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Sample records for stress-induced subclinical reactivation

  1. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins and anxiety, depression and stress-induced cortisol response in adolescents. The TRAILS study.

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    François, Marie; Schaefer, Johanna M; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Déchelotte, Pierre; Verhulst, Frank C; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-06-03

    Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, has been implicated in the regulation of stress-response, anxiety and depression. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) were recently identified in healthy and obese humans showing abilities to increase ghrelin's stability and orexigenic effects. Here we studied if ghrelin-reactive Ig are associated with anxiety and depression and with the stress-induced cortisol response in a general population of adolescents. Furthermore, to test the possible infectious origin of ghrelin-reactive Ig, their levels were compared with serum IgG against common viruses. We measured ghrelin-reactive IgM, IgG and IgA in serum samples of 1199 adolescents from the Dutch TRAILS study and tested their associations with 1) anxiety and depression symptoms assessed with the Youth Self-Report, 2) stress-induced salivary cortisol levels and 3) IgG against human herpesvirus 1, 2, 4 and 6 and Influenza A and B viruses. Ghrelin-reactive IgM and IgG correlated positively with levels of antibodies against Influenza A virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated negatively with antibodies against Influenza B virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated positively with anxiety scores in girls and ghrelin-reactive IgG correlated with stress-induced cortisol secretion, but these associations were weak and not significant after correction for multiple testing. These data indicate that production of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies could be influenced by viral infections. Serum levels of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies probably do not play a role in regulating anxiety, depression and the stress-response in adolescents from the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Boosting recovery rather than buffering reactivity: Higher stress-induced oxytocin secretion is associated with increased cortisol reactivity and faster vagal recovery after acute psychosocial stress.

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    Engert, Veronika; Koester, Anna M; Riepenhausen, Antje; Singer, Tania

    2016-12-01

    Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience. On average, oxytocin levels increased by 51% following psychosocial stress. The stress-induced oxytocin secretion, however, did not reduce stress reactivity. To the contrary, higher oxytocin secretion was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and peak cortisol levels in both sexes. In the second phase of the stress response the opposite pattern was observed, with higher oxytocin secretion associated with faster vagal recovery. We suggest that after an early stage of oxytocin and HPA-axis co-activation, the stress-reducing action of oxytocin unfolds. Due to the time lag it manifests as a recovery-boosting rather than a reactivity-buffering effect. By reinforcing parasympathetic autonomic activity, specifically during stress recovery, oxytocin may provide an important protective function against the health-compromising effects of sustained stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  4. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

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    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  5. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  6. Assessing Stress-Induced Sleep Reactivity in College Students: The European Portuguese Version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Daniel Ruivo; Allen Gomes, Ana; Drake, Christopher Lawrence; Roth, Thomas; de Azevedo, Maria Helena Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, the comprehensive models of insomnia have exhibited impressive developments. However, there is scarce knowledge on predisposing or vulnerability factors for insomnia. One of the most promising constructs to aid in filling this gap is stress-induced sleep reactivity assessed through self-report. Our aim was to study the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST).

  7. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

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    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  8. [The role of stress-induced chronic subclinical inflammation in the pathogenesis of the chronic pelvic pain syndrome IIIB in men].

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    Shormanov, I S; Mozhaev, I I; Sokolova, Kh A; Solovev, A S

    2017-12-01

    This literature review of recent clinical and experimental studies describes the role of oxidative stress in the multifactorial and interdisciplinary pathogenesis of non-inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome IIIB (CPPS-IIIB) in men. The authors outline general biological nature of oxidative stress and its mechanisms. More detailed information is presented on cytokine-mediated chronic subclinical inflammation, one of the key mechanisms of oxidative stress, which is currently being actively studied. It is shown that the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines observed in patients with CPPS-IIIB can explain some features of the clinical course (in particular, the characteristics of the pain syndrome) and the progression of this disease. In this regard, cytokine profiling of prostatic secretion can provide valuable diagnostic, prognostic and monitoring information in the management of this category of patients. Recently published evidence has demonstrated the essential role of the cytokine-mediated chronic inflammatory response as a mechanism of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of CPPS-IIIB. Further studies in this area are warranted and in the long term may become a basis for the development of new effective pathogenetic pharmacotherapy of CPPS-IIIB.

  9. Comparison of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A levels before and after treatment for subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

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    Bilgir, Oktay; Bilgir, Ferda; Topcuoglu, Tuba; Calan, Mehmet; Calan, Ozlem

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to show the effect of propylthiouracil treatment on sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels on subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism. After checking sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels of 35 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism, each was given 50 mg tablets of propylthiouracil three times daily. After 3 months, sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels were then compared to the levels before treatment. Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and sCD40L levels were normal in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared to the healthy controls, fetuin-A levels were statistically significantly higher (*p = 0.022). After treatment, fetuin-A levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism patients decreased statistically significantly compared to the levels before treatment (**p = 0.026). sCD40L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels did not have a statistically significant difference compared to the control group and post-propylthiouracil treatment. In subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, high fetuin-A levels before propylthiouracil treatment and decreases in these levels after treatment in cases with subclinical hyperthyroidism indicated the possibility of preventing long-term cardiac complications with propylthiouracil treatment.

  10. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients

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    Uma Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16, Pearson correlation, and paired t-test. Results: Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Conclusion: Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  11. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Uma; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Jeyapal, Bhagyameena; Jagadeesh, Sushuruthi; Jayakumar, Parvathee

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I) and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II) and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16), Pearson correlation, and paired t -test. Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  12. Comparison of pre- and post-levothyroxine high-sensitivity c-reactive protein and fetuin-a levels in subclinical hypothyroidism

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    Oktay Bilgir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this trial was to determine the levels of inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A pre- and post-levothyroxine treatment in cases of subclinical hypothyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 32 patients with a diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism and a control group of 30 healthy individuals were tested for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A, followed by the administration of 50 µg of levothyroxine in the patient group for 3 months. During the post-treatment stage, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A levels in the patient group were re-assessed and compared with pre-treatment values. RESULTS: Pre-treatment levels of both high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A were observed to be higher in the patient group than in the control group. The decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels during the post-treatment stage was not statistically significant. However, the decrease observed in post-treatment fetuin-A levels was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The decrease in fetuin-A levels in subclinical hypothyroidism cases indicates that levothyroxine treatment exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Although the decrease in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels was statistically non-significant, it is predicted to reach significance with sustained treatment.

  13. Subclinical Hypothyroid

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    Mohammad Reza Kalantar Hormozi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: subclnical hypothyroid (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a midly Elevated TSH, is common in adults. Subclinical hypothyroid is a risk factor for developing hypothyroidism complication . the goal of screening is to identify and treatment patients with sublinical hypothyroid before they develop these complication. Methods: The sample size of this study was the articles indexed in pubmed,ovid, tripdatabase, new spring link black coehrane, Elsevirer, Embase and contained the terms subclinical hypothyroid, Anti-tpo, Thyrotropin, levothyroxine trapy. Results: 831 articles were found that 75 articles were investigated for this issue. The results are discussed under. The subtile such as subclinical hypothyroid, screening for subclinical hypothyroid, Indication of treatment of Subclinical hypothyroid. Conclusion: In this summary, we tried to review the current literature about definition, Indection of screening and treatment of subclinical hypothyroid and reach a comprehensive guidline for practical significance of this subject in routines practice.

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated...... with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. METHODS: First, 90...... follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...

  15. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

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    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease. Spaceflight presents a uniquely stressful environment which includes physical isolation and

  16. [Subclinical hyperthyroidism].

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    Feldkamp, J

    2013-10-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as abnormal low TSH level with thyroid hormones within their reference range. This laboratory condition may be symptomatic in a relevant number of patients leading to tachycardia, sweating, nervousness, anxiety and insomnia. The risk for cardiovascular disease is increased with more frequent atrial fibrillation and increased left ventricular mass including diastolic dysfunction. Cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality surmounts the average of the normal population. Longterm TSH suppression leads to decreased bone mineral density and an increased fracture rate in the hip and in the spine. After evaluation of underlying causes, therapy should be considered, especially if TSH levels are below 0.1 mIU/l. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Personality traits in rats predict vulnerability and resilience to developing stress-induced depression-like behaviors, HPA axis hyper-reactivity and brain changes in pERK1/2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Jorge E; Diessler, Shanaz; Varea, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that certain behavioral traits, such as anxiety, are associated with the development of depression-like behaviors after exposure to chronic stress. However, single traits do not explain the wide variability in vulnerability to stress observed in outbred populations. We...... hypothesized that a combination of behavioral traits might provide a better characterization of an individual's vulnerability to prolonged stress. Here, we sought to determine whether the characterization of relevant behavioral traits in rats could aid in identifying individuals with different vulnerabilities...... to developing stress-induced depression-like behavioral alterations. We also investigated whether behavioral traits would be related to the development of alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and in brain activity - as measured through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1...

  18. Implication of snail in metabolic stress-induced necrosis.

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    Cho Hee Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Necrosis, a type of cell death accompanied by the rupture of the plasma membrane, promotes tumor progression and aggressiveness by releasing the pro-inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine high mobility group box 1. It is commonly found in the core region of solid tumors due to hypoxia and glucose depletion (GD resulting from insufficient vascularization. Thus, metabolic stress-induced necrosis has important clinical implications for tumor development; however, its regulatory mechanisms have been poorly investigated.Here, we show that the transcription factor Snail, a key regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is induced in a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent manner in both two-dimensional culture of cancer cells, including A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231, in response to GD and the inner regions of a multicellular tumor spheroid system, an in vitro model of solid tumors and of human tumors. Snail short hairpin (sh RNA inhibited metabolic stress-induced necrosis in two-dimensional cell culture and in multicellular tumor spheroid system. Snail shRNA-mediated necrosis inhibition appeared to be linked to its ability to suppress metabolic stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial permeability transition, which are the primary events that trigger necrosis.Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Snail is implicated in metabolic stress-induced necrosis, providing a new function for Snail in tumor progression.

  19. Effects of subclinical inflammation on C-reactive protein and haptoglobin levels as well as specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated against canine distemper and parvovirus.

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    Romiszewski, Przemysław; Kostro, Krzysztof; Lisiecka, Urszula

    2018-03-05

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of subclinical inflammation on specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated with Nobivac® DHP based on serum levels of CRP and Hp. Dogs from the group I were administered Nobivac® DHP, the vaccine against distemper, infectious hepatitis and parvovirus whereas group II animals received subcutaneous turpentine oil to induce subclinical inflammation, followed by Nobivac® DHP after 24 h. Animals in group III received only turpentine oil in the way and amount identical to that as in group II. Nobivac DHP relatively poorly induced the immune inflammatory response showing good immunogenic properties, which was evidenced by only a double increase in mean CRP and Hp levels associated with antigenic stimulation in group I. In group II, serum neutralization (SN) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) results were quite closely correlated with serum levels of CPR and Hp. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of vaccinations in dogs can be significantly affected by subclinical inflammations, which is indicated by a correlation between serum CRP and Hp levels versus antibody titres for canine distemper and parvovirus in both experimental groups of dogs (group I and II). The correlation of mean CRP and Hp values in dogs with subclinical inflammation and after vaccination with the kinetics of increasing antibody titres against distemper and parvovirus in group II dogs reflects the severity of inflammatory response and the extent of specific humoral immunity. Routine determinations of serum CRP and Hp levels as the indices of inflammation severity can be the essential biochemical markers for assessment of dogs' health in the period preceding specific immunoprophylaxis and efficacy of the vaccine.

  20. Personality traits in rats predict vulnerability and resilience to developing stress-induced depression-like behaviors, HPA axis hyper-reactivity and brain changes in pERK1/2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge E; Diessler, Shanaz; Varea, Emilio; Márquez, Cristina; Larsen, Marianne H; Cordero, M Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that certain behavioral traits, such as anxiety, are associated with the development of depression-like behaviors after exposure to chronic stress. However, single traits do not explain the wide variability in vulnerability to stress observed in outbred populations. We hypothesized that a combination of behavioral traits might provide a better characterization of an individual's vulnerability to prolonged stress. Here, we sought to determine whether the characterization of relevant behavioral traits in rats could aid in identifying individuals with different vulnerabilities to developing stress-induced depression-like behavioral alterations. We also investigated whether behavioral traits would be related to the development of alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and in brain activity - as measured through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)--in response to an acute stressor following either sub-chronic (2 weeks) or chronic (4 weeks) unpredictable stress (CUS). Sprague-Dawley rats were characterized using a battery of behavioral tasks, and three principal traits were identified: anxiety, exploration and activity. When combined, the first two traits were found to explain the variability in the stress responses. Our findings confirm the increased risk of animals with high anxiety developing certain depression-like behaviors (e.g., increased floating time in the forced swim test) when progressively exposed to stress. In contrast, the behavioral profile based on combined low anxiety and low exploration was resistant to alterations related to social behaviors, while the high anxiety and low exploration profile displayed a particularly vulnerable pattern of physiological and neurobiological responses after sub-chronic stress exposure. Our findings indicate important differences in animals' vulnerability and/or resilience to the effects of repeated stress, particularly during initial or

  1. Dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Čaparević Zorica; Bojković Gradimir; Stojanović Dragoš Lj.; Ilić Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as an increased serum TSH and normal serum FT4 concentration. In subclinical hypothyroidism, thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies are frequently present. Subclinical hypothyroidism may have endogenous or exogenous causes. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is rather high. The number of patients progressing to overt hypothyroidism may be higher. These patients may be asymptomatic, or have only mild symptoms or a single sym...

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter

    2018-01-01

    follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03...... clinically stable cyanotic congenital heart disease patients were examined with blood samples (thyroid-stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and N-terminal pro-brain-natriuretic peptide) in a cross-sectional descriptive study. Second, a longitudinal follow-up study of 43 patients...... originating from the first study part, was carried out. These patients had thyroid function parameters (thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies) evaluated biannually. RESULTS: Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was present in 24% of the 90 screened patients. During...

  3. Stress induced reorientation of vanadium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, M.B.

    1977-10-01

    The critical stress for the reorientation of vanadium hydride was determined for the temperature range 180 0 to 280 0 K using flat tensile samples containing 50 to 500 ppM hydrogen by weight. The critical stress was observed to vary from a half to a third of the macroscopic yield stress of pure vanadium over the temperature range. The vanadium hydride could not be stress induced to precipitate above its stress-free precipitation temperature by uniaxial tensile stresses or triaxial tensile stresses induced by a notch

  4. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  5. [Subclinical thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazil, V

    2007-01-01

    Subclinical thyroids disease (STD) is recently defined term in clinical thyroidology, which includes mainly functional disorders. Basic diagnostic signs are: normal values of thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3) and elevated TSH level (subclinical hypothyroidism) or suppresed TSH level (subclinical hyperthyroidism). In a category of STD may be included subclinical autoimunne thyroiditis (elevated level of thyroid antigens antibodies and/or hypoechogenity in sonographic screen, increased volume of the thyroid without clinical symptoms and/or autoimminity) and microscopic lesions of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be dangerous for tendency to development of manifest hypothyroidism and for risk of disorders of lipid profile and development of atherosclerosis and its organ complication (esp. myocardial infarction). Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor of cardiac arythmias and probably can increase a risk of cardiovascular mortality) as well for osteoporosis (esp. in peri- and post-climacteric women), and last but not least for degenerative diseases of brain (?). Indication of treatment of STD is a matter of controversies. Recomendations of experts, varied from "no therapy, monitoring only" to "treat always". Treatment of risk groups (esp. pregnant women) is probably nowadays a most rationale recommendations since results of sofisticated prospective studies will be available.

  6. [Stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive mutations exist widely in the evolution of cells, such as antibiotic resistance mutations of pathogenic bacteria, adaptive evolution of industrial strains, and cancerization of human somatic cells. However, how these adaptive mutations are generated is still controversial. Based on the mutational analysis models under the nonlethal selection conditions, stress-induced cellular adaptive mutagenesis is proposed as a new evolutionary viewpoint. The hypothetic pathway of stress-induced mutagenesis involves several intracellular physiological responses, including DNA damages caused by accumulation of intracellular toxic chemicals, limitation of DNA MMR (mismatch repair) activity, upregulation of general stress response and activation of SOS response. These responses directly affect the accuracy of DNA replication from a high-fidelity manner to an error-prone one. The state changes of cell physiology significantly increase intracellular mutation rate and recombination activity. In addition, gene transcription under stress condition increases the instability of genome in response to DNA damage, resulting in transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis. In this review, we summarize these two molecular mechanisms of stress-induced mutagenesis and transcription-associated DNA mutagenesis to help better understand the mechanisms of adaptive mutagenesis.

  7. Central mechanisms of stress-induced headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, S; Petkov, J; Winefield, A H; Lushington, K; Rolan, P

    2010-03-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported trigger of an episode of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH); however, the causal significance has not been experimentally demonstrated to date. Stress may trigger CTTH through hyperalgesic effects on already sensitized pain pathways in CTTH sufferers. This hypothesis could be partially tested by examining pain sensitivity in an experimental model of stress-induced headache in CTTH sufferers. Such examinations have not been reported to date. We measured pericranial muscle tenderness and pain thresholds at the finger, head and shoulder in 23 CTTH sufferers (CTH-S) and 25 healthy control subjects (CNT) exposed to an hour-long stressful mental task, and in 23 CTTH sufferers exposed to an hour-long neutral condition (CTH-N). Headache developed in 91% of CTH-S, 4% of CNT, and 17% of CTH-N subjects. Headache sufferers had increased muscle tenderness and reduced pain thresholds compared with healthy controls. During the task, muscle tenderness increased and pain thresholds decreased in the CTH-S group compared with CTH-N and CNT groups. Pre-task muscle tenderness and reduction in pain threshold during task were predictive of the development and intensity of headache following task. The main findings are that stress induced a headache in CTTH sufferers, and this was associated with pre-task muscle tenderness and stress-induced reduction in pain thresholds. The results support the hypothesis that stress triggers CTTH through hyperalgesic effects on already increased pain sensitivity in CTTH sufferers, reducing the threshold to noxious input from pericranial structures.

  8. Clonidine blocks stress-induced craving in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobes, Michelle L; Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Phillips, Karran A; Heishman, Stephen J; Preston, Kenzie L

    2011-11-01

    Reactivity to stressors and environmental cues, a putative cause of relapse in addiction, may be a useful target for relapse-prevention medication. In rodents, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists such as clonidine block stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, but not drug cue-induced reinstatement. The objective of this study is to test the effect of clonidine on stress- and cue-induced craving in human cocaine users. Healthy, non-treatment-seeking cocaine users (n = 59) were randomly assigned to three groups receiving clonidine 0, 0.1, or 0.2 mg orally under double-blind conditions. In a single test session, each participant received clonidine or placebo followed 3 h later by exposure to two pairs of standardized auditory-imagery scripts (neutral/stress and neutral/drug). Subjective measures of craving were collected. Subjective responsivity ("crave cocaine" Visual Analog Scale) to stress scripts was significantly attenuated in the 0.1- and 0.2-mg clonidine groups; for drug-cue scripts, this attenuation occurred only in the 0.2-mg group. Other subjective measures of craving showed similar patterns of effects but Dose × Script interactions were not significant. Clonidine was effective in reducing stress-induced (and, at a higher dose, cue-induced) craving in a pattern consistent with preclinical findings, although this was significant on only one of several measures. Our results, though modest and preliminary, converge with other evidence to suggest that alpha-2 adrenergic agonists may help prevent relapse in drug abusers experiencing stress or situations that remind them of drug use.

  9. Update on subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Braunstein, Glenn D

    2011-04-15

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (as in Graves disease or toxic nodular goiter), administration of thyroid hormone for treatment of malignant thyroid disease, or unintentional excessive thyroid hormone therapy. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons who have suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels compared with those who have low but detectable levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation in older adults, and with decreased bone mineral density in postmenopausal women; however, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unknown. There is lesser-quality evidence suggesting an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and other cardiovascular effects, including increased heart rate and left ventricular mass, and increased bone turnover markers. Possible associations between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality of life parameters, cognition, and increased mortality rates are controversial. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to address the effects of early treatment on potential morbidities to help determine whether screening should be recommended in the asymptomatic general population.

  10. Treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Andreassen, Mikkel; Petersen, Claus L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate structure and function of the heart in subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) before and after obtaining euthyroidism by radioactive iodine treatment, using high precision and observer-independent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. METHODS...

  11. Homeobox gene Dlx-2 is implicated in metabolic stress-induced necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sung-Chul

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to tumor-suppressive apoptosis and autophagic cell death, necrosis promotes tumor progression by releasing the pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting cytokine high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, and its presence in tumor patients is associated with poor prognosis. Thus, necrosis has important clinical implications in tumor development; however, its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Results In the present study, we show that Distal-less 2 (Dlx-2, a homeobox gene of the Dlx family that is involved in embryonic development, is induced in cancer cell lines dependently of reactive oxygen species (ROS in response to glucose deprivation (GD, one of the metabolic stresses occurring in solid tumors. Increased Dlx-2 expression was also detected in the inner regions, which experience metabolic stress, of human tumors and of a multicellular tumor spheroid, an in vitro model of solid tumors. Dlx-2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA inhibited metabolic stress-induced increase in propidium iodide-positive cell population and HMGB1 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, indicating the important role(s of Dlx-2 in metabolic stress-induced necrosis. Dlx-2 shRNA appeared to exert its anti-necrotic effects by preventing metabolic stress-induced increases in mitochondrial ROS, which are responsible for triggering necrosis. Conclusions These results suggest that Dlx-2 may be involved in tumor progression via the regulation of metabolic stress-induced necrosis.

  12. Cold stress induces lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2013-07-01

    Cold stress as a result of whole-body cooling at low environmental temperatures exacerbates lower urinary tract symptoms, such as urinary urgency, nocturia and residual urine. We established a model system using healthy conscious rats to explore the mechanisms of cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In this review, we summarize the basic findings shown by this model. Rats that were quickly transferred from room temperature (27 ± 2°C) to low temperature (4 ± 2°C) showed detrusor overactivity including increased basal pressure and decreased voiding interval, micturition volume, and bladder capacity. The cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity is mediated through a resiniferatoxin-sensitve C-fiber sensory nerve pathway involving α1-adrenergic receptors. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels, which are sensitive to thermal changes below 25-28°C, also play an important role in mediating the cold stress responses. Additionally, the sympathetic nervous system is associated with transient hypertension and decreases of skin surface temperature that are closely correlated with the detrusor overactivity. With this cold stress model, we showed that α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists have the potential to treat cold stress-exacerbated lower urinary tract symptoms. In addition, we showed that traditional Japanese herbal mixtures composed of Hachimijiogan act, in part, by increasing skin temperature and reducing the number of cold sensitive transient receptor potential melastatin channels in the skin. The effects of herbal mixtures have the potential to treat and/or prevent the exacerbation of lower urinary tract symptoms by providing resistance to the cold stress responses. Our model provides new opportunities for utilizing animal disease models with altered lower urinary tract functions to explore the effects of novel therapeutic drugs. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Management of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Palacios, Silvia; Pascual-Corrales, Eider; Galofre, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The ideal approach for adequate management of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] and normal thyroid hormone level) is a matter of intense debate among endocrinologists. The prevalence of low serum TSH levels ranges between 0.5% in children and 15% in the elderly population. Mild subclinical hyperthyroidism is more common than severe subclinical hyperthyroidism. Transient suppression of TSH secretion may occur because of several reasons; thus, corroboration of results from different assessments is essential in such cases. During differential diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, pituitary or hypothalamic disease, euthyroid sick syndrome, and drug-mediated suppression of TSH must be ruled out. A low plasma TSH value is also typically seen in the first trimester of gestation. Factitial or iatrogenic TSH inhibition caused by excessive intake of levothyroxine should be excluded by checking the patient’s medication history. If these nonthyroidal causes are ruled out during differential diagnosis, either transient or long-term endogenous thyroid hormone excess, usually caused by Graves’ disease or nodular goiter, should be considered as the cause of low circulating TSH levels. We recommend the following 6-step process for the assessment and treatment of this common hormonal disorder: 1) confirmation, 2) evaluation of severity, 3) investigation of the cause, 4) assessment of potential complications, 5) evaluation of the necessity of treatment, and 6) if necessary, selection of the most appropriate treatment. In conclusion, management of subclinical hyperthyroidism merits careful monitoring through regular assessment of thyroid function. Treatment is mandatory in older patients (> 65 years) or in presence of comorbidities (such as osteoporosis and atrial fibrillation). PMID:23843809

  14. Despite higher glucocorticoid levels and stress responses in female rats, both sexes exhibit similar stress-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, Henriette J.; Novati, Arianna; Luiten, Paul G. M.; den Boer, Johan A.; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in stress reactivity may be one of the factors underlying the increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathologies in women. Particularly, an increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in females may exacerbate stress-induced changes in neuronal

  15. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  16. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  17. Finite element calculation of stress induced heating of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, J.E.; Moazed, A.

    1976-01-01

    This research is concerned with the calculation of the amount of heat generated due to the development of mechanical stresses in superconducting composites. An emperical equation is used to define the amount of stress-induced heat generation per unit volume. The equation relates the maximum applied stress and the experimental measured hysteresis loop of the composite stress-strain diagram. It is utilized in a finite element program to calculate the total stress-induced heat generation for the superconductor. An example analysis of a solenoid indicates that the stress-induced heating can be of the same order of magnitude as eddy current effects

  18. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  19. Lycopene Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury by Alleviating ER Stress Induced Apoptosis in Neonatal Mouse Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqian; Hu, Houxiang; Chen, Bin; Yue, Rongchuan; Zhou, Zhou; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Huan; Yu, Zhengping

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis plays a pivotal role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Inhibiting ER stress is a major therapeutic target/strategy in treating cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies revealed that lycopene exhibits great pharmacological potential in protecting against the I/R-injury in vitro and vivo, but whether attenuation of ER stress (and) or ER stress-induced apoptosis contributes to the effects remains unclear. In the present study, using neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes to establish an in vitro model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) to mimic myocardium I/R in vivo, we aimed to explore the hypothesis that lycopene could alleviate the ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in H/R-injury. We observed that lycopene alleviated the H/R injury as revealed by improving cell viability and reducing apoptosis, suppressed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and improved the phosphorylated AMPK expression, attenuated ER stress as evidenced by decreasing the expression of GRP78, ATF6 mRNA, sXbp-1 mRNA, eIF2α mRNA and eIF2α phosphorylation, alleviated ER stress-induced apoptosis as manifested by reducing CHOP/GADD153 expression, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-12 and caspase-3 activity in H/R-treated cardiomyocytes. Thapsigargin (TG) is a potent ER stress inducer and used to elicit ER stress of cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that lycopene was able to prevent TG-induced ER stress as reflected by attenuating the protein expression of GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153 compared to TG group, significantly improve TG-caused a loss of cell viability and decrease apoptosis in TG-treated cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that the protective effects of lycopene on H/R-injury are, at least in part, through alleviating ER stress and ER stress-induced apoptosis in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. PMID:26291709

  20. Serotonergic involvement in stress-induced vasopressin and oxytocin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik; Knigge, Ulrich; Kjaer, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were...... the swim stress-induced OT response. CONCLUSION: 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C) and possibly 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors, but not 5-HT(1A) receptors, are involved in the restraint stress-induced AVP secretion. 5-HT does not seem to be involved in the dehydration- or hemorrhage-induced AVP response. The restraint...... stress-induced OT response seems to be mediated via 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. The dehydration and hemorrhage-induced OT responses are at least mediated by the 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. The 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors are not involved in stress-induced OT secretion....

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Should we treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Christopher; Vaidya, Bijay

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (also known as compensated hypothyroidism or mild hypothyroidism) is a condition associated with a raised serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) but a normal serum free thyroxine (FT4). It is common, affecting about 10% of women above the age of 55 years. Autoimmunity is the commonest cause of subclinical hypothyroidism. About 2.5% of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism progress to clinically overt hypothyroidism each year; the rate of progression is higher in patients with thyroid autoantibodies and higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels. However, thyroid function normalises spontaneously in up to 40% cases. Only a small minority of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism have symptoms, and the evidence to support that levothyroxine ameliorate the symptoms in these patients is weak. Subclinical hypothyroidism in younger patients (treatment can prevent these risks, although a large observational study of the UK general practice research database has shown that levothyroxine may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in younger patients (hypothyroidism should be made after careful consideration of the patient's age, the presence of symptoms, the presence of thyroid antibodies and other risk factors such as cardiovascular disease.

  2. Subclinical pertussis in incompletely vaccinated and unvaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subclinical whooping cough) does in fact occur. Recent studies have shown subclinical disease in vaccinated infants ... through home visits by a community health nurse with ..... The current study extends the knowledge of contagious spread of ...

  3. Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt stress induced ion accumulation, ion homeostasis, membrane injury and sugar contents in salt-sensitive rice ( Oryza sativa L. spp. indica ) roots under isoosmotic conditions. ... The accumulation of sugars in PT1 roots may be a primary salt-defense mechanism and may function as an osmotic control. Key words: ...

  4. Stress-induced hyperthermia in translational stress research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, C.H.; Penning, R.; Ebbens, M.M.; Helhammer, J.; Verster, J.C.; Kalkman, C.J.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    The stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) response is the transient change in body temperature in response to acute stress. This body temperature response is part of the autonomic stress response which also results in tachycardia and an increased blood pressure. So far, a SIH response has been found in

  5. Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2012-01-01

    Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to mental and physical health. In contrast, social support can ameliorate stress-induced physiological and immunological deficits, reducing the risk of subsequent psychological distress and improving an individual's overall well-being. For better clinical treatment of these physiological and mental pathologies, it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of stress-induced pathologies as well as determine the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate social buffering of the stress system. A number of ethologically relevant animal models of social stress and species that form strong adult social bonds have been utilized to study the etiology, treatment, and prevention of stress-related disorders. While undoubtedly a number of biological pathways contribute to the social buffering of the stress response, the convergence of evidence denotes the regulatory effects of oxytocin in facilitating social bond-promoting behaviors and their effect on the stress response. Thus, oxytocin may be perceived as a common regulatory element of the social environment, stress response, and stress-induced risks on mental and physical health. PMID:22178036

  6. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes membrane stablity index and seed protein profiling of four different wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions (011251, 011417, 011320 and 011393) were determined in a pot study under natural condition during the wheat-growing season 2005 and 2006. Sampling was ...

  7. Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of salt-stress induced differentially expressed genes in barley leaves using the annealingcontrol- primer-based GeneFishing technique. S Lee, K Lee, K Kim, GJ Choi, SH Yoon, HC Ji, S Seo, YC Lim, N Ahsan ...

  8. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H 2 O 2 treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

  9. Melatonin resists oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruijun; Cui, Min; Lin, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jiayu; Chen, Songfeng; Shao, Zengwu

    2018-04-15

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) is thought to be the major cause of low back pain (LBP), which is still in lack of effective etiological treatment. Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to participate in the impairment of nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). As the most important neuroendocrine hormone in biological clock regulation, melatonin (MLT) is also featured by good antioxidant effect. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of melatonin on oxidative stress-induced damage in rat NPCs. Cytotoxicity of H 2 O 2 and protecting effect of melatonin were analyzed with Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell apoptosis rate was detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. DCFH-DA probe was used for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) changes were analyzed with JC-1 probe. Intracellular oxidation product and reductants were measured through enzymatic reactions. Extracellular matrix (ECM) and apoptosis associated proteins were analyzed with Western blot assays. Melatonin preserved cell viability of NPCs under oxidative stress. The apoptosis rate, ROS level and malonaldehyde (MDA) declined with melatonin. MLT/H 2 O 2 group showed higher activities of GSH and SOD. The fall of MMP receded and the expression of ECM protein increased with treatment of melatonin. The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis was inhibited by melatonin. Melatonin alleviated the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of NPCs. Melatonin could be a promising alternative in treatment of IVDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Ar [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Sil [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Ho [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jung, E-mail: khj57@yuhs.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  11. Water deficit stress-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Water deficit stress followed by re-watering during grain filling resulted in the induction of the ornithine pathway and in changes in Quinoa grain quality. The genetic diversity of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is accompanied by an outstanding environmental adaptability and high nutritional properties of the grains. However, little is known about the biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with the abiotic stress tolerance of Quinoa. Here, we characterized carbon and nitrogen metabolic changes in Quinoa leaves and grains in response to water deficit stress analyzing their impact on the grain quality of two lowland ecotypes (Faro and BO78). Differences in the stress recovery response were found between genotypes including changes in the activity of nitrogen assimilation-associated enzymes that resulted in differences in grain quality. Both genotypes showed a common strategy to overcome water stress including the stress-induced synthesis of reactive oxygen species scavengers and osmolytes. Particularly, water deficit stress induced the stimulation of the ornithine and raffinose pathways. Our results would suggest that the regulation of C- and N partitioning in Quinoa during grain filling could be used for the improvement of the grain quality without altering grain yields.

  12. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermunt, J J

    1992-12-01

    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  13. Identification of 30 protein species involved in replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierick, Jean François; Kalume, Dário E; Wenders, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of human proliferative cells to subcytotoxic stress triggers stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) which is characterized by many biomarkers of replicative senescence. Proteomic comparison of replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence indicates that, at the level...

  14. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska-Downar, Danuta; Zapolski-Downar, Andrzej; Naruszewicz, Marek; Siennicka, Aldona; Krasnodebska, Barbara; Kołdziej, Blanka

    2002-11-01

    It is currently believed that oxidative stress and inflammation play a significant role in atherogenesis. Artichoke extract exhibits hypolipemic properties and contains numerous active substances with antioxidant properties in vitro. We have studied the influence of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke on intracellular oxidative stress stimulated by inflammatory mediators (TNFalpha and LPS) and ox-LDL in endothelial cells and monocytes. Oxidative stress which reflects the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was followed by measuring the oxidation of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Agueous and ethanolic extracts from artichoke were found to inhibit basal and stimulated ROS production in endothelial cells and monocytes in dose dependent manner. In endothelial cells, the ethanolic extract (50 microg/ml) reduced ox-LDL-induced intracellular ROS production by 60% (partichoke extracts have marked protective properties against oxidative stress induced by inflammatory mediators and ox-LDL in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes.

  15. Autophagy induction by SIRT6 is involved in oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxiang Shao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SIRT6 is a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase and has been implicated in the regulation of genomic stability, DNA repair, metabolic homeostasis and several diseases. The effect of SIRT6 in cerebral ischemia and oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD has been reported, however the role of SIRT6 in oxidative stress damage remains unclear. Here we used SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and found that overexpression of SIRT6 led to decreased cell viability and increased necrotic cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS production under oxidative stress. Mechanistic study revealed that SIRT6 induced autophagy via attenuation of AKT signaling and treatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA or knockdown of autophagy-related protein Atg5 rescued H2O2-induced neuronal injury. Conversely, SIRT6 inhibition suppressed autophagy and reduced oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage. These results suggest that SIRT6 might be a potential therapeutic target for neuroprotection.

  16. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salubrious effects of oxytocin on social stress-induced deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam S.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are a fundamental aspect of life, affecting social, psychological, physiological, and behavioral functions. While social interactions can attenuate stress and promote health, disruption, confrontations, isolation, or neglect in the social environment can each be major stressors. Social stress can impair the basal function and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, impairing function of multiple biological systems and posing a risk to m...

  18. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2015-03-24

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)-the cause of multiple human diseases-have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential.

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibition abolishes stress-induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-López, Viviana; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Acute stress induced before spatial training impairs memory consolidation. Although non-epigenetic underpinning of such effect has been described, the epigenetic mechanisms involved have not yet been studied. Since spatial training and intense stress have opposite effects on histone acetylation balance, it is conceivable that disruption of such balance may underlie acute stress-induced spatial memory consolidation impairment and that inhibiting histone deacetylases prevents such effect. Trichostatin-A (TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor) was used to test its effectiveness in preventing stress' deleterious effect on memory. Male Wistar rats were trained in a spatial task in the Barnes maze; 1-h movement restraint was applied to half of them before training. Immediately after training, stressed and non-stressed animals were randomly assigned to receive either TSA (1mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours after training, long-term spatial memory was tested; plasma and brain tissue were collected immediately after the memory test to evaluate corticosterone levels and histone H3 acetylation in several brain areas. Stressed animals receiving vehicle displayed memory impairment, increased plasma corticosterone levels and markedly reduced histone H3 acetylation in prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Such effects did not occur in stressed animals treated with TSA. The aforementioned results support the hypothesis that acute stress induced-memory impairment is related to histone deacetylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, S; Dima-Cozma, L C; Ghiciuc, C M; Pasquali, V; Saponaro, A; Patacchioli, F R

    2017-02-06

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases.

  1. Fisetin and luteolin protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and regulate inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytti, Maria; Piippo, Niina; Korhonen, Eveliina; Honkakoski, Paavo; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a clinical hallmark of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness among aged people in the Western world. Both inflammation and oxidative stress are known to play vital roles in the development of this disease. Here, we assess the ability of fisetin and luteolin, to protect ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death and to decrease intracellular inflammation. We also compare the growth and reactivity of human ARPE-19 cells in serum-free and serum-containing conditions. The absence of serum in the culture medium did not prevent ARPE-19 cells from reaching full confluency but caused an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress-induced cell death. Both fisetin and luteolin protected ARPE-19 cells from oxidative stress-induced cell death. They also significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the culture medium. The decrease in inflammation was associated with reduced activation of MAPKs and CREB, but was not linked to NF- κB or SIRT1. The ability of fisetin and luteolin to protect and repair stressed RPE cells even after the oxidative insult make them attractive in the search for treatments for AMD. PMID:26619957

  2. Platysmal myoclonus in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hock-Luen; Lim, Erle Chuen-Hian

    2005-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with various movement disorders, such as chorea and tremors. We report on a young Chinese woman with an unusual presentation of myoclonus, involving both platysmal muscles, in association with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The myoclonus was preceded by symptoms of hyperthyroidism, namely weight loss, menstrual disturbances, and heat intolerance. The movements abated with clonazepam and hyperthyroidism was treated with carbimazole. The myoclonus recurred briefly when she stopped taking clonazepam, but she has since remained well and euthyroid. Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society

  3. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-05-20

    Ar/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  4. A study of oxidative stress induced by non-thermal plasma-activated water for bacterial damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qian; Ma, Ruonan; Tian, Ying; Liang, Yongdong; Feng, Hongqing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Ar/O 2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to create plasma-activated water (PAW). The disinfection efficacy of PAW against Staphylococcus aureus showed that PAW can effectively disinfect bacteria. Optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrated the inactivation is attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. Moreover, the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy suggested that the chemical state of cell surface, the integrity of cell membrane, as well as the cell internal components and structure were damaged by the oxidative stress.

  5. pattern of subclinical thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Marri, M.H.; Qureshi, A.H.; Qamar, M.A.; Ali, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) in local population visiting a hospital laboratory for thyroid function tests. Design: It was a hospital - based study carried in consecutive patients who reported for thyroid function tests in the hospital laboratory. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in combined military Hospital, Quetta during June 1999 to September 2000. Subject and methods: Serum samples of 917 patients living in Quetta and its surrounding were analysed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) free thyroxin (FT4), and total tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentration using chemiluminescence technique on hormone auto analyser (LIA-Mat - Sangtech Germany). Results: Out of 917 patients, 287 (23%) were found to be having SCTD while overt thyroid disease was found in 288 (31%) patients. Prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism (SCO) and sub-clinical hyperthyroidism (sce) was found to be almost equal with a profound female preponderance in both the groups. SCO was more common in children (<12 years of age). Conclusion: Almost every fourth patient reporting for thyroid function tests was diagnosed as having SCTD - a disease entity that is still not well known and that poses diagnostic and management problems for the pathologists and clinicians. (author)

  6. [Subclinical hyperthyroidism: from diagnosis to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvilain, B

    2012-09-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a common clinical entity. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as a serum TSH below the reference range but a normal T4 and T3 level in an asymptomatic patient. Whether or not subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated remains a matter of debate. Cross-sectional studies and longitudinal population-based studies demonstrate association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and risk of atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis and cardiovascular and global mortality. However, there are no randomized clinical trials answering the question whether long term-health outcomes are improved by the treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism. Therefore in the absence of evidence for or against treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, it seems appropriate to follow algorithms that consider the level of TSH and the presence of risks factors (age > 65 years, osteoporosis, post menopause and cardiac disease).

