors is provided, while an insight on the mechanisms of strong adhesion to the polymer is obtained by scanning electron microscopy of the surface composite. As a first example of technological application, the electrical functionality of a carbon-nanotube-based 6-sensor (electrode) grid was demonstrated by recording of subdural electrocorticograms in freely moving rats over approximately three months. The results are very promising and may serve as a basis for future work targeting clinical applications.

  13. 2.5D direct laser engraving of silicone microfluidic channels for stretchable electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Nagels, Steven; Deferme, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Stretchable and bendable sensors have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab based to industrially applicable production principles. In a broader sense, stretchable electronics promises to increase the way we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Electronic circuits will be deployed in environments where we require them to dynamically flex, bend, stretch, compress, twist and - quite possibly - even fold; where they have to demonstrate a ...

  14. Electrohydrodynamic printing of silver nanowires for flexible and stretchable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zheng; Han, Yiwei; Huang, Qijin; Dong, Jingyan; Zhu, Yong

    2018-04-19

    A silver nanowire (AgNW) based conductor is a promising component for flexible and stretchable electronics. A wide range of flexible/stretchable devices using AgNW conductors has been demonstrated recently. High-resolution, high-throughput printing of AgNWs remains a critical challenge. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing has been developed as a promising technique to print different materials on a variety of substrates with high resolution. Here, AgNW ink was developed for EHD printing. The printed features can be controlled by several parameters including AgNW concentration, ink viscosity, printing speed, stand-off distance, etc. With this method, AgNW patterns can be printed on a range of substrates, e.g. paper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), glass, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), etc. First, AgNW samples on PDMS were characterized under bending and stretching. Then AgNW heaters and electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes were fabricated to demonstrate the potential of this printing technique for AgNW-based flexible and stretchable devices.

  15. Stretchable, Twisted Conductive Microtubules for Wearable Computing, Robotics, Electronics, and Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thanh Nho; Visell, Yon

    2017-05-11

    Stretchable and flexible multifunctional electronic components, including sensors and actuators, have received increasing attention in robotics, electronics, wearable, and healthcare applications. Despite advances, it has remained challenging to design analogs of many electronic components to be highly stretchable, to be efficient to fabricate, and to provide control over electronic performance. Here, we describe highly elastic sensors and interconnects formed from thin, twisted conductive microtubules. These devices consist of twisted assemblies of thin, highly stretchable (>400%) elastomer tubules filled with liquid conductor (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn), and fabricated using a simple roller coating process. As we demonstrate, these devices can operate as multimodal sensors for strain, rotation, contact force, or contact location. We also show that, through twisting, it is possible to control their mechanical performance and electronic sensitivity. In extensive experiments, we have evaluated the capabilities of these devices, and have prototyped an array of applications in several domains of stretchable and wearable electronics. These devices provide a novel, low cost solution for high performance stretchable electronics with broad applications in industry, healthcare, and consumer electronics, to emerging product categories of high potential economic and societal significance.

  16. Stretchable and foldable silicon-based electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Cavazos Sepulveda, Adrian Cesar

    2017-03-30

    Flexible and stretchable semiconducting substrates provide the foundation for novel electronic applications. Usually, ultra-thin, flexible but often fragile substrates are used in such applications. Here, we describe flexible, stretchable, and foldable 500-μm-thick bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) “islands” that are interconnected via extremely compliant 30-μm-thick connectors made of silicon. The thick mono-crystalline segments create a stand-alone silicon array that is capable of bending to a radius of 130 μm. The bending radius of the array does not depend on the overall substrate thickness because the ultra-flexible silicon connectors are patterned. We use fracture propagation to release the islands. Because they allow for three-dimensional monolithic stacking of integrated circuits or other electronics without any through-silicon vias, our mono-crystalline islands can be used as a “more-than-Moore” strategy and to develop wearable electronics that are sufficiently robust to be compatible with flip-chip bonding.

  17. Stretchable and foldable silicon-based electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Cavazos Sepulveda, Adrian Cesar; Diaz Cordero, M. S.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Flexible and stretchable semiconducting substrates provide the foundation for novel electronic applications. Usually, ultra-thin, flexible but often fragile substrates are used in such applications. Here, we describe flexible, stretchable, and foldable 500-μm-thick bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) “islands” that are interconnected via extremely compliant 30-μm-thick connectors made of silicon. The thick mono-crystalline segments create a stand-alone silicon array that is capable of bending to a radius of 130 μm. The bending radius of the array does not depend on the overall substrate thickness because the ultra-flexible silicon connectors are patterned. We use fracture propagation to release the islands. Because they allow for three-dimensional monolithic stacking of integrated circuits or other electronics without any through-silicon vias, our mono-crystalline islands can be used as a “more-than-Moore” strategy and to develop wearable electronics that are sufficiently robust to be compatible with flip-chip bonding.

  18. Free form CMOS electronics: Physically flexible and stretchable

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Cruz, Melvin

    2015-01-01

    Free form (physically flexible and stretchable) electronics can be used for applications which are unexplored today due to the rigid and brittle nature of the state-of-the-art electronics. Therefore, we show integration strategy to rationally design

  19. A strain-isolation design for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Li, Ming; Chen, Wei-Qiu; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Kim, Yun-Soung; Huang, Yong-Gang; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Kang, Zhan; Rogers, John A.

    2010-12-01

    Stretchable electronics represents a direction of recent development in next-generation semiconductor devices. Such systems have the potential to offer the performance of conventional wafer-based technologies, but they can be stretched like a rubber band, twisted like a rope, bent over a pencil, and folded like a piece of paper. Isolating the active devices from strains associated with such deformations is an important aspect of design. One strategy involves the shielding of the electronics from deformation of the substrate through insertion of a compliant adhesive layer. This paper establishes a simple, analytical model and validates the results by the finite element method. The results show that a relatively thick, compliant adhesive is effective to reduce the strain in the electronics, as is a relatively short film.

  20. Flexible and Stretchable Optoelectronic Devices using Silver Nanowires and Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanleem; Kim, Meeree; Kim, Ikjoon; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have accompanied the emergence of a great interest in flexible or/and stretchable devices for new applications in wearable and futuristic technology, including human-interface devices, robotic skin, and biometric devices, and in optoelectronic devices. Especially, new nanodimensional materials enable flexibility or stretchability to be brought based on their dimensionality. Here, the emerging field of flexible devices is briefly introduced using silver nanowires and graphene, which are famous nanomaterials for the use of transparent conductive electrodes, as examples, and their unique functions originating from the intrinsic property of these nanomaterials are highlighted. It is thought that this work will evoke more interest and idea exchanges in this emerging field and hopefully can trigger a breakthrough on a new type of optoelectronics and optogenetic devices in the near future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Metal/Polymer Based Stretchable Antenna for Constant Frequency Far-Field Communication in Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Park, Sung I.; Rogers, John A.; Shamim, Atif; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    electronics which can physically stretch to absorb the strain associated with body movements. While research in stretchable electronics has started to gain momentum, a stretchable antenna which can perform far-field communications and can operate at constant

  2. Screen-Printing Fabrication and Characterization of Stretchable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suikkola, Jari; Björninen, Toni; Mosallaei, Mahmoud; Kankkunen, Timo; Iso-Ketola, Pekka; Ukkonen, Leena; Vanhala, Jukka; Mäntysalo, Matti

    2016-05-13

    This article focuses on the fabrication and characterization of stretchable interconnects for wearable electronics applications. Interconnects were screen-printed with a stretchable silver-polymer composite ink on 50-μm thick thermoplastic polyurethane. The initial sheet resistances of the manufactured interconnects were an average of 36.2 mΩ/◽, and half the manufactured samples withstood single strains of up to 74%. The strain proportionality of resistance is discussed, and a regression model is introduced. Cycling strain increased resistance. However, the resistances here were almost fully reversible, and this recovery was time-dependent. Normalized resistances to 10%, 15%, and 20% cyclic strains stabilized at 1.3, 1.4, and 1.7. We also tested the validity of our model for radio-frequency applications through characterization of a stretchable radio-frequency identification tag.

  3. Screen-Printing Fabrication and Characterization of Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suikkola, Jari; Björninen, Toni; Mosallaei, Mahmoud; Kankkunen, Timo; Iso-Ketola, Pekka; Ukkonen, Leena; Vanhala, Jukka; Mäntysalo, Matti

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the fabrication and characterization of stretchable interconnects for wearable electronics applications. Interconnects were screen-printed with a stretchable silver-polymer composite ink on 50-μm thick thermoplastic polyurethane. The initial sheet resistances of the manufactured interconnects were an average of 36.2 mΩ/◽, and half the manufactured samples withstood single strains of up to 74%. The strain proportionality of resistance is discussed, and a regression model is introduced. Cycling strain increased resistance. However, the resistances here were almost fully reversible, and this recovery was time-dependent. Normalized resistances to 10%, 15%, and 20% cyclic strains stabilized at 1.3, 1.4, and 1.7. We also tested the validity of our model for radio-frequency applications through characterization of a stretchable radio-frequency identification tag. PMID:27173424

  4. CMOS-Technology-Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2015-11-26

    Flexible and stretchable electronics can dramatically enhance the application of electronics for the emerging Internet of Everything applications where people, processes, data and devices will be integrated and connected, to augment quality of life. Using naturally flexible and stretchable polymeric substrates in combination with emerging organic and molecular materials, nanowires, nanoribbons, nanotubes, and 2D atomic crystal structured materials, significant progress has been made in the general area of such electronics. However, high volume manufacturing, reliability and performance per cost remain elusive goals for wide commercialization of these electronics. On the other hand, highly sophisticated but extremely reliable, batch-fabrication-capable and mature complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based technology has facilitated tremendous growth of today\\'s digital world using thin-film-based electronics; in particular, bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) which is used in most of the electronics existing today. However, one fundamental challenge is that state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are physically rigid and brittle. Therefore, in this work, how CMOS-technology-enabled flexible and stretchable electronics can be developed is discussed, with particular focus on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100). A comprehensive information base to realistically devise an integration strategy by rational design of materials, devices and processes for Internet of Everything electronics is offered. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Tape transfer printing of a liquid metal alloy for stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2014-09-03

    In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF) electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems), without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 μm. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID) tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles.

  6. Tape Transfer Printing of a Liquid Metal Alloy for Stretchable RF Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hee Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to make conductors with large cross sections for low impedance radio frequency (RF electronics, while still retaining high stretchability, liquid-alloy-based microfluidic stretchable electronics offers stretchable electronic systems the unique opportunity to combine various sensors on our bodies or organs with high-quality wireless communication with the external world (devices/systems, without sacrificing enhanced user comfort. This microfluidic approach, based on printed circuit board technology, allows large area processing of large cross section conductors and robust contacts, which can handle a lot of stretching between the embedded rigid active components and the surrounding system. Although it provides such benefits, further development is needed to realize its potential as a high throughput, cost-effective process technology. In this paper, tape transfer printing is proposed to supply a rapid prototyping batch process at low cost, albeit at a low resolution of 150 μm. In particular, isolated patterns can be obtained in a simple one-step process. Finally, a stretchable radio frequency identification (RFID tag is demonstrated. The measured results show the robustness of the hybrid integrated system when the tag is stretched at 50% for 3000 cycles.

  7. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E.; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R. Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J.; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G.; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-09-01

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  8. Rugged and breathable forms of stretchable electronics with adherent composite substrates for transcutaneous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Han, Sang Youn; Xu, Sheng; Mathewson, Kyle E; Zhang, Yihui; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Webb, R Chad; Lee, Jung Woo; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Kim, Rak Hwan; Song, Young Min; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Kim, Stanley; Cheng, Huanyu; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dongjun; Yang, Yiyuan; Cho, Moongee; Gaspar, John G; Carbonari, Ronald; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-03

    Research in stretchable electronics involves fundamental scientific topics relevant to applications with importance in human healthcare. Despite significant progress in active components, routes to mechanically robust construction are lacking. Here, we introduce materials and composite designs for thin, breathable, soft electronics that can adhere strongly to the skin, with the ability to be applied and removed hundreds of times without damaging the devices or the skin, even in regions with substantial topography and coverage of hair. The approach combines thin, ultralow modulus, cellular silicone materials with elastic, strain-limiting fabrics, to yield a compliant but rugged platform for stretchable electronics. Theoretical and experimental studies highlight the mechanics of adhesion and elastic deformation. Demonstrations include cutaneous optical, electrical and radio frequency sensors for measuring hydration state, electrophysiological activity, pulse and cerebral oximetry. Multipoint monitoring of a subject in an advanced driving simulator provides a practical example.

  9. Recent Advances in Flexible/Stretchable Supercapacitors for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, La; Lou, Zheng; Chen, Di; Jiang, Kai; Han, Wei; Shen, Guozhen

    2017-11-22

    The popularization of personalized wearable devices has accelerated the development of flexible/stretchable supercapacitors (SCs) that possess remarkable features of miniaturization, high security, and easy integration to build an all-in-one integrated system, and realize the functions of comfortable, noninvasive and continuous health monitoring, motion records, and information acquisition, etc. This Review presents a brief phylogeny of flexible/stretchable SCs, represented by planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) and 1D fibrous SCs. The latest progress and advantages of different flexible/stretchable/self-healing substrate, solid-state electrolyte and electrode materials for the fabrication of wearable SCs devices are summarized. The various configurations used in planar MSCs and 1D fibrous SCs aiming at the improvement of performance are also discussed. In addition, from the viewpoint of practical value and large-scale production, a survey of integrated systems, from different types of SC powered wearable sensing (gas, pressure, tactile…) systems, wearable all-in-one systems (including energy harvest, storage, and functional groups), to device packaging is presented. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of wearable SCs are also considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biodegradable elastomers and silicon nanomembranes/nanoribbons for stretchable, transient electronics, and biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Lee, Chi Hwan; Cheng, Huanyu; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Jiho; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhuangjian; Ameer, Guillermo A; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-05-13

    Transient electronics represents an emerging class of technology that exploits materials and/or device constructs that are capable of physically disappearing or disintegrating in a controlled manner at programmed rates or times. Inorganic semiconductor nanomaterials such as silicon nanomembranes/nanoribbons provide attractive choices for active elements in transistors, diodes and other essential components of overall systems that dissolve completely by hydrolysis in biofluids or groundwater. We describe here materials, mechanics, and design layouts to achieve this type of technology in stretchable configurations with biodegradable elastomers for substrate/encapsulation layers. Experimental and theoretical results illuminate the mechanical properties under large strain deformation. Circuit characterization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverters and individual transistors under various levels of applied loads validates the design strategies. Examples of biosensors demonstrate possibilities for stretchable, transient devices in biomedical applications.

  11. Micro-wrinkling and delamination-induced buckling of stretchable electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewole, O. K.; Yu, D.; Du, J.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Oyewole, D. O.; Anye, V. C.; Zebaze Kana, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical/computational micro-wrinkles and buckling on the surfaces of stretchable poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated with nano-scale Gold (Au) layers. The wrinkles and buckles are formed by the unloading of pre-stretched PDMS/Au structure after the evaporation of nano-scale Au layers. They are then characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The critical stresses required for wrinkling and buckling are analyzed using analytical models. The possible interfacial cracking that can occur along with film buckling is also studied using finite element simulations of the interfacial crack growth. The implications of the results are discussed for potential applications of micro-wrinkles and micro-buckles in stretchable electronic structures and biomedical devices

  12. Stretchable, Twisted Conductive Microtubules for Wearable Computing, Robotics, Electronics, and Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh Nho Do; Yon Visell

    2017-01-01

    Stretchable and flexible multifunctional electronic components, including sensors and actuators, have received increasing attention in robotics, electronics, wearable, and healthcare applications. Despite advances, it has remained challenging to design analogs of many electronic components to be highly stretchable, to be efficient to fabricate, and to provide control over electronic performance. Here, we describe highly elastic sensors and interconnects formed from thin, twisted conductive mi...

  13. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem

    2017-11-21

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  14. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem; Khan, S. M.; Nour, Maha A.; Rehman, M. U.; Rojas, J. P.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  15. Highly Stretchable and Conductive Superhydrophobic Coating for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Chen, Zhonghua; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-03-28

    Superhydrophobic materials integrating stretchability with conductivity have huge potential in the emerging application horizons such as wearable electronic sensors, flexible power storage apparatus, and corrosion-resistant circuits. Herein, a facile spraying method is reported to fabricate a durable superhydrophobic coating with excellent stretchable and electrical performance by combing 1-octadecanethiol-modified silver nanoparticles (M-AgNPs) with polystyrene- b-poly(ethylene- co-butylene)- b-polystyrene (SEBS) on a prestretched natural rubber (NR) substrate. The embedding of M-AgNPs in elastic SEBS matrix and relaxation of prestretched NR substrate construct hierarchical rough architecture and endow the coating with dense charge-transport pathways. The fabricated coating exhibits superhydrophobicity with water contact angle larger than 160° and a high conductivity with resistance of about 10 Ω. The coating not only maintains superhydrophobicity at low/high stretch ratio for the newly generated small/large protuberances but also responds to stretching and bending with good sensitivity, broad sensing range, and stable response cycles. Moreover, the coating exhibits excellent durability to heat and strong acid/alkali and mechanical forces including droplet impact, kneading, torsion, and repetitive stretching-relaxation. The findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate multifunctional superhydrophobic materials with excellent stretchability and conductivity for flexible electronics under wet or corrosive environments.

  16. Stretchable and High-Performance Supercapacitors with Crumpled Graphene Papers

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Jianfeng; Cao, Changyong; Feng, Yaying; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of unconventional energy storage devices with high stretchability and performance is challenging, but critical to practical operations of fully power-independent stretchable electronics. While supercapacitors represent a promising candidate for unconventional energy-storage devices, existing stretchable supercapacitors are limited by their low stretchability, complicated fabrication process, and high cost. Here, we report a simple and low-cost method to fabricate extremely stretch...

  17. Molecularly Stretchable Electronics for Energy and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipomi, Darren

    The term ``plastic electronics'' masks the wide range of mechanical behavior possessed by films of π-conjugated (semiconducting) small molecules and polymers. Such materials are promising for biosensors, large-area displays, low-energy lighting, and low-cost photovoltaic modules. There is also an apparent trade-off between electronic performance and mechanical compliance in films of some of the best-performing semiconducting polymers, which fracture at tensile strains not significantly greater than those at which conventional inorganic semiconductors fail. The design of intrinsically deformable electronic materials-i.e., imagine a semiconducting rubber band-would facilitate roll-to-roll production, mechanical robustness for potable applications, and conformal bonding to curved surfaces. This seminar describes my group's efforts to understand and control the structural parameters that influence the mechanical properties of π-conjugated polymers. The techniques we employ include synthetic chemistry, spectroscopy and microstructural characterization, computation from the molecular to continuum level, and electrical measurements of devices. A complex picture emerges for the interplay between molecular structure, the way the process of solidification influences the morphology, and how molecular structure and morphology combine to produce a film with a given modulus, elastic range, ductility, and toughness. We are also exploring ways to introduce other properties into organic semiconductors that are inspired by biological tissue. That is, not just elasticity and toughness, but also biodegradability and the capacity for self-repair. The seminar will also touch on our use of self-assembled metallic nanoislands on graphene for ultra-sensitive mechanical sensing using piezoresistive and ``piezoplasmonic'' mechanisms. The applications for these materials are in detecting human motion and measuring the mechanics of cardiac and musculoskeletal cells. My group is broadly

  18. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been cond...

  19. Fluoropolymer based composite with Ag particles as 3D printable conductive ink for stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; La, Thanh Giang; Li, Xinda; Chung, Hyun Joong

    The recent development of stretchable electronics expands the scope of wearable and healthcare applications. This creates a high demand in stretchy conductor that can maintain conductivity at high strain conditions. Here, we describe a simple fabrication pathway to achieve stretchable, 3D-printable and low-cost conductive composite ink. The ink is used to print complex stretchable patterns with high conductivity. The elastic ink is composed of silver(Ag) flakes, fluorine rubber, an organic solvent and surfactant. The surfactant plays multiple roles in in the composite. The surfactant promotes compatibility between silver flakes and fluorine rubber; at the same time, it affects the mechanical properties of the hosting fluoropolymers and adhesion properties of the composite. Based on experimental observations, we discuss the exact role of the surfactant in the composite. The resulting composite exhibits high conductivity value of 8.49 *10 4 S/m along with high reliability against repeated stretching/releasing cycles. Interesting examples of transfer printing of the printed ink and its applications in working devices, such as RFID tag and antennas, are also showcased.

  20. Carbon Nanofiber versus Graphene-Based Stretchable Capacitive Touch Sensors for Artificial Electronic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Pietro; Dussoni, Simeone; Ceseracciu, Luca; Maggiali, Marco; Natale, Lorenzo; Metta, Giorgio; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bayer, Ilker S

    2018-02-01

    Stretchable capacitive devices are instrumental for new-generation multifunctional haptic technologies particularly suited for soft robotics and electronic skin applications. A majority of elongating soft electronics still rely on silicone for building devices or sensors by multiple-step replication. In this study, fabrication of a reliable elongating parallel-plate capacitive touch sensor, using nitrile rubber gloves as templates, is demonstrated. Spray coating both sides of a rubber piece cut out of a glove with a conductive polymer suspension carrying dispersed carbon nanofibers (CnFs) or graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) is sufficient for making electrodes with low sheet resistance values (≈10 Ω sq -1 ). The electrodes based on CnFs maintain their conductivity up to 100% elongation whereas the GnPs-based ones form cracks before 60% elongation. However, both electrodes are reliable under elongation levels associated with human joints motility (≈20%). Strikingly, structural damages due to repeated elongation/recovery cycles could be healed through annealing. Haptic sensing characteristics of a stretchable capacitive device by wrapping it around the fingertip of a robotic hand (ICub) are demonstrated. Tactile forces as low as 0.03 N and as high as 5 N can be easily sensed by the device under elongation or over curvilinear surfaces.

  1. Stretchable Electronic Sensors of Nanocomposite Network Films for Ultrasensitive Chemical Vapor Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Zhong, Mengjuan; Lv, Ze; Wan, Pengbo

    2017-11-01

    A stretchable, transparent, and body-attachable chemical sensor is assembled from the stretchable nanocomposite network film for ultrasensitive chemical vapor sensing. The stretchable nanocomposite network film is fabricated by in situ preparation of polyaniline/MoS 2 (PANI/MoS 2 ) nanocomposite in MoS 2 suspension and simultaneously nanocomposite deposition onto prestrain elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The assembled stretchable electronic sensor demonstrates ultrasensitive sensing performance as low as 50 ppb, robust sensing stability, and reliable stretchability for high-performance chemical vapor sensing. The ultrasensitive sensing performance of the stretchable electronic sensors could be ascribed to the synergistic sensing advantages of MoS 2 and PANI, higher specific surface area, the reliable sensing channels of interconnected network, and the effectively exposed sensing materials. It is expected to hold great promise for assembling various flexible stretchable chemical vapor sensors with ultrasensitive sensing performance, superior sensing stability, reliable stretchability, and robust portability to be potentially integrated into wearable electronics for real-time monitoring of environment safety and human healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Analysis of the three-dimensional delamination behavior of stretchable electronics applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der O.; Timmermans, P.H.M.; Zanden, van der E.J.L.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Ernst, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Stretchable electronics offer potential application areasin biological implants interacting with human tissue. Furthermore, they facilitate increased design freedom of electronic products. Typical applications can be found in healthcare, wellness and functional clothes. A key requirement on these

  3. Scalable Microfabrication Procedures for Adhesive-Integrated Flexible and Stretchable Electronic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae Y.; Kim, Yun-Soung; Ornelas, Gladys; Sinha, Mridu; Naidu, Keerthiga; Coleman, Todd P.

    2015-01-01

    New classes of ultrathin flexible and stretchable devices have changed the way modern electronics are designed to interact with their target systems. Though more and more novel technologies surface and steer the way we think about future electronics, there exists an unmet need in regards to optimizing the fabrication procedures for these devices so that large-scale industrial translation is realistic. This article presents an unconventional approach for facile microfabrication and processing of adhesive-peeled (AP) flexible sensors. By assembling AP sensors on a weakly-adhering substrate in an inverted fashion, we demonstrate a procedure with 50% reduced end-to-end processing time that achieves greater levels of fabrication yield. The methodology is used to demonstrate the fabrication of electrical and mechanical flexible and stretchable AP sensors that are peeled-off their carrier substrates by consumer adhesives. In using this approach, we outline the manner by which adhesion is maintained and buckling is reduced for gold film processing on polydimethylsiloxane substrates. In addition, we demonstrate the compatibility of our methodology with large-scale post-processing using a roll-to-roll approach. PMID:26389915

  4. Mechanical Properties of Organic Semiconductors for Stretchable, Highly Flexible, and Mechanically Robust Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Samuel E; Savagatrup, Suchol; Printz, Adam D; Rodriquez, Daniel; Lipomi, Darren J

    2017-05-10

    Mechanical deformability underpins many of the advantages of organic semiconductors. The mechanical properties of these materials are, however, diverse, and the molecular characteristics that permit charge transport can render the materials stiff and brittle. This review is a comprehensive description of the molecular and morphological parameters that govern the mechanical properties of organic semiconductors. Particular attention is paid to ways in which mechanical deformability and electronic performance can coexist. The review begins with a discussion of flexible and stretchable devices of all types, and in particular the unique characteristics of organic semiconductors. It then discusses the mechanical properties most relevant to deformable devices. In particular, it describes how low modulus, good adhesion, and absolute extensibility prior to fracture enable robust performance, along with mechanical "imperceptibility" if worn on the skin. A description of techniques of metrology precedes a discussion of the mechanical properties of three classes of organic semiconductors: π-conjugated polymers, small molecules, and composites. The discussion of each class of materials focuses on molecular structure and how this structure (and postdeposition processing) influences the solid-state packing structure and thus the mechanical properties. The review concludes with applications of organic semiconductor devices in which every component is intrinsically stretchable or highly flexible.

  5. The Language of Glove: Wireless gesture decoder with low-power and stretchable hybrid electronics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F O'Connor

    Full Text Available This communication describes a glove capable of wirelessly translating the American Sign Language (ASL alphabet into text displayable on a computer or smartphone. The key components of the device are strain sensors comprising a piezoresistive composite of carbon particles embedded in a fluoroelastomer. These sensors are integrated with a wearable electronic module consisting of digitizers, a microcontroller, and a Bluetooth radio. Finite-element analysis predicts a peak strain on the sensors of 5% when the knuckles are fully bent. Fatigue studies suggest that the sensors successfully detect the articulation of the knuckles even when bent to their maximal degree 1,000 times. In concert with an accelerometer and pressure sensors, the glove is able to translate all 26 letters of the ASL alphabet. Lastly, data taken from the glove are used to control a virtual hand; this application suggests new ways in which stretchable and wearable electronics can enable humans to interface with virtual environments. Critically, this system was constructed of components costing less than $100 and did not require chemical synthesis or access to a cleanroom. It can thus be used as a test bed for materials scientists to evaluate the performance of new materials and flexible and stretchable hybrid electronics.

  6. The Language of Glove: Wireless gesture decoder with low-power and stretchable hybrid electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy F; Fach, Matthew E; Miller, Rachel; Root, Samuel E; Mercier, Patrick P; Lipomi, Darren J

    2017-01-01

    This communication describes a glove capable of wirelessly translating the American Sign Language (ASL) alphabet into text displayable on a computer or smartphone. The key components of the device are strain sensors comprising a piezoresistive composite of carbon particles embedded in a fluoroelastomer. These sensors are integrated with a wearable electronic module consisting of digitizers, a microcontroller, and a Bluetooth radio. Finite-element analysis predicts a peak strain on the sensors of 5% when the knuckles are fully bent. Fatigue studies suggest that the sensors successfully detect the articulation of the knuckles even when bent to their maximal degree 1,000 times. In concert with an accelerometer and pressure sensors, the glove is able to translate all 26 letters of the ASL alphabet. Lastly, data taken from the glove are used to control a virtual hand; this application suggests new ways in which stretchable and wearable electronics can enable humans to interface with virtual environments. Critically, this system was constructed of components costing less than $100 and did not require chemical synthesis or access to a cleanroom. It can thus be used as a test bed for materials scientists to evaluate the performance of new materials and flexible and stretchable hybrid electronics.

  7. Metal/Polymer Based Stretchable Antenna for Constant Frequency Far-Field Communication in Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2015-10-06

    Body integrated wearable electronics can be used for advanced health monitoring, security, and wellness. Due to the complex, asymmetric surface of human body and atypical motion such as stretching in elbow, finger joints, wrist, knee, ankle, etc. electronics integrated to body need to be physically flexible, conforming, and stretchable. In that context, state-of-the-art electronics are unusable due to their bulky, rigid, and brittle framework. Therefore, it is critical to develop stretchable electronics which can physically stretch to absorb the strain associated with body movements. While research in stretchable electronics has started to gain momentum, a stretchable antenna which can perform far-field communications and can operate at constant frequency, such that physical shape modulation will not compromise its functionality, is yet to be realized. Here, a stretchable antenna is shown, using a low-cost metal (copper) on flexible polymeric platform, which functions at constant frequency of 2.45 GHz, for far-field applications. While mounted on a stretchable fabric worn by a human subject, the fabricated antenna communicated at a distance of 80 m with 1.25 mW transmitted power. This work shows an integration strategy from compact antenna design to its practical experimentation for enhanced data communication capability in future generation wearable electronics.

  8. A Stretchable Alternating Current Electroluminescent Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible, stretchable electroluminescent fibers are of significance to meet the escalating requirements of increasing complexity and multifunctionality of smart electronics. We report a stretchable alternating current electroluminescent (ACEL fiber by a low-cost and all solution-processed scalable process. The ACEL fiber provides high stretchability, decent light-emitting performance, with excellent stability and nearly zero hysteresis. It can be stretched up to 80% strain. Our ACEL fiber device maintained a stable luminance for over 6000 stretch-release cycles at 50% strain. The mechanical stretchability and optical stability of our ACEL fiber device provides new possibilities towards next-generation stretchable displays, electronic textiles, advanced biomedical imaging and lighting, conformable visual readouts in arbitrary shapes, and novel health-monitoring devices.

  9. Engineering in-plane silicon nanowire springs for highly stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoguo; Dong, Taige; Zhu, Zhimin; Zhao, Yaolong; Sun, Ying; Yu, Linwei

    2018-01-01

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is unambiguously the most important semiconductor that underpins the development of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics, though the rigid and brittle nature of bulk c-Si makes it difficult to implement directly for stretchable applications. Fortunately, the one-dimensional (1D) geometry, or the line-shape, of Si nanowire (SiNW) can be engineered into elastic springs, which indicates an exciting opportunity to fabricate highly stretchable 1D c-Si channels. The implementation of such line-shape-engineering strategy demands both a tiny diameter of the SiNWs, in order to accommodate the strains under large stretching, and a precise growth location, orientation and path control to facilitate device integration. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progresses of an in-plane self-assembly growth of SiNW springs, via a new in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mechanism, where mono-like but elastic SiNW springs are produced by surface-running metal droplets that absorb amorphous Si thin film as precursor. Then, the critical growth control and engineering parameters, the mechanical properties of the SiNW springs and the prospects of developing c-Si based stretchable electronics, will be addressed. This efficient line-shape-engineering strategy of SiNW springs, accomplished via a low temperature batch-manufacturing, holds a strong promise to extend the legend of modern Si technology into the emerging stretchable electronic applications, where the high carrier mobility, excellent stability and established doping and passivation controls of c-Si can be well inherited. Project supported by the National Basic Research 973 Program (No. 2014CB921101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61674075), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFA0205003), the Jiangsu Excellent Young Scholar Program (No. BK20160020), the Scientific and Technological Support Program in Jiangsu Province (No. BE

  10. Lab-on-Skin: A Review of Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Wearable Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; Pharr, Matt; Salvatore, Giovanni Antonio

    2017-10-24

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body, and it offers a diagnostic interface rich with vital biological signals from the inner organs, blood vessels, muscles, and dermis/epidermis. Soft, flexible, and stretchable electronic devices provide a novel platform to interface with soft tissues for robotic feedback and control, regenerative medicine, and continuous health monitoring. Here, we introduce the term "lab-on-skin" to describe a set of electronic devices that have physical properties, such as thickness, thermal mass, elastic modulus, and water-vapor permeability, which resemble those of the skin. These devices can conformally laminate on the epidermis to mitigate motion artifacts and mismatches in mechanical properties created by conventional, rigid electronics while simultaneously providing accurate, non-invasive, long-term, and continuous health monitoring. Recent progress in the design and fabrication of soft sensors with more advanced capabilities and enhanced reliability suggest an impending translation of these devices from the research lab to clinical environments. Regarding these advances, the first part of this manuscript reviews materials, design strategies, and powering systems used in soft electronics. Next, the paper provides an overview of applications of these devices in cardiology, dermatology, electrophysiology, and sweat diagnostics, with an emphasis on how these systems may replace conventional clinical tools. The review concludes with an outlook on current challenges and opportunities for future research directions in wearable health monitoring.

  11. Adhesion enhancement by a dielectric barrier discharge of PDMS used for flexible and stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morent, R; Geyter, N De; Axisa, F; Smet, N de; Gengembre, L; Leersnyder, E De; Leys, C; Vanfleteren, J; Rymarczyk-Machal, M; Schacht, E; Payen, E

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong tendency to replace rigid electronic assemblies by mechanically flexible and stretchable equivalents. This emerging technology can be applied for biomedical electronics, such as implantable devices and electronics on skin. In the first step of the production process of stretchable electronics, electronic interconnections and components are encapsulated into a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Afterwards, the electronic structures are completely embedded by placing another PDMS layer on top. It is very important that the metals inside the electronic circuit do not leak out in order to obtain a highly biocompatible system. Therefore, an excellent adhesion between the 2 PDMS layers is of great importance. However, PDMS has a very low surface energy, resulting in poor adhesion properties. Therefore, in this paper, PDMS films are plasma treated with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in air at medium pressure (5.0 kPa). Contact angle and XPS measurements reveal that plasma treatment increases the hydrophilicity of the PDMS films due to the incorporation of silanol groups at the expense of methyl groups. T-peel tests show that plasma treatment rapidly imparts adhesion enhancement, but only when both PDMS layers are plasma treated. Results also reveal that it is very important to bond the plasma-treated PDMS films immediately after treatment. In this case, an excellent adhesion is maintained several days after treatment. The ageing behaviour of the plasma-treated PDMS films is also studied in detail: contact angle measurements show that the contact angle increases during storage in air and angle-resolved XPS reveals that this hydrophobic recovery is due to the migration of low molar mass PDMS species to the surface

  12. Ag/Au/Polypyrrole Core-shell Nanowire Network for Transparent, Stretchable and Flexible Supercapacitor in Wearable Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyunjin; Lee, Habeom; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Suh, Young Duk; Kim, Dong Kwan; Ha, Inho; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Transparent and stretchable energy storage devices have attracted significant interest due to their potential to be applied to biocompatible and wearable electronics. Supercapacitors that use the reversible faradaic redox reaction of conducting polymer have a higher specific capacitance as compared with electrical double-layer capacitors. Typically, the conducting polymer electrode is fabricated through direct electropolymerization on the current collector. However, no research have been conducted on metal nanowires as current collectors for the direct electropolymerization, even though the metal nanowire network structure has proven to be superior as a transparent, flexible, and stretchable electrode platform because the conducting polymer’s redox potential for polymerization is higher than that of widely studied metal nanowires such as silver and copper. In this study, we demonstrated a highly transparent and stretchable supercapacitor by developing Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks as electrode by coating the surface of Ag NWs with a thin layer of gold, which provide higher redox potential than the electropolymerizable monomer. The Ag/Au/Polypyrrole core-shell nanowire networks demonstrated superior mechanical stability under various mechanical bending and stretching. In addition, proposed supercapacitors showed fine optical transmittance together with fivefold improved areal capacitance compared to pristine Ag/Au core-shell nanowire mesh-based supercapacitors.

  13. Mechanics of ultra-stretchable self-similar serpentine interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yihui; Fu, Haoran; Su, Yewang; Xu, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We developed analytical models of flexibility and elastic-stretchability for self-similar interconnect. The analytic solutions agree very well with the finite element analyses, both demonstrating that the elastic-stretchability more than doubles when the order of self-similar structure increases by one. Design optimization yields 90% and 50% elastic stretchability for systems with surface filling ratios of 50% and 70% of active devices, respectively. The analytic models are useful for the development of stretchable electronics that simultaneously demand large coverage of active devices, such as stretchable photovoltaics and electronic eye-ball cameras. -- Abstract: Electrical interconnects that adopt self-similar, serpentine layouts offer exceptional levels of stretchability in systems that consist of collections of small, non-stretchable active devices in the so-called island–bridge design. This paper develops analytical models of flexibility and elastic stretchability for such structures, and establishes recursive formulae at different orders of self-similarity. The analytic solutions agree well with finite element analysis, with both demonstrating that the elastic stretchability more than doubles when the order of the self-similar structure increases by one. Design optimization yields 90% and 50% elastic stretchability for systems with surface filling ratios of 50% and 70% of active devices, respectively

  14. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  15. Inflammation-free, gas-permeable, lightweight, stretchable on-skin electronics with nanomeshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Akihito; Lee, Sungwon; Cooray, Nawalage Florence; Lee, Sunghoon; Mori, Mami; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Jin, Hanbit; Yoda, Leona; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Akira; Sekino, Masaki; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Tamotsu; Amagai, Masayuki; Someya, Takao

    2017-09-01

    Thin-film electronic devices can be integrated with skin for health monitoring and/or for interfacing with machines. Minimal invasiveness is highly desirable when applying wearable electronics directly onto human skin. However, manufacturing such on-skin electronics on planar substrates results in limited gas permeability. Therefore, it is necessary to systematically investigate their long-term physiological and psychological effects. As a demonstration of substrate-free electronics, here we show the successful fabrication of inflammation-free, highly gas-permeable, ultrathin, lightweight and stretchable sensors that can be directly laminated onto human skin for long periods of time, realized with a conductive nanomesh structure. A one-week skin patch test revealed that the risk of inflammation caused by on-skin sensors can be significantly suppressed by using the nanomesh sensors. Furthermore, a wireless system that can detect touch, temperature and pressure is successfully demonstrated using a nanomesh with excellent mechanical durability. In addition, electromyogram recordings were successfully taken with minimal discomfort to the user.

  16. Stretchable V2O5/PEDOT supercapacitors: a modular fabrication process and charging with triboelectric nanogenerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ruijie; Nie, Jinhui; Liu, Mingyang; Xia, Mengyang; Lu, Xianmao

    2018-04-26

    Stretchable energy storage devices are of great importance for the viable applications of wearable/stretchable electronics. Studies on stretchable energy storage devices, especially supercapacitors (SCs), have shown encouraging progress. However, challenges still remain in the pursuit of high specific capacitances and facile fabrication methods. Herein, we report a modular materials fabrication and assembly process for stretchable SCs. With a V2O5/PEDOT composite as the active material, the resulting stretchable SCs exhibited high areal specific capacitances up to 240 mF cm-2 and good capacitance retention at a strain of 50%. To demonstrate the facile assembly process, a stretchable wristband was fabricated by simply assembling SC cells in series to deliver a voltage higher than 2 V. Charging the wristband with a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to light an LED was further demonstrated, indicating the potential to integrate our SCs with environmental energy harvesters for self-powered stretchable devices.

  17. Competition between deformability and charge transport in semiconducting polymers for flexible and stretchable electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Printz, Adam D.; Lipomi, Darren J., E-mail: dlipomi@ucsd.edu [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0448, La Jolla, California 92093-0448 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    enough to disrupt charge transport pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a bridge between the fields interested in electronic properties and mechanical properties of conjugated polymers. We provide a high-level introduction to some of the important electronic and mechanical properties and measurement techniques for organic electronic devices, demonstrate an apparent competition between good electronic performance and mechanical deformability, and highlight potential strategies for overcoming this undesirable competition. A marriage of these two fields would allow for rational design of materials for applications requiring large-area, low-cost, printable devices that are ultra-flexible or stretchable, such as organic photovoltaic devices and wearable, conformable, or implantable sensors.