  7. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  8. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Olmos, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Antônio-Carlos; Penalva, Daniele Queirós Fucciolo; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP). All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (free-T4) and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01). There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l) did not change the results. In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  9. Frequency of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diaz-Olmos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is very common in clinical practice and there is some evidence that it may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim here was to evaluate the frequencies of subclinical thyroid disease and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among women at a workplace, and to evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid disease and cardiovascular risk factors among them. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 314 women aged 40 years or over who were working at Universidade de São Paulo (USP. METHODS: All the women answered a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and the Rose angina questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured and blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free-T4 and anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO. RESULTS: The frequencies of subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were, respectively, 7.3% and 5.1%. Women with subclinical thyroid disease presented higher levels of anti-TPO than did women with normal thyroid function (P = 0.01. There were no differences in sociodemographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors according to thyroid function status, except for greater sedentarism among the women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Restricting the comparison to women with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 10 mIU/l did not change the results. CONCLUSION: In this sample of women, there was no association between poor profile of cardiovascular risk factors and presence of subclinical thyroid disease that would justify screening at the workplace.

  10. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  11. Stress-Induced Chronic Visceral Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Early life stress (ELS is a risk-factor for the development of IBS, however the mechanisms responsible for the persistent effects of ELS on visceral perception in adulthood remain incompletely understood. In rodent models, stress in adult animals induced by restraint and water avoidance has been employed to investigate the mechanisms of stress-induce pain. ELS models such as maternal separation, limited nesting, or odor-shock conditioning, which attempt to model early childhood experiences such as neglect, poverty, or an abusive caregiver, can produce chronic, sexually dimorphic increases in visceral sensitivity in adulthood. Chronic visceral pain is a classic example of gene × environment interaction which results from maladaptive changes in neuronal circuitry leading to neuroplasticity and aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling. One potential mechanism underlying the persistent effects of stress on visceral sensitivity could be epigenetic modulation of gene expression. While there are relatively few studies examining epigenetically mediated mechanisms involved in visceral nociception, stress-induced visceral pain has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns within the brain, leading to increased expression of pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters. This review will discuss the potential neuronal pathways and mechanisms responsible for

  12. Stress-Induced Chronic Visceral Pain of Gastrointestinal Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Johnson, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    Visceral pain is generally poorly localized and characterized by hypersensitivity to a stimulus such as organ distension. In concert with chronic visceral pain, there is a high comorbidity with stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. The mechanisms linking visceral pain with these overlapping comorbidities remain to be elucidated. Evidence suggests that long term stress facilitates pain perception and sensitizes pain pathways, leading to a feed-forward cycle promoting chronic visceral pain disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early life stress (ELS) is a risk-factor for the development of IBS, however the mechanisms responsible for the persistent effects of ELS on visceral perception in adulthood remain incompletely understood. In rodent models, stress in adult animals induced by restraint and water avoidance has been employed to investigate the mechanisms of stress-induce pain. ELS models such as maternal separation, limited nesting, or odor-shock conditioning, which attempt to model early childhood experiences such as neglect, poverty, or an abusive caregiver, can produce chronic, sexually dimorphic increases in visceral sensitivity in adulthood. Chronic visceral pain is a classic example of gene × environment interaction which results from maladaptive changes in neuronal circuitry leading to neuroplasticity and aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling. One potential mechanism underlying the persistent effects of stress on visceral sensitivity could be epigenetic modulation of gene expression. While there are relatively few studies examining epigenetically mediated mechanisms involved in visceral nociception, stress-induced visceral pain has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns within the brain, leading to increased expression of pro-nociceptive neurotransmitters. This review will discuss the potential neuronal pathways and mechanisms responsible for stress-induced

  13. Lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in photonic crystal fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong-Da; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Han Li-Hong; Liu Yu-Min

    2009-01-01

    Using the finite element method, this paper investigates lateral stress-induced propagation characteristics in a pho-tonic crystal fibre of hexagonal symmetry. The results of simulation show the strong stress dependence of effective index of the fundamental guided mode, phase modal birefringence and confinement loss. It also finds that the contribution of the geometrical effect that is related only to deformation of the photonic crystal fibre and the stress-related contribution to phase modal birefringence and confinement loss are entirely different. Furthermore, polarization-dependent stress sensitivity of confinement loss is proposed in this paper.

  14. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  15. Hepcidin is an antibacterial, stress-inducible peptide of the biliary system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Strnad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepcidin (gene name HAMP, an IL-6-inducible acute phase peptide with antimicrobial properties, is the key negative regulator of iron metabolism. Liver is the primary source of HAMP synthesis, but it is also produced by other tissues such as kidney or heart and is found in body fluids such as urine or cerebrospinal fluid. While the role of hepcidin in biliary system is unknown, a recent study demonstrated that conditional gp130-knockout mice display diminished hepcidin levels and increased rate of biliary infections. METHODS: Expression and localization of HAMP in biliary system was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, in-situ hybridization, immunostaining and -blotting, while prohepcidin levels in human bile were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: Hepcidin was detected in mouse/human gallbladder and bile duct epithelia. Biliary HAMP is stress-inducible, in that it is increased in biliary cell lines upon IL-6 stimulation and in gallbladder mucosa of patients with acute cholecystitis. Hepcidin is also present in the bile and elevated prohepcidin levels were observed in bile of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC patients with concurrent bacterial cholangitis compared to PSC subjects without bacterial infection (median values 22.3 vs. 8.9; p = 0.03. In PSC-cholangitis subjects, bile prohepcidin levels positively correlated with C-reactive protein and bilirubin levels (r = 0.48 and r = 0.71, respectively. In vitro, hepcidin enhanced the antimicrobial capacity of human bile (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Hepcidin is a stress-inducible peptide of the biliary epithelia and a potential marker of biliary stress. In the bile, hepcidin may serve local functions such as protection from bacterial infections.

  16. Urban stress-induced biogenic VOC emissions and SOA-forming potentials in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghirardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Trees can significantly impact the urban air chemistry by the uptake and emission of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, which are involved in ozone and particle formation. Here we present the emission potentials of "constitutive" (cBVOCs and "stress-induced" BVOCs (sBVOCs from the dominant broadleaf woody plant species in the megacity of Beijing. Based on the municipal tree census and cuvette BVOC measurements on leaf level, we built an inventory of BVOC emissions, and assessed the potential impact of BVOCs on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in 2005 and 2010, i.e., before and after realizing the large tree-planting program for the 2008 Olympic Games. We found that sBVOCs, such as fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids, and sesquiterpenes, constituted a significant fraction ( ∼  40 % of the total annual BVOC emissions, and we estimated that the overall annual BVOC budget may have doubled from  ∼  4.8  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2005 to  ∼  10.3  ×  109 g C year−1 in 2010 due to the increase in urban greening, while at the same time the emission of anthropogenic VOCs (AVOCs decreased by 24 %. Based on the BVOC emission assessment, we estimated the biological impact on SOA mass formation potential in Beijing. Constitutive and stress-induced BVOCs might produce similar amounts of secondary aerosol in Beijing. However, the main contributors of SOA-mass formations originated from anthropogenic sources (> 90 %. This study demonstrates the general importance to include sBVOCs when studying BVOC emissions. Although the main problems regarding air quality in Beijing still originate from anthropogenic activities, the present survey suggests that in urban plantation programs, the selection of low-emitting plant species has some potential beneficial effects on urban air quality.

  17. Subclinical Inflammatory Status in Rett Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been advocated as a possible common central mechanism for developmental cognitive impairment. Rett syndrome (RTT is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2. Here, we investigated plasma acute phase response (APR in stage II (i.e., “pseudo-autistic” RTT patients by routine haematology/clinical chemistry and proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-TOF analyses as a function of four major MECP2 gene mutation types (R306C, T158M, R168X, and large deletions. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (median 33.0 mm/h versus 8.0 mm/h, P<0.0001 were detectable in RTT, whereas C-reactive protein levels were unchanged (P=0.63. The 2-DE analysis identified significant changes for a total of 17 proteins, the majority of which were categorized as APR proteins, either positive (n=6 spots or negative (n=9 spots, and to a lesser extent as proteins involved in the immune system (n=2 spots, with some proteins having overlapping functions on metabolism (n=7 spots. The number of protein changes was proportional to the severity of the mutation. Our findings reveal for the first time the presence of a subclinical chronic inflammatory status related to the “pseudo-autistic” phase of RTT, which is related to the severity carried by the MECP2 gene mutation.

  18. Stress-induced oxytocin release and oxytocin cell number and size in prepubertal and adult male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sumeet; Liu, Clarissa; Galdamez, Josselyn; So, Veronica M; Romeo, Russell D

    2016-08-01

    Studies indicate that adolescent exposure to stress is a potent environmental factor that contributes to psychological and physiological disorders, though the mechanisms that mediate these dysfunctions are not well understood. Periadolescent animals display greater stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses than adults, which may contribute to these vulnerabilities. In addition to the HPA axis, the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract (HNT) is also activated in response to stress. In adults, stress activates this system resulting in secretion of oxytocin from neurons in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei. However, it is currently unknown whether a similar or different response occurs in prepubertal animals. Given the influence of these hormones on a variety of emotional behaviors and physiological systems known to change as an animal transitions into adulthood, we investigated stress-induced HPA and HNT hormonal responses before and after stress, as well as the number and size of oxytocin-containing cells in the SON and PVN of prepubertal (30d) and adult (70d) male and female rats. Though we found the well-established protracted adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone response in prepubertal males and females, only adult males and prepubertal females showed a significant stress-induced increase in plasma oxytocin levels. Moreover, though we found no pubertal changes in the number of oxytocin cells, we did find a pubertal-related increase in oxytocin somal size in both the SON and PVN of males and females. Taken together, these data indicate that neuroendocrine systems can show different patterns of stress reactivity before and after adolescent development and that these responses can be further modified by sex. Given the impact of these hormones on a variety of systems, it will be imperative to further explore these changes in hormonal stress reactivity and their role in adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  19. Functional role of CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) in stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tie; Lu Luo

    2007-01-01

    CTCF, a nuclear transcriptional factor, is a multifunctional protein and involves regulation of growth factor- and cytokine-induced cell proliferation/differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the role of CTCF in protecting stress-induced apoptosis in various human cell types. We found that UV irradiation and hyper-osmotic stress induced human corneal epithelial (HCE) and hematopoietic myeloid cell apoptosis detected by significantly increased caspase 3 activity and decreased cell viability. The stress-induced apoptotic response in these cells requires down-regulation of CTCF at both mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that CTCF may play an important role in downstream events of stress-induced signaling pathways. Inhibition of NFκB activity prevented stress-induced down-regulation of CTCF and increased cell viability against stress-induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effect of CTCF was further studied by manipulating CTCF activities in HCE and hematopoietic cells. Transient transfection of cDNAs encoding full-length human CTCF markedly suppressed stress-induced apoptosis in these cells. In contrast, knocking down of CTCF mRNA using siRNA specific to CTCF significantly promoted stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, our results reveal that CTCF is a down stream target of stress-induced signaling cascades and it plays a significant anti-apoptotic role in regulation of stress-induced cellular responses in HCE and hematopoietic myeloid cells

  20. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana N Souza-Talarico

    Full Text Available Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries.Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST in both populations.Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants.These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  1. Cross-country differences in basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana N; Plusquellec, Pierrich; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries. Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were analyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in both populations. Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants. These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health.

  2. Neuroendocrine and oxidoreductive mechanisms of stress-induced cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajović, S B; Radojcić, M B; Kanazir, D T

    2008-01-01

    The review concerns a number of basic molecular pathways that play a crucial role in perception, transmission, and modulation of the stress signals, and mediate the adaptation of the vital processes in the cardiovascular system (CVS). These highly complex systems for intracellular transfer of information include stress hormones and their receptors, stress-activated phosphoprotein kinases, stress-activated heat shock proteins, and antioxidant enzymes maintaining oxidoreductive homeostasis of the CVS. Failure to compensate for the deleterious effects of stress may result in the development of different pathophysiological states of the CVS, such as ischemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis and infarction. Stress-induced dysbalance in each of the CVS molecular signaling systems and their contribution to the CVS malfunctioning is reviewed. The general picture of the molecular mechanisms of the stress-induced pathophysiology in the CVS pointed out the importance of stress duration and intensity as etiological factors, and suggested that future studies should be complemented by the careful insights into the individual factors of susceptibility to stress, prophylactic effects of 'healthy' life styles and beneficial action of antioxidant-rich nutrition.

  3. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sophie [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); ED515 UPMC, 4 place Jussieu 75005 Paris (France); Sliwa, Dominika [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Rustin, Pierre [Inserm, U676, Physiopathology and Therapy of Mitochondrial Disease Laboratory, 75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris-Diderot, Faculte de Medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France); Camadro, Jean-Michel [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Santos, Renata, E-mail: santos.renata@ijm.univ-paris-diderot.fr [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  4. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Simeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fushun; Huang, Jason H

    2016-01-01

    Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC)/norepinephrine (NE) system is regarded as a critical part of the central "stress circuitry," whose major function is to induce "fight or flight" behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty). The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear), but also for fight (anger). Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. "Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush" and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  5. Neuromodulator and Emotion Biomarker for Stress Induced Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeng Gu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders are a leading cause of disabilities worldwide, and the etiology of these many affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder is due to hormone changes, which includes hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the peripheral nervous system and neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Consistent with pharmacological studies indicating that medical treatment acts by increasing the concentration of catecholamine, the locus coeruleus (LC/norepinephrine (NE system is regarded as a critical part of the central “stress circuitry,” whose major function is to induce “fight or flight” behavior and fear and anger emotion. Despite the intensive studies, there is still controversy about NE with fear and anger. For example, the rats with LC ablation were more reluctant to leave a familiar place and took longer to consume the food pellets in an unfamiliar place (neophobia, i.e., fear in response to novelty. The reason for this discrepancy might be that NE is not only for flight (fear, but also for fight (anger. Here, we try to review recent literatures about NE with stress induced emotions and their relations with mental disorders. We propose that stress induced NE release can induce both fear and anger. “Adrenaline rush or norepinephrine rush” and fear and anger emotion might act as biomarkers for mental disorders.

  6. Stress induces pain transition by potentiation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Yang, Ya; Liu, Sufang; Fang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yong; Furmanski, Orion; Skinner, John; Xing, Ying; Johns, Roger A; Huganir, Richard L; Tao, Feng

    2014-10-08

    Chronic postsurgical pain is a serious issue in clinical practice. After surgery, patients experience ongoing pain or become sensitive to incident, normally nonpainful stimulation. The intensity and duration of postsurgical pain vary. However, it is unclear how the transition from acute to chronic pain occurs. Here we showed that social defeat stress enhanced plantar incision-induced AMPA receptor GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser831 site in the spinal cord and greatly prolonged plantar incision-induced pain. Interestingly, targeted mutation of the GluA1 phosphorylation site Ser831 significantly inhibited stress-induced prolongation of incisional pain. In addition, stress hormones enhanced GluA1 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor-mediated electrical activity in the spinal cord. Subthreshold stimulation induced spinal long-term potentiation in GluA1 phosphomimetic mutant mice, but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, spinal AMPA receptor phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying stress-induced pain transition. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413737-10$15.00/0.

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciąkowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  8. [Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek-Trzciąkowska, Aleksandra; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2013-08-05

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) associated with normal levels of free thyroxine. In obese persons prevalence of SH is significantly higher than in general population. SH is of particular interest in children with respect to the crucial role of thyroid hormones in the development of central nervous system and linear growth. Currently there is no general consensus on the treatment of SH with L-tyroxine. It is suggested that this hormonal state is rather a consequence that the cause of the overweight status.

  9. Tat-PRAS40 prevent hippocampal HT-22 cell death and oxidative stress induced animal brain ischemic insults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Jea; Kim, Dae Won; Jo, Hyo Sang; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Kim, Ji An; Hwang, Jung Soon; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji-Heon; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Cho, Yong-Jun; Lee, Keunwook; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-08-01

    Proline rich Akt substrate (PRAS40) is a component of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is known to play an important role against reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. However, the precise function of PRAS40 in ischemia remains unclear. Thus, we investigated whether Tat-PRAS40, a cell-permeable fusion protein, has a protective function against oxidative stress-induced hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cell death in an animal model of ischemia. We showed that Tat-PRAS40 transduced into HT-22 cells, and significantly protected against cell death by reducing the levels of H2O2 and derived reactive species, and DNA fragmentation as well as via the regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 expression levels in H2O2 treated cells. Also, we showed that transduced Tat-PARS40 protein markedly increased phosphorylated RRAS40 expression levels and 14-3-3σ complex via the Akt signaling pathway. In an animal ischemia model, Tat-PRAS40 effectively transduced into the hippocampus in animal brain and significantly protected against neuronal cell death in the CA1 region. We showed that Tat-PRAS40 protein effectively transduced into hippocampal neuronal cells and markedly protected against neuronal cell damage. Therefore, we suggest that Tat-PRAS40 protein may be used as a therapeutic protein for ischemia and oxidative stress-induced brain disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  11. Subclinical Hypercorticism: the Necessity of Diagnostic Search

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    А.N. Kvacheniuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering certain difficulties in subclinical hypercorticism diagnosis, the object of this work is to focus attention of doctors in different areas on the necessity of thorough examination of patients with pathological conditions that may be the manifestation of Cushing’s syndrome (arterial hypertension, obesity, impaired carbohydrate metabolism and osteoporosis. The laboratory diagnosis is the instrument for early subclinical hypercorticism detection.

  12. Trauma- and Stress-Induced Response in Veterans with Alcohol Dependence and Comorbid Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralevski, Elizabeth; Southwick, Steven; Jackson, Eric; Jane, Jane Serrita; Russo, Melanie; Petrakis, Ismene

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur, and the co-occurrence is associated with worse prognosis than either disorder absent the other. Craving is an important construct related to relapse, but the relationship between PTSD symptoms, craving, and relapse is not well understood. Several studies have documented the relationship between stress and craving in individuals without comorbid PTSD, but the effect on those with comorbid PTSD is not well known. A small literature suggests that trauma imagery affects craving. This is the first study to explore the effects of trauma-induced and stress-induced scripts on alcohol craving, affect, cardiovascular, and cortisol responses in the laboratory. Veterans (n = 25) diagnosed with AD and PTSD who were participating in a randomized clinical treatment trial took part in this laboratory study. Baseline assessment included PTSD symptoms and drinking quantity and frequency over 3 months before study initiation. In the laboratory, participants were exposed to neutral, stressful, and trauma scripts randomly assigned. Main outcomes included craving, anxiety, mood states, salivary cortisol, and cardiovascular responses. Both stress and trauma scripts produced greater increases in craving, negative affect, and cardiovascular reactivity, compared to neutral scripts. Trauma scripts produced significantly stronger craving for alcohol and greater cardiovascular reactivity than stress scripts. Also, trauma-induced but not stress-induced craving was positively correlated with baseline levels of drinking. There were no changes in cortisol levels from pre- to postexposure of any scripts. The results highlight that trauma cues are more salient in inducing alcohol craving than stress cues and higher reactivity is related to more baseline drinking. This finding is consistent with clinical observations that show an association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol relapse. It also underscores the

  13. Stress-induced roughening instabilities along surfaces of piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, N.Y.; Gao, H.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using electric field to stabilize surfaces of piezoelectric solids against stress-induced morphological roughening is explored in this paper. Two types of idealized boundary conditions are considered: (1) a traction free and electrically insulating surface and (2) a traction free and electrically conducting surface. A perturbation solution for the energy variation associated with surface roughening suggests that the electric field can be used to suppress the roughening instability to various degrees. A completely stable state is possible in the insulating case, and kinetically more stable states can be attained in the conducting case. The stabilization has importance in reducing concentration of stress and electric fields due to microscopic surface roughness which might trigger failure processes involving dislocation, cracks and dielectric breakdown

  14. Stress-induced premature senescence of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Patschan, Susann; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is characterized by cell cycle arrest and curtailed Hayflick limit. Studies support a central role for Rb protein in controlling this process via signaling from the p53 and p16 pathways. Cellular senescence is considered an essential contributor to the aging process and has been shown to be an important tumor suppression mechanism. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that SIPS may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic human diseases. Here, focusing on endothelial cells, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of SIPS and the pathways that trigger it, evaluate their correlation with the apoptotic response and examine their links to the development of chronic diseases, with the emphasis on vasculopathy. Emerging novel therapeutic interventions based on recent experimental findings are also reviewed.

  15. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic

  16. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  17. STRESS INDUCED OBESITY: LESSONS FROM RODENT MODELS OF STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is defined as the behavioral and physiological responses generated in the face of, or in anticipation of, a perceived threat. The stress response involves activation of the sympathetic nervous system and recruitment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. When an organism encounters a stressor (social, physical, etc., these endogenous stress systems are stimulated in order to generate a fight-or-flight response, and manage the stressful situation. As such, an organism is forced to liberate energy resources in attempt to meet the energetic demands posed by the stressor. A change in the energy homeostatic balance is thus required to exploit an appropriate resource and deliver useable energy to the target muscles and tissues involved in the stress response. Acutely, this change in energy homeostasis and the liberation of energy is considered advantageous, as it is required for the survival of the organism. However, when an organism is subjected to a prolonged stressor, as is the case during chronic stress, a continuous irregularity in energy homeostasis is considered detrimental and may lead to the development of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes mellitus and obesity. This concept has been studied extensively using animal models, and the neurobiological underpinnings of stress induced metabolic disorders are beginning to surface. However, different animal models of stress continue to produce divergent metabolic phenotypes wherein some animals become anorexic and loose body mass while others increase food intake and body mass and become vulnerable to the development of metabolic disturbances. It remains unclear exactly what factors associated with stress models can be used to predict the metabolic outcome of the organism. This review will explore a variety of rodent stress models and discuss the elements that influence the metabolic outcome in order to further our understanding of stress-induced

  18. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  19. Fear of pain and cortisol reactivity predict the strength of stress-induced hypoalgesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Inge; Kaas, Amanda L.; Quaedflieg, Conny Wem; Biggs, Emma E.; Smeets, Tom; de Jong, Jeroen R.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute stress can have an effect on pain sensitivity, yet the direction of the effect - whether it is hypoalgesic or hyperalgesic - is mixed across studies. Moreover, which part of the stress response influences pain sensitivity is still unclear. In the current experimental study, we aim

  20. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Shim, Sang Hee; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca 2+ was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  1. Protective effects of the compounds isolated from the seed of Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced retinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-A [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Hee [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hong Ryul [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shjung507@gmail.com [Functional Food Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism underlying glaucoma remains controversial, but apoptosis caused by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effects of compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo. Transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) were treated with L-buthione-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) and glutamate in the presence or with pre-treatment with compound 6, bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia. We observed reduced cell death in cells pre-treated with bakuchiol. Moreover, bakuchiol inhibited the oxidative stress-induced decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm). Furthermore, while intracellular Ca{sup 2+} was high in RGC-5 cells after exposure to oxidative stress, bakuchiol reduced these levels. In an in vivo study, in which rat retinal damage was induced by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), bakuchiol markedly reduced translocation of AIF and release of cytochrome c, and inhibited up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved PARP. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) 7 days after optic nerve crush (ONC) in mice was significantly decreased; however, bakuchiol attenuated the loss of RGCs. Moreover, bakuchiol attenuated ONC-induced up-regulation of apoptotic proteins, including cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Bakuchiol also significantly inhibited translocation of mitochondrial AIF into the nuclear fraction and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol. These results demonstrate that bakuchiol isolated from P. corylifolia has protective effects against oxidative stress-induced retinal damage, and may be considered as an agent for treating or preventing retinal degeneration. - Highlights: • Psoralea corylifolia have neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. • Bakuchiol attenuated the increase of apoptotic proteins induced by oxidative

  2. [Demonstration of subclinical pulmonary alveolitis in spondylarthropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, P; Bonnet, D; Chouc, P Y; Molinier, S; Raphenon, G; Martet, G; Merouze, F; de Muizon, H

    1994-05-01

    Restrictive ventilatory dysfunction, lowered diffusing capacity, and apical fibrosis have been reported in ankylosing spondylitis. To investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities, we studied distal airspace cytology by performing bronchoalveolar lavage in 34 spondyloarthropathy patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n = 16; reactive arthritis, n = 4; axial psoriatic arthritis, n = 2; and undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy with HLA B27-positivity in every case but one, n = 12). Mean age was 32.4 +/- 13.7 years. None of the study patients had apical fibrosis, lower respiratory tract infection, or exposure to airborne pollutants other than tobacco smoke. The control group was composed of nine subjects who had no lung or inflammatory diseases and were not using medications. Significantly higher proportions of lymphocytes were found in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients, as compared with controls. This difference was not influenced by smoking or medication use (non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, sulfasalazopyridine). Alveolar lymphocytosis was not correlated with laboratory tests for disease activity (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum IgA levels) or with the presence of restrictive ventilatory dysfunction. Increases in the proportion of lymphocytes were of similar magnitude in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in those with other spondyloarthropathies. Absolute total cell counts and relative neutrophil counts were similar in patients and controls. However, among the patients with spondyloarthropathies, those with a disease duration of more than five years had a significantly higher proportion of neutrophils than those with a disease duration of less than five years. These findings demonstrate that spondyloarthropathy patients have subclinical lymphocyte alveolitis. Although of unclear significance, this alveolitis may be related to the development of apical fibrosis in some patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  3. The Biochemical Prognostic Factors of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Won Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT are common in clinical practice. However, the clinical significance of SHT, including prognosis, has not been established. Further clarifying SHT will be critical in devising a management plan and treatment guidelines for SHT patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors of SHT.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of Korean patients who visited the endocrinology outpatient clinic of Severance Hospital from January 2008 to September 2012. Newly-diagnosed patients with SHT were selected and reviewed retrospectively. We compared two groups: the SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group.ResultsThe SHT maintenance group and the spontaneous improvement group had initial thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels that were significantly different (P=0.035. In subanalysis for subjects with TSH levels between 5 to 10 µIU/mL, the spontaneous improvement group showed significantly lower antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab titer than the SHT maintenance group (P=0.039. Regarding lipid profiles, only triglyceride level, unlike total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, was related to TSH level, which is correlated with the severity of SHT. Diffuse thyroiditis on ultrasonography only contributed to the severity of SHT, not to the prognosis. High sensitivity C-reactive protein and urine iodine excretion, generally regarded as possible prognostic factors, did not show any significant relation with the prognosis and severity of SHT.ConclusionOnly initial TSH level was a definite prognostic factor of SHT. TPO-Ab titer was also a helpful prognostic factor for SHT in cases with mildly elevated TSH. Other than TSH and TPO-Ab, we were unable to validate biochemical prognostic factors in this retrospective study for Korean SHT patients.

  4. Stress-induced variation in evolution: from behavioural plasticity to genetic assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyaev, Alexander V

    2005-05-07

    Extreme environments are closely associated with phenotypic evolution, yet the mechanisms behind this relationship are poorly understood. Several themes and approaches in recent studies significantly further our understanding of the importance that stress-induced variation plays in evolution. First, stressful environments modify (and often reduce) the integration of neuroendocrinological, morphological and behavioural regulatory systems. Second, such reduced integration and subsequent accommodation of stress-induced variation by developmental systems enables organismal 'memory' of a stressful event as well as phenotypic and genetic assimilation of the response to a stressor. Third, in complex functional systems, a stress-induced increase in phenotypic and genetic variance is often directional, channelled by existing ontogenetic pathways. This accounts for similarity among individuals in stress-induced changes and thus significantly facilitates the rate of adaptive evolution. Fourth, accumulation of phenotypically neutral genetic variation might be a common property of locally adapted and complex organismal systems, and extreme environments facilitate the phenotypic expression of this variance. Finally, stress-induced effects and stress-resistance strategies often persist for several generations through maternal, ecological and cultural inheritance. These transgenerational effects, along with both the complexity of developmental systems and stressor recurrence, might facilitate genetic assimilation of stress-induced effects. Accumulation of phenotypically neutral genetic variance by developmental systems and phenotypic accommodation of stress-induced effects, together with the inheritance of stress-induced modifications, ensure the evolutionary persistence of stress-response strategies and provide a link between individual adaptability and evolutionary adaptation.

  5. Antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of Scrophularia striata extract against oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadmehr, Abbas; Oghyanous, Keyvan Alizadeh; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Amirghofran, Zahra; Azadbakht, Mohammad

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the neuroprotective effect of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) extract, a plant growing in northeastern of Iran, against oxidative stress-induced neurocytotoxicity in PC12 was evaluated. The PC12 cell line pretreated with different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml) of the extract and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Survival of the cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis were measured using MTT assay, fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, and annexin V/propidium iodide, respectively. Moreover, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the plant extract. Phytochemical assay by thin layer chromatography showed that the main components, including phenolic compounds, phenyl propanoids and flavonoids, were presented in the S. striata extract. The extract in concentrations of 50-200 μg/ml protected PC12 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity. The survival of the cells at concentration of 200 μg/ml was 64 % compared to that of H2O2 alone-treated cells (48 %) (p extract also dose-dependently reduced intracellular ROS production (p extract showed antioxidative effects and decreased apoptotic cells. Collectively, these findings indicated the ability of S. striata to decrease ROS generation and cell apoptosis and also suggest the presence of the neuroprotective agents in this plant.

  6. Stress potentiates decision biases: A stress induced deliberation-to-intuition (SIDI model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans often make decisions in stressful situations, for example when the stakes are high and the potential consequences severe, or when the clock is ticking and the task demand is overwhelming. In response, a whole train of biological responses to stress has evolved to allow organisms to make a fight-or-flight response. When under stress, fast and effortless heuristics may dominate over slow and demanding deliberation in making decisions under uncertainty. Here, I review evidence from behavioral studies and neuroimaging research on decision making under stress and propose that stress elicits a switch from an analytic reasoning system to intuitive processes, and predict that this switch is associated with diminished activity in the prefrontal executive control regions and exaggerated activity in subcortical reactive emotion brain areas. Previous studies have shown that when stressed, individuals tend to make more habitual responses than goal-directed choices, be less likely to adjust their initial judgment, and rely more on gut feelings in social situations. It is possible that stress influences the arbitration between the emotion responses in subcortical regions and deliberative processes in the prefrontal cortex, so that final decisions are based on unexamined innate responses. Future research may further test this ‘stress induced deliberation-to-intuition’ (SIDI model and examine its underlying neural mechanisms.

  7. ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin ePetrov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During the course of their ontogenesis, plants are continuously exposed to a large variety of abiotic stress factors which can damage tissues and jeopardize the survival of the organism unless properly countered. While animals can simply escape and thus evade stressors, plants as sessile organisms have developed complex strategies to withstand them. When the intensity of a detrimental factor is high, one of the defense programs employed by plants is the induction of programmed cell death (PCD. This is an active, genetically controlled process which is initiated to isolate and remove damaged tissues thereby ensuring the survival of the organism. The mechanism of PCD induction usually includes an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS which are utilized as mediators of the stress signal. Abiotic stress-induced PCD is not only a process of fundamental biological importance, but also of considerable interest to agricultural practice as it has the potential to significantly influence crop yield. Therefore, numerous scientific enterprises have focused on elucidating the mechanisms leading to and controlling PCD in response to adverse conditions in plants. This knowledge may help to develop novel strategies to obtain more resilient crop varieties with improved tolerance and enhanced productivity. The aim of the present review is to summarize the recent advances in research on ROS-induced PCD related to abiotic stress and the role of the organelles in the process.

  8. Blockade of Drp1 rescues oxidative stress-induced osteoblast dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Xueqi; Huang, Shengbin; Yu, Qing [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Higuchi Bioscience Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66047 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Yu, Haiyang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Yan, Shirley ShiDu, E-mail: shidu@ku.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Higuchi Bioscience Center, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66047 (United States)

    2015-12-25

    Osteoblast dysfunction, induced by oxidative stress, plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclarified. Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics has been closely linked to oxidative stress. Here, we reveal an unexplored role of dynamic related protein 1(Drp1), the major regulator in mitochondrial fission, in the oxidative stress-induced osteoblast injury model. We demonstrate that levels of phosphorylation and expression of Drp1 significantly increased under oxidative stress. Blockade of Drp1, through pharmaceutical inhibitor or gene knockdown, significantly protected against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced osteoblast dysfunction, as shown by increased cell viability, improved cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization and restored mitochondrial function. The protective effects of blocking Drp1 in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced osteoblast dysfunction were evidenced by increased mitochondrial function and suppressed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings provide new insights into the role of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial pathway in the pathology of osteoporosis, indicating that the Drp1 pathway may be targetable for the development of new therapeutic approaches in the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • Oxidative stress is an early pathological event in osteoporosis. • Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics are linked to oxidative stress in osteoporosis. • The role of the Drp1-dependent mitochondrial pathway in osteoporosis.

  9. Protective Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cytotoxicity in Rat Pheochromocytoma (PC-12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengke Bao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many kinds of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson’s disease. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid found ubiquitously in fruits and vegetables, and has antioxidative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of the antioxidative effect of quercetin in neurodegenerative diseases has not been well explored. Here, we investigated the antioxidative effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of quercetin on PC-12 cells. We found that PC-12 cells pretreated with quercetin exhibited an increased cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The significantly-alleviated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, malondialdehyde (MDA, and lipoperoxidation of the cell membrane of PC-12 cells induced by H2O2 were observed in the quercetin pretreated group. Furthermore, quercetin pretreatment markedly reduced the apoptosis of PC-12 cells and hippocampal neurons. The inductions of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in PC-12 cells exposed to H2O2 were significantly reduced by preatment with quercetin. In addition, quercetin pretreatment significantly increased Bcl-2 expression, and reduced Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and p53 expressions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that quercetin exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Our findings suggested that quercetin may be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress.

  10. Protective Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Stress-Induced Cytotoxicity in Rat Pheochromocytoma (PC-12) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Dengke; Wang, Jingkai; Pang, Xiaobin; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-07-06

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many kinds of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid found ubiquitously in fruits and vegetables, and has antioxidative activity. However, the underlying mechanism of the antioxidative effect of quercetin in neurodegenerative diseases has not been well explored. Here, we investigated the antioxidative effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of quercetin on PC-12 cells. We found that PC-12 cells pretreated with quercetin exhibited an increased cell viability and reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). The significantly-alleviated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipoperoxidation of the cell membrane of PC-12 cells induced by H₂O₂ were observed in the quercetin pretreated group. Furthermore, quercetin pretreatment markedly reduced the apoptosis of PC-12 cells and hippocampal neurons. The inductions of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in PC-12 cells exposed to H₂O₂ were significantly reduced by preatment with quercetin. In addition, quercetin pretreatment significantly increased Bcl-2 expression, and reduced Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and p53 expressions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that quercetin exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Our findings suggested that quercetin may be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress.

  11. Cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol on oxidative stress induced cell damage via catalase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Chae, Sungwook; Zhang, Rui; Jung, Myung Sun; Ham, Young Min; Baik, Jong Seok; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2006-02-15

    We investigated the cytoprotective effect of phloroglucinol, which was isolated from Ecklonia cava (brown alga), against oxidative stress induced cell damage in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. Phloroglucinol was found to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxy radical, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thus prevented lipid peroxidation. As a result, phloroglucinol reduced H(2)O(2) induced apoptotic cells formation in V79-4 cells. In addition, phloroglucinol inhibited cell damage induced by serum starvation and radiation through scavenging ROS. Phloroglucinol increased the catalase activity and its protein expression. In addition, catalase inhibitor abolished the protective effect of phloroglucinol from H(2)O(2) induced cell damage. Furthermore, phloroglucinol increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the results suggest that phloroglucinol protects V79-4 cells against oxidative damage by enhancing the cellular catalase activity and modulating ERK signal pathway. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  13. Pulmonary functions in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Gulfidan; Saler, Tayyibe; Saglam, Zuhal Aydan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ataoglu, Esra; Demir, Tuncalp; Temiz, Levent Umit

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether alterations in pulmonary function takes place in subclinical hypothyroidism by examining the diffusion lung capacity and muscle strength of such patients. This is a descriptive study conducted in 2009 at Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Hundred and twenty-six patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 58 age and sex matched individuals were recruited. Simple spirometry tests were performed, and pulmonary diffusion capacity (DLco) and muscle strength were measured. ScH patients showed a significant reduciton of the following pulmonary function tests (% predicted value) as compared with control subjects: FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, FEF25-75, FEF25-75%, DLco, DLco/VA, Pimax, Pimax% and Pemax%. These data indicate that pulmonary functions are effected in subclinical hypothyrodism. Therefore patients with or who are at high risk of having subclinical hypothyroidism, should be subjected to evaluation of pulmonary functions with simple spirometry.

  14. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Fracture Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Bauer, Douglas C; Collet, Tinh-Hai

    2015-01-01

    . Levels of thyroid function were defined as euthyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], 0.45-4.49 mIU/L), subclinical hyperthyroidism (TSH hypothyroidism (TSH ≥4.50-19.99 mIU/L) with normal thyroxine concentrations. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was hip...... fracture. Any fractures, nonspine fractures, and clinical spine fractures were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Among 70,298 participants, 4092 (5.8%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 2219 (3.2%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism. During 762,401 person-years of follow-up, hip fracture occurred in 2975...... hyperthyroidism (excluding thyroid medication users) was associated with HRs of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.19-1.93) for hip fracture, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.16-1.74) for any fracture, and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.01-2.99) for spine fracture. No association was found between subclinical hypothyroidism and fracture risk. CONCLUSIONS...

  15. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Lambiase, Maya J; Lobarinas, Christina L; Balantekin, Katherine N

    2011-12-01

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy intake and food choices. A total of 40 boys and girls, age 8-12 years, with wide ranges of dietary restraint, adiposity, and stress reactivity were measured for total energy intake and choice of energy dense 'comfort' and lower density 'healthy' foods following reading and speech stressor manipulations. When exploring the interaction of dietary restraint and stress reactivity, lower restraint/lower reactivity and lower restraint/higher reactivity were associated with reductions in energy intake (37-62 kcal) and comfort food (33-89 kcal). Higher restraint/lower reactivity was associated with consuming 86 fewer total kcal and 45 fewer kcal of comfort food. Only higher restraint/higher reactivity predicted increased energy intake (104 kcal) and comfort food (131 kcal). The interaction of dietary restraint and percentage body fat revealed that lower restraint/lower adiposity was associated with consuming 123 fewer kcal after being stressed with the entire reduction due to a decrease in comfort food. Lower restraint/higher adiposity was associated with consuming 116 kcal more after being stressed with 70% (81 kcal) of the increase in the form of comfort foods. Higher restraint/lower adiposity and higher restraint/higher adiposity were associated with smaller changes in total energy intake of 22 kcal and 1 kcal; respectively. Both restraint and adiposity moderated the effect of stress on energy intake and food choice. Children with greater adiposity may be at risk for stress-induced eating to contribute to their obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Red Wine Tannat on Oxidative Stress Induced by Glucose and Fructose in Erythrocytes in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzini, Camila Eliza Fernandes; Colpo, Ana Ceolin; Poetini, Márcia Rósula; Pires, Cauê Ferreira; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Azevedo, Miriane Lucas; Soares, Júlio César Mendes; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity. Erythrocytes were incubated using different concentrations of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of wine. From these erythrocytes were determined the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), glucose consumption, and osmotic fragility. Moreover, quantification of total phenolic, gallic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, resveratrol, and DPPH scavenging activity in wine were also assessed. Red wine showed high levels of polyphenols analyzed, as well as high antioxidant potential. Erythrocytes incubated with glucose and fructose had an increase in lipid peroxidation and this was prevented by the addition of wine. The wine increased glucose uptake into erythrocytes and was able to decrease the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes incubated with fructose. Altogether, these results suggest that wine leads to a reduction of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of glucose and fructose. PMID:26078708

  17. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Oxidative Stress Induces Senescence in Cultured RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Nona; Betts-Obregon, Brandi S; Perry, George; Tsin, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine whether oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cultured ARPE19 cells were subjected to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress. Cells were seeded into 24-well plates with hydrogen peroxide added to cell medium and incubated at 37°C + 5% CO2 for a 90-minute period [at 0, 300, 400 and 800 micromolar (MCM) hydrogen peroxide]. The number of viable ARPE19 cells were recorded using the Trypan Blue Dye Exclusion Method and cell senescence was measured by positive staining for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) protein. Without hydrogen peroxide treatment, the number of viable ARPE19 cells increased significantly from 50,000 cells/well to 197,000 within 72 hours. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide reduced this level of cell proliferation significantly (to 52,167 cells at 400 MCM; to 49,263 cells at 800 MCM). Meanwhile, cells with a high level of positive senescence-indicator SA-Beta-Gal-positive staining was induced by hydrogen peroxide treatment (from a baseline level of 12% to 80% at 400 MCM and at 800 MCM). Our data suggests that oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide treatment inhibited ARPE19 cell proliferation and induced cellular senescence.

  19. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharib Ola

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichloroethylene (TCE may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Methods Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1 the control group treated with vehicle, (2 Kombucha (KT-treated group, (3 TCE-treated group and (4 KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activities were also measured. Results TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. Conclusion The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment.

  20. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Ola Ali

    2009-11-27

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1) the control group treated with vehicle, (2) Kombucha (KT)-treated group, (3) TCE-treated group and (4) KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO) and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also measured. TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA) and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH) level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment.

  1. Stress-inducible expression of an F-box gene TaFBA1 from wheat enhanced the drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants without impacting growth and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzhu Kong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available E3 ligase plays an important role in the response to many environment stresses in plants. In our previous study, constitutive overexpression of an F-box protein gene TaFBA1 driven by 35S promoter improved the drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants, but the growth and development in transgenic plants was altered in normal conditions. In this study, we used stress-inducible promoter RD29A instead of 35S promoter, as a results, the stress-inducible transgenic tobacco plants exhibit a similar phenotype with WT plants. However, the drought tolerance of the transgenic plants with stress-inducible expressed TaFBA1 was enhanced. The improved drought tolerance of transgenic plants was indicated by their higher seed germination rate and survival rate, greater biomass and photosynthesis than those of WT under water stress, which may be related to their greater water retention capability and osmotic adjustment. Moreover, the transgenic plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS, kept lower MDA content and membrane leakage under water stress, which may be related to their higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and upregulated gene expression of some antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that stress induced expression of TaFBA1 confers drought tolerance via the improved water retention and antioxidative compete abilibty. Meanwhile, this stress-inducible expression strategy by RD29A promoter can minimize the unexpectable effects by 35S constitutive promoter on phenotypes of the transgenic plants.

  2. Stress-Inducible Expression of an F-box Gene TaFBA1 from Wheat Enhanced the Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants without Impacting Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhu; Zhou, Shumei; Yin, Suhong; Zhao, Zhongxian; Han, Yangyang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    E3 ligase plays an important role in the response to many environment stresses in plants. In our previous study, constitutive overexpression of an F-box protein gene TaFBA1 driven by 35S promoter improved the drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants, but the growth and development in transgenic plants was altered in normal conditions. In this study, we used stress-inducible promoter RD29A instead of 35S promoter, as a results, the stress-inducible transgenic tobacco plants exhibit a similar phenotype with wild type (WT) plants. However, the drought tolerance of the transgenic plants with stress-inducible expressed TaFBA1 was enhanced. The improved drought tolerance of transgenic plants was indicated by their higher seed germination rate and survival rate, greater biomass and photosynthesis than those of WT under water stress, which may be related to their greater water retention capability and osmotic adjustment. Moreover, the transgenic plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species, kept lower MDA content and membrane leakage under water stress, which may be related to their higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and upregulated gene expression of some antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that stress induced expression of TaFBA1 confers drought tolerance via the improved water retention and antioxidative compete ability. Meanwhile, this stress-inducible expression strategy by RD29A promoter can minimize the unexpectable effects by 35S constitutive promoter on phenotypes of the transgenic plants.

  3. Stress-induced hyperglycaemia and venous thromboembolism following total hip or total knee arthroplasty Analysis from the RECORD trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, Danny M.; Hermanides, Jeroen; DeVries, J. Hans; Kamphuisen, Pieter-Willem; Kuhls, Silvia; Homering, Martin; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Büller, Harry R.

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced hyperglycaemia is common during orthopaedic surgery. In addition, hyperglycaemia activates coagulation. The aim of the study was to assess whether stress-induced hyperglycaemia is associated with symptomatic or asymptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) following orthopaedic surgery.

  4. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacologic stress-induced stunning: evaluation with quantitative gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, K. A.; Cho, I. H.; Won, K. J.; Lee, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The after-effect of pharmacologic stress (adenosine) on left ventricular (LV) function, end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated after pharmacologic stress with Tl-201 and 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT using an automated program in 153 subjects. The subjects were grouped as follows: 1) Tl-201 group (n=35, male 18, female 17, mean age: 58 years); normal scan (n=24), ischemia (n=8) and infarction (n=3). 2) 99m Tc-MIBI group (n=118, male 60, female 58, mean age: 62 years); normal scan (n=73), ischemia (n=20) and infarction (n=25) based on the interpretation of perfusion images. All patients were in sinus rhythm during the study. 1)Tl-201 group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 12.3 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (51.2 ± 6.3% vs 59.8± 8.2%, p 99m Tc-MIBI group; In patients with ischemia (the mean time interval between injection and acquisition is 80 min), post-stress LVEF was significantly depressed after adenosine infusion (p<0.001) and ΔLVEF was 5.1%. Eight patients (40%) showed an increase in LVEF greater than 5% from poststress to rest. Poststress ESV (37.1±17.3 ml) was significantly higher than ESV (31.3±15.5 ml, p<0.001) at rest, but no significant difference in EDV. These results showed that pharmacologic stress induced stunning is well noted in the early quantitative gated SPECT in ischemic patients and also observed in the delayed gated SPECT, even though the rate of stunning is less than the early SPECT

  6. Phenotypic heterogeneity in a bacteriophage population only appears as stress-induced mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Ido; Edgar, Rotem; Qimron, Udi

    2016-11-01

    Stress-induced mutagenesis has been studied in cancer cells, yeast, bacteria, and archaea, but not in viruses. In a recent publication, we present a bacteriophage model showing an apparent stress-induced mutagenesis. We show that the stress does not drive the mutagenesis, but only selects the fittest mutants. The mechanism underlying the observed phenomenon is a phenotypic heterogeneity that resembles persistence of the viral population. The new findings, the background for the ongoing debate on stress-induced mutagenesis, and the phenotypic heterogeneity underlying a novel phage infection strategy are discussed in this short manuscript.

  7. Subclinical form of the American visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elinor Alves Gama

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis (VL shows nonspecific clinical manifestations, with difficulties being frequently met in its clinical characterization and diagnostic confirmation. Thus, the objective of the present study was to define the clinical-laboratory profile of this clinical form. A cohort study was conducted in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, from January/1998 to December/2000, with monthly follow-up of 784 children aged 0-5 years. Based on the clinical-laboratory parameters reported in the literature, four categories were established, with the children being classified (according to their clinical-evolutive behavior as asymptomatic (N = 144, as having the subclinical form (N = 33 or the acute form (N = 12 or as subjects "without VL" (N = 595. Multiple discriminant analysis demonstrated that the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased blood sedimentation rate (BSR can predict the subclinical form of VL as long as it is not associated with splenomegaly or leukopenia. Subjects with the subclinical form did not show prolonged or intermittent evolution or progression to the acute form of VL. Subclinical cases have a profile differing from the remaining clinical forms of VL, being best characterized by the combination of fever, hepatomegaly, hyperglobulinemia, and increased BSR.

  8. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: clinical features and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Palmieri, Emiliano Antonio; Klain, Michele; Schlumberger, Martin; Filetti, Sebastiano; Lombardi, Gaetano

    2005-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism appears to be a common disorder. It may be caused by exogenous or endogenous factors: excessive TSH suppressive therapy with L-thyroxine (L-T4) for benign thyroid nodular disease, differentiated thyroid cancer, or hormone over-replacement in patients with hypothyroidism are the most frequent causes. Consistent evidence indicates that 'subclinical' hyperthyroidism reduces the quality of life, affecting both the psycho and somatic components of well-being, and produces relevant signs and symptoms of excessive thyroid hormone action, often mimicking adrenergic overactivity. Subclinical hyperthyroidism exerts many significant effects on the cardiovascular system; it is usually associated with a higher heart rate and a higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias, and with an increased left ventricular mass, often accompanied by an impaired diastolic function and sometimes by a reduced systolic performance on effort and decreased exercise tolerance. It is well known that these abnormalities usually precede the onset of a more severe cardiovascular disease, thus potentially contributing to the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in these patients. In addition, it is becoming increasingly apparent that subclinical hyperthyroidism may accelerate the development of osteoporosis and hence increased bone vulnerability to trauma, particularly in postmenopausal women with a pre-existing predisposition. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and its related clinical manifestations are reversible and may be prevented by timely treatment.

  9. Despite higher glucocorticoid levels and stress responses in female rats, both sexes exhibit similar stress-induced changes in hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Sex differences in stress reactivity may be one of the factors underlying the increased sensitivity for the development of psychopathologies in women. Particularly, an increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in females may exacerbate stress-induced changes in neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis, which in turn may contribute to an increased sensitivity to psychopathology. The main aim of the present study was to examine male-female differences in stress-induced changes in different aspects of hippocampal neurogenesis, i.e. cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Both sexes were exposed to a wide variety of stressors, where after differences in HPA-axis reactivity and neurogenesis were assessed. To study the role of oestradiol in potential sex differences, ovariectomized females received low or high physiological oestradiol level replacement pellets. The results show that females in general have a higher basal and stress-induced HPA-axis activity than males, with minimal differences between the two female groups. Cell proliferation in the dorsal hippocampus was significantly higher in high oestradiol females compared to low oestradiol females and males, while doublecortin (DCX) expression as a marker of cell differentiation was significantly higher in males compared to females, independent of oestradiol level. Stress exposure did not significantly influence cell proliferation or survival of new cells, but did reduce DCX expression. In conclusion, despite the male-female differences in HPA-axis activity, the effect of repeated stress exposure on hippocampal cell differentiation was not significantly different between sexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. BOVINE PLASMA FIBRINOGEN AS MARKER IN CLINICAL AND SUB-CLINICAL MASTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma samples were collected from healthy as well as clinical and sub-clinical mastitis affected cows from Barasat, West Bengal, India. Plasma samples, after ammonium sulphate precipitation, were dialyzed against several changes of PBS (pH 7.2 to remove the excess ammonium sulphate. Then plasma fibrinogens were purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 HR. SDS-PAGE (10% of purified fibrinogen from plasma of healthy cow revealed polypeptide bands of 74, 67 and 57 kDa which represent the α (alpha, β (beta and γ (gamma- chains respectively. On the other hand, purified fibrinogen from plasma of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis affected cow revealed polypeptide bands of 73 (α-chain, 68 kDa (β-chain and 72 (γ-chain, 68 kDa (β-chain respectively. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed the absence of gamma (γ- chain of fibrinogen in both the samples of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis positive cow. Single precipitin line was observed in double immunodiffusion test when purified fibrinogen from healthy, clinical and subclinical mastitis positive cows reacted with hyper immune sera raised in rabbit. No precipitin line was found against the normal control serum. These purified fibrinogens also showed cross reactivity against antibody raised in rabbit when analyzed by western blot technique.

  11. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: current concepts and scintigraphic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intenzo, Charles; Jabbour, Serge; Miller, Jeffrey L; Ahmed, Intekhab; Furlong, Kevin; Kushen, Medina; Kim, Sung M; Capuzzi, David M

    2011-09-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined as normal serum free thyroxine and a free triiodothyronine level, with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and is usually undetectable. Although patients with this diagnosis have no or few signs and symptoms of overt thyrotoxicosis, there is sufficient evidence that it is associated with a relatively higher risk of supraventricular arrhythmias as well as the acceleration or the development of osteoporosis. Consequently, the approach to the patient with subclinical hyperthyroidism is controversial, that is, therapeutic intervention versus watchful waiting. Regardless, it is imperative for the referring physician to identify the causative thyroid disorder. This is optimally accomplished by a functional study, namely scintigraphy. Recognition of the scan findings of the various causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism enables the imaging specialist to help in diagnosing the underlying condition causing thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression thereby facilitating the workup and management of this thyroid disorder.

  12. Chronic stress-induced effects of corticosterone on brain: direct and indirect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallman, M. F.; Akana, S. F.; Strack, A. M.; Scribner, K. S.; Pecoraro, N.; La Fleur, S. E.; Houshyar, H.; Gomez, F.

    2004-01-01

    Acutely, glucocorticoids act to inhibit stress-induced corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion through their actions in brain and anterior pituitary (canonical feedback). With chronic stress, glucocorticoid feedback inhibition of ACTH secretion changes

  13. Physiological correlates of stress-induced decrements in human perceptual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Stress-induced changes in human performance have been thought to result from alterations in the "multidimensional arousal state" of the individual, as indexed by alterations in the physiological and psychological mechanisms controlling performance. I...

  14. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Y Demidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart disease, incident atrial fibrillation, and cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    T Y Demidova; I N Drozdova

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism occurs when the serum TSH is below the lower limit of the reference range and the free T4 and T3 concentrations are normal. Тhe clinical significance of subclinical hyperthyroidism is much debated. Subclinical hyperthyroidism has been associated with several biological effects on cardiovascular system, such as increased heart rate, left ventricular mass. Observational studies have reported an association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and coronary heart diseas...

  16. Subclinical Cushing's syndrome: current concepts and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografos, George N; Perysinakis, Iraklis; Vassilatou, Evangeline

    2014-01-01

    Clinically inapparent adrenal masses which are incidentally detected have become a common problem in everyday practice. Approximately 5-20% of adrenal incidentalomas present subclinical cortisol hypersecretion which is characterized by subtle alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis due to adrenal autonomy. This disorder has been described as subclinical Cushing's syndrome, since there is no typical clinical phenotype. The diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome is based on biochemical evaluation; however, there is still no consensus for the biochemical diagnostic criteria. An abnormal 1mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) as initial screening test in combination with at least one other abnormal test of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been advocated by most experts for the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome. DST is the main method of establishing the diagnosis, while there is inhomogeneity of the information that other tests provide. Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or impaired glucose tolerance, central obesity, osteoporosis/vertebral fractures and dyslipidemia are considered as detrimental effects of chronic subtle cortisol excess, although there is no proven causal relationship between subclinical cortisol hypersecretion and these morbidities. Therapeutic strategies include careful observation along with medical treatment of morbidities potentially related to subtle cortisol hypersecretion versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy. The optimal management of patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not yet defined. The conservative approach is appropriate for the majority of these patients; however, the duration of follow-up and the frequency of periodical evaluation still remain open issues. Surgical resection may be beneficial for patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 or abnormal glucose tolerance and obesity.

  17. Tat-antioxidant 1 protects against stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cells death and attenuate ischaemic insult in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Mi; Hwang, In Koo; Yoo, Dae Young; Eum, Won Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Ahn, Eun Hee; Jo, Hyo Sang; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Cho, Sung-Woo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Lee, Keun Wook; Cho, Yoon Shin; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for various neuronal diseases. Antioxidant 1 (Atox1) regulates copper homoeostasis and promotes cellular antioxidant defence against toxins generated by ROS. The roles of Atox1 protein in ischaemia, however, remain unclear. In this study, we generated a protein transduction domain fused Tat-Atox1 and examined the roles of Tat-Atox1 in oxidative stress-induced hippocampal HT-22 cell death and an ischaemic injury animal model. Tat-Atox1 effectively transduced into HT-22 cells and it protected cells against the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity including increasing of ROS levels and DNA fragmentation. At the same time, Tat-Atox1 regulated cellular survival signalling such as p53, Bad/Bcl-2, Akt and mitogen-activate protein kinases (MAPKs). In the animal ischaemia model, transduced Tat-Atox1 protected against neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region. In addition, Tat-Atox1 significantly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia as well as lipid peroxidation in the CA1 region after ischaemic insult. Taken together, these results indicate that transduced Tat-Atox1 protects against oxidative stress-induced HT-22 cell death and against neuronal damage in animal ischaemia model. Therefore, we suggest that Tat-Atox1 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced ischaemic damage. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşin Akıncı; Mukaddes Eşrefoğlu; Elif Taşlıdere; Burhan Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty male Wistar albino...

  19. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Ak?nc?, Ay?in; E?refo?lu, Mukaddes; Ta?l?dere, Elif; Ate?, Burhan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were...

  20. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  1. Oxidative stress induces caveolin 1 degradation and impairs caveolae functions in skeletal muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mougeolle

    Full Text Available Increased level of oxidative stress, a major actor of cellular aging, impairs the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle and leads to the reduction in the number and size of muscle fibers causing sarcopenia. Caveolin 1 is the major component of caveolae, small membrane invaginations involved in signaling and endocytic trafficking. Their role has recently expanded to mechanosensing and to the regulation of oxidative stress-induced pathways. Here, we increased the amount of reactive oxidative species in myoblasts by addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at non-toxic concentrations. The expression level of caveolin 1 was significantly decreased as early as 10 min after 500 μM H2O2 treatment. This reduction was not observed in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor, suggesting that caveolin 1 was rapidly degraded by the proteasome. In spite of caveolin 1 decrease, caveolae were still able to assemble at the plasma membrane. Their functions however were significantly perturbed by oxidative stress. Endocytosis of a ceramide analog monitored by flow cytometry was significantly diminished after H2O2 treatment, indicating that oxidative stress impaired its selective internalization via caveolae. The contribution of caveolae to the plasma membrane reservoir has been monitored after osmotic cell swelling. H2O2 treatment increased membrane fragility revealing that treated cells were more sensitive to an acute mechanical stress. Altogether, our results indicate that H2O2 decreased caveolin 1 expression and impaired caveolae functions. These data give new insights on age-related deficiencies in skeletal muscle.

  2. Body mass index and risk for mental stress induced ischemia in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufer, Robert; Fernandez, Antonio B; Meadows, Judith; Collins, Dorothea; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-05-19

    Acute emotionally reactive mental stress (MS) can provoke prognostically relevant deficits in cardiac function and myocardial perfusion, and chronic inflammation increases risk for this ischemic phenomenon. We have described parasympathetic withdrawal and generation of inflammatory factors in MS. Adiposity is also associated with elevated markers of chronic inflammation. High body mass index (BMI) is frequently used as a surrogate for assessment of excess adiposity, and associated with traditional CAD risk factors, and CAD mortality. BMI is also associated with autonomic dysregulation, adipose tissue derived proinflammatory cytokines, which are also attendant to emotion provoked myocardial ischemia. Thus, we sought to determine if body mass index (BMI) contributes to risk of developing myocardial ischemia provoked by mental stress. We performed a prospective interventional study in a cohort of 161 patients with stable CAD. They completed an assessment of myocardial blood flow with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) simultaneously during 2 conditions: laboratory mental stress and at rest. Multivariate logistic regression determined the independent contribution of BMI to the occurrence of mental-stress induced ischemia. Mean age was 65.6±9.0 years; 87.0% had a history of hypertension, and 28.6% had diabetes. Mean BMI was 30.4±4.7. Prevalence of mental stress ischemia was 39.8%. BMI was an independent predictor of mental stress ischemia, OR=1.10, 95% CI [1.01-1.18] for one-point increase in BMI and OR=1.53, 95% CI [1.06-2.21] for a 4.7 point increase in BMI (one standard deviation beyond the cohort BMI mean), p=0.025 for all. These data suggest that BMI may serve as an independent risk marker for mental stress ischemia. The factors attendant with greater BMI, which include autonomic dysregulation and inflammation, may represent pathways by which high BMI contribute to this risk and serve as a conceptual construct to replicate these findings in larger

  3. Impact of bovine subclinical mastitis and effect of lactational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Borne, B.H.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836826

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aimed to quantify the impact of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in the Netherlands and to explore the epidemiologic and economic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis during lactation. First, the occurrence of (sub)clinical mastitis was

  4. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal handling (NH) of male rat pups strongly attenuates stress response and stress-induced persistent muscle hyperalgesia in adults. Because female sex is a well established risk factor for stress-induced chronic muscle pain, we explored whether NH provides resilience to stress-induced hyperalgesia in adult female rats. Rat pups underwent NH, or standard (control) care. Muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold was assessed before and after water avoidance (WA) stress, when they were adults. In contrast to male rats, NH produced only a modest protection against WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia in female rats. Gonadectomy completely abolished NH-induced resilience in male rats but produced only a small increase in this protective effect in female rats. The administration of the antiestrogen drug fulvestrant, in addition to gonadectomy, did not enhance the protective effect of NH in female rats. Finally, knockdown of the androgen receptor by intrathecal antisense treatment attenuated the protective effect of NH in intact male rats. Together, these data indicate that androgens play a key role in NH-induced resilience to WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia. NH induces androgen-dependent resilience to stress-induced muscle pain. Therefore, androgens may contribute to sex differences observed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its enhancement by stress. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress-Induced Proton Disorder in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch-Müller, M.; Rhede, D.; Mrosko, M.; Speziale, S.; Schade, U.

    2008-12-01

    observed up to 30 GPa without any discontinuity and their pressure behaviour (dν/dP) can well be described by linear fits. Molecular vibrations are very sensitive to non-hydrostatic conditions and we interpret the disappearance of the OH-bands as a stress-induced proton disordering in hydrous ringwoodite due to the use of hard pressure transmiting media like CsI or argon without thermal annealing. Thus, our study cannot confirm the phase transition observed by Camorro Perez et al. (2006) in ringwoodite. But as they used Neon as pressure transmitting medium, which is known to become non-hydrostatic at pressure above 16 GPa (Bell and Mao, 1981) we argue that their observation of a sudden disappearance of the OH band may also be related to non-hydrostatic conditions. References Bell P.M. and Mao H.-K. (1981) Carnegie Inst. Wash Yrbk 80: 404-406. Camorro Perez E.M., Daniel I., Chervin J.-C., Dumas P., Bass J.D. and Inoue T. (2006) Phys. Chem. Minerals, 33, 502 - 510. Kudoh Y., Kuribayashi T., Mizohata H., Ohtani E., (2000) Phys. Chem. Mineral. 27, 474-479. Wittlinger J., Fischer R., Wener S., ScheiderJ., Schulz J. (1997) Acta Cryst B53, 745 - 749.

  6. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha Krishnan; Soumini; Adithya

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ) and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of ...

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Case Control Study in Nepalese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra KC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess cardiovascular risk factors in Nepalese population with subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to age and sex matched controls. Materials and Methods. A case control study was conducted among 200 subjects (100 subclinical hypothyroid and 100 euthyroid at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Demographic and anthropometric variables including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP were taken. Blood samples were assayed for serum free triiodothyronine (fT3, free thyroxine (fT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP. Results. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly higher diastolic BP, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and hs-CRP than controls. The odds ratio of having hypercholesterolemia (>200 mg/dL, low HDL cholesterol (100 mg/dL, high hs-CRP (>1 mg/L, and high diastolic BP (>80 mmHg and being overweight (BMI ≥ 23 Kg/m2 in subclinical hypothyroidism was 2.29 (95% CI; 1.2–4.38, p=0.011, 1.73 (95% CI; 0.82–3.62, p=0.141, 3.04 (95% CI; 1.66–5.56, p<0.001, 2.02 (95% CI; 1.12–3.64, p=0.018, 3.35 (95% CI; 1.72–6.55, p<0.001, and 0.9 (95% CI; 0.48–1.67, p=0.753, respectively, as compared to controls. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroid patients are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease than euthyroid subjects.

  8. Oxidative stress induced by chlorine dioxide as an insecticidal factor to the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Eunseong; Na, Jahyun; Chun, Yong Shik; Kwon, Hyeok; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-10-01

    A novel fumigant, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a commercial bleaching and disinfection agent. Recent study indicates its insecticidal activity. However, its mode of action to kill insects is yet to be understood. This study set up a hypothesis that an oxidative stress induced by ClO2 is a main factor to kill insects. The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, is a lepidopteran insect pest infesting various stored grains. Larvae of P. interpunctella were highly susceptible to ClO2 gas, which exhibited an acute toxicity. Physiological damages by ClO2 were observed in hemocytes. At high doses, the larvae of P. interpunctella suffered significant reduction of total hemocytes. At low doses, ClO2 impaired hemocyte behaviors. The cytotoxicity of ClO2 was further analyzed using two insect cell lines, where Sf9 cells were more susceptible to ClO2 than High Five cells. The cells treated with ClO2 produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The produced ROS amounts increased with an increase of the treated ClO2 amount. However, the addition of an antioxidant, vitamin E, significantly attenuated the cytotoxicity of ClO2 in a dose-dependent manner. To support the oxidative stress induced by ClO2, two antioxidant genes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thioredoxin-peroxidase (Tpx)) were identified from P. interpunctella EST library using ortholog sequences of Bombyx mori. Both SOD and Tpx were expressed in larvae of P. interpunctella especially under oxidative stress induced by bacterial challenge. Exposure to ClO2 gas significantly induced the gene expression of both SOD and Tpx. RNA interference of SOD or Tpx using specific double stranded RNAs significantly enhanced the lethality of P. interpunctella to ClO2 gas treatment as well as to the bacterial challenge. These results suggest that ClO2 induces the production of insecticidal ROS, which results in a fatal oxidative stress in P. interpunctella. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent ER stress induces the spliced leader RNA silencing pathway (SLS, leading to programmed cell death in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoch Goldshmidt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomes are parasites that cycle between the insect host (procyclic form and mammalian host (bloodstream form. These parasites lack conventional transcription regulation, including factors that induce the unfolded protein response (UPR. However, they possess a stress response mechanism, the spliced leader RNA silencing (SLS pathway. SLS elicits shut-off of spliced leader RNA (SL RNA transcription by perturbing the binding of the transcription factor tSNAP42 to its cognate promoter, thus eliminating trans-splicing of all mRNAs. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in procyclic trypanosomes elicits changes in the transcriptome similar to those induced by conventional UPR found in other eukaryotes. The mechanism of up-regulation under ER stress is dependent on differential stabilization of mRNAs. The transcriptome changes are accompanied by ER dilation and elevation in the ER chaperone, BiP. Prolonged ER stress induces SLS pathway. RNAi silencing of SEC63, a factor that participates in protein translocation across the ER membrane, or SEC61, the translocation channel, also induces SLS. Silencing of these genes or prolonged ER stress led to programmed cell death (PCD, evident by exposure of phosphatidyl serine, DNA laddering, increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production, increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+, and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as typical morphological changes observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. ER stress response is also induced in the bloodstream form and if the stress persists it leads to SLS. We propose that prolonged ER stress induces SLS, which serves as a unique death pathway, replacing the conventional caspase-mediated PCD observed in higher eukaryotes.

  10. Cortisol reactivity and distress-induced emotional eating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T.; Roelofs, K.; de Weerth, C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a relationship between blunted HPA-axis stress reactivity and increased stress-induced food intake in chronically stressed animals. Such a relationship can potentially explain the underlying mechanisms of emotional eating in humans. However, no studies have experimentally

  11. Cortisol reactivity and distress-induced emotional eating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Roelofs, K.; Weerth, C. de

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a relationship between blunted HPA-axis stress reactivity and increased stress-induced food intake in chronically stressed animals. Such a relationship can potentially explain the underlying mechanisms of emotional eating in humans. However, no studies have experimentally

  12. Data on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggu Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the data showing the different influence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH on the risk of cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in various subgroups regarding myocardial infarction, previous PCI, the stent generation, total stent length, the extent of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, obesity, a lipid reduction level and a C-reactive protein level. This article also contains the data showing the association between SCH and the risk of receiving repeat PCI for in-stent restenosis or de novo coronary stenosis. The data are supplemental to our original research article titled “Impact of Subclinical Hypothyroidism on Clinical Outcomes Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention” (Lee et al., 2017 [1].

  13. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 μM quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 μM) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 μM and for 20 h with 5 μM quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult

  14. Cardiovascular reactivity patterns and pathways to hypertension: a multivariate cluster analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindle, R. C.; Ginty, A. T.; Jones, A.; Phillips, A. C.; Roseboom, T. J.; Carroll, D.; Painter, R. C.; de Rooij, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial evidence links exaggerated mental stress induced blood pressure reactivity to future hypertension, but the results for heart rate reactivity are less clear. For this reason multivariate cluster analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between heart rate and blood pressure

  15. Recovery of oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2-deficient cardiomyocytes by sustained release of ferulic acid from injectable hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Feng-Huei; Wang, Chien-Ying; Hsiao, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Hung-Ching; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-10-01

    Aging-related oxidative stress is considered a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and could be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Cisd2 is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein and plays an important role in controlling the lifespan of mammals. Ferulic acid (FA), a natural antioxidant, is able to improve cardiovascular functions and inhibit the pathogenetic CVD process. However, directly administering therapeutics with antioxidant molecules is challenging because of stability and bioavailability issues. In the present study, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogel containing FA was used to treat Cisd2-deficient (Cisd2(-/-)) cardiomyocytes (CM) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of Cisd2(-/-) murine under oxidative stress. The results revealed that the developed hydrogel could provide a sustained release of FA and increase the cell viability. Post-treatment of FA-loaded hydrogel effectively decreased the oxidative stress-induced damage in Cisd2(-/-) CM via increasing catalase activity and decreasing endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The in vivo biocompatibility of FA-loaded hydrogel was confirmed in subcutaneously injected rabbits and intramyocardially injected Cisd2(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the thermosensitive FA-loaded hydrogel could rescue Cisd2(-/-) CM from oxidative stress-induced damage and may have potential applications in the future treatment of CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A neural hypothesis for stress-induced headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Stuart

    2009-12-01

    The mechanisms by which stress contributes to CTH are not clearly understood. The commonly accepted notion of muscle hyper-reactivity to stress in CTH sufferers is not supported in the research data. We propose a neural model whereby stress acts supra-spinally to aggravate already increased pain sensitivity in CTH sufferers. Indirect support for the model comes from emerging research elucidating complex supra-spinal networks through which psychological stress may contribute to and even cause pain. Similarly, emerging research demonstrates supra-spinal pain processing abnormalities in CTH sufferers. While research with CTH sufferers offering direct support for the model is lacking at present, initial work by our group is consistent with the models predictions, particularly, that stress aggravates already increased pain sensitivity in CTH sufferers.

  17. Stress Induced Hyperglycemia and the Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Survivors of Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Mark P.; Finnis, Mark E.; Phillips, Liza K.; Kar, Palash; Bihari, Shailesh; Biradar, Vishwanath; Moodie, Stewart; Horowitz, Michael; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Deane, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stress induced hyperglycemia occurs in critically ill patients who have normal glucose tolerance following resolution of their acute illness. The objective was to evaluate the association between stress induced hyperglycemia and incident diabetes in survivors of critical illness. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting All adult patients surviving admission to a public hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in South Australia between 2004 and 2011. Patients Stress induced hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) within 24 hours of ICU admission. Prevalent diabetes was identified through ICD-10 coding or prior registration with the Australian National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS). Incident diabetes was identified as NDSS registration beyond 30 days after hospital discharge until July 2015. The predicted risk of developing diabetes was described as sub-hazard ratios using competing risk regression. Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Main Results Stress induced hyperglycemia was identified in 2,883 (17%) of 17,074 patients without diabetes. The incidence of type 2 diabetes following critical illness was 4.8% (821 of 17,074). The risk of diabetes in patients with stress induced hyperglycemia was approximately double that of those without (HR 1.91 (95% CI 1.62, 2.26), phyperglycemia identifies patients at subsequent risk of incident diabetes. PMID:27824898

  18. [Prediabetes as a riskmarker for stress-induced hyperglycemia in critically ill adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallegos, Diego Jesús; Luis-López, Eliseo

    2017-01-01

    It is not known if patients with prediabetes, a subgroup of non-diabetic patients that usually present hyperinsulinemia, have higher risk to present stress-induced hyperglycemia. The objective was to determine if prediabetes is a risk marker to present stress-induced hyperglycemia. Analytic, observational, prospective cohort study of non-diabetic critically ill patients of a third level hospital. We determined plasmatic glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at admission to diagnose stress-induced hyperglycemia (glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL) and prediabetes (HbA1c between 5.7 and 6.4%), respectively. We examined the proportion of non-prediabetic and prediabetic patients that developed stress hyperglycemia with contingence tables and Fisher's exact test for nominal scales. Of 73 patients studied, we found a proportion of stress-induced hyperglycemia in 6.6% in those without prediabetes and 61.1% in those with prediabetes. The Fisher's exact test value was 22.46 (p Prediabetes is a risk marker for stress-induced hyperglycemia in critically ill adults.

  19. Environmental Stress Induces Trinucleotide Repeat Mutagenesis in Human Cells by Alt-Nonhomologous End Joining Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2016-07-31

    Multiple pathways modulate the dynamic mutability of trinucleotide repeats (TNRs), which are implicated in neurodegenerative disease and evolution. Recently, we reported that environmental stresses induce TNR mutagenesis via stress responses and rereplication, with more than 50% of mutants carrying deletions or insertions-molecular signatures of DNA double-strand break repair. We now show that knockdown of alt-nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) components-XRCC1, LIG3, and PARP1-suppresses stress-induced TNR mutagenesis, in contrast to the components of homologous recombination and NHEJ, which have no effect. Thus, alt-NHEJ, which contributes to genetic mutability in cancer cells, also plays a novel role in environmental stress-induced TNR mutagenesis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides in young women classified as restrained or unrestrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilterscheid, Esther; Laessle, Reinhold

    2015-12-01

    Basal release of GUT peptides has been found to be altered in restrained eaters. Stress-induced secretion, however, has not yet been described, but could be a biological basis of overeating that exposes restrained eaters to a higher risk of becoming obese. The aim of the present study was to compare restrained and unrestrained eaters with respect to stress-induced release of the GUT peptides ghrelin and PYY. 46 young women were studied. Blood sampling for peptides was done before and after the Trier Social Stress Test. Ghrelin secretion after stress was significantly elevated in the restrained eaters, whereas no significant differences were detected for PYY. Stress-induced release of GUT peptides can be interpreted as a cause as well as a consequence of restrained eating.

  1. Structure-dependent behavior of stress-induced voiding in Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhenyu; Yang Yintang; Chai Changchun; Li Yuejin; Wang Jiayou; Li Bin; Liu Jing

    2010-01-01

    Stress modeling and cross-section failure analysis by focused-ion-beam have been used to investigate stress-induced voiding phenomena in Cu interconnects. The voiding mechanism and the effect of the interconnect structure on the stress migration have been studied. The results show that the most concentrated tensile stress appears and voids form at corners of vias on top surfaces of Cu M1 lines. A simple model of stress induced voiding in which vacancies arise due to the increase of the chemical potential under tensile stress and diffuse under the force of stress gradient along the main diffusing path indicates that stress gradient rather than stress itself determines the voiding rate. Cu interconnects with larger vias show less resistance to stress-induced voiding due to larger stress gradient at corners of vias.

  2. Metal stress induces programmed cell death in aquatic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Maria-Manuel; Almeida, Bruno; Ludovico, Paula; Cassio, Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic hyphomycetes are a group of fungi that play a key role in organic matter turnover in both clean and metal-polluted streams. We examined the ability of Cu or Zn to induce programmed cell death (PCD) in three aquatic hyphomycete species through the evaluation of typical apoptotic markers, namely reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, caspase-like activity, nuclear morphological alterations, and the occurrence of DNA strand breaks assessed by TUNEL assay. The exposure to both metals induced apoptotic events in all tested aquatic fungi. The most tolerant fungi either to Zn (Varicosporium elodeae) or Cu (Heliscussubmersus) exhibited higher levels of PCD markers, suggesting that PCD processes might be linked to fungal resistance/tolerance to metal stress. Moreover, different patterns of apoptotic markers were found, namely a PCD process independent of ROS accumulation in V. elodeae exposed to Cu, or independent of caspase-like activity in Flagellospora curta exposed to Zn, or even without the occurrence of DNA strand breaks in F. curta exposed to Cu. This suggests that a multiplicity of PCD pathways might be operating in aquatic hyphomycetes. The occurrence of a tightly regulated cell death pathway, such as PCD, in aquatic hyphomycetes under metal stress might be a part of the mechanisms underlying fungal acclimation in metal-polluted streams, because it would allow the rapid removal of unwanted or damaged cells sparing nutrients and space for the fittest ones.

  3. Vitiligo: How do oxidative stress-induced autoantigens trigger autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Heng; Zhou, Fubo; Liu, Ling; Zhu, Guannan; Li, Qiang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common depigmentation disorder characterized by a loss of functional melanocytes and melanin from epidermis, in which the autoantigens and subsequent autoimmunity caused by oxidative stress play significant roles according to hypotheses. Various factors lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in the melanocytes of vitiligo: the exogenous and endogenous stimuli that cause ROS production, low levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, disturbed antioxidant pathways and polymorphisms of ROS-associated genes. These factors synergistically contribute to the accumulation of ROS in melanocytes, finally leading to melanocyte damage and the production of autoantigens through the following ways: apoptosis, accumulation of misfolded peptides and cytokines induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as the sustained unfolded protein response, and an 'eat me' signal for phagocytic cells triggered by calreticulin. Subsequently, autoantigens presentation and dendritic cells maturation occurred mediated by the release of antigen-containing exosomes, adenosine triphosphate and melanosomal autophagy. With the involvement of inducible heat shock protein 70, cellular immunity targeting autoantigens takes the essential place in the destruction of melanocytes, which eventually results in vitiligo. Several treatments, such as narrow band ultraviolet, quercetin and α-melanophore-stimulating hormone, are reported to be able to lower ROS thereby achieving repigmentation in vitiligo. In therapies targeting autoimmunity, restore of regulatory T cells is absorbing attention, in which narrow band ultraviolet also plays a role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM CURRENT CONCEPTS & M ANAGEMENT STRATEGEIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Krishnan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism is a biochemical diagnosis characterized by raised thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH and normal free T3 & T4 , without clinical features of hypothyroidism . Clinical significance of SCH remains uncertain and controversial . Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms . There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases ( CVDs , pregnancy outcomes , neuropsychiatric issues , metabolic syndrome , and dyslipidemia . This review will summarize the current data related to the effects of SCH on cardiovascular risk , SCH in pregnancy , in dyslipedemia and clinical guidelines on management of this condition . The evidence has been updated by a Pub med search on the risks and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism of most recent articles published until March 2015

  5. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Suh, Se Young

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular goiter, or transient thyroiditis), by administration of thyroid hormone to treat malignant thyroid disease, or by unintentional excessive replacement therapy. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism in the general population is about 1% to 2%; however, it may be higher in iodinedeficient areas. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L than in persons with low but detectable thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in older adults, increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unclear. A possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality-of-life parameters and cognition is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic persons. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend treating patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L if they are older than 65 years or have comorbidities such as heart disease or osteoporosis.