  18. Competition between deformability and charge transport in semiconducting polymers for flexible and stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Printz, Adam D.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2016-01-01

    enough to disrupt charge transport pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a bridge between the fields interested in electronic properties and mechanical properties of conjugated polymers. We provide a high-level introduction to some of the important electronic and mechanical properties and measurement techniques for organic electronic devices, demonstrate an apparent competition between good electronic performance and mechanical deformability, and highlight potential strategies for overcoming this undesirable competition. A marriage of these two fields would allow for rational design of materials for applications requiring large-area, low-cost, printable devices that are ultra-flexible or stretchable, such as organic photovoltaic devices and wearable, conformable, or implantable sensors.

  19. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  20. Liquid-Metal-Based Super-Stretchable and Structure-Designable Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqin; Sun, Na; Wen, Zhen; Cheng, Ping; Zheng, Hechuang; Shao, Huiyun; Xia, Yujian; Chen, Chen; Lan, Huiwen; Xie, Xinkai; Zhou, Changjie; Zhong, Jun; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2018-02-27

    The rapid advancement of intelligent wearable electronics imposes the emergent requirement for power sources that are deformable, compliant, and stretchable. Power sources with these characteristics are difficult and challenging to achieve. The use of liquid metals as electrodes may provide a viable strategy to produce such power sources. In this work, we propose a liquid-metal-based triboelectric nanogenerator (LM-TENG) by employing Galinstan as the electrode and silicone rubber as the triboelectric and encapsulation layer. The small Young's modulus of the liquid metal ensures the electrode remains continuously conductive under deformations, stretching to a strain as large as ∼300%. The surface oxide layer of Galinstan effectively prevents the liquid Galinstan electrode from further oxidization and permeation into silicone rubber, yielding outstanding device stability. Operating in the single-electrode mode at 3 Hz, the LM-TENG with an area of 6 × 3 cm 2 produces an open-circuit voltage of 354.5 V, transferred short-circuit charge of 123.2 nC, short-circuit current of 15.6 μA, and average power density of 8.43 mW/m 2 , which represent outstanding performance values for TENGs. Further, the LM-TENG maintains stable performance under various deformations, such as stretching, folding, and twisting. LM-TENGs in different forms, such as bulk-shaped, bracelet-like, and textile-like, are all able to harvest mechanical energy from human walking, arm shaking, or hand patting to sustainably drive wearable electronic devices.

  1. Deterministic Line-Shape Programming of Silicon Nanowires for Extremely Stretchable Springs and Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoguo; Sun, Mei; Dong, Taige; Tang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yaolong; Wang, Junzhuan; Wei, Xianlong; Yu, Linwei; Chen, Qing; Xu, Jun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca I Cabarrocas, Pere

    2017-12-13

    Line-shape engineering is a key strategy to endow extra stretchability to 1D silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown with self-assembly processes. We here demonstrate a deterministic line-shape programming of in-plane SiNWs into extremely stretchable springs or arbitrary 2D patterns with the aid of indium droplets that absorb amorphous Si precursor thin film to produce ultralong c-Si NWs along programmed step edges. A reliable and faithful single run growth of c-SiNWs over turning tracks with different local curvatures has been established, while high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals a high quality monolike crystallinity in the line-shaped engineered SiNW springs. Excitingly, in situ scanning electron microscopy stretching and current-voltage characterizations also demonstrate a superelastic and robust electric transport carried by the SiNW springs even under large stretching of more than 200%. We suggest that this highly reliable line-shape programming approach holds a strong promise to extend the mature c-Si technology into the development of a new generation of high performance biofriendly and stretchable electronics.

  2. Stretchable Random Lasers with Tunable Coherent Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tzu-Min; Wang, Cih-Su; Liao, Chi-Shiun; Lin, Shih-Yao; Perumal, Packiyaraj; Chiang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2015-12-22

    Stretchability represents a key feature for the emerging world of realistic applications in areas, including wearable gadgets, health monitors, and robotic skins. Many optical and electronic technologies that can respond to large strain deformations have been developed. Laser plays a very important role in our daily life since it was discovered, which is highly desirable for the development of stretchable devices. Herein, stretchable random lasers with tunable coherent loops are designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. To illustrate our working principle, the stretchable random laser is made possible by transferring unique ZnO nanobrushes on top of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer substrate. Apart from the traditional gain material of ZnO nanorods, ZnO nanobrushes were used as optical gain materials so they can serve as scattering centers and provide the Fabry-Perot cavity to enhance laser action. The stretchable PDMS substrate gives the degree of freedom to mechanically tune the coherent loops of the random laser action by changing the density of ZnO nanobrushes. It is found that the number of laser modes increases with increasing external strain applied on the PDMS substrate due to the enhanced possibility for the formation of coherent loops. The device can be stretched by up to 30% strain and subjected to more than 100 cycles without loss in laser action. The result shows a major advance for the further development of man-made smart stretchable devices.

  3. Manufacturing of Liquid-Embedded Elastomers for Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca; Majidi, Carmel; Weaver, James; Wood, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft, elastically deformable, and may adapt their functionality in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for power circuits and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. As the demand for increased elasticity of electrical components heightens, the challenges for functionality revert to basic questions of fabrication, materials, and design. Several designs for soft sensory skins (including strain, pressure and curvature sensors) based on a liquid-embedded-elastomer approach have been developed. This talk will highlight new ``soft MEMS'' manufacturing techniques based on wetting behavior between gallium-indium alloys and elastomers with varying microtextured surface topography. Supported by Harvard MRSEC and the Wyss Institute

  4. Spirally Structured Conductive Composites for Highly Stretchable, Robust Conductors and Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Xinxing; Lu, Canhui

    2017-07-12

    Flexible and stretchable electronics are highly desirable for next generation devices. However, stretchability and conductivity are fundamentally difficult to combine for conventional conductive composites, which restricts their widespread applications especially as stretchable electronics. Here, we innovatively develop a new class of highly stretchable and robust conductive composites via a simple and scalable structural approach. Briefly, carbon nanotubes are spray-coated onto a self-adhesive rubber film, followed by rolling up the film completely to create a spirally layered structure within the composites. This unique spirally layered structure breaks the typical trade-off between stretchability and conductivity of traditional conductive composites and, more importantly, restrains the generation and propagation of mechanical microcracks in the conductive layer under strain. Benefiting from such structure-induced advantages, the spirally layered composites exhibit high stretchability and flexibility, good conductive stability, and excellent robustness, enabling the composites to serve as highly stretchable conductors (up to 300% strain), versatile sensors for monitoring both subtle and large human activities, and functional threads for wearable electronics. This novel and efficient methodology provides a new design philosophy for manufacturing not only stretchable conductors and sensors but also other stretchable electronics, such as transistors, generators, artificial muscles, etc.

  5. Enhanced piezoelectricity and stretchability in energy harvesting devices fabricated from buckled PZT ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Kim, Jihoon; Nguyen, Thanh D; Lisko, Bozhena; Purohit, Prashant K; McAlpine, Michael C

    2011-03-09

    The development of a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto soft, biocompatible substrates could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. Of particular interest are devices which can conform to irregular, curved surfaces, and operate in vital environments that may involve both flexing and stretching modes. Previous studies have shown significant advances in the integration of highly efficient piezoelectric nanocrystals on flexible and bendable substrates. Yet, such inorganic nanomaterials are mechanically incompatible with the extreme elasticity of elastomeric substrates. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these limitations, by generating wavy piezoelectric ribbons on silicone rubber. Our results show that the amplitudes in the waves accommodate order-of-magnitude increases in maximum tensile strain without fracture. Further, local probing of the buckled ribbons reveals an enhancement in the piezoelectric effect of up to 70%, thus representing the highest reported piezoelectric response on a stretchable medium. These results allow for the integration of energy conversion devices which operate in stretching mode via reversible deformations in the wavy/buckled ribbons.

  6. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Shi

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet (UV radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  7. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive; Pielak, Rafal M

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application.

  8. Soft, stretchable, epidermal sensor with integrated electronics and photochemistry for measuring personal UV exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhou; Manco, Megan; Moyal, Dominique; Huppert, Gil; Araki, Hitoshi; Banks, Anthony; Joshi, Hemant; McKenzie, Richard; Seewald, Alex; Griffin, Guy; Sen-Gupta, Ellora; Wright, Donald; Bastien, Philippe; Valceschini, Florent; Seité, Sophie; Wright, John A.; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Rogers, John; Balooch, Guive

    2018-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye and immune system. Personalized monitoring of UV radiation is thus paramount to measure the extent of personal sun exposure, which could vary with environment, lifestyle, and sunscreen use. Here, we demonstrate an ultralow modulus, stretchable, skin-mounted UV patch that measures personal UV doses. The patch contains functional layers of ultrathin stretchable electronics and a photosensitive patterned dye that reacts to UV radiation. Color changes in the photosensitive dyes correspond to UV radiation intensity and are analyzed with a smartphone camera. A software application has feature recognition, lighting condition correction, and quantification algorithms that detect and quantify changes in color. These color changes are then correlated with corresponding shifts in UV dose, and compared to existing UV dose risk levels. The soft mechanics of the UV patch allow for multi-day wear in the presence of sunscreen and water. Two evaluation studies serve to demonstrate the utility of the UV patch during daily activities with and without sunscreen application. PMID:29293664

  9. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  10. Editable Supercapacitors with Customizable Stretchability Based on Mechanically Strengthened Ultralong MnO2 Nanowire Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhisheng; Luo, Yifei; Tang, Yuxin; Wei, Jiaqi; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xinran; Li, Wenlong; Zeng, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Qi, Dianpeng; Pan, Shaowu; Loh, Xian Jun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Although some progress has been made on stretchable supercapacitors, traditional stretchable supercapacitors fabricated by predesigning structured electrodes for device assembling still lack the device-level editability and programmability. To adapt to wearable electronics with arbitrary configurations, it is highly desirable to develop editable supercapacitors that can be directly transferred into desirable shapes and stretchability. In this work, editable supercapacitors for customizable shapes and stretchability using electrodes based on mechanically strengthened ultralong MnO 2 nanowire composites are developed. A supercapacitor edited with honeycomb-like structure shows a specific capacitance of 227.2 mF cm -2 and can be stretched up to 500% without degradation of electrochemical performance, which is superior to most of the state-of-the-art stretchable supercapacitors. In addition, it maintains nearly 98% of the initial capacitance after 10 000 stretch-and-release cycles under 400% tensile strain. As a representative of concept for system integration, the editable supercapacitors are integrated with a strain sensor, and the system exhibits a stable sensing performance even under arm swing. Being highly stretchable, easily programmable, as well as connectable in series and parallel, an editable supercapacitor with customizable stretchability is promising to produce stylish energy storage devices to power various portable, stretchable, and wearable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Intrinsically stretchable and healable semiconducting polymer for organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin Young; Rondeau-Gagné, Simon; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Chortos, Alex; Lissel, Franziska; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Schroeder, Bob C; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Lopez, Jeffrey; Katsumata, Toru; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Chenxin; Gu, Xiaodan; Bae, Won-Gyu; Kim, Yeongin; Jin, Lihua; Chung, Jong Won; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-11-17

    Thin-film field-effect transistors are essential elements of stretchable electronic devices for wearable electronics. All of the materials and components of such transistors need to be stretchable and mechanically robust. Although there has been recent progress towards stretchable conductors, the realization of stretchable semiconductors has focused mainly on strain-accommodating engineering of materials, or blending of nanofibres or nanowires into elastomers. An alternative approach relies on using semiconductors that are intrinsically stretchable, so that they can be fabricated using standard processing methods. Molecular stretchability can be enhanced when conjugated polymers, containing modified side-chains and segmented backbones, are infused with more flexible molecular building blocks. Here we present a design concept for stretchable semiconducting polymers, which involves introducing chemical moieties to promote dynamic non-covalent crosslinking of the conjugated polymers. These non-covalent crosslinking moieties are able to undergo an energy dissipation mechanism through breakage of bonds when strain is applied, while retaining high charge transport abilities. As a result, our polymer is able to recover its high field-effect mobility performance (more than 1 square centimetre per volt per second) even after a hundred cycles at 100 per cent applied strain. Organic thin-film field-effect transistors fabricated from these materials exhibited mobility as high as 1.3 square centimetres per volt per second and a high on/off current ratio exceeding a million. The field-effect mobility remained as high as 1.12 square centimetres per volt per second at 100 per cent strain along the direction perpendicular to the strain. The field-effect mobility of damaged devices can be almost fully recovered after a solvent and thermal healing treatment. Finally, we successfully fabricated a skin-inspired stretchable organic transistor operating under deformations that might be

  12. Stretchable and High-Performance Supercapacitors with Crumpled Graphene Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianfeng; Cao, Changyong; Feng, Yaying; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2014-10-01

    Fabrication of unconventional energy storage devices with high stretchability and performance is challenging, but critical to practical operations of fully power-independent stretchable electronics. While supercapacitors represent a promising candidate for unconventional energy-storage devices, existing stretchable supercapacitors are limited by their low stretchability, complicated fabrication process, and high cost. Here, we report a simple and low-cost method to fabricate extremely stretchable and high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors based on new crumpled-graphene papers. Electrolyte-mediated-graphene paper bonded on a compliant substrate can be crumpled into self-organized patterns by harnessing mechanical instabilities in the graphene paper. As the substrate is stretched, the crumpled patterns unfold, maintaining high reliability of the graphene paper under multiple cycles of large deformation. Supercapacitor electrodes based on the crumpled graphene papers exhibit a unique combination of high stretchability (e.g., linear strain ~300%, areal strain ~800%), high electrochemical performance (e.g., specific capacitance ~196 F g-1), and high reliability (e.g., over 1000 stretch/relax cycles). An all-solid-state supercapacitor capable of large deformation is further fabricated to demonstrate practical applications of the crumpled-graphene-paper electrodes. Our method and design open a wide range of opportunities for manufacturing future energy-storage devices with desired deformability together with high performance.

  13. Stretchable and High-Performance Supercapacitors with Crumpled Graphene Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianfeng; Cao, Changyong; Feng, Yaying; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of unconventional energy storage devices with high stretchability and performance is challenging, but critical to practical operations of fully power-independent stretchable electronics. While supercapacitors represent a promising candidate for unconventional energy-storage devices, existing stretchable supercapacitors are limited by their low stretchability, complicated fabrication process, and high cost. Here, we report a simple and low-cost method to fabricate extremely stretchable and high-performance electrodes for supercapacitors based on new crumpled-graphene papers. Electrolyte-mediated-graphene paper bonded on a compliant substrate can be crumpled into self-organized patterns by harnessing mechanical instabilities in the graphene paper. As the substrate is stretched, the crumpled patterns unfold, maintaining high reliability of the graphene paper under multiple cycles of large deformation. Supercapacitor electrodes based on the crumpled graphene papers exhibit a unique combination of high stretchability (e.g., linear strain ~300%, areal strain ~800%), high electrochemical performance (e.g., specific capacitance ~196 F g−1), and high reliability (e.g., over 1000 stretch/relax cycles). An all-solid-state supercapacitor capable of large deformation is further fabricated to demonstrate practical applications of the crumpled-graphene-paper electrodes. Our method and design open a wide range of opportunities for manufacturing future energy-storage devices with desired deformability together with high performance. PMID:25270673

  14. Alkali-Resistant Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte for Stretchable Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Gengchao

    2016-10-05

    Research on stretchable energy-storage devices has been motivated by elastic electronics, and considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of stretchable electrodes. However, stretchable electrolytes, another critical component in stretchable devices, have earned quite little attention, especially the alkali-resistant ones. Here, we reported a novel stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte made of a polyolefin elastomer porous membrane supported potassium hydroxide-potassium polyacrylate (POE@KOH-PAAK). The as-prepared electrolyte shows a negligible plastic deformation even after 1000 stretching cycles at a strain of 150% as well as a high conductivity of 0.14 S cm -1 . It also exhibits excellent alkali resistance, which shows no obvious degradation of the mechanical performance after immersion in 2 M KOH for up to 2 weeks. To demonstrate its good properties, a high-performance stretchable supercapacitor is assembled using a carbon-nanotube-film-supported NiCo 2 O 4 (CNT@NiCo 2 O 4 ) as the cathode and Fe 2 O 3 (CNT@Fe 2 O 3 ) as the anode, proving great application promise of the stretchable alkali-resistant electrolyte in stretchable energy-storage devices.

  15. Stretchable, Transparent, and Stretch-Unresponsive Capacitive Touch Sensor Array with Selectively Patterned Silver Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Young; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Trung, Tran Quang; Nam, Yun Hyoung; Kim, Do-Nyun; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-05-31

    Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains. Herein, a stretch-unresponsive stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensor array was demonstrated by employing stretchable and transparent electrodes with a simple selective-patterning process and by carefully selecting dielectric and substrate materials with low strain responsivity. A selective-patterning process was used to embed a stretchable and transparent silver nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (AgNWs/rGO) electrode line into a polyurethane (PU) dielectric layer on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment. This method provides the ability to directly fabricate thin film electrode lines on elastomeric substrates and can be used in conventional processes employed in stretchable electronics. We used a dielectric (PU) with a Poisson's ratio smaller than that of the substrate (PDMS), which prevented changes in the capacitance resulting from stretching of the sensor. The stretch-unresponsive touch sensing capability of our transparent and stretchable capacitive touch sensor has great potential in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.

  16. Highly stretchable carbon aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Xiao, Youhua; Fang, Bo; Liu, Yingjun; Gao, Weiwei; Zhao, Pei; Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Chao

    2018-02-28

    Carbon aerogels demonstrate wide applications for their ultralow density, rich porosity, and multifunctionalities. Their compressive elasticity has been achieved by different carbons. However, reversibly high stretchability of neat carbon aerogels is still a great challenge owing to their extremely dilute brittle interconnections and poorly ductile cells. Here we report highly stretchable neat carbon aerogels with a retractable 200% elongation through hierarchical synergistic assembly. The hierarchical buckled structures and synergistic reinforcement between graphene and carbon nanotubes enable a temperature-invariable, recoverable stretching elasticity with small energy dissipation (~0.1, 100% strain) and high fatigue resistance more than 10 6 cycles. The ultralight carbon aerogels with both stretchability and compressibility were designed as strain sensors for logic identification of sophisticated shape conversions. Our methodology paves the way to highly stretchable carbon and neat inorganic materials with extensive applications in aerospace, smart robots, and wearable devices.

  17. Tissue-electronics interfaces: from implantable devices to engineered tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Ron; Dvir, Tal

    2018-01-01

    Biomedical electronic devices are interfaced with the human body to extract precise medical data and to interfere with tissue function by providing electrical stimuli. In this Review, we outline physiologically and pathologically relevant tissue properties and processes that are important for designing implantable electronic devices. We summarize design principles for flexible and stretchable electronics that adapt to the mechanics of soft tissues, such as those including conducting polymers, liquid metal alloys, metallic buckling and meandering architectures. We further discuss technologies for inserting devices into the body in a minimally invasive manner and for eliminating them without further intervention. Finally, we introduce the concept of integrating electronic devices with biomaterials and cells, and we envision how such technologies may lead to the development of bionic organs for regenerative medicine.

  18. Carbon doped PDMS: conductance stability over time and implications for additive manufacturing of stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Rocha, Rui; Osorio, Luis; Almeida, Miguel; De Almeida, Anibal; Ramachandran, Vivek; Tabatabai, Arya; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Carbon doped PDMS (cPDMS), has been used as a conductive polymer for stretchable electronics. Compared to liquid metals, cPDMS is low cost and is easier to process or to print with an additive manufacturing process. However, changes on the conductance of the carbon based conductive PDMS (cPDMS) were observed over time, in particular after integration of cPDMS and the insulating polymer. In this article we investigate the process parameters that lead to improved stability over conductance of the cPDMS over time. Slight modifications to the fabrication process parameters were conducted and changes on the conductance of the samples for each method were monitored. Results suggested that change of the conductance happens mostly after integration of a pre-polymer over a cured cPDMS, and not after integration of the cPDMS over a cured insulating polymer. We show that such changes can be eliminated by adjusting the integration priority between the conductive and insulating polymers, by selecting the right curing temperature, changing the concentration of the carbon particles and the thickness of the conductive traces, and when possible by changing the insulating polymer material. In this way, we obtained important conclusions regarding the effect of these parameters on the change of the conductance over time, that should be considered for additive manufacturing of soft electronics. Also, we show that these changes can be possibly due to the diffusion from PDMS into cPDMS. (paper)

  19. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  20. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  1. A sewing-enabled stitch-and-transfer method for robust, ultra-stretchable, conductive interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Yu, Wuyang; Ziaie, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating highly stretchable and robust electrical interconnects at low-cost remains an unmet challenge in stretchable electronics. Previously reported stretchable interconnects require complicated fabrication processes with resulting devices exhibiting limited stretchability, poor reliability, and large gauge factors. Here, we demonstrate a novel sew-and-transfer method for rapid fabrication of low-cost, highly stretchable interconnects. Using a commercial sewing machine and double-thread stitch with one of the threads being water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), thin zigzag-pattern metallic wires are sewn into a polymeric film and are subsequently transferred onto a stretchable elastomeric substrate by dissolving PVA in warm water. The resulting structures exhibit extreme stretchability (exceeding 500% strain for a zigzag angle of 18 °) and robustness (capable of withstanding repeated stretch-and-release cycles of 15000 at 110% strain, 50000 at 55% strain, and  > 120000 at 30% strain without any noticeable change in resistance even at maximum strain levels). Using this technique, we demonstrate a stretchable inductive strain sensor for monitoring balloon expansion in a Foley urinary catheter capable of detecting the balloon diameter change from 9 mm to 38 mm with an average sensitivity of 4 nH/mm. (paper)

  2. Lateral buckling and mechanical stretchability of fractal interconnects partially bonded onto an elastomeric substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Haoran; Xu, Sheng; Rogers, John A.; Xu, Renxiao; Huang, Yonggang; Jiang, Jianqun; Zhang, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    Fractal-inspired designs for interconnects that join rigid, functional devices can ensure mechanical integrity in stretchable electronic systems under extreme deformations. The bonding configuration of such interconnects with the elastomer substrate is crucial to the resulting deformation modes, and therefore the stretchability of the entire system. In this study, both theoretical and experimental analyses are performed for postbuckling of fractal serpentine interconnects partially bonded to the substrate. The deformation behaviors and the elastic stretchability of such systems are systematically explored, and compared to counterparts that are not bonded at all to the substrate

  3. Electronic security device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Eugene A.; LeBlanc, Edward J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  4. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  5. Stretchable and semitransparent conductive hybrid hydrogels for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guang-Ping; Hippauf, Felix; Oschatz, Martin; Wisser, Florian M; Leifert, Annika; Nickel, Winfried; Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Zheng, Zhikun; Kaskel, Stefan

    2014-07-22

    Conductive polymers showing stretchable and transparent properties have received extensive attention due to their enormous potential in flexible electronic devices. Here, we demonstrate a facile and smart strategy for the preparation of structurally stretchable, electrically conductive, and optically semitransparent polyaniline-containing hybrid hydrogel networks as electrode, which show high-performances in supercapacitor application. Remarkably, the stability can extend up to 35,000 cycles at a high current density of 8 A/g, because of the combined structural advantages in terms of flexible polymer chains, highly interconnected pores, and excellent contact between the host and guest functional polymer phase.

  6. 3D printed stretchable capacitive sensors for highly sensitive tactile and electrochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Wei, Hong; Liu, Wenguang; Meng, Hong; Zhang, Peixin; Yan, Chaoyi

    2018-05-01

    Developments of innovative strategies for the fabrication of stretchable sensors are of crucial importance for their applications in wearable electronic systems. In this work, we report the successful fabrication of stretchable capacitive sensors using a novel 3D printing method for highly sensitive tactile and electrochemical sensing applications. Unlike conventional lithographic or templated methods, the programmable 3D printing technique can fabricate complex device structures in a cost-effective and facile manner. We designed and fabricated stretchable capacitive sensors with interdigital and double-vortex designs and demonstrated their successful applications as tactile and electrochemical sensors. Especially, our stretchable sensors exhibited a detection limit as low as 1 × 10-6 M for NaCl aqueous solution, which could have significant potential applications when integrated in electronics skins.

  7. A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly of stretchable supercapacitors based on highly stretchable and sticky hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Chen, Mingming; Wang, Gengchao; Bao, Hua; Saha, Petr

    2015-06-01

    A facile prestrain-stick-release assembly strategy for the stretchable supercapacitor device is developed based on a novel Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte, saving the stretchable rubber base conventionally used. The Na2SO4-aPUA/PAAM hydrogel electrolyte exhibits high stretchability (>1000%), electrical conductivity (0.036 S cm-1) and stickiness. Due to the unique features of the hydrogel electrolyte, the carbon nanotube@MnO2 film electrodes can be firmly stuck to two sides of the prestrained hydrogel electrolyte. Then, by releasing the hydrogel electrolyte, homogenous buckles are formed for the film electrodes to get a full stretchable supercapacitor device. Besides, the high stickiness of the hydrogel electrolyte ensures its strong adhesion with the film electrodes, facilitating ion and electronic transfer of the supercapacitor. As a result, excellent electrochemical performance is achieved with the specific capacitance of 478.6 mF cm-2 at 0.5 mA cm-2 (corresponding to 201.1 F g-1) and capacitance retention of 91.5% after 3000 charging-discharging cycles under 150% strain, which is the best for the stretchable supercapacitors.

  8. Encapsulated, High-Performance, Stretchable Array of Stacked Planar Micro-Supercapacitors as Waterproof Wearable Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungjun; Yoon, Jangyeol; Lee, Geumbee; Paik, Seung-Ho; Choi, Gukgwon; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Beop-Min; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-06-29

    We report the fabrication of an encapsulated, high-performance, stretchable array of stacked planar micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) as a wearable energy storage device for waterproof applications. A pair of planar all-solid-state MSCs with spray-coated multiwalled carbon nanotube electrodes and a drop-cast UV-patternable ion-gel electrolyte was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate film using serial connection to increase the operation voltage of the MSC. Additionally, multiple MSCs could be vertically stacked with parallel connections to increase both the total capacitance and the areal capacitance owing to the use of a solid-state patterned electrolyte. The overall device of five parallel-connected stacked MSCs, a microlight-emitting diode (μ-LED), and a switch was encapsulated in thin Ecoflex film so that the capacitance remained at 82% of its initial value even after 4 d in water; the μ-LED was lit without noticeable decrease in brightness under deformation including bending and stretching. Furthermore, an Ecoflex encapsulated oximeter wound around a finger was operated using the stored energy of the MSC array attached to the hand (even in water) to give information on arterial pulse rate and oxygen saturation in the blood. This study suggests potential applications of our encapsulated MSC array in wearable energy storage devices especially in water.

  9. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-10-13

    Stretchable electronic systems can play instrumental role for reconfigurable macro-electronics such as distributed sensor networks for wearable and bio-integrated electronics. Typically, polymer composite based materials and its deterministic design as interconnects are used to achieve such systems. Nonetheless, non-polymeric inorganic silicon is the predominant material for 90% of electronics. Therefore, we report the design and fabrication of an all silicon based network of hexagonal islands connected through spiral springs to form an ultra-stretchable arrangement for complete compliance to highly asymmetric shapes. Several design parameters are considered and their validation is carried out through finite element analysis. The fabrication process is based on conventional microfabrication techniques and the measured stretchability is more than 1000% for single spirals and area expansions as high as 30 folds in arrays. The reported method can provide ultra-stretchable and adaptable electronic systems for distributed network of high-performance macro-electronics especially useful for wearable electronics and bio-integrated devices.

  10. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Foulds, I. G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Stretchable electronic systems can play instrumental role for reconfigurable macro-electronics such as distributed sensor networks for wearable and bio-integrated electronics. Typically, polymer composite based materials and its deterministic design as interconnects are used to achieve such systems. Nonetheless, non-polymeric inorganic silicon is the predominant material for 90% of electronics. Therefore, we report the design and fabrication of an all silicon based network of hexagonal islands connected through spiral springs to form an ultra-stretchable arrangement for complete compliance to highly asymmetric shapes. Several design parameters are considered and their validation is carried out through finite element analysis. The fabrication process is based on conventional microfabrication techniques and the measured stretchability is more than 1000% for single spirals and area expansions as high as 30 folds in arrays. The reported method can provide ultra-stretchable and adaptable electronic systems for distributed network of high-performance macro-electronics especially useful for wearable electronics and bio-integrated devices.

  11. Molecular Engineering for Mechanically Resilient and Stretchable Electronic Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...study, etc. 3. DATES COVERED. Indicate the time during which the work was performed and the report was written, e.g., Jun 1997 - Jun 1998; 1-10 Jun...describing its operation and its special place in the depths of medieval sadism, which proved that the stretchability of Homo sapiens is not reversible

  12. Stretchable Active Matrix Temperature Sensor Array of Polyaniline Nanofibers for Electronic Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Yeong; Lee, Yong Hui; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; You, Ilhwan; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-02-03

    A stretchable polyaniline nanofiber temperature sensor array with an active matrix consisting of single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors is demonstrated. The integrated temperature sensor array gives mechanical stability under biaxial stretching of 30%, and the resultant spatial temperature mapping does not show any mechanical or electrical degradation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Auxetic Mechanical Metamaterials to Enhance Sensitivity of Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Liu, Zhiyuan; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Yang, Hui; Yu, Jiancan; Chen, Geng; Liu, Yaqing; Wan, Changjin; Liu, Zhuangjian; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-03-01

    Stretchable strain sensors play a pivotal role in wearable devices, soft robotics, and Internet-of-Things, yet these viable applications, which require subtle strain detection under various strain, are often limited by low sensitivity. This inadequate sensitivity stems from the Poisson effect in conventional strain sensors, where stretched elastomer substrates expand in the longitudinal direction but compress transversely. In stretchable strain sensors, expansion separates the active materials and contributes to the sensitivity, while Poisson compression squeezes active materials together, and thus intrinsically limits the sensitivity. Alternatively, auxetic mechanical metamaterials undergo 2D expansion in both directions, due to their negative structural Poisson's ratio. Herein, it is demonstrated that such auxetic metamaterials can be incorporated into stretchable strain sensors to significantly enhance the sensitivity. Compared to conventional sensors, the sensitivity is greatly elevated with a 24-fold improvement. This sensitivity enhancement is due to the synergistic effect of reduced structural Poisson's ratio and strain concentration. Furthermore, microcracks are elongated as an underlying mechanism, verified by both experiments and numerical simulations. This strategy of employing auxetic metamaterials can be further applied to other stretchable strain sensors with different constituent materials. Moreover, it paves the way for utilizing mechanical metamaterials into a broader library of stretchable electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A self-healable and highly stretchable supercapacitor based on a dual crosslinked polyelectrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhong, Ming; Huang, Yang; Zhu, Minshen; Pei, Zengxia; Wang, Zifeng; Xue, Qi; Xie, Xuming; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-12-01

    Superior self-healability and stretchability are critical elements for the practical wide-scale adoption of personalized electronics such as portable and wearable energy storage devices. However, the low healing efficiency of self-healable supercapacitors and the small strain of stretchable supercapacitors are fundamentally limited by conventional polyvinyl alcohol-based acidic electrolytes, which are intrinsically neither self-healable nor highly stretchable. Here we report an electrolyte comprising polyacrylic acid dual crosslinked by hydrogen bonding and vinyl hybrid silica nanoparticles, which displays all superior functions and provides a solution to the intrinsic self-healability and high stretchability problems of a supercapacitor. Supercapacitors with this electrolyte are non-autonomic self-healable, retaining the capacitance completely even after 20 cycles of breaking/healing. These supercapacitors are stretched up to 600% strain with enhanced performance using a designed facile electrode fabrication procedure.

  15. Highly stretchable carbon nanotube transistors enabled by buckled ion gel gate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng-Yin; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zhao, Juan [School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Xu, Feng; Jacobberger, Robert M.; Arnold, Michael S., E-mail: michael.arnold@wisc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    Deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) are expected to facilitate new technologies like stretchable displays, conformal devices, and electronic skins. We previously demonstrated stretchable FETs based on buckled thin films of polyfluorene-wrapped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as the channel, buckled metal films as electrodes, and unbuckled flexible ion gel films as the dielectric. The FETs were stretchable up to 50% without appreciable degradation in performance before failure of the ion gel film. Here, we show that by buckling the ion gel, the integrity and performance of the nanotube FETs are extended to nearly 90% elongation, limited by the stretchability of the elastomer substrate. The FETs maintain an on/off ratio of >10{sup 4} and a field-effect mobility of 5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} under elongation and demonstrate invariant performance over 1000 stretching cycles.

  16. Highly stretchable carbon nanotube transistors enabled by buckled ion gel gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Meng-Yin; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Ma, Zhenqiang; Zhao, Juan; Xu, Feng; Jacobberger, Robert M.; Arnold, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) are expected to facilitate new technologies like stretchable displays, conformal devices, and electronic skins. We previously demonstrated stretchable FETs based on buckled thin films of polyfluorene-wrapped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as the channel, buckled metal films as electrodes, and unbuckled flexible ion gel films as the dielectric. The FETs were stretchable up to 50% without appreciable degradation in performance before failure of the ion gel film. Here, we show that by buckling the ion gel, the integrity and performance of the nanotube FETs are extended to nearly 90% elongation, limited by the stretchability of the elastomer substrate. The FETs maintain an on/off ratio of >10 4 and a field-effect mobility of 5 cm 2 V −1 s −1 under elongation and demonstrate invariant performance over 1000 stretching cycles

  17. Stretchable and Tunable Microtectonic ZnO-Based Sensors and Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutruf, Philipp; Zeller, Eike; Walia, Sumeet; Nili, Hussein; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu

    2015-09-16

    The concept of realizing electronic applications on elastically stretchable "skins" that conform to irregularly shaped surfaces is revolutionizing fundamental research into mechanics and materials that can enable high performance stretchable devices. The ability to operate electronic devices under various mechanically stressed states can provide a set of unique functionalities that are beyond the capabilities of conventional rigid electronics. Here, a distinctive microtectonic effect enabled oxygen-deficient, nanopatterned zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on an elastomeric substrate are introduced to realize large area, stretchable, transparent, and ultraportable sensors. The unique surface structures are exploited to create stretchable gas and ultraviolet light sensors, where the functional oxide itself is stretchable, both of which outperform their rigid counterparts under room temperature conditions. Nanoscale ZnO features are embedded in an elastomeric matrix function as tunable diffraction gratings, capable of sensing displacements with nanometre accuracy. These devices and the microtectonic oxide thin film approach show promise in enabling functional, transparent, and wearable electronics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electron beam irradiating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K

    1969-12-20

    The efficiency of an electron beam irradiating device is heightened by improving the irradiation atmosphere and the method of cooling the irradiation window. An irradiation chamber one side of which incorporates the irradiation windows provided at the lower end of the scanner is surrounded by a suitable cooling system such as a coolant piping network so as to cool the interior of the chamber which is provided with circulating means at each corner to circulate and thus cool an inert gas charged therewithin. The inert gas, chosen from a group of such gases which will not deleteriously react with the irradiating equipment, forms a flowing stream across the irradiation window to effect its cooling and does not contaminate the vacuum exhaust system or oxidize the filament when penetrating the equipment through any holes which the foil at the irradiation window may incur during the irradiating procedure.

  19. Device for electron beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Liebergeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for electron beam machining, in particular welding. It is aimed at continuous operation of the electron irradiation device. This is achieved by combining the electron gun with a beam guiding chamber, to which vacuum chambers are connected. The working parts to be welded can be arranged in the latter

  20. Stretchable supercapacitors based on highly stretchable ionic liquid incorporated polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, S., E-mail: ramp@iitm.ac.in

    2014-11-14

    Mechanical stability of electrolyte in all-solid-state supercapacitor attains immense attention as it addresses safety aspects. In this study, we have demonstrated, the fabrication of stretchable supercapacitor based on stretchable electrolyte and hydrogen exfoliated graphene electrode. We synthesized ionic liquid incorporated stretchable Poly(methyl methacrylate) electrolyte which plays dual role as electrolyte and stretchable support for electrode material. The molecular vibration studies show composite nature of the electrolyte. At least four-fold stretchability has been observed along with good ionic conductivity (0.78 mS cm{sup −1} at 28 °C) for this polymer electrolyte. This stretchable supercapacitor shows a low equivalent series resistance (16 Ω) due to the compatibility at electrode–electrolyte interface. The performance of the device has been determined under strain as well. - Highlights: • A stretchable supercapacitor has been fabricated using stretchable electrolyte. • Here ionic liquid incorporated polymer plays dual role as electrolyte and stretchable support. • The developed device shows low equivalent series resistance. • The device has specific capacitance of 83 F g{sup −1}, at the specific current of 2.67 A g{sup −1}. • The energy density and power density of 25.7 Wh kg{sup −1} and 35.2 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  1. High-performance, stretchable, wire-shaped supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Hao, Rui; Peng, Huisheng; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-07

    A general approach toward extremely stretchable and highly conductive electrodes was developed. The method involves wrapping a continuous carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film around pre-stretched elastic wires, from which high-performance, stretchable wire-shaped supercapacitors were fabricated. The supercapacitors were made by twisting two such CNT-wrapped elastic wires, pre-coated with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H3PO4 hydrogel, as the electrolyte and separator. The resultant wire-shaped supercapacitors exhibited an extremely high elasticity of up to 350% strain with a high device capacitance up to 30.7 F g(-1), which is two times that of the state-of-the-art stretchable supercapacitor under only 100% strain. The wire-shaped structure facilitated the integration of multiple supercapacitors into a single wire device to meet specific energy and power needs for various potential applications. These supercapacitors can be repeatedly stretched from 0 to 200% strain for hundreds of cycles with no change in performance, thus outperforming all the reported state-of-the-art stretchable electronics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed

  3. Intrinsically stretchable supercapacitors composed of polypyrrole electrodes and highly stretchable gel electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Wang, Caiyun; Yue, Zhilian; Shu, Kewei; Wallace, Gordon G

    2013-09-25

    There has been an emerging interest in stretchable power sources compatible with flexible/wearable electronics. Such power sources must be able to withstand large mechanical strains and still maintain function. Here we report a highly stretchable H3PO4-poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer electrolyte obtained by optimizing the polymer molecular weight and its weight ratio to H3PO4 in terms of conductivity and mechanical properties. The electrolyte demonstrates a high conductivity of 3.4 × 10(-3) S cm(-1), and a high fracture strain at 410% elongation. It is mechanically robust with a tensile strength of 2 MPa and a Young's modulus of 1 MPa, and displays a small plastic deformation (5%) after 1000 stretching cycles at 100% strain. A stretchable supercapacitor device has been developed based on buckled polypyrrole electrodes and the polymer electrolyte. The device shows only a small capacitance loss of 5.6% at 30% strain, and can retain 81% of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles of such stretching.