  6. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; ...

  7. Subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentaloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, B.; Betancourt, V.C.; Padilla, P.; De la Barca, M.

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypercortisolism (HS) is diagnosed in a patient with no Cushing's syndrome manifest phenotype but with autonomic cortisol secretion. Harmful effects of chronic subtle excess of cortisol have been demonstrated, such as hypertension (AHT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) or glucose intolerance, obesity, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that subclinical hypercortisolism may itself be a vascular risk factor. In order to identify the presence of subclinical hypercortisolism and its main clinical manifestations in patients with adrenal incidentalomas treated at the endocrinology service of the 'Arnaldo Milian Castro' Clinical Surgical Hospital, a descriptive cross-sectional investigation was carried out from 2012 to 2015 The sample of intentional type was made up of 34 patients older than 18 years and diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas. Age, sex, toxic habits, questioning results, physical examination and the necessary diagnostic investigations were analyzed. The results showed a predominance of females, over 60 years old, with toxic habits and family and personal history of hypertension and DM2. Palpitations, low back pain, asthenia and obesity with pigmentation of the skin were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated levels of cortisol occurred in the majority of patients. Imaging diagnosis showed left lesions and less than 4.0 cm and adrenal adenoma was the most frequent histopathological diagnosis. It was demonstrated that subclinical hypercortisolism is present in an important group of patients with adrenal incidentalomas, is not as asymptomatic, and is related to the presence of vascular risk factors, and other comorbidities

  8. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhira Begum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  9. Model for Stress-induced Protein Degradation in Lemna minor1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert J.; Roberts, Keith; Davies, David D.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer of Lemna minor fronds to adverse or stress conditions produces a large increase in the rate of protein degradation. Cycloheximide partially inhibits stress-induced protein degradation and also partially inhibits the protein degradation which occurs in the absence of stress. The increased protein degradation does not appear to be due to an increase in activity of soluble proteolytic enzymes. Biochemical evidence indicates that stress, perhaps acting via hormones, affects the permeability of certain membranes, particularly the tonoplast. A general model for stress-induced protein degradation is presented in which changes in membrane properties allow vacuolar proteolytic enzymes increased access to cytoplasmic proteins. PMID:16661588

  10. Subclinical abortions in patients treated with clomiphene citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.C.; Tang, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Using radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin beta-subunit, 39 treatment cycles of clomiphene citrate therapy were studied prospectively for incidence of subclinical abortions. Eight treatment cycles resulted in clinically recognizable pregnancies and three other treatment cycles ended up with subclinical abortions. The plasma progesterone levels in patients with subclinical abortions at the 13th day after ovulation were lower than those in patients with normal pregnancies. (author)

  11. Effects of Active Mastication on Chronic Stress-Induced Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kagaku; Furuzawa, Manabu; Fujiwara, Shu; Yamada, Kumiko; Kubo, Kin-ya

    2015-01-01

    Chronic psychologic stress increases corticosterone levels, which decreases bone density. Active mastication or chewing attenuates stress-induced increases in corticosterone. We evaluated whether active mastication attenuates chronic stress-induced bone loss in mice. Male C57BL/6 (B6) mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube (60 min, 2x/day, 4 weeks). The stress/chewing group was given a wooden stick to chew during the experimental period. Quantitative micro-computed tomography, histologic analysis, and biochemical markers were used to evaluate the bone response. The stress/chewing group exhibited significantly attenuated stress-induced increases in serum corticosterone levels, suppressed bone formation, enhanced bone resorption, and decreased trabecular bone mass in the vertebrae and distal femurs, compared with mice in the stress group. Active mastication during exposure to chronic stress alleviated chronic stress-induced bone density loss in B6 mice. Active mastication during chronic psychologic stress may thus be an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat chronic stress-related osteopenia.

  12. Stress-induced activation of brown adipose tissue prevents obesity in conditions of low adaptive thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Razzoli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that thermogenesis and BAT function are determinant of the resilience or vulnerability to stress-induced obesity. Our data support a model in which adrenergic and purinergic pathways exert complementary/synergistic functions in BAT, thus suggesting an alternative to βARs agonists for the activation of human BAT.

  13. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Both, S.; van Heemst, D.; van der Grond, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in

  14. The ER stress inducer DMC enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in glioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roosmalen, Ingrid A. M.; Dos Reis, Carlos R; Setroikromo, Rita; Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Joseph, Justin V.; Tepper, Pieter G.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Quax, Wim J.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumour in humans and is highly resistant to current treatment modalities. We have explored the combined treatment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agent 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC) and TNF-related

  15. Renal and endocrine changes in rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstislavsky, Sergej; Welker, Pia; Frühauf, Jan-Henning

    2006-01-01

    Hypertensive inbred rats (ISIAH; inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension) present with baseline hypertension (>170 mmHg in adult rats), but attain substantially higher values upon mild emotional stress. We aimed to characterize key parameters related to hypertension in ISIAH. Kidneys, adre...

  16. Proteome oxidative carbonylation during oxidative stress-induced premature senescence of WI-38 human fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Boulch, Marine; Ahmed, Emad K; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2018-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal ageing, and is also a phenotypic feature shared by both replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence of human fibroblasts. Moreover, proteins that are building up as oxidized (i.e. the "Oxi-pro...

  17. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK)ζ, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGKζ siRNA transfection decreased H 2 O 2 -induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGKζ also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGKζ rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H 2 O 2 treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGKζ, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

  18. Stress-induced osteolysis of distal clavicle: imaging patterns and treatment using CT-guided injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopov, V.; Groshar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Fuchs, D. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Bar-Meir, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2001-02-01

    Osteolysis of distal clavicle (ODC) may occur in patients who experience repeated stress or microtrauma to the shoulder. This entity has clinical and radiological findings similar to post-traumatic ODC. We describe a case of successful treatment of stress-induced ODC with CT-guided injection of corticosteroid and anesthetic drug into the acromioclavicular joint. (orig.)

  19. Stress-induced osteolysis of distal clavicle: imaging patterns and treatment using CT-guided injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopov, V.; Groshar, D.; Fuchs, D.; Bar-Meir, E.

    2001-01-01

    Osteolysis of distal clavicle (ODC) may occur in patients who experience repeated stress or microtrauma to the shoulder. This entity has clinical and radiological findings similar to post-traumatic ODC. We describe a case of successful treatment of stress-induced ODC with CT-guided injection of corticosteroid and anesthetic drug into the acromioclavicular joint. (orig.)

  20. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M.; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D.; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses effects of aerobic exercise training on the release of microparticles from endothelial cells and corroborates these findings using an in vitro experimental exercise stimulant, laminar shear stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis mediates these effects against endothelial cell activation and injury.

  1. Ghrelin mediates stress-induced food-reward behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Perello, Mario; Sakata, Ichiro; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Savitt, Joseph M; Lutter, Michael; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2011-07-01

    The popular media and personal anecdotes are rich with examples of stress-induced eating of calorically dense "comfort foods." Such behavioral reactions likely contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in humans experiencing chronic stress or atypical depression. However, the molecular substrates and neurocircuits controlling the complex behaviors responsible for stress-based eating remain mostly unknown, and few animal models have been described for probing the mechanisms orchestrating this response. Here, we describe a system in which food-reward behavior, assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) task, is monitored in mice after exposure to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), a model of prolonged psychosocial stress, featuring aspects of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Under this regime, CSDS increased both CPP for and intake of high-fat diet, and stress-induced food-reward behavior was dependent on signaling by the peptide hormone ghrelin. Also, signaling specifically in catecholaminergic neurons mediated not only ghrelin's orexigenic, antidepressant-like, and food-reward behavioral effects, but also was sufficient to mediate stress-induced food-reward behavior. Thus, this mouse model has allowed us to ascribe a role for ghrelin-engaged catecholaminergic neurons in stress-induced eating.

  2. Dopamine D1 receptors are responsible for stress-induced emotional memory deficit in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongfu; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Bi; Li, Chaocui; Cai, Jing-Xia

    2012-03-01

    It is established that stress impairs spatial learning and memory via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. Dopamine D1 receptors were also shown to be responsible for a stress-induced deficit of working memory. However, whether stress affects the subsequent emotional learning and memory is not elucidated yet. Here, we employed the well-established one-trial step-through task to study the effect of an acute psychological stress (induced by tail hanging for 5, 10, or 20 min) on emotional learning and memory, and the possible mechanisms as well. We demonstrated that tail hanging induced an obvious stress response. Either an acute tail-hanging stress or a single dose of intraperitoneally injected dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390) significantly decreased the step-through latency in the one-trial step-through task. However, SCH23390 prevented the acute tail-hanging stress-induced decrease in the step-through latency. In addition, the effects of tail-hanging stress and/or SCH23390 on the changes in step-through latency were not through non-memory factors such as nociceptive perception and motor function. Our data indicate that the hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors mediated the stress-induced deficit of emotional learning and memory. This study may have clinical significance given that psychological stress is considered to play a role in susceptibility to some mental diseases such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

  3. C. elegans Stress-Induced Sleep Emerges from the Collective Action of Multiple Neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ravi D; Chow, Elly S; Wang, Han; Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-09-26

    The genetic basis of sleep regulation remains poorly understood. In C. elegans, cellular stress induces sleep through epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent activation of the EGF receptor in the ALA neuron. The downstream mechanism by which this neuron promotes sleep is unknown. Single-cell RNA sequencing of ALA reveals that the most highly expressed, ALA-enriched genes encode neuropeptides. Here we have systematically investigated the four most highly enriched neuropeptides: flp-7, nlp-8, flp-24, and flp-13. When individually removed by null mutation, these peptides had little or no effect on stress-induced sleep. However, stress-induced sleep was abolished in nlp-8; flp-24; flp-13 triple-mutant animals, indicating that these neuropeptides work collectively in controlling stress-induced sleep. We tested the effect of overexpression of these neuropeptide genes on five behaviors modulated during sleep-pharyngeal pumping, defecation, locomotion, head movement, and avoidance response to an aversive stimulus-and we found that, if individually overexpressed, each of three neuropeptides (nlp-8, flp-24, or flp-13) induced a different suite of sleep-associated behaviors. These overexpression results raise the possibility that individual components of sleep might be specified by individual neuropeptides or combinations of neuropeptides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects melanocytes from stress-induced cell death: implications for vitiligo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elassiuty, Yasser E.; Klarquist, Jared; Speiser, Jodi; Yousef, Randa M.; El Refaee, Abdelaziz A.; Hunter, Nahla S.; Shaker, Olfat G.; Gundeti, Mohan; Nieuweboer-Krobotova, Ludmila; Caroline Le Poole, I.

    2011-01-01

    To study protection of melanocytes from stress-induced cell death by heme oxygenases during depigmentation and repigmentation in vitiligo, expression of isoforms 1 and 2 was studied in cultured control and patient melanocytes and normal skin explants exposed to UV or bleaching agent 4-TBP.

  5. Muscarinic receptors mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Gautam, Sudha Silwal; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    This study determined if muscarinic receptors could mediate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity induced in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. Ten-week-old female Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (n = 12) and Wister Kyoto non-diabetic rats (n = 12) were maintained on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric investigations of the unanesthetized rats were carried out at room temperature (27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. They were intravenously administered imidafenacin (0.3 mg/kg, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6). After 5 min, the rats were transferred to a low temperature (4 ± 2°C) for 40 min where the cystometry was continued. The rats were then returned to room temperature for the final cystometric measurements. Afterwards, expressions of bladder muscarinic receptor M3 and M2 messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats, imidafenacin did not reduce cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats, just after transfer to a low temperature, the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in imidafenacin-treated rats was reduced compared with vehicle-treated rats. Within the urinary bladders, the ratio of M3 to M2 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was significantly higher than that of the non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. The proportion of muscarinic M3 receptor-positive area within the detrusor in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was also significantly higher than that in non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. Imidafenacin partially inhibits cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. In this animal model, muscarinic M3 receptors partially mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Mental stress-induced left ventricular dysfunction and adverse outcome in ischemic heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Julia L; Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Babyak, Michael A; Wilson, Jennifer L; Kuhn, Cynthia; Becker, Richard C; Ortel, Thomas L; Williams, Redford B; Rogers, Joseph G; O'Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Aims Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) occurs in up to 70% of patients with clinically stable ischemic heart disease and is associated with increased risk of adverse prognosis. We aimed to examine the prognostic value of indices of MSIMI and exercise stress-induced myocardial ischemia (ESIMI) in a population of ischemic heart disease patients that was not confined by having a recent positive physical stress test. Methods and results The Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) study enrolled 310 subjects who underwent mental and exercise stress testing and were followed annually for a median of four years. Study endpoints included time to first and total rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular causes. Cox and negative binomial regression adjusting for age, sex, resting left ventricular ejection fraction, and heart failure status were used to examine associations of indices of MSIMI and ESIMI with study endpoints. The continuous variable of mental stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction change was significantly associated with both endpoints (all p values mental stress, patients had a 5% increase in the probability of a major adverse cardiovascular event at the median follow-up time and a 20% increase in the number of major adverse cardiovascular events endured over the follow-up period of six years. Indices of ESIMI did not predict endpoints ( ps > 0.05). Conclusion In patients with stable ischemic heart disease, mental, but not exercise, stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction change significantly predicts risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.

  7. Realization of highly crystallographic three-dimensional nanosheets by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharooni, M.; Hosseini, M.; Mohajerzadeh, S., E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir; Taghinejad, M.; Taghinejad, H. [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y. [Nano-Physics Research Lab, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439955961 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Morphologically controlled nanostructures have been increasingly important because of their strongly shape dependent physical and chemical properties. Formation of nanoscale silicon based structures that employ high levels of strain, intentional, and unintentional twins or grain boundaries can be dramatically different from the commonly conceived bulk processes. We report, realization of highly crystallographic 3D nanosheets with unique morphology and ultra-thin thickness by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method, based on plasma processing of metal layer deposited on Si substrate and its post deep reactive ion etching. Annealing in plasma ambient creates rod-like metal alloy precursors which induce stress at its interface with Si substrate due to the mismatch of lattice constants. This stress opens facilitated gateways for orientated-diffusion of metal atoms in 〈110〉 directions and leads to formation of NSs (nanosheets) with [111] crystalline essence. Nanosheets are mainly triangular, hexagonal, or pseudo hexagonal in shape and their thicknesses are well controlled from several to tens of nanometers. The structural and morphological evolution of features were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope and possible mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the thermodynamically unfavorable morphology of nanosheets. Significant photoemission capability of NSs was also demonstrated by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  8. The subclinical form of experimental visceral leishmaniasis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. S. Oliveira

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological aspects of a subclinical form of experimental canine leishmaniasis is reported here for the first time. Fifteen mongrel dogs were used in the present study. Eight dogs were infected and seven were used as control. Four of the control dogs were inoculated with spleen cells from non-infected hamsters. The eight mongrel dogs inoculated intravenously with amastigotes forms of Leishmania chagasi envolved for periods as long as 25 months without any clinical characteristic sign of classical Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. Most of the laboratory test results were compatible to those of the seven control animals but culture of bone marrow aspirated material and serologic testing (IIF demonstrated or provided evidence that the animals were infected. The most important and predominant histopathological lesion in infected animals were epitheloid granulomas presented in the liver, spleen, adrenal gland and lung of some animals. Channels containing erythrocytes in some granulomas of the liver suggeste that these granulomas are formed inside sinusoidal capillaries. Despite the animals were proved to be infected and presented characteristic histologic lesions, they did not present external signs of disease. The granulomatous aspect of the lesions indicates a good immunologic reactivity and suggest that a host-parasite equilibrium does exist in the dog experimental model

  9. Overexpression of MpCYS4, a phytocystatin gene from Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh., delays natural and stress-induced leaf senescence in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Yang, Yingli; Li, Chao; Liang, Bowen; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-06-01

    Phytocystatins are a well-characterized class of naturally occurring protease inhibitors that prevent the catalysis of papain-like cysteine proteases. The action of cystatins in stress tolerance has been studied intensively, but relatively little is known about their functions in plants during leaf senescence. Here, we examined the potential roles of the apple cystatin, MpCYS4, in leaf photosynthesis as well as the concentrations and composition of leaf proteins when plants encounter natural or stress-induced senescence. Overexpression of this gene in apple rootstock M26 effectively slowed the senescence-related declines in photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll concentrations and prevented the action of cysteine proteinases during the process of degrading proteins (e.g., Rubisco) in senescing leaves. Moreover, MpCYS4 alleviated the associated oxidative damage and enhanced the capacity of plants to eliminate reactive oxygen species by activating antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and catalase. Consequently, plant cells were protected against damage from free radicals during leaf senescence. Based on these results, we conclude that MpCYS4 functions in delaying natural and stress-induced senescence of apple leaves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  11. Fatal radiation pneumonia following subclinical busulfan injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soble, A.R.; Perry, H.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with polycythemia vera received a moderate dose (480 mg) of busulfan intermittently over a 6 year period and later developed Hodgkin's disease. Following split-course upper mantle, chest irradiation, he developed rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia and bone marrow hypoplasia. It is postulated that the hyperacute organ failures (lung and bone marrow) resulted from augmentation of subclinical busulfan-induced damage of these organs by additive radiation effect. It is recommended that in patients who have had antineoplastic chemotherapy, major radiotherapy to the cervicothoracic region be accompanied by careful monitoring of respiratory and hematopoietic function, both before and during radiotherapy

  12. Stress and sleep reactivity: a prospective investigation of the stress-diathesis model of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    To prospectively assess sleep reactivity as a diathesis of insomnia, and to delineate the interaction between this diathesis and naturalistic stress in the development of insomnia among normal sleepers. Longitudinal. Community-based. 2,316 adults from the Evolution of Pathways to Insomnia Cohort (EPIC) with no history of insomnia or depression (46.8 ± 13.2 y; 60% female). None. Participants reported the number of stressful events they encountered at baseline (Time 1), as well as the level of cognitive intrusion they experienced in response to each stressor. Stressful events (OR = 1.13; P stress-induced cognitive intrusion (OR = 1.61; P stressful events on risk for insomnia (P sleep reactivity significantly increased risk for insomnia (OR = 1.78; P sleep reactivity moderated the effects of stress-induced intrusion (P sleep reactivity. Trait sleep reactivity also constituted a significant risk for depression (OR = 1.67; P sleep reactivity is a significant risk factor for incident insomnia, and that it triggers insomnia by exacerbating the effects of stress-induced intrusion. Sleep reactivity is also a precipitant of depression, as mediated by insomnia. These findings support the stress-diathesis model of insomnia, while highlighting sleep reactivity as an important diathesis. Drake CL, Pillai V, Roth T. Stress and sleep reactivity: a prospective investigation of the stress-diathesis model of insomnia.

  13. Pregnancy aggravates proteinuria in subclinical glomerulonephritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Poelman, RT; Schuiling, GA

    Because subclinical renal disease may be aggravated during pregnancy-as reflected in the occurrence of proteinuria, for example-we investigated whether a subclinical glomerulonephritis (SG) in the non-pregnant rat (passive Heymann nephritis), a condition without proteinuria, is aggravated when the

  14. [Should subclinical hypothyroidism in older persons be treated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, W.P. den; Smit, J.W.A.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Gussekloo, J.

    2012-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common finding in older persons. Clinical guidelines are inconsistent in providing recommendations for the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism, especially in older persons. To date, there is no high-quality evidence from randomized controlled trials about the

  15. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  16. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  17. P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.

  18. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Heijer, M. den; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical

  19. Mental Stress-Induced-Myocardial Ischemia in Young Patients With Recent Myocardial Infarction: Sex Differences and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Viola; Sullivan, Samaah; Hammadah, Muhammad; Wilmot, Kobina; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Ramadan, Ronnie; Elon, Lisa; Pimple, Pratik M; Garcia, Ernest V; Nye, Jonathon; Shah, Amit J; Alkhoder, Ayman; Levantsevych, Oleksiy; Gay, Hawkins; Obideen, Malik; Huang, Minxuan; Lewis, Tené T; Bremner, J Douglas; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Raggi, Paolo

    2018-02-20

    Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is frequent in patients with coronary artery disease and is associated with worse prognosis. Young women with a previous myocardial infarction (MI), a group with unexplained higher mortality than men of comparable age, have shown elevated rates of MSIMI, but the mechanisms are unknown. We studied 306 patients (150 women and 156 men) ≤61 years of age who were hospitalized for MI in the previous 8 months and 112 community controls (58 women and 54 men) frequency matched for sex and age to the patients with MI. Endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation and microvascular reactivity (reactive hyperemia index) were measured at rest and 30 minutes after mental stress. The digital vasomotor response to mental stress was assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry. Patients received 99m Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, with mental (speech task) and conventional (exercise/pharmacological) stress. The mean age of the sample was 50 years (range, 22-61). In the MI group but not among controls, women had a more adverse socioeconomic and psychosocial profile than men. There were no sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors, and among patients with MI, clinical severity tended to be lower in women. Women in both groups showed a higher peripheral arterial tonometry ratio during mental stress but a lower reactive hyperemia index after mental stress, indicating enhanced microvascular dysfunction after stress. There were no sex differences in flow-mediated dilation changes with mental stress. The rate of MSIMI was twice as high in women as in men (22% versus 11%, P =0.009), and ischemia with conventional stress was similarly elevated (31% versus 16%, P =0.002). Psychosocial and clinical risk factors did not explain sex differences in inducible ischemia. Although vascular responses to mental stress (peripheral arterial tonometry ratio and reactive hyperemia index) also did not explain sex differences in

  20. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Prospective Observational Study from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Mathrubootham; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Vishwanathan, Latha; Subbarayan, Anbezhil

    2018-03-15

    To assess the natural history and progression of subclinical hypothyroidism and to study factors which help predict evolution of subclinical hypothyroidism into overt hypothyroidism. Longitudinal study in 40 children (2-16 yrs) presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism in a tertiary care unit in Chennai, India. Patients showing evidence of overt hypothyroidism or thyroid stimulating hormone ≥15 mIU/mL during follow-up were started on thyroxine. Others were followed up with 3-monthly thyroid function tests up to one year. At the end of our study period 3 (7.5%) were overtly hypothyroid, 16 (40%) remained as subclinical hypothyroid, and 21 (52.5%) became euthyroid. Evidence of auto- immunity at baseline was a significant (Phypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children, with thyroid stimulating hormone upto 15 mIU/L and irrespective of thyroid autoimmunity, needs only periodic clinical and biochemical follow up. Thyroid autoimmunity may point to an increased probability of progression to overt hypothyroidism.

  2. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...

  3. Hemostasis in Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordookhani, Arash; Burman, Kenneth D.

    2017-01-01

    Context There are contradictory results on the effect of hyperthyroidism on hemostasis. Inadequate population-based studies limited their clinical implications, mainly on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The present review focuses on hemostatic changes in overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted employing MEDLINE database. The following words were used for the search: Hyperthyroidism; thyrotoxicosis; Graves disease; goiter, nodular; hemostasis; blood coagulation factors; blood coagulation disorders; venous thromboembolism; bleeding; fibrinolysis. The articles that were related to hyperthyroidism and hemostasis are used in this manuscript. Results Hyperthyroidism, either overt or subclinical, renders a hypercoagulable state, although there are several studies with contradictory findings in the literature. Hypercoagulability may be caused by an increase in the level of various coagulation factors such as factor (F) VIII, FX, FIX, von Willebrand F (vWF), and fibrinogen, while hypofibrinolysis by changes in coagulation parameters such as a decrease in plasmin and plasmin activator or an increase in α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor Conclusions Although many reports are in favor of a hypercoagulable state in overt hyperthyroidism but this finding at the biochemical level and its clinical implication, on the occurrence of VTE, has yet to be confirmed. PMID:29201071

  4. A study on anti-stress property of Nardostachys jatamamsi on stress induced Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpashree R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a feeling that’s created when we react to particular events. It s the body’s way of rising to a challenge and preparing to meet a tough situation with focus, strength, stamina, and heightened alertness. As a result of the stress immune system can be suppressed by chronic stress opening to increased infections and increasing the risk of autoimmune diseases. So one has to learn away to overcome stress. Here is an attempt made to overcome the stress induced in Drosophila melanogaster a model organism, in this study. Methotrexate is used to induce the stress at different concentration taking different group of flies and a Nardostachys jatamamsi plant extract having antistress property is used to relieve the stress induced. This stress relieve measured by the various stress related enzymes like catalase and Superoxide dismutase by this antistress property of the plant Nardostachys jatamamsi was shown.

  5. Sociotropic cognition moderates stress-induced cardiovascular responsiveness in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, M D; Jorgensen, R S; Larson, C A; Frankowski, J J; Ewart, C K; White, J

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of sociotropic cognition (SC), a nondefensive need for approval, on stress-induced cardiovascular responsiveness (CVR) in women. Sixty-seven college-age females had blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitored during baseline, anticipation, story-telling (where participants were randomly assigned to a low or high threat condition), and recovery periods. SC showed a positive association with CVR only in the high interpersonal threat context during task and early stages of the recovery periods. SC was positively correlated with such variables as anxiety, ruminative style, dysphoria, and anger. This is the first report examining the moderating effects of SC on interpersonal stress-induced CVR prior to, during, and following a task, using an explicit manipulation of social evaluation. The data help define risk factors for CVR in women, which may aid in the understanding of how emotions and stress affect physical health and well-being.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-zhi; Liao, Ying; Li, Wei; Guo, Li-mei

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have protective effects against apoptosis in neurons exposed to ischemia/reperfusion injury, but the mechanisms are unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the effects of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides against oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to induce apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule cells. In these cells, ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides remarkably suppressed H2O2-induced apoptosis, decreased expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bim and increased that of Bcl-2. These findings suggested that ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides regulate expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, inhibit oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis and, therefore, have significant neuroprotective effects. PMID:28761429

  7. Photostress analysis of stress-induced martensite phase transformation in superelastic NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanchi, B.; Choupani, N.; Khalil-Allafi, J.; Baghani, M.

    2017-01-01

    Phase transformation in shape memory alloys is the most important factor in their unique behavior. In this paper, the formation of stress induced martensite phase transformation in a superelastic NiTi (50.8% Ni) shape memory alloy was investigated by using the photo-stress method. First, the material's fabrication procedure has been described and then the material was studied using the metallurgical tests such as differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction to characterize the material features and the mechanical tensile test to investigate the superelastic behavior. As a new method in observation of the phase transformation, photo-stress pictures showed the formation of stress induced martensite in a superelastic dog-bone specimen during loading and subsequently it's disappearing during unloading. Finally, finite element analysis was implemented using the constitutive equations derived based on the Boyd-Lagoudas phenomenological model.

  8. Experimental study of stress-induced localized transformation plastic zones in tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Q.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, W.; Qing, X.; Xu, X.; Dai, F.

    1994-01-01

    Stress-induced martensitic transformation plastic zones in ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics (Ce-TZP), under loading conditions of uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending, are studied by experiments. The transformed monoclinic phase volume fraction distribution and the corresponding plastic strain distribution and the surface morphology (surface uplift) are measured by means of moire interferometry, Raman microprobe spectroscopy, and the surface measurement system. The experimental results from the above three kinds of specimens and methods consistently show that the stress-induced transformation at room temperature of the above specimen is not uniform within the transformation zone and that the plastic deformation is concentrated in some narrow band; i.e., macroscopic plastic flow localization proceeds during the initial stage of plastic deformation. Flow localization phenomena are all observed in uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending specimens. Some implications of the flow localization to the constitutive modeling and toughening of transforming thermoelastic polycrystalline ceramics are explored

  9. Photostress analysis of stress-induced martensite phase transformation in superelastic NiTi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katanchi, B. [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Choupani, N., E-mail: choupani@sut.ac.ir [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalil-Allafi, J. [Research Center for Advance Materials, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baghani, M. [School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-14

    Phase transformation in shape memory alloys is the most important factor in their unique behavior. In this paper, the formation of stress induced martensite phase transformation in a superelastic NiTi (50.8% Ni) shape memory alloy was investigated by using the photo-stress method. First, the material's fabrication procedure has been described and then the material was studied using the metallurgical tests such as differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction to characterize the material features and the mechanical tensile test to investigate the superelastic behavior. As a new method in observation of the phase transformation, photo-stress pictures showed the formation of stress induced martensite in a superelastic dog-bone specimen during loading and subsequently it's disappearing during unloading. Finally, finite element analysis was implemented using the constitutive equations derived based on the Boyd-Lagoudas phenomenological model.

  10. UHPLC-MS/MS based target profiling of stress-induced phytohormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowská, Danuše; Miersch, Otto; Strnad, Miroslav; Wasternack, Claus; Novák, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 105, SEP 2014 (2014), s. 147-157 ISSN 0031-9422 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk LK21306 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Stress-induced phytohormones * Jasmonates * Abscisic acid Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2014

  11. Induction of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 is involved in stress-induced hippocampal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Matrisciano

    Full Text Available The identification of mechanisms that mediate stress-induced hippocampal damage may shed new light into the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We focused on the secreted glycoprotein Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1, an inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway, involved in neurodegeneration. Mice exposed to mild restraint stress showed increased hippocampal levels of Dkk-1 and reduced expression of β-catenin, an intracellular protein positively regulated by the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. In adrenalectomized mice, Dkk-1 was induced by corticosterone injection, but not by exposure to stress. Corticosterone also induced Dkk-1 in mouse organotypic hippocampal cultures and primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and, at least in the latter model, the action of corticosterone was reversed by the type-2 glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. To examine whether induction of Dkk-1 was causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage, we used doubleridge mice, which are characterized by a defective induction of Dkk-1. As compared to control mice, doubleridge mice showed a paradoxical increase in basal hippocampal Dkk-1 levels, but no Dkk-1 induction in response to stress. In contrast, stress reduced Dkk-1 levels in doubleridge mice. In control mice, chronic stress induced a reduction in hippocampal volume associated with neuronal loss and dendritic atrophy in the CA1 region, and a reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Doubleridge mice were resistant to the detrimental effect of chronic stress and, instead, responded to stress with increases in dendritic arborisation and neurogenesis. Thus, the outcome of chronic stress was tightly related to changes in Dkk-1 expression in the hippocampus. These data indicate that induction of Dkk-1 is causally related to stress-induced hippocampal damage and provide the first evidence that Dkk-1 expression is regulated by corticosteroids in the central

  12. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain’s ‘‘reward system’’, and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PETstudies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between st...

  13. Pathways Involving Beta-3 Adrenergic Receptors Modulate Cold Stress-Induced Detrusor Overactivity in Conscious Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate pathways involving beta-3 adrenergic receptors (ARs) in detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress, we determined if the beta-3 AR agonist CL316243 could modulate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in normal rats. Two days prior to cystometric investigations, the bladders of 10-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were cannulated. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were taken to estimate baseline values at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2 °C) for 20 min. They were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1, or 1.0 mg/kg CL316243 (n = 6 in each group). Five minutes after the treatments, they were gently and quickly transferred to the low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2 °C) room for 40 min where the cystometric measurements were again made. Afterward, the rats were returned to RT for final cystometric measurements. The cystometric effects of CL316243 were also measured at RT (n = 6 in each group). At RT, both low and high dose of CL316243 decreased basal and micturition pressure while the high dose (1.0 mg/kg) significantly increased voiding interval and bladder capacity. During LT exposure, the high dose of CL316243 partially reduced cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity characterized by increased basal pressure and urinary frequency. The high drug dose also significantly inhibited the decreases of both voiding interval and bladder capacity compared to the vehicle- and low dose (0.1 mg/kg)-treated rats. A high dose of the beta-3 agonist CL316243 could modulate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. Therefore, one of the mechanisms in cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity includes a pathway involving beta-3 ARs. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  15. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevents stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2013-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that stress may orchestrate the engagement of multiple memory systems in the brain. In particular, stress is thought to favor dorsal striatum-dependent procedural over hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these modulatory effects of stress remain elusive, especially in humans. Here, we targeted the role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced modulation of dorsal striatal and hippocampal memory systems in the human brain using a combination of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacologic blockade of the MR. Eighty healthy participants received the MR antagonist spironolactone (300 mg) or a placebo and underwent a stressor or control manipulation before they performed, in the scanner, a classification task that can be supported by the hippocampus and the dorsal striatum. Stress after placebo did not affect learning performance but reduced explicit task knowledge and led to a relative increase in the use of more procedural learning strategies. At the neural level, stress promoted striatum-based learning at the expense of hippocampus-based learning. Functional connectivity analyses showed that this shift was associated with altered coupling of the amygdala with the hippocampus and dorsal striatum. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade before stress prevented the stress-induced shift toward dorsal striatal procedural learning, same as the stress-induced alterations of amygdala connectivity with hippocampus and dorsal striatum, but resulted in significantly impaired performance. Our findings indicate that the stress-induced shift from hippocampal to dorsal striatal memory systems is mediated by the amygdala, required to preserve performance after stress, and dependent on the MR. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  16. Adolescent Personality: Associations With Basal, Awakening, and Stress-Induced Cortisol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Laceulle, Odilia M.; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Ormel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress-induced HPA-axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA-axis functioning would have a stronger association with personality based on the neuroendocrine literature. Data (n=343) were used from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective...

  17. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Miyasaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a “neuropsychiatry phenotype” in asthma.

  18. Stress-induced anhedonia in mice is associated with deficits in forced swimming and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Spanagel, Rainer; Bartsch, Dusan; Henn, Fritz A; Gass, Peter

    2004-11-01

    In order to develop a model for a depression-like syndrome in mice, we subjected male C57BL/6 mice to a 4-week-long chronic stress procedure, consisting of rat exposure, restraint stress, and tail suspension. This protocol resulted in a strong decrease in sucrose preference, a putative indicator of anhedonia in rodents. Interestingly, predisposition for stress-induced anhedonia was indicated by submissive behavior in a resident-intruder test. In contrast, most mice with nonsubmissive behavior did not develop a decrease in sucrose preference and were regarded as nonanhedonic. These animals were used as an internal control for stress-induced behavioral features not associated with the anhedonic state, since they were exposed to the same stressors as the anhedonic mice. Using a battery of behavioral tests after termination of the stress procedure, we found that anhedonia, but not chronic stress per se, is associated with key analogues of depressive symptoms, such as increased floating during forced swimming and decreased exploration of novelty. On the other hand, increased anxiety, altered locomotor activity, and loss of body weight were consequences of chronic stress, which occurred independently from anhedonia. Thus, behavioral correlates of stress-induced anhedonia and of chronic stress alone can be separated in the present model.

  19. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Schröder, Tobias Navarro; Oplaat, Krista T; Krugers, Harm J; Oitzl, Melly S; Joëls, Marian; Doeller, Christian F; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-05-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this shift is still unclear, previous evidence in rodents points towards cortisol interacting with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to affect amygdala functioning. The amygdala is in turn assumed to orchestrate the stress-induced shift in memory processing. However, an integrative study testing these mechanisms in humans is lacking. Therefore, we combined functional neuroimaging of a spatial memory task, stress-induction, and administration of an MR-antagonist in a full-factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled between-subjects design in 101 healthy males. We demonstrate that stress-induced increases in cortisol lead to enhanced stimulus-response learning, accompanied by increased amygdala activity and connectivity to the striatum. Importantly, this shift was prevented by an acute administration of the MR-antagonist spironolactone. Our findings support a model in which the MR and the amygdala play an important role in the stress-induced shift towards habit memory systems, revealing a fundamental mechanism of adaptively allocating neural resources that may have implications for stress-related mental disorders.

  20. Transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced brown adipocytes dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Whang Kong, Hyerim; Gil, Victoria; Liew, Chong Wee

    2017-01-09

    In contrast to white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to play critical roles for both basal and inducible energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with reduction of BAT function; however, it is not well understood how obesity promotes BAT dysfunction, especially at the molecular level. Here we show that the transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced inhibition of lipolysis and thermogenesis in BAT. Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced inflammation upregulates brown adipocytes TRIP-Br2 expression via the ER stress pathway and amelioration of ER stress in mice completely abolishes high fat diet-induced upregulation of TRIP-Br2 in BAT. We find that increased TRIP-Br2 significantly inhibits brown adipocytes thermogenesis. Finally, we show that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates ER stress-induced inhibition on lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, oxidative metabolism, and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Taken together, our current study demonstrates a role for TRIP-Br2 in ER stress-induced BAT dysfunction, and inhibiting TRIP-Br2 could be a potential approach for counteracting obesity-induced BAT dysfunction.

  1. Geranylgeranylacetone prevents stress-induced decline of leptin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Miki; Kuwano, Yuki; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Kensei, Nishida

    2018-01-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is a chaperon inducer that protects various types of cell and tissue against stress. We examined whether GGA modulated energy intake and expenditure under stressful conditions. After mice were untreated or treated orally with GGA (0.16 g per kg body weight per day) for 10 days, they were subjected to 2-h restraint stress once or once a day for 5 consecutive days. GGA administration did not affect corticosterone response to the stress. Restraint stress rapidly decreased plasma leptin levels in control mice. GGA significantly increased circulating leptin levels without changing food intake and prevented the stress-induced decline of circulating leptin. However GGA-treated mice significantly reduced food intake during the repeated stress, compared with control mice. GGA prevented the stress-induced decline of leptin mRNA and its protein levels in epidydimal adipose tissues. We also found that GGA decreased ghrelin mRNA expression in gastric mucosa before the stress, whereas GGA-treated mice recovered the ghrelin mRNA expression to the baseline level after the repeated stress. Leptin and ghrelin are now recognized as regulators of anxiety and depressive mood. Our results suggest that GGA may regulate food intake and relief stress-induced mood disturbance through regulating leptin and ghrelin secretions. J. Med. Invest. 65:103-109, February, 2018.

  2. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description.

  3. First interactions between hydrogen and stress-induced reverse transformation of Ni-Ti superelastic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2017-11-01

    The first dynamic interactions between hydrogen and the stress-induced reverse transformation have been investigated by performing an unloading test on a Ni-Ti superelastic alloy subjected to hydrogen charging under a constant applied strain in the elastic deformation region of the martensite phase. Upon unloading the specimen, charged with a small amount of hydrogen, no change in the behaviour of the stress-induced reverse transformation is observed in the stress-strain curve, although the behaviour of the stress-induced martensite transformation changes. With increasing amount of hydrogen charging, the critical stress for the reverse transformation markedly decreases. Eventually, for a larger amount of hydrogen charging, the reverse transformation does not occur, i.e. there is no recovery of the superelastic strain. The residual martensite phase on the side surface of the unloaded specimen is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Upon training before the unloading test, the properties of the reverse transformation slightly recover after ageing in air at room temperature. The present study indicates that to change the behaviour of the reverse transformation a larger amount of hydrogen than that for the martensite transformation is necessary. In addition, it is likely that a substantial amount of hydrogen in solid solution more strongly suppresses the reverse transformation than hydrogen trapped at defects, thereby stabilising the martensite phase.

  4. Oxidative Stress Induces Endothelial Cell Senescence via Downregulation of Sirt6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has shown that diabetes accelerates aging and endothelial cell senescence is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, including diabetic retinopathy. Oxidative stress is recognized as a key factor in the induction of endothelial senescence and diabetic retinopathy. However, specific mechanisms involved in oxidative stress-induced endothelial senescence have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that Sirt6, which is a nuclear, chromatin-bound protein critically involved in many pathophysiologic processes such as aging and inflammation, may have a role in oxidative stress-induced vascular cell senescence. Measurement of Sirt6 expression in human endothelial cells revealed that H2O2 treatment significantly reduced Sirt6 protein. The loss of Sirt6 was associated with an induction of a senescence phenotype in endothelial cells, including decreased cell growth, proliferation and angiogenic ability, and increased expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Additionally, H2O2 treatment reduced eNOS expression, enhanced p21 expression, and dephosphorylated (activated retinoblastoma (Rb protein. All of these alternations were attenuated by overexpression of Sirt6, while partial knockdown of Sirt6 expression by siRNA mimicked the effect of H2O2. In conclusion, these results suggest that Sirt6 is a critical regulator of endothelial senescence and oxidative stress-induced downregulation of Sirt6 is likely involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy Triggered by Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Series Challenging the Mayo Clinic Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, Georgios; Kundoor, Vishwa; Kaluski, Edo

    2017-08-28

    BACKGROUND Various physical and emotional factors have been previously described as triggers for stress induced cardiomyopathy. However, acute myocardial infarction as a trigger has never been reported. CASE REPORT We describe four patients who presented with an acute myocardial infarction, in whom the initial echocardiography revealed wall motion abnormalities extending beyond the coronary distribution of the infarct artery. Of the four patients identified, the mean age was 59 years; three patients were women and two patients had underlying psychiatric history. Electrocardiogram revealed ST elevation in the anterior leads in three patients; QTc was prolonged in all cases. All patients had ≤ moderately elevated troponin. Single culprit lesion was found uniformly in the proximal or mid left anterior descending artery. Initial echocardiography revealed severely reduced ejection fraction with relative sparing of the basal segments, whereas early repeat echocardiography revealed significant improvement in the left ventricular function in all patients. CONCLUSIONS This is the first case series demonstrating that acute myocardial infarction can trigger stress induced cardiomyopathy. Extensive reversible wall motion abnormalities, beyond the ones expected from angiography, accompanied by modest elevation in troponin and marked QTc prolongation, suggest superimposed stress induced cardiomyopathy.

  6. Stress-induced enhancement of leukocyte trafficking into sites of surgery or immune activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2005-04-01

    Effective immunoprotection requires rapid recruitment of leukocytes into sites of surgery, wounding, infection, or vaccination. In contrast to immunosuppressive chronic stressors, short-term acute stressors have immunoenhancing effects. Here, we quantify leukocyte infiltration within a surgical sponge to elucidate the kinetics, magnitude, subpopulation, and chemoattractant specificity of an acute stress-induced increase in leukocyte trafficking to a site of immune activation. Mice acutely stressed before sponge implantation showed 200-300% higher neutrophil, macrophage, natural killer cell, and T cell infiltration than did nonstressed animals. We also quantified the effects of acute stress on lymphotactin- (LTN; a predominantly lymphocyte-specific chemokine), and TNF-- (a proinflammatory cytokine) stimulated leukocyte infiltration. An additional stress-induced increase in infiltration was observed for neutrophils, in response to TNF-, macrophages, in response to TNF- and LTN, and natural killer cells and T cells in response to LTN. These results show that acute stress initially increases trafficking of all major leukocyte subpopulations to a site of immune activation. Tissue damage-, antigen-, or pathogen-driven chemoattractants subsequently determine which subpopulations are recruited more vigorously. Such stress-induced increases in leukocyte trafficking may enhance immunoprotection during surgery, vaccination, or infection, but may also exacerbate immunopathology during inflammatory (cardiovascular disease or gingivitis) or autoimmune (psoriasis, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis) diseases. chemokine | psychophysiological stress | surgical sponge | wound healing | lymphotactin

  7. Quantification of stress-induced damage and post-fire response of 5083 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Puplampu, S.B.; Summers, P.T.; Lattimer, B.Y.; Penumadu, D.; Case, S.W.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major concerns regarding the use of lightweight materials in ship construction is the response of those materials to fire scenarios, including the residual structural performance after a fire event. This paper presents a study on creep damage evolution in 5083 marine-grade aluminum alloy and its impact on residual mechanical behavior. Tests conducted at 400 °C and pre-selected tensile stress levels were interrupted at target amplitudes of accumulated engineering creep strains to investigate the stress-induced damage using ex-situ characterization. Two-dimensional optical and electron microscopy and three-dimensional X-ray tomography were utilized on samples extracted from these test specimens to characterize the external and internal creep damage. The stress-induced damage is primarily manifested as cavitation and dynamic microstructural evolution. Cavitation morphology, orientation and grain structure evolution were investigated on three perpendicular sample surfaces. A 3D examination of the damage state provided consistent damage information to that obtained from the 2D analysis. The post-fire mechanical properties were also evaluated and linked to the microstructural change. The competing processes of cavitation and grain structure evolution were investigated to develop an understanding of the stress-induced damage associated with high temperature creep

  8. Secondary aerosol formation from stress-induced biogenic emissions and possible climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. F. Mentel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols impact climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs comprise an important component of atmospheric aerosols. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted by vegetation are the source of BSOAs. Pathogens and insect attacks, heat waves and droughts can induce stress to plants that may impact their BVOC emissions, and hence the yield and type of formed BSOAs, and possibly their climatic effects. This raises questions of whether stress-induced changes in BSOA formation may attenuate or amplify effects of climate change. In this study we assess the potential impact of stress-induced BVOC emissions on BSOA formation for tree species typical for mixed deciduous and Boreal Eurasian forests. We studied the photochemical BSOA formation for plants infested by aphids in a laboratory setup under well-controlled conditions and applied in addition heat and drought stress. The results indicate that stress conditions substantially modify BSOA formation and yield. Stress-induced emissions of sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, and C17-BVOCs increase BSOA yields. Mixtures including these compounds exhibit BSOA yields between 17 and 33%, significantly higher than mixtures containing mainly monoterpenes (4–6% yield. Green leaf volatiles suppress SOA formation, presumably by scavenging OH, similar to isoprene. By classifying emission types, stressors and BSOA formation potential, we discuss possible climatic feedbacks regarding aerosol effects. We conclude that stress situations for plants due to climate change should be considered in climate–vegetation feedback mechanisms.

  9. Quantification of stress-induced damage and post-fire response of 5083 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y., E-mail: yanyun@vt.edu [Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Puplampu, S.B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Summers, P.T.; Lattimer, B.Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Penumadu, D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Case, S.W. [Department of Engineering Science & Mechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2015-08-12

    One of the major concerns regarding the use of lightweight materials in ship construction is the response of those materials to fire scenarios, including the residual structural performance after a fire event. This paper presents a study on creep damage evolution in 5083 marine-grade aluminum alloy and its impact on residual mechanical behavior. Tests conducted at 400 °C and pre-selected tensile stress levels were interrupted at target amplitudes of accumulated engineering creep strains to investigate the stress-induced damage using ex-situ characterization. Two-dimensional optical and electron microscopy and three-dimensional X-ray tomography were utilized on samples extracted from these test specimens to characterize the external and internal creep damage. The stress-induced damage is primarily manifested as cavitation and dynamic microstructural evolution. Cavitation morphology, orientation and grain structure evolution were investigated on three perpendicular sample surfaces. A 3D examination of the damage state provided consistent damage information to that obtained from the 2D analysis. The post-fire mechanical properties were also evaluated and linked to the microstructural change. The competing processes of cavitation and grain structure evolution were investigated to develop an understanding of the stress-induced damage associated with high temperature creep.

  10. Laforin prevents stress-induced polyglucosan body formation and Lafora disease progression in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Ma, Keli; Wang, Peixiang; Baba, Otto; Zhang, Helen; Parent, Jack M; Zheng, Pan; Liu, Yang; Minassian, Berge A; Liu, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Glycogen, the largest cytosolic macromolecule, is soluble because of intricate construction generating perfect hydrophilic-surfaced spheres. Little is known about neuronal glycogen function and metabolism, though progress is accruing through the neurodegenerative epilepsy Lafora disease (LD) proteins laforin and malin. Neurons in LD exhibit Lafora bodies (LBs), large accumulations of malconstructed insoluble glycogen (polyglucosans). We demonstrated that the laforin-malin complex reduces LBs and protects neuronal cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. We now show that stress induces polyglucosan formation in normal neurons in culture and in the brain. This is mediated by increased glucose-6-phosphate allosterically hyperactivating muscle glycogen synthase (GS1) and is followed by activation of the glycogen digesting enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. In the absence of laforin, stress-induced polyglucosans are undigested and accumulate into massive LBs, and in laforin-deficient mice, stress drastically accelerates LB accumulation and LD. The mechanism through which laforin-malin mediates polyglucosan degradation remains unclear but involves GS1 dephosphorylation by laforin. Our work uncovers the presence of rapid polyglucosan metabolism as part of the normal physiology of neuroprotection. We propose that deficiency in the degradative phase of this metabolism, leading to LB accumulation and resultant seizure predisposition and neurodegeneration, underlies LD.

  11. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and risk of carotid atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosu Kim

    Full Text Available The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on vascular atherosclerosis remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction and carotid plaques, which are an early surrogate marker of systemic atherosclerosis.The study included 21,342 adults with consistent thyroid hormonal status on serial thyroid function tests (TFTs and carotid artery duplex ultrasonography at a health screening center between 2007 and 2014. The effect of subclinical thyroid dysfunction on baseline carotid plaques and newly developed carotid plaques during 5-year follow-up was determined by logistic regression analyses and GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations, respectively.Carotid plaques were more common in the subclinical hypothyroidism (55.6% than the euthyroidism (47.8% at baseline. However, in multivariable analysis, thyroid status was not a significant risk for the carotid plaques at baseline. Instead, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age (P <0.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.023, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.030, and creatinine (P = 0.012 were associated with baseline carotid plaques in subclinical hypothyroidism. In longitudinal analyses of subjects who were followed up for more than 5 years, there was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of new carotid plaques according to time between subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism and those with euthyroidism (P = 0.392.Sustained subclinical thyroid dysfunction did not affect the baseline or development of carotid plaques in healthy individuals.

  12. Transcranial Stimulation of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Prevents Stress-Induced Working Memory Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Mario; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-01-27

    Stress is known to impair working memory performance. This disruptive effect of stress on working memory has been linked to a decrease in the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In the present experiment, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dlPFC can prevent stress-induced working memory impairments. We tested 120 healthy participants in a 2 d, sham-controlled, double-blind between-subjects design. Participants completed a test of their individual baseline working memory capacity on day 1. On day 2, participants were exposed to either a stressor or a control manipulation before they performed a visuospatial and a verbal working memory task. While participants completed the tasks, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied over the right dlPFC. Stress impaired working memory performance in both tasks, albeit to a lesser extent in the verbal compared with the visuospatial working memory task. This stress-induced working memory impairment was prevented by anodal, but not sham or cathodal, stimulation of the dlPFC. Compared with sham or cathodal stimulation, anodal tDCS led to significantly better working memory performance in both tasks after stress. Our findings indicate a causal role of the dlPFC in working memory impairments after acute stress and point to anodal tDCS as a promising tool to reduce cognitive deficits related to working memory in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Working memory deficits are prominent in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Similar working memory impairments have been observed in healthy individuals exposed to acute stress. So far, attempts to prevent such stress-induced working memory deficits focused mainly on pharmacological interventions. Here, we tested the idea that transcranial direct current stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal

  13. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. PMID:27779276

  14. Subclinical pulmonary involvement in collagen vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dansin, E.; Wallaert, B.; Jardin, M.R.; Remy, J.; Hatron, P.Y.; Tonnel, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    A recruitment of immune and inflammatory cells into alveolar spaces has been reported in patients with collagen vascular diseases (CVD) and a normal chest radiograph. These findings defined the concept of subclinical alveolitis (SCA). To determine whether SCA may be associated with CT signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD), the authors of this paper compared bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings and high-resolution (HRCT) scans in 36 patients with CVD and normal chest radiographs (systemic sclerosis [SS, n = 21], rheumatoid arthritis [RA, n = 9], primary Sjogren's syndrome [PS, n = 6]). HRCT scans were obtained in supine and prone positions. Results of BAL revealed SCA in 17/36 patients (47%); lymphocyte SCA in 4/36 (24%); neutrophil SCA in 7/36 (41%); and mixed SCA in 6/36 (35%)

  15. The debate on treating subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, Eng Loon

    2016-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) represents a mild or compensated form of primary hypothyroidism. The diagnosis of SCH is controversial, as its symptoms are non-specific and its biochemical diagnosis is arbitrary. The treatment of SCH was examined among non-pregnant adults, pregnant adults and children. In non-pregnant adults, treatment of SCH may prevent its progression to overt hypothyroidism, reduce the occurrence of coronary heart disease, and improve neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal symptoms associated with hypothyroidism. These benefits are counteracted by cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal side effects. SCH is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes that may improve with treatment. Treating SCH in children is safe and may improve growth. Importantly, the evidence in this field is largely from retrospective and prospective studies with design limitations, which precludes a conclusive recommendation for the treatment of SCH. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  16. Functional Trajectories, Cognition, and Subclinical Cerebrovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamoon, Mandip S; Cheung, Ying-Kuen; Gutierrez, Jose; Moon, Yeseon P; Sacco, Ralph L; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B

    2018-03-01

    Cognition and education influence functional trajectories, but whether associations differ with subclinical brain infarcts (SBI) or white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) is unknown. We hypothesized that SBI and WMHV moderated relationships between cognitive performance and education and functional trajectories. A total of 1290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and were followed for 7.3 years (mean) with annual functional assessments with the Barthel index (range, 0-100). Magnetic resonance imaging measurements included pathology-informed SBI (PI-SBI) and WMHV (% total cranial volume). Generalized estimating equation models tested associations between magnetic resonance imaging variables and baseline Barthel index and change in Barthel index, adjusting for demographic, vascular, cognitive, and social risk factors, and stroke and myocardial infarction during follow-up. We tested interactions among education level, baseline cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State score), and functional trajectories and ran models stratified by levels of magnetic resonance imaging variables. Mean age was 70.6 (SD, 9.0) years; 19% had PI-SBI, and mean WMHV was 0.68%. Education did not modify associations between cognition and functional trajectories. PI-SBI modified associations between cognition and functional trajectories ( P =0.04) with a significant protective effect of better cognition on functional decline seen only in those without PI-SBI. There was no significant interaction for WMHV ( P =0.8). PI-SBI, and greater WMHV, were associated with 2- to 3-fold steeper functional decline, holding cognition constant. PI-SBI moderated the association between cognition and functional trajectories, with 3-fold greater decline among those with PI-SBI (compared with no PI-SBI) and normal baseline cognition. This highlights the strong and independent association between subclinical markers and patient-centered trajectories over time. © 2018 American Heart

  17. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waiz, M.; Al-Saadi, Rabab N.; Al-Saadi, Zahida A.; Al-Rawi, Faiza A.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to investigate a group of Iraqi woman with proved genital vulval warts, to seek evidence of human papillomavirus infection in apparently normal looking cervixes and to investigate the natural history of infection. From December 1997 to August 1998, 20 women with vulval warts were enrolled along with 20 aged-matched control cases without warts. Their ages ranged between 19-48 years with a mean of 30.4 years, (+/- standard deviation = 2.3) for patients and 18-48 years with a mean of 29.7 (+/- standard deviation = 2.7) for the control group. General and gynecological examinations were carried out. Cervical swabs for associated genital infection, papilloma smears, speculoscopy and directed punch biopsies were carried out to detect subclinical human papillomavirus infections of the cervix and associated intraepithelial neoplasm. Cytology results showed that 11 (55%) of patients had evidence of cervical infection by human papillomavirus, 6 (30%) showed mild dysplastic changes, 3 (15%) showed moderate dysplastic changes, whilst 2 (10%) showed no dysplastic changes. Speculoscopy and acetowhitening was positive in 11 (55%) and collated histological results showed evidence of human papillomavirus infection in 9 patients (45%). As for the control group one case (5%) had evidence of human papillomavirus infection. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection is more common than was previously thought among Iraqi women. It may appear alone or in association with vulval or exophytic cervical warts, or both, and may be more common than the clinically obvious disease. Speculoscopy as an adjunctive method to colposcopy was found to be a simple and an easy to perform technique. Its combination with cytology gave relatively good results when it was used as a triage instrument, and may have a more promising performance in the future. (author)

  18. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism-A Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, R.; Anwer, M. S.; Khan, F. A.; Ijaz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the development of overt hyperthyroidism in a cohort of patients of subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCR) and in subjects with normal thyroid function tests. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of study: The study was conducted in the department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Sept 2006 to Sept 2007. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients of SCR and almost equal number of age and sex-matched subjects with normal Thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study as controls. Subclinical hyperthyroid patients and controls were followed for a period of one year on a six monthly basis. The patients were examined for signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and serum TSH, total T3 and free T4 were estimated. The clinical history, physical examination and TFT results were recorded. Five ml of blood was collected for serum thyroid profile in plain tube. Hormonal analysis(TSH, T4 and T3) was done for the patients and the controls enrolled in the study. The TFTs was analyzed using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay technique on Immulite 2000 an automated, random access, immunoassay analyzer. Results: Six (12%) out of 50 cases of the SCR patients and 2 (4%) out of 50 controls developed overt hyperthyroidism. SCR had no significant risk for conversion to overt hyperthyroidism as compared to healthy controls in this study. In addition to initial levels of serum TSH were one of important predictor for conversion of SCR to overt hyperthyroidism. Conclusion: Patients with SCR have no significant risk but showed an increase in frequency of conversion to overt hyperthyroidism (12% in this study) as compared to controls. (author)

  19. Significance of radionucleid examination of joints in diagnosis of subclinical arthritis background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersone, D.; Bulina, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. A large group of inflammation arthritis is represented by seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SpA), including several nosologies: psoriatic arthritis Bechterev's disease, Reiter's disease, etc. One of the most common SpA forms is Reactive arthritis (ReA). Inflammation process in joints is the most characteristic symptom, which determines severeness, course and prognosis of the disease. One of the most sensitive methods of examination of joints is radionucleid (RN) examination. Increased RNV accumulation in the joints is not a specific feature .for a concrete disease, and growth of its accumulation corresponds to the exudative component of inflammation process which reveals the early stage of joint inflammation (subclinical arthritis). Objectives: To find out how often subclinical inflammation processes (subclinical sinovitis) are observed in patients with minimal systemic activity of ReA. To detect in which joints subclinical sinovitis localizes most commonly. To evaluate significance of radionucleid examinations in diagnosis of subclinical arthritis. Material and methods. RN examination of joints was performed in 41 patient with ReA in I stage of activity and in 35 patients with ReA in II stage of activity, when the causative agent of infection - Chlamydia trachomatis - is localized in the urogenital tract. ReA was diagnosed according to diagnostic criteria of French Rheumatologists Association. For clinical description of joints index was used, characterized by pain intensity during joint palpation, and expressed by gradation degree from 0-3. In 76 patients with ReA I activity degree (ReA I) and ReA II activity degree (ReA II) radionucleid examination was done with marked 99 Tc and analysis of the obtained joint scintigrams for SI area. In the control group, 90 joint scintigrams were analyzed for patients with degenerative joint diseases without palpation pain in the examined joints, determining Tc index (Tc ind) in separate joints and summary Tc ind

  20. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O'Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-02-19

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia. Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥ 8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥ 1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ≥ 3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Mental stress-induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress-induced ischemia (all p mental stress-induced ischemia (all p Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel oxindole derivatives prevent oxidative stress-induced cell death in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoko; Yamada, Chika; Ito, Yuki; Yamamoto, Shotaro; Nagase, Haruna; Oh-Hashi, Kentaro; Kiuchi, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Hiromi; Sawada, Makoto; Furuta, Kyoji

    2018-03-15

    The current medical and surgical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic relief but do not provide a cure. Thus, small synthetic compounds that protect neuronal cells from degeneration are critically needed to prevent and treat these. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. In a search for neuroprotective agents against oxidative stress using the murine hippocampal HT22 cell line, we found a novel oxindole compound, GIF-0726-r, which prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death, including glutamate-induced oxytosis and erastin-induced ferroptosis. This compound also exerted a protective effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress to a lesser extent but had no effect on campthothecin-, etoposide- or staurosporine-induced apoptosis. In addition, GIF-0726-r was also found to be effective after the occurrence of oxidative stress. GIF-0726-r was capable of inhibiting reactive oxygen species accumulation and Ca 2+ influx, a presumed executor in cell death, and was capable of activating the antioxidant response element, which is a cis-acting regulatory element in promoter regions of several genes encoding phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidant proteins. These results suggest that GIF-0726-r is a low-molecular-weight compound that prevents neuronal cell death through attenuation of oxidative stress. Among the more than 200 derivatives of the GIF-0726-r synthesized, we identified the 11 most potent activators of the antioxidant response element and characterized their neuroprotective activity in HT22 cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The genome-wide early temporal response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress induced by cumene hydroperoxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sha

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a well-known biological process that occurs in all respiring cells and is involved in pathophysiological processes such as aging and apoptosis. Oxidative stress agents include peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide, cumene hydroperoxide, and linoleic acid hydroperoxide, the thiol oxidant diamide, and menadione, a generator of superoxide, amongst others. The present study analyzed the early temporal genome-wide transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress induced by the aromatic peroxide cumene hydroperoxide. The accurate dataset obtained, supported by the use of temporal controls, biological replicates and well controlled growth conditions, provided a detailed picture of the early dynamics of the process. We identified a set of genes previously not implicated in the oxidative stress response, including several transcriptional regulators showing a fast transient response, suggesting a coordinated process in the transcriptional reprogramming. We discuss the role of the glutathione, thioredoxin and reactive oxygen species-removing systems, the proteasome and the pentose phosphate pathway. A data-driven clustering of the expression patterns identified one specific cluster that mostly consisted of genes known to be regulated by the Yap1p and Skn7p transcription factors, emphasizing their mediator role in the transcriptional response to oxidants. Comparison of our results with data reported for hydrogen peroxide identified 664 genes that specifically respond to cumene hydroperoxide, suggesting distinct transcriptional responses to these two peroxides. Genes up-regulated only by cumene hydroperoxide are mainly related to the cell membrane and cell wall, and proteolysis process, while those down-regulated only by this aromatic peroxide are involved in mitochondrial function.

  3. Lipids in newly discovered subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive correlation between the levels of TSH and cholesterol levels, while levels between TSH levels triglicrerida negative correlation with the clinical and subclinical form of reduced thyroid function.

  4. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Is subclinical hypothyroidism increasing exogen obesity in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Tuna Kirsaclioglu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion:.Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test may be helpful to determine subclinical hypothyroidism in exogen obese children, if basal TSH levels were elevated. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(1.000: 1-7

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism in children with Down syndrome: To treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed El Kholy

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... In children with subclinical hypothyroidism, The American. Thyroid Association ... reflects mild hypothyroidism that could harm brain growth and development in the ... results in a normal cognitive development [9]. In conclusion ...

  7. A case report of suicidal behavior related to subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo SH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Soo-Hyun Joo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Seung-Chul HongDepartment of Psychiatry, St Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, KoreaAbstract: Abnormalities in thyroid function are associated with many psychiatric symptoms. We present a report of a 15-year-old girl who was admitted to the psychiatry inpatient unit with symptoms of suicidal behavior, irritability, and impulsivity. One year previously, she had become more short-tempered, and had started to cut her wrists impulsively. Laboratory tests revealed subclinical hyperthyroidism. She was treated with anxiolytic and antithyroid drugs, and her suicidal ideation and irritability resolved. This case demonstrates that subclinical hyperthyroidism can be associated with suicidal behavior as well as overt hyperthyroidism. Early intervention is required to prevent suicidal behavior in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.Keywords: suicidal behavior, subclinical hyperthyroidism, anxiolytics

  8. Subclinical Laminitis in Dairy Cattle: 205 Selected Cases

    OpenAIRE

    BAKIR, Ali BELGE Bahtiyar

    2005-01-01

    The economic importance of lameness in dairy cattle has newly been recognized in Turkey. Lameness incidence in Turkey has been reported to be between 13% and 58%, which is similar to that of other countries where 4% and 55% incidence rates have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sole lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in the hooves of dairy cattle in Van, Turkey. The risk factors for subclinical laminitis are proposed and discussed. The so...

  9. Subclinical hyperthyroidism: to treat or not to treat?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, E; den Heijer, M; van Dijk, A P J; Hermus, A

    2004-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism may be defined as the presence of free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine levels within the reference range and a reduced serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. In this review the prevalence of low TSH in the population and health consequences of subclinical hyperthyroidism, for example, effects on heart and bone mass, are discussed. Guidelines for treatment are given, based on expert opinion.

  10. Analysis of Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Influence on Parameters of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Pankiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available State of subclinical hypothyroidism can be considered as the optimal model for assessing the significance of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH for bone tissue in clinical practice. Objective: to make a comparative analysis of the impact of subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins on the performance of bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism parameters. Materials and methods. The study in an outpatient setting included 112 women with a diagnosis of subclinical hyperthyroidism and duration of menopause for at least 5 years. Among the examinees, endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism has been detected in 78 women (group I, exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on the background of suppressive levothyroxine therapy (group II — in 34. The control group (group III included 20 women without thyroid dysfunction. Results. The study first conducted a comparative analysis of bone metabolism, BMD indicators, as well as parameters of phosphorus and calcium, blood lipids in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism of various origins. A positive correlation between markers of bone metabolism and free triiodothyronine (fT3 as hormones necessary for the development of the skeleton and to maintain its homeostasis indicates a physiological effect of parathyroid hormone and fT3 on bone tissue. It is shown that the bone metabolism and BMD depend not only on the content of TSH, but also on the causes of subclinical hyperthyroidism.Conclusions. In postmenopausal women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, there is a significant decline in BMD indices, more pronounced in the bones with the cortical structure. A negative correlation between markers of bone metabolism and TSH has been observed among all patients included in the study.

  11. Inverse relationship between bioavailable testosterone and subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Jin Park; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Hyun Lee; Hye-Ree Lee

    2012-01-01

    Although low testosterone levels in men have been associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease,little is known about the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary disease in men with apparently low cardiometabolic risk.This study was performed to investigate the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary artery calcification measured as coronary calcium score in non-obese Korean men.We examined the relationship of total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,bioavai lable testosterone and free testosterone with coronary calcium score in 291 non-obese Korean men (mean age:52.8±9.3 years)not having a history of cardiovascular disease.Using multiple linear regression,we evaluated associations between log (sex hormone)levels and log (coronary calcium score) after adjusting for confounding variables in 105 men with some degree of coronary calcification defined as coronary calcium score ≥ 1.In multiple linear regression analysis,bioavailable testosterone was inversely associated with coronary calcium score (P=0.046) after adjusting for age,body mass index,smoking status,alcohol consumption,regular exercise,mean blood pressure,resting heart rate,C-reactive protein,fasting plasma glucose,total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,hypertension medication and hyperlipidemia medication,whereas total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone were not (P=0.674,P=0.121 and P=0.102,respectively).Our findings indicate that bioavailable testosterone is inversely associated with the degree of subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese men.

  12. Hippocampal multimodal structural changes and subclinical depression in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piras, Fabrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Fagioli, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies report reduced hippocampal volume in depressed patients. However, it is still unclear if hippocampal changes in healthy individuals can be considered a risk factor for progression to clinical depression. Here, we investigated subclinical depression and its hippocampal correlates in a non-clinical sample of healthy individuals, with particular regard to gender differences. One-hundred-two participants underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment, a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging protocol using a 3T MRI scanner. Data of macro-(volume) and micro-(mean diffusivity, MD) structural changes of the hippocampus were analyzed with reference to the Beck Depression Inventory score. Results of multivariate regression analyses revealed reduced bilateral volume, along with increased bilateral MD in hippocampal formation predicting subclinical depressive phenomenology only in healthy males. Conversely, subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy female was accounted for by only lower educational level, in the absence of any hippocampal structure variations. To date, this is the only evidence reporting a relationship between subclinical depressive phenomenology and changes in hippocampal formation in healthy individuals. Our findings demonstrated that reduced volume, along with increased MD in hippocampal formation, is significantly associated with subclinical depressive phenomenology in healthy males. This encourages to study the hypothesis that early macro- and microstructural changes in hippocampi associated with subclinical depression may constitute a risk factor of developing depressive disorders in males. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid use disorder and chronic pain: Clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi E Ghitza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics which have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain. However, incomplete knowledge regarding effective approaches to treat various types of pain has been worsened by an under-appreciation of overlapping neurobiological mechanisms of stress, stress-induced relapse to opioid use, and chronic non-cancer pain in patients presenting for care for these conditions. This insufficient knowledge base has unfortunately encouraged common prescription of conveniently-available opioid pain-relieving drugs with abuse liability, as opposed to treating underlying problems using team-based multidisciplinary, patient-centered, collaborative-care approaches for addressing pain and co-occurring stress and risk for opioid use disorder. This paper reviews recent neurobiological findings regarding overlapping mechanisms of stress-induced relapse to opioid misuse and chronic non-cancer pain, and then discusses these in the context of key outstanding evidence gaps and clinical-treatment research directions which may be pursued to fill these gaps. Such research directions, if conducted through well-designed randomized controlled trials, may substantively inform clinical practice in general medical settings on how to effectively care for patients presenting with pain-related distress and these common co-occurring conditions.

  14. Stress-Induced Cubic-to-Hexagonal Phase Transformation in Perovskite Nanothin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi-Gu; Li, Yunsong; Wu, Hong-Hui; Wang, Jie; Huang, Baoling; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2017-08-09

    The strong coupling between crystal structure and mechanical deformation can stabilize low-symmetry phases from high-symmetry phases or induce novel phase transformation in oxide thin films. Stress-induced structural phase transformation in oxide thin films has drawn more and more attention due to its significant influence on the functionalities of the materials. Here, we discovered experimentally a novel stress-induced cubic-to-hexagonal phase transformation in the perovskite nanothin films of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) with a special thermomechanical treatment (TMT), where BaTiO 3 nanothin films under various stresses are annealed at temperature of 575 °C. Both high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show a higher density of hexagonal phase in the perovskite thin film under higher tensile stress. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy does not detect any change in the valence state of Ti atoms, thereby excluding the mechanism of oxygen vacancy induced cubic-to-hexagonal (c-to-h) phase transformation. First-principles calculations show that the c-to-h phase transformation can be completed by lattice shear at elevated temperature, which is consistent with the experimental observation. The applied bending plus the residual tensile stress produces shear stress in the nanothin film. The thermal energy at the elevated temperature assists the shear stress to overcome the energy barriers during the c-to-h phase transformation. The stress-induced phase transformation in perovskite nanothin films with TMT provides materials scientists and engineers a novel approach to tailor nano/microstructures and properties of ferroelectric materials.

  15. Petroselinum Crispum is Effective in Reducing Stress-Induced Gastric Oxidative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşin Akıncı

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has been shown to play a principal role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric injury. Parsley (Petroselinum crispum contains many antioxidants such as flavanoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid. Aims: In this study, the histopathological and biochemical results of nutrition with a parsley-rich diet in terms of eliminating stress-induced oxidative gastric injury were evaluated. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + parsley-added diet and stress + lansoprazole (LPZ groups. Subjects were exposed to 72 hours of fasting and later immobilized and exposed to the cold at +4 degrees for 8 hours to create a severe stress condition. Samples from the animals’ stomachs were arranged for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Results: Gastric mucosal injury was obvious in rats exposed to stress. The histopathologic damage score of the stress group (7.00±0.57 was higher than that of the control group (1.50±0.22 (p<0.05. Significant differences in histopathologic damage score were found between the stress and stress + parsley-added diet groups (p<0.05, the stress and stress + standard diet groups (p<0.05, and the stress and stress + LPZ groups (p<0.05. The mean tissue malondialdehyde levels of the stress + parsley-added group and the stress + LPZ group were lower than that of the stress group (p<0.05. Parsley supported the cellular antioxidant system by increasing the mean tissue glutathione level (53.31±9.50 and superoxide dismutase (15.18±1.05 and catalase (16.68±2.29 activities. Conclusion: Oral administration of parsley is effective in reducing stress-induced gastric injury by supporting the cellular antioxidant defence system

  16. Effect of vitamin D on stress-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, N; Khalili, H; Mohammadi, M; Abdollahi, A; Ala, S

    2016-05-01

    Effects of vitamin D supplementation on the glycaemic indices and insulin resistance in diabetic and non-diabetic patients were studied. In this study, effects of vitamin D supplementation on stress-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance were evaluated in non-diabetic surgical critically ill patients. Adult surgical patients with stress-induced hyperglycaemia within the first 24 h of admission to the ICU were recruited. The patients randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D or placebo. Patients in the vitamin D group received a single dose of 600,000 IU vitamin D3 as intramuscular injection at time of recruitment. Besides demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, plasma glucose, insulin, 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels were measured at the time of ICU admission and day 7. Homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homestasis model assessment adiponectin (HOMA-AD) ratio were considered at the times of assessment. Comparing with the baseline, plasma 25(OH) D level significantly increased in the subjects who received vitamin D (p = 0.04). Improvement in fasting plasma glucose levels was detected in day 7 of the study compared with the baseline status in both groups. HOMA-IR showed a decrement pattern in vitamin D group (p = 0.09). Fasting plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly in the vitamin D group (p = 0.007), but not in the placebo group (p = 0.38). Finally, changes in HOMA-AD ratio were not significant in the both groups. Vitamin D supplementation showed positive effect on plasma adiponectin level, as a biomarker of insulin sensitivity in surgical critically ill patients with stress-induced hyperglycaemia. However, effects of vitamin D supplementation on HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD as indicators of insulin resistance were not significant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Differential effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Andrew M; Ritchey, Maureen; Ranganath, Charan; Yonelinas, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol on the processes underlying recognition memory. Stress was induced with a cold-pressor test after incidental encoding of emotional and neutral pictures, and recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory were measured one day later. The relationship between stress-induced cortisol responses and recollection was non-monotonic, such that subjects with moderate stress-related increases in cortisol had the highest levels of recollection. In contrast, stress-related cortisol responses were linearly related to increases in familiarity. In addition, measures of cortisol taken at the onset of the experiment showed that individuals with higher levels of pre-learning cortisol had lower levels of both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with the proposition that hippocampal-dependent memory processes such as recollection function optimally under moderate levels of stress, whereas more cortically-based processes such as familiarity are enhanced even with higher levels of stress. These results indicate that whether post-encoding stress improves or disrupts recognition memory depends on the specific memory process examined as well as the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endogenous GLP-1 in lateral septum contributes to stress-induced hypophagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Sarah J; Maske, Calyn B; Williams, Diana L

    2018-03-03

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) neurons of the caudal brainstem project to many brain areas, including the lateral septum (LS), which has a known role in stress responses. Previously, we showed that endogenous GLP-1 in the LS plays a physiologic role in the control of feeding under non-stressed conditions, however, central GLP-1 is also involved in behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Here, we asked whether LS GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) contribute to stress-induced hypophagia. Male rats were implanted with bilateral cannulas targeting the dorsal subregion of the LS (dLS). In a within-subjects design, shortly before the onset of the dark phase, rats received dLS injections of saline or the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin (9-39) (Ex9) prior to 30 min restraint stress. Food intake was measured continuously for the next 20 h. The stress-induced hypophagia observed within the first 30 min of dark was not influenced by Ex9 pretreatment, but Ex9 tended to blunt the effect of stress as early as 1 and 2 h into the dark phase. By 4-6 h, there were significant stress X drug interactions, and Ex9 pretreatment blocked the stress-induced suppression of feeding. These effects were mediated entirely through changes in average meal size; stress suppressed meal size while dLS Ex9 attenuated this effect. Using a similar design, we examined the role of dLS GLP-1R in the neuroendocrine response to acute restraint stress. As expected, stress potently increased serum corticosterone, but blockade of dLS GLP-1Rs did not affect this response. Together, these data show that endogenous GLP-1 action in the dLS plays a role in some but not all of the physiologic responses to acute stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the CRF1-receptor antagonist pexacerfont on stress-induced eating and food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H; Kennedy, Ashley P; Furnari, Melody; Heilig, Markus; Shaham, Yavin; Phillips, Karran A; Preston, Kenzie L

    2016-12-01

    In rodents, antagonism of receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) blocks stress-induced reinstatement of drug or palatable food seeking. To test anticraving properties of the CRF 1 antagonist pexacerfont in humans. We studied stress-induced eating in people scoring high on dietary restraint (food preoccupation and chronic unsuccessful dieting) with body-mass index (BMI) >22. In a double-blind, between-groups trial, 31 "restrained" eaters were stabilized on either pexacerfont (300 mg/day for 7 days, then 100 mg/day for 21 days) or placebo. On day 15, they underwent a math-test stressor; during three subsequent visits, they heard personalized craving-induction scripts. In each session, stress-induced food consumption and craving were assessed in a bogus taste test and on visual analog scales. We used digital video to monitor daily ingestion of study capsules and nightly rating of food problems/preoccupation on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The study was stopped early due to an administrative interpretation of US federal law, unrelated to safety or outcome. The bogus taste tests suggested some protective effect of pexacerfont against eating after a laboratory stressor (r effect  = 0.30, 95 % CL = -0.12, 0.63, Bayes factor 11.30). Similarly, nightly YFAS ratings were lower with pexacerfont than placebo (r effect  = 0.39, CI 0.03, 0.66), but this effect should be interpreted with caution because it was present from the first night of pill ingestion, despite pexacerfont's slow pharmacokinetics. The findings may support further investigation of the anticraving properties of CRF 1 antagonists, especially for food.

  20. Brain prolactin is involved in stress-induced REM sleep rebound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo Borges; Rocha, Murilo Ramos; Suchecki, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    REM sleep rebound is a common behavioural response to some stressors and represents an adaptive coping strategy. Animals submitted to multiple, intermittent, footshock stress (FS) sessions during 96h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) display increased REM sleep rebound (when compared to the only REMSD ones, without FS), which is correlated to high plasma prolactin levels. To investigate whether brain prolactin plays a role in stress-induced REM sleep rebound two experiments were carried out. In experiment 1, rats were either not sleep-deprived (NSD) or submitted to 96h of REMSD associated or not to FS and brains were evaluated for PRL immunoreactivity (PRL-ir) and determination of PRL concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and dorsal raphe nucleus. In experiment 2, rats were implanted with cannulas in the dorsal raphe nucleus for prolactin infusion and were sleep-recorded. REMSD associated with FS increased PRL-ir and content in the lateral hypothalamus and all manipulations increased prolactin content in the dorsal raphe nucleus compared to the NSD group. Prolactin infusion in the dorsal raphe nucleus increased the time and length of REM sleep episodes 3h after the infusion until the end of the light phase of the day cycle. Based on these results we concluded that brain prolactin is a major mediator of stress-induced REMS. The effect of PRL infusion in the dorsal raphe nucleus is discussed in light of the existence of a bidirectional relationship between this hormone and serotonin as regulators of stress-induced REM sleep rebound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eMüller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic mechanisms are critically involved in the control of fear and anxiety, but their role in the development of stress-induced psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mood disorders is not sufficiently understood. We studied these functions in two established mouse models of risk factors for stress-induced psychopathologies employing variable juvenile stress and/or social isolation. A battery of emotional tests in adulthood revealed the induction of contextually generalized fear, anxiety, hyperarousal and depression-like symptoms in these paradigms. These reflect the multitude and complexity of stress effects in human PTSD patients. With factor analysis we were able to identify parameters that reflect these different behavioral domains in stressed animals and thus provide a basis for an integrated scoring of affectedness more closely resembling the clinical situation than isolated parameters. To test the applicability of these models to genetic approaches we further tested the role of GABA using heterozygous mice with targeted mutation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD65 (GAD65+/- mice, which show a delayed postnatal increase in tissue GABA content in limbic and cortical brain areas. Unexpectedly, GAD65(+/- mice did not show changes in exploratory activity regardless of the stressor type and were after the variable juvenile stress procedure protected from the development of contextual generalization in an auditory fear conditioning experiment. Our data demonstrate the complex nature of behavioral alterations in rodent models of stress-related psychopathologies and suggest that GAD65 haplodeficiency, likely through its effect on the postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission, conveys resilience to some of these stress-induced effects.