  4. EGaIn-Assisted Room-Temperature Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles for Stretchable, Inkjet-Printed, Thin-Film Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Paisana, Hugo; Ohm, Yunsik; Marques, Daniel Green; Alhais Lopes, Pedro; Piedade, Ana P; de Almeida, Anibal T; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-05-29

    Coating inkjet-printed traces of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) ink with a thin layer of eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) increases the electrical conductivity by six-orders of magnitude and significantly improves tolerance to tensile strain. This enhancement is achieved through a room-temperature "sintering" process in which the liquid-phase EGaIn alloy binds the AgNP particles (≈100 nm diameter) to form a continuous conductive trace. Ultrathin and hydrographically transferrable electronics are produced by printing traces with a composition of AgNP-Ga-In on a 5 µm-thick temporary tattoo paper. The printed circuit is flexible enough to remain functional when deformed and can support strains above 80% with modest electromechanical coupling (gauge factor ≈1). These mechanically robust thin-film circuits are well suited for transfer to highly curved and nondevelopable 3D surfaces as well as skin and other soft deformable substrates. In contrast to other stretchable tattoo-like electronics, the low-cost processing steps introduced here eliminate the need for cleanroom fabrication and instead requires only a commercial desktop printer. Most significantly, it enables functionalities like "electronic tattoos" and 3D hydrographic transfer that have not been previously reported with EGaIn or EGaIn-based biphasic electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stretchable and Hydrophobic Electrochromic Devices Using Wrinkled Graphene and PEDOT:PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Kartik Nemani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an electrochromic device (ECD fabricated using PEDOT:PSS and graphene as active conductive electrode films and a flexible compliant polyurethane substrate with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (EMI-TSFI additive, as ionic medium. This device with a docile, elastic intermediate substrate along with a transparency controlled PEDOT:PSS film provides a wide color contrast and fast switching rate. We harness wrinkling instability of graphene to achieve a hydrophobic nature without compromising transparency of the ECD. This mechanical self-assembly approach helps in controlling the wavelength of wrinkles generated by inducing measured prestrain conditions and regulating the modulus contrast by selection of underlying materials used, hereby controlling the extent of transparency. The reduction and oxidation switching times for the device were analyzed to be 5.76 s and 5.34 s for a 90% transmittance change at an operating DC voltage of 15 ± 0.1 V. Strain dependent studies show that the performance was robust with the device retaining switching contrasts even at 15% uniaxial strain conditions. Our device also exhibits superior antiwetting properties with an average water contact angle of 110°  ± 2° at an induced radial prestrain of 30% in the graphene film. A wide range color contrast, flexibility, and antiwetting nature of the device envision its uses in smart windows, visors, and other wearable equipment where these functionalities are of outmost importance for developing new generation of smart interactive devices.

  6. ELSA electron stretcher devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The use of an electron stretcher ring at the Bonn electron synchrotron is discussed. The construction of the proposed ring is described, and the costs are estimated. Possible experiments using this ring are discussed. (HSI)

  7. Extremely stretchable and conductive water-repellent coatings for low-cost ultra-flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mates, Joseph E.; Bayer, Ilker S.; Palumbo, John M.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Megaridis, Constantine M.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid advances in modern electronics place ever-accelerating demands on innovation towards more robust and versatile functional components. In the flexible electronics domain, novel material solutions often involve creative uses of common materials to reduce cost, while maintaining uncompromised performance. Here we combine a commercially available paraffin wax-polyolefin thermoplastic blend (elastomer matrix binder) with bulk-produced carbon nanofibres (charge percolation network for electron transport, and for imparting nanoscale roughness) to fabricate adherent thin-film composite electrodes. The simple wet-based process produces composite films capable of sustained ultra-high strain (500%) with resilient electrical performance (resistances of the order of 101-102 Ω sq-1). The composites are also designed to be superhydrophobic for long-term corrosion protection, even maintaining extreme liquid repellency at severe strain. Comprised of inexpensive common materials applied in a single step, the present scalable approach eliminates manufacturing obstacles for commercially viable wearable electronics, flexible power storage devices and corrosion-resistant circuits.

  8. Materials, Mechanics, and Patterning Techniques for Elastomer-Based Stretchable Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics represent a new generation of electronics that utilize soft, deformable elastomers as the substrate or matrix instead of the traditional rigid printed circuit boards. As the most essential component of stretchable electronics, the conductors should meet the requirements for both high conductivity and the capability to maintain conductive under large deformations such as bending, twisting, stretching, and compressing. This review summarizes recent progresses in various aspects of this fascinating and challenging area, including materials for supporting elastomers and electrical conductors, unique designs and stretching mechanics, and the subtractive and additive patterning techniques. The applications are discussed along with functional devices based on these conductors. Finally, the review is concluded with the current limitations, challenges, and future directions of stretchable conductors.

  9. Enhanced tolerance to stretch-induced performance degradation of stretchable MnO2-based supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Huang, Yang; Meng, Wenjun; Zhu, Minshen; Xue, Hongtao; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhi, Chunyi

    2015-02-04

    The performance of many stretchable electronics, such as energy storage devices and strain sensors, is highly limited by the structural breakdown arising from the stretch imposed. In this article, we focus on a detailed study on materials matching between functional materials and their conductive substrate, as well as enhancement of the tolerance to stretch-induced performance degradation of stretchable supercapacitors, which are essential for the design of a stretchable device. It is revealed that, being widely utilized as the electrode material of the stretchable supercapacitor, metal oxides such as MnO2 nanosheets have serious strain-induced performance degradation due to their rigid structure. In comparison, with conducting polymers like a polypyrrole (PPy) film as the electrochemically active material, the performance of stretchable supercapacitors can be well preserved under strain. Therefore, a smart design is to combine PPy with MnO2 nanosheets to achieve enhanced tolerance to strain-induced performance degradation of MnO2-based supercapacitors, which is realized by fabricating an electrode of PPy-penetrated MnO2 nanosheets. The composite electrodes exhibit a remarkable enhanced tolerance to strain-induced performance degradation with well-preserved performance over 93% under strain. The detailed morphology and electrochemical impedance variations are investigated for the mechanism analyses. Our work presents a systematic investigation on the selection and matching of electrode materials for stretchable supercapacitors to achieve high performance and great tolerance to strain, which may guide the selection of functional materials and their substrate materials for the next-generation of stretchable electronics.

  10. Electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs in stretchable geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, R. P.; Mahaboob, I.; Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Lazarus, N.

    2017-10-01

    Many biological materials are naturally soft and stretchable, far more so than crystalline semiconductors. Creating systems that can be placed directly on a surface such as human skin has required new approaches in electronic device design and materials, a field known as stretchable electronics. One common method for fabricating a highly brittle semiconductor device able to survive tens of percent strain is to incorporate stress relief structures ('waves'). Although the mechanical advantages of this approach are well known, the effects on the electrical behavior of a device such as a transistor compared to a more traditional geometry have not been studied. Here, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on rigid sapphire substrates were fabricated in a common wavy geometry, a sinusoid, with dimensions similar to those used in stretchable electronics. The study analyzes control parameters available to the designer including gate location along the sinusoid, angle the source-drain contacts make with the gate, as well as variation of the gate length at the peak of the sinusoid. Common electrical parameters such as saturation current density, threshold voltage, and transconductance were compared between the sinusoidal and conventional straight geometries and results found to fall to within experimental uncertainty, suggesting shifting to a stretchable geometry is possible without appreciably degrading semiconductor device performance.

  11. Instrument for evaluating the electrical resistance and wavelength-resolved transparency of stretchable electronics during strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, A. D.; Finley, E.; Harris, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    A complete analysis of strain tolerance in a stretchable transparent conductor (TC) should include tracking of both electrical conductivity and transparency during strain; however, transparency is generally neglected in contemporary analyses. In this paper, we describe an apparatus that tracks both parameters while TCs of arbitrary composition are deformed under stretching-mode strain. We demonstrate the tool by recording the electrical resistance and light transmission spectra for indium tin oxide-coated plastic substrates under both linearly increasing strain and complex cyclic strain processes. The optics are sensitive across the visible spectrum and into the near-infrared region (∼400-900 nm), and without specifically optimizing for sampling speed, we achieve a time resolution of ∼200 ms. In our automated analysis routine, we include a calculation of a common TC figure of merit (FOM), and because solar cell electrodes represent a key TC application, we also weigh both our transparency and FOM results against the solar power spectrum to determine “solar transparency” and “solar FOM.” Finally, we demonstrate how the apparatus may be adapted to measure the basic performance metrics for complete solar cells under uniaxial strain

  12. Highly Deformable Liquid Embedded Soft-Matter Capacitors and Inductors for Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, Andrew; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a family of soft-matter capacitors and inductors that can be stretched to several times their natural length. These circuit elements are composed of microchannels of a liquid-phase Gallium-Indium-Tin alloy (Galinstan) embedded in a soft silicone elastomer (Ecoflex® 00-30). As the elastomer stretches, the embedded liquid channels deform, causing the capacitance and inductance to change monotonically. The relative changes in capacitance and inductance are experimentally measured as a function of stretch in three directions. The relationships found show potential for these devices to be used as strain sensors and tunable electronic filters. Additionally, theoretical predictions derived using finite elasticity kinematics are consistent with these experimentally found relationships.

  13. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  14. Remote detection of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen L [Los Alamos, NM; Fortgang, Clifford M [Los Alamos, NM; Guenther, David C [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-09-25

    An apparatus and method for detecting solid-state electronic devices are described. Non-linear junction detection techniques are combined with spread-spectrum encoding and cross correlation to increase the range and sensitivity of the non-linear junction detection and to permit the determination of the distances of the detected electronics. Nonlinear elements are detected by transmitting a signal at a chosen frequency and detecting higher harmonic signals that are returned from responding devices.

  15. Electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topics discussed include, among others, the following: Role of portal imaging; Port films vs. EPID; Image guidance: Elekta volume view; Delivery verification; Automation tasks of portal imaging; Types of portal imaging (Fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera-based imaging; Liquid ion chamber imaging; Amorpho-silicon portal imagers; Fluoroscopic portal imaging; Kodak CR reader; and Other types of portal imaging devices); QA of EPID; and Portal dosimetry (P.A.)

  16. Tape transfer atomization patterning of liquid alloys for microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-02-12

    Stretchable electronics offers unsurpassed mechanical compliance on complex or soft surfaces like the human skin and organs. To fully exploit this great advantage, an autonomous system with a self-powered energy source has been sought for. Here, we present a new technology to pattern liquid alloys on soft substrates, targeting at fabrication of a hybrid-integrated power source in microfluidic stretchable electronics. By atomized spraying of a liquid alloy onto a soft surface with a tape transferred adhesive mask, a universal fabrication process is provided for high quality patterns of liquid conductors in a meter scale. With the developed multilayer fabrication technique, a microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer device with an integrated LED was demonstrated, which could survive cycling between 0% and 25% strain over 1,000 times.

  17. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  18. Electronic control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartill, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The subject of these lectures is the translation of information from particle detectors to computers. Large solid angle general purpose detectors at the intersection regions of high energy e+e- storage rings and pp and pp storage rings are discussed. Three choices for data acquisition are reviewed: use CAMAC (Computer Aided Measurement and Control), start from scratch and design a system, or wait for the final version of the proposed FASTBUS to be developed. The do-it-yourself procedure includes designs of drift chamber discriminator, time to amplitude converter, and data card block diagram. Trigger systems, the fast decision making systems judging an event interesting enough for a read-out cycle to be initiated, are discussed. Finally, a FASTBUS system layout, with its goals of minimum bus speed, general system topologies, and support multiple smart devices is given

  19. Ultra-Stretchable Piezoelectric Nanogenerators via Large-Scale Aligned Fractal Inspired Micro/Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable nanogenerators that directly generate electricity are promising for a wide range of applications in wearable electronics. However, the stretchability of the devices has been a long-standing challenge. Here we present a newly-designed ultra-stretchable nanogenerator based on fractal-inspired piezoelectric nanofibers and liquid metal electrodes that can withstand strain as large as 200%. The large-scale fractal poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF micro/nanofibers are fabricated by combination of helix electrohydrodynamic printing (HE-Printing and buckling-driven self-assembly. HE-Printing exploits “whipping/buckling” instability of electrospinning to deposit serpentine fibers with diverse geometries in a programmable, accurately positioned, and individually-controlled manner. Self-organized buckling utilizes the driven force from the prestrained elastomer to assemble serpentine fibers into ultra-stretchable fractal inspired architecture. The nanogenerator with embedded fractal PVDF fibers and liquid-metal microelectrodes demonstrates high stretchability (>200% and electricity (currents >200 nA, it can harvest energy from all directions by arbitrary mechanical motion, and the rectified output has been applied to charge the commercial capacitor and drive LEDs, which enables wearable electronics applications in sensing and energy harvesting.

  20. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an electron emitting device for use in an electron discharge system. It comprises: a filament having a pair of terminal ends, electrical supply means for supplying electrical power to the terminal ends of the filament for directly heating the filament by the passage of an electrical current along the filament between the terminal ends, the filament being substantially tapered in cross section continuously in one direction from one of its pair of terminal ends to another of its pair of terminal ends to achieve uniform heating of the filament along the length thereof by compensating for the nonuniform current along the filament due to the emission of electrons therefrom

  1. Electronic device and method of manufacturing an electronic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    An electronic device comprising at least one die stack having at least a first die (D1) comprising a first array of light emitting units (OLED) for emitting light, a second layer (D2) comprising a second array of via holes (VH) and a third die (D3) comprising a third array of light detecting units

  2. Fast and stable redox reactions of MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes for dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Taoli; Wei, Bingqing

    2015-07-01

    Pseudocapacitors, which are energy storage devices that take advantage of redox reactions to store electricity, have a different charge storage mechanism compared to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and they could realize further gains if they were used as stretchable power sources. The realization of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors and understanding of the underlying fundamentals of their mechanical-electrochemical relationship have become indispensable. We report herein the electrochemical performance of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors using buckled MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes. The extremely small relaxation time constant of less than 0.15 s indicates a fast redox reaction at the MnO2/CNT hybrid electrodes, securing a stable electrochemical performance for the dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors. This finding and the fundamental understanding gained from the pseudo-capacitive behavior coupled with mechanical deformation under a dynamic stretching mode would provide guidance to further improve their overall performance including a higher power density than LIBs, a higher energy density than EDLCs, and a long-life cycling stability. Most importantly, these results will potentially accelerate the applications of stretchable pseudocapacitors for flexible and biomedical electronics.Pseudocapacitors, which are energy storage devices that take advantage of redox reactions to store electricity, have a different charge storage mechanism compared to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), and they could realize further gains if they were used as stretchable power sources. The realization of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors and understanding of the underlying fundamentals of their mechanical-electrochemical relationship have become indispensable. We report herein the electrochemical performance of dynamically stretchable pseudocapacitors using buckled MnO2/CNT hybrid

  3. 3D-Structured Stretchable Strain Sensors for Out-of-Plane Force Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Yu, Jiancan; Xiloyannnis, Michele; Cappello, Leonardo; Liu, Yaqing; Zhu, Bowen; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Geng; Masia, Lorenzo; Liedberg, Bo; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-05-17

    Stretchable strain sensors, as the soft mechanical interface, provide the key mechanical information of the systems for healthcare monitoring, rehabilitation assistance, soft exoskeletal devices, and soft robotics. Stretchable strain sensors based on 2D flat film have been widely developed to monitor the in-plane force applied within the plane where the sensor is placed. However, to comprehensively obtain the mechanical feedback, the capability to detect the out-of-plane force, caused by the interaction outside of the plane where the senor is located, is needed. Herein, a 3D-structured stretchable strain sensor is reported to monitor the out-of-plane force by employing 3D printing in conjunction with out-of-plane capillary force-assisted self-pinning of carbon nanotubes. The 3D-structured sensor possesses large stretchability, multistrain detection, and strain-direction recognition by one single sensor. It is demonstrated that out-of-plane forces induced by the air/fluid flow are reliably monitored and intricate flow details are clearly recorded. The development opens up for the exploration of next-generation 3D stretchable sensors for electronic skin and soft robotics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors based on electrically conducting carbon nanotube fiber springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Bai, Wenyu; Cheng, Xunliang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; Fang, Xin; Zhang, Zhitao; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-12-22

    The construction of lightweight, flexible and stretchable power systems for modern electronic devices without using elastic polymer substrates is critical but remains challenging. We have developed a new and general strategy to produce both freestanding, stretchable, and flexible supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries with remarkable electrochemical properties by designing novel carbon nanotube fiber springs as electrodes. These springlike electrodes can be stretched by over 300 %. In addition, the supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have a flexible fiber shape that enables promising applications in electronic textiles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  6. Stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Kim, Na Kyung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2016-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy conversion that generate electric energy from ambient mechanical and vibrational movements is promising energy harvesting technology because it can use more accessible energy resources than other renewable natural energy. In particular, flexible and stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesters which can harvest the tiny biomechanical motions inside human body into electricity properly facilitate not only the self-powered energy system for flexible and wearable electronics but also sensitive piezoelectric sensors for motion detectors and in vivo diagnosis kits. Since the piezoelectric ZnO nanowires (NWs)-based energy harvesters (nanogenerators) were proposed in 2006, many researchers have attempted the nanogenerator by using the various fabrication process such as nanowire growth, electrospinning, and transfer techniques with piezoelectric materials including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and perovskite ceramics. In 2012, the composite-based nanogenerators were developed using simple, low-cost, and scalable methods to overcome the significant issues with previously-reported energy harvester, such as insufficient output performance and size limitation. This review paper provides a brief overview of flexible and stretchable piezoelectric nanocomposite generator for realizing the self-powered energy system with development history, power performance, and applications.

  7. Extraordinarily Stretchable All-Carbon Collaborative Nanoarchitectures for Epidermal Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yichen

    2017-06-16

    Multifunctional microelectronic components featuring large stretchability, high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and broad sensing range have attracted a huge surge of interest with the fast developing epidermal electronic systems. Here, the epidermal sensors based on all-carbon collaborative percolation network are demonstrated, which consist 3D graphene foam and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained by two-step chemical vapor deposition processes. The nanoscaled CNT networks largely enhance the stretchability and SNR of the 3D microarchitectural graphene foams, endowing the strain sensor with a gauge factor as high as 35, a wide reliable sensing range up to 85%, and excellent cyclic stability (>5000 cycles). The flexible and reversible strain sensor can be easily mounted on human skin as a wearable electronic device for real-time and high accuracy detecting of electrophysiological stimuli and even for acoustic vibration recognition. The rationally designed all-carbon nanoarchitectures are scalable, low cost, and promising in practical applications requiring extraordinary stretchability and ultrahigh SNRs.

  8. Extraordinarily Stretchable All-Carbon Collaborative Nanoarchitectures for Epidermal Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Yichen; Shen, Jie; Dai, Ziyang; Zang, Xiaoxian; Dong, Qiuchun; Guan, Guofeng; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional microelectronic components featuring large stretchability, high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and broad sensing range have attracted a huge surge of interest with the fast developing epidermal electronic systems. Here, the epidermal sensors based on all-carbon collaborative percolation network are demonstrated, which consist 3D graphene foam and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained by two-step chemical vapor deposition processes. The nanoscaled CNT networks largely enhance the stretchability and SNR of the 3D microarchitectural graphene foams, endowing the strain sensor with a gauge factor as high as 35, a wide reliable sensing range up to 85%, and excellent cyclic stability (>5000 cycles). The flexible and reversible strain sensor can be easily mounted on human skin as a wearable electronic device for real-time and high accuracy detecting of electrophysiological stimuli and even for acoustic vibration recognition. The rationally designed all-carbon nanoarchitectures are scalable, low cost, and promising in practical applications requiring extraordinary stretchability and ultrahigh SNRs.

  9. Fullerene Derived Molecular Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhu; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subbash

    1998-01-01

    The carbon Nanotube junctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for use as the building blocks in the formation of nanoscale electronic devices. While the simple joint of two dissimilar tubes can be generated by the introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise perfect hexagonal grapheme sheet, more complex joints require other mechanisms. In this work we explore structural and electronic properties of complex 3-point junctions of carbon nanotubes using a generalized tight-binding molecular-dynamics scheme.

  10. Capacitor ageing in electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. N. Vital

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The moment when an electronic component doesn’t work like requirements, previously established is a task that need to be considered since began of a system design. However, the use of different technologies, operating under several environmental conditions, makes a component choice a complex step in system design. This paper analyzes the effects that ageing phenomenon of capacitors may introduce in electronic devices operation. For this reason, reliability concepts, processes and mechanism of degradation are presented. Additionally, some mathematical models are presented to assist maintenance activities or component replacement. The presented approach compares the operability of intact and aged components.

  11. Soft-matter capacitors and inductors for hyperelastic strain sensing and stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassler, A; Majidi, C

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a family of soft-matter capacitors and inductors composed of microchannels of liquid-phase gallium–indium–tin alloy (galinstan) embedded in a soft silicone elastomer (Ecoflex ® 00-30). In contrast to conventional (rigid) electronics, these circuit elements remain electronically functional even when stretched to several times their natural length. As the surrounding elastomer stretches, the capacitance and inductance of the embedded liquid channels change monotonically. Using a custom-built loading apparatus, we experimentally measure relative changes in capacitance and inductance as a function of stretch in three directions. These experimental relationships are consistent with theoretical predictions that we derive with finite elasticity kinematics. (paper)

  12. Soft-matter capacitors and inductors for hyperelastic strain sensing and stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, A.; Majidi, C.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a family of soft-matter capacitors and inductors composed of microchannels of liquid-phase gallium-indium-tin alloy (galinstan) embedded in a soft silicone elastomer (Ecoflex® 00-30). In contrast to conventional (rigid) electronics, these circuit elements remain electronically functional even when stretched to several times their natural length. As the surrounding elastomer stretches, the capacitance and inductance of the embedded liquid channels change monotonically. Using a custom-built loading apparatus, we experimentally measure relative changes in capacitance and inductance as a function of stretch in three directions. These experimental relationships are consistent with theoretical predictions that we derive with finite elasticity kinematics.

  13. Waterproof stretchable optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2018-04-03

    Described herein are flexible and stretchable LED arrays and methods utilizing flexible and stretchable LED arrays. Assembly of flexible LED arrays alongside flexible plasmonic crystals is useful for construction of fluid monitors, permitting sensitive detection of fluid refractive index and composition. Co-integration of flexible LED arrays with flexible photodetector arrays is useful for construction of flexible proximity sensors. Application of stretchable LED arrays onto flexible threads as light emitting sutures provides novel means for performing radiation therapy on wounds.

  14. Visually Imperceptible Liquid-Metal Circuits for Transparent, Stretchable Electronics with Direct Laser Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengfeng; Kumar, Kitty; Li, Jianzhao; Markvicka, Eric J; Herman, Peter R; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-03-01

    A material architecture and laser-based microfabrication technique is introduced to produce electrically conductive films (sheet resistance = 2.95 Ω sq -1 ; resistivity = 1.77 × 10 -6 Ω m) that are soft, elastic (strain limit >100%), and optically transparent. The films are composed of a grid-like array of visually imperceptible liquid-metal (LM) lines on a clear elastomer. Unlike previous efforts in transparent LM circuitry, the current approach enables fully imperceptible electronics that have not only high optical transmittance (>85% at 550 nm) but are also invisible under typical lighting conditions and reading distances. This unique combination of properties is enabled with a laser writing technique that results in LM grid patterns with a line width and pitch as small as 4.5 and 100 µm, respectively-yielding grid-like wiring that has adequate conductivity for digital functionality but is also well below the threshold for visual perception. The electrical, mechanical, electromechanical, and optomechanical properties of the films are characterized and it is found that high conductivity and transparency are preserved at tensile strains of ≈100%. To demonstrate their effectiveness for emerging applications in transparent displays and sensing electronics, the material architecture is incorporated into a couple of illustrative use cases related to chemical hazard warning. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Conducting polymer based biomolecular electronic devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting polymers; LB films; biosensor microactuators; monolayers. ... have been projected for applications for a wide range of biomolecular electronic devices such as optical, electronic, drug-delivery, memory and biosensing devices.

  16. Carbon footprint of electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloma, Marcin

    2013-07-01

    Paper assesses the greenhouse gas emissions related to the electronic sectors including information and communication technology and media sectors. While media often presents the carbon emission problem of other industries like petroleum industry, the airlines and automobile sectors, plastics and steel manufacturers, the electronics industry must include the increasing carbon footprints caused from their applications like media and entertainment, computers and cooling devices, complex telecommunications networks, cloud computing and powerful mobile phones. In that sense greenhouse gas emission of electronics should be studied in a life cycle perspective, including regular operational electricity use. Paper presents which product groups or processes are major contributors in emission. From available data and extrapolation of existing information we know that the information and communication technology sector produced 1.3% and media sector 1.7% of global gas emissions within production cycle, using the data from 2007.In the same time global electricity use of that sectors was 3.9% and 3.2% respectively. The results indicate that for both sectors operation leads to more gas emissions than manufacture, although impacts from the manufacture is significant, especially in the supply chain. Media electronics led to more emissions than PCs (manufacture and operation). Examining the role of electronics in climate change, including disposal of its waste, will enable the industry to take internal actions, leading to lowering the impact on the climate change within the sector itself.

  17. Realization of Intrinsically Stretchable Organic Solar Cells Enabled by Charge-Extraction Layer and Photoactive Material Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Ting; Chen, Jung-Yao; Fukuta, Seijiro; Lin, Po-Chen; Higashihara, Tomoya; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-06-12

    The rapid development of wearable electronic devices has prompted a strong demand to develop stretchable organic solar cells (OSCs) to serve as the advanced powering systems. However, to realize an intrinsically stretchable OSC is challenging because it requires all the constituent layers to possess certain elastic properties. It thus necessitates a combined engineering of charge-transporting layers and photoactive materials. Herein, we first describe a stretchable electron-extraction layer using a blend of poly[(9,9-bis(3'-( N, N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)- alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, Nipol 1072). This hybrid PFN/NBR layer exhibits a much lower Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov modulus (0.45 GPa) than the value (1.25 GPa) of the pristine PFN and could withstand a high strain (60% strain) without showing any cracks. Moreover, besides enriching the stretchability of PFN, the terminal carboxyl groups of NBR can ionize PFN to promote its solution-processability in polar solvents and to ensure the interfacial dipole formation at the corresponding interface in the device, as evidenced by the Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. By further coupling the replacement of [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with nonfullerene acceptors owing to better mechanical stretchability in the photoactive layer, OSCs with improved intrinsically stretchability and performance were demonstrated. An all-polymer OSC can exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 2.82% after 10% stretching, surpassing the PCBM-based device that can only withstand 5% strain.

  18. Strain Multiplexed Metasurface Holograms on a Stretchable Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Stephanie C; Ee, Ho-Seok; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2017-06-14

    We demonstrate reconfigurable phase-only computer-generated metasurface holograms with up to three image planes operating in the visible regime fabricated with gold nanorods on a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane substrate. Stretching the substrate enlarges the hologram image and changes the location of the image plane. Upon stretching, these devices can switch the displayed holographic image between multiple distinct images. This work opens up the possibilities for stretchable metasurface holograms as flat devices for dynamically reconfigurable optical communication and display. It also confirms that metasurfaces on stretchable substrates can serve as platform for a variety of reconfigurable optical devices.

  19. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  20. A Highly Stretchable and Washable All-Yarn-Based Self-Charging Knitting Power Textile Composed of Fiber Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Deng, Jianan; Dai, Yejing; Zhang, Steven L; Zou, Haiyang; Gu, Bohong; Sun, Baozhong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-26

    Rapid advancements in stretchable and multifunctional wearable electronics impose a challenge on corresponding power devices that they should have comparable portability and stretchability. Here, we report a highly stretchable and washable all-yarn-based self-charging knitting power textile that enables both biomechanical energy harvesting and simultaneously energy storing by hybridizing triboelectrical nanogenerator (TENG) and supercapacitor (SC) into one fabric. With the weft-knitting technique, the power textile is qualified with high elasticity, flexibility, and stretchability, which can adapt to complex mechanical deformations. The knitting TENG fabric is able to generate electric energy with a maximum instantaneous peak power density of ∼85 mW·m -2 and light up at least 124 light-emitting diodes. The all-solid-state symmetrical yarn SC exhibits lightweight, good capacitance, high flexibility, and excellent mechanical and long-term stability, which is suitable for wearable energy storage devices. The assembled knitting power textile is capable of sustainably driving wearable electronics (for example, a calculator or temperature-humidity meter) with energy converted from human motions. Our work provides more opportunities for stretchable multifunctional power sources and potential applications in wearable electronics.

  1. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  2. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  3. Stretchable, Porous, and Conductive Energy Textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing; Pasta, Mauro; Mantia, Fabio La; Cui, LiFeng; Jeong, Sangmoo; Deshazer, Heather Dawn; Choi, Jang Wook; Han, Seung Min; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Recently there is strong interest in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronics to meet the technological demands of modern society. Integrated energy storage devices of this type are a key area that is still significantly underdeveloped. Here, we describe wearable power devices using everyday textiles as the platform. With an extremely simple "dipping and drying" process using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ink, we produced highly conductive textiles with conductivity of 125 S cm-1 and sheet resistance less than 1 Ω/sq. Such conductive textiles show outstanding flexibility and stretchability and demonstrate strong adhesion between the SWNTs and the textiles of interest. Supercapacitors made from these conductive textiles show high areal capacitance, up to 0.48F/cm2, and high specific energy. We demonstrate the loading of pseudocapacitor materials into these conductive textiles that leads to a 24-fold increase of the areal capacitance of the device. These highly conductive textiles can provide new design opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Stretchable, Porous, and Conductive Energy Textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2010-02-10

    Recently there is strong interest in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronics to meet the technological demands of modern society. Integrated energy storage devices of this type are a key area that is still significantly underdeveloped. Here, we describe wearable power devices using everyday textiles as the platform. With an extremely simple "dipping and drying" process using single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ink, we produced highly conductive textiles with conductivity of 125 S cm-1 and sheet resistance less than 1 Ω/sq. Such conductive textiles show outstanding flexibility and stretchability and demonstrate strong adhesion between the SWNTs and the textiles of interest. Supercapacitors made from these conductive textiles show high areal capacitance, up to 0.48F/cm2, and high specific energy. We demonstrate the loading of pseudocapacitor materials into these conductive textiles that leads to a 24-fold increase of the areal capacitance of the device. These highly conductive textiles can provide new design opportunities for wearable electronics and energy storage applications. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Miniaturized Stretchable and High-Rate Linear Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning

    2017-07-01

    Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electrodes. Furthermore, we have developed fine stretchable linear supercapacitors, which exhibited an extremely high elasticity up to 400% strain with a high capacitance of about 8.7 F g-1 at the discharge current of 1 A g-1.

  6. Development of a New Stretchable and Screen Printable Conductive Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar A.

    Stretchable conductive ink is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This thesis research focuses on the development of a new stretchable and screen printable conductive ink. After print and cure, this ink would be capable of being stretched by at least 500 cycles at 20% strain without increasing its resistance by more than 30 times the original resistance, while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. For a stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink, the correct morphology of the metal powder selected and the ability of the binder to be stretched after the sintering process, are both indispensable. This research has shown that a bi-modal mixture of fine and large-diameter silver flakes will improve stretchability. While the smaller flakes increase the conductivity and lower the sintering temperature, the larger flake particles promote ohmic connectivity during stretching. The bi-modal flake distribution increases connection points while enhancing packing density and lowering the thermal activation barrier. The polymer binder phase plays a crucial role in offering stretchability to the stretchable conductive inks. The silver flakes by themselves are not stretchable but they are contained within a stretchable binder system. The research demonstrates that commonly used printable ink binder when combined with large-chain polymers through a process known as 'elastomeric chain polymerization' will enable the conductive ink to become more stretchable. This research has shown that the new stretchable and screen printable silver conductive ink developed based upon the two insights mentioned above; (1) bi modal flakes to improve ohmic connectivity during stretching and (2) elastomeric chain polymerized binder system which could stretch even after the ink is sintered to the substrate, can exhibit an ink stretchability of at least 500 cycles at 20% strain while increasing the resistance by less than 30 times the original resistance. Wavy print patterns can

  7. Investigation of Electronic Corrosion at Device Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Minzari, Daniel; Rathinavelu, Umadevi

    2010-01-01

    This work presents device level testing of a lead free soldered electronic device tested with bias on under cyclic humidity conditions in a climatic chamber. Besides severe temperature and humidity during testing some devices were deliberately contaminated before testing. Contaminants investigated...

  8. Miniaturized Stretchable and High-Rate Linear Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning

    2017-01-01

    Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electr...

  9. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  10. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Philip Wong, H-S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented. (topical review)

  11. Multichannel noninvasive human-machine interface via stretchable µm thick sEMG patches for robot manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Youhua; Liu, Runfeng; Xiao, Lin; Zhang, Qin; Huang, YongAn

    2018-01-01

    Epidermal electronics (e-skin) emerging in recent years offer the opportunity to noninvasively and wearably extract biosignals from human bodies. The conventional processes of e-skin based on standard microelectronic fabrication processes and a variety of transfer printing methods, nevertheless, unquestionably constrains the size of the devices, posing a serious challenge to collecting signals via skin, the largest organ in the human body. Herein we propose a multichannel noninvasive human-machine interface (HMI) using stretchable surface electromyography (sEMG) patches to realize a robot hand mimicking human gestures. Time-efficient processes are first developed to manufacture µm thick large-scale stretchable devices. With micron thickness, the stretchable µm thick sEMG patches show excellent conformability with human skin and consequently comparable electrical performance with conventional gel electrodes. Combined with the large-scale size, the multichannel noninvasive HMI via stretchable µm thick sEMG patches successfully manipulates the robot hand with eight different gestures, whose precision is as high as conventional gel electrodes array.

  12. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  13. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  14. Graphene nanoribbons for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Zhansong; Granzner, Ralf; Kittler, Mario; Schwierz, Frank [FG Festkoerperelektronik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Haehnlein, Bernd; Auge, Manuel; Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Lebedev, Alexander A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Davydov, Valery Y. [Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene nanoribbons show unique properties and have attracted a lot of attention in the recent past. Intensive theoretical and experimental studies on such nanostructures at both the fundamental and application-oriented levels have been performed. The present paper discusses the suitability of graphene nanoribbons devices for nanoelectronics and focuses on three specific device types - graphene nanoribbon MOSFETs, side-gate transistors, and three terminal junctions. It is shown that, on the one hand, experimental devices of each type of the three nanoribbon-based structures have been reported, that promising performance of these devices has been demonstrated and/or predicted, and that in part they possess functionalities not attainable with conventional semiconductor devices. On the other hand, it is emphasized that - in spite of the remarkable progress achieved during the past 10 years - graphene nanoribbon devices still face a lot of problems and that their prospects for future applications remain unclear. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Coaxial printing method for directly writing stretchable cable as strain sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Hai-liang; Chen, Yan-qiu; Deng, Yong-qiang; Zhang, Li-long; Lau, Woon-ming; Mei, Jun; Liu, Yu; Hong, Xiao; Hui, David; Yan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Through applying the liquid metal and elastomer as the core and shell materials, respectively, a coaxial printing method is being developed in this work for preparing a stretchable and conductive cable. When liquid metal alloy eutectic Gallium-Indium is embedded into the elastomer matrix under optimized control, the cable demonstrates well–posed extreme mechanic performance, under stretching for more than 350%. Under developed compression test, the fabricated cable also demonstrates the ability for recovering original properties due to the high flowability of the liquid metal and super elasticity of the elastomeric shell. The written cable presents high cycling reliability regarding its stretchability and conductivity, two properties which can be clearly predicted in theoretical calculation. This work can be further investigated as a strain sensor for monitoring motion status including frequency and amplitude of a curved object, with extensive applications in wearable devices, soft robots, electronic skins, and wireless communication.

  16. Coaxial printing method for directly writing stretchable cable as strain sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hai-liang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100124 Beijing (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R& D Center, 610299 Chengdu (China); Chen, Yan-qiu, E-mail: yu.liu@vip.163.com, E-mail: cyqleaf@qq.com, E-mail: hyan@but.ac.cn; Deng, Yong-qiang; Zhang, Li-long; Lau, Woon-ming; Mei, Jun; Liu, Yu, E-mail: yu.liu@vip.163.com, E-mail: cyqleaf@qq.com, E-mail: hyan@but.ac.cn [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R& D Center, 610299 Chengdu (China); Hong, Xiao [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R& D Center, 610299 Chengdu (China); College of Computer Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610207 (China); Hui, David [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70148 (United States); Yan, Hui, E-mail: yu.liu@vip.163.com, E-mail: cyqleaf@qq.com, E-mail: hyan@but.ac.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, 100124 Beijing (China)

    2016-08-22

    Through applying the liquid metal and elastomer as the core and shell materials, respectively, a coaxial printing method is being developed in this work for preparing a stretchable and conductive cable. When liquid metal alloy eutectic Gallium-Indium is embedded into the elastomer matrix under optimized control, the cable demonstrates well–posed extreme mechanic performance, under stretching for more than 350%. Under developed compression test, the fabricated cable also demonstrates the ability for recovering original properties due to the high flowability of the liquid metal and super elasticity of the elastomeric shell. The written cable presents high cycling reliability regarding its stretchability and conductivity, two properties which can be clearly predicted in theoretical calculation. This work can be further investigated as a strain sensor for monitoring motion status including frequency and amplitude of a curved object, with extensive applications in wearable devices, soft robots, electronic skins, and wireless communication.

  17. 78 FR 16865 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  18. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  19. Design of Novel Wearable, Stretchable, and Waterproof Cable-Type Supercapacitors Based on High-Performance Nickel Cobalt Sulfide-Coated Etching-Annealed Yarn Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejiao; Xu, Bingang; Wen, Jianfeng; Gong, Jianliang; Hua, Tao; Kan, Chi-Wai; Deng, Jiwei

    2018-04-19

    Rapid advances in functional electronics bring tremendous demands on innovation toward effective designs of device structures. Yarn supercapacitors (SCs) show advantages of flexibility, knittability, and small size, and can be integrated into various electronic devices with low cost and high efficiency for energy storage. In this work, functionalized stainless steel yarns are developed to support active materials of positive and negative electrodes, which not only enhance capacitance of both electrodes but can also be designed into stretchable configurations. The as-made asymmetric yarn SCs show a high energy density of 0.0487 mWh cm -2 (10.19 mWh cm -3 ) at a power density of 0.553 mW cm -2 (129.1 mW cm -3 ) and a specific capacitance of 127.2 mF cm -2 under an operating voltage window of 1.7 V. The fabricated SC is then made into a stretchable configuration by a prestraining-then-releasing approach using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tube, and its electrochemical performance can be well maintained when stretching up to a high strain of 100%. Moreover, the stretchable cable-type SCs are stably workable under water-immersed condition. The method opens up new ways for fabricating flexible, stretchable, and waterproof devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Pressurized waterproof case for electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touch-screen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein

  1. Freeform Compliant CMOS Electronic Systems for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-01-17

    The state-of-the-art electronics technology has been an integral part of modern advances. The prevalent rise of the mobile device and computational technology in the age of information technology offers exciting applications that are attributed to sophisticated, enormously reliable, and most mature CMOS-based electronics. We are accustomed to high performance, cost-effective, multifunctional, and energy-efficient scaled electronics. However, they are rigid, bulky, and brittle. The convolution of flexibility and stretchability in electronics for emerging Internet of Everything application can unleash smart application horizon in unexplored areas, such as robotics, healthcare, smart cities, transport, and entertainment systems. While flexible and stretchable device themes are being remarkably chased, the realization of the fully compliant electronic system is unaddressed. Integration of data processing, storage, communication, and energy management devices complements a compliant system. Here, a comprehensive review is presented on necessity and design criteria for freeform (physically flexible and stretchable) compliant high-performance CMOS electronic systems.

  2. Plastic Deformation as a Means to Achieve Stretchable Polymer Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brendan

    Developing intrinsically stretchable semiconductors will seamlessly transition traditional devices into a stretchable platform. Polymer semiconductors are inherently soft materials due to the weak van der Waal intermolecular bonding allowing for flexible devices. However, these materials are not typically stretchable and when large strains are applied they either crack or plastically deform. Here, we study the use of repeated plastic deformation as a means of achieving stretchable films. In this talk, critical aspects of polymer semiconductor material selection, morphology and interface properties will be discussed that enable this approach of achieving stretchable films. We show that one can employ high performance donor-acceptor polymer semiconductors that are typically brittle through proper polymer blending to significantly increase ductility to achieve stretchable films. We demonstrate a polymer blend film that can be repeatedly deformed over 65%, while maintaining charge mobility consistently above 0.15 cm2/Vs. During the stretching process we show that the films follow a well-controlled repeated deformation pattern for over 100 stretching cycles.

  3. 78 FR 34669 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... importing wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers... certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  4. Anomalous Stretchable Conductivity Using an Engineered Tricot Weave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Yoonseob; Lee, Tae-Ik; Lee, Inhwa; Shin, Jaeho; Lee, Hyun Soo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Choi, Jang Wook

    2015-12-22

    Robust electric conduction under stretching motions is a key element in upcoming wearable electronic devices but is fundamentally very difficult to achieve because percolation pathways in conductive media are subject to collapse upon stretching. Here, we report that this fundamental challenge can be overcome by using a parameter uniquely available in textiles, namely a weaving structure. A textile structure alternately interwoven with inelastic and elastic yarns, achieved via a tricot weave, possesses excellent elasticity (strain up to 200%) in diagonal directions. When this textile is coated with conductive nanomaterials, proper textile engineering allows the textile to obtain an unprecedented 7-fold conductivity increase, with conductivity reaching 33,000 S cm(-1), even at 130% strain, due to enhanced interyarn contacts. The observed stretching conductivity can be described well using a modified 3D percolation theory that reflects the weaving effect and is also utilized for stretchable electronic interconnects and supercapacitors with high performance.

  5. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  6. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Ismailov; D. V. Evdulov; A. G. Mustafaev; D. K. Ramazanova

    2014-01-01

    In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling. 

  7. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling. 

  8. INTERFACE ELECTRONIC MEDICAL CARD ON MOBILE DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Nechyporenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept designed by electronic medical card for heterogeneous environment of medical information systems at various levels. Appropriate model and technical solution. Done evaluating operating systems for mobile devices. Designed and produced by the project mobile application on Android OS as an electronic medical record on a Tablet PC Acer.

  9. High-Density Stretchable Electrode Grids for Chronic Neural Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Khodagholy, Dion; Dielacher, Bernd; Stauffer, Flurin; Renz, Aline F; Buzsáki, György; Vörös, János

    2018-04-01

    Electrical interfacing with neural tissue is key to advancing diagnosis and therapies for neurological disorders, as well as providing detailed information about neural signals. A challenge for creating long-term stable interfaces between electronics and neural tissue is the huge mechanical mismatch between the systems. So far, materials and fabrication processes have restricted the development of soft electrode grids able to combine high performance, long-term stability, and high electrode density, aspects all essential for neural interfacing. Here, this challenge is addressed by developing a soft, high-density, stretchable electrode grid based on an inert, high-performance composite material comprising gold-coated titanium dioxide nanowires embedded in a silicone matrix. The developed grid can resolve high spatiotemporal neural signals from the surface of the cortex in freely moving rats with stable neural recording quality and preserved electrode signal coherence during 3 months of implantation. Due to its flexible and stretchable nature, it is possible to minimize the size of the craniotomy required for placement, further reducing the level of invasiveness. The material and device technology presented herein have potential for a wide range of emerging biomedical applications. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Highly-stretchable 3D-architected Mechanical Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhui; Wang, Qiming

    2016-09-01

    Soft materials featuring both 3D free-form architectures and high stretchability are highly desirable for a number of engineering applications ranging from cushion modulators, soft robots to stretchable electronics; however, both the manufacturing and fundamental mechanics are largely elusive. Here, we overcome the manufacturing difficulties and report a class of mechanical metamaterials that not only features 3D free-form lattice architectures but also poses ultrahigh reversible stretchability (strain > 414%), 4 times higher than that of the existing counterparts with the similar complexity of 3D architectures. The microarchitected metamaterials, made of highly stretchable elastomers, are realized through an additive manufacturing technique, projection microstereolithography, and its postprocessing. With the fabricated metamaterials, we reveal their exotic mechanical behaviors: Under large-strain tension, their moduli follow a linear scaling relationship with their densities regardless of architecture types, in sharp contrast to the architecture-dependent modulus power-law of the existing engineering materials; under large-strain compression, they present tunable negative-stiffness that enables ultrahigh energy absorption efficiencies. To harness their extraordinary stretchability and microstructures, we demonstrate that the metamaterials open a number of application avenues in lightweight and flexible structure connectors, ultraefficient dampers, 3D meshed rehabilitation structures and stretchable electronics with designed 3D anisotropic conductivity.

  11. Rapid Prototyping Human Interfaces Using Stretchable Strain Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiya Yamaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern society with a variety of information electronic devices, human interfaces increase their importance in a boundary of a human and a device. In general, the human is required to get used to the device. Even if the device is designed as a universal device or a high-usability device, the device is not suitable for all users. The usability of the device depends on the individual user. Therefore, personalized and customized human interfaces are effective for the user. To create customized interfaces, we propose rapid prototyping human interfaces using stretchable strain sensors. The human interfaces comprise parts formed by a three-dimensional printer and the four strain sensors. The three-dimensional printer easily makes customized human interfaces. The outputs of the interface are calculated based on the sensor’s lengths. Experiments evaluate three human interfaces: a sheet-shaped interface, a sliding lever interface, and a tilting lever interface. We confirm that the three human interfaces obtain input operations with a high accuracy.

  12. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  13. Pressurized waterproof case for electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    The pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for the waterproof containment and operation of a touch-screen computer or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. The case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touch-screen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may be a small gas cartridge (e.g., CO2), or may be provided from an external source, such as the diver\\'s breathing air. A pressure relief valve is also provided.

  14. New Vacuum Electronic Devices for Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yinfu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum Electronic Devices (VEDs which are considered as the heart of a radar system, play an important role in their development. VEDs and radar systems supplement and promote each other. Some new trends in VEDs have been observed with advancements in the simulation tools for designing VEDs, new materials, new fabrication techniques. Recently, the performance of VEDs has greatly improved. In addition, new devices have been invented, which have laid the foundation for the developments of radar detection technology. This study introduces the recent development trends and research results of VEDs from microwave and millimeter wave devices and power modules, integrated VEDs, terahertz VEDs, and high power VEDs.

  15. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Commmunication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, imported by Apple Inc...

  16. 77 FR 70464 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-794] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and tablet computers, by reason...

  17. Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2010-09-07

    Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

  18. Plasmonically enhanced hot electron based photovoltaic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Fatih B; Battal, Enes; Aygun, Levent E; Daglar, Bihter; Bayindir, Mehmet; Okyay, Ali K

    2013-03-25

    Hot electron photovoltaics is emerging as a candidate for low cost and ultra thin solar cells. Plasmonic means can be utilized to significantly boost device efficiency. We separately form the tunneling metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junction for electron collection and the plasmon exciting MIM structure on top of each other, which provides high flexibility in plasmonic design and tunneling MIM design separately. We demonstrate close to one order of magnitude enhancement in the short circuit current at the resonance wavelengths.

  19. Transfer printing and patterning of stretchable electrospun film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yongqing; Huang, YongAn, E-mail: yahuang@hust.edu.cn; Yin, Zhouping

    2013-10-01

    Electrospinning is an effective method for nanofiber production, but seldom used in the fabrication of patterned structures directly due to the whipping instability of the electrospinning jet. The whipping instability of electrospinning is adopted to fabricate stretchable patterned film by combination with an improved thermal transfer printing. The electrospun film is composed of small-scale wavy/coiled fibers, which make the patterned film highly stretchable. The optimal process parameters of whipping-based electrospinning are investigated to fabricate electrospun film with uniform and compact wavy/coiled fiber. Then the transfer printing and thermal detachment lithography are studied to generate patterned film, including the pressure, temperature, and peeling-off speed. Finally, the stretchability of the patterned electrospun film is studied through experiment and finite element analysis. It may open a cost-effective and high-throughput way for flexible/stretchable electronics fabrication. - Highlights: • Stretchable nonwoven film with small-scale wavy fibers is fabricated. • The film is transferred and patterned by thermal detachment lithography. • The patterned film is validated with high stretchability.

  20. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  1. Remote Monitoring of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Christopher C; Deyell, Marc W

    2018-01-08

    Over the past decade, technological advancements have transformed the delivery of care for arrhythmia patients. From early transtelephonic monitoring to new devices capable of wireless and cellular transmission, remote monitoring has revolutionized device care. In this article, we review the current evolution and evidence for remote monitoring in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. From passive transmission of device diagnostics, to active transmission of patient- and device-triggered alerts, remote monitoring can shorten the time to diagnosis and treatment. Studies have shown that remote monitoring can reduce hospitalization and emergency room visits, and improve survival. Remote monitoring can also reduce the health care costs, while providing increased access to patients living in rural or marginalized communities. Unfortunately, as many as two-thirds of patients with remote monitoring-capable devices do not use, or are not offered, this feature. Current guidelines recommend remote monitoring and interrogation, combined with annual in-person evaluation in all cardiac device patients. Remote monitoring should be considered in all eligible device patients and should be considered standard of care. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A device for electron gun emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, B.; Corveller, P.; Jablonka, M.; Joly, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    In order to improve the final emittance of the beam delivered by the ALS electron linac a new gun is going to be installed. To measure its emittance and evaluate the contribution of different factors to emittance growth we have developed an emittance measurement device. We describe the experimental and mathematical procedure we have followed, and give some results of measurements

  3. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco, S.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  4. High performance flexible electronics for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Giovanni A; Munzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Petti, Luisa; Troster, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Plastic electronics is soft, deformable and lightweight and it is suitable for the realization of devices which can form an intimate interface with the body, be implanted or integrated into textile for wearable and biomedical applications. Here, we present flexible electronics based on amorphous oxide semiconductors (a-IGZO) whose performance can achieve MHz frequency even when bent around hair. We developed an assembly technique to integrate complex electronic functionalities into textile while preserving the softness of the garment. All this and further developments can open up new opportunities in health monitoring, biotechnology and telemedicine.

  5. Ferrofluid-based Stretchable Magnetic Core Inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, N.; Meyer, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic materials are commonly used in inductor and transformer cores to increase inductance density. The emerging field of stretchable electronics poses a new challenge since typical magnetic cores are bulky, rigid and often brittle. This paper presents, for the first time, stretchable inductors incorporating ferrofluid as a liquid magnetic core. Ferrofluids, suspensions of nanoscale magnetic particles in a carrier liquid, provide enhanced magnetic permeability without changing the mechanical properties of the surrounding elastomer. The inductor tested in this work consisted of a liquid metal solenoid wrapped around a ferrofluid core in separate channels. The low frequency inductance was found to increase from 255 nH before fill to 390 nH after fill with ferrofluid, an increase of 52%. The inductor was also shown to survive uniaxial strains of up to 100%.

  6. Stretchable inductor with liquid magnetic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, N.; Meyer, C. D.

    2016-03-01

    Adding magnetic materials is a well-established method for improving performance of inductors. However, traditional magnetic cores are rigid and poorly suited for the emerging field of stretchable electronics, where highly deformable inductors are used to wirelessly couple power and data signals. In this work, stretchable inductors are demonstrated based on the use of ferrofluids, magnetic liquids based on distributed magnetic particles, to create a compliant magnetic core. Using a silicone molding technique to create multi-layer fluidic channels, a liquid metal solenoid is fabricated around a ferrofluid channel. An analytical model is developed for the effects of mechanical strain, followed by experimental verification using two different ferrofluids with different permeabilities. Adding ferrofluid was found to increase the unstrained inductance by up to 280% relative to a similar inductor with a non-magnetic silicone core, while retaining the ability to survive uniaxial strains up to 100%.

  7. Stretchable microelectrode array using room-temperature liquid alloy interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, P; Ziaie, B; Taylor, R; Chung, C; Higgs, G; Pruitt, B L; Ding, Z; Abilez, O J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a stretchable microelectrode array for studying cell behavior under mechanical strain. The electrode array consists of gold-plated nail-head pins (250 µm tip diameter) or tungsten micro-wires (25.4 µm in diameter) inserted into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform (25.4 × 25.4 mm 2 ). Stretchable interconnects to the outside were provided by fusible indium-alloy-filled microchannels. The alloy is liquid at room temperature, thus providing the necessary stretchability and electrical conductivity. The electrode platform can withstand strains of up to 40% and repeated (100 times) strains of up to 35% did not cause any failure in the electrodes or the PDMS substrate. We confirmed biocompatibility of short-term culture, and using the gold pin device, we demonstrated electric field pacing of adult murine heart cells. Further, using the tungsten microelectrode device, we successfully measured depolarizations of differentiated murine heart cells from embryoid body clusters

  8. Electronic medical devices: a primer for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, James B

    2003-07-01

    Electronic medical devices (EMDs) with downloadable memories, such as implantable cardiac pacemakers, defibrillators, drug pumps, insulin pumps, and glucose monitors, are now an integral part of routine medical practice in the United States, and functional organ replacements, such as the artificial heart, pancreas, and retina, will most likely become commonplace in the near future. Often, EMDs end up in the hands of the pathologist as a surgical specimen or at autopsy. No established guidelines for systematic examination and reporting or comprehensive reviews of EMDs currently exist for the pathologist. To provide pathologists with a general overview of EMDs, including a brief history; epidemiology; essential technical aspects, indications, contraindications, and complications of selected devices; potential applications in pathology; relevant government regulations; and suggested examination and reporting guidelines. Articles indexed on PubMed of the National Library of Medicine, various medical and history of medicine textbooks, US Food and Drug Administration publications and product information, and specifications provided by device manufacturers. Studies were selected on the basis of relevance to the study objectives. Descriptive data were selected by the author. Suggested examination and reporting guidelines for EMDs received as surgical specimens and retrieved at autopsy. Electronic medical devices received as surgical specimens and retrieved at autopsy are increasing in number and level of sophistication. They should be systematically examined and reported, should have electronic memories downloaded when indicated, will help pathologists answer more questions with greater certainty, and should become an integral part of the formal knowledge base, research focus, training, and practice of pathology.

  9. Reading from electronic devices versus hardcopy text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Jennifer E; Rosenfield, Mark; Saá, Gianinna

    2014-01-01

    The use of electronic reading devices has increased dramatically. However, some individuals report increased visual symptoms when reading from electronic screens. This investigation compared reading from two electronic devices (Amazon Kindle or Apple Ipod) versus hardcopy text in two groups of 20 subjects. Subjects performed a 20 min reading task for each condition. Both the accommodative response and reading rate were monitored during the trial. Immediately post-task, subjects completed a questionnaire concerning the ocular symptoms experienced during the task. In comparing the Kindle with hardcopy, no significant difference in the total symptom score was observed, although the mean score for the symptoms of tired eyes and eye discomfort was significantly higher with the Kindle. No significant differences in reading rate were found. When comparing the Ipod with hardcopy, no significant differences in symptom scores were found. The mean reading rate with the Ipod was significantly slower than for hardcopy while the mean lag of accommodation was significantly larger for the Ipod. Given the significant increase in symptoms with the Kindle, and larger lag of accommodation and reduced reading rate with the Ipod, one may conclude that reading from electronic devices is not equivalent to hardcopy.

  10. Electronic voltage and current transformers testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Chen, Ruimin; Xiao, Yong; Sun, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs) with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz). The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  11. Ocular Tolerance of Contemporary Electronic Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew J; Yang, Paul; Khaderi, Khizer R; Moshfeghi, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    Electronic displays have become an integral part of life in the developed world since the revolution of mobile computing a decade ago. With the release of multiple consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) products in the past 2 years utilizing head-mounted displays (HMDs), as well as the development of low-cost, smartphone-based HMDs, the ability to intimately interact with electronic screens is greater than ever. VR/AR HMDs also place the display at much closer ocular proximity than traditional electronic devices while also isolating the user from the ambient environment to create a "closed" system between the user's eyes and the display. Whether the increased interaction with these devices places the user's retina at higher risk of damage is currently unclear. Herein, the authors review the discovery of photochemical damage of the retina from visible light as well as summarize relevant clinical and preclinical data regarding the influence of modern display devices on retinal health. Multiple preclinical studies have been performed with modern light-emitting diode technology demonstrating damage to the retina at modest exposure levels, particularly from blue-light wavelengths. Unfortunately, high-quality in-human studies are lacking, and the small clinical investigations performed to date have failed to keep pace with the rapid evolutions in display technology. Clinical investigations assessing the effect of HMDs on human retinal function are also yet to be performed. From the available data, modern consumer electronic displays do not appear to pose any acute risk to vision with average use; however, future studies with well-defined clinical outcomes and illuminance metrics are needed to better understand the long-term risks of cumulative exposure to electronic displays in general and with "closed" VR/AR HMDs in particular. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:346-354.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Stretchable Capacitors that Electrically Luminesce, Sense, and Actuate for Biomimetic Coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Reality (SIGGRAPH conference presentation; collaboration with NVIDIA Research). Potential Army Relevance: •Stretchable displays for visually indicating...with NVIDIA Research for using their Jetson micro AI computing device for gesture interpretation (paper in review). Resulting Journal Publications

  13. Guide to state-of-the-art electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Concise, high quality and comparative overview of state-of-the-art electron device development, manufacturing technologies and applications Guide to State-of-the-Art Electron Devices marks the 60th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Committee and the 35th anniversary of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, as such it defines the state-of-the-art of electron devices, as well as future directions across the entire field. Spans full range of electron device types such as photovoltaic devices, semiconductor manufacturing and VLSI technology and circuits, covered by IEEE Electron and Devices Society Contributed by internationally respected members of the electron devices community A timely desk reference with fully-integrated colour and a unique lay-out with sidebars to highlight the key terms Discusses the historical developments and speculates on future trends to give a more rounded picture of the topics covered A valuable resource R&D managers; engineers in the semiconductor industry; applied scientists...

  14. Miniaturized Stretchable and High-Rate Linear Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Zhang, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Zunfeng; Yuan, Ningyi; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Linear stretchable supercapacitors have attracted much attention because they are well suited to applications in the rapidly expanding field of wearable electronics. However, poor conductivity of the electrode material, which limits the transfer of electrons in the axial direction of the linear supercapacitors, leads to a serious loss of capacity at high rates. To solve this problem, we use gold nanoparticles to decorate aligned multiwall carbon nanotube to fabricate stretchable linear electrodes. Furthermore, we have developed fine stretchable linear supercapacitors, which exhibited an extremely high elasticity up to 400% strain with a high capacitance of about 8.7 F g -1 at the discharge current of 1 A g -1 .

  15. Wearable, wireless gas sensors using highly stretchable and transparent structures of nanowires and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Kukjoo; Kim, So-Yun; Cheong, Woon Hyung; Park, Kyeongmin; Song, Joo Hyeb; Namgoong, Gyeongho; Kim, Jae Joon; Heo, Jaeyeong; Bien, Franklin; Park, Jang-Ung

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a highly stretchable, transparent gas sensor based on silver nanowire-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Due to its superb mechanical and optical characteristics, the fabricated sensor demonstrates outstanding and stable performances even under extreme mechanical deformation (stable until 20% of strain). The integration of a Bluetooth system or an inductive antenna enables the wireless operation of the sensor. In addition, the mechanical robustness of the materials allows the device to be transferred onto various nonplanar substrates, including a watch, a bicycle light, and the leaves of live plants, thereby achieving next-generation sensing electronics for the `Internet of Things' area.Herein, we report the fabrication of a highly stretchable, transparent gas sensor based on silver nanowire-graphene hybrid nanostructures. Due to its superb mechanical and optical characteristics, the fabricated sensor demonstrates outstanding and stable performances even under extreme mechanical deformation (stable until 20% of strain). The integration of a Bluetooth system or an inductive antenna enables the wireless operation of the sensor. In addition, the mechanical robustness of the materials allows the device to be transferred onto various nonplanar substrates, including a watch, a bicycle light, and the leaves of live plants, thereby achieving next-generation sensing electronics for the `Internet of Things' area. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01468b

  16. Skin-Inspired Electronics: An Emerging Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sihong; Oh, Jin Young; Xu, Jie; Tran, Helen; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-05-15

    Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants. These demands have fueled the development of a new generation of electronic materials, primarily composed of polymers and polymer composites with both high electrical performance and skinlike properties, and consequently led to a new paradigm of electronics, termed "skin-inspired electronics". This Account covers recent important advances in skin-inspired electronics, from basic material developments to device components and proof-of-concept demonstrations for integrated bioelectronics applications. To date, stretchability has been the most prominent focus in this field. In contrast to strain-engineering approaches that extrinsically impart stretchability into inorganic electronics, intrinsically stretchable materials provide a direct route to achieve higher mechanical robustness, higher device density, and scalable fabrication. The key is the introduction of strain-dissipation mechanisms into the material design, which has been realized through molecular engineering (e.g., soft molecular segments, dynamic bonds) and physical engineering (e.g., nanoconfinement effect, geometric design). The material design concepts have led to the successful demonstrations of

  17. Electronic equipment and software for device 'FAZA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, S.P.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Petrov, L.A.; Oeschler, H.; Lips, F.; Bart, R.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic equipment and software for the device FAZA are described. The device, designed for studying the nuclear multifragmentation process, consists of 5 time-of-flight telescopes, a position-sensitive avalanche chamber and 58 PM tubes. The time resolution of the time-of-flight telescopes is 0.5 ns, which allows a velocity resolution of 1.5%. The spatial resolution of the large avalanche counter is 4 mm, which allows angular resolution of 1 deg. Analogue signals from each PM tube come to two ADCs, to which strobes are supplied with a 400 ns shift. It allows codes corresponding to Cherenkov radiation and deexcitation of CsJ(Tl) to be distinguished in a two-dimensional plot. 8 refs.; 2 figs

  18. Advanced Materials and Devices for Bioresorbable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Kyun; Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Yoon Kyeung; Rogers, John A

    2018-05-15

    Recent advances in materials chemistry establish the foundations for unusual classes of electronic systems, characterized by their ability to fully or partially dissolve, disintegrate, or otherwise physically or chemically decompose in a controlled fashion after some defined period of stable operation. Such types of "transient" technologies may enable consumer gadgets that minimize waste streams associated with disposal, implantable sensors that disappear harmlessly in the body, and hardware-secure platforms that prevent unwanted recovery of sensitive data. This second area of opportunity, sometimes referred to as bioresorbable electronics, is of particular interest due to its ability to provide diagnostic or therapeutic function in a manner that can enhance or monitor transient biological processes, such as wound healing, while bypassing risks associated with extended device load on the body or with secondary surgical procedures for removal. Early chemistry research established sets of bioresorbable materials for substrates, encapsulation layers, and dielectrics, along with several options in organic and bio-organic semiconductors. The subsequent realization that nanoscale forms of device-grade monocrystalline silicon, such as silicon nanomembranes (m-Si NMs, or Si NMs) undergo hydrolysis in biofluids to yield biocompatible byproducts over biologically relevant time scales advanced the field by providing immediate routes to high performance operation and versatile, sophisticated levels of function. When combined with bioresorbable conductors, dielectrics, substrates, and encapsulation layers, Si NMs provide the basis for a broad, general class of bioresorbable electronics. Other properties of Si, such as its piezoresistivity and photovoltaic properties, allow other types of bioresorbable devices such as solar cells, strain gauges, pH sensors, and photodetectors. The most advanced bioresorbable devices now exist as complete systems with successful demonstrations of

  19. Drop casting of stiffness gradients for chip integration into stretchable substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserifar, Naser; LeDuc, Philip R; Fedder, Gary K

    2017-01-01

    Stretchable electronics have demonstrated promise within unobtrusive wearable systems in areas such as health monitoring and medical therapy. One significant question is whether it is more advantageous to develop holistic stretchable electronics or to integrate mature CMOS into stretchable electronic substrates where the CMOS process is separated from the mechanical processing steps. A major limitation with integrating CMOS is the dissimilar interface between the soft stretchable and hard CMOS materials. To address this, we developed an approach to pattern an elastomeric polymer layer with spatially varying mechanical properties around CMOS electronics to create a controllable material stiffness gradient. Our experimental approach reveals that modifying the interfaces can increase the strain failure threshold up to 30% and subsequently decreases delamination. The stiffness gradient in the polymer layer provides a safe region for electronic chips to function under a substrate tensile strain up to 150%. These results will have impacts in diverse applications including skin sensors and wearable health monitoring systems. (paper)

  20. Multiparametric electronic devices based on nuclear tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: FINK@HMI.DE; Saad, A. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Science, Al Balqa University, Salt (Jordan); Dhamodaran, S. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046 (India); Chandra, A. [HMI Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Fahrner, W.R. [Chair of Electronic Devices, Institute of Electrotechnique, Fernuniversitaet, Hagen (Germany); Hoppe, K. [South Westfalia University of Applied Sciences, Hagen (Germany); Chadderton, L.T. [Institute of Advanced Studies, ANU Canberra, GPO Box 4, ACT (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    An overview is given on a family of novel electronic devices consisting of an insulating layer containing conducting or semiconducting nuclear tracks, deposited on a semiconducting substrate, and connected by at least one back and two surface contacts. Conducting and semiconducting latent tracks may emerge directly from swift heavy ion irradiation. Etched tracks in insulators can be filled with adequate materials to make them conducting or semiconducting. For this purpose metallic or semiconducting nanoclusters were deposited. We have denoted termed these devices made with latent tracks as 'tunable electronic anisotropic material on semiconductor' (TEAMS), if based on latent ion tracks, and as 'tunable electronic material in pores in oxide on semiconductor' (TEMPOS), if based on etched tracks. Depending on the band-to-band transition between tracks and substrate and on the ratio of surface to track conductivity, the current/voltage characteristics of TEAMS and TEMPOS structures can be modified in many different ways leading to tunable resistors, capacitors and diodes. Both devices show negative differential resistances. This should enable tunable tunneldiodes. TEAMS or TEMPOS structures can be controlled by various external physical and/or chemical parameters leading to sensors. It is even possible to combine different input currents and/or external parameters according to AND/OR logics. The currents through a clustered layer on a TEMPOS structure can be described by the Barbasi-Albert model of network theory enabling to calculate a 'radius of influence'r{sub ROI} around each surface contact, beyond which neighboring contacts do not influence each other. The radius of influence can be well below 1{mu}m leading to nanometric TEMPOS structures.

  1. Multiparametric electronic devices based on nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Saad, A.; Dhamodaran, S.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W.R.; Hoppe, K.; Chadderton, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    An overview is given on a family of novel electronic devices consisting of an insulating layer containing conducting or semiconducting nuclear tracks, deposited on a semiconducting substrate, and connected by at least one back and two surface contacts. Conducting and semiconducting latent tracks may emerge directly from swift heavy ion irradiation. Etched tracks in insulators can be filled with adequate materials to make them conducting or semiconducting. For this purpose metallic or semiconducting nanoclusters were deposited. We have denoted termed these devices made with latent tracks as 'tunable electronic anisotropic material on semiconductor' (TEAMS), if based on latent ion tracks, and as 'tunable electronic material in pores in oxide on semiconductor' (TEMPOS), if based on etched tracks. Depending on the band-to-band transition between tracks and substrate and on the ratio of surface to track conductivity, the current/voltage characteristics of TEAMS and TEMPOS structures can be modified in many different ways leading to tunable resistors, capacitors and diodes. Both devices show negative differential resistances. This should enable tunable tunneldiodes. TEAMS or TEMPOS structures can be controlled by various external physical and/or chemical parameters leading to sensors. It is even possible to combine different input currents and/or external parameters according to AND/OR logics. The currents through a clustered layer on a TEMPOS structure can be described by the Barbasi-Albert model of network theory enabling to calculate a 'radius of influence'r ROI around each surface contact, beyond which neighboring contacts do not influence each other. The radius of influence can be well below 1μm leading to nanometric TEMPOS structures

  2. 14 CFR 91.21 - Portable electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Portable electronic devices. 91.21 Section... electronic devices. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may operate, nor may any operator or pilot in command of an aircraft allow the operation of, any portable electronic device...

  3. 46 CFR 28.260 - Electronic position fixing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Trade § 28.260 Electronic position fixing devices. Each vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be equipped with an electronic position fixing device capable of providing accurate fixes for the... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic position fixing devices. 28.260 Section 28...

  4. Non-fullerene electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenekhe, Samson A.; Li, Haiyan; Earmme, Taeshik; Ren, Guoqiang

    2017-11-07

    Non-fullerene electron acceptors for highly efficient organic photovoltaic devices are described. The non-fullerene electron acceptors have an extended, rigid, .pi.-conjugated electron-deficient framework that can facilitate exciton and charge derealization. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can physically mix with a donor polymer and facilitate improved electron transport. The non-fullerene electron acceptors can be incorporated into organic electronic devices, such as photovoltaic cells.

  5. Graphene-based flexible and stretchable thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Cho, Jeong Ho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2012-08-21

    Graphene has been attracting wide attention owing to its superb electronic, thermal and mechanical properties. These properties allow great applications in the next generation of optoelectronics, where flexibility and stretchability are essential. In this context, the recent development of graphene growth/transfer and its applications in field-effect transistors are involved. In particular, we provide a detailed review on the state-of-the-art of graphene-based flexible and stretchable thin film transistors. We address the principles of fabricating high-speed graphene analog transistors and the key issues of producing an array of graphene-based transistors on flexible and stretchable substrates. It provides a platform for future work to focus on understanding and realizing high-performance graphene-based transistors.

  6. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  7. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; Von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo 2 O 4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization. (topical review)

  8. Robust Optimal Design of Quantum Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociel Morales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the optimal design of a sequence of quantum barriers, in order to manufacture an electronic device at the nanoscale such that the dependence of its transmission coefficient on the bias voltage is linear. The technique presented here is easily adaptable to other response characteristics. There are two distinguishing features of our approach. First, the transmission coefficient is determined using a semiclassical approximation, so we can explicitly compute the gradient of the objective function. Second, in contrast with earlier treatments, manufacturing uncertainties are incorporated in the model through random variables; the optimal design problem is formulated in a probabilistic setting and then solved using a stochastic collocation method. As a measure of robustness, a weighted sum of the expectation and the variance of a least-squares performance metric is considered. Several simulations illustrate the proposed technique, which shows an improvement in accuracy over 69% with respect to brute-force, Monte-Carlo-based methods.

  9. 76 FR 45860 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and...''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists or is in the process of...

  10. Mechanically Compliant Electronic Materials for Wearable Photovoltaics and Human-Machine Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Timothy Francis, III

    Applications of stretchable electronic materials for human-machine interfaces are described herein. Intrinsically stretchable organic conjugated polymers and stretchable electronic composites were used to develop stretchable organic photovoltaics (OPVs), mechanically robust wearable OPVs, and human-machine interfaces for gesture recognition, American Sign Language Translation, haptic control of robots, and touch emulation for virtual reality, augmented reality, and the transmission of touch. The stretchable and wearable OPVs comprise active layers of poly-3-alkylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3AT:PCBM) and transparent conductive electrodes of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and devices could only be fabricated through a deep understanding of the connection between molecular structure and the co-engineering of electronic performance with mechanical resilience. The talk concludes with the use of composite piezoresistive sensors two smart glove prototypes. The first integrates stretchable strain sensors comprising a carbon-elastomer composite, a wearable microcontroller, low energy Bluetooth, and a 6-axis accelerometer/gyroscope to construct a fully functional gesture recognition glove capable of wirelessly translating American Sign Language to text on a cell phone screen. The second creates a system for the haptic control of a 3D printed robot arm, as well as the transmission of touch and temperature information.

  11. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-24

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  12. Fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap for customizable soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Junghwan; Lee, Byeongmoon; Oh, Eunho; Kim, Hyunjong; Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Seunghwan; Hong, Yongtaek

    2017-03-01

    Rapid growth of stretchable electronics stimulates broad uses in multidisciplinary fields as well as industrial applications. However, existing technologies are unsuitable for implementing versatile applications involving adaptable system design and functions in a cost/time-effective way because of vacuum-conditioned, lithographically-predefined processes. Here, we present a methodology for a fully printable, strain-engineered electronic wrap as a universal strategy which makes it more feasible to implement various stretchable electronic systems with customizable layouts and functions. The key aspects involve inkjet-printed rigid island (PRI)-based stretchable platform technology and corresponding printing-based automated electronic functionalization methodology, the combination of which provides fully printed, customized layouts of stretchable electronic systems with simplified process. Specifically, well-controlled contact line pinning effect of printed polymer solution enables the formation of PRIs with tunable thickness; and surface strain analysis on those PRIs leads to the optimized stability and device-to-island fill factor of strain-engineered electronic wraps. Moreover, core techniques of image-based automated pinpointing, surface-mountable device based electronic functionalizing, and one-step interconnection networking of PRIs enable customized circuit design and adaptable functionalities. To exhibit the universality of our approach, multiple types of practical applications ranging from self-computable digital logics to display and sensor system are demonstrated on skin in a customized form.

  13. Device for the radiation centering at electron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Jessat, K.; Bahr, G.

    1985-01-01

    The invention has been directed at a device for a simplified and reliable centering of electron beams at electron emitters in particular for welding and thermal surface modifications. The electron beam has been focussed relatively to an electron-optical lens. A movable masked electron detector has been arranged at the electron beam deflection plane. The electron detector is connected with an electronic data evaluation equipment

  14. Economic analysis of evolution/devolution of electronic devices functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esipov A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the researcher of this article has presented the analysis of evolution/devolution of electronic devices functionality as well as the analysis of the current situation at the computers and mobile devices market, and some thoughts about new products. Is a newer device better? Are corporations producing really new devices or they are only the improvement of old ones.

  15. Electronic Payments using Mobile Communication Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, B.D. van der; Siljee, B.I.J.; Broekhuijsen, B.J.; Ponsioen, C.; Maas, A.; Aten, R.M.; Hoepman, J.H.; Loon, J.H. van; Smit, M.

    2009-01-01

    A method of making a payment uses a first mobile communication device (1) and a second mobile communication device (2), each mobile communication device being provided with a respective near field communication unit (11, 21) and at least one of the mobile communication devices being provided with an

  16. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  17. Graphene-Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Hybrid on PDMS as Stretchable Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun; Fu, Shichen; Zhang, Runzhi; Boon, Eric Peter; Lee, Woo; Fisher, Frank T; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2017-09-11

    Stretchable electrodes are a critical component for flexible electronics such as displays, energy devices, and wearable sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have been considered for flexible electrode applications, due to their mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, and excellent thermal conductivity. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) provide the possibility to serve as interconnects to graphene sheets as stretchable electrodes that could maintain high electrical conductivity under large tensile strain. In this work, a graphene oxide (GO) -VACNT hybrid on a PDMS substrate was demonstrated. Here, 50 μm long VACNTs were grown on a Si/SiO2 wafer substrate via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). VACNTs were directly transferred by delamination from the Si/SiO2 to a semi-cured PDMS substrate, ensuring strong adhesion between VACNTs and PDMS upon full curing of the PDMS. GO ink was then printed on the surface of the VACNT carpet and thermally reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The sheet resistance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was measured under uniaxial tensile strains up to 300% applied to the substrate. Under applied strain, the rGO-VACNT hybrid maintained a sheet resistant of 386±55 Ω/sq. Cyclic stretching of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was performed with up to 50 cycles at 100% maximum tensile strain, showing no increase in sheet resistance. These results demonstrate promising performance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid for flexible electronics applications. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Graphene—vertically aligned carbon nanotube hybrid on PDMS as stretchable electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun; Fu, Shichen; Zhang, Runzhi; Boon, Eric; Lee, Woo; Fisher, Frank T.; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2017-11-01

    Stretchable electrodes are a critical component for flexible electronics such as displays, energy devices, and wearable sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have been considered for flexible electrode applications, due to their mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, and excellent thermal conductivity. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) provide the possibility to serve as interconnects to graphene sheets as stretchable electrodes that could maintain high electrical conductivity under large tensile strain. In this work, a graphene oxide (GO)-VACNT hybrid on a PDMS substrate was demonstrated. Here, 50 μm long VACNTs were grown on a Si/SiO2 wafer substrate via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. VACNTs were directly transferred by delamination from the Si/SiO2 to a semi-cured PDMS substrate, ensuring strong adhesion between VACNTs and PDMS upon full curing of the PDMS. GO ink was then printed on the surface of the VACNT carpet and thermally reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The sheet resistance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was measured under uniaxial tensile strains up to 300% applied to the substrate. Under applied strain, the rGO-VACNT hybrid maintained a sheet resistant of 386 ± 55 Ω/sq. Cyclic stretching of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was performed with up to 50 cycles at 100% maximum tensile strain, showing no increase in sheet resistance. These results demonstrate promising performance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid for flexible electronics applications.

  19. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  20. MEMS/Electronic Device Design and Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows DoD to design and characterize state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and electronic devices. Device designers develop their own...

  1. Highly Stretchable Supercapacitors Based on Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Molybdenum Disulfide Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian; Yao, Yao; Li, Ning; Chen, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Stretchable supercapacitors that can sustain their performance under unpredictable tensile force are important elements for practical applications of various portable and wearable electronics. However, the stretchability of most reported supercapacitors was often lower than 100 % because of the limitation of the electrodes used. Herein we developed all-solid-state supercapacitors with a stretchability as high as 240 % by using aligned carbon nanotube composites with compact structure as electrodes. By combined with pseudocapacitive molybdenum disulfide nanosheets, the newly developed supercapacitor showed a specific capacitance of 13.16 F cm(-3) , and also showed excellent cycling retention (98 %) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. This work also presents a general and effective approach in developing high-performance electrodes for flexible and stretchable electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Quality assurance for electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, S.; Rajapakshe, R.; Gluhchev, G.; Luchka, K.

    1997-01-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDS) are assuming an ever-increasing role in the verification of radiation treatment accuracy. They are used both in a passive capacity, for the determination of field displacement distributions (''setup errors''), and also in an active role whereby the patient setup is corrected on the basis of electronic portal images. In spite of their potential impact on the precision of patient treatment, there are few quality assurance procedures available, and most of the EPIDS in clinical use are subject, at best, to only perfunctory quality assurance. The goals of this work are (a) to develop an objective and reproducible test for EPID image quality on the factory floor and during installation of the EPID on site; (b) to provide the user with a simple and accurate tool for acceptance, commissioning, and routine quality control; and (c) to initiate regional, national and international collaboration in the implementation of standardized, objective, and automated quality assurance procedures. To this end we have developed an automated test in which a simple test object is imaged daily, and the spatial and contrast resolution of the EPID are automatically evaluated in terms of ''acceptable'', ''warning'' and ''stop'' criteria. Our experience over two years shows the test to be highly sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in time and effort. Inter-institutional trials are under way in Canada, US and Europe which indicate large variations in EPID image quality from one EPID to another, and from one center to another. We expect the new standardized quality assurance procedure to lead to improved, and consistent image quality, increased operator acceptance of the technology, and agreement on uniform standards by equipment suppliers and health care agencies. (author)

  3. Highly transparent and rollable PVA-co-PE nanofibers synergistically reinforced with epoxy film for flexible electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bing; Zhong, Weibing; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Ke; Li, Mufang; Sun, Gang; Wang, Dong

    2017-12-14

    The development of electronics towards a more functions-integrated, flexible and stretchable direction requires mechanically flexible substrates with high thermal and dimensional stability and optical transparency. Herein, rolls of an optically transparent PVA-co-PE nanofibrous membrane/epoxy composite with synergistically enhanced thermal stability, very low CTE, and outstanding mechanical properties are reported. The nanoscale size, the unique inter-stack structure, and the strong interfacial interactions between the PVA-co-PE nanofibers and the epoxy contribute to the synergistic effects. Because of the match between the refractive index (RI) of the PVA-co-PE nanofibers and the epoxy matrix, the visible light transmittance of nanocomposite film could be as high as 85% and the composite film was still optically transparent with a nanofiber loading content of up to 61.7 wt%. The break strength and compliance matrix of the composite film with a high fiber loading of 61.7 wt% increased by 2.3 times of that of the neat epoxy film and exceeded 3000 m 2 N -1 , respectively. PVA-co-PE nanofibers have a very low CTE value (3.634 × 10 -6 K -1 ) and could be applicable as a reinforcement to reduce the thermal expansion of epoxy. Furthermore, we developed a flexible alternating current electroluminescent (ACEL) device based on the transparent composite film and the experimental results showed that the transparent composite film could serve as substrate for flexible electronic devices. In addition, their electrical and optical properties were evaluated.