  2. Stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed. Stress did not affect poured and consumed calories differently between groups. Across all subjects, calories poured and consumed were positively correlated with post-stress hunger, but calories poured was positively correlated with post-stress anxiety and negative affect. These results indicate that stress-related psychological factors may be more strongly associated with the motivational drive to eat (i.e. amount poured) rather than the hedonic aspects of eating (i.e. amount consumed) for women in general. Exploratory correlation analyses per subgroup suggest that post-stress hunger was positively associated with calories poured and consumed in both non-BED groups. In the obese BED group, calories consumed was negatively associated with dietary restraint and, although not significantly, positively associated with stress-induced changes in anxiety.These findings suggest that stress-induced snacking in obese BED women may be influenced by psychological factors more so than homeostatic hunger mechanisms. After controlling for dietary restraint and negative affect, the NW non-BED women ate a greater percentage of the food they poured than both obese groups, suggesting that obesity may be associated with a heightened motivational drive to eat coupled with a reduction in hedonic pleasure from eating post-stress. Further studies that incorporate novel approaches to

  3. Basolateral amygdala GABA-A receptors mediate stress-induced memory retrieval impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardari, Maryam; Rezayof, Ameneh; Khodagholi, Fariba; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of GABA-A receptors of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the impairing effect of acute stress on memory retrieval. The BLAs of adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-through type passive avoidance apparatus. Acute stress was evoked by placing the animals on an elevated platform for 10, 20 and 30 min. The results indicated that exposure to 20 and 30 min stress, but not 10 min, before memory retrieval testing (pre-test exposure to stress) decreased the step-through latency, indicating stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. Intra-BLA microinjection of a GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol (0.005-0.02 μg/rat), 5 min before exposure to an ineffective stress (10 min exposure to stress) induced memory retrieval impairment. It is important to note that pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of the same doses of muscimol had no effect on memory retrieval in the rats unexposed to 10 min stress. The blockade of GABA-A receptors of the BLA by injecting an antagonist, bicuculline (0.4-0.5 μg/rat), 5 min before 20 min exposure to stress, prevented stress-induced memory retrieval. Pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of the same doses of bicuculline (0.4-0.5 μg/rat) in rats unexposed to 20 min stress had no effect on memory retrieval. In addition, pre-treatment with bicuculline (0.1-0.4 μg/rat, intra-BLA) reversed muscimol (0.02 μg/rat, intra-BLA)-induced potentiation on the effect of stress in passive avoidance learning. It can be concluded that pre-test exposure to stress can induce memory retrieval impairment and the BLA GABA-A receptors may be involved in stress-induced memory retrieval impairment.

  4. Angiotensin II receptor blocker ameliorates stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoharu Hayashi

    Full Text Available A strong causal link exists between psychological stress and insulin resistance as well with hypertension. Meanwhile, stress-related responses play critical roles in glucose metabolism in hypertensive patients. As clinical trials suggest that angiotensin-receptor blocker delays the onset of diabetes in hypertensive patients, we investigated the effects of irbesartan on stress-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2-week intermittent restraint stress and orally treated with vehicle, 3 and 10 mg/kg/day irbesartan. The plasma concentrations of lipid and proinflammatory cytokines [Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6] were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monocyte/macrophage accumulation in inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT was observed with CD11b-positive cell counts and mRNA expressions of CD68 and F4/80 using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods respectively. The mRNA levels of angiotensinogen, proinflammatory cytokines shown above, and adiponectin in WAT were also assessed with RT-PCR method. Glucose metabolism was assessed by glucose tolerance tests (GTTs and insulin tolerance tests, and mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in WAT. Restraint stress increased monocyte accumulation, plasma free fatty acids, expression of angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines including MCP-1, and reduced adiponectin. Irbesartan reduced stress-induced monocyte accumulation in WAT in a dose dependent manner. Irbesartan treatment also suppressed induction of adipose angiotensinogen and proinflammatory cytokines in WAT and blood, and reversed changes in adiponectin expression. Notably, irbesartan suppressed stress-induced reduction in adipose tissue weight and free fatty acid release, and improved insulin tolerance with restoration of IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA expressions in WAT. The results

  5. Stress Induced Charge-Ordering Process in LiMn_2O_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Yu, Dunji; An, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we report the stress-induced Mn charge-ordering process in the LiMn_2O_4 spinel, evidenced by the lattice strain evolutions due to the Jahn–Teller effects. In situ neutron diffraction reveals the initial stage of this process at low stress, indicating the eg electron localization at the preferential Mn sites during the early phase transition as an underlying charge-ordering mechanism in the charge-frustrated LiMn_2O_4. The initial stage of this transition exhibits as a progressive lattice and charge evolution, without showing a first-order behavior.

  6. Stress-induced state transitions in flexible liquid-crystal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, I-Lin; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This work studies the stress-strain dynamics for the transient optoelectronic characteristics of flexible liquid-crystal (LC) devices. Due to the fast response of LC directors, the configuration of the LC is assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium during the process of elastic deformations of the flexible structures. The LC medium hence can be treated effectively as a thin-film layer and can approximately follow the strain-stress mechanism in the solids. Relevant theoretical algorithms are studied in this work, and numerical results present the stress-induced state transitions in the π cell.

  7. Inhibitory effects of myricitrin on oxidative stress-induced endothelial damage and early atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Qin, Meng [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China); Ye, Jing-xue [Jilin Agricultural University, No. 2888, Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130118 Jilin (China); Pan, Rui-le; Meng, Xiang-bao; Wang, Min; Luo, Yun; Li, Zong-yang [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China); Wang, Hong-wei, E-mail: hwang@nju.edu.cn [Center for Translational Medicine and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Sun, Xiao-bo, E-mail: sunsubmit@163.com [Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 100193, Beijing (China)

    2013-08-15

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in vascular walls. Oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury is a major factor in the pathogenesis of AS. Myricitrin, a natural flavonoid isolated from the root bark of Myrica cerifera, was recently found to have a strong antioxidative effect. However, its use for treating cardiovascular diseases, especially AS is still unreported. Consequently, we evaluated the cytoprotective effect of myricitrin on AS by assessing oxidative stress-induced VEC damage. The in vivo study using an ApoE −/− mouse model of AS demonstrated that myricitrin treatment protects against VEC damage and inhibits early AS plaque formation. This effect is associated with the antioxidative effect of myricitrin, as observed in a hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced rat model of artery endothelial injury and primary cultured human VECs. Myricitrin treatment also prevents and attenuates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced endothelial injury. Further investigation of the cytoprotective effects of myricitrin demonstrated that myricitrin exerts its function by scavenging for reactive oxygen species, as well as reducing lipid peroxidation, blocking NO release, and maintaining mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Myricitrin treatment also significantly decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis in VECs, which was associated with significant inhibition of p53 gene expression, activation of caspase-3 and the MAPK signaling pathway, and alteration of the patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression. The resulting significantly increased bcl-2/bax ratio indicates that myricitrin may prevent the apoptosis induced by oxidative stress injury. - Highlights: • Myricitrin prevents early atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. • Myricitrin protects endothelial cell from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced injury in rat and HUVECs. • Myricitrin enhanced NO release and up

  8. Recent Advances in the Gastric Mucosal Protection Against Stress-induced Gastric Lesions. Importance of Renin-angiotensin Vasoactive Metabolites, Gaseous Mediators and Appetite Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Olszanecki, Rafal; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Stress is known to cause severe adverse effects in the human gastrointestinal tract including mucosal microbleedings and erosions or even gastric ulceration but the mechanism of these complications has not been fully elucidated. The pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage involves the fall in Gastric Blood Flow (GBF), an increase in gastric acid secretion and gastric motility, enhanced adrenergic and cholinergic nerve activity and the rise in gastric mucosal generation of reactive oxygen species. The gastric mucosal defense mechanisms against the deleterious effect of stress include the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which has been linked with glucocorticoids release capable of counteracting of stress-induced gastric lesions. Here we summarize the novel gastroprotective mechanisms against stress damage exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the newly discovered metabolite of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS), the gaseous mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or Carbon Monoxide (CO), and the food intake controlling peptides ghrelin, nesfatin- 1 and apelin possibly acting via brain-gut axis. These bioactive molecules such as RAS vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) and appetite peptides have been shown to afford gastroprotective effect against stressinduced gastric lesions mainly mediated by an increase in gastric microcirculation. Gaseous mediators protect the gastric mucosa against stress lesions by mechanism involving the activation of PG/COX and CO/HO-1 biosynthetic pathways, and their anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidizing properties. Thus, these new components add new mechanistic aspects to the common cooperation of NO/NO-synthase, PG/COX systems and vasoactive sensory neuropeptides including CGRP but their gastroprotective efficacy against experimental stress ulcerogenesis requires the confirmation in human clinical trials. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Inhibitory effects of myricitrin on oxidative stress-induced endothelial damage and early atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gui-bo; Qin, Meng; Ye, Jing-xue; Pan, Rui-le; Meng, Xiang-bao; Wang, Min; Luo, Yun; Li, Zong-yang; Wang, Hong-wei; Sun, Xiao-bo

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a state of heightened oxidative stress characterized by lipid and protein oxidation in vascular walls. Oxidative stress-induced vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury is a major factor in the pathogenesis of AS. Myricitrin, a natural flavonoid isolated from the root bark of Myrica cerifera, was recently found to have a strong antioxidative effect. However, its use for treating cardiovascular diseases, especially AS is still unreported. Consequently, we evaluated the cytoprotective effect of myricitrin on AS by assessing oxidative stress-induced VEC damage. The in vivo study using an ApoE −/− mouse model of AS demonstrated that myricitrin treatment protects against VEC damage and inhibits early AS plaque formation. This effect is associated with the antioxidative effect of myricitrin, as observed in a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced rat model of artery endothelial injury and primary cultured human VECs. Myricitrin treatment also prevents and attenuates H 2 O 2 -induced endothelial injury. Further investigation of the cytoprotective effects of myricitrin demonstrated that myricitrin exerts its function by scavenging for reactive oxygen species, as well as reducing lipid peroxidation, blocking NO release, and maintaining mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Myricitrin treatment also significantly decreased H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis in VECs, which was associated with significant inhibition of p53 gene expression, activation of caspase-3 and the MAPK signaling pathway, and alteration of the patterns of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression. The resulting significantly increased bcl-2/bax ratio indicates that myricitrin may prevent the apoptosis induced by oxidative stress injury. - Highlights: • Myricitrin prevents early atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. • Myricitrin protects endothelial cell from H 2 O 2 induced injury in rat and HUVECs. • Myricitrin enhanced NO release and up regulates eNOS activity in HUVECs.

  10. Severe Obesity in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Subclinical Cardiac and Vascular Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amy S; Dolan, Lawrence M; Khoury, Philip R; Gao, Zhiqan; Kimball, Thomas R; Urbina, Elaine M

    2015-07-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing subgroup of obesity in youth. We sought to explore the association between severe obesity and subclinical measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function in adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional comparison of 265 adolescents and young adults with severe obesity (defined as body mass index [BMI] ≥120% of the 95th percentile) to 182 adolescents and young adults with obesity (defined as BMI ≥100-119th of the 95th percentile) at tertiary medical center. Noninvasive measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function were assessed. Participants were a mean age of 17.9 years, 62% were non-Caucasian, and 68% were female. Systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and frequency of type 2 diabetes were higher in participants with severe obesity (all P obesity as measured by higher left ventricular mass index, worse diastolic function, higher carotid intima media thickness, and pulse wave velocity and lower brachial distensibility (all P obesity (compared with obesity) was independently associated with each of the above outcomes after adjustment for age, race, sex, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers (P young adults with severe obesity have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and worse cardiac and vascular structure and function. More importantly, severe obesity is independently associated with these subclinical cardiac and vascular changes.

  11. Role of serotonin in the intestinal mucosal epithelium barrier in weaning mice undergoing stress-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Qin, Zhuoming; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2018-02-01

    Stress-induced diarrhea is a frequent and challenging threat to humans and domestic animals. Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in the pathological process of stress-induced diarrhea. However, the role of 5-HT in stress-induced diarrhea remains unclear. A stress-induced diarrhea model was established in 21-day-old ICR weaning mice through an intragastric administration of 0.25 mL of 0.4 g/mL folium sennae and restraint of the hind legs with adhesive tape for 4 h to determine whether 5-HT regulates the mucosal barrier to cause diarrhea. Mice with decreased levels of 5-HT were pretreated with an intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor. After 5 days of treatment, the stress level, body weight and intestinal mucosal morphology indexes were measured. Compared to the controls, the mice with stress-induced diarrhea displayed a stress reaction, with increased corticosterone levels, as well as increased 5-HT-positive cells. However, the mice with stress-induced diarrhea exhibited decreased body weights, villus height to crypt depth ratios (V/C), and Occludin and Claudin1 expression. The PCPA injection reversed these effects in mice with different degrees of stress-induced diarrhea. Based on these findings, inhibition of 5-HT synthesis relieved the stress response and improved the health of the intestinal tract, including both the intestinal absorption capacity, as determined by the villus height and crypt depth, and the mucosal barrier function, as determined by the tight junction proteins of epithelial cell.

  12. Hipertiroidismo subclínico Subclinical hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbet Rodríguez Fernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El hipertiroidismo subclínico se define por la presencia de niveles disminuidos o no detectables de tirotropina, asociados a concentración de tetrayodotironina y triyodotironina libres dentro de parámetros normales. Su prevalencia en la población varía entre un 0,5 y un 16 % aproximadamente, y es el tratamiento con levotiroxina sódica la causa más frecuente. No siempre resulta tan asintomático, y las afectaciones principales ocurren sobre el sistema cardiovascular y óseo. Esta condición médica puede ser reversible espontáneamente. Por lo controversial del tema, el presente trabajo trata los aspectos clínicos más relevantes y la conducta a seguir.Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by presence of decreased o non-detected levels of thyrotropin, associated with free concentrations of tetraiodothyronine and triiodothyromime within normal parameters. Its prevalence in population differs between 0,5 % and 16 % approximately, and the sodium Levothyroxine treatment is the more frequent cause. Not always it is so asymptomatic, and main affections occur on cardiovascular and osseous system. This medical condition may be spontaneously reversible. Due to controversial of this topic, present paper approaching the more significant clinical features and the strategy to go on.

  13. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  14. Stress-induced accumulation of wheat germ agglutinin and abscisic acid in roots of wheat seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammue, B.P.A.; Broekaert, W.F.; Kellens, J.T.C.; Peumans, W.J.; Raikhel, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) levels in roots of 2-day-old wheat seedlings increased up to three-fold when stressed by air-drying. Similar results were obtained when seedling roots were incubated either in 0.5 molar mannitol or 180 grams per liter polyethylene glycol 6,000, with a peak level of WGA after 5 hours of stress. Longer periods of osmotic treatment resulted in a gradual decline of WGA in the roots. Since excised wheat roots incorporate more [ 35 S]cysteine into WGA under stress conditions, the observed increase of lectin levels is due to de novo synthesis. Measurement of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in roots of control and stressed seedlings indicated a 10-fold increase upon air-drying. Similarly, a five- and seven-fold increase of ABA content of seedling roots was found after 2 hours of osmotic stress by polyethylene glycol 6,000 and mannitol, respectively. Finally, the stress-induced increase of WGA in wheat roots could be inhibited by growing seedlings in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. These results indicate that roots of water-stressed wheat seedlings (a) contain more WGA as a result of an increased de novo synthesis of this lectin, and (b) exhibit higher ABA levels. The stress-induced increase of lectin accumulation seems to be under control of ABA

  15. Thermal Stress-Induced Depolarization Loss in Conventional and Panda-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Laleh; Sabaeian, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    We report on the modeling of the depolarization loss in the conventional and panda-shaped photonic crystal fiber lasers (PCFLs) due to the self-heating of the fiber, which we call it thermal stress-induced depolarization loss (TSIDL). We first calculated the temperature distribution over the fiber cross sections and then calculated the thermal stresses/strains as a function of heat load per meter. Thermal stress-induced birefringence (TSIB), which is defined as | n x - n y |, in the core and cladding regions was calculated. Finally, TSIDL was calculated for the conventional and panda-shaped PCFLs as a function of fiber length and, respectively, saturated values of 22 and 25 % were obtained which were independent of heat load per meter. For panda-shaped PCFLs, prior to being saturated, an oscillating and damping behavior against the fiber length was seen where in some lengths reached 35 %. The results are close to an experimental value of 30 % reported for a pulsed PCFL (Limpert et al., Opt Express 12:1313-1319, 2004) where the authors reported a degree of polarization of 70 % (i.e., a depolarization of 30 %). The most important result of this work is a saturation behavior of TSIDL at long-enough lengths of the fiber laser which is independent of heat load per meter. To our knowledge, this the first report of TSIBL for PCFLs.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation within the Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Antonio V; Serrano, Peter A; Burghardt, Nesha S

    2016-01-01

    Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  17. Reward dependence moderates smoking-cue- and stress-induced cigarette cravings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Alexandra; Erblich, Joel

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette cravings following exposure to smoking cues in a smoker's environment are thought to play an important role in cessation failure. The possibility that dispositional factors may impact cue-induced cravings, though intriguing, has received little attention. According to Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Theory, factors such as reward dependence (RD), harm avoidance (HA), and novelty seeking (NS) may figure prominently in risk for addiction, as well as relapse, in individuals attempting to abstain from drug and alcohol use. Particularly interesting in this regard is the possibility that smokers with higher levels of RD, who are especially sensitive to reward signals, will have heightened craving reactions to smoking cues. To that end, non-treatment-seeking nicotine dependent smokers (n=96, mean age=41.1, 47% African American, 17% Caucasian, 22% Hispanic, 19.3cigs/day, FTND=7.5) underwent a classic experimental cue-induction, during which they were exposed to imagery of: (1) smoking, (2) neutral, and (3) stress cues, and reported their cigarette cravings (0-100) before and after each exposure. Participants also completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Not surprisingly, smoking and stress cues (but not neutral cues) elicited significant elevations in craving (p'scues (pcues (pcues. Furthermore, the similar effects of RD on stress-induced craving suggest that both cue-and stress-induced cravings may be influenced by a common underlying disposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress induced right ventricular dysfunction: An indication of reversible right ventricular ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Walton, S.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.; Campos Costa, D.; Laming, P.J.; Ell, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Stress induced changes in left ventricular ejection fraction are widely used in the detection and assessment of coronary artery disease. This study demonstrates that right ventricular dysfunction may also occur, and assesses its significance in terms of coronary artery anatomy. This study involved 14 normal subjects and 26 with coronary artery disease investigated by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, at rest and during maximal dynamic exercise. Mean normal resting right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was 0.40 (SD 0.118), and all normal subjects increased RVEF with stress (mean ΔRVEF+0.13 SD 0.099). Mean ΔRVEF in the subjects with coronary artery disease was significantly lower at 0.00 (SD 0.080), but there was overlap between the two groups. The largest falls in RVEF were seen if the right coronary artery was occluded without retrograde filling. In this subgroup with the most severely compromised right ventricular perfusion (nine subjects), RVEF always fell with stress, and mean ΔRVEF was -0.08 (SD 0.050). There was no significant correlation between ΔLVEF and ΔRVEF, implying that the right ventricular dysfunction was due to right ventricular ischaemia, rather than secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Stress induced right ventricular ischaemia can therefore be detected readily by radionuclide ventriculography. (orig.)

  19. Stress-induced martensitic transformation and ferroelastic deformation adjacent microhardness indents in tetragonal zirconia single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, F.R.; Ubic, F.J.; Prakash, V.; Heuer, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    The stress-induced tetragonal to monoclinic (t → m) martensitic transformation, stress-induced ferroelastic domain switching, and dislocation slip were induced by Vickers microindentation at elevated temperatures in polydomain single crystals of 3 mol%-Y 2 O 3 -stabilized tetragonal ZrO 2 single crystals (3Y-TZS). Chemical etching revealed traces along t directions adjacent to indentations, and Raman spectroscopy and TEM have shown that these traces are caused by products of the martensitic transformation, i.e. the monoclinic product phase forms primarily as thin, long plates with a habit plane approximately on (bar 301) m . This habit plane and the associated shear strain arising from the transformation, visible in TEM micrographs at the intersection of crystallographically equivalent martensite plates, were successfully predicted using the observed lattice correspondence and the phenomenological invariant plane strain theory of martensitic transformations. The extent of the martensitic transformation increased with increasing temperature from room temperature up to 300 C, but then decreased at higher temperatures. Ferroelastic deformation of tetragonal ZrO 2 has been observed at all temperatures up to 1,000 C. At the highest temperature, only ferroelastic domain switching and dislocation slip occurred during indentation-induced deformation

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Increases in Fear Memory Consolidation Within the Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aubry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress can significantly impact brain function and increase the risk for developing various psychiatric disorders. Many of the brain regions that are implicated in psychiatric disorders and are vulnerable to the effects of stress are also involved in mediating emotional learning. Emotional learning has been a subject of intense investigation for the past 30 years, with the vast majority of studies focusing on the amygdala and its role in associative fear learning. However, the mechanisms by which stress affects the amygdala and amygdala-dependent fear memories remain unclear. Here we review the literature on the enhancing effects of acute and chronic stress on the acquisition and/or consolidation of a fear memory, as measured by auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning, and discuss potential mechanisms by which these changes occur in the amygdala. We hypothesize that stress-mediated activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and norepinephrine release within the amygdala leads to the mobilization of AMPA receptors to the synapse, which underlies stress-induced increases in fear memory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for evaluating the effects of stress on extinction and for developing treatments for anxiety disorders. Understanding how stress-induced changes in glucocorticoid and norepinephrine signaling might converge to affect emotional learning by increasing the trafficking of AMPA receptors and enhancing amygdala excitability is a promising area for future research.

  1. Expression of HSF2 decreases in mitosis to enable stress-inducible transcription and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, Alexandra N.; Aspelin, Camilla; Björk, Johanna K.; Bergman, Heidi A.; Himanen, Samu V.; Kallio, Marko J.; Roos-Mattjus, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates Hsp expression by interacting with HSF1. Due to global inhibition of transcription in mitosis, including HSF1-mediated expression of Hsps, mitotic cells are highly vulnerable to stress. Here, we show that cells can counteract transcriptional silencing and protect themselves against proteotoxicity in mitosis. We found that the condensed chromatin of HSF2-deficient cells is accessible for HSF1 and RNA polymerase II, allowing stress-inducible Hsp expression. Consequently, HSF2-deficient cells exposed to acute stress display diminished mitotic errors and have a survival advantage. We also show that HSF2 expression declines during mitosis in several but not all human cell lines, which corresponds to the Hsp70 induction and protection against stress-induced mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis. PMID:25202032

  2. Prolactin prevents acute stress-induced hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis by acting in the brain of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Takahiko; Soya, Hideaki; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Sakai, Randall R; McEwen, Bruce S; Nakai, Naoya; Ogata, Masato; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Nakashima, Kunio

    2004-04-01

    Stress causes hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis in rats. In rats under stressful conditions, a rapid and transient increase in circulating prolactin (PRL) is observed, and this enhanced PRL induces PRL receptors (PRLR) in the choroid plexus of rat brain. In this study we used restraint stress in water to elucidate the mechanism by which PRLR in the rat brain mediate the protective effect of PRL against stress-induced hypocalcemia and ulcerogenesis. We show that rat PRL acts through the long form of PRLR in the hypothalamus. This is followed by an increase in the long form of PRLR mRNA expression in the choroid plexus of the brain, which provides protection against restraint stress in water-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions. We also show that PRL induces the expression of PRLR protein and corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. These results suggest that the PRL levels increase in response to stress, and it moves from the circulation to the cerebrospinal fluid to act on the central nervous system and thereby plays an important role in helping to protect against acute stress-induced hypocalcemia and gastric erosions.

  3. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

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    Penny J Tricker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defence ‘priming’ and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity’s adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  4. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Penny J

    2015-01-01

    The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defense "priming" and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity's adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution.

  5. Acute Stress-Induced Epigenetic Modulations and Their Potential Protective Role Toward Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rusconi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders entail maladaptive processes impairing individuals’ ability to appropriately interface with environment. Among them, depression is characterized by diverse debilitating symptoms including hopelessness and anhedonia, dramatically impacting the propensity to live a social and active life and seriously affecting working capability. Relevantly, besides genetic predisposition, foremost risk factors are stress-related, such as experiencing chronic psychosocial stress—including bullying, mobbing and abuse—, and undergoing economic crisis or chronic illnesses. In the last few years the field of epigenetics promised to understand core mechanisms of gene-environment crosstalk, contributing to get into pathogenic processes of many disorders highly influenced by stressful life conditions. However, still very little is known about mechanisms that tune gene expression to adapt to the external milieu. In this Perspective article, we discuss a set of protective, functionally convergent epigenetic processes induced by acute stress in the rodent hippocampus and devoted to the negative modulation of stress-induced immediate early genes (IEGs transcription, hindering stress-driven morphostructural modifications of corticolimbic circuitry. We also suggest that chronic stress damaging protective epigenetic mechanisms, could bias the functional trajectory of stress-induced neuronal morphostructural modification from adaptive to maladaptive, contributing to the onset of depression in vulnerable individuals. A better understanding of the epigenetic response to stress will be pivotal to new avenues of therapeutic intervention to treat depression, especially in light of limited efficacy of available antidepressant drugs.

  6. A Stress-Induced Bias in the Reading of the Genetic Code in Escherichia coli

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    Adi Oron-Gottesman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli mazEF is an extensively studied stress-induced toxin-antitoxin (TA system. The toxin MazF is an endoribonuclease that cleaves RNAs at ACA sites. Thereby, under stress, the induced MazF generates a stress-induced translation machinery (STM, composed of MazF-processed mRNAs and selective ribosomes that specifically translate the processed mRNAs. Here, we further characterized the STM system, finding that MazF cleaves only ACA sites located in the open reading frames of processed mRNAs, while out-of-frame ACAs are resistant. This in-frame ACA cleavage of MazF seems to depend on MazF binding to an extracellular-death-factor (EDF-like element in ribosomal protein bS1 (bacterial S1, apparently causing MazF to be part of STM ribosomes. Furthermore, due to the in-frame MazF cleavage of ACAs under stress, a bias occurs in the reading of the genetic code causing the amino acid threonine to be encoded only by its synonym codon ACC, ACU, or ACG, instead of by ACA.

  7. Evaluation of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage

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    R Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims to evaluate antioxidants and protective role of Cassia tora Linn. against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage. Materials and Methods: The total and profiles of flavonoids were identified and quantified through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using standard antioxidant assays. The protective role of C. tora extracts against oxidative stress-induced DNA and cell membrane damage was examined by electrophoretic and scanning electron microscopic studies, respectively. Results: The total flavonoid content of CtEA was 106.8 ± 2.8 mg/g d.w.QE, CtME was 72.4 ± 1.12 mg/g d.w.QE, and CtWE was 30.4 ± 0.8 mg/g d.w.QE. The concentration of flavonoids present in CtEA in decreasing order: quercetin >kaempferol >epicatechin; in CtME: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol; whereas, in CtWE: quercetin >rutin >kaempferol. The CtEA inhibited free radical-induced red blood cell hemolysis and cell membrane morphology better than CtME as confirmed by a scanning electron micrograph. CtEA also showed better protection than CtME and CtWE against free radical-induced DNA damage as confirmed by electrophoresis. Conclusion: C. tora contains flavonoids and inhibits oxidative stress and can be used for many health benefits and pharmacotherapy.

  8. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  9. Finite-strain micromechanical model of stress-induced martensitic transformations in shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupkiewicz, S.; Petryk, H.

    2006-01-01

    A micromechanical model of stress-induced martensitic transformation in single crystals of shape memory alloys is developed. This model is a finite-strain counterpart to the approach presented recently in the small-strain setting [S. Stupkiewicz, H. Petryk, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 50 (2002) 2303-2331]. The stress-induced transformation is assumed to proceed by the formation and growth of parallel martensite plates within the austenite matrix. Propagation of phase transformation fronts is governed by a rate-independent thermodynamic criterion with a threshold value for the thermodynamic driving force, including in this way the intrinsic dissipation due to phase transition. This criterion selects the initial microstructure at the onset of transformation and governs the evolution of the laminated microstructure at the macroscopic level. A multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into elastic and transformation parts is assumed, with full account for the elastic anisotropy of the phases. The pseudoelastic behavior of Cu-Zn-Al single crystal in tension and compression is studied as an application of the model

  10. Peripheral and central CB1 cannabinoid receptors control stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Gomis-González, Maria; Srivastava, Raj Kamal; Cutando, Laura; Ortega-Alvaro, Antonio; Ruehle, Sabine; Remmers, Floortje; Bindila, Laura; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni; Lutz, Beat; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2016-08-30

    Stressful events can generate emotional memories linked to the traumatic incident, but they also can impair the formation of nonemotional memories. Although the impact of stress on emotional memories is well studied, much less is known about the influence of the emotional state on the formation of nonemotional memories. We used the novel object-recognition task as a model of nonemotional memory in mice to investigate the underlying mechanism of the deleterious effect of stress on memory consolidation. Systemic, hippocampal, and peripheral blockade of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptors abolished the stress-induced memory impairment. Genetic deletion and rescue of CB1 receptors in specific cell types revealed that the CB1 receptor population specifically in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH)-expressing cells is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation, but CB1 receptors present in other neuronal populations are not involved. Strikingly, pharmacological manipulations in mice expressing CB1 receptors exclusively in DBH(+) cells revealed that both hippocampal and peripheral receptors mediate the impact of stress on memory consolidation. Thus, CB1 receptors on adrenergic and noradrenergic cells provide previously unrecognized cross-talk between central and peripheral mechanisms in the stress-dependent regulation of nonemotional memory consolidation, suggesting new potential avenues for the treatment of cognitive aspects on stress-related disorders.

  11. A multi-level spatial analysis of clinical malaria and subclinical Plasmodium infections in Pailin Province, Cambodia

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    Daniel M. Parker

    2017-11-01

    7. 7 for P. falciparum and AOR = 2.9; CI: 1.7–4.8 for P. vivax. Discussion: Spatial clustering within the villages was transient, making the prediction of spatial clusters difficult. Interventions that are dependent on predicting spatial clusters (such as reactive case detection would only have detected a small proportion of cases unless the entire village was screened within a limited time frame and with a highly sensitive diagnostic test. Subclinical infections may be acquired outside of the village (particularly in forested areas and may play an important role in transmission. Keywords: Infectious disease, Public health, Geography, Information science

  12. How Does Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Affect Right Heart Function and Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Celic, Vera; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ilic, Sanja; Zivanovic, Vladimir; Marjanovic, Tamara

    2016-02-01

    Right heart function and mechanics have not been investigated in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Our aim was to investigate right ventricular (RV) and right atrial (RA) function and deformation as evaluated by 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and speckle-tracking 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in these individuals. We included 39 untreated women with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and 39 healthy women matched by age. All participants underwent laboratory analyses that included thyroid hormone levels and comprehensive 2DE and 3DE examinations. Three-dimensional echocardiographic RV volumes were significantly elevated in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism (P < .05), whereas the 3DE RV ejection fraction was reduced in this group, but with borderline significance. Two-dimensional echocardiographic longitudinal RV and RA strain were significantly reduced in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two-dimensional echocardiographic RV systolic and early diastolic strain rates were reduced, whereas late diastolic strain rates were increased in the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The same changes were detected in RA mechanics among the patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The thyrotropin (TSH) level correlated with the left ventricular mass index, transmitral early diastolic peak flow velocity (E)/late diastolic flow velocity (A) ratio, tricuspid E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, 2DE RA, strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the mitral E/A ratio, 2DE RV global strain, and 3DE RV end-diastolic volume were independently associated with the TSH level. Right ventricular and RA function as evaluated by 3DE and speckle-tracking 2DE is significantly impaired in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism. The TSH level correlated with parameters for RV function and mechanics in the whole study population. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Frailty Among Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgini, Vanessa S.; Rodondi, Nicolas; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Harrison, Stephanie Litwack; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Both subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty are common among older individuals, but data on the relationship between these 2 conditions are conflicting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the cross-sectional and prospective associations between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and frailty and the 5 frailty subdomains (sarcopenia, weakness, slowness, exhaustion, and low activity). Setting and Design: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study is a prospective cohort study. Participants: Men older than 65 years (n = 1455) were classified into 3 groups of thyroid status: subclinical hyperthyroidism (n = 26, 1.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 102, 7.0%), and euthyroidism (n = 1327, 91.2%). Main Outcome Measures: Frailty was defined using a slightly modified Cardiovascular Health Study Index: men with 3 or more criteria were considered frail, men with 1 to 2 criteria were considered intermediately frail, and men with no criteria were considered robust. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between baseline thyroid function and the 3 categories of frailty status (robust/intermediate/frail) as well as the prospective association between baseline thyroid function and subsequent frailty status and mortality after a 5-year follow-up. Results: At baseline, compared with euthyroid participants, men with subclinical hyperthyroidism had an increased likelihood of greater frailty status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–5.34), particularly among men aged hyperthyroidism were not consistently associated with overall frailty status or frailty components. Conclusion: Among community-dwelling older men, subclinical hyperthyroidism, but not subclinical hypothyroidism, is associated with increased odds of prevalent but not incident frailty. PMID:26495751

  14. The different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity.

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    Li-Juan Zhu

    Full Text Available Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression and the mechanism underling the dysfunction of HPA axis is not well understood. Chronic stress has a causal relationship with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. Stress induces the over-synthesis of glucocorticoids, which will arrive at all the body containing the brain. It is still complicated whether glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity and in which part of the brain the glucocorticoids account for chronic stress-induced HPA axis hyperactivity. Here, we demonstrated that glucocorticoids were indispensable and sufficient for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Although acute glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus and hypothalamus exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis, we found that chronic glucocorticoids elevation in the hippocampus but not in the hypothalamus accounted for chronic stress-induced hyperactivity of HPA axis. Chronic glucocorticoids exposure in the hypothalamus still exerted a negative regulation of HPA axis activity. More importantly, we found mineralocorticoid receptor (MR - neuronal nitric oxide synthesis enzyme (nNOS - nitric oxide (NO pathway mediated the different roles of glucocorticoids in the hippocampus and hypothalamus in regulating HPA axis activity. This study suggests that the glucocorticoids in the hippocampus play an important role in the development of HPA axis hyperactivity and the glucocorticoids in the hypothalamus can't induce hyperactivity of HPA axis, revealing new insights into understanding the mechanism of depression.

  15. Effects of the antipsychotic paliperidone on stress-induced changes in the endocannabinoid system in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Karina S; Sayd, Aline; García-Bueno, Borja; Caso, Javier R; Madrigal, José L M; Leza, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Objectives There is a need to explore novel mechanisms of action of existing/new antipsychotics. One potential candidate is the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The present study tried to elucidate the effects of the antipsychotic paliperidone on stress-induced ECS alterations. Methods Wister rats were submitted to acute/chronic restraint stress. Paliperidone (1 mg/kg) was given prior each stress session. Cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids (eCBs) synthesis and degradation enzymes were measured in prefrontal cortex (PFC) samples by RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results In the PFC of rats exposed to acute stress, paliperidone increased CB1 receptor (CB1R) expression. Furthermore, paliperidone increased the expression of the eCB synthesis enzymes N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine- hydrolysing phospholipase D and DAGLα, and blocked the stress-induced increased expression of the degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase. In chronic conditions, paliperidone prevented the chronic stress-induced down-regulation of CB1R, normalised DAGLα expression and reverted stress-induced down-regulation of the 2-AG degrading enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase. ECS was analysed also in periphery. Acute stress decreased DAGLα expression, an effect prevented by paliperidone. Contrarily, chronic stress increased DAGLα and this effect was potentiated by paliperidone. Conclusions The results obtained described a preventive effect of paliperidone on stress-induced alterations in ECS. Considering the diverse alterations on ECS described in psychotic disease, targeting ECS emerges as a new therapeutic possibility.

  16. Metformin prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis through AMPK-PI3K-c-Jun NH2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, Y.-J.; Kim, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to be partially associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress toxicity on pancreatic beta cells and the result of decreased insulin synthesis and secretion. In this study, we showed that a well-known insulin sensitizer, metformin, directly protects against dysfunction and death of ER stress-induced NIT-1 cells (a mouse pancreatic beta cell line) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation. We also showed that exposure of NIT-1 cells to metformin (5mM) increases cellular resistance against ER stress-induced NIT-1 cell dysfunction and death. AMPK and PI3 kinase inhibitors abolished the effect of metformin on cell function and death. Metformin-mediated protective effects on ER stress-induced apoptosis were not a result of an unfolded protein response or the induced inhibitors of apoptotic proteins. In addition, we showed that exposure of ER stressed-induced NIT-1 cells to metformin decreases the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK). These data suggest that metformin is an important determinant of ER stress-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells and may have implications for ER stress-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction via regulation of the AMPK-PI3 kinase-JNK pathway.

  17. CRP and suPAR are differently related to anthropometry and subclinical organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Sehestedt, Thomas; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation is a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) independently predict CVD. We tested the hypothesis that these biomarkers reflect different aspects...... of the inflammation associated with CVD. METHODS: We studied 2273 subjects without CVD. Log-transformed CRP and suPAR were included in general linear and logistic regression models to compare associations with measures of anthropometry and subclinical organ damage (SOD). Owing to interactions on body mass index (BMI......) (P3: 1.31 (1.16-1.47), whereas log-CRP was not (1.00 (0.89-1.11))). CONCLUSIONS: CRP is positively associated with anthropometric measures, whereas suPAR is linked to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis....

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents: Is It Clinically Relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Gawlik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is a common clinical problem, its diagnosis tends to be incidental. According to the definition, it should be asymptomatic, only detectable by screening. The presence or coincidence of any symptoms leads to L-thyroxine treatment. The clinical presentation, especially in younger patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, is still under dispute. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to review the literature from the past seven years. The literature search identified 1,594 potentially relevant articles, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. Few studies focus on the symptomatology of subclinical hypothyroidism, and most of them analyzed a small number of subjects. A significant correlation was found by some authors between subclinical hypothyroidism and a higher risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and migraine. No evidence of the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism on weight, growth velocity, and puberty was revealed. As the quality of most studies is poor and no definite conclusions can be drawn, randomized, large-scale studies in children and adolescents are warranted to determine the best care for patients with SH.

  19. Comparison of QT dispersion between subclinical hypothyroid and euthyroid patients

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    Muharrem Kıskaç

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subclinical hypothyroid and QTc dispersionindicating local heterogeneity in repolarization of myocardium, which is well known as independent cardiac risk factor for sudden death and ventricular arrhythmia.Materials and Methods: We compared QTc dispersion of subclinical hypothyroid patients, after treatment and healthy control group. We included a total of 50 patients with 41 women and 9 men in the study group. Electrocardiographywith 12 derivations, thyroid hormones, serum electrolytes and basic biochemical parameters were measured.The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals.QT distances were calculated by using Bazet formula. The difference between the longest QTc and the shortest QTc distance was accepted as QTc dispersion (QTcd.Results: Comparison of subclinical hypothyroid patients, their euthyroidic period after treatment and healthy controlgroup, gave no significant differences in age, body weight, body mass index and free thyroxin values. However,significant difference was found in durations of QTd and QTcd between the subclinical hypothyroid, the control and the euthyroidic groups (p0.05.Conclusion: Our results suggested that subclinical hypothyroidpatients had longer QTc dispersion compared to euthyroidic period and healthy subjects. However there was no QTcd difference between the euthyroidic period and healthy control group.