  4. Recent progress in power electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yasuhiko; Yatsuo, Tsutomu

    1987-02-01

    Recent progress and future trends of power semiconductor devices (especially with respect to motor speed control) were described. Conventional discrete devices such as thyristors, bipolar transistors, unipolar transistors and Bi-MOS devices were referenced to. Reference was also made to High Voltage ICs. There has been steady progress with each of these power devices in current carrying capability, voltage blocking capability and switching speed. The Bipolar-MOS integreated device and the High Voltage IC are particularly interesting because their abilities and performances are much enhanced by skillful combination with conventional discrete devices. However, no one device meets all the needs, and it will always be necessary to select the right device for a specific task. (11 figs, 35 refs)

  5. 3D Printed structural electronics: embedding and connecting electronic components into freeform electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maalderink, H.H.H.; Bruning, F.B.J.; Schipper, M.M.R. de; Werff, J.J.J. van der; Germs, W.W.C.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Meinders, E.R.

    2018-01-01

    The need for personalised and smart products drives the development of structural electronics with mass-customisation capability. A number of challenges need to be overcome in order to address the potential of complete free form manufacturing of electronic devices. One key challenge is the

  6. 3D Printed structural electronics : embedding and connecting electronic components into freeform electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maalderink, H.H.; Bruning, F.B.J.; de Schipper, M.R.; van der Werff, J.J.; Germs, W.C.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Meinders, E.R.

    2018-01-01

    The need for personalised and smart products drives the development of structural electronics with mass-customisation capability. A number of challenges need to be overcome in order to address the potential of complete free form manufacturing of electronic devices. One key challenge is the

  7. Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Pearton, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices provides comprehensive coverage of reliability procedures and approaches for electron and photonic devices. These include lasers and high speed electronics used in cell phones, satellites, data transmission systems and displays. Lifetime predictions for compound semiconductor devices are notoriously inaccurate due to the absence of standard protocols. Manufacturers have relied on extrapolation back to room temperature of accelerated testing at elevated temperature. This technique fails for scaled, high current density devices. Device failure is driven by electric field or current mechanisms or low activation energy processes that are masked by other mechanisms at high temperature. The Handbook addresses reliability engineering for III-V devices, including materials and electrical characterization, reliability testing, and electronic characterization. These are used to develop new simulation technologies for device operation and ...

  8. Skin-Attachable, Stretchable Electrochemical Sweat Sensor for Glucose and pH Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Yun; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Park, Heun; Jin, Sang Woo; Lee, Geumbee; Oh, Ju Hyun; Lee, Hanchan; Lee, Sang-Soo; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2018-04-25

    As part of increased efforts to develop wearable healthcare devices for monitoring and managing physiological and metabolic information, stretchable electrochemical sweat sensors have been investigated. In this study, we report on the fabrication of a stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor for detecting glucose and pH in sweat. A patterned stretchable electrode was fabricated via layer-by-layer deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on top of patterned Au nanosheets (AuNS) prepared by filtration onto stretchable substrate. For the detection of glucose and pH, CoWO 4 /CNT and polyaniline/CNT nanocomposites were coated onto the CNT-AuNS electrodes, respectively. A reference electrode was prepared via chlorination of silver nanowires. Encapsulation of the stretchable sensor with sticky silbione led to a skin-attachable sweat sensor. Our sensor showed high performance with sensitivities of 10.89 μA mM -1 cm -2 and 71.44 mV pH -1 for glucose and pH, respectively, with mechanical stability up to 30% stretching and air stability for 10 days. The sensor also showed good adhesion even to wet skin, allowing the detection of glucose and pH in sweat from running while being attached onto the skin. This work suggests the application of our stretchable and skin-attachable electrochemical sensor to health management as a high-performance healthcare wearable device.

  9. 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable, Shape-Memory, and Self-Healing Elastomer toward Novel 4D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiao; Chen, Kaijuan; Dunn, Conner K; Wu, Jiangtao; Li, Vincent C F; Qi, H Jerry

    2018-02-28

    The three-dimensional (3D) printing of flexible and stretchable materials with smart functions such as shape memory (SM) and self-healing (SH) is highly desirable for the development of future 4D printing technology for myriad applications, such as soft actuators, deployable smart medical devices, and flexible electronics. Here, we report a novel ink that can be used for the 3D printing of highly stretchable, SM, and SH elastomer via UV-light-assisted direct-ink-write printing. An ink containing urethane diacrylate and a linear semicrystalline polymer is developed for the 3D printing of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network elastomer that can be stretched by up to 600%. The 3D-printed complex structures show interesting functional properties, such as high strain SM and SM -assisted SH capability. We demonstrate that such a 3D-printed SM elastomer has the potential application for biomedical devices, such as vascular repair devices. This research paves a new way for the further development of novel 4D printing, soft robotics, and biomedical devices.

  10. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  11. Ion age transport: developing devices beyond electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2014-03-01

    There is more to current devices than conventional electronics. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry electronics seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule transport in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The transport of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. Transport in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective transport of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic transport through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic

  12. Graphene-based stretchable and transparent moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Sejeong; Van Lam, Do; Lee, Jin Young; Jung, Hyun-June; Hur, Min; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Hak-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    We propose an alumina-deposited double-layer graphene (2LG) as a transparent, scalable, and stretchable barrier against moisture; this barrier is indispensable for foldable or stretchable organic displays and electronics. Both the barrier property and stretchability were significantly enhanced through the introduction of 2LG between alumina and a polymeric substrate. 2LG with negligible polymeric residues was coated on the polymeric substrate via a scalable dry transfer method in a roll-to-roll manner; an alumina layer was deposited on the graphene via atomic layer deposition. The effect of the graphene layer on crack generation in the alumina layer was systematically studied under external strain using an in situ micro-tensile tester, and correlations between the deformation-induced defects and water vapor transmission rate were quantitatively analyzed. The enhanced stretchability of alumina-deposited 2LG originated from the interlayer sliding between the graphene layers, which resulted in the crack density of the alumina layer being reduced under external strain.

  13. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule...

  14. Electrochemically synthesized stretchable polypyrrole/fabric electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Binbin; Wang, Caiyun; Ding, Xin; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. Being an indispensable part of these electronics, lightweight, stretchable and wearable power sources are strongly demanded. Here we describe a daily-used cotton fabric coated with polypyrrole as electrode for stretchable supercapacitors. Polypyrrole was synthesized on the Au coated fabric via an electrochemical polymerization process with p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TS) as dopant from acetonitrile solution. This material was characterized with FESEM, tensile stress, and studied as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M NaCl. This conductive textile electrode can sustain up to 140% strain without electric failure. It delivers a high specific capacitance of 254.9 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 , and keeps almost unchanged at an applied strain (i.e. 30% and 50%) but with an improved cycling stability

  15. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2016-03-07

    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  16. Design Considerations for Optimized Lateral Spring Structures for Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The market for wearable electronics has been gaining momentum in the recent years. For completely electronic wearable textiles with integrated sensors, actuators, computing units and communication circuitry, it is important that there is significant stretchability. This stretchability can be obtained by introducing periodic stretchable structures between the electronic circuits. In this work, we derive the equations and constraints governing the stretchability in horseshoe lateral spring structures. We have derived the optimum design and the parameters therein, to help develop the best spring structures for a given stretchability. We have also developed a figure of merit, called area efficiency of stretchability, to compare all twodimensional stretchable systems. Finally, we experimentally verify the validity of our equations by fabricating a metal/polymer bilayer thin film based stretchable horseshoe lateral spring structures. We obtain a stretchability of 1.875 which is comparable to the theoretical maxima of 2.01 for the given parameters.

  17. Self-Healable, Stretchable, Transparent Triboelectric Nanogenerators as Soft Power Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangman; Pu, Xiong; Liu, Mengmeng; Yu, Aifang; Du, Chunhua; Zhai, Junyi; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-06-04

    Despite the rapid advancements of soft electronics, developing compatible energy devices will be the next challenge for their viable applications. Here, we report an energy-harnessing triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) as a soft electrical power source, which is simultaneously self-healable, stretchable, and transparent. The nanogenerator features a thin-film configuration with buckled Ag nanowires/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composite electrode sandwiched in room-temperature self-healable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomers. Dynamic imine bonds are introduced in PDMS networks for repairing mechanical damages (94% efficiency), while the mechanical recovery of the elastomer is imparted to the buckled electrode for electrical healing. By adjusting the buckling wavelength of the electrode, the stretchability and transparency of the soft TENG can be tuned. A TENG (∼50% stretchabitliy, ∼73% transmittance) can recover the electricity genearation (100% healing efficiency) even after accidental cutting. Finally, the conversion of biomechanical energies into electricity (∼100 V, 327 mW/m 2 ) is demonstrated by a skin-like soft TENG. Considering all these merits, this work suggests a potentially promising approach for next-generation soft power sources.

  18. Stretchable gold conductors embedded in PDMS and patterned by photolithography: fabrication and electromechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrega, T; Lacour, S P

    2010-01-01

    Stretchable gold conductors embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films were successfully prepared using standard photolithography. The minimum feature sizes patterned in the metal film and PDMS encapsulation are 10 µm and 20 µm, respectively. The micro-patterned conductors are robust to uni-axial (1D) and radial (2D) stretching with applied strains of tens of percent. The electrical response of the conductors follows a nonlinear increase with strain, and is reversible. The extensive stretchability of the conductors relies on a randomly and independently distributed network of micro-cracks (∼100 nm long) in the metal film on PDMS. The micro-cracks elongate to a few microns length both in the stretching and normal directions in 1D stretching but during 2D stretching, the micro-cracks grow and form 'dry mud' islands leaving the gold microstructure inside the islands intact. Patterning metallic thin films directly onto elastomeric substrates opens a promising route for microelectrodes and interconnects for soft and ultra-compliant MEMS and electronic devices.

  19. Vacuum nanoelectronic devices novel electron sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Evtukh, Anatoliy; Yilmazoglu, Oktay; Mimura, Hidenori; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Introducing up-to-date coverage of research in electron field emission from nanostructures, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices outlines the physics of quantum nanostructures, basic principles of electron field emission, and vacuum nanoelectronic devices operation, and offers as insight state-of-the-art and future researches and developments.  This book also evaluates the results of research and development of novel quantum electron sources that will determine the future development of vacuum nanoelectronics. Further to this, the influence of quantum mechanical effects on high frequency vacuum nanoelectronic devices is also assessed. Key features: In-depth description and analysis of the fundamentals of Quantum Electron effects in novel electron sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the physics and technologies for THz sources for students of physical and engineering specialties and electronics engineers. Unique coverage of quantum physical results for electron-field emission and novel electron sourc...

  20. Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    ...) Cold cathode microwave generator and ceramic electron multiplier-ceramic multiplier using a novel secondary electron yield materials of MgO and CNT was demonstrated as well as cooling structures...

  1. Automatic shadowing device for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, F W; Bogitch, S

    1960-01-01

    For the past ten years in the laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology at the University of California, and before that at Rochester, New York, every evaporation was done with the aid of an automatic shadowing device. For several months the automatic shadowing device has been available at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) Hiroshima, Japan with the modifications described. 1 reference.

  2. Transparent oxide electronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Rodrigo; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at lo

  3. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escott, C C; Hudson, F E; Chan, V C; Petersson, K D; Clark, R G; Dzurak, A S

    2007-01-01

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n + ) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number

  4. Study of total ionization dose effects in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, T.S.; Bhattacharyya, Anindya; Gour, Aditya; Behera, R.P.; Jayanthi, T.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation effects in electronic devices are a major challenge in the dependable application developments of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems. The main radiation effects are total ionization dose (TID) effects, displacement damage dose (DDD) effects and single event effects (SEE). In this study, we are concentrating on TID effects in electronic devices. The focus of the study is mainly on SRAM based field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) along with that the devices of our interest are voltage regulators, flash memory and optocoupler. The experiments are conducted by exposing the devices to gamma radiation in power off condition and the degradation in the performances are analysed

  5. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escott, C C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hudson, F E [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chan, V C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersson, K D [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Clark, R G [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, 2052 (Australia); Dzurak, A S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n{sup +}) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number.

  6. Thermal modeling and design of electronic systems and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirtz, R.A.; Lehmann, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal control electronic devices, particularly those in complex systems with high heat flux density, continues to be of interest to engineers involved in system cooling design and analysis. This volume contains papers presented at the 1990 ASME Winter Annual Meeting in two K-16 sponsored sessions: Empirical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Complex Electronic Systems and Design and Modeling of Heat Transfer Devices in High-Density Electronics. The first group deals with understanding the heat transfer processes in these complex systems. The second group focuses on the use of analysis techniques and empirically determined data in predicting device and system operating performance

  7. Direct Printing of Stretchable Elastomers for Highly Sensitive Capillary Pressure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenguang; Yan, Chaoyi

    2018-03-28

    We demonstrate the successful fabrication of highly sensitive capillary pressure sensors using an innovative 3D printing method. Unlike conventional capacitive pressure sensors where the capacitance changes were due to the pressure-induced interspace variations between the parallel plate electrodes, in our capillary sensors the capacitance was determined by the extrusion and extraction of liquid medium and consequent changes of dielectric constants. Significant pressure sensitivity advances up to 547.9 KPa -1 were achieved. Moreover, we suggest that our innovative capillary pressure sensors can adopt a wide range of liquid mediums, such as ethanol, deionized water, and their mixtures. The devices also showed stable performances upon repeated pressing cycles. The direct and versatile printing method combined with the significant performance advances are expected to find important applications in future stretchable and wearable electronics.

  8. Driver electronic device use in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of drivers text-messaging or visibly manipulating : hand-held devices increased from 1.5 percent in : 2012 to 1.7 percent in 2013; however, this was not a statistically : significant increase. Driver hand-held cell phone : use decrease...

  9. Optical Biosensors: A Revolution Towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  10. Electronic processes in organic electronics bridging nanostructure, electronic states and device properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    The book covers a variety of studies of organic semiconductors, from fundamental electronic states to device applications, including theoretical studies. Furthermore, innovative experimental techniques, e.g., ultrahigh sensitivity photoelectron spectroscopy, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and a material processing method with optical-vortex and polarization-vortex lasers, are introduced. As this book is intended to serve as a textbook for a graduate level course or as reference material for researchers in organic electronics and nanoscience from electronic states, fundamental science that is necessary to understand the research is described. It does not duplicate the books already written on organic electronics, but focuses mainly on electronic properties that arise from the nature of organic semiconductors (molecular solids). The new experimental methods introduced in this book are applicable to various materials (e.g., metals, inorganic and organic mater...

  11. Molecular electronics with single molecules in solid-state devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate aim of molecular electronics is to understand and master single-molecule devices. Based on the latest results on electron transport in single molecules in solid-state devices, we focus here on new insights into the influence of metal electrodes on the energy spectrum of the molecule, and on how the electron transport properties of the molecule depend on the strength of the electronic coupling between it and the electrodes. A variety of phenomena are observed depending on whether this coupling is weak, intermediate or strong.

  12. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavunny, Shojan P.; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S.; Scott, James F.

    2015-01-01

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho 2 Hf 2 O 7 (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ∼20 and very low dielectric loss of ∼0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap E g of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices

  13. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavunny, Shojan P.; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Scott, James F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2015-03-01

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho2Hf2O7 (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ˜20 and very low dielectric loss of ˜0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap Eg of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  14. Holmium hafnate: An emerging electronic device material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavunny, Shojan P., E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu; Sharma, Yogesh; Kooriyattil, Sudheendran; Dugu, Sita; Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com, E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.upr.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Scott, James F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-16

    We report structural, optical, charge transport, and temperature properties as well as the frequency dependence of the dielectric constant of Ho{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} (HHO) which make this material desirable as an alternative high-k dielectric for future silicon technology devices. A high dielectric constant of ∼20 and very low dielectric loss of ∼0.1% are temperature and voltage independent at 100 kHz near ambient conditions. The Pt/HHO/Pt capacitor exhibits exceptionally low Schottky emission-based leakage currents. In combination with the large observed bandgap E{sub g} of 5.6 eV, determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, our results reveal fundamental physics and materials science of the HHO metal oxide and its potential application as a high-k dielectric for the next generation of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  15. Inventory Control: A Small Electronic Device for Studying Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A. L.; Calvo-Aguilar, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Shows how the rate of reaction can be studied using a simple electronic device that overcomes the difficulty students encounter in solving the differential equations describing chemical equilibrium. The device, used in conjunction with an oscilloscope, supplies the voltages that represent the chemical variables that take part in the equilibrium.…

  16. Electronic system of TBR tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P. da.

    1980-01-01

    The electronics developed as a part of the TBR project, which involves the construction of a small tokamak at the Physics Institute of the University of Sao Paulo, is described. On the basis of tokamak parameter values, the electronics for the toroidal field, ohmic/heating and vertical field systems is presented, including capacitors bank, switches, triggering circuits and power supplies. A controlled power oscilator used in discharge cleaning and pre-ionization is also described. The performance of the system as a function of the desired plasma parameters is discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. An examination of safety reports involving electronic flight bags and portable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a better understanding of safety considerations with the use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFBs) and Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) by examining safety reports from Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS),...

  18. Stretchable Conductive Composites from Cu-Ag Nanowire Felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Matthew J; Reyes, Christopher; Cruz, Mutya A; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2018-04-24

    Materials that retain a high conductivity under strain are essential for wearable electronics. This article describes a conductive, stretchable composite consisting of a Cu-Ag core-shell nanowire felt infiltrated with a silicone elastomer. This composite exhibits a retention of conductivity under strain that is superior to any composite with a conductivity greater than 1000 S cm -1 . This work also shows how the mechanical properties, conductivity, and deformation mechanism of the composite changes as a function of the stiffness of the silicone matrix. The retention of conductivity under strain was found to decrease as the Young's modulus of the matrix increased. This was attributed to void formation as a result of debonding between the nanowire felt and the elastomer. The nanowire composite was also patterned to create serpentine circuits with a stretchability of 300%.

  19. Highly Stretchable Non-volatile Nylon Thread Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ting-Kuo

    2016-04-01

    Integration of electronic elements into textiles, to afford e-textiles, can provide an ideal platform for the development of lightweight, thin, flexible, and stretchable e-textiles. This approach will enable us to meet the demands of the rapidly growing market of wearable-electronics on arbitrary non-conventional substrates. However the actual integration of the e-textiles that undergo mechanical deformations during both assembly and daily wear or satisfy the requirements of the low-end applications, remains a challenge. Resistive memory elements can also be fabricated onto a nylon thread (NT) for e-textile applications. In this study, a simple dip-and-dry process using graphene-PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) ink is proposed for the fabrication of a highly stretchable non-volatile NT memory. The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics. The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 103 is maintained for a retention time of 106 s. Furthermore, a highly stretchable strain and a long-term digital-storage capability of the ON-OFF-ON states are demonstrated in the NT memory. The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

  20. Non-destructive Reliability Evaluation of Electronic Device by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung Un; Kim, Koung Suk; Kang, Ki Soo; Jo, Seon Hyung

    2001-01-01

    This paper propose electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI) for reliability evaluation of electronic device. Especially, vibration problem in a fan of air conditioner, motor of washing machine and etc. is important factor to design the devices. But, it is difficult to apply previous method, accelerometer to the devices with complex geometry. ESPI, non-contact measurement technique applies a commercial fan of air conditioner to vibration analysis. Vibration mode shapes, natural frequency and the range of the frequency are decided and compared with that of FEM analysis. In mechanical deign of new product, ESPI adds weak point of previous method to supply effective design information

  1. Molecular and nanoscale materials and devices in electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Cao, Lingchao; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben

    2004-12-13

    Over the past several years, there have been many significant advances toward the realization of electronic computers integrated on the molecular scale and a much greater understanding of the types of materials that will be useful in molecular devices and their properties. It was demonstrated that individual molecules could serve as incomprehensibly tiny switch and wire one million times smaller than those on conventional silicon microchip. This has resulted very recently in the assembly and demonstration of tiny computer logic circuits built from such molecular scale devices. The purpose of this review is to provide a general introduction to molecular and nanoscale materials and devices in electronics.

  2. Few-electron Qubits in Silicon Quantum Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Calculation of the charge relaxation time T1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.1 The absence of spin blockade in dual-gated DQD devices . . . . . . . 70...2013. 98 115 [102] M. Pioro-Ladrière, T. Obata, Y. Tokura, Y.-S. Shin, T. Kubo , K. Yoshida, T. Taniyama, and S. Tarucha. Nat. Phys., 4:776–779

  3. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2003), s. 3379 - 3384 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy electrons * charged-coupled device * detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  4. Incorporating Ethical Consumption into Electronic Device Acquisition: A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiali, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes that librarians practice ethical consumption when purchasing electronic devices. Though librarians have long been engaged with environmentalism and social justice, few have suggested that such issues as e-waste and sweatshop labor should impact our decisions to acquire e-readers, tablets, and other electronics. This article…

  5. Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on

  6. Electronic cigarette devices and oro-facial trauma (Literature review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A. F.; Ismail, A. F.; Daud, A.

    2017-08-01

    Detrimental effects of cigarette smoking have been well described and recognized globally. With recent advancement of technology, electronic cigarette has been introduced and gained its popularity and became a global trend, especially among young adults. However, the safety of the electronic devices remains debatable. This paper aimed to compile and review the reported cases of oro-facial trauma related to the usage of electronic cigarette devices. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline in December 2016. The search terms used were a combination of “oral trauma”, “dental trauma”, “oral injury” and “electronic cigarette”. The search included all abstract published from the inception of the database until December 2016. Abstract that was written in English, case report, letter to editors, clinical and human studies were included for analysis. All selected abstract were searched for full articles. A total of 8 articles were included for review. All of the articles were published in 2016 with mostly case reports. The sample size of the studies ranged from 1 to 15 patients. Seven of the included articles are from United States of America and one from Mexico. Our review concluded that the use of electronic cigarette devices posed not only a safety concern but also that the devices were mostly unregulated. There should be a recognized authority body to regulate the safety and standard of the electronic devices.

  7. Progress in Group III nitride semiconductor electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yue; Zhang Jinfeng; Shen Bo; Liu Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a rapid domestic development in group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices. This paper reviews the important progress in GaN-based wide bandgap microelectronic materials and devices in the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which focuses on the research of the fundamental physical mechanisms of group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices with the aim to enhance the crystal quality and electric performance of GaN-based electronic materials, develop new GaN heterostructures, and eventually achieve high performance GaN microwave power devices. Some remarkable progresses achieved in the program will be introduced, including those in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal—oxide—semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with novel high-k gate insulators, and material growth, defect analysis and material properties of InAlN/GaN heterostructures and HEMT fabrication, and quantum transport and spintronic properties of GaN-based heterostructures, and high-electric-field electron transport properties of GaN material and GaN Gunn devices used in terahertz sources. (invited papers)

  8. Consumers' Use of Personal Electronic Devices in the Kitchen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Bazaco, Michael C; Chen, Yi

    2018-02-23

    Smartphones, tablets, and other personal electronic devices have become ubiquitous in Americans' daily lives. These devices are used by people throughout the day, including while preparing food. For example, a device may be used to look at recipes and therefore be touched multiple times during food preparation. Previous research has indicated that cell phones can harbor bacteria, including opportunistic human pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Klebsiella spp. This investigation was conducted with data from the 2016 Food Safety Survey (FSS) and from subsequent focus groups to determine the frequency with which consumers use personal electronic devices in the kitchen while preparing food, the types of devices used, and hand washing behaviors after handling these devices. The 2016 FSS is the seventh wave of a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The goal of the FSS is to evaluate U.S. adult consumer attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about food safety. The FSS included 4,169 adults that were contacted using a dual-frame (land line and cell phone interviews) random-digit-dial sampling process. The personal electronics module was the first of three food safety topics discussed by each of eight consumer focus groups, which were convened in four U.S. cities in fall 2016. Results from the 2016 FSS revealed that of those individuals who use personal electronic devices while cooking, only about one third reported washing hands after touching the device and before continuing cooking. This proportion is significantly lower than that for self-reported hand washing behaviors after touching risky food products such as raw eggs, meat, chicken, or fish. Results from the focus groups highlight the varied usage of these devices during food preparation and the related strategies consumers are using to incorporate personal electric devices into their cooking routines.

  9. dc-plasma-sprayed electronic-tube device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, T.T.

    1982-01-29

    An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by dc plasma arc spraying techniques is described. The process is carried out in a single step automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

  10. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefeni, Kebede K., E-mail: kkefeni@gmail.com; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  11. Terrestrial radiation effects in ULSI devices and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Eishi H

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide on how mathematical approaches can be used to analyze and control radiation effects in semiconductor devices within various environments Covers faults in ULSI devices to failures in electronic systems caused by a wide variety of radiation fields, including electrons, alpha -rays, muons, gamma rays, neutrons and heavy ions. Readers will learn the environmental radiation features at the ground or avionics altitude. Readers will also learn how to make numerical models from physical insight and what kind of mathematical approaches should be implemented to analyze the radiation effects. A wide variety of mitigation techniques against soft-errors are reviewed and discussed. The author shows how to model sophisticated radiation effects in condensed matter in order to quantify and control them. The book provides the reader with the knowledge on a wide variety of radiation fields and their effects on the electronic devices and systems. It explains how electronic systems including servers and rout...

  12. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  13. 75 FR 10502 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-667; Investigation No. 337-TA-673] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices; Notice of... Entirety AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  14. Stretchable Helical Architecture Inorganic-Organic Hetero Thermoelectric Generator

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Singh, Devendra; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Foulds, Ian G.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    To achieve higher power output from a thermoelectric generator (TEG), one needs to maintain a larger temperature difference between hot and cold end. In that regard, a stretchable TEG can be interesting to adaptively control the temperature difference. Here we show, the development of simple yet versatile and highly stretchable thermoelectric generators (TEGs), by combining well-known inorganic thermoelectric materials Bismuth Telluride and Antimony Telluride (Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3) with organic substrates (Off-Stoichiometry Thiol-Enes polymer platform – OSTE, polyimide or paper) and novel helical architecture (double-arm spirals) to achieve over 100% stretchability. First, an OSTE-based TEG design demonstrates higher open circuit voltage generation at 100% strain than at rest, although it exhibits high internal resistance and a relatively complex fabrication process. The second, simpler TEG design, achieves a significant resistance reduction and two different structural substrates (PI and paper) are compared. The paper-based TEG generates 17 nW (ΔT = 75 °C) at 60% strain, which represents more than twice the power generation while at rest (zero strain). On the other hand, polyimide produces more conductive TE films and higher power (~35 nW at ΔT = 75 °C) but due to its higher thermal conductivity, power does not increase at stretch. In conclusion, highly stretchable TEGs can lead to higher temperature gradients (thus higher power generation), given that thermal conductivity of the structural material is low enough. Furthermore, either horizontal or vertical displacement can be achieved with double-arm helical architecture, hence allowing to extend the device to any nearby and mobile heat sink for continuous, effectively higher power generation.

  15. Stretchable Helical Architecture Inorganic-Organic Hetero Thermoelectric Generator

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2016-10-26

    To achieve higher power output from a thermoelectric generator (TEG), one needs to maintain a larger temperature difference between hot and cold end. In that regard, a stretchable TEG can be interesting to adaptively control the temperature difference. Here we show, the development of simple yet versatile and highly stretchable thermoelectric generators (TEGs), by combining well-known inorganic thermoelectric materials Bismuth Telluride and Antimony Telluride (Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3) with organic substrates (Off-Stoichiometry Thiol-Enes polymer platform – OSTE, polyimide or paper) and novel helical architecture (double-arm spirals) to achieve over 100% stretchability. First, an OSTE-based TEG design demonstrates higher open circuit voltage generation at 100% strain than at rest, although it exhibits high internal resistance and a relatively complex fabrication process. The second, simpler TEG design, achieves a significant resistance reduction and two different structural substrates (PI and paper) are compared. The paper-based TEG generates 17 nW (ΔT = 75 °C) at 60% strain, which represents more than twice the power generation while at rest (zero strain). On the other hand, polyimide produces more conductive TE films and higher power (~35 nW at ΔT = 75 °C) but due to its higher thermal conductivity, power does not increase at stretch. In conclusion, highly stretchable TEGs can lead to higher temperature gradients (thus higher power generation), given that thermal conductivity of the structural material is low enough. Furthermore, either horizontal or vertical displacement can be achieved with double-arm helical architecture, hence allowing to extend the device to any nearby and mobile heat sink for continuous, effectively higher power generation.

  16. Nature-Inspired Structural Materials for Flexible Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaqing; He, Ke; Chen, Geng; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Xiaodong

    2017-10-25

    Exciting advancements have been made in the field of flexible electronic devices in the last two decades and will certainly lead to a revolution in peoples' lives in the future. However, because of the poor sustainability of the active materials in complex stress environments, new requirements have been adopted for the construction of flexible devices. Thus, hierarchical architectures in natural materials, which have developed various environment-adapted structures and materials through natural selection, can serve as guides to solve the limitations of materials and engineering techniques. This review covers the smart designs of structural materials inspired by natural materials and their utility in the construction of flexible devices. First, we summarize structural materials that accommodate mechanical deformations, which is the fundamental requirement for flexible devices to work properly in complex environments. Second, we discuss the functionalities of flexible devices induced by nature-inspired structural materials, including mechanical sensing, energy harvesting, physically interacting, and so on. Finally, we provide a perspective on newly developed structural materials and their potential applications in future flexible devices, as well as frontier strategies for biomimetic functions. These analyses and summaries are valuable for a systematic understanding of structural materials in electronic devices and will serve as inspirations for smart designs in flexible electronics.

  17. Improved power transfer to wearable systems through stretchable magnetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, N.; Bedair, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    The use of wireless power transfer is common in stretchable electronics since physical wiring can be easily destroyed as the system is stretched. This work presents the first demonstration of improved inductive power coupling to a stretchable system through the addition of a thin layer of ferroelastomeric material. A ferroelastomer, an elastomeric polymer loaded with magnetic particulates, has a permeability greater than one while retaining the ability to survive significant mechanical strains. A recently developed ferroelastomer composite based on sendust platelets within a soft silicone elastomer was incorporated into liquid metal stretchable inductors based on the liquid metal galinstan in fluidic channels. For a single-turn inductor, the maximum power transfer efficiency rises from 71 % with no backplane, to 81 % for a rigid ferrite backplane on the transmitter side alone, to 86 % with a ferroelastomer backplane on the receiver side as well. The coupling between a commercial wireless power transmitter coil with ferrite backplane to a five-turn liquid metal inductor was also investigated, finding an improvement in power transfer efficiency from 81 % with only a rigid backplane to 90 % with the addition of the ferroelastomer backplane. Both the single and multi-turn inductors were demonstrated surviving up to 50 % uniaxial applied strain.

  18. Electronic device for endosurgical skills training (EDEST): study of reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagador, J B; Uson, J; Sánchez, M A; Moyano, J L; Moreno, J; Bustos, P; Mateos, J; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2011-05-01

    Minimally Invasive Surgery procedures are commonly used in many surgical practices, but surgeons need specific training models and devices due to its difficulty and complexity. In this paper, an innovative electronic device for endosurgical skills training (EDEST) is presented. A study on reliability for this device was performed. Different electronic components were used to compose this new training device. The EDEST was focused on two basic laparoscopic tasks: triangulation and coordination manoeuvres. A configuration and statistical software was developed to complement the functionality of the device. A calibration method was used to assure the proper work of the device. A total of 35 subjects (8 experts and 27 novices) were used to check the reliability of the system using the MTBF analysis. Configuration values for triangulation and coordination exercises were calculated as 0.5 s limit threshold and 800-11,000 lux range of light intensity, respectively. Zero errors in 1,050 executions (0%) for triangulation and 21 errors in 5,670 executions (0.37%) for coordination were obtained. A MTBF of 2.97 h was obtained. The results show that the reliability of the EDEST device is acceptable when used under previously defined light conditions. These results along with previous work could demonstrate that the EDEST device can help surgeons during first training stages.

  19. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  20. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  1. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  2. Introduction to organic electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Sam-Shajing

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to Optoelectronic Materials, N. Peyghambarian and M. Fallahi Introduction to Optoelectronic Device Principles, J. Piprek Basic Electronic Structures and Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Optoelectronic Materials, S.-S. Sun Charge Transport in Conducting Polymers, V.N. Prigodin and A.J. Epstein Major Classes of Organic Small Molecules for Electronic and Optoelectronics, X. Meng, W. Zhu, and H. Tian Major Classes of Conjugated Polymers and Synthetic Strategies, Y. Li and J. Hou Low Energy Gap, Conducting, and Transparent Polymers, A. Kumar, Y. Ner, and G.A. Sotzing Conjugated Polymers, Fullerene C60, and Carbon Nanotubes for Optoelectronic Devices, L. Qu, L. Dai, and S.-S. Sun Introduction of Organic Superconducting Materials, H. Mori Molecular Semiconductors for Organic Field-Effect Transistors, A. Facchetti Polymer Field-Effect Transistors, H.G.O. Sandberg Organic Molecular Light-Emitting Materials and Devices, F. So and J. Shi Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes: Devices and Materials, X. Gong and ...

  3. Development of beam diagnostic devices for characterizing electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, D.; Tiwari, R.; Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R.L.; Sarukte, H.; Waghmare, A.; Thakur, N.; Dixit, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    The electron guns for the DC accelerators and RF Linacs are designed and developed at EBC/APPD/BARC, Kharghar. These electron guns need to be characterized for its design and performance. Two test benches were developed for characterizing the electron guns. Various beam diagnostic devices for measuring beam currents and beam sizes were developed. Conical faraday cup, segmented faraday cup, slit scanning bellows movement arrangement, multi-plate beam size measurement setup, multi- wire beam size measurement setup, Aluminum foil puncture assembly etc. were developed and used. The paper presents the in-house development of various beam diagnostics for characterizing electron guns and their use. (author)

  4. Stretchable GaAs photovoltaics with designs that enable high areal coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongho; Yoon, Jongseung; Park, Sang-Il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wu, Jian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Shi, Mingxing; Liu, Zhuangjian [Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore (Singapore); Li, Ming [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Huang, Yonggang [Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Rogers, John A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chemistry, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2011-02-22

    Strategies are presented for achieving, simultaneously, both large areal coverage and high stretchability by using elastomeric substrates with surface relief in geometries that confine strains at the locations of the interconnections, and away from the devices. The studies involve a combination of theory and experiment to reveal the essential mechanics, and include demonstrations of the ideas in stretchable solar modules that use ultrathin, single junction GaAs solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Conceptual design and simulation investigation of an electronic cooling device powered by hot electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guozhen; Zhang, Yanchao; Cai, Ling; Su, Shanhe; Chen, Jincan

    2015-01-01

    Most electronic cooling devices are powered by an external bias applied between the cold and the hot reservoirs. Here we propose a new concept of electronic cooling, in which cooling is achieved by using a reservoir of hot electrons as the power source. The cooling device incorporates two energy filters with the Lorentzian transmission function to respectively select low- and high-energy electrons for transport. Based on the proposed model, we analyze the performances of the device varying with the resonant levels and half widths of two energy filters and establish the optimal configuration of the cooling device. It is believed that such a novel device may be practically used in some nano-energy fields. - Highlights: • A new electronic cooling device powered by hot electrons is proposed. • Two energy filters are employed to select the electrons for transport. • The effects of the resonant levels and half widths of two filters are discussed. • The maximum cooling power and coefficient of performance are calculated. • The optimal configuration of the cooling device is determined.

  6. Biomimetic self-assembly of a functional asymmetrical electronic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncheva, Mila; Gracias, David H; Jacobs, Heiko O; Whitesides, George M

    2002-04-16

    This paper introduces a biomimetic strategy for the fabrication of asymmetrical, three-dimensional electronic devices modeled on the folding of a chain of polypeptide structural motifs into a globular protein. Millimeter-size polyhedra-patterned with logic devices, wires, and solder dots-were connected in a linear string by using flexible wire. On self-assembly, the string folded spontaneously into two domains: one functioned as a ring oscillator, and the other one as a shift register. This example demonstrates that biomimetic principles of design and self-organization can be applied to generate multifunctional electronic systems of complex, three-dimensional architecture.

  7. Plykin type attractor in electronic device simulated in MULTISIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Sergey P.

    2011-12-01

    An electronic device is suggested representing a non-autonomous dynamical system with hyperbolic chaotic attractor of Plykin type in the stroboscopic map, and the results of its simulation with software package NI MULTISIM are considered in comparison with numerical integration of the underlying differential equations. A main practical advantage of electronic devices of this kind is their structural stability that means insensitivity of the chaotic dynamics in respect to variations of functions and parameters of elements constituting the system as well as to interferences and noises.

  8. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  9. Stretchable Array of Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Consisting of Polyaniline Nanofibers and Au-Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Micropillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heun; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jin, Sangwoo; Lee, Seung-Jung; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2015-10-27

    We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2.0 kPa(-1) in the pressure range below 0.22 kPa, a low detection limit of 15 Pa, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10000 cycles of pressure loading/unloading with a low operating voltage of 1.0 V. The sensor is also capable of noninvasively detecting human-pulse waveforms from carotid and radial artery. A 5 × 5 array of the pressure sensors on the deformable substrate, which consists of PDMS islands for sensors and the mixed thin film of PDMS and Ecoflex with embedded liquid metal interconnections, shows stable sensing of pressure under biaxial stretching by 15%. The strain distribution obtained by the finite element method confirms that the maximum strain applied to the pressure sensor in the strain-suppressed region is less than 0.04% under a 15% biaxial strain of the unit module. This work demonstrates the potential application of our proposed stretchable pressure sensor array for wearable and artificial electronic skin devices.

  10. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-01-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. - Highlights: • Novel scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) called TESEM. • Use of the gaseous detection device (GDD) in scintillation mode that allows high resolution bright and dark field imaging in the TESEM. • Novel approach towards a unification of both vacuum and environmental conditions in both bulk/surface and transmission mode of electron microscopy

  11. Highly stretchable and conductive fibers enabled by liquid metal dip-coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Roach, Devin J.; Geng, Luchao; Chen, Haosen; Qi, H. Jerry; Fang, Daining

    2018-03-01

    Highly stretchable and conductive fibers have been fabricated by dip-coating of a layer of liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn) on printed silicone elastomer filaments. This fabrication method exploits a nanolayer of oxide skin that rapidly forms on the surface of EGaIn when exposed to air. Through dip-coating, the sticky nature of the oxide skin leads to the formation of a thin EGaIn coating (˜5 μm thick) on the originally nonconductive filaments and renders these fibers excellent conductivity. Electrical characterization shows that the fiber resistance increases moderately as the fiber elongates but always maintains conductivity even when stretched by 800%. Besides this, these fibers possess good cyclic electrical stability with little degradation after hundreds of stretching cycles, which makes them an excellent candidate for stretchable conductors. We then demonstrate a highly stretchable LED circuit as well as a conductive stretchable net that extends the 1D fibers into a 2D configuration. These examples demonstrate potential applications for topologically complex stretchable electronics.