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood - current knowledge and open issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Mariacarolina; Capalbo, Donatella; Cerbone, Manuela; De Luca, Filippo

    2016-12-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as serum levels of TSH above the upper limit of the reference range, in the presence of normal concentrations of total T 4 or free T 4 . This biochemical profile might be an indication of mild hypothyroidism, with a potential increased risk of metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease recorded among adults. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism results in adverse health outcomes among children is a matter of debate and so management of this condition remains challenging. Mild forms of untreated subclinical hypothyroidism do not seem to be associated with impairments in growth, bone health or neurocognitive outcome. However, ongoing scientific investigations have highlighted the presence of subtle proatherogenic abnormalities among children with modest elevations in their TSH levels. Although current findings are insufficient to recommend levothyroxine treatment for all children with mild asymptomatic forms of subclinical hypothyroidism, they highlight the potential need for assessment of cardiovascular risk among children with this condition. Increased understanding of the early metabolic risk factors associated with subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood will help to improve the management of affected individuals.

  1. Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neera; Dutta, Deep; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin levels were estimated in consecutive children hypothyroidism, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, comorbid states, and drug-induced hyperprolactinemia were excluded. From the initially screened 791 children, hormonal data from 602 children who fulfilled all criteria were analyzed. Seventy-one (11.79%) of these had ScH, and 33 (5.48%) had OPH. Occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was highest in the OPH group (51.51%), followed by ScH (30.98%) and euthyroid children (4.41%) (p<0.001). Median (25 th -75 th percentiles) levels for prolactin in euthyroid, ScH, and OPH children were 13.3 (9.4-17.95), 19.15 (15.97-30.12), and 28.86 (17.05-51.9) ng/mL, respectively (p<0.001). In children, prolactin levels were comparable in males and females. An age-related increase in serum prolactin was noted in euthyroid children, which was statistically significant in post-pubertal (16-18 years) children. Area under the curve for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children was 0.758 (95% confidence interval: 0.673-0.829; p<0.001). TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L had a sensitivity of 69.4% and specificity of 77.6% in detecting hyperprolactinemia. Hyperprolactinemia is common in children with ScH and OPH. TSH ≥4.00 mIU/L has a good sensitivity and specificity in predicting hyperprolactinemia in children. More studies are needed to establish if hyperprolactinemia should be an indication for treating ScH in children.

  2. Running multiple marathons is not a risk factor for premature subclinical vascular impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Axel; Suchy, Christiane; Friedrichs, Tasja; Dallinger, Sophia; Grabs, Viola; Haller, Bernhard; Halle, Martin; Scherr, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Background In contrast to the well-accepted benefits of moderate exercise, recent research has suggested potential deleterious effects of repeated marathon running on the cardiovascular system. We thus performed a comprehensive analysis of markers of subclinical vascular damage in a cohort of runners having finished multiple marathon races successfully. Design This was a prospective, observational study. Methods A total of 97 healthy male Munich marathon participants (mean age 44 ± 10 years) underwent detailed training history, cardiopulmonary exercise testing for assessment of peak oxygen uptake, ultrasound for assessment of intima-media-thickness as well as non-invasive assessments of ankle-brachial index, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity and reactive hyperaemia index. Results Runners had previously completed a median of eight (range 1-500) half marathons, six (1-100) full marathons and three (1-40) ultramarathons; mean weekly and annual training volumes were 59 ± 23 and 1639 ± 979 km. Mean peak oxygen uptake was 50 ± 8 ml/min/kg, and the Munich marathon was finished in 3:45 ± 0:32 h. Runners showed normal mean values for intima-media-thickness (0.60 ± 0.14 mm), ankle-brachial index (1.2 ± 0.1), augmentation index (17 ± 13%), pulse wave velocity (8.7 ± 1.4 cm/s) and reactive hyperaemia index (1.96 ± 0.50). Age was significantly and independently associated with intima-media-thickness ( r = 0.531; p running multiple marathon races did not pose an additional risk factor for premature subclinical vascular impairment beyond age.

  3. Reactive Arthritis

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    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  4. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsak, Piray; Guenzel, Friederike M; Kantar-Gok, Deniz; Zalachoras, Ioannis; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Meijer, Onno C; Quirarte, Gina L; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2016-05-01

    Acute stress and elevated glucocorticoid hormone levels are well known to impair the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory. Recent findings suggest that stress might also impair the retrieval of non-hippocampal memories. In particular, stress shortly before retention testing was shown to impair the retrieval of striatal stimulus-response associations in humans. However, the mechanism underlying this stress-induced retrieval impairment of non-hippocampal stimulus-response memory remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether an acute elevation in glucocorticoid levels mediates the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of stimulus-response memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a stimulus-response task in an eight-arm radial maze until they learned to associate a stimulus, i.e., cue, with a food reward in one of the arms. Twenty-four hours after successful acquisition, they received a systemic injection of vehicle, corticosterone (1mg/kg), the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (35mg/kg) or were left untreated 1h before retention testing. We found that the corticosterone injection impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. We further found that the systemic injection procedure per se was stressful as the vehicle administration also increased plasma corticosterone levels and impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. However, memory retrieval was not impaired when rats were tested 2min after the systemic vehicle injection, before any stress-induced elevation in corticosterone levels had occurred. Moreover, metyrapone treatment blocked the effect of injection stress on both plasma corticosterone levels and memory retrieval impairment, indicating that the endogenous corticosterone response mediates the stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. None of the treatments affected rats' locomotor activity or motivation to search for the food reward within the maze. These findings show that stress

  5. Orientation dependence of stress-induced martensite formation during nanoindentation in NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplanche, G.; Pfetzing-Micklich, J.; Eggeler, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we used nanoindentation with a spherical indenter tip to study the formation of stress-induced martensite in NiTi shape memory alloys. Prior to nanoindentation, orientation imaging was performed to select austenite grains with specific crystallographic orientations, including the principal crystallographic directions [0 0 1], [1 0 1] and [1 1 1]. We studied a material where stress-induced martensite is stable at room temperature and found surface patterns with four-, two- and threefold symmetries for the [0 0 1], [1 0 1] and [1 1 1] crystallographic indentation directions, respectively. Atomic force microscopy investigations of the topography showed that the surface patterns were associated with sink-ins. The crystallographic sink-in patterns disappeared during heating, which proved their martensitic origin. Our results provide clear experimental evidence which shows that the crystallographic anisotropy of nanoindentation is governed by the crystallographic anisotropy of the stress-induced formation of martensite

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism: A common finding in adult patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Peter; Hjortshøj, Cristel S; Gaede, Peter; Idorn, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars; Jensen, Annette S

    2018-03-01

    Cyanotic congenital heart disease is a systemic disease, with effects on multiple organ systems. A high prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been reported in a small cohort of cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with various adverse cardiovascular effects, as well as an increased risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of SCH in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients, consider possible etiologies, and evaluate thyroid function over time. First, 90 clinically stable cyanotic congenital heart disease patients were examined with blood samples (thyroid-stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and N-terminal pro-brain-natriuretic peptide) in a cross-sectional descriptive study. Second, a longitudinal follow-up study of 43 patients originating from the first study part, was carried out. These patients had thyroid function parameters (thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormones, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies) evaluated biannually. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was present in 24% of the 90 screened patients. During follow-up (6.5 ± 1.0 years), SCH (defined as ≥2 consecutive elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone values) was present in 26%. Three patients progressed to overt hypothyroidism. Patients with SCH were younger (34 ± 12 vs 42 ± 16 years; P = .01) and had a lower oxygen saturation (80 ± 5 vs 84 ± 6%; P = .03). Subclinical hypothyroidism is a very common finding in cyanotic congenital heart disease. This is not associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein, heart failure, or autoimmunity but appears to be associated with cyanosis and age. Since the clinical impact of SCH is uncertain, further studies are needed to determine this. Regular thyroid evaluation is recommended in cyanotic congenital heart disease patients since SCH can develop to overt hypothyroidism. © 2017

  7. Evaluation of endothelial function in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and the effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that FMD decreased in exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients which could be partially restored by treatment. These findings suggest that treatment of subclinical hyperthyroid state could improve endothelial dysfunction and at the end decreased the cardiovascular complications.

  8. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala prevents chronic immobilization stress-induced memory impairment and associated changes in corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S

    2017-07-01

    Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic

  9. Infrared reflectance as a diagnostic adjunct for subclinical commotio retinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Commotio retinae (CR is an outer retinal disorder following blunt trauma to the eye. Histologically it is characterized by disruption of the photoreceptor outer segments (OS, typically without injury to other retinal layers. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT the condition is visible as hyper-reflectivity of the OS. Most cases of CR are associated with transient grey-white discoloration of the retina and are easily diagnosed clinically, but there have been reports of OCT-confirmed CR without retinal discoloration. It is likely that this subclinical variant of CR is under-recognized as the OCT features of CR are subtle. Here, we report a case of OCT-confirmed subclinical CR that demonstrated prominent infrared hypo-reflectance, using the infrared protocol of the SPECTRALIS® OCT, Heidelberg Engineering. This case suggests that infrared reflectance may have a role in diagnosing cases of subclinical CR.

  10. Tuning stress-induced magnetic anisotropy and high frequency properties of FeCo films deposited on different curvature substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.K.; Feng, E.X.; Liu, Q.F.; Wang, J.B.; Xue, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    It is important to control magnetic anisotropy of ferromagnetic materials. In this work, FeCo thin films are deposited on the curving substrates by electrochemical deposition to adjust the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy. The compressive stress is produced in the as-deposited films after the substrates are flattened. A simplified theoretical model of ferromagnetic resonance is utilized to measure the intrinsic magnetic anisotropy field and saturation magnetization. The results show that the stress-induced magnetic anisotropy and the resonance frequency increase with the increase of substrate curvature. The induced easy axis is perpendicular to the compressive stress direction.

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Nisin Z on Subclinical Mastitis in Lactating Cows▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Junqiang; Hu, Songhua; Cao, Liting

    2007-01-01

    Bovine subclinical mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial intramammary infection, accounting for large economic losses. Treatment of subclinical mastitis is not suggested for lactating cows due to the risk of milk contamination. The objectives of this study were to evaluate an antimicrobial peptide, nisin, in the treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating cows. A total of 90 lactating Holstein cows with subclinical mastitis were randomly divided into nisin-tr...

  12. Stress induced martensite at the crack tip in NiTi alloys during fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sgambitterra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack tip stress-induced phase transformation mechanisms in nickel-titanium alloys (NiTi were analyzed by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, under fatigue loads. In particular, Single Edge Crack (SEC specimens, obtained from a commercial pseudoelastic NiTi sheet, and an ad-hoc experimental setup were used, for direct measurements of the near crack tip displacement field by the DIC technique. Furthermore, a fitting procedure was developed to calculate the mode I Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, starting from the measured displacement field. Finally, cyclic tensile tests were performed at different operating temperature, in the range 298-338 K, and the evolution of the SIF was studied, which revealed a marked temperature dependence.

  13. Does stress induce (para)sex? Implications for Candida albicans evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Judith; Hadany, Lilach

    2012-05-01

    Theory predicts that stress is a key factor in explaining the evolutionary role of sex in facultatively sexual organisms, including microorganisms. Organisms capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually are expected to mate more frequently when stressed, and such stress-induced mating is predicted to facilitate adaptation. Here, we propose that stress has an analogous effect on the parasexual cycle in Candida albicans, which involves alternation of generations between diploid and tetraploid cells. The parasexual cycle can generate high levels of diversity, including aneuploidy, yet it apparently occurs only rarely in nature. We review the evidence that stress facilitates four major steps in the parasexual cycle and suggest that parasex occurs much more frequently under stress conditions. This may explain both the evolutionary significance of parasex and its apparent rarity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stress-induced phase transformation and room temperature aging in Ti-Nb-Fe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J.E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corp, 9609 Ardmore Ave., Fort Wayne, IN 46809 (United States); Ren, Y. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Room temperature deformation behavior of Ti-17Nb-1Fe and Ti-17Nb-2Fe alloys was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. It was found that, after proper heat treatment, both alloys were able to recover a deformation strain of above 3.5% due to the Stress-induced Martensite (SIM) phase transformation. Higher Fe content increased the beta phase stability and onset stress for SIM transformation. A strong {110}{sub β} texture was produced in Ti-17Nb-2Fe compared to the {210}{sub β} texture that was observed in Ti-17Nb-1Fe. Room temperature aging was observed in both alloys, where the formation of the omega phase increased the yield strength (also SIM onset stress), and decreased the ductility and strain recovery. Other metastable beta Ti alloys may show a similar aging response and this should draw the attention of materials design engineers.

  15. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Negrón-Oyarzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser exploiting both depressed cladding and stress-induced guiding core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Wu, Zheng-Xiang; Zhang, Yang; Pan, Huai-Hai; Zhao, Quan-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of stress-induced optical channel waveguides and waveguide splitters with laser-depressed cladding by femtosecond laser. The laser beam was focused into neodymium doped phosphate glass by an objective producing a destructive filament. By moving the sample along an enclosed routine in the horizontal plane followed by a minor descent less than the filament length in the vertical direction, a cylinder with rarified periphery and densified center region was fabricated. Lining up the segments in partially overlapping sequence enabled waveguiding therein. The refractive-index contrast, near- and far-field mode distribution and confocal microscope fluorescence image of the waveguide were obtained. 1-to-2, 1-to-3 and 1-to-4 splitters were also machined with adjustable splitting ratio. Compared with traditional femtosecond laser writing methods, waveguides prepared by this approach showed controllable mode conduction, strong field confinement, large numerical aperture, low propagation loss and intact core region.

  17. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  18. The cardiokine story unfolds: ischemic stress-induced protein secretion in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroudgar, Shirin; Glembotski, Christopher C

    2011-04-01

    Intercellular communication depends on many factors, including proteins released via the classical or non-classical secretory pathways, many of which must be properly folded to be functional. Owing to their adverse effects on the secretion machinery, stresses such as ischemia can impair the folding of secreted proteins. Paradoxically, cells rely on secreted proteins to mount a response designed to resist stress-induced damage. This review examines this paradox using proteins secreted from the heart, cardiokines, as examples, and focuses on how the ischemic heart maintains or even increases the release of select cardiokines that regulate important cellular processes in the heart, including excitation-contraction coupling, hypertrophic growth, myocardial remodeling and stem cell function, in ways that moderate ischemic damage and enhance cardiac repair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kava and valerian in the treatment of stress-induced insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, D

    2001-09-01

    Kava and valerian are herbal remedies, claimed to have anxiolytic and sedative properties respectively, without dependence potential or any appreciable side-effects. In this pilot study, 24 patients suffering from stress-induced insomnia were treated for 6 weeks with kava 120 mg daily. This was followed by 2 weeks off treatment and then, 5 having dropped out, 19 received valerian 600 mg daily for another 6 weeks. Stress was measured in three areas: social, personal and life-events; insomnia in three areas also: time to fall asleep, hours slept and waking mood. Total stress severity was significantly relieved by both compounds (p effects was 58% with each drug respectively and the 'commonest' effect was vivid dreams with valerian (16%), followed by dizziness with kava (12% ). These compounds may be useful in the treatment of stress and insomnia but further studies are required to determine their relative roles for such indications. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Heat stress induced changes in metabolic regulators of donkeys from arid tracts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria N.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To find out heat stress induced changes in metabolic regulators of donkeys from arid tracts in India, blood samples were collected to harvest the serum during moderate and extreme hot ambiences. The metabolic enzymes determined were sorbitol dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, ornithine carbamoyl transferase, gammaglutamayl transferase, 5’nucleotidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, arginase, and aldolase. The mean values of all the serum enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05 during hot ambience as compared to respective values during moderate ambience. It was concluded that increased activity of all the enzymes in the serum was due to modulation of metabolic reactions to combat the effect of hot ambience on the animals. Activation of gluconeogenesis along with hexose monophosphate shunt and urea cycle probably helped the animals to combat the heat stress.

  1. Stress induced modulation of magnetic domain diffraction of single crystalline yttrium iron garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mito, Shinichiro; Yoshihara, Yuki; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2018-05-01

    Stress induced modulation of the diffraction angle and efficiency of the light reflected from a stripe-domain magnetic garnet was demonstrated. The spacing of the magnetic domain was changed using the inverse magnetostriction effect. The sample structure was a piezo actuator/Al reflection layer/magnetic garnet substrate. A diffraction angle between the 0th and 1st ordered light was changed from 9.12 deg. to 10.20 deg. This result indicates that the domain spacing was changed from 3.3 μm to 3.0 μm. The change of the diffraction angle was irreversible for the voltage. However, reversible, linear and continuous change of the diffraction efficiency was observed. These results could be applicable for a voltage-driven optical solid state light deflector with low power consumption and high switching speed.

  2. Stress-induced cognitive dysfunction: hormone-neurotransmitter interactions in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Shansky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms and neural circuits that drive emotion and cognition are inextricably linked. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis as a result of stress or other causes of arousal initiates a flood of hormone and neurotransmitter release throughout the brain, affecting the way we think, decide, and behave. This review will focus on factors that influence the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, a brain region that governs higher-level cognitive processes and executive function. The PFC becomes markedly impaired by stress, producing measurable deficits in working memory. These deficits arise from the interaction of multiple neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and gonadal hormones; here we will discuss the non- human primate and rodent literature that has furthered our understanding of the circuitry, receptors, and signaling cascades responsible for stress-induced prefrontal dysfunction.

  3. Calcium channel blocker prevents stress-induced activation of renin and aldosterone in conscious pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceremuzynski, L.K.; Klos, J.; Barcikowski, B.; Herbaczynska-Cedro, K.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable amount of data suggest the involvement of calcium-mediated processes in the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) cascade. To investigate the effect of calcium-channel inhibition on the RAA system, the authors studied 21 conscious pigs. Blood renin and aldosterone levels increased by subjecting animals to 24 hours of immobilization stress. Renin and aldosterone levels were repeatedly measured by radioimmunoassay in blood samples taken periodically over 24 hours from a chronically implanted arterial cannula. Pretreatment of the animals (N = 11) with nisoldipine, 2 x 20 mg p.o. daily for 2 days before and on the day of immobilization, transiently attenuated the stress-induced increase of plasma renin activity and completely prevented the rise of aldosterone, as compared to nontreated controls (N = 10). The finding that nisoldipine suppresses RAA activation induced by a nonpharmacologic stimulus in the conscious intact animal may have clinical implications

  4. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Balistreri, Giuseppe; Viiliainen, Johanna; Turunen, Mikko; Diaz, Raquel; Lyly, Lauri; Pekkonen, Pirita; Rantala, Juha; Ojala, Krista; Sarek, Grzegorz; Teesalu, Mari; Denisova, Oxana; Peltonen, Karita; Julkunen, Ilkka; Varjosalo, Markku; Kainov, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi?s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi?s sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored...

  5. Sex differences in stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity following early life adversity: a two hit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusator, D K; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2016-12-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) has been indicated as a risk factor for the development of stress axis dysfunction in adulthood, specifically in females. We previously showed that unpredictable ELA induces visceral hyperalgesia in adult female rats. It remains to be determined whether ELA alters visceral nociceptive responses to stress in adulthood. The current study tested the hypothesis that following ELA, exposure to an adulthood stressor, or second hit, serves as a risk factor for exaggerated stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity that is sex-specific. Following ELA, adult stress was induced via a single exposure (acute) or repetitive daily exposure, 1 h/day for 7 days (chronic), to water avoidance stress (WAS). Acute WAS increased pain behaviors in all adult female rats, however, females that experienced unpredictable ELA exhibited significantly more pain behaviors compared to those exposed to predictable ELA or controls. Following chronic WAS, all adult females exhibited increased pain responses, however, an exaggerated response was observed in rats exposed to unpredictable or predictable ELA compared to controls. Similarly, in adult male rats exposure to acute or chronic WAS increased pain behaviors, however, there were no differences in pain behaviors between ELA groups. This study highlights a novel consequence of ELA on stress-induced visceral nociception in adulthood that is sex-specific. More importantly, our study suggests that ELA not only serves as a risk factor for development of chronic pain in adulthood, but also serves as a predisposition for worsening of visceral pain following adult stress in female rats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Dissecting the roles of ROCK isoforms in stress-induced cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Surma, Michelle; Zhang, Lumin; Wei, Lei

    2013-05-15

    The homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are involved in stress fiber assembly and cell adhesion and are assumed to be functionally redundant. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ROCK1(-/-) and ROCK2(-/-) mice, we have recently reported that they play different roles in regulating doxorubicin-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment: ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell detachment, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. Here, we present additional insights into the roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in regulating stress-induced impairment of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. In response to doxorubicin, ROCK1(-/-) MEFs showed significant preservation of both focal adhesions and adherens junctions, while ROCK2(-/-) MEFs exhibited impaired focal adhesions but preserved adherens junctions compared with the wild-type MEFs. Additionally, inhibition of focal adhesion or adherens junction formations by chemical inhibitors abolished the anti-detachment effects of ROCK1 deletion. Finally, ROCK1(-/-) MEFs, but not ROCK2(-/-) MEFs, also exhibited preserved central stress fibers and reduced cell detachment in response to serum starvation. These results add new insights into a novel mechanism underlying the anti-detachment effects of ROCK1 deletion mediated by reduced peripheral actomyosin contraction and increased actin stabilization to promote cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Our studies further support the differential roles of ROCK isoforms in regulating stress-induced loss of central stress fibers and focal adhesions as well as cell detachment.

  7. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  8. Basolateral amygdala and stress-induced hyperexcitability affect motivated behaviors and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, B M

    2017-08-08

    The amygdala integrates and processes incoming information pertinent to reward and to emotions such as fear and anxiety that promote survival by warning of potential danger. Basolateral amygdala (BLA) communicates bi-directionally with brain regions affecting cognition, motivation and stress responses including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and hindbrain regions that trigger norepinephrine-mediated stress responses. Disruption of intrinsic amygdala and BLA regulatory neurocircuits is often caused by dysfunctional neuroplasticity frequently due to molecular alterations in local GABAergic circuits and principal glutamatergic output neurons. Changes in local regulation of BLA excitability underlie behavioral disturbances characteristic of disorders including post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD), autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stress-induced relapse to drug use. In this Review, we discuss molecular mechanisms and neural circuits that regulate physiological and stress-induced dysfunction of BLA/amygdala and its principal output neurons. We consider effects of stress on motivated behaviors that depend on BLA; these include drug taking and drug seeking, with emphasis on nicotine-dependent behaviors. Throughout, we take a translational approach by integrating decades of addiction research on animal models and human trials. We show that changes in BLA function identified in animal addiction models illuminate human brain imaging and behavioral studies by more precisely delineating BLA mechanisms. In summary, BLA is required to promote responding for natural reward and respond to second-order drug-conditioned cues; reinstate cue-dependent drug seeking; express stress-enhanced reacquisition of nicotine intake; and drive anxiety and fear. Converging evidence indicates that chronic stress causes BLA principal output neurons to become hyperexcitable.

  9. Sweet food improves chronic stress-induced irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Sang-Gyun; Kim, Yong Sung; Choi, Suck Chei; Lee, Moon Young

    2014-03-07

    To investigate whether palatable sweet foods have a beneficial effect on chronic stress-induced colonic motility and inflammatory cytokines. Adult male rats were divided into 3 groups: control (CON, n = 5), chronic variable stress with chow (CVS-A, n = 6), and chronic variable stress with chow and sweet food (CVS-B, n = 6). The rats were fed standard rodent chow as the chow food and/or AIN-76A as the sweet food. A food preference test for AIN-76A was performed in another group of normal rats (n = 10) for twelve days. Fecal pellet output (FPO) was measured for 6 wk during water bedding stress in the CVS groups. The weight of the adrenal glands, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels in plasma were measured. The expression levels of transforming growth factor-β, interleukin (IL)-2, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were measured in the distal part of colonic tissues and plasma using Western blot analysis. In sweet preference test, all rats initially preferred sweet food to chow food. However, the consumption rate of sweet food gradually decreased and reduced to below 50% of total intake eight days after sweet food feeding. Accumulated FPO was higher in the CVS-A group compared with the CVS-B group over time. All stress groups showed significant increases in the adrenal to body weight ratio (CVS-A, 0.14 ± 0.01; CVS-B, 0.14 ± 0.01) compared with the control group (0.12 ± 0.01, P food ingestion during CVS might have an effect on the reduction of stress-induced colonic hyper-motility and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in rats.

  10. Uncovering a Dual Regulatory Role for Caspases During Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, Veronica G; Yu, Kebing; Gnad, Florian; Pferdehirt, Rebecca R; Li, Han; Ma, Taylur P; Jeon, Diana; Fortelny, Nikolaus; Forrest, William; Ashkenazi, Avi; Overall, Christopher M; Lill, Jennie R

    2016-07-01

    Many diseases are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which results from an accumulation of misfolded proteins. This triggers an adaptive response called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), and prolonged exposure to ER stress leads to cell death. Caspases are reported to play a critical role in ER stress-induced cell death but the underlying mechanisms by which they exert their effect continue to remain elusive. To understand the role caspases play during ER stress, a systems level approach integrating analysis of the transcriptome, proteome, and proteolytic substrate profile was employed. This quantitative analysis revealed transcriptional profiles for most human genes, provided information on protein abundance for 4476 proteins, and identified 445 caspase substrates. Based on these data sets many caspase substrates were shown to be downregulated at the protein level during ER stress suggesting caspase activity inhibits their cellular function. Additionally, RNA sequencing revealed a role for caspases in regulation of ER stress-induced transcriptional pathways and gene set enrichment analysis showed expression of multiple gene targets of essential transcription factors to be upregulated during ER stress upon inhibition of caspases. Furthermore, these transcription factors were degraded in a caspase-dependent manner during ER stress. These results indicate that caspases play a dual role in regulating the cellular response to ER stress through both post-translational and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Moreover, this study provides unique insight into progression of the unfolded protein response into cell death, which may help identify therapeutic strategies to treat ER stress-related diseases. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Cellular stress induces a protective sleep-like state in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew J; Mansfield, Richard; Lopez, Jessie M N G; Raizen, David M; Van Buskirk, Cheryl

    2014-10-20

    Sleep is recognized to be ancient in origin, with vertebrates and invertebrates experiencing behaviorally quiescent states that are regulated by conserved genetic mechanisms. Despite its conservation throughout phylogeny, the function of sleep remains debated. Hypotheses for the purpose of sleep include nervous-system-specific functions such as modulation of synaptic strength and clearance of metabolites from the brain, as well as more generalized cellular functions such as energy conservation and macromolecule biosynthesis. These models are supported by the identification of synaptic and metabolic processes that are perturbed during prolonged wakefulness. It remains to be seen whether perturbations of cellular homeostasis in turn drive sleep. Here we show that under conditions of cellular stress, including noxious heat, cold, hypertonicity, and tissue damage, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans engages a behavioral quiescence program. The stress-induced quiescent state displays properties of sleep and is dependent on the ALA neuron, which mediates the conserved soporific effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand overexpression. We characterize heat-induced quiescence in detail and show that it is indeed dependent on components of EGF signaling, providing physiological relevance to the behavioral effects of EGF family ligands. We find that after noxious heat exposure, quiescence-defective animals show elevated expression of cellular stress reporter genes and are impaired for survival, demonstrating the benefit of stress-induced behavioral quiescence. These data provide evidence that cellular stress can induce a protective sleep-like state in C. elegans and suggest that a deeply conserved function of sleep is to mitigate disruptions of cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lateralized kappa opioid receptor signaling from the amygdala central nucleus promotes stress-induced functional pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kelsey M; De Felice, Milena; Hernandez, Pablo I; Dodick, David W; Neugebauer, Volker; Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2018-05-01

    The response of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) is often decreased, or lost, in stress-related functional pain syndromes. Because the dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor (KOR) pathway is activated by stress, we determined its role in DNIC using a model of stress-induced functional pain. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were primed for 7 days with systemic morphine resulting in opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Fourteen days after priming, when hyperalgesia was resolved, rats were exposed to environmental stress and DNIC was evaluated by measuring hind paw response threshold to noxious pressure (test stimulus) after capsaicin injection in the forepaw (conditioning stimulus). Morphine priming without stress did not alter DNIC. However, stress produced a loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats in both hind paws that was abolished by systemic administration of the KOR antagonist, nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI). Microinjection of nor-BNI into the right, but not left, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) prevented the loss of DNIC in morphine-primed rats. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls were not modulated by bilateral nor-BNI in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Stress increased dynorphin content in both the left and right CeA of primed rats, reaching significance only in the right CeA; no change was observed in the rostral ventromedial medulla or hypothalamus. Although morphine priming alone is not sufficient to influence DNIC, it establishes a state of latent sensitization that amplifies the consequences of stress. After priming, stress-induced dynorphin/KOR signaling from the right CeA inhibits DNIC in both hind paws, likely reflecting enhanced descending facilitation that masks descending inhibition. Kappa opioid receptor antagonists may provide a new therapeutic strategy for stress-related functional pain disorders.

  13. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis in surgical and transcatheter bioprosthetic aortic valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Tarun; Søndergaard, Lars; Friedman, John

    2017-01-01

    rates of transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs; 4·18 TIAs per 100 person-years vs 0·60 TIAs per 100 person-years; p=0·0005) and all strokes or TIAs (7·85 vs 2·36 per 100 person-years; p=0·001). INTERPRETATION: Subclinical leaflet thrombosis occurred frequently in bioprosthetic aortic valves, more commonly...... outcomes after TAVR with the new-generation valves, prevention and treatment of subclinical leaflet thrombosis might offer a potential opportunity for further improvement in valve haemodynamics and clinical outcomes. FUNDING: RESOLVE (Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute) and SAVORY (Rigshospitalet)....

  14. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism has profound effects on the cardiovascular system, including reduced systemic vascular resistance (SVR) due to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells, enhanced heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO) due to an increase in cardiac diastolic relaxation, contractility and heart...... rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography......) in subjects with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism in order to elucidate whether these patients had signs of excess thyroid hormone at the tissue level....

  15. BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF LEVOTHYROXINE IN THE TREATMENT OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Mersudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Increased cardiovascular risk in thyroid dysfunction is associated with disorders of lipid and lipoproteins, endothelial dysfunction, metabolic, hormonal, hemodynamic changes and coagulation disorders. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by a suprarnormal level of TSH with normal levels of thyroid hormones. The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism of the lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. Several intervention studies assessed the effect of levothyroxine therapy on the lipid profile of patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and obtained conflicting results. The aim of the research is to determine whether subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with the atherogenic lipid profile and whether these changes are reversible after the introduction of the L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Method: The study included 51 patients over 50 years of age with subclinical hypothyroidism. All the participants were subjected to an examination programme which included a detailed anamnesis and physical examination, laboratory tests (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, T3, T4, TSH. After eight weeks of levothyroxine therapy, the same laboratory parameters were determined in the patients. Results: Subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism had high average values: TSH (12.77 + 2.78 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (7.55 ± 0.79 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol (5.03 ± 0.61 mmol / l, triglycerides (2.48 ± 1.01 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol was within reference values (1.12 ± 0.21 mmol / l. After eight weeks of levothyroxine replacement therapy, there was a statistically significant reduction of average values (p <0.0001: TSH (3.83 ± 1.33 mIU / ml, total cholesterol (6.28 ± 0.96 mmol / l, LDL cholesterol ( 4.03 ± 0.70 mmol / mmol / l l, triglycerides (1.98 ± 0.87 mmol / l; and the average value of HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.0001 (1.32 ± 0.22 mmol

  16. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, L H.; Hogan, P E.; Bryan, N R.; Kuller, L H.; Margolis, K L.; Bettermann, K; Wallace, R B.; Lao, Z; Freeman, R; Stefanick, M L.; Shumaker, S A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) hormone therapy (HT) trials reported that conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) increases risk for all-cause dementia and global cognitive decline. WHIMS MRI measured subclinical cerebrovascular disease as a possible mechanism to explain cognitive decline reported in WHIMS. Methods: We contacted 2,345 women at 14 WHIMS sites; scans were completed on 1,424 (61%) and 1,403 were accepted for analysis. The primary outcome measure was total ischemic lesion volume on brain MRI. Mean duration of on-trial HT or placebo was 4 (CEE+MPA) or 5.6 years (CEE-Alone) and scans were conducted an average of 3 (CEE+MPA) or 1.4 years (CEE-Alone) post-trial termination. Cross-sectional analysis of MRI lesions was conducted; general linear models were fitted to assess treatment group differences using analysis of covariance. A (two-tailed) critical value of α = 0.05 was used. Results: In women evenly matched within trials at baseline, increased lesion volumes were significantly related to age, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, lower post-trial global cognition scores, and increased incident cases of on- or post-trial mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. Mean ischemic lesion volumes were slightly larger for the CEE+MPA group vs placebo, except for the basal ganglia, but the differences were not significant. Women assigned to CEE-Alone had similar mean ischemic lesion volumes compared to placebo. Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy was not associated with a significant increase in ischemic brain lesion volume relative to placebo. This finding was consistent within each trial and in pooled analyses across trials. GLOSSARY 3MSE = modified Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI = body mass index; CEE = conjugated equine estrogen; CVD = cerebrovascular disease; HT = hormone therapy; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MPA

  17. Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity in Subclinical Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Donita L.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin and to define the mechanisms which predispose to nephrotoxicity in subclinical renal disease. Subtotally nephrectomized beagle dogs were used as a model for human beings with compromised renal function secondary to a reduced number of functional nephrons. Using ultrastructural morphometry, light microscopy and clinical chemistry data, the model was defined and the nephrotoxic responses of intact dogs administered recommended doses of drug were compared to the response of subtotally nephrectomized dogs administered reduced doses based on each animal's clearance of drug. Lysosomal and mitochondrial morphometric changes suggested mechanisms for increased sensitivity. To determine if increased sensitivity in this model was dependent on altered serum concentrations, variable rate infusions based on individual pharmacokinetic disposition of drug were administered using computer-driven infusion pumps. Identical serum concentration-time profiles were achieved in normal dogs and subtotally nephrectomized dogs, however, toxicity was significantly greater in nephrectomized dogs. The difference in the nephrotoxic response was characterized by administering supratherapeutic doses of drug to dogs. Nephrectomized dogs given a recommended dose of gentamicin became oliguric during the second week of treatment and increasingly uremic after withdrawal of drug. In contrast, intact dogs administered 2 times the recommended dose of gentamicin become only slightly polyuric during week 4 of treatment. The need to individualize dosage regimens based on drug clearance and not serum creatinine nor creatinine clearance alone was substantiated by describing the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin in spontaneously occurring disease states. Four individualized dosage regimens with differing predicted efficacy were then administered to nephrectomized dogs to determine their relative nephrotoxic

  18. Serology indicates cytomegalovirus infection is associated with varicella-zoster virus reactivation

    OpenAIRE

    OGUNJIMI, Benson; Theeten, Heidi; HENS, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox after which the virus remains latent in neural ganglia. Subsequent reactivation episodes occur, leading mainly to subclinical detection of VZV, but also to the clinical entity herpes zoster. These reactivations are known to occur most frequently amongst immunocompromised individuals, but the incidence of herpes zoster is also known to increase with age, supposedly as a consequence of immunosenescence. Our analysis aims to explore associations bet...

  19. Cerebrovascular mental stress reactivity is impaired in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqvi Tasneem Z

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial artery reactivity in response to shear stress is altered in subjects with hypertension. Since endothelial dysfunction is generalized, we hypothesized that carotid artery (CA reactivity would also be altered in hypertension. Purpose To compare (CA endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to mental stress in normal and hypertensive subjects. Methods We evaluated CA reactivity to mental stress in 10 young healthy human volunteers (aged 23 ± 4 years, 20 older healthy volunteers (aged 49 ± 11 years and in 28 patients with essential hypertension (aged 51 ± 13 years. In 10 healthy volunteers and 12 hypertensive subjects, middle cerebral artery (MCA PW transcranial Doppler was performed before and 3 minutes after mental stress. Results Mental stress by Stroop color word conflict, math or anger recall tests caused CA vasodilation in young healthy subjects (0.61 ± 0.06 to 0.65 ± 0.07 cm, p Conclusion Mental stress produces CA vasodilation and is accompanied by an increase in CA and MCA blood flow in healthy subjects. This mental stress induced CA vasodilation and flow reserve is attenuated in subjects with hypertension and may reflect cerebral vascular endothelial dysfunction. Assessment of mental stress induced CA reactivity by ultrasound is a novel method for assessing the impact of hypertension on cerebrovascular endothelial function and blood flow reserve.

  20. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Estrogen receptor-a in the medial amygdala prevents stress-induced elevations in blood pressure in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychological stress contributes to the development of hypertension in humans. The ovarian hormone, estrogen, has been shown to prevent stress-induced pressor responses in females by unknown mechanisms. Here, we showed that the antihypertensive effects of estrogen during stress were blunted in femal...

  2. Overexpression of the dual-specificity phosphatase MKP-4/DUSP-9 protects against stress-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emanuelli, Brice; Eberlé, Delphine; Suzuki, Ryo

    2008-01-01

    , improved glucose intolerance, decreased expression of gluconeogenic and lipogenic genes, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Thus, MKP-4 has a protective effect against the development of insulin resistance through its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate crucial mediators of stress-induced insulin...

  3. Influence of stress-induced deformations on observed water flow in fractures of the Climax Granitic Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Three examples of stress induced influence on fracture dominated hydrology were noted in drifts 1400 ft below surface in granite. Seepage into portions of shears near a fault zone and an adjoining drift, and mineralization of the joints were the three indicators of shear stress. Interpretation of these results are given

  4. Stress-induced martensite variant reorientation in magnetic shape memory Ni–Mn–Ga single crystal studied by neutron diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Šittner, Petr; Lukáš, Petr; Hannula, S.-P.; Heczko, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2008), 035014/1-035014/4 ISSN 0964-1726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : NiMnGa single crystal * neutron diffraction * stress induced martensite reorientation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2008

  5. Subclinical nutritional rickets among adolescents in Kaghan Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tanveer Hussain; Hassan, Mukhtiar; Siddiqui, Tahir Saeed

    2014-09-01

    To determine the occurrence of subclinical rickets and its causing factors among adolescent students of schools in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Observation cross-sectional study. Department of Biochemistry and Health Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Ayub Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March to April 2012. Sixty seven students (34 boys and 33 girls) age between 11 - 16 years included in the study from different schools of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Characteristic, serum biochemical and nutritional status were measured for all the participants. On the basis of biochemical finding the boys and girls students were divided in to two groups, normal subjects and subclinical rickets (absent symptoms with altered biochemistry). Twenty six participants, 19 (73%) girls and 07 (27%) boys had biochemical abnormality but no clinical signs and symptoms of rickets. Low vitamin D and high alkaline phosphatase level were observed in 26 (100%), 21 (81%), low calcium in 17 (65%) and low phosphorus 7 (27%) subjects with subclinical rickets. None had high parathormone level above normal range. Nutritional intake of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D was found less than the recommended daily intake in all the participants. Subclinical rickets is common problem among adolescent students especially in girls which is due to low nutritional intakes and avoidance of sunshine due to environmental and traditional impacts.