  12. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  13. Stretchable polyurethane sponge reinforced magnetorheological material with enhanced mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Lin; Xuan, Shouhu; Liao, Guojiang; Yin, Tiantian; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-01-01

    A stretchable magnetorheological material (SMRM) consisting of micro-meter carbonyl iron (CI) particles, low cross-linking polyurethane (PU) polymer and porous PU sponge has been developed. Due to the presence of the PU sponge, the high-performance MR material can be reversibly stretched or bent, just as MR elastomers. When the CI content increases to 80 wt%, the magnetic induced modulus of the MR material can reach as high as 7.34 MPa and the corresponding relative MR effect increases to 820%. A possible strengthening mechanism of the SMRM was proposed. The attractive mechanical properties make the SMRM a promising candidate for future high-performance devices. (technical note)

  14. 77 FR 38829 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-850] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on May 23, 2012...

  15. A Web Service and Interface for Remote Electronic Device Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Prakash, S.; Estrada, D.; Pop, E.

    2011-01-01

    A lightweight Web Service and a Web site interface have been developed, which enable remote measurements of electronic devices as a "virtual laboratory" for undergraduate engineering classes. Using standard browsers without additional plugins (such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, or even Safari on an iPhone), remote users can control a Keithley…

  16. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  17. Electron density measurement in an evolving plasma. Experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, Terenzio; Dagai, Michel

    1960-01-01

    The experimental devices described here allow the electron density measurements in the 10 16 e/m 3 to 10 20 e/m 3 interval. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 250, p. 1223-1225, sitting of 15 February 1960 [fr

  18. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Allard, B.A.M.; Wieringa, F.P.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Meulendijks, N.M.M.; Jansen, H.; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils

  19. Expert system for fault diagnostic in electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, G

    1984-03-01

    Troubleshooting of electronic devices and highly complex PCBS (printed circuit boards) is an area where expert systems can be used. In addition to the difficulties intrinsic to this area it is also impossible to integrate the amount of knowledge based on experience in a traditional model. 8 references.

  20. Opto-electronic devices with nanoparticles and their assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chieu Van

    Nanotechnology is a fast growing field; engineering matters at the nano-meter scale. A key nanomaterial is nanoparticles (NPs). These sub-wavelength (background noise. The second device is based on a one-dimensional (1-D) self-directed self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by dielectric materials. Depending on the coverage density of the Au NPs assembly deposited on the device, electronic emission was observed at ultra-low bias of 40V, leading to low-power plasma generation in air at atmospheric pressure. Light emitted from the plasma is apparent to the naked eyes. Similarly, 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs mediated by iron oxide was fabricated and exhibits ferro-magnetic behavior. The multi-functional 1-D self-assembly of Au NPs has great potential in modern electronics such as solid state lighting, plasma-based nanoelectronics, and memory devices.

  1. Stretchable Fluorescent Polyfluorene/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber Blend Electrospun Fibers through Physical Interaction and Geometrical Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ching; Chen, Jung-Yao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Bera, Debaditya; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-03-01

    Stretchable light-emitting polymers are important for wearable electronics; however, the development of intrinsic stretchable light-emitting materials with great performance under large applied strain is the most critical challenge. Herein, this study demonstrates the fabrication of stretchable fluorescent poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)]/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PFN/NBR) blend nanofibers using the uniaxial electrospinning technique. The physical interaction of PFN with NBR and the geometrical confinement of nanofibers are employed to reduce PFN aggregation, leading to the high photoluminescence quantum yield of 35.7%. Such fiber mat film shows stable blue emission at the 50% strain for 200 stretching/release cycles, which has potential applications in smart textiles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-03-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. MIS hot electron devices for enhancement of surface reactivity by hot electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar

    A Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) based device is developed for investigation of hot electron enhanced chemistry. A model of the device is presented explaining the key concepts of the functionality and the character- istics. The MIS hot electron emitter is fabricated using cleanroom technology...... and the process sequence is described. An Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) setup is modified to facilitate experiments with electron emission from the MIS hot electron emitters and hot electron chemistry. Simulations show the importance of keeping tunnel barrier roughness to an absolute minimum. The tunnel oxide...... to be an important energy loss center for the electrons tunneling through the oxide lowering the emission e±ciency of a factor of 10 for a 1 nm Ti layer thickness. Electron emission is observed under ambient pressure conditions and in up to 2 bars of Ar. 2 bar Ar decrease the emission current by an order...

  4. Development of an irradiation device for electron beam wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rela, Paulo Roberto

    2003-01-01

    When domestic or industrial effluents with synthetic compounds are disposed without an adequate treatment, they impact negatively the environment with damages to aquatic life and for the human being. Both population and use of goods and services that contribute for the hazardous waste are growing. Hazardous regulations are becoming more restrictive and technologies, which do not destroy these products, are becoming less acceptable. The electron beam radiation process is an advanced oxidation process, that produces highly reactive radicals resulting in mineralization of the contaminant. In this work was developed an irradiation system in order to optimize the interaction of electron beam delivered from the accelerator with the processed effluent. It is composed by an irradiation device where the effluent presents to the electron beam in an up flow stream and a process control unit that uses the calorimetric principle. The developed irradiation device has a different configuration from the devices used by others researchers that are working with this technology. It was studied the technical and economic feasibility, comparing with the literature the results of the irradiation device demonstrated that it has a superior performance, becoming an process for use in disinfection and degradation of hazardous organic compounds of wastewater from domestic and industrial origin, contributing as an alternative technology for Sanitary Engineering. (author)

  5. DEA deformed stretchable patch antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X-J; Jalali Mazlouman, S; Menon, C; Mahanfar, A; Vaughan, R G

    2012-01-01

    A stretchable patch antenna (SPA) whose frequency is tuned by a planar dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is presented in this paper. This mechanically reconfigurable antenna system has a configuration resembling a pre-stretched silicone belt. Part of the belt is embedded with a layer of conductive liquid metal to form the patch antenna. Part of the belt is sandwiched between conductive electrodes to form the DEA. Electrical activation of the DEA results in a contraction of the patch antenna, and as a result, in a variation of its resonance frequency. Design and fabrication steps of this system are presented. Measurement results for deformation, resonance frequency variation and efficiency of the patch antenna are also presented. (paper)

  6. Battery-free, stretchable optoelectronic systems for wireless optical characterization of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Salvatore, Giovanni A; Araki, Hitoshi; Chiarelli, Antonio M; Xie, Zhaoqian; Banks, Anthony; Sheng, Xing; Liu, Yuhao; Lee, Jung Woo; Jang, Kyung-In; Heo, Seung Yun; Cho, Kyoungyeon; Luo, Hongying; Zimmerman, Benjamin; Kim, Joonhee; Yan, Lingqing; Feng, Xue; Xu, Sheng; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Huang, Yonggang; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in materials, mechanics, and electronic device design are rapidly establishing the foundations for health monitoring technologies that have "skin-like" properties, with options in chronic (weeks) integration with the epidermis. The resulting capabilities in physiological sensing greatly exceed those possible with conventional hard electronic systems, such as those found in wrist-mounted wearables, because of the intimate skin interface. However, most examples of such emerging classes of devices require batteries and/or hard-wired connections to enable operation. The work reported here introduces active optoelectronic systems that function without batteries and in an entirely wireless mode, with examples in thin, stretchable platforms designed for multiwavelength optical characterization of the skin. Magnetic inductive coupling and near-field communication (NFC) schemes deliver power to multicolored light-emitting diodes and extract digital data from integrated photodetectors in ways that are compatible with standard NFC-enabled platforms, such as smartphones and tablet computers. Examples in the monitoring of heart rate and temporal dynamics of arterial blood flow, in quantifying tissue oxygenation and ultraviolet dosimetry, and in performing four-color spectroscopic evaluation of the skin demonstrate the versatility of these concepts. The results have potential relevance in both hospital care and at-home diagnostics.

  7. Low power signal processing electronics for wearable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Custom designed microchips, known as Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), offer the lowest possible power consumption electronics. However, this comes at the cost of a longer, more complex and more costly design process compared to one using generic, off-the-shelf components. Nevertheless, their use is essential in future truly wearable medical devices that must operate for long periods of time from physically small, energy limited batteries. This presentation will demonstrate the state-of-the-art in ASIC technology for providing online signal processing for use in these wearable medical devices.

  8. On the OSL curve shape and preheat treatment of electronic components from portable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woda, Clemens; Greilich, Steffen; Beerten, Koen

    2010-01-01

    The shape of the OSL decay curve and the effect of longer time delays between accidental exposure and readout of alumina-rich electronic components from portable electronic devices are investigated. The OSL decay curve follows a hyperbolic decay function, which is interpreted as an approximation ...

  9. Investigation of ceramic devices by analytical electron microscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, M.; Saijo, H.; Isshiki, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Yoshioka, T.; Sato, S.; Nomura, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ceramics are widely used as capacitors and varistors. Their electrical properties depend on the structure, which is deeply influenced not only by the composition of raw materials and additives but also by heating treatments in the production process. This paper reviews our investigations of SrTiO 3 ceramic devices, which have been performed using various microscopy techniques such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), cathodoluminescence scanning electron microscopy (CLSEM), field emission SEM (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging method in a FE-(scanning) transmission electron microscope(FE-(S)TEM). (author)

  10. Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmeton, Vincent.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr

  11. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  12. 2D reentrant auxetic structures of graphene/CNT networks for omnidirectionally stretchable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Lee, Kangsuk; Kang, Seulki; Lee, Soyeon; Pyo, Jun Beom; Choi, In Suk; Char, Kookheon; Park, Jong Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Jonghwi; Son, Jeong Gon

    2017-09-14

    Stretchable energy storage systems are essential for the realization of implantable and epidermal electronics. However, high-performance stretchable supercapacitors have received less attention because currently available processing techniques and material structures are too limited to overcome the trade-off relationship among electrical conductivity, ion-accessible surface area, and stretchability of electrodes. Herein, we introduce novel 2D reentrant cellular structures of porous graphene/CNT networks for omnidirectionally stretchable supercapacitor electrodes. Reentrant structures, with inwardly protruded frameworks in porous networks, were fabricated by the radial compression of vertically aligned honeycomb-like rGO/CNT networks, which were prepared by a directional crystallization method. Unlike typical porous graphene structures, the reentrant structure provided structure-assisted stretchability, such as accordion and origami structures, to otherwise unstretchable materials. The 2D reentrant structures of graphene/CNT networks maintained excellent electrical conductivities under biaxial stretching conditions and showed a slightly negative or near-zero Poisson's ratio over a wide strain range because of their structural uniqueness. For practical applications, we fabricated all-solid-state supercapacitors based on 2D auxetic structures. A radial compression process up to 1/10 th densified the electrode, significantly increasing the areal and volumetric capacitances of the electrodes. Additionally, vertically aligned graphene/CNT networks provided a plentiful surface area and induced sufficient ion transport pathways for the electrodes. Therefore, they exhibited high gravimetric and areal capacitance values of 152.4 F g -1 and 2.9 F cm -2 , respectively, and had an excellent retention ratio of 88% under a biaxial strain of 100%. Auxetic cellular and vertically aligned structures provide a new strategy for the preparation of robust platforms for stretchable

  13. Inverse-designed stretchable metalens with tunable focal distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Francois; Velev, Vesselin; Jiang, Shizhou; Sahakian, Alan Varteres; Kumar, Prem; Aydin, Koray

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present an inverse-designed 3D-printed all-dielectric stretchable millimeter wave metalens with a tunable focal distance. A computational inverse-design method is used to design a flat metalens made of disconnected polymer building blocks with complex shapes, as opposed to conventional monolithic lenses. The proposed metalens provides better performance than a conventional Fresnel lens, using lesser amount of material and enabling larger focal distance tunability. The metalens is fabricated using a commercial 3D-printer and attached to a stretchable platform. Measurements and simulations show that the focal distance can be tuned by a factor of 4 with a stretching factor of only 75%, a nearly diffraction-limited focal spot, and with a 70% relative focusing efficiency, defined as the ratio between power focused in the focal spot and power going through the focal plane. The proposed platform can be extended for design and fabrication of multiple electromagnetic devices working from visible to microwave radiation depending on scaling of the devices.

  14. Device for monitoring electron-ion ring parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyutyunnikov, S.I.; Shalyapin, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is classified as the method of collective ion acceleration. The device for electron-ion ring parameters monitoring is described. The invention is aimed at increasing functional possibilities of the device at the expense of the enchance in the number of the ring controlled parameters. The device comprises three similar plane mirrors installed over accelerating tube circumference and a mirror manufactured in the form of prism and located in the tube centre, as well as the system of synchrotron radiation recording and processing. Two plane mirrors are installed at an angle of 45 deg to the vertical axis. The angle of the third plane mirror 3 α and that of prismatic mirror 2 α to the vertical axis depend on geometric parameters of the ring and accelerating tube and they are determined by the expression α=arc sin R K /2(R T -L), where R K - ring radius, R T - accelerating tube radius, L - the height of segment, formed by the mirror and inner surface of the accelerating tube. The device suggested permits to determine longitudinal dimensions of the ring, its velocity and the number of electrons and ions in the ring

  15. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    A fast position-sensitive detector was designed for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope (SLEEM), based on a thinned back-side directly electron-bombarded charged-coupled device (CCD) sensor (EBCCD). The principle of the SLEEM operation and the motivation for the development of the detector are explained. The electronics of the detector is described as well as the methods used for the measurement of the electron-bombarded gain and of the dark signal. The EBCCD gain of 565 for electron energy 5 keV and dynamic range 59 dB for short integration time up to 10 ms at room temperature were obtained. The energy dependence of EBCCD gain and the detection efficiency are presented for electron energy between 2 and 5 keV, and the integration time dependence of the output signals under dark conditions is given for integration time from 1 to 500 ms

  17. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  18. 3D Design Tools for Vacuum Electron Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levush, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    A reduction of development costs will have a significant impact on the total cost of the vacuum electron devices. Experimental testing cycles can be reduced or eliminated through the use of simulation-based design methodology, thereby reducing the time and cost of development. Moreover, by use of modern optimization tools for automating the process of seeking specific solution parameters and for studying dependencies of performance on parameters, new performance capabilities can be achieved, without resorting to expensive cycles of hardware fabrication and testing. Simulation-based-design will also provide the basis for sensitivity studies for determining the manufacturing tolerances associated with a particular design. Since material properties can have a critical effect on the performance of the vacuum electron devices, the design tools require precise knowledge of material characteristics, such as dielectric properties of the support rods, loss profile etc. Sensitivity studies must therefore include the effects of materials properties variation on device performance. This will provide insight for choosing the proper technological processes in order to achieve these tolerances, which is of great importance for achieving cost reduction. A successful design methodology depends on the development of accurate and efficient design tools with predictive capabilities. These design tools must be based on realistic models capable of high fidelity representation of geometry and materials, they must have optimization capabilities, and they must be easy to use

  19. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  20. Critical appraisal of cardiac implantable electronic devices: complications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padeletti L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Padeletti1, Giosuè Mascioli2, Alessandro Paoletti Perini1, Gino Grifoni1, Laura Perrotta1, Procolo Marchese3, Luca Bontempi3, Antonio Curnis31Istituto di Clinica Medica e Cardiologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italia; 2Elettrofisiologia, Istituto Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italia; 3Elettrofisiologia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItaliaAbstract: Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D. The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of proportion to the increase in implantation rate. CIED infections are an ominous condition, which often implies the necessity of hospitalization and carries an augmented risk of in-hospital death. Their clinical presentation may be either at pocket or at endocardial level, but they can also manifest themselves with lone bacteremia. The management of these infections requires the complete removal of the device and subsequent, specific, antibiotic therapy. CIED failures are monitored by competent public authorities, that require physicians to alert them to any failures, and that suggest the opportune strategies for their management. Although the replacement of all potentially affected devices is often suggested, common practice indicates the replacement of only a minority of devices, as close follow-up of the patients involved may be a safer strategy. Implantation of a PM or an ICD may cause problems in the patients' psychosocial adaptation and quality of life, and may contribute to the development of affective disorders. Clinicians are usually unaware of the psychosocial impact of implanted PMs and ICDs. The

  1. Stretchable, Weavable Coiled Carbon Nanotube/MnO2/Polymer Fiber Solid-State Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, A Young; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices. Previously reported yarn and fiber supercapacitors are expensive to fabricate, difficult to upscale, or non-stretchable, which limits possible use. The elastomeric electrodes of the present solid-state supercapacitors are made by using giant inserted twist to coil a nylon sewing thread that is helically wrapped with a carbon nanotube sheet, and then electrochemically depositing pseudocapacitive MnO2 nanofibers. These solid-state supercapacitors decrease capacitance by less than 15% when reversibly stretched by 150% in the fiber direction, and largely retain capacitance while being cyclically stretched during charge and discharge. The maximum linear and areal capacitances (based on active materials) and areal energy storage and power densities (based on overall supercapacitor dimensions) are high (5.4 mF/cm, 40.9 mF/cm2, 2.6 μWh/cm2 and 66.9 μW/cm2, respectively), despite the engineered superelasticity of the fiber supercapacitor. Retention of supercapacitor performance during large strain (50%) elastic deformation is demonstrated for supercapacitors incorporated into the wristband of a glove. PMID:25797351

  2. Stretchable, weavable coiled carbon nanotube/MnO2/polymer fiber solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, A Young; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2015-03-23

    Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices. Previously reported yarn and fiber supercapacitors are expensive to fabricate, difficult to upscale, or non-stretchable, which limits possible use. The elastomeric electrodes of the present solid-state supercapacitors are made by using giant inserted twist to coil a nylon sewing thread that is helically wrapped with a carbon nanotube sheet, and then electrochemically depositing pseudocapacitive MnO2 nanofibers. These solid-state supercapacitors decrease capacitance by less than 15% when reversibly stretched by 150% in the fiber direction, and largely retain capacitance while being cyclically stretched during charge and discharge. The maximum linear and areal capacitances (based on active materials) and areal energy storage and power densities (based on overall supercapacitor dimensions) are high (5.4 mF/cm, 40.9 mF/cm(2), 2.6 μWh/cm(2) and 66.9 μW/cm(2), respectively), despite the engineered superelasticity of the fiber supercapacitor. Retention of supercapacitor performance during large strain (50%) elastic deformation is demonstrated for supercapacitors incorporated into the wristband of a glove.

  3. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2875] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received an amended complaint entitled Certain Mobile Electronic Devices...

  4. 78 FR 52211 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To Review an... States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting or display replication...

  5. 78 FR 34132 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No 2958] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Correction to Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation... of complaint entitled Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and...

  6. Electronic SSKIN pathway: reducing device-related pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Natalie

    2016-08-11

    This article describes how an interprofessional project in a London NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to develop an intranet-based medical device-related pressure ulcer prevention and management pathway for clinical staff working across an adult critical care directorate, where life-threatening events require interventions using medical devices. The aim of this project was to improve working policies and processes to define key prevention strategies and provide clinicians with a clear, standardised approach to risk and skin assessment, equipment use, documentation and reporting clinical data using the Trust's CareVue (electronic medical records), Datix (incident reporting and risk-management tool) and eTRACE (online clinical protocol ordering) systems. The process included the development, trial and local implementation of the pathway using collaborative teamwork and the SSKIN care bundle tool. The experience of identifying issues, overcoming challenges, defining best practice and cascading SSKIN awareness training is shared.

  7. Indium antimonide quantum well structures for electronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisooriya, Madhavie

    The electron effective mass is smaller in InSb than in any other III-V semiconductor. Since the electron mobility depends inversely on the effective mass, InSb-based devices are attractive for field effect transistors, magnetic field sensors, ballistic transport devices, and other applications where the performance depends on a high mobility or a long mean free path. In addition, electrons in InSb have a large g-factor and strong spin orbit coupling, which makes them well suited for certain spin transport devices. The first n-channel InSb high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was produced in 2005 with a power-delay product superior to HEMTs with a channel made from any other III-V semiconductor. The high electron mobility in the InSb quantum-well channel increases the switching speed and lowers the required supply voltage. This dissertation focuses on several materials challenges that can further increase the appeal of InSb quantum wells for transistors and other electronic device applications. First, the electron mobility in InSb quantum wells, which is the highest for any semiconductor quantum well, can be further increased by reducing scattering by crystal defects. InSb-based heteroepitaxy is usually performed on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates due to the lack of a lattice matched semi-insulating substrate. The 14.6% mismatch between the lattice parameters of GaAs and InSb results in the formation of structural defects such as threading dislocations and microtwins which degrade the electrical and optical properties of InSb-based devices. Chapter 1 reviews the methods and procedures for growing InSb-based heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce techniques for minimizing the crystalline defects in InSb-based structures grown on GaAs substrates. Chapter 2 discusses a method of reducing threading dislocations by incorporating AlyIn1-ySb interlayers in an AlxIn1-xSb buffer layer and the reduction of microtwin defects by growth

  8. Scalable Manufacturing of Solderable and Stretchable Physiologic Sensing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Soung; Lu, Jesse; Shih, Benjamin; Gharibans, Armen; Zou, Zhanan; Matsuno, Kristen; Aguilera, Roman; Han, Yoonjae; Meek, Ann; Xiao, Jianliang; Tolley, Michael T; Coleman, Todd P

    2017-10-01

    Methods for microfabrication of solderable and stretchable sensing systems (S4s) and a scaled production of adhesive-integrated active S4s for health monitoring are presented. S4s' excellent solderability is achieved by the sputter-deposited nickel-vanadium and gold pad metal layers and copper interconnection. The donor substrate, which is modified with "PI islands" to become selectively adhesive for the S4s, allows the heterogeneous devices to be integrated with large-area adhesives for packaging. The feasibility for S4-based health monitoring is demonstrated by developing an S4 integrated with a strain gauge and an onboard optical indication circuit. Owing to S4s' compatibility with the standard printed circuit board assembly processes, a variety of commercially available surface mount chip components, such as the wafer level chip scale packages, chip resistors, and light-emitting diodes, can be reflow-soldered onto S4s without modifications, demonstrating the versatile and modular nature of S4s. Tegaderm-integrated S4 respiration sensors are tested for robustness for cyclic deformation, maximum stretchability, durability, and biocompatibility for multiday wear time. The results of the tests and demonstration of the respiration sensing indicate that the adhesive-integrated S4s can provide end users a way for unobtrusive health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Flexible organic electronic devices: Materials, process and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logothetidis, Stergios

    2008-01-01

    The research for the development of flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) is rapidly increasing worldwide, since FEDs will change radically several aspects of everyday life. Although there has been considerable progress in the area of flexible inorganic devices (a-Si or solution processed Si), there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting and insulating), inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit customized properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods, which are characterized by a significant amount of multidisciplinary efforts. Furthermore, the development and encapsulation of organic electronic devices onto flexible polymeric substrates by large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll production processes will allow their market implementation in numerous application areas, including displays, lighting, photovoltaics, radio-frequency identification circuitry and chemical sensors, as well as to a new generation of modern exotic applications. In this work, we report on some of the latest advances in the fields of polymeric substrates, hybrid barrier layers, inorganic and organic materials to be used as novel active and functional thin films and nanomaterials as well as for the encapsulation of the materials components for the production of FEDs (flexible organic light-emitting diodes, and organic photovoltaics). Moreover, we will emphasize on the real-time optical monitoring and characterization of the growing films onto the flexible polymeric substrates by spectroscopic ellipsometry methods. Finally, the potentiality for the in-line characterization processes for the development of organic electronics materials will be emphasized, since it will also establish the framework for the achievement of the future scientific and technological breakthroughs

  10. Analysis of patient setup accuracy using electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onogi, Yuzo; Aoki, Yukimasa; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    1996-01-01

    Radiation therapy is performed in many fractions, and accurate patient setup is very important. This is more significant nowadays because treatment planning and radiation therapy are more precisely performed. Electronic portal imaging devices and automatic image comparison algorithms let us analyze setup deviations quantitatively. With such in mind we developed a simple image comparison algorithm. Using 2459 electronic verification images (335 ports, 123 treatment sites) generated during the past three years at our institute, we evaluated the results of the algorithm, and analyzed setup deviations according to the area irradiated, use of a fixing device (shell), and arm position. Calculated setup deviation was verified visually and their fitness was classified into good, fair, bad, and incomplete. The result was 40%, 14%, 22%, 24% respectively. Using calculated deviations classified as good (994 images), we analyzed setup deviations. Overall setup deviations described in 1 SD along axes x, y, z, was 1.9 mm, 2.5 mm, 1.7 mm respectively. We classified these deviations into systematic and random components, and found that random error was predominant in our institute. The setup deviations along axis y (cranio-caudal direction) showed larger distribution when treatment was performed with the shell. Deviations along y (cranio-caudal) and z (anterior-posterior) had larger distribution when treatment occurred with the patient's arm elevated. There was a significant time-trend error, whose deviations become greater with time. Within all evaluated ports, 30% showed a time-trend error. Using an electronic portal imaging device and automatic image comparison algorithm, we are able to analyze setup deviations more precisely and improve setup method based on objective criteria. (author)

  11. Patient perspective on remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, H; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, M H

    2014-01-01

    -implantation, other check-ups are performed remotely. Patients are asked to complete questionnaires at five time points during the 2-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: The REMOTE-CIED study will provide insight into the patient perspective on remote monitoring in ICD patients, which could help to support patient......BACKGROUND: Remote patient monitoring is a safe and effective alternative for the in-clinic follow-up of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). However, evidence on the patient perspective on remote monitoring is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The primary...

  12. EMC, RF, and Antenna Systems in Miniature Electronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea

    Advanced techniques for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and for the optimization of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance has been developed under the constraints typical of miniature electronic devices (MED). The electromagnetic coexistence of multiple systems....... The structure allows for effective suppression of radiation from the MED, while taking into consideration the integration and miniaturization aspects. To increase the sensitivity of the system, a compact LNA suitable for on-body applications has been developed. The LNA allows for an increase in the overall...

  13. Electronic transport properties in [n]cycloparaphenylenes molecular devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lizhi; Guo, Yandong; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Hongli; Zhou, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The electronic transport of [n]cycloparaphenylenes ([n]CPPs) is investigated based on nonequilibrium Green's function formalism in combination with the density-functional theory. Negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon is observed. Further analysis shows that the reduction of the transmission peak induced by the bias changing near Fermi energy results in the NDR effect. Replacing the electrode (from carbon chain to Au electrode), doping with N atom and changing the size of the nanohoop (n = 5, 6, 8, 10) have also been studied and the NDR still exists, suggesting the NDR behavior is the intrinsic feature of such [n]CPPs systems, which would be quite useful in future nanoelectronic devices.

  14. 77 FR 24764 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...-0053] Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices AGENCY... proposed voluntary NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices. The agency... Driver Distraction Guidelines for in-vehicle electronic devices (77 FR 11200). The proposed NHTSA...

  15. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Xin, Yangyang

    2017-06-29

    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  16. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other

  17. Characterization of electronics devices for computed tomography dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoal, Cinthia Marques Magalhaes

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an examination of high diagnostic capability that delivers high doses of radiation compared with other diagnostic radiological examinations. The current CT dosimetry is mainly made by using a 100 mm long ionization chamber. However, it was verified that this extension, which is intended to collect ali scattered radiation of the single slice dose profile in CT, is not enough. An alternative dosimetry has been suggested by translating smaller detectors. In this work, commercial electronics devices of small dimensions were characterized for CT dosimetry. The project can be divided in five parts: a) pre-selection of devices; b) electrical characterization of selected devices; e) dosimetric characterization in Iaboratory, using radiation qualities specific to CT, and in a tomograph; d) evaluation of the dose profile in CT scanner (free in air and in head and body dosimetric phantom); e) evaluation of the new MSAD detector in a tomograph. The selected devices were OP520 and OP521 phototransistors and BPW34FS photodiode. Before the dosimetric characterization, three configurations of detectors, with 4, 2 and 1 OP520 phototransistor working as a single detector, were evaluated and the configuration with only one device was the most adequate. Hence, the following tests, for all devices, were made using the configuration with only one device. The tests of dosimetric characterization in laboratory and in a tomograph were: energy dependence, response as a function of air kerma (laboratory) and CTDI 100 (scanner), sensitivity variation and angular dependence. In both characterizations, the devices showed some energy dependence, indicating the need of correction factors depending on the beam energy; their response was linear with the air kerma and the CTDI 100 ; the OP520 phototransistor showed the largest variation in sensitivity with the irradiation and the photodiode was the most stable; the angular dependence was significant in the laboratory and

  18. Passive direct methanol fuel cells for portable electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad, F.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Majlan, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing demand for electricity, clean, renewable energy resources must be developed. Thus, the objective of the present study was to develop a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) for portable electronic devices. The power output of six dual DMFCs connected in series with an active area of 4 cm 2 was approximately 600 mW, and the power density of the DMFCs was 25 mW cm -2 . The DMFCs were evaluated as a power source for mobile phone chargers and media players. The results indicated that the open circuit voltage of the DMFC was between 6.0 V and 6.5 V, and the voltage under operating conditions was 4.0 V. The fuel cell was tested on a variety of cell phone chargers, media players and PDAs. The cost of energy consumption by the proposed DMFC was estimated to be USD 20 W -1 , and the cost of methanol is USD 4 kW h. Alternatively, the local conventional electricity tariff is USD 2 kW h. However, for the large-scale production of electronic devices, the cost of methanol will be significantly lower. Moreover, the electricity tariff is expected to increase due to the constraints of fossil fuel resources and pollution. As a result, DMFCs will become competitive with conventional power sources.

  19. Observation of molecular level behavior in molecular electronic junction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitani, Masato

    In this dissertation, I utilize AFM based scanning probe measurement and surface enhanced Raman scattering based vibrational spectroscopic analysis to directly characterize topographic, electronic, and chemical properties of molecules confined in the local area of M3 junction to elucidate the molecular level behavior of molecular junction electronic devices. In the introduction, the characterization of molecular electronic devices with different types of metal-molecule-metal (M3) structures based upon self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is reviewed. A background of the characterization methods I use in this dissertation, conducting probe atomic force microscopy (cp-AFM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), is provided in chapter 1. Several attempts are performed to create the ideal top metal contacts on SAMs by metal vapor phase deposition in order to prevent the metal penetration inducing critical defects of the molecular electronic devices. The scanning probe microscopy (SPM), such as cp-AFM, contact mode (c-) AFM and non-contact mode (nc-) AFM, in ultra high vacuum conditions are utilized to study the process of the metal-SAM interface construction in terms of the correlation between the morphological and electrical properties including the metal nucleation and filament generation as a function of the functionalization of long-chain alkane thiolate SAMs on Au. In chapter 2, the nascent condensation process of vapor phase Al deposition on inert and reactive SAMs are studied by SPM. The results of top deposition, penetration, and filament generation of deposited Al are discussed and compared to the results previously observed by spectroscopic measurements. Cp-AFM was shown to provide new insights into Al filament formation which has not been observed by conventional spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, the electronic characteristics of individual Al filaments are measured. Chapter 3 reveals SPM characterization of Au deposition onto --COOH terminated SAMs

  20. Highly stretchable strain sensor based on polyurethane substrate using hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure for monitoring of tiny human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yunong; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Strain sensors used as flexible and wearable electronic devices have improved prospects in the fields of artificial skin, robotics, human-machine interfaces, and healthcare. This work introduces a highly stretchable fiber-based strain sensor with a laminated structure made up of a graphene nanoplatelet layer and a carbon black/single-walled carbon nanotube synergetic conductive network layer. An ultrathin, flexible, and elastic two-layer polyurethane (PU) yarn substrate was successively deposited by a novel chemical bonding-based layered dip-coating process. These strain sensors demonstrated high stretchability (˜350%), little hysteresis, and long-term durability (over 2400 cycles) due to the favorable tensile properties of the PU substrate. The linearity of the strain sensor could reach an adjusted R-squared of 0.990 at 100% strain, which is better than most of the recently reported strain sensors. Meanwhile, the strain sensor exhibited good sensibility, rapid response, and a lower detection limit. The lower detection limit benefited from the hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure and continuous conductive path. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out based on the special features of the PU strain sensor to show its capacity of detecting and monitoring tiny human motions.

  1. Highly Stretchable, Strain Sensing Hydrogel Optical Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing; Liu, Xinyue; Jiang, Nan; Yetisen, Ali K; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Yang, Changxi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhao, Xuanhe; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-12-01

    A core-clad fiber made of elastic, tough hydrogels is highly stretchable while guiding light. Fluorescent dyes are easily doped into the hydrogel fiber by diffusion. When stretched, the transmission spectrum of the fiber is altered, enabling the strain to be measured and also its location. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Theoretical modeling of electronic transport in molecular devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Simone

    In this thesis a novel approach for simulating electronic transport in nanoscale structures is introduced. We consider an open quantum system (the electrons of structure) accelerated by an external electromotive force and dissipating energy through inelastic scattering with a heat bath (phonons) acting on the electrons. This method can be regarded as a quantum-mechanical extension of the semi-classical Boltzmann transport equation. We use periodic boundary conditions and employ Density Functional Theory to recast the many-particle problem in an effective single-particle mean-field problem. By explicitly treating the dissipation in the electrodes, the behavior of the potential is an outcome of our method, at variance with the scattering approaches based on the Landauer formalism. We study the self-consistent steady-state solution, analyzing the out-of-equilibrium electron distribution, the electrical characteristics, the behavior of the self-consistent potential and the density of states of the system. We apply the method to the study of electronic transport in several molecular devices, consisting of small organic molecules or atomic wires sandwiched between gold surfaces. For gold wires we recover the experimental evidence that transport in short wires is ballistic, independent of the length of the wire and with conductance of one quantum. In benzene-1,4-dithiol we find that the delocalization of the frontier orbitals of the molecule is responsible for the high value of conductance and that, by inserting methylene groups to decouple the sulfur atoms from the carbon ring, the current is reduced, in agreement with the experimental measurements. We study the effect a geometrical distortion in a molecular device, namely the relative rotation of the carbon rings in a biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol molecule. We find that the reduced coupling between pi orbitals of the rings induced by the rotation leads to a reduction of the conductance and that this behavior is captured by a

  3. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  4. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  5. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David; Cornil, Jérôme; Muccioli, Luca; Zannoni, Claudio; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Castet, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational

  6. Wearable Fall Detector using Integrated Sensors and Energy Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmook; Hong, Seungki; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Sangkyu; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Minbaek; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-11-01

    Wearable devices have attracted great attentions as next-generation electronic devices. For the comfortable, portable, and easy-to-use system platform in wearable electronics, a key requirement is to replace conventional bulky and rigid energy devices into thin and deformable ones accompanying the capability of long-term energy supply. Here, we demonstrate a wearable fall detection system composed of a wristband-type deformable triboelectric generator and lithium ion battery in conjunction with integrated sensors, controllers, and wireless units. A stretchable conductive nylon is used as electrodes of the triboelectric generator and the interconnection between battery cells. Ethoxylated polyethylenimine, coated on the surface of the conductive nylon electrode, tunes the work function of a triboelectric generator and maximizes its performance. The electrical energy harvested from the triboelectric generator through human body motions continuously recharges the stretchable battery and prolongs hours of its use. The integrated energy supply system runs the 3-axis accelerometer and related electronics that record human body motions and send the data wirelessly. Upon the unexpected fall occurring, a custom-made software discriminates the fall signal and an emergency alert is immediately sent to an external mobile device. This wearable fall detection system would provide new opportunities in the mobile electronics and wearable healthcare.

  7. Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, S., E-mail: kamio@nifs.ac.jp; Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.

  8. Software to manage transformers using intelligent electronic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Zamboti Fortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power companies usually answer the increase in power demand by building new generation facilities. Nevertheless, an efficient use of energy could reduce and delay the costs of investment in new power plants. This paper shows a software system to manage transformers and evaluate losses when they work with zero loads. This system contributes to reduce the waste of energy with some simple actions such as shutting off an unused transformer or reconnecting disabled equipment based on the customer’s demand. It uses real time measurements collected from Intelligent Electronic Devices as a base for software decisions. It also measures and reports the total power saving.

  9. Ultralarge area MOS tunnel devices for electron emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2007-01-01

    density. Oxide thicknesses have been extracted by fitting a model based on Fermi-Dirac statistics to the C-V characteristics. By plotting I-V characteristics in a Fowler plot, a measure of the thickness of the oxide can be extracted from the tunnel current. These apparent thicknesses show a high degree......A comparative analysis of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been employed to characterize the thickness variations of the oxide on different length scales. Ultralarge area (1 cm(2)) ultrathin (similar to 5 nm oxide......) MOS capacitors have been fabricated to investigate their functionality and the variations in oxide thickness, with the use as future electron emission devices as the goal. I-V characteristics show very low leakage current and excellent agreement to the Fowler-Nordheim expression for the current...

  10. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  11. Bifunctional electroluminescent and photovoltaic devices using bathocuproine as electron-transporting material and an electron acceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.L.; Li, W.L.; Li, M.T.; Chu, B.

    2007-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) devices, using 4, 4',4''-tris (2-methylphenyl- phenylamino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) as hole-transporting material and bathocuproine (BCP) as an electron-transporting material, were fabricated, which emitted bright green light peaked at 520 nm instead of the emission of m-MTDATA or BCP. It was attributed to the exciplex formation and emission at the interface of m-MTDATA and BCP. EL performance was significantly enhanced by a thin mixed layer (5 nm) of m-MTDATA and BCP inserted between the two organic layers of the original m-MTDATA/BCP bilayer device. The trilayer device showed maximum luminance of 1,205 cd/m 2 at 8 V. At a luminance of 100 cd/m 2 , the power efficiency is 1.64 cd/A. Commission International De L'Eclairoge (CIE) color coordinates of the output spectrum of the devices at 8 V are x=0.244 and y=0.464. These devices also showed photovoltaic (PV) properties, which were sensitive to UV light. The PV diode exhibits high open-circuit voltage (V oc ) of 2.10 V under illumination of 365 nm UV light with 2 mW/cm 2 . And the short-circuit current (I sc ) of 92.5x10 -6 A/cm 2 , fill factor (FF) of 0.30 and power conversion efficiency (η e ) of 2.91% are respectively achieved. It is considered that strong exciplex emission in an EL device is a good indicator of efficient charge transfer at the organic interface, which is a basic requirement for good PV performance. Both the bilayer and trilayer devices showed EL and PV properties, suggesting their potential use as multifunction devices

  12. Bifunctional electroluminescent and photovoltaic devices using bathocuproine as electron-transporting material and an electron acceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.L. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Institute of Functional Material Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, 130024 (China); Li, W.L. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)]. E-mail: wllioel@yahoo.com.cn; Li, M.T. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Chu, B. [Key Laboratory of the Excited States Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Electroluminescence (EL) devices, using 4, 4',4''-tris (2-methylphenyl- phenylamino) triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) as hole-transporting material and bathocuproine (BCP) as an electron-transporting material, were fabricated, which emitted bright green light peaked at 520 nm instead of the emission of m-MTDATA or BCP. It was attributed to the exciplex formation and emission at the interface of m-MTDATA and BCP. EL performance was significantly enhanced by a thin mixed layer (5 nm) of m-MTDATA and BCP inserted between the two organic layers of the original m-MTDATA/BCP bilayer device. The trilayer device showed maximum luminance of 1,205 cd/m{sup 2} at 8 V. At a luminance of 100 cd/m{sup 2}, the power efficiency is 1.64 cd/A. Commission International De L'Eclairoge (CIE) color coordinates of the output spectrum of the devices at 8 V are x=0.244 and y=0.464. These devices also showed photovoltaic (PV) properties, which were sensitive to UV light. The PV diode exhibits high open-circuit voltage (V {sub oc}) of 2.10 V under illumination of 365 nm UV light with 2 mW/cm{sup 2}. And the short-circuit current (I {sub sc}) of 92.5x10{sup -6} A/cm{sup 2}, fill factor (FF) of 0.30 and power conversion efficiency ({eta} {sub e}) of 2.91% are respectively achieved. It is considered that strong exciplex emission in an EL device is a good indicator of efficient charge transfer at the organic interface, which is a basic requirement for good PV performance. Both the bilayer and trilayer devices showed EL and PV properties, suggesting their potential use as multifunction devices.

  13. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media Players, and Televisions, and Components Thereof... devices, including wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and... wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media players, and televisions, and components thereof...

  14. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  15. How people with cognitive disabilities experience electronic planning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Päivi; Lindstedt, Helena; Janeslätt, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    People with cognitive disabilities have difficulties in accomplishing everyday tasks. Electronic planning devices (EPDs) may compensate for the gap between a person's capacity and everyday challenges. However, the devices are not always used as intended. Despite that, cognitive assistive technology has been investigated in several studies, knowledge regarding when and what makes adults decide to use EPDs is incomplete. The aim was to explore the subjective experiences of people with cognitive disabilities in relation to the use of EPDs. A qualitative approach was applied with a qualitative content analysis. Twelve respondents were interviewed with support from a study specific guide. A model representing the respondents' experiences in the use of EPDs, comprising one theme, Possibility to master my daily life, four categories, Degree of fit to my needs, I am aware of my cognitive disability, I get help to structure my everyday life and The EPD improves my volition and ten subcategories, was developed. EPDs allow people with cognitive disabilities the possibility to deal with daily challenges; those who find EPDs beneficial tend to use them. EPDs can help people with cognitive disabilities in organisation, managing time and improve volition.

  16. Determining Hermeticity of Electron Devices by Dye Penetration

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1972-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures that will normally detect and locate the sites of gross leaks in electron devices. 1.2 These procedures are suitable for use on selected parts during receiving inspection or to verify and locate leakage sites for production control. They are not quantitative; no indication of leak size can be inferred from the test. 1.3 These procedures are most suitable for use on transparent glass-encased devices; all methods are applicable to transparent parts with an internal cavity. Method A, Penetrant-Capillary, is also applicable to parts, such as terminals, end seals or base assemblies, without an internal cavity, and Method C, Penetrant-Pressure Followed by Vacuum, can be used on opaque parts with an internal cavity. Method B, Penetrant-Pressure, can also be used on opaque parts with an internal cavity if the part is opened after dye penetration and before inspection. Parts that have an internal cavity may either contain gas (such as air, nitrogen, nitrogen-helium mixture, etc.) o...

  17. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, P.; Bettinger, C. J.; Irimia-Vladu, M.; Mostert, A. B.; Schwenn, P. E.

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  18. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Active Materials in Electronic Sensor Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael G; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-05-12

    In the past decade, advances in electrically conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-based electronic devices have created new opportunities for the development of next-generation sensors. Here we review this rapidly-growing field, with a focus on the different types of device configurations that have allowed for the use of MOFs as active components of electronic sensor devices.

  19. Challenges for single molecule electronic devices with nanographene and organic molecules. Do single molecules offer potential as elements of electronic devices in the next generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Toshiaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    Interest in utilizing organic molecules to fabricate electronic materials has existed ever since organic (molecular) semiconductors were first discovered in the 1950s. Since then, scientists have devoted serious effort to the creation of various molecule-based electronic systems, such as molecular metals and molecular superconductors. Single-molecule electronics and the associated basic science have emerged over the past two decades and provided hope for the development of highly integrated molecule-based electronic devices in the future (after the Si-based technology era has ended). Here, nanographenes (nano-sized graphene) with atomically precise structures are among the most promising molecules that can be utilized for electronic/spintronic devices. To manipulate single small molecules for an electronic device, a single molecular junction has been developed. It is a powerful tool that allows even small molecules to be utilized. External electric, magnetic, chemical, and mechanical perturbations can change the physical and chemical properties of molecules in a way that is different from bulk materials. Therefore, the various functionalities of molecules, along with changes induced by external perturbations, allows us to create electronic devices that we cannot create using current top-down Si-based technology. Future challenges that involve the incorporation of condensed matter physics, quantum chemistry calculations, organic synthetic chemistry, and electronic device engineering are expected to open a new era in single-molecule device electronic technology.

  20. Prospective clinical evaluation of an electronic portal imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Graham, Mary V.; Bosch, Walter R.; Wong, John; Gerber, Russell L.; Cheng, Abel; Tinger, Alfred; Valicenti, Richard K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the clinical implementation of an electronic portal imaging device can improve the precision of daily external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In 1991, an electronic portal imaging device was installed on a dual energy linear accelerator in our clinic. After training the radiotherapy technologists in the acquisition and evaluation of portal images, we performed a randomized study to determine whether online observation, interruption, and intervention would result in more precise daily setup. The patients were randomized to one of two groups: those whose treatments were actively monitored by the radiotherapy technologists and those that were imaged but not monitored. The treating technologists were instructed to correct the following treatment errors: (a) field placement error (FPE) > 1 cm; (b) incorrect block; (c) incorrect collimator setting; (d) absent customized block. Time of treatment delivery was recorded by our patient tracking and billing computers and compared to a matched set of patients not participating in the study. After the patients radiation therapy course was completed, an offline analysis of the patient setup error was planned. Results: Thirty-two patients were treated to 34 anatomical sites in this study. In 893 treatment sessions, 1,873 fields were treated (1,089 fields monitored and 794 fields unmonitored). Ninety percent of the treated fields had at least one image stored for offline analysis. Eighty-seven percent of these images were analyzed offline. Of the 1,011 fields imaged in the monitored arm, only 14 (1.4%) had an intervention recorded by the technologist. Despite infrequent online intervention, offline analysis demonstrated that the incidence of FPE > 10 mm in the monitored and unmonitored groups was 56 out of 881 (6.1%) and 95 out of 595 (11.2%), respectively; p 10 mm was confined to the pelvic fields. The time to treat patients in this study was 10.78 min (monitored) and 10.10 min (unmonitored

  1. Effect of interior geometry on local climate inside an electronic device enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshy, Salil; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Electronic enclosure design and the internal arrangement of PCBs and components influence microclimate inside the enclosure. This work features a general electronic unit with parallel PCBs. One of the PCB is considered to have heat generating components on it. The humidity and temperature profiles...... geometry of the device and related enclosure design parameters on the humidity and temperature profiles inside the electronic device enclosure....

  2. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  3. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2882] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and... the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  4. Stretchable Tattoo-Like Heater with On-Site Temperature Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wearable tissue heaters can play many important roles in the medical field. They may be used for heat therapy, perioperative warming and controlled transdermal drug delivery, among other applications. State-of-the-art heaters are too bulky, rigid, or difficult to control to be able to maintain long-term wearability and safety. Recently, there has been progress in the development of stretchable heaters that may be attached directly to the skin surface, but they often use expensive materials or processes and take significant time to fabricate. Moreover, they lack continuously active, on-site, unobstructive temperature feedback control, which is critical for accommodating the dynamic temperatures required for most medical applications. We have developed, fabricated and tested a cost-effective, large area, ultra-thin and ultra-soft tattoo-like heater that has autonomous proportional-integral-derivative (PID temperature control. The device comprises a stretchable aluminum heater and a stretchable gold resistance temperature detector (RTD on a soft medical tape as fabricated using the cost and time effective “cut-and-paste” method. It can be noninvasively laminated onto human skin and can follow skin deformation during flexure without imposing any constraint. We demonstrate the device’s ability to maintain a target temperature typical of medical uses over extended durations of time and to accurately adjust to a new set point in process. The cost of the device is low enough to justify disposable use.

  5. Kirigami-based PVDF thin-film as stretchable strain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Chen, Dajing; Hao, Nanjing; Huang, Shicheng; Yu, Xiaojiao; Zhang, John X. J.; Chen, Zi

    Kirigami, as the sister of the origami, involves cutting of 2D sheets to form complex 3D geometries with out-of-plane patterns. Motivated by the development of the high-stretchable biomedical devices, we explore the stretchability of the kirigami-based PVDF thin film under tension. Our structural prototypes include a set of 2D geometry with kirigami-based pattern cutting on PVDF thin films. We first used paper models to generate a wide range of cutting patterns to study the deformation under compression tests, the results of which are compared with finite element simulations. We then proceeded to test different kirigami-based designs to identify geometric parameters that can tune the post-buckling response and strain distribution. Next, we fabricated and tested the PVDF thin film with kirigami pattern. Experiments showed that the PVDF film in the absence of cutting can be stretched to a limited extent and will break upon further stretching. In contrast, the kirigami-based films can be stretched up to 100% without failure. Our designs demonstrate the ability to significantly improve the strain range of the structure and sensing ability of a sensor. We envision a promising future to use this class of structural elements to develop highly stretchable materials, structures, and devices. Z.C. acknowledges the Society in Science-Branco Weiss fellowship, administered by ETH Zürich. J.X.J.Z. acknowledges the NIH Director's Transformative Research Award (1R01 OD022910-01).

  6. Stretchable Kirigami Polyvinylidene Difluoride Thin Films for Energy Harvesting: Design, Analysis, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Chen, Dajing; Wang, Dong; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Grover, Hannah M.; Yu, Xiaojiao; Zhang, John X. J.; Chen, Zi

    2018-02-01

    Kirigami, a modified form of origami which includes cutting, has been used to improve material stretchability and compliance. However, this technique is, so far, underexplored in patterning piezoelectric materials towards developing efficient and mechanically flexible thin-film energy generators. Motivated by existing kirigami-based applications, we introduce interdigitated cuts to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films to evaluate the effect on voltage generation and stretchability. Our results from theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and experimental tests show that kirigami PVDF films exhibit an extended strain range while still maintaining significant voltage generation compared to films without cuts. Various cutting patterns are studied, and it is found that films with denser cuts have a larger voltage output. This kirigami design can enhance the properties of existing piezoelectric materials and help to integrate tunable PVDF generators into biomedical devices.

  7. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.; El, Labban Abdulrahman; Usman, Anwar; Beaujuge, Pierre; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc

  8. Molecular self-assembly approaches for supramolecular electronic and organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Hin-Lap

    Molecular self-assembly represents an efficient bottom-up strategy to generate structurally well-defined aggregates of semiconducting pi-conjugated materials. The capability of tuning the chemical structures, intermolecular interactions and nanostructures through molecular engineering and novel materials processing renders it possible to tailor a large number of unprecedented properties such as charge transport, energy transfer and light harvesting. This approach does not only benefit traditional electronic devices based on bulk materials, but also generate a new research area so called "supramolecular electronics" in which electronic devices are built up with individual supramolecular nanostructures with size in the sub-hundred nanometers range. My work combined molecular self-assembly together with several novel materials processing techniques to control the nucleation and growth of organic semiconducting nanostructures from different type of pi-conjugated materials. By tailoring the interactions between the molecules using hydrogen bonds and pi-pi stacking, semiconducting nanoplatelets and nanowires with tunable sizes can be fabricated in solution. These supramolecular nanostructures were further patterned and aligned on solid substrates through printing and chemical templating methods. The capability to control the different hierarchies of organization on surface provides an important platform to study their structural-induced electronic properties. In addition to using molecular self-assembly to create different organic nanostructures, functional self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed by spontaneous chemisorption on surfaces was used to tune the interfacial property in organic solar cells. Devices showed dramatically improved performance when appropriate SAMs were applied to optimize the contact property for efficiency charge collection.

  9. Flexible and Stretchable Energy Storage: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Song, Min-Sang; Kong, Biao; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Energy-storage technologies such as lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become fundamental building blocks in modern society. Recently, the emerging direction toward the ever-growing market of flexible and wearable electronics has nourished progress in building multifunctional energy-storage systems that can be bent, folded, crumpled, and stretched while maintaining their electrochemical functions under deformation. Here, recent progress and well-developed strategies in research designed to accomplish flexible and stretchable lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors are reviewed. The challenges of developing novel materials and configurations with tailored features, and in designing simple and large-scaled manufacturing methods that can be widely utilized are considered. Furthermore, the perspectives and opportunities for this emerging field of materials science and engineering are also discussed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Lanthanum Gadolinium Oxide: A New Electronic Device Material for CMOS Logic and Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojan P. Pavunny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the ternary dielectric, LaGdO3, synthesized and qualified in our laboratory as a novel high-k dielectric material for logic and memory device applications in terms of its excellent features that include a high linear dielectric constant (k of ~22 and a large energy bandgap of ~5.6 eV, resulting in sufficient electron and hole band offsets of ~2.57 eV and ~1.91 eV, respectively, on silicon, good thermal stability with Si and lower gate leakage current densities within the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS specified limits at the sub-nanometer electrical functional thickness level, which are desirable for advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS, bipolar (Bi and BiCMOS chips applications, is presented in this review article.

  11. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, P; Schwenn, P E; Bettinger, C J; Irimia-Vladu, M; Mostert, A B

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist. (review article)

  12. Thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Chen, Sih-Li

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices. The effects of heat load of heater and input current to thermoelectric cooler are experimentally determined. A theoretical model of thermal analogy network is developed to predict the thermal performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module. The result shows that the prediction by the model agrees with the experimental data. At a specific heat load, the thermoelectric air-cooling module reaches the best cooling performance at an optimum input current. In this study, the optimum input currents are from 6 A to 7 A at the heat loads from 20 W to 100 W. The result also demonstrates that the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs better performance at a lower heat load. The lowest total temperature difference-heat load ratio is experimentally estimated as -0.54 W K -1 at the low heat load of 20 W, while it is 0.664 W K -1 at the high heat load of 100 W. In some conditions, the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs worse than the air-cooling heat sink only. This article shows the effective operating range in which the cooling performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module excels that of the air-cooling heat sink only.

  13. Characterization of high Tc materials and devices by electron microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browning, Nigel D; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2000-01-01

    ..., and microanalysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Ensuing chapters examine identi®cation of new superconducting compounds, imaging of superconducting properties by lowtemperature scanning electron microscopy, imaging of vortices by electron holography and electronic structure determination by electron energy loss spectro...

  14. Graphene Electronic Device Based Biosensors and Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as graphene and MoS2, are emerging as an exciting material system for a new generation of atomically thin electronic devices. With their ultrahigh surface to volume ratio and excellent electrical properties, 2D-layered materials hold the promise for the construction of a generation of chemical and biological sensors with unprecedented sensitivity. In my PhD thesis, I mainly focus on graphene based electronic biosensors and chemical sensors. In the first part of my thesis, I demonstrated the fabrication of graphene nanomesh (GNM), which is a graphene thin film with a periodic array of holes punctuated in it. The periodic holes introduce long periphery active edges that provide a high density of functional groups (e.g. carboxylic groups) to allow for covalent grafting of specific receptor molecules for chemical and biosensor applications. After covalently functionalizing the GNM with glucose oxidase, I managed to make a novel electronic sensor which can detect glucose as well as pH change. In the following part of my thesis I demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-hemin conjugate for nitric oxide detection. The non-covalent functionalization through pi-pi stacking interaction allows reliable immobilization of hemin molecules on graphene without damaging the graphene lattice to ensure the highly sensitive and specific detection of nitric oxide. The graphene-hemin nitric oxide sensor is capable of real-time monitoring of nitric oxide concentrations, which is of central importance for probing the diverse roles of nitric oxide in neurotransmission, cardiovascular systems, and immune responses. Our studies demonstrate that the graphene-hemin sensors can respond rapidly to nitric oxide in physiological environments with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that the graphene-hemin sensors can be used for the detection of nitric oxide released from macrophage cells and endothelial cells, demonstrating their

  15. Flexible and Stretchable Microneedle Patches with Integrated Rigid Stainless Steel Microneedles for Transdermal Biointerfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Mina; Roxhed, Niclas; Shafagh, Reza Zandi; Haraldson, Tommy; Fischer, Andreas Christin; Wijngaart, Wouter van der; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates flexible and stretchable microneedle patches that combine soft and flexible base substrates with hard and sharp stainless steel microneedles. An elastomeric polymer base enables conformal contact between the microneedle patch and the complex topography and texture of the underlying skin, while robust and sharp stainless steel microneedles reliably pierce the outer layers of the skin. The flexible microneedle patches have been realized by magnetically assembling short stainless steel microneedles into a flexible polymer supporting base. In our experimental investigation, the microneedle patches were applied to human skin and an excellent adaptation of the patch to the wrinkles and deformations of the skin was verified, while at the same time the microneedles reliably penetrate the surface of the skin. The unobtrusive flexible and stretchable microneedle patches have great potential for transdermal biointerfacing in a variety of emerging applications such as transdermal drug delivery, bioelectric treatments and wearable bio-electronics for health and fitness monitoring.

  16. Self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser devices and nonideal electron beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed, at the SPARC test facility, a procedure for a real time self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (FEL device performance control. We describe an actual FEL, including electron and optical beam transport, through a set of analytical formulas, allowing a fast and reliable on-line “simulation” of the experiment. The system is designed in such a way that the characteristics of the transport elements and the laser intensity are measured and adjusted, via a real time computation, during the experimental run, to obtain an on-line feedback of the laser performances. The detail of the procedure and the relevant experimental results are discussed.

  17. Spontaneous and Selective Nanowelding of Silver Nanowires by Electrochemical Ostwald Ripening and High Electrostatic Potential at the Junctions for High-Performance Stretchable Transparent Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Ju; Oh, Semi; Cho, Ki-Yeop; Jeong, Woo-Lim; Lee, Dong-Seon; Park, Seong-Ju

    2018-04-25

    Metal nanowires have been gaining increasing attention as the most promising stretchable transparent electrodes for emerging field of stretchable optoelectronic devices. Nanowelding technology is a major challenge in the fabrication of metal nanowire networks because the optoelectronic performances of metal nanowire networks are mostly limited by the high junction resistance between nanowires. We demonstrate the spontaneous and selective welding of Ag nanowires (AgNWs) by Ag solders via an electrochemical Ostwald ripening process and high electrostatic potential at the junctions of AgNWs. The AgNWs were welded by depositing Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the conducting substrate and then exposing them to water at room temperature. The AgNPs were spontaneously dissolved in water to form Ag + ions, which were then reduced to single-crystal Ag solders selectively at the junctions of the AgNWs. Hence, the welded AgNWs showed higher optoelectronic and stretchable performance compared to that of as-formed AgNWs. These results indicate that electrochemical Ostwald ripening-based welding can be used as a promising method for high-performance metal nanowire electrodes in various next-generation devices such as stretchable solar cells, stretchable displays, organic light-emitting diodes, and skin sensors.

  18. Internet-Based Device-Assisted Remote Monitoring of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G; Ieraci, L; Kaulback, K

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) report was to conduct a systematic review of the available published evidence on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of Internet-based device-assisted remote monitoring systems (RMSs) for therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The MAS evidence-based review was performed to support public financing decisions. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of fatalities in developed countries. In the United States almost half a million people die of SCD annually, resulting in more deaths than stroke, lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. In Canada each year more than 40,000 people die from a cardiovascular related cause; approximately half of these deaths are attributable to SCD. Most cases of SCD occur in the general population typically in those without a known history of heart disease. Most SCDs are caused by cardiac arrhythmia, an abnormal heart rhythm caused by malfunctions of the heart’s electrical system. Up to half of patients with significant heart failure (HF) also have advanced conduction abnormalities. Cardiac arrhythmias are managed by a variety of drugs, ablative procedures, and therapeutic CIEDs. The range of CIEDs includes pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Bradycardia is the main indication for PMs and individuals at high risk for SCD are often treated by ICDs. Heart failure (HF) is also a significant health problem and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in those over 65 years of age. Patients with moderate to severe HF may also have cardiac arrhythmias, although the cause may be related more to heart pump or haemodynamic failure. The presence of HF, however

  19. Transparent and stretchable strain sensors based on metal nanowire microgrids for human motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ji Hwan; Ha, Sung-Hun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2018-04-01

    Optical transparency is increasingly considered as one of the most important characteristics required in advanced stretchable strain sensors for application in body-attachable systems. In this paper, we present an entirely solution-processed fabrication route to highly transparent and stretchable resistive strain sensors based on silver nanowire microgrids (AgNW-MGs). The AgNW-MG strain sensors are readily prepared by patterning the AgNWs on a stretchable substrate into a MG geometry via a mesh-template-assisted contact-transfer printing. The MG has a unique architecture comprising the AgNWs and can be stretched to ɛ = 35%, with high gauge factors of ˜6.9 for ɛ = 0%-30% and ˜41.1 for ɛ = 30%-35%. The sensor also shows a high optical transmittance of 77.1% ± 1.5% (at 550 nm) and stably maintains the remarkable optical performance even at high strains. In addition, the sensor responses are found to be highly reversible with negligible hysteresis and are reliable even under repetitive stretching-releasing cycles (1000 cycles at ɛ = 10%). The practicality of the AgNW-MG strain sensor is confirmed by successfully monitoring a wide range of human motions in real time after firmly laminating the device onto various body parts.

  20. Stretchable carbon nanotube/ion-gel supercapacitors with high durability realized through interfacial microroughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Kim, Wonbin; Kim, Woong

    2014-08-27

    A critical problem with stretchable supercapacitors developed to date has been evaporation of a volatile component of their electrolyte, causing failure. In this work, we demonstrated successful use of an ionic-liquid-based nonvolatile gel (ion-gel) electrolyte in carbon nanotube (CNT)-based stretchable supercapacitors. The CNT/ion-gel supercapacitors showed high capacitance retention (96.6%) over 3000 stretch cycles at 20% strain. The high durability against stretch cycles was achieved by introducing microroughness at the interfaces between different materials. The microroughness was produced by the simple process of imprinting the surface microstructure of office paper onto a poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrate; the surface texture is reproduced in successive current collector and CNT layers. Adhesion between the different layers was strengthened by this roughness and prevented delamination over repeated stretch cycles. The addition of a CNT layer decreased the sensitivity of electrical characteristics to stretching. Moreover, the ion-gel increases the operating voltage window (3 V) and hence the energy density. We believe our demonstration will greatly contribute to the development of flexible and/or stretchable energy-storage devices with high durability.

  1. The Effect of Electronic Devices Self-Efficacy, Electronic Devices Usage and Information Security Awareness on Identity-Theft Anxiety Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Identity-theft means stealing someone's personal information and using it without his or her permission. Each year, millions of Americans are becoming the victims of identity-theft, and this is one of the seriously growing and widespread issues in the U.S. This study examines the effect of electronic devices self-efficacy, electronic devices…

  2. Unconventional supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-25

    As energy storage devices, supercapacitors that are also called electrochemical capacitors possess high power density, excellent reversibility and long cycle life. The recent boom in electronic devices with different functions in transparent LED displays, stretchable electronic systems and artificial skin has increased the demand for supercapacitors to move towards light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with transparent, flexible, stretchable, compressible and/or wearable abilities. The successful fabrication of such supercapacitors depends mainly on the preparation of innovative electrode materials and the design of unconventional supercapacitor configurations. Tremendous research efforts have been recently made to design and construct innovative nanocarbon-based electrode materials and supercapacitors with unconventional configurations. We review here recent developments in supercapacitors from nanocarbon-based electrode materials to device configurations. The advances in nanocarbon-based electrode materials mainly include the assembly technologies of macroscopic nanostructured electrodes with different dimensions of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene, mesoporous carbon, activated carbon, and their composites. The electrodes with macroscopic nanostructured carbon-based materials overcome the issues of low conductivity, poor mechanical properties, and limited dimensions that are faced by conventional methods. The configurational design of advanced supercapacitor devices is presented with six types of unconventional supercapacitor devices: flexible, micro-, stretchable, compressible, transparent and fiber supercapacitors. Such supercapacitors display unique configurations and excellent electrochemical performance at different states such as bending, stretching, compressing and/or folding. For example, all-solid-state simplified supercapacitors that are based on nanostructured graphene composite paper are able to maintain 95% of the original capacity at

  3. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of... entitled Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof... the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet...

  4. 77 FR 31875 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2898] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices; Notice of... Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Imaging Devices, DN 2898; the Commission is...

  5. 77 FR 32995 - Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected: Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2898] Certain Electronic Imaging Devices Corrected.... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Electronic Imaging Devices, DN 2898; the...

  6. 78 FR 73563 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having... AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has issued (1) a limited exclusion order against infringing electronic devices...

  7. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review Initial Determination To Amend... electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos...

  8. 77 FR 49458 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Amendment of the Complaint and Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices.... 1337 in the importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics, by reason of the infringement of claims of six...

  9. 78 FR 23593 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-834] Certain Mobile Electronic Devices... the importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics that infringe certain claims of six Immersion patents. 77...

  10. Electronic device, system on chip ad method of monitoring data traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Therefore, an electronic device is provided which comprises a plurality of processing units (IP1-IP6), and a network-based interconnect (N) coupling the processing units (IP1-IP6) for enabling at least one first communication path (C) between the processing units (IP1-IP6). The electronic device

  11. Hardening device, by inserts, of electronic component against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, C.

    1987-01-01

    The hardening device includes at least two materials, one with high atomic number with respect to the other. One of these materials is set as inserts in a layer of the other material. The hardening device is then made by stacking of such layers, the insert density varying from one layer to the other, making thus vary the atomic number resulting from the hardening device along its thickness, following a predefined law [fr

  12. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  13. Device intended for measurement of induced trapped charge in insulating materials under electron irradiation in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkorissat, R; Benramdane, N; Jbara, O; Rondot, S; Hadjadj, A; Belhaj, M

    2013-01-01

    A device for simultaneously measuring two currents (i.e. leakage and displacement currents) induced in insulating materials under electron irradiation has been built. The device, suitably mounted on the sample holder of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), allows a wider investigation of charging and discharging phenomena that take place in any type of insulator during its electron irradiation and to determine accurately the corresponding time constants. The measurement of displacement current is based on the principle of the image charge due to the electrostatic influence phenomena. We are reporting the basic concept and test results of the device that we have built using, among others, the finite element method for its calibration. This last method takes into account the specimen chamber geometry, the geometry of the device and the physical properties of the sample. In order to show the possibilities of the designed device, various applications under different experimental conditions are explored. (paper)

  14. iPosture: The Size of Electronic Consumer Devices Affects our Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Maarten W.; Cuddy, Amy J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether incidental body posture, prompted by working on electronic devices of different sizes, affects power-related behaviors. Grounded in research showing that adopting expansive body postures increases psychological power, we hypothesized that working on larger devices, which forces people to physically expand, causes users to behave more assertively. Participants were randomly assigned to interact with one of four electronic devices that varied in size: an iPod Touch, an iPad,...

  15. A stretchable polymer-carbon nanotube composite electrode for flexible lithium-ion batteries: porosity engineering by controlled phase separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hojun; Yoo, Jung-Keun; Jung, Yeon Sik [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Hyun [Material R and D Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ho [Icheon Branch, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Icheon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kisuk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Flexible energy-storage devices have attracted growing attention with the fast development of bendable electronic systems. However, it still remains a challenge to find reliable electrode materials with both high mechanical flexibility/toughness and excellent electron and lithium-ion conductivity. This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of highly porous, stretchable, and conductive polymer nanocomposites embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for application in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The systematic optimization of the porous morphology is performed by controllably inducing the phase separation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and removing PMMA, in order to generate well-controlled pore networks. It is demonstrated that the porous CNT-embedded PDMS nanocomposites are capable of good electrochemical performance with mechanical flexibility, suggesting these nanocomposites could be outstanding anode candidates for use in flexible lithium-ion batteries. The optimization of the pore size and the volume fraction provides higher capacity by nearly seven-fold compared to a nonporous nanocomposite. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Recent progress on thin-film encapsulation technologies for organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Duan; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Zheng; Tao, Ye; Liu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Among the advanced electronic devices, flexible organic electronic devices with rapid development are the most promising technologies to customers and industries. Organic thin films accommodate low-cost fabrication and can exploit diverse molecules in inexpensive plastic light emitting diodes, plastic solar cells, and even plastic lasers. These properties may ultimately enable organic materials for practical applications in industry. However, the stability of organic electronic devices still remains a big challenge, because of the difficulty in fabricating commercial products with flexibility. These organic materials can be protected using substrates and barriers such as glass and metal; however, this results in a rigid device and does not satisfy the applications demanding flexible devices. Plastic substrates and transparent flexible encapsulation barriers are other possible alternatives; however, these offer little protection to oxygen and water, thus rapidly degrading the devices. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is most effective in preventing water vapor and oxygen permeation into the flexible devices. Because of these (and other) reasons, there has been an intense interest in developing transparent barrier materials with much lower permeabilities, and their market is expected to reach over 550 million by 2025. In this study, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices is reviewed. To increase the stability of devices in air, several TFE technologies were applied to provide efficient barrier performance. In this review, the degradation mechanism of organic electronic devices, permeation rate measurement, traditional encapsulation technologies, and TFE technologies are presented.

  17. Trend of Energy Saving in Electronic Devices for Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmayanti R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In electronic industry, energy saving is one of the performance indicators of competitiveness beside price, speed, bandwidth and reliability. This affects research and development (R&D activity in mechatronic systems which uses electronic components and electronic systems. A review of trend of electronic devices technology development has been conducted with focus on energy saving. This review includes electronic devices, semiconductor, and nanotechnology. It can be concluded that the trend in electronic devices is mainly dictated by semiconductor technology development. The trend can be concluded as smaller size, lower voltage leading to energy saving, less heat, higher speed, more reliable, and cheaper. In accordance to such technology development, R&D activities in mechatronics especially in Indonesia is being pushed to make proper alignment.Some of such alignment actions are surface mount technology (SMT for installing surface mount devices components (SMD, design layout and SMD troubleshooting tools as well as human resources training and development.

  18. Active resonance tuning of stretchable plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Active resonance tuning is highly desired for the applications of plasmonic structures, such as optical switches and surface enhanced Raman substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the active tunable plasmonic structures, which composed of monolayer arrays of metallic semishells with dielectric...... cores on stretchable elastic substrates. These composite structures support Bragg-type surface plasmon resonances whose frequencies are sensitive to the arrangement of the metallic semishells. Under uniaxial stretching, the lattice symmetry of these plasmonic structures can be reconfigured from...... applications of the stretch-tunable plasmonic structures in sensing, switching, and filtering....

  19. Semiconductor Quantum Electron Wave Transport, Diffraction, and Interference: Analysis, Device, and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gregory Newell

    Semiconductor device dimensions are rapidly approaching a fundamental limit where drift-diffusion equations and the depletion approximation are no longer valid. In this regime, quantum effects can dominate device response. To increase further device density and speed, new devices must be designed that use these phenomena to positive advantage. In addition, quantum effects provide opportunities for a new class of devices which can perform functions previously unattainable with "conventional" semiconductor devices. This thesis has described research in the analysis of electron wave effects in semiconductors and the development of methods for the design, fabrication, and characterization of quantum devices based on these effects. First, an exact set of quantitative analogies are presented which allow the use of well understood optical design and analysis tools for the development of electron wave semiconductor devices. Motivated by these analogies, methods are presented for modeling electron wave grating diffraction using both an exact rigorous coupled-wave analysis and approximate analyses which are useful for grating design. Example electron wave grating switch and multiplexer designs are presented. In analogy to thin-film optics, the design and analysis of electron wave Fabry-Perot interference filters are also discussed. An innovative technique has been developed for testing these (and other) electron wave structures using Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM). This technique uses a liquid-helium temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to perform spectroscopy of the electron transmittance as a function of electron energy. Experimental results show that BEEM can resolve even weak quantum effects, such as the reflectivity of a single interface between materials. Finally, methods are discussed for incorporating asymmetric electron wave Fabry-Perot filters into optoelectronic devices. Theoretical and experimental results show that such structures could

  20. Functional nanomaterials and devices for electronics, sensors and energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis; Kilchytska, Valeriya; Flandre, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This book contains reviews of recent experimental and theoretical results related to nanomaterials. It focuses on novel functional materials and nanostructures in combination with silicon on insulator (SOI) devices, as well as on the physics of new devices and sensors, nanostructured materials and nano scaled device characterization. Special attention is paid to fabrication and properties of modern low-power, high-performance, miniaturized, portable sensors in a wide range of applications such as telecommunications, radiation control, biomedical instrumentation and chemical analysis. In this book, new approaches exploiting nanotechnologies (such as UTBB FD SOI, Fin FETs, nanowires, graphene or carbon nanotubes on dielectric) to pave a way between “More Moore” and “More than Moore” are considered, in order to create different kinds of sensors and devices which will consume less electrical power, be more portable and totally compatible with modern microelectronics products.

  1. Opto-electronic devices from block copolymers and their oligomers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents research activities towards the development of polymer materials and devices for optoelectronics, An approach to controlling the conjugation length and transferring the luminescence properties of organic molecules to polymers through black copolymers containing well-defined

  2. "Green" electronics: biodegradable and biocompatible materials and devices for sustainable future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai

    2014-01-21

    "Green" electronics represents not only a novel scientific term but also an emerging area of research aimed at identifying compounds of natural origin and establishing economically efficient routes for the production of synthetic materials that have applicability in environmentally safe (biodegradable) and/or biocompatible devices. The ultimate goal of this research is to create paths for the production of human- and environmentally friendly electronics in general and the integration of such electronic circuits with living tissue in particular. Researching into the emerging class of "green" electronics may help fulfill not only the original promise of organic electronics that is to deliver low-cost and energy efficient materials and devices but also achieve unimaginable functionalities for electronics, for example benign integration into life and environment. This Review will highlight recent research advancements in this emerging group of materials and their integration in unconventional organic electronic devices.

  3. Printed Organic and Inorganic Electronics: Devices To Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-11-11

    Affordable and versatile printed electronics can play a critical role for large area applications, such as for displays, sensors, energy harvesting, and storage. Significant advances including commercialization in the general area of printed electronics have been based on organic molecular electronics. Still some fundamental challenges remain: thermal instability, modest charge transport characteristics, and limited lithographic resolution. In the last decade, one-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires, like carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires, followed by two-dimensional materials, like graphene and transitional dichalcogenide materials, have shown interesting promise as next-generation printed electronic materials. Challenges, such as non-uniformity in growth, limited scalability, and integration issues, need to be resolved for the viable application of these materials to technology. Recently, the concept of printed high-performance complementary metal\\\\text-oxide semiconductor electronics has also emerged and been proven successful for application to electronics. Here, we review progress in CMOS technology and applications, including challenges faced and opportunities revealed.

  4. 77 FR 68829 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... electronic digital media devices and components thereof imported by respondents Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey; and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of Richardson, Texas (collectively ``Samsung''), and cease and desist orders against...

  5. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... electronics and display devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics and...

  6. Smart home design for electronic devices monitoring based wireless gateway network using cisco packet tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Oloan; Zendrato, Niskarto; Laia, Yonata; Nababan, Marlince; Sitanggang, Delima; Purba, Windania; Batubara, Diarmansyah; Aisyah, Siti; Indra, Evta; Siregar, Saut

    2018-04-01

    In the era of technological development today, the technology has become the need for the life of today's society. One is needed to create a smart home in turning on and off electronic devices via smartphone. So far in turning off and turning the home electronic device is done by pressing the switch or remote button, so in control of electronic device control less effective. The home smart design is done by simulation concept by testing system, network configuration, and wireless home gateway computer network equipment required by a smart home network on cisco packet tracer using Internet Thing (IoT) control. In testing the IoT home network wireless network gateway system, multiple electronic devices can be controlled and monitored via smartphone based on predefined configuration conditions. With the Smart Ho me can potentially increase energy efficiency, decrease energy usage costs, control electronics and change the role of residents.

  7. Optimization of flexible substrate by gradient elastic modulus design for performance improvement of flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Liang, Chunping; Hu, Ruixue; Cheng, Zhaofang; Liu, Shiru; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative and highly desirable to buffer the stress in flexible electronic devices. In this study, we designed and fabricated lamellate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) samples with gradient elastic moduli, motivated by the protection of the pomelo pulp by its skin, followed by the measurements of their elastic moduli. We demonstrated that the electrical and fatigue performances of a Ag-nanowire thin film device on the PDMS substrate with a gradient elastic modulus are significantly better than those of a device on a substrate with a monolayer PDMS. This study provides a robust scheme to effectively protect flexible electronic devices.

  8. Stretchable Persistent Spin Helices in GaAs Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, Florian; Fu, Jiyong; Mack, Shawn; Weigele, Pirmin J.; Egues, J. Carlos; Awschalom, David D.; Zumbühl, Dominik M.

    2017-07-01

    The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO) interactions in 2D electron gases act as effective magnetic fields with momentum-dependent directions, which cause spin decay as the spins undergo arbitrary precessions about these randomly oriented SO fields due to momentum scattering. Theoretically and experimentally, it has been established that by fine-tuning the Rashba α and renormalized Dresselhaus β couplings to equal fixed strengths α =β , the total SO field becomes unidirectional, thus rendering the electron spins immune to decay due to momentum scattering. A robust persistent spin helix (PSH), i.e., a helical spin-density wave excitation with constant pitch P =2 π /Q , Q =4 m α /ℏ2, has already been experimentally realized at this singular point α =β , enhancing the spin lifetime by up to 2 orders of magnitude. Here, we employ the suppression of weak antilocalization as a sensitive detector for matched SO fields together with independent electrical control over the SO couplings via top gate voltage VT and back gate voltage VB to extract all SO couplings when combined with detailed numerical simulations. We demonstrate for the first time the gate control of the renormalized β and the continuous locking of the SO fields at α =β ; i.e., we are able to vary both α and β controllably and continuously with VT and VB, while keeping them locked at equal strengths. This makes possible a new concept: "stretchable PSHs," i.e., helical spin patterns with continuously variable pitches P over a wide parameter range. Stretching the PSH, i.e., gate controlling P while staying locked in the PSH regime, provides protection from spin decay at the symmetry point α =β , thus offering an important advantage over other methods. This protection is limited mainly by the cubic Dresselhaus term, which breaks the unidirectionality of the total SO field and causes spin decay at higher electron densities. We quantify the cubic term, and find it to be sufficiently weak so that

  9. Stretchable Persistent Spin Helices in GaAs Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dettwiler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit (SO interactions in 2D electron gases act as effective magnetic fields with momentum-dependent directions, which cause spin decay as the spins undergo arbitrary precessions about these randomly oriented SO fields due to momentum scattering. Theoretically and experimentally, it has been established that by fine-tuning the Rashba α and renormalized Dresselhaus β couplings to equal fixed strengths α=β, the total SO field becomes unidirectional, thus rendering the electron spins immune to decay due to momentum scattering. A robust persistent spin helix (PSH, i.e., a helical spin-density wave excitation with constant pitch P=2π/Q, Q=4mα/ℏ^{2}, has already been experimentally realized at this singular point α=β, enhancing the spin lifetime by up to 2 orders of magnitude. Here, we employ the suppression of weak antilocalization as a sensitive detector for matched SO fields together with independent electrical control over the SO couplings via top gate voltage V_{T} and back gate voltage V_{B} to extract all SO couplings when combined with detailed numerical simulations. We demonstrate for the first time the gate control of the renormalized β and the continuous locking of the SO fields at α=β; i.e., we are able to vary both α and β controllably and continuously with V_{T} and V_{B}, while keeping them locked at equal strengths. This makes possible a new concept: “stretchable PSHs,” i.e., helical spin patterns with continuously variable pitches P over a wide parameter range. Stretching the PSH, i.e., gate controlling P while staying locked in the PSH regime, provides protection from spin decay at the symmetry point α=β, thus offering an important advantage over other methods. This protection is limited mainly by the cubic Dresselhaus term, which breaks the unidirectionality of the total SO field and causes spin decay at higher electron densities. We quantify the cubic term, and find it to be

  10. Waterproof and stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator for biomechanical energy harvesting and self-powered sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexian; Miao, Liming; Guo, Hang; Chen, Haotian; Song, Yu; Su, Zongming; Zhang, Haixia

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a waterproof and stretchable triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that can be attached on the human body, such as fingers and the wrist, to harvest mechanical energy from body movement. The whole device is composed of stretchable material, making it able to endure diverse mechanical deformations and scavenge energy from them. Under gentle mechanical motions of pressing, stretching and bending, the device with an effective area of 1 × 2 cm2 can generate the peak-to-peak output current of 257.5 nA, 50.2 nA, and 33.5 nA, respectively. Besides, the TENG is tightly encapsulated, enabling it to avoid the influence of the external environment like humidity changes and harvest energy under water. Particularly, owing to the thin and soft properties of the encapsulation film, the device can respond to weak vibrations like the wrist pulse and act as a self-powered pulse sensor, which broadens its application prospects in the field of wearable energy harvesting devices and self-powered sensing systems.

  11. Current voltage perspective of an organic electronic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ayash K.; Kumari, Nikita

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinearity in current (I) - voltage (V) measurement is a well-known attribute of two-terminal organic device, irrespective of the geometrical or structural arrangement of the device. Most of the existing theories that are developed for interpretation of I-V data, either focus current-voltage relationship of charge injection mechanism across the electrode-organic material interface or charge transport mechanism through the organic active material. On the contrary, both the mechanisms work in tandem charge conduction through the device. The transport mechanism is further complicated by incoherent scattering from scattering centres/charge traps that are located at the electrode-organic material interface and in the bulk of organic material. In the present communication, a collective expression has been formulated that comprises of all the transport mechanisms that are occurring at various locations of a planar organic device. The model has been fitted to experimental I-V data of Au/P3HT/Au device with excellent degree of agreement. Certain physical parameters such as the effective area of cross-section and resistance due to charge traps have been extracted from the fit.

  12. Modern Electronic Devices: An Increasingly Common Cause of Skin Disorders in Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Minghetti, Sara; Bertoldi, Alberto Maria; Martina, Emanuela; Virgili, Annarosa; Borghi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    : The modern conveniences and enjoyment brought about by electronic devices bring with them some health concerns. In particular, personal electronic devices are responsible for rising cases of several skin disorders, including pressure, friction, contact dermatitis, and other physical dermatitis. The universal use of such devices, either for work or recreational purposes, will probably increase the occurrence of polymorphous skin manifestations over time. It is important for clinicians to consider electronics as potential sources of dermatological ailments, for proper patient management. We performed a literature review on skin disorders associated with the personal use of modern technology, including personal computers and laptops, personal computer accessories, mobile phones, tablets, video games, and consoles.

  13. Monitoring of Vital Signs with Flexible and Wearable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasser; Ostfeld, Aminy E; Lochner, Claire M; Pierre, Adrien; Arias, Ana C

    2016-06-01

    Advances in wireless technologies, low-power electronics, the internet of things, and in the domain of connected health are driving innovations in wearable medical devices at a tremendous pace. Wearable sensor systems composed of flexible and stretchable materials have the potential to better interface to the human skin, whereas silicon-based electronics are extremely efficient in sensor data processing and transmission. Therefore, flexible and stretchable sensors combined with low-power silicon-based electronics are a viable and efficient approach for medical monitoring. Flexible medical devices designed for monitoring human vital signs, such as body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, pulse oxygenation, and blood glucose have applications in both fitness monitoring and medical diagnostics. As a review of the latest development in flexible and wearable human vitals sensors, the essential components required for vitals sensors are outlined and discussed here, including the reported sensor systems, sensing mechanisms, sensor fabrication, power, and data processing requirements. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An electron cooling device in the one MeV energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busso, L.; Tecchio, L.; Tosello, F.

    1987-01-01

    The project of an electron cooling device at 700 KeV electron energy is reported. The single parts of the device is described in detail. Electron beam diagnostics and technical problems is discussed. The electron gun, the accelerating/decelerating column and the collector have been studied by menas of the Herrmannsfeldt's program and at present are under construction. The high voltage system and the electron cooling magnet are also under construction. Vacuum tests with both hot and cold cathodes have demonstrated that the vacuum requirements can be attained by the use of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps between gun, collector and the cooling region. Both kinds of diagnostic for longitudinal and transversal electron temperature measurements are in progress. A first prototype of the synchronous picj-up was successfully tested at CERN SPS. At present the diagnostic with laser beam is in preparation. During the next year the device will be assembled and the laboratory test will be started

  15. Aloe vera in active and passive regions of electronic devices towards a sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Sreenivasan, Sasidharan; Wong, Yew Hoong; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2017-07-01

    The increasing awareness towards sustainable development of electronics has driven the search for natural bio-organic materials in place of conventional electronic materials. The concept of using natural bio-organic materials in electronics provides not only an effective solution to address global electronic waste crisis, but also a compelling template for sustainable electronics manufacturing. This paper attempts to provide an overview of using Aloe vera gel as a natural bio-organic material for various electronic applications. Important concepts such as responses of living Aloe vera plant towards electrical stimuli and demonstrations of Aloe vera films as passive and active regions of electronic devices are highlighted in chronological order. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of Aloe vera can bring the world a step closer towards the ultimate goal of sustainable development of electronic devices from "all-natural" materials.

  16. Electronic properties of organic monolayers and molecular devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These devices exhibit a marked current–voltage rectification behavior due to resonant transport between the Si conduction band and the molecule highest occupied molecular orbital of the molecule. We discuss the role of metal Fermi level pinning in the current–voltage behavior of these molecular junctions. We also ...

  17. Authentication of Radio Frequency Identification Devices Using Electronic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappa Gounder Periaswamy, Senthilkumar

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are low-cost devices that are used to uniquely identify the objects to which they are attached. Due to the low cost and size that is driving the technology, a tag has limited computational capabilities and resources. This limitation makes the implementation of conventional security protocols to prevent…

  18. Electron transport in nano-scaled piezoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengping; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Tan, Yaohua; Newns, Dennis M.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Boykin, Timothy B.; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-05-01

    The Piezoelectronic Transistor (PET) has been proposed as a post-CMOS device for fast, low-power switching. In this device, the piezoresistive channel is metalized via the expansion of a relaxor piezoelectric element to turn the device on. The mixed-valence compound SmSe is a good choice of PET channel material because of its isostructural pressure-induced continuous metal insulator transition, which is well characterized in bulk single crystals. Prediction and optimization of the performance of a realistic, nano-scaled PET based on SmSe requires the understanding of quantum confinement, tunneling, and the effect of metal interface. In this work, a computationally efficient empirical tight binding (ETB) model is developed for SmSe to study quantum transport in these systems and the scaling limit of PET channel lengths. Modulation of the SmSe band gap under pressure is successfully captured by ETB, and ballistic conductance shows orders of magnitude change under hydrostatic strain, supporting operability of the PET device at nanoscale.

  19. Printed Organic and Inorganic Electronics: Devices To Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Affordable and versatile printed electronics can play a critical role for large area applications, such as for displays, sensors, energy harvesting, and storage. Significant advances including commercialization in the general area of printed

  20. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-02

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

  1. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Hu; Xu, Xuezhu; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly

  2. Humidity effects on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jun; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2012-01-01

    By applying nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigate the effect of humidity on the electronic transport properties in carbon based nanoscale device. The results show that different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier, which is a very important factor to affect the stability of electronic transport in the nanoscale system. A mechanism for the humidity effect is suggested. -- Highlights: ► Electronic transport in carbon based nanoscale device. ► Humidity affects the stability of electronic transport. ► Different humidity may form varied localized potential barrier.

  3. GaN nano-membrane for optoelectronic and electronic device applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2014-01-01

    The ~25nm thick threading dislocation free GaN nanomembrane was prepared using ultraviolet electroless chemical etching method offering the possibility of flexible integration of (Al,In,Ga)N optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  4. Recent progress in organic electronics and photonics: A perspective on the future of organic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The fields of organic electronics and photonics have witnessed remarkable advances over the past few years. This progress bodes well for the increased utilization of organic materials as the active layers in devices for applications as diverse

  5. Effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This literature review on the effect of electronic device use on pedestrian safety is part of a research project sponsored by the Office of Behavioral Safety Research in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). An extensive literat...

  6. Infective endocarditis and risk of death after cardiac implantable electronic device implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Cengiz; Raunsø, Jakob; Lamberts, Morten

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) following implantation of a first-time, permanent, cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED). METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish nationwide administrative registers (beginning in 1996), we identified all...

  7. System Testability Analysis for Complex Electronic Devices Based on Multisignal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, B; Tian, S L; Huang, J G

    2006-01-01

    It is necessary to consider the system testability problems for electronic devices during their early design phase because modern electronic devices become smaller and more compositive while their function and structure are more complex. Multisignal model, combining advantage of structure model and dependency model, is used to describe the fault dependency relationship for the complex electronic devices, and the main testability indexes (including optimal test program, fault detection rate, fault isolation rate, etc.) to evaluate testability and corresponding algorithms are given. The system testability analysis process is illustrated for USB-GPIB interface circuit with TEAMS toolbox. The experiment results show that the modelling method is simple, the computation speed is rapid and this method has important significance to improve diagnostic capability for complex electronic devices

  8. Automatic cross-sectioning and monitoring system locates defects in electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G.; Slaughter, B.

    1971-01-01

    System consists of motorized grinding and lapping apparatus, sample holder, and electronic control circuit. Low power microscope examines device to pinpoint location of circuit defect, and monitor displays output signal when defect is located exactly.

  9. Electronic health records and cardiac implantable electronic devices: new paradigms and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwiner, David J

    2016-10-01

    The anticipated advantages of electronic health records (EHRs)-improved efficiency and the ability to share information across the healthcare enterprise-have so far failed to materialize. There is growing recognition that interoperability holds the key to unlocking the greatest value of EHRs. Health information technology (HIT) systems including EHRs must be able to share data and be able to interpret the shared data. This requires a controlled vocabulary with explicit definitions (data elements) as well as protocols to communicate the context in which each data element is being used (syntactic structure). Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) provide a clear example of the challenges faced by clinicians when data is not interoperable. The proprietary data formats created by each CIED manufacturer, as well as the multiple sources of data generated by CIEDs (hospital, office, remote monitoring, acute care setting), make it challenging to aggregate even a single patient's data into an EHR. The Heart Rhythm Society and CIED manufacturers have collaborated to develop and implement international standard-based specifications for interoperability that provide an end-to-end solution, enabling structured data to be communicated from CIED to a report generation system, EHR, research database, referring physician, registry, patient portal, and beyond. EHR and other health information technology vendors have been slow to implement these tools, in large part, because there have been no financial incentives for them to do so. It is incumbent upon us, as clinicians, to insist that the tools of interoperability be a prerequisite for the purchase of any and all health information technology systems.

  10. Use of portable electronic devices in a hospital setting and their potential for bacterial colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Rao, Amitha; Reyes-Sacin, Carlos; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Szpunar, Susan; Riederer, Kathleen; Kaye, Keith; Fishbain, Joel T; Levine, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Portable electronic devices are increasingly being used in the hospital setting. As with other fomites, these devices represent a potential reservoir for the transmission of pathogens. We conducted a convenience sampling of devices in 2 large medical centers to identify bacterial colonization rates and potential risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Powered PiezoelectricBatteries to Supply Power to Wearable Electronic Devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jose' Luis; Rubio, Antonio; Moll, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Consumer electronic equipments are becoming small, portable devices that provide users with a wide range of functionality, from communication to music playing. The battery technology and the power consumption of the device limit the size, weight and autonomous lifetime. One promising alternative to batteries (and fuel cells, that must be refueled as well) is to use the parasitic energy dissipated in the movement of the wearer of the device to power it. We analyze in this work the current stat...

  12. A device for determination of the electrical potential of a rocket carrying an electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Musatov, L.S.; Shutte, N.M.; Beliashin, A.P.; Denstchikova, L.I.; Kopilov, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Data on the principle of operation, sensors and electronics of a device for determination of the electrical potential relative to the surrounding medium of a rocket carrying an electric gun are presented. The device operated successfully on board an Eridan rocket during the ARAKS experiment. (Auth.)

  13. A surface diffuse scattering model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices is studied on the basis of the results previously obtained, considering a surface diffuse scattering; the importance of the results obtained for a better understanding of the influence of the fringing field in surface charge coupled devices is discussed. (author)

  14. Silicon based nanogap device for investigating electronic transport through 12 nm long oligomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, S.; Albert, E.; Csaba, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated vertical nanogap electrode devices based on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates for investigating the electronic transport properties of long, conjugated molecular wires. Our nanogap electrode devices comprise smooth metallic contact pairs situated at the sidewall of an SOI s...

  15. 76 FR 79708 - Certain Portable Electronic Devices And Related Software; Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... present in the pdQ device. 6. Do the Accused iPhones meet the ``switching the mobile phone system from... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-721] Certain Portable Electronic Devices... into the United States, the sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation...

  16. Simultaneous specimen and stage cleaning device for analytical electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    1996-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus are provided for cleaning both a specimen stage, a specimen and an interior of an analytical electron microscope (AEM). The apparatus for cleaning a specimen stage and specimen comprising a plasma chamber for containing a gas plasma and an air lock coupled to the plasma chamber for permitting passage of the specimen stage and specimen into the plasma chamber and maintaining an airtight chamber. The specimen stage and specimen are subjected to a reactive plasma gas that is either DC or RF excited. The apparatus can be mounted on the analytical electron microscope (AEM) for cleaning the interior of the microscope.

  17. Electronic transport in disordered graphene antidot lattice devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of graphene is in part motivated by the requirement to open a gap in the electronic band structure. In particular, a periodically perforated graphene sheet in the form of an antidot lattice may have such a gap. Such systems have been investigated with a view towards application...

  18. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part III - Electronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolic, B.; Jovanovic, S.

    1961-12-01

    This report describes functioning of the reactor oscillator electronic system. Two methods of oscillator operation were discussed. The first method is so called method of amplitude modulation of the reactor power, and the second newer method is phase method. Both methods are planned for the present reactor oscillator

  19. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare, E-mail: amilazzo@ncmir.ucsd.edu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Moldovan, Grigore [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lanman, Jason [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Klienfelder, Stuart [University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H. [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kirkland, Angus I. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Xuong, Nguyen-Huu [University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  20. Characterization of a direct detection device imaging camera for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Moldovan, Grigore; Lanman, Jason; Jin, Liang; Bouwer, James C.; Klienfelder, Stuart; Peltier, Steven T.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kirkland, Angus I.; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu

    2010-01-01

    The complete characterization of a novel direct detection device (DDD) camera for transmission electron microscopy is reported, for the first time at primary electron energies of 120 and 200 keV. Unlike a standard charge coupled device (CCD) camera, this device does not require a scintillator. The DDD transfers signal up to 65 lines/mm providing the basis for a high-performance platform for a new generation of wide field-of-view high-resolution cameras. An image of a thin section of virus particles is presented to illustrate the substantially improved performance of this sensor over current indirectly coupled CCD cameras.

  1. Electronic device for automatic control of exposure in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendharkar, A.S.; Jayakumar, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    An electronic instrument for calculating and controlling exposure in radiography practice using radioisotopes is described. When using this equipment, only factor to be known is the dose required by the film for a given density and the thickness of material inspected. It eliminates all the problems arising out of various parameters such as source decay etc in the conventional procedure for calculating exposure time. Principle of operation, the electronic circuitry adopted and the functional aspects of the system are described in detail. Exposure doses for different industrial films have been related to the instrumental readouts. The system reproducibility and reliability have been evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the present system and the future development to overcome the problems are indicated. (author)

  2. Activating students' interest in lectures and practical courses using their electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijtmans, M.; van Rens, L.; van Muijlwijk- Koezen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive teaching with larger groups of students can be a challenge, but the use of mobile electronic devices by students (smartphones, tablets, laptops) can be used to improve classroom interaction. We have examined several types of tasks that can be electronically enacted in classes and

  3. 78 FR 16707 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2943] Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting... International Trade Commission (USITC): http://edis.usitc.gov . \\3\\ Electronic Document Information System (EDIS...; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  4. 78 FR 2437 - Corrected: Certain Cases For Portable Electronic Devices; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2927] Corrected: Certain Cases For Portable Electronic...: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Cases For Portable Electronic Devices...

  5. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2869] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting... Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Electronic...

  6. Thermal protection of electronic devices with the Nylon6/66-PEG nanofiber membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ya; Li Xue-Weis; He Ji-Huan; Wang Ping

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials for thermal energy storage have been widely applied to clothing insulation, electronic products of heat energy storage. The thermal storage potential of the nanofiber membranes was analyzed using the differential scanning calorimetry. Effect of microstructure of the membrane on energy storage was analyzed, and its applications to electronic devices were elucidated.

  7. 78 FR 56737 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an... on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov . Hearing-impaired persons are...

  8. 78 FR 49764 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review n... for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc...

  9. 78 FR 72712 - Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-885] Certain Portable Electronic Communications Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an... this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov...

  10. Exploring coherent transport through π-stacked systems for molecular electronic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qian; Solomon, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Understanding electron transport across π-stacked systems can help to elucidate the role of intermolecular tunneling in molecular junctions and potentially with the design of high-efficiency molecular devices. Here we show how conjugation length and substituent groups influence the electron trans...

  11. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.W.; Crewe, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations

  12. Electronics: Mott Transistor: Fundamental Studies and Device Operation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Harvard University Office for Sponsored Programs...including journal references , in the following categories: (b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 03/21/2016 03/21/2016 03...limited kinetics of electron doping in correlated oxides, Applied Physics Letters (07 2015) TOTAL: 1 Books Number of Manuscripts: Patents Submitted

  13. Latest progress in gallium-oxide electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Wong, Man Hoi; Konishi, Keita; Nakata, Yoshiaki; Lin, Chia-Hung; Kamimura, Takafumi; Ravikiran, Lingaparthi; Sasaki, Kohei; Goto, Ken; Takeyama, Akinori; Makino, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takeshi; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao

    2018-02-01

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) has emerged as a new competitor to SiC and GaN in the race toward next-generation power switching and harsh environment electronics by virtue of the excellent material properties and the relative ease of mass wafer production. In this proceedings paper, an overview of our recent development progress of Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and Schottky barrier diodes will be reported.

  14. An analysis of radiation effects on electronics and soi-mos devices as an alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikraiam, F. A.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of radiation on semiconductors and electronic components are analyzed. The performance of such circuitry depends upon the reliability of electronic devices where electronic components will be unavoidably exposed to radiation. This exposure can be detrimental or even fatal to the expected function of the devices. Single event effects (SEE), in particular, which lead to sudden device or system failure and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of electronic devices in such systems are discussed. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology is introduced as an alternative for radiation-hardened devices. I-V Characteristics Curves for SOI-MOS devices subjected to a different total radiation doses are illustrated. In addition, properties of some semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, and AlGaN/GaN are compared with those of SOI devices. The recognition of the potential usefulness of SOI-MOS semiconductor materials for harsh environments is discussed. A summary of radiation effects, impacts and mitigation techniques is also presented. (authors)

  15. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei

    2018-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  16. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David

    2011-02-08

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational techniques used to assess the morphology of organic: organic heterojunctions; we highlight the compromises that are necessary to handle large systems and multiple time scales while preserving the atomistic details required for subsequent computations of the electronic and optical properties. We then review some recent theoretical advances in describing the ground-state electronic structure at heterojunctions between donor and acceptor materials and highlight the role played by charge-transfer and long-range polarization effects. Finally, we discuss the modeling of the excited-state electronic structure at organic:organic interfaces, which is a key aspect in the understanding of the dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer processes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Plasma electron density measurement with multichannel microwave interferometer on the HL-1 tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Deming; Zhang Hongyin; Liu Zetian; Ding Xuantong; Li Qirui; Wen Yangxi

    1989-11-01

    A multichannel microwave interferometer which is composed of different microwave interferometers (one 2 mm band, one 4 mm band and two 8 mm band) has been used to measure the plasma electron density on HL-1 tokamak device. The electron density approaching to 5 x 10 13 cm -3 is measured by a 2 mm band microwave interferometer. In the determinable range, the electron density profile in the cross-section on HL-1 device has been measured by this interferometer. A microcomputer data processing system is also developed

  18. Electronic spectrum of a deterministic single-donor device in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuechsle, Martin; Miwa, Jill A.; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a single-electron transistor (SET) based on an individual phosphorus dopant that is deterministically positioned between the dopant-based electrodes of a transport device in silicon. Electronic characterization at mK-temperatures reveals a charging energy that is very similar to the value expected for isolated P donors in a bulk Si environment. Furthermore, we find indications for bulk-like one-electron excited states in the co-tunneling spectrum of the device, in sharp contrast to previous reports on transport through single dopants

  19. The use of electronic devices for communication with colleagues and other healthcare professionals - nursing professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivunen, Marita; Niemi, Anne; Hupli, Maija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to describe nursing professionals' experiences of the use of electronic devices for communication with colleagues and other healthcare professionals. Information and communication technology applications in health care are rapidly expanding, thanks to the fast-growing penetration of the Internet and mobile technology. Communication between professionals in health care is essential for patient safety and quality of care. Implementing new methods for communication among healthcare professionals is important. A cross-sectional survey was used in the study. The data were collected in spring 2012 using an electronic questionnaire with structured and open-ended questions. The target group comprised the nursing professionals (N = 567, n = 123) in one healthcare district who worked in outpatient clinics in publically funded health care in Finland. Nursing professionals use different electronic devices for communication with each other. The most often used method was email, while the least used methods were question-answer programmes and synchronous communication channels on the Internet. Communication using electronic devices was used for practical nursing, improving personnel competences, organizing daily operations and administrative tasks. Electronic devices may speed up the management of patient data, improve staff cooperation and competence and make more effective use of working time. The obstacles were concern about information security, lack of technical skills, unworkable technology and decreasing social interaction. According to our findings, despite the obstacles related to use of information technology, the use of electronic devices to support communication among healthcare professionals appears to be useful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Design and Testing of Electronic Devices for Harsh Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Nico, Costantino

    This thesis reports an overview and the main results of the research activity carried out within the PhD programme in Information Engineering of the University of Pisa (2010-2012). The research activity has been focused on different fields, including Automotive and High Energy Physics experiments, according to a common denominator: the development of electroni c devices and systems operating in harsh environments. There are many applications that forc e the adoption of design methodologies and strategies focused on this type of envir onments: military, biom edical, automotive, industrial and space. The development of solutions fulfilling specific operational requirements, therefore represents an interesting field of research. The first research activity has been framed within the ATHENIS project, funded by the CORDIS Commission of the European Community, and aiming at the development of a System-on-Chip, a r egulator for alternators employed on vehicles, presenting both configurability an d t...

  1. Nanoporous metal film: An energy-dependent transmission device for electron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grech, S.; Degiovanni, A.; Lapena, L.; Morin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We measure electron transmission through free-standing ultrathin nanoporous gold films, using the coherent electron beam emitted by sharp field emission tips in a low energy electron projection microscope setup. Transmission coefficient versus electron wavelength plots show periodic oscillations between 75 and 850 eV. These oscillations result from the energy dependence of interference between paths through the gold and paths through the nanometer-sized pores of the film. We reveal that these films constitute high transmittance quantum devices acting on electron waves through a wavelength-dependent complex transmittance defined by the porosity and the thickness of the film.

  2. Symmetric low-voltage powering system for relativistic electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Lebedev, A.N.; Krastelev, E.G.

    2005-01-01

    A special driver for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons and several methods of localized electron flow forming in the interaction region of relativistic magnetrons are proposed and discussed. Two experimental installations are presented and discussed. One of them is designed for laboratory research and demonstration experiments at a rather low voltage. The other one is a prototype of a full-scale installation for an experimental research at relativistic levels of voltages on the microwave generation in the new integrated system consisting of a relativistic magnetron and symmetrical induction driver

  3. Integrated electronic device for processing impulses from neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Mihai; Pirvu, Ion

    2009-01-01

    The developing of nuclear power is a key factor in decreasing energy Romania's dependence on imports of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas). An important point in achieving this goal is to use the experience acquired in the design and use of the equipment produced with the participation of INR specialists for Cernavoda NPP, Units 1 and 2. The design based on Surface Mount Technology (SMT) and the implementation of electronic interface modules of computer processing and detectors of radiation or nuclear particles contribute both to modernize and increase the performance of equipment. (authors)

  4. Interfacial and Thin Film Chemistry in Electron Device Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Chemistry During Electronic Processing" by Professor Richard Osgood, Jr.; "In Situ Optical Diagnostics of Semiconductors Prepared by Laser Chemical Processing...N(Igde Area Code) 22c OFF ft SYMBO. Professors Georee Flynn and Richard Os~ood I MSL DD Form 1473, JUN 86 Previous edotions are obsolete SECURITY...and D. L. Smith, Phys.I Rev. Lett. 62, 649 (1989). 19. E. A. Caridi, T. Y. Chang, K. W. Goossen and L. F. Eastman, AOLi Phvs. Tett. 56, 659 (1990). 1

  5. Fiber-based wearable electronics: a review of materials, fabrication, devices, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Shu, Lin; Li, Qiao; Chen, Song; Wang, Fei; Tao, Xiao-Ming

    2014-08-20

    Fiber-based structures are highly desirable for wearable electronics that are expected to be light-weight, long-lasting, flexible, and conformable. Many fibrous structures have been manufactured by well-established lost-effective textile processing technologies, normally at ambient conditions. The advancement of nanotechnology has made it feasible to build electronic devices directly on the surface or inside of single fibers, which have typical thickness of several to tens microns. However, imparting electronic functions to porous, highly deformable and three-dimensional fiber assemblies and maintaining them during wear represent great challenges from both views of fundamental understanding and practical implementation. This article attempts to critically review the current state-of-arts with respect to materials, fabrication techniques, and structural design of devices as well as applications of the fiber-based wearable electronic products. In addition, this review elaborates the performance requirements of the fiber-based wearable electronic products, especially regarding the correlation among materials, fiber/textile structures and electronic as well as mechanical functionalities of fiber-based electronic devices. Finally, discussions will be presented regarding to limitations of current materials, fabrication techniques, devices concerning manufacturability and performance as well as scientific understanding that must be improved prior to their wide adoption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ballistic electron emission spectroscopy on Ag/Si devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannani, A; Bobisch, C A; Matena, M; Moeller, R [Department of Physics, Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)], E-mail: amin.bannani@uni-due.de

    2008-09-17

    In this work we report on ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES) studies on epitaxial layers of silver grown on silicon surfaces, with either a Si(111)-(7 x 7) or Si(100)-(2 x 1) surface reconstruction. The experiments were done at low temperature and in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). In addition, BEES measurements on polycrystalline Ag films grown on hydrogen-terminated H:Si(111)-(1 x 1) and H:Si(100)-(2 x 1) surfaces were performed. The Schottky barrier heights were evaluated by BEES. The results are compared to the values for the barrier height reported for macroscopic Schottky diodes. We show that the barrier heights for the epitaxial films substantially differ from the values measured on polycrystalline Ag films, suggesting a strong effect of the interface on the barrier height.

  7. PROTEOTRONICS: The emerging science of protein-based electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Pousset, Jeremy; Reggiani, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Protein-mediated charge transport is of relevant importance in the design of protein based electronics and in attaining an adequate level of understanding of protein functioning. This is particularly true for the case of transmembrane proteins, like those pertaining to the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins are involved in a broad range of biological processes like catalysis, substance transport, etc., thus being the target of a large number of clinically used drugs. This paper briefly reviews a variety of experiments devoted to investigate charge transport in proteins and present a unified theoretical model able to relate macroscopic experimental results with the conformations of the amino acids backbone of the single protein. (paper)

  8. Recent Progress of Textile-Based Wearable Electronics: A Comprehensive Review of Materials, Devices, and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jae Sang; Eom, Jimi; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu

    2018-01-01

    Wearable electronics are emerging as a platform for next-generation, human-friendly, electronic devices. A new class of devices with various functionality and amenability for the human body is essential. These new conceptual devices are likely to be a set of various functional devices such as displays, sensors, batteries, etc., which have quite different working conditions, on or in the human body. In these aspects, electronic textiles seem to be a highly suitable possibility, due to the unique characteristics of textiles such as being light weight and flexible and their inherent warmth and the property to conform. Therefore, e-textiles have evolved into fiber-based electronic apparel or body attachable types in order to foster significant industrialization of the key components with adaptable formats. Although the advances are noteworthy, their electrical performance and device features are still unsatisfactory for consumer level e-textile systems. To solve these issues, innovative structural and material designs, and novel processing technologies have been introduced into e-textile systems. Recently reported and significantly developed functional materials and devices are summarized, including their enhanced optoelectrical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, the remaining challenges are discussed, and effective strategies to facilitate the full realization of e-textile systems are suggested. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Soft electronics for soft robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca K.

    2015-05-01

    As advanced as modern machines are, the building blocks have changed little since the industrial revolution, leading to rigid, bulky, and complex devices. Future machines will include electromechanical systems that are soft and elastically deformable, lending them to applications such as soft robotics, wearable/implantable devices, sensory skins, and energy storage and transport systems. One key step toward the realization of soft systems is the development of stretchable electronics that remain functional even when subject to high strains. Liquid-metal traces embedded in elastic polymers present a unique opportunity to retain the function of rigid metal conductors while leveraging the deformable properties of liquid-elastomer composites. However, in order to achieve the potential benefits of liquid-metal, scalable processing and manufacturing methods must be identified.

  10. Impact of stand-by energy losses in electronic devices on smart network performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Lukić Jasmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy resources and environmental concerns due to ever increasing energy consumption, more and more emphasis is being put on energy savings. Smart networks are promoted worldwide as a powerful tool used to improve the energy efficiency through consumption management, as well as to enable the distributed power generation, primarily based on renewable energy sources, to be optimally explored. To make it possible for the smart networks to function, a large number of electronic devices is needed to operate or to be in their stand-by mode. The consumption of these devices is added to the consumption of many other electronic devices already in use in households and offices, thus giving rise to the overall power consumption and threatening to counteract the primary function of smart networks. This paper addresses the consumption of particular electronic devices, with an emphasis placed on their thermal losses when in stand-by mode and their total share in the overall power consumption in certain countries. The thermal losses of electronic devices in their stand-by mode are usually neglected, but it seems theoretically possible that a massive increase in their number can impact net performance of the future smart networks considerably so that above an optimum level of energy savings achieved by their penetration, total consumption begins to increase. Based on the current stand-by energy losses from the existing electronic devices, we propose that the future penetration of smart networks be optimized taking also into account losses from their own electronic devices, required to operate in stand-by mode.

  11. Rational design of metal-organic electronic devices: A computational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar

    Organic and organometallic electronic materials continue to attract considerable attention among researchers due to their cost effectiveness, high flexibility, low temperature processing conditions and the continuous emergence of new semiconducting materials with tailored electronic properties. In addition, organic semiconductors can be used in a variety of important technological devices such as solar cells, field-effect transistors (FETs), flash memory, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes (LEDs), etc. However, organic materials have thus far not achieved the reliability and carrier mobility obtainable with inorganic silicon-based devices. Hence, there is a need for finding alternative electronic materials other than organic semiconductors to overcome the problems of inferior stability and performance. In this dissertation, I research the development of new transition metal based electronic materials which due to the presence of metal-metal, metal-pi, and pi-pi interactions may give rise to superior electronic and chemical properties versus their organic counterparts. Specifically, I performed computational modeling studies on platinum based charge transfer complexes and d 10 cyclo-[M(mu-L)]3 trimers (M = Ag, Au and L = monoanionic bidentate bridging (C/N~C/N) ligand). The research done is aimed to guide experimental chemists to make rational choices of metals, ligands, substituents in synthesizing novel organometallic electronic materials. Furthermore, the calculations presented here propose novel ways to tune the geometric, electronic, spectroscopic, and conduction properties in semiconducting materials. In addition to novel material development, electronic device performance can be improved by making a judicious choice of device components. I have studied the interfaces of a p-type metal-organic semiconductor viz cyclo-[Au(mu-Pz)] 3 trimer with metal electrodes at atomic and surface levels. This work was aimed to guide the device

  12. Transmission electron microscopy of InP-based compound semiconductor materials and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.N.G.

    1990-01-01

    InP/InGaAsP-based heteroepitaxial structures constitute the major optoelectronic devices for state-of-the-art long wavelength optical fiber communication system.s Future advanced device structures will require thin heteroepitaxial quantum wells and superlattices a few tens of angstrom or less in thickness, and lateral dimensions ranging from a few tens angstrom for quantum dots and wires to a few μm in width for buried heterostructure lasers. Due to the increasing complexity of the device structure required by band-gap engineering, the performance of these devices becomes susceptible to any lattice imperfections present in the structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), therefore, becomes the most important technique in characterizing the structural integrity of these materials. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) not only provides the necessary geometric information on the device structure; a careful study of the materials science behind the observed lattice imperfections provides directions for optimization of both the epitaxial growth parameters and device processing conditions. Furthermore, for device reliability studies, TEM is the only technique that unambiguously identifies the cause of device degradation. In this paper, the authors discuss areas of application of various TEM techniques, describe the TEM sample preparation technique, and review case studies to demonstrate the power of the TEM technique

  13. Electronic adherence monitoring device performance and patient acceptability: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Amy Hai Yan; Stewart, Alistair William; Harrison, Jeff; Black, Peter Nigel; Mitchell, Edwin Arthur; Foster, Juliet Michelle

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the performance and patient acceptability of an inhaler electronic monitoring device in a real-world childhood asthma population. Children 6 to 15 years presenting with asthma to the hospital emergency department and prescribed inhaled corticosteroids were included. Participants were randomized to receive a device with reminder features enabled or disabled for use with their preventer. Device quality control tests were conducted. Questionnaires on device acceptability, utility and ergonomics were completed at six months. A total of 1306 quality control tests were conducted; 84% passed pre-issue and 87% return testing. The most common failure reason was actuation under-recording. Acceptability scores were high, with higher scores in the reminder than non-reminder group (median, 5 th -95 th percentile: 4.1, 3.1-5.0 versus 3.7, 2.3-4.8; p 90%) rated the device easy to use. Feedback was positive across five themes: device acceptability, ringtone acceptability, suggestions for improvement, effect on medication use, and effect on asthma control. This study investigates electronic monitoring device performance and acceptability in children using quantitative and qualitative measures. Results indicate satisfactory reliability, although failure rates of 13-16% indicate the importance of quality control. Favorable acceptability ratings support the use of these devices in children.

  14. Methods for fabrication of flexible hybrid electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mei, Ping; Krusor, Brent; Ready, Steve E.; Zhang, Yong; Schwartz, David E.; Pierre, Adrien; Doris, Sean E.; Russo, Beverly; Kor, Siv; Veres, Janos

    2017-08-01

    Printed and flexible hybrid electronics is an emerging technology with potential applications in smart labels, wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics. Printed solution-based materials are compatible with plastic film substrates that are flexible, soft, and stretchable, thus enabling conformal integration with non-planar objects. In addition, manufacturing by printing is scalable to large areas and is amenable to low-cost sheet-fed and roll-to-roll processes. FHE includes display and sensory components to interface with users and environments. On the system level, devices also require electronic circuits for power, memory, signal conditioning, and communications. Those electronic components can be integrated onto a flexible substrate by either assembly or printing. PARC has developed systems and processes for realizing both approaches. This talk presents fabrication methods with an emphasis on techniques recently developed for the assembly of off-the-shelf chips. A few examples of systems fabricated with this approach are also described.

  15. Ignitor electrode system design for the pulses electron irradiators device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lely Susita RM; Ihwanul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The designed ignitor electrode system is a system used to initiate the plasma discharge. It consists of two pieces which are placed on both side of the plasma vessel. Each of the ignitor electrode system consists of a cathode, an anode and insulator between the cathode and the anode. The best cathode material for ignitor electrode system is Mg due to its lowest ion erosion rate (γi =11.7 μg/C) and its low cohesive energy (1.51 eV). The specifications of ignitor electrode system designed for the pulse electron irradiators is as follow: Mg cathode materials in the form of rod having a diameter of 6.35 mm and length of 76.75 mm. Anode material are made of non magnetic of SS 304 cylinder shaped with an outer diameter of 88.53 mm, an inner diameter of 81.53 mm and a thickness of 3.50 mm. Insulating material between the cathode and the anode is made of teflon cylinder shaped, outer diameter of 9.50 mm, an inner diameter of 6.35 mm and a length of 30 mm. Based on the ignitor electrode system design, the next step is construction and function test of the ignitor electrode system. (author)

  16. An electroluminescence device for printable electronics using coprecipitated ZnS:Mn nanocrystal ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, T; Hama, T; Adachi, D; Nakashizu, Y; Okamoto, H

    2009-01-01

    Electroluminescence (EL) devices for printable electronics using coprecipitated ZnS:Mn nanocrystal (NC) ink are demonstrated. The EL properties of these devices were investigated along with the structural and optical properties of ZnS:Mn NCs with an emphasis on their dependence on crystal size. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies revealed that the NCs, with a crystal size of 3-4 nm, are nearly monodisperse; the crystal size can be controlled by the Zn 2+ concentration in the starting solution for coprecipitation. The results of optical studies indicate the presence of quantum confinement effects; in addition, the NC surfaces are well passivated, regardless of the crystal size. Finally, an increase in the luminance of EL devices with a decrease in crystal size is observed, which suggests the excitation mechanism of ZnS:Mn NC EL devices.

  17. Personalized Remote Monitoring of the Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Electronic Implant Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce B. Laleci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED are gaining popularity in treating patients with heart disease. Remote monitoring through care management systems enables continuous surveillance of such patients by checking device functions and clinical events. These care management systems include decision support capabilities based on clinical guidelines. Data input to such systems are from different information sources including medical devices and Electronic Health Records (EHRs. Although evidence-based clinical guidelines provides numerous benefits such as standardized care, reduced costs, efficient and effective care management, they are currently underutilized in clinical practice due to interoperability problems among different healthcare data sources. In this paper, we introduce the iCARDEA care management system for atrial fibrillation patients with implant devices and describe how the iCARDEA care plan engine executes the clinical guidelines by seamlessly accessing the EHR systems and the CIED data through standard interfaces.

  18. Off-axis electron holography for the measurement of active dopants in silicon semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a need in the semiconductor industry for a dopant profiling technique with nm-scale resolution. Here we demonstrate that off-axis electron holography can be used to provide maps of the electrostatic potential in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. In this paper we will discuss issues regarding the spatial resolution and precision of the technique. Then we will discuss problems with specimen preparation and how this affects the accuracy of the measurements of the potentials. Finally we show results from experimental off-axis electron holography applied to nMOS and pMOS CMOS devices grown on bulk silicon and silicon- on-insulator type devices and present solutions to common problems that are encountered when examining these types of devices. (paper)

  19. Medical device integration: CIOs must bridge the digital divide between devices and electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2009-02-01

    To get funding approved for medical device integration, ClOs suggest focusing on specific patient safety or staff efficiency pain points. Organizations that make clinical engineering part of their IT team report fewer chain-of-command issues. It also helps IT people understand the clinical goals because the engineering people have been working closely with clinicians for years. A new organization has formed to work on collaboration between clinical engineers and IT professionals. For more information, go to www.ceitcollaboration.org. ECRI Institute has written a guide to handling the convergence of medical technology and hospital networks. Its "Medical Technology for the IT Professional: An Essential Guide for Working in Today's Healthcare Setting" also details how IT professionals can assist hospital technology planning and acquisition, and provide ongoing support for IT-based medical technologies. For more information, visit www.ecri.org/ITresource.

  20. The impact of an electronic monitoring and reminder device on patient compliance with antihypertensive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Arne; Christrup, Lona Louring; Fabricius, Paul Erik

    2010-01-01

    . In the first half of the study, patients using the device reported 91% compliance versus 85% in the control group. This difference diminished after crossover (88 versus 86%). BP was not affected. Electronic monitoring data on compliance revealed taking, dosing and timing compliance between 45 and 52% in study...... to be effective in improving patient compliance to some extent, but the combined effect has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an electronic reminder and monitoring device on patient compliance and BP control. METHODS: All patients received medical treatment with telmisartan once daily...... and were randomized to either electronic compliance monitoring with a reminder and monitoring device or standard therapy for 6 months. Both groups were crossed over after 6 months. Intervention effectiveness was assessed using self-reported compliance and BP. RESULTS: Data from 398 patients were analysed...