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. I. Prevalence and clinical relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism has a prevalence of approx. 6% in the general population; it is more common in females and in the elderly. The incidence of progression to overt hypothyroidism is 5-15% per year; women with positive thyroid antibodies are especially at risk. The biological significance

  7. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. ... hypothyroidism (SCH) and vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. ... However, gender (p = 0.076), BMI (p = 0.092), and smoking (P = 0.715) were not ...

  8. Thyroid Hormone Therapy for Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stott, D.J.; Rodondi, N.; Kearney, P.M.; Ford, I.; Westendorp, R.G.; Mooijaart, S.P.; Sattar, N.; Aubert, C.E.; Aujesky, D.; Bauer, D.C.; Baumgartner, C.; Blum, M.R.; Browne, J.P.; Byrne, S.; Collet, T.H.; Dekkers, O.M.; Elzen, W.P. den; Puy, R.S. Du; Ellis, G.; Feller, M.; Floriani, C.; Hendry, K.; Hurley, C.; Jukema, J.W.; Kean, S.; Kelly, M.; Krebs, D.; Langhorne, P.; McCarthy, G.; McCarthy, V.; McConnachie, A.; McDade, M.; Messow, M.; O'Flynn, A.; O'Riordan, D.; Poortvliet, R.K.; Quinn, T.J.; Russell, A.; Sinnott, C.; Smit, J.W.A.; Dorland, H.A. Van; Walsh, K.A.; Walsh, E.K.; Watt, T.; Wilson, R.; Gussekloo, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of levothyroxine to treat subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to determine whether levothyroxine provided clinical benefits in older persons with this condition. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial involving

  9. Malondialdehyde level and some enzymatic activities in subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in milk malondialdehyde (MDA) level and some enzymatic activities as a result of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. A total of 124 milk samples were collected from 124 lactating cows from the same herd in the period between the 2nd week after calving ...

  10. Subclinical Nutritional Rickets Among Adolescents in Kaghan Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T. H.; Hassan, M.; Siddiqui, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of subclinical rickets and its causing factors among adolescent students of schools in Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Study Design: Observation cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Health Sciences, Hazara University, Mansehra, Ayub Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from March to April 2012. Methodology: Sixty seven students (34 boys and 33 girls) age between 11 - 16 years included in the study from different schools of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan. Characteristic, serum biochemical and nutritional status were measured for all the participants. On the basis of biochemical finding the boys and girls students were divided in to two groups, normal subjects and subclinical rickets (absent symptoms with altered biochemistry). Results: Twenty six participants, 19 (73%) girls and 07 (27%) boys had biochemical abnormality but no clinical signs and symptoms of rickets. Low vitamin D and high alkaline phosphatase level were observed in 26 (100%), 21 (81%), low calcium in 17 (65%) and low phosphorus 7 (27%) subjects with subclinical rickets. None had high parathormone level above normal range. Nutritional intake of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D was found less than the recommended daily intake in all the participants. Conclusion: Subclinical rickets is common problem among adolescent students especially in girls which is due to low nutritional intakes and avoidance of sunshine due to environmental and traditional impacts. (author)

  11. A comparison of clinical vs subclinical skin pickers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuthen, Nancy J; Curley, Erin E; Tung, Esther S; Ittah, Karen; Qasem, Atheer; Murad, Sari; Odlaug, Brian L; Leibovici, Vera

    2016-05-01

    Skin-picking disorder (SPD) was recognized as its own entity for the first time in DSM-5. The existing SPD literature is limited and, to date, no study has examined the differences between clinical and sub- clinical SPD. Identifying differences between these 2 groups may improve diagnostic accuracy, treatment, and prevention efforts. Israeli adults (N = 4,325) from 2 previous studies were examined for the presence of clinical and subclinical SPD. Individuals with clinical SPD (n = 150) vs subclinical SPD (n = 219) were compared on skin-picking characteristics, psychological phenomena, and clinical correlates. There were many similarities between clinical and subclinical skin pickers. Individuals with clinical SPD, however, had more severe skin picking, greater associated functional impairment, greater perceived stress, and greater depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and were also more likely to have a first-degree relative with SPD. This study suggests that although there are some similarities between clinical and subclinical SPD, there also are distinct differences in the clinical presentation. Understanding these differences may be an important factor in treatment and prevention planning.

  12. Haemodynamic changes following treatment of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Wiinberg, N; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    rate. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is characterised by reduced serum TSH levels despite free thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) estimates within the reference range, in subjects with no obvious symptoms of hyperthyroidism. We measured haemodynamic changes (using impedance cardiography...

  13. Should we treat mild subclinical/mild hyperthyroidism? Yes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) should be treated, remains a matter of debate because there are no randomized clinical trials answering the question if treatment improves long-term health outcomes. Cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based sudies demonstrate clear

  14. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-03

    Oct 3, 2012 ... Original Research: The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism among patients with diabetes mellitus. 106. 2013 Volume 18 No 2. JEMDSA. Introduction. Diabetes mellitus and its associated complications is a major challenge for both the private and state health sector in South Africa. The number of ...

  15. Altered fructosamine and lipid fractions in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Sridevi V; Manjrekar, Poornima A; Udupa, Vinit A; Vivian, D'Souza

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid function disorders lead to changes in the lipoprotein metabolism. To study the lipid and the glycaemic abnormalities in the subclinical hypothyroidism cases and to compare the same with the euthyroid, overt hypothyroid and the hyperthyroid subjects. Four groups, euthyroid (Group-I), hypothyroid (Group-II), subclinical hypothyroid (Group-III) and hyperthyroid (Group-IV), which consisted of 30 subjects each, of either sex, who were aged 25-55 years, underwent Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), fructosamine, lipid profile and total T3, T4 and TSH estimations. The subjects who were on lipid lowering or thyroid disorder drugs and known diabetics were excluded from the study. In Group-III, all the lipid fractions were comparable to those of Group-II and they were significantly deranged, as compared to those of Group-I. The fructosamine levels were significantly higher in Group-II and Group-III (phypothyrodism, the subclinical hypothyroid cases also need to be treated similarly. The fructosamine values which are largely in excess of the FPG values, indicate a higher propensity to glycation and a decreased turnover of the proteins in the hypothyroid and the subclinical hypothyroid pools. Vice versa is true of the hyperthyroid pool. Fructosamine can be included in the thyroid work up of the patients to assess the metabolic function and the subsequent response after the initiation of the therapy.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance profile in bacterial isolates from subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate subclinical mastitis causing pathogens in dairy lactating cows and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile in rural and peri-urban areas of Thika, Mathioya and Kieni East Sub County. California Mastitis Test (CMT) was used to screen one hundred and sixteen lactating ...

  17. Prevalence of subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in healthy HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested for subclinical CVD using 3 tools: Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) to measure for the presence of peripheral artery disease, 12 lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) for electrical abnormalities and transthoracic Echocardiography (ECHO), to measure abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. At analysis, patients where ...

  18. Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities are associated with high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T P; Liu, Y H; Yang, L X; Qin, S H; Liu, H B

    2015-10-01

    Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. A total of 985 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R), oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory markers and common carotid artery Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), M6P-R, c-IMT compared with participants in the lowest quartile (all P dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles (P < 0.001 for trend). In the highest DPP4 quartile, subclinical atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.03-8.17) than in the lowest quartile. This association remained strong (2.17; 1.21-3.89) after further controlling for HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are positively and independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest of potential role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis and in the prevention and management of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DinB Upregulation Is the Sole Role of the SOS Response in Stress-Induced Mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, Rodrigo S.; Do, Robert; Yamada, Masami; Friedberg, Errol C.; Hastings, P. J.; Nohmi, Takehiko; Rosenberg, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-induced mutagenesis is a collection of mechanisms observed in bacterial, yeast, and human cells in which adverse conditions provoke mutagenesis, often under the control of stress responses. Control of mutagenesis by stress responses may accelerate evolution specifically when cells are maladapted to their environments, i.e., are stressed. It is therefore important to understand how stress responses increase mutagenesis. In the Escherichia coli Lac assay, stress-induced point mutagenesis requires induction of at least two stress responses: the RpoS-controlled general/starvation stress response and the SOS DNA-damage response, both of which upregulate DinB error-prone DNA polymerase, among other genes required for Lac mutagenesis. We show that upregulation of DinB is the only aspect of the SOS response needed for stress-induced mutagenesis. We constructed two dinB(oc) (operator-constitutive) mutants. Both produce SOS-induced levels of DinB constitutively. We find that both dinB(oc) alleles fully suppress the phenotype of constitutively SOS-“off” lexA(Ind−) mutant cells, restoring normal levels of stress-induced mutagenesis. Thus, dinB is the only SOS gene required at induced levels for stress-induced point mutagenesis. Furthermore, although spontaneous SOS induction has been observed to occur in only a small fraction of cells, upregulation of dinB by the dinB(oc) alleles in all cells does not promote a further increase in mutagenesis, implying that SOS induction of DinB, although necessary, is insufficient to differentiate cells into a hypermutable condition. PMID:19270270

  20. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc

  1. Dependence of stress-induced omega transition and mechanical twinning on phase stability in metastable β Ti–V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Li, L.; Mei, W.; Wang, W.L.; Sun, J., E-mail: jsun@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Tensile properties and deformation microstructures of a series of binary β Ti–16–22V alloys have been investigated. The results show that the plastic deformation mode changes from the plate-like stress-induced ω phase transformation with a special habit plane of (− 5052){sub ω}//(3 − 3 − 2){sub β} to (332)<113> type deformation twinning with increasing the content of vanadium in the β Ti–16–22 wt.% V alloys. The plate-like stress-induced ω phase has a special orientation relationship with the β phase matrix, i.e., [110]{sub β}//[− 12 − 10]{sub ω}, (3 − 3 − 2){sub β}//(− 5052){sub ω} and (− 55 − 4){sub β}//(30 − 31){sub ω}. The alloys plastically deformed by stress-induced ω phase transformation exhibit relatively higher yield strength than those deformed via (332)<113> type deformation twinning. It can be concluded that the stability of β phase plays a significant role in plastic deformation mode, i.e., stress-induced ω phase transformation or (332)<113> type deformation twinning, which governs the mechanical property of the β Ti–16–22 wt.% V alloys. - Highlights: • Tensile properties and deformed microstructures of β Ti–16–22V alloys were studied. • Stress-induced ω phase transformation and (332)<113> twinning occur in the alloys. • Stability of β phase plays a significant role in plastic deformation mode. • Plastic deformation mode governs the mechanical property of the alloys.

  2. Cuminum cyminum extract attenuates scopolamine-induced memory loss and stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in rats: a noninvasive biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Sushruta; Choi, Dong Kug

    2011-07-01

    Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae), cumin, is a popular spice with a long history of medicinal use to treat various symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, gynecological, and respiratory diseases. To date, no scientific investigation was reported regarding memory-enhancing and antistress activity of cumin fruits. The present study deals with the memory-enhancing and antistress activities and further the antioxidant status via lipid peroxidation inhibition. Antistress activity was evaluated by inducing stress via forced swimming and the urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were estimated as biomarkers. Memory-enhancing activity was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus in normal and scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the lipid peroxidation. Daily administration of cumin at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner without altering the levels in normal control groups. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention, and recovery in rats, was observed to be dose-dependent. The extract also produced significant lipid peroxidation inhibition in comparison with known antioxidant ascorbic acid in both rat liver and brain. This study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders.

  3. A milk-based wolfberry preparation prevents prenatal stress-induced cognitive impairment of offspring rats, and inhibits oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhihui; Jia, Haiqun; Li, Xuesen; Bai, Zhuanli; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Lijuan; Zhu, Zhongliang; Bucheli, Peter; Ballèvre, Olivier; Wang, Junkuan; Liu, Jiankang

    2010-05-01

    Lycium barbarum (Fructus Lycii, Wolfberry, or Gouqi) belongs to the Solanaceae. The red-colored fruits of L. barbarum have been used for a long time as an ingredient in Chinese cuisine and brewing, and also in traditional Chinese herbal medicine for improving health. However, its effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. In the present study, prevention of a milk-based wolfberry preparation (WP) on cognitive dysfunction was tested in a prenatal stress model with rats and the antioxidant mechanism was tested by in vitro experiments. We found that prenatal stress caused a significant decrease in cognitive function (Morris water maze test) in female offspring. Pretreatment of the mother rats with WP significantly prevented the prenatal stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. In vitro studies showed that WP dose-dependently scavenged hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (determined by an electron spin resonance spectrometric assay), and inhibited FeCl(2)/ascorbic acid-induced dysfunction in brain tissue and tissue mitochondria, including increases in reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and decreases in the activities of complex I, complex II, and glutamate cysteine ligase. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with WP may be an effective strategy for preventing the brain oxidative mitochondrial damage and cognitive dysfunction associated with prenatal stress.

  4. Effect of Brewing Duration on the Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Abilities of Tea Phenolic and Alkaloid Compounds in a t-BHP Oxidative Stress-Induced Rat Hepatocyte Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Braud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an interesting source of antioxidants capable of counteracting the oxidative stress implicated in liver diseases. We investigated the impact of antioxidant molecules provided by a mixture of teas’ leaves (green, oolong, pu-erh after different infusion durations in the prevention of oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes, by comparison with pure epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the main representative of tea catechins. Dried aqueous tea extracts (ATE obtained after 5, 15 and 30 min infusion time were characterized for total polyphenols (gallic acid equivalent, catechins, gallic acid and caffeine (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS contents, and for scavenging ability against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical. Hepatoprotection was evaluated through hepatocyte viability tests using tert-butyl hydroperoxide as a stress inducer, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, neutral red uptake, real-time cellular impedance and mitochondrial function tests. We showed that a 5-min incubation time is sufficient for an optimal bioaccessibility of tea compounds with the highest antioxidative ability, which decreases for longer durations. A 4-h pretreatment of cells with ATE significantly prevented cell death by regulating reactive oxygen species production and maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Pure EGCG, at doses similar in ATE (5–12 µM, was inefficient, suggesting a plausible synergy of several water-soluble tea compounds to explain the ATE beneficial effects.

  5. Elevated Subclinical Double-Stranded DNA Antibodies and Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J.; Prince, Lisa K.; Baker, Thomas P.; Papadopoulos, Patricia; Edison, Jess; Abbott, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Elevated anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody and C-reactive protein are associated with proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN). Progression of quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody in patients with PLN has not been compared with that in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without LN before diagnosis. The temporal relationship between anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein elevation has also not been evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (established in 1985) study compared longitudinal prediagnostic quantitative anti-dsDNA antibody and C-reactive protein levels in 23 patients with biopsy-proven PLN (Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1993–2009) with levels in 21 controls with SLE but without LN matched for patient age, sex, race, and age of serum sample. The oldest (median, 2601 days; 25%, 1245 days, 75%, 3075 days), the second to last (368; 212, 635 days), and the last (180; 135, 477 days) serum sample before diagnosis were analyzed. Results More patients with PLN had an elevated anti-dsDNA antibody level than did the matched controls at any point (78% versus 5%; P4 years (33% versus 0%; P=0.04) before diagnosis. A rate of increase >1 IU/ml per year (70% versus 0%; P<0.001) was most specific for PLN. The anti-dsDNA antibody levels increased before C-reactive protein did in most patients with an antecedent elevation (92% versus 8%; P<0.001). Conclusions Elevated anti-dsDNA antibody usually precedes both clinical and subclinical evidence of proliferative LN, which suggests direct pathogenicity. Absolute anti-dsDNA antibody level and rate of increase could better establish risk of future PLN in patients with SLE. PMID:23833315

  6. Serum cytokine profile in the subclinical form of visceral leishmaniasis

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    Gama M.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining the development or not of visceral leishmaniasis (VL have not been completely identified, but a Leishmania-specific cellular immune response seems to play a fundamental role in the final control of infection. Few studies are available regarding the production of cytokines in the subclinical form of VL, with only the production of IFN-g and TNF-a known. The aim of the present study was to identify immunological markers for the oligosymptomatic or subclinical form of VL. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 784 children aged 0 to 5 years from an endemic area in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, between January 1998 and December 2001. During 30 consecutive months of follow-up, 33 children developed the oligosymptomatic form of the disease and 12 the acute form. During the clinical manifestations, serum cytokine levels were determined in 27 oligosymptomatic children and in nine patients with the acute form using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. In the subclinical form of VL, variable levels of IL-2 were detected in 52.3% of the children, IL-12 in 85.2%, IFN-g in 48.1%, IL-10 in 88.9%, and TNF-a in 100.0%, with the last two cytokines showing significantly lower levels than in the acute form. IL-4 was not detected in oligosymptomatic individuals. Multiple discriminant analysis used to determine the profile or combination of cytokines predominating in the subclinical form revealed both a Leishmania resistance (Th1 and susceptibility (Th2 profile. The detection of both Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles explains the self-limited evolution accompanied by the discrete alterations observed for the subclinical form of VL.

  7. Myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipedhi, Akhila; Vali, Hamza; Okosieme, Onyebuchi

    2011-01-01

    Myxedema coma is the extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, typically seen in patients with severe biochemical hypothyroidism. Its occurrence in association with subclinical hypothyroidism is extremely unusual. We describe a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism who developed clinical manifestations of myxedema coma. A 47-year-old woman presented to our endocrine clinic with complaints of fatigue and biochemical findings of subclinical hypothyroidism. She was started on treatment with thyroxine (T4) but remained unwell and was later admitted to hospital with hormone profile showing persisting subclinical hypothyroidism (elevated thyrotropin and normal free T4 [FT4] and free triiodothyronine [FT3]): FT4 10.7 pmol/L (reference range 10.3-24.5), FT3 2.7 pmol/L (reference range 2.67-7.03), and thyrotropin 6.09 mU/L (reference range 0.4-4.0). She subsequently developed hypothermia (temperature 33.2°C), circulatory collapse, and coma. Biochemical profile showed hyponatremia, elevated creatinine phosphokinase, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure. An echocardiogram revealed a moderate-sized pericardial effusion. We diagnosed myxedema coma and started treatment with intravenous T3. She responded dramatically with improvement in level of consciousness and normalization of metabolic parameters. We found no explanation other than hypothyroidism to account for the presentation. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests excluded adrenal insufficiency, and serum gonadotrophins were within the normal reference range. FT4 estimation by equilibrium dialysis excluded analytical interference, and molecular analysis for the thyroid hormone receptor β gene associated with thyroid hormone resistance was negative. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of myxedema coma in a patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The reason for normal thyroid hormone levels is unclear but may reflect deviation from a higher pre-morbid set-point. The case

  8. Effects of Gladiolus dalenii on the Stress-Induced Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Reproductive Changes in Rats

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    David Fotsing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress. The chronic immobilization stress (3 h per day for 28 days was applied to induce female reproductive and behavioral impairments in rats. The immobilization stress was provoked in rats by putting them separately inside cylindrical restrainers with ventilated doors at ambient temperature. The plant extract was given to rats orally everyday during 28 days, 5 min before induction of stress. On a daily basis, a vaginal smear was made to assess the duration of the different phases of the estrous cycle and at the end of the 28 days of chronic immobilization stress, the rat’s behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze. They were sacrificed by cervical disruption. The organs were weighed, the ovary histology done, and the biochemical parameters assessed. The findings of this research revealed that G. dalenii increased the entries and the time of open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Evaluation of the biochemical parameters levels indicated that there was a significant reduction in the corticosterone, progesterone, and prolactin levels in the G. dalenii aqueous extract treated rats compared to stressed rats whereas the levels of serotonin, triglycerides, adrenaline, cholesterol, glucose estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were significantly increased in the stressed rats treated with, G. dalenii

  9. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, pcortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward

  10. Ancient genes establish stress-induced mutation as a hallmark of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Luis; Bussey, Kimberly J; Orr, Adam J; Miočević, Milica; Lineweaver, Charles H; Davies, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is sometimes depicted as a reversion to single cell behavior in cells adapted to live in a multicellular assembly. If this is the case, one would expect that mutation in cancer disrupts functional mechanisms that suppress cell-level traits detrimental to multicellularity. Such mechanisms should have evolved with or after the emergence of multicellularity. This leads to two related, but distinct hypotheses: 1) Somatic mutations in cancer will occur in genes that are younger than the emergence of multicellularity (1000 million years [MY]); and 2) genes that are frequently mutated in cancer and whose mutations are functionally important for the emergence of the cancer phenotype evolved within the past 1000 million years, and thus would exhibit an age distribution that is skewed to younger genes. In order to investigate these hypotheses we estimated the evolutionary ages of all human genes and then studied the probability of mutation and their biological function in relation to their age and genomic location for both normal germline and cancer contexts. We observed that under a model of uniform random mutation across the genome, controlled for gene size, genes less than 500 MY were more frequently mutated in both cases. Paradoxically, causal genes, defined in the COSMIC Cancer Gene Census, were depleted in this age group. When we used functional enrichment analysis to explain this unexpected result we discovered that COSMIC genes with recessive disease phenotypes were enriched for DNA repair and cell cycle control. The non-mutated genes in these pathways are orthologous to those underlying stress-induced mutation in bacteria, which results in the clustering of single nucleotide variations. COSMIC genes were less common in regions where the probability of observing mutational clusters is high, although they are approximately 2-fold more likely to harbor mutational clusters compared to other human genes. Our results suggest this ancient mutational response to

  11. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  12. Differential Association of Psychosocial Comorbidities With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying L; Szklo, Moyses; Davidson, Karina W; Bathon, Joan M; Giles, Jon T

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and subclinical atherosclerosis, but the reasons for the excess risk are unclear. We explored whether psychosocial comorbidities, which may be associated with CVD in the general population, are differentially associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in RA compared to controls. Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of 195 RA patients and 1,073 non-RA controls. Using validated scales, heterogeneity in the associations of psychosocial measures (depression, stress, anxiety/anger, support, discrimination/hassles) with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] and carotid intima-media thickness [IMT]/plaque) were compared in RA and non-RA groups using multivariable generalized linear models. Computed tomography and ultrasound were used to identify CAC and IMT/plaque, respectively. CAC >100 units was used to define moderate/severe CAC. In RA, per-unit higher anxiety scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.10, P = 0.029), anger scores (OR 1.14, P = 0.037), depressive symptoms (OR 3.41, P = 0.032), and caregiver stress (OR 2.86, P = 0.014) were associated with increased odds of CAC >100 units after adjustment for relevant covariates. These findings persisted despite adjustment for markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels) and were seen only in RA, not in controls (adjusted multiplicative interaction P = 0.001-0.077). In RA, job stress was associated with an increased risk of carotid plaque (adjusted OR = 3.21, P = 0.019), and increasing social support was associated with lower internal carotid IMT (adjusted P = 0.024). Depressive symptoms, stress, anger/anxiety, and social support may preferentially affect CVD risk in RA, and screening/treatment for psychosocial morbidities in RA may help ameliorate the additional CVD burden. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Walking speed and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy older adults: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Kivimaki, Mika; Lahiri, Avijit; Yerramasu, Ajay; Deanfield, John E; Marmot, Michael G; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Extended walking speed is a predictor of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals, but the ability of an objective short-distance walking speed test to stratify the severity of preclinical conditions remains unclear. This study examined whether performance in an 8-ft walking speed test is associated with metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional. Setting Epidemiological cohort. 530 adults (aged 63 + or - 6 years, 50.3% male) from the Whitehall II cohort study with no known history or objective signs of CVD. Electron beam computed tomography and ultrasound was used to assess the presence and extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), respectively. High levels of CAC (Agatston score >100) were detected in 24% of the sample; the mean IMT was 0.75 mm (SD 0.15). Participants with no detectable CAC completed the walking course 0.16 s (95% CI 0.04 to 0.28) faster than those with CAC > or = 400. Objectively assessed, but not self-reported, faster walking speed was associated with a lower risk of high CAC (odds ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.96) and lower IMT (beta=-0.04, 95% CI -0.01 to -0.07 mm) in comparison with the slowest walkers (bottom third), after adjusting for conventional risk factors. Faster walking speed was also associated with lower adiposity, C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Short-distance walking speed is associated with metabolic risk and subclinical atherosclerosis in older adults without overt CVD. These data suggest that a non-aerobically challenging walking test reflects the presence of underlying vascular disease.

  14. Current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical atherosclerosis: results of the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, S; Backé, E; Liebers, F; Schulz, A; Hegewald, J; Garthus-Niegel, S; Nübling, M; Blankenberg, S; Pfeiffer, N; Lackner, K J; Beutel, M; Blettner, M; Münzel, T; Wild, P S; Seidler, A; Letzel, S; Latza, U

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the association between exposure to current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis. Participants of a population-based cohort study (the Gutenberg Health Study, N = 15,010) aged 35-64 years were examined at baseline (2007-2012). Investigations included measurements of arterial stiffness, vascular function [reactive hyperaemia (RH) index], and intima media thickness (IMT). Also, a complete job history (including up to 15 periods), occupational exposures, a variety of lifestyle, and dispositional variables were enquired. Night shift work was performed by 1071 out of 8065 currently employed individuals. The strongest association after adjustment for age, sex, job complexity level, being a manager, overtime work, and noise appeared for more than 660 night shifts within the last 10 years and a significantly increased arterial stiffness of 0.33 m/s. This reflects a 4 % flow velocity increase for individuals with more than 660 night shifts compared to non-night workers. Regarding the entire professional life, night shift workers showed a significantly decreased vascular function by -0.054 RH index points by using the same adjustment. IMT values did not differ statistically from non-night workers. Lifestyle and dispositional factors showed an influence on all used subclinical atherosclerosis parameters. The cross-sectional results demonstrate an association between night work and detrimental changes in the atherosclerotic process. The association is more pronounced with more years in night shift and is partly explained by lifestyle and dispositional factors. Longitudinal analyses are necessary to confirm the results.

  15. Assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis in ankylosing spondylitis: correlations with disease activity indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Perrotta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate atherosclerosis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS through the assessment of morphological and functional measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Twenty patients [M/F=12/8, age (median/range 43.5/28-69 years; disease duration (median/range 9.7/1-36 years] with AS classified according to modified New York criteria and twenty age and sex related healthy controls with negative past medical history for cardiovascular events were enrolled in the study. In all patients and controls, the intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid artery, carotid bulb and internal carotid artery, and the flow-mediated dilatation (FMD of non-dominant arm brachial artery were determined, using a sonographic probe Esaote GPX (Genoa, Italy. Furthermore, we assess the main disease activity and disability indices [bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index, ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score-eritrosedimentation rate (ASDAS-ESR, ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP, bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index, bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index and acute phase reactants. Plasmatic values of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and homocysteine were carried out in all twenty patients. IMT at carotid bulb was significant higher in patients than in controls (0.67 mm vs 0.54 mm; P=0.03. FMD did not statistically differ between patients and controls (12.5% vs 15%; P>0.05. We found a correlation between IMT at carotid bulb and ESR (rho 0.43; P=0.04. No correlation was found between FMD and disease activity and disability indices. This study showed that in AS patients, without risk factors for cardiovascular disease, carotid bulb IMT, morphological index of subclinical atherosclerosis, is higher than in controls.

  16. Reduced subclinical carotid vascular disease and arterial stiffness in vegetarian men: The CARVOS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Navarro, Julio; Antoniazzi, Luiza; Oki, Adriana Midori; Bonfim, Maria Carlos; Hong, Valeria; Acosta-Cardenas, Pedro; Strunz, Celia; Brunoro, Eleonora; Miname, Marcio Hiroshi; Filho, Wilson Salgado; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Santos, Raul D

    2017-03-01

    Dietary habits play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to verify if vegetarian (VEG) diet could be related a better profile of subclinical vascular disease evaluated by arterial stiffness and functional and structural properties of carotid arteries, compared to omnivorous (OMN) diet. In this cross-sectional study, 44 VEG and 44 OMN apparently healthy men ≥35years of age, in order to not have confounding risk factors of subclinical atherosclerosis, were assessed for anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose, C reactive protein (CRP), and arterial stiffness determined by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Also, carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) and distensibility were evaluated. VEG men had lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting serum total cholesterol, LDL and non-HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, glucose and glycated hemoglobin values in comparison with OMN individuals (all p values <0.05). Markers of vascular structure and function were different between VEG and OMN: PWV 7.1±0.8m/s vs. 7.7±0.9m/s (p<0.001); c-IMT 593±94 vs. 661±128μm (p=0.003); and relative carotid distensibility 6.39±1.7 vs. 5.72±1.8% (p=0.042), respectively. After a multivariate linear regression analysis, a VEG diet was independently and negatively associated with PWV (p value 0.005). A VEG diet is associated with a more favorable cardiovascular diseases biomarker profile and better vascular structural and functional parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  18. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Balistreri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV causes Kaposi's sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored efficient activation of the viral lytic transcription program and viral reactivation. During lytic replication cells activated a p53 response, accumulated DNA damage and arrested at G2-phase. Depletion of p21, a p53 target gene, restored cell cycle progression and thereby impaired the virus reactivation cascade delaying the onset of virus replication induced cytopathic effect. Herpesviruses are known to reactivate in response to different kinds of stress, and our study now highlights the molecular events in the stressed host cell that KSHV has evolved to utilize to ensure efficient viral lytic replication.

  19. Stress induced martensitic transformation from bcc to fcc in Ag-Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, K.; Akamatsu, R.; Marukawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    The martensitic transformation in Ag-Zn alloys of low-Zn content has been studied by optical and electron microscopic observations and by tensile tests. The β 1 phase of B2 structure transforms to the thermo-elastic martensite having 9R structure similar to Cu-based alloys upon cooling to temperature below Ms. When the β 1 phase is stretched at room temperature, the slip deformation occurs at first and then the stress-induced martensite(SIM) of wedge-like morphology forms. The SIM has the ordered fcc structure containing micro-twins. This direct transformation from bcc to fcc is a unique feature in Ag-Zn alloys. In Cu alloys, martensites of fcc structure appear only after the second transformation from the first transformation product of 9R structure. The critical stress for the martensitic transformation and a degree of order of SIM decrease as the deformation temperature rises. In Ag-Zn alloys, the martensite of disordered fcc is thermally produced also by up-quenching to a higher temperature. In the present study, the relation between martensites of ordered and disordered fcc is discussed through thermodynamical calculations. The condition for the direct transformation from bcc to fcc is also examined. (orig.)

  20. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Mark D; Houk, Ronald J T; Andruszkiewicz, Leanne; Talin, A Alec; Pikarsky, Joel; Choudhury, Arnab; Gall, Kenneth A; Hesketh, Peter J

    2008-11-05

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N2 or O2. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO2. Finally, we report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes.

  1. PTR-MS as a technique for investigating stress induced emission of biogenic VOCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchamp, J.; Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Kleist, E.; Miebach, M.; Weller, U.; Wildt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used in conjunction with two GC-MS systems to investigate stress induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants. Experiments were performed in the laboratory under well defined conditions and VOC emissions were induced by ozone exposure at variable concentrations and for different durations. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum cv. Bel W3) plants were used as the investigated species. This investigation demonstrated the ability of PTR-MS to provide excellent high time-resolution on-line measurements of the relevant species. The combination of the PTR-MS instrument with the two GC-MS systems (which enabled accurate compound identification) allowed for detailed investigation of the dynamics of the plants' responses to ozone stress. VOCs measured included methanol, C6- alcohols and aldehydes, methyl salicylate and sesquiterpenes. Results indicate that the temporal stress response of plants depend on the amount of stress encountered by the plant. Measurement technique and experimental results will be presented. (author)

  2. Preventive and therapeutic effect of treadmill running on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Nasrin

    2015-04-01

    Previous results indicated that stress impairs learning and memory. In this research, the effects of preventive, therapeutic and regular continually running activity on chronic stress-induced memory deficit in rats were investigated. 70 male rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: Control, Sham, Stress-Rest, Rest-Stress, Stress-Exercise, Exercise-Stress and Exercise-Stress & Exercise groups. Chronic restraint stress was applied 6 h/day for 21days and treadmill running 1 h/day. Memory function was evaluated by the passive avoidance test. The results revealed that running activities had therapeutic effect on mid and long-term memory deficit and preventive effects on short and mid-term memory deficit in stressed rats. Regular continually running activity improved mid and long-term memory compared to Exercise-Stress group. The beneficial effects of exercise were time-dependent in stress conditions. Finally, data corresponded to the possibility that treadmill running had a more important role on treatment rather than on prevention on memory impairment induced by stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Arabidopsis histone chaperone FACT is required for stress-induced expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfab, Alexander; Breindl, Matthias; Grasser, Klaus D

    2018-03-01

    The histone chaperone FACT is involved in the expression of genes encoding anthocyanin biosynthetic enzymes also upon induction by moderate high-light and therefore contributes to the stress-induced plant pigmentation. The histone chaperone FACT consists of the SSRP1 and SPT16 proteins and associates with transcribing RNAPII (RNAPII) along the transcribed region of genes. FACT can promote transcriptional elongation by destabilising nucleosomes in the path of RNA polymerase II, thereby facilitating efficient transcription of chromatin templates. Transcript profiling of Arabidopsis plants depleted in SSRP1 or SPT16 demonstrates that only a small subset of genes is differentially expressed relative to wild type. The majority of these genes is either up- or down-regulated in both the ssrp1 and spt16 plants. Among the down-regulated genes, those encoding enzymes of the biosynthetic pathway of the plant secondary metabolites termed anthocyanins (but not regulators of the pathway) are overrepresented. Upon exposure to moderate high-light stress several of these genes are up-regulated to a lesser extent in ssrp1/spt16 compared to wild type plants, and accordingly the mutant plants accumulate lower amounts of anthocyanin pigments. Moreover, the expression of SSRP1 and SPT16 is induced under these conditions. Therefore, our findings indicate that FACT is a novel factor required for the accumulation of anthocyanins in response to light-induction.

  4. Public speaking stress-induced neuroendocrine responses and circulating immune cell redistribution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2006-10-01

    Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.

  5. Nucleation in stress-induced tetragonal-monoclinic transformation of constrained zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.K.

    1992-08-01

    A theory for stress-induced tetragonal→monoclinic transformation of constrained zirconia is presented based on the assumption that when forcibly strained to a regime of absolute instability where the free energy density of the tetragonal phase has a negative curvature, the constrained tetragonal zirconia becomes unstable with respect to the development of a modulated strain pattern that will evolve into a band of twin monoclinic domains. The temperature range for such an instability, the critical size of the inclusion, the corresponding critical strain, and the periodicity of the modulation are derived in terms of parameters that can be related to the elastic stiffness coefficients of various orders of the inclusion and the shear modulus of the host matrix. An entirely different mechanism is suggested for the reverse monoclinic→tetragonal transformation because the monoclinic phase is metastable when the extrinsic stress is removed. Estimates for the parameters are inferred from a variety of experimental data for pure zirconia and the numerical values for the predicted physical quantities are obtained

  6. Effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Sheng, E-mail: longtubao@zju.edu.cn; Gu, Yibin; Fu, Meili; Zhang, Da; Hu, Shengnan

    2017-02-01

    The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of a ferromagnetic steel. Uniaxial tension tests on Q235 steel were carried out with various stress levels under different loading speeds. The variation of the magnetic signals surrounding the tested specimen was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer. The results indicated that the magnetic signal variations depended not only on the tensile load level but on the loading speed during the test. The magnetic field amplitude seemed to decrease gradually with the increase in loading speed at the same tensile load level. Furthermore, the evolution of the magnetic reversals is also related to the loading speed. Accordingly, the loading speed should be considered as one of the influencing variables in the Jies-Atherton model theory of the magnetomechanical effect. - Highlights: • Magnetic behaviors induced by different loading speeds were investigated. • Loading speed imposes strong impact on the variation of the magnetic field signals. • The magnetic field amplitude reduces gradually with the increasing loading speed. • The Jies-Atherton model theory should consider the effect of loading speed.

  7. Effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sheng; Gu, Yibin; Fu, Meili; Zhang, Da; Hu, Shengnan

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of a ferromagnetic steel. Uniaxial tension tests on Q235 steel were carried out with various stress levels under different loading speeds. The variation of the magnetic signals surrounding the tested specimen was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer. The results indicated that the magnetic signal variations depended not only on the tensile load level but on the loading speed during the test. The magnetic field amplitude seemed to decrease gradually with the increase in loading speed at the same tensile load level. Furthermore, the evolution of the magnetic reversals is also related to the loading speed. Accordingly, the loading speed should be considered as one of the influencing variables in the Jies-Atherton model theory of the magnetomechanical effect. - Highlights: • Magnetic behaviors induced by different loading speeds were investigated. • Loading speed imposes strong impact on the variation of the magnetic field signals. • The magnetic field amplitude reduces gradually with the increasing loading speed. • The Jies-Atherton model theory should consider the effect of loading speed.

  8. Evaluation of Stress-Inducing Factors of Educational Environment in Hamadan Dentistry School’s Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dalband

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction & Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate stressor factors of educational environment in Hamadan dental school’s students in year 2002.Materials & Methods: The study design was descriptive, cross-sectional and it was accomplished using a questionnaire which was taken from DES (dental environment stress questionnaire. According to restricted number of statistical population all members of population (154 students were evaluated as samples and this study was a survey one. Results: The results of this study indicated that most stressfull factors in dental students has been related to class work with mean score 3.18±0.83 and faculty-student relationship with mean score 3.05±0.83. Female students showed more total stress than male students (2.73 vs. 2.44. The fourth-year students had the most stress rate in all students of different years (3.05 and preclinical and clinical factors were the most stress-inducing factors of these students (3.63.Conclusion: It is concluded that the environment of Hamadan dental school and the process of education in the field of dentistry is potentially stressful. Also there is a reverse relationship between level of stress in students and their academic efficiencies.

  9. A large-scale perspective on stress-induced alterations in resting-state networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron-Katz, Adi; Vaisvaser, Sharon; Lin, Tamar; Hendler, Talma; Shamir, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Stress is known to induce large-scale neural modulations. However, its neural effect once the stressor is removed and how it relates to subjective experience are not fully understood. Here we used a statistically sound data-driven approach to investigate alterations in large-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) induced by acute social stress. We compared rsfMRI profiles of 57 healthy male subjects before and after stress induction. Using a parcellation-based univariate statistical analysis, we identified a large-scale rsFC change, involving 490 parcel-pairs. Aiming to characterize this change, we employed statistical enrichment analysis, identifying anatomic structures that were significantly interconnected by these pairs. This analysis revealed strengthening of thalamo-cortical connectivity and weakening of cross-hemispheral parieto-temporal connectivity. These alterations were further found to be associated with change in subjective stress reports. Integrating report-based information on stress sustainment 20 minutes post induction, revealed a single significant rsFC change between the right amygdala and the precuneus, which inversely correlated with the level of subjective recovery. Our study demonstrates the value of enrichment analysis for exploring large-scale network reorganization patterns, and provides new insight on stress-induced neural modulations and their relation to subjective experience.

  10. Fish can show emotional fever: stress-induced hyperthermia in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Sonia; Huntingford, Felicity A; Boltaña, Sebastian; Vargas, Reynaldo; Knowles, Toby G; Mackenzie, Simon

    2015-11-22

    Whether fishes are sentient beings remains an unresolved and controversial question. Among characteristics thought to reflect a low level of sentience in fishes is an inability to show stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH), a transient rise in body temperature shown in response to a variety of stressors. This is a real fever response, so is often referred to as 'emotional fever'. It has been suggested that the capacity for emotional fever evolved only in amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles), in association with the evolution of consciousness in these groups. According to this view, lack of emotional fever in fishes reflects a lack of consciousness. We report here on a study in which six zebrafish groups with access to a temperature gradient were either left as undisturbed controls or subjected to a short period of confinement. The results were striking: compared to controls, stressed zebrafish spent significantly more time at higher temperatures, achieving an estimated rise in body temperature of about 2-4°C. Thus, zebrafish clearly have the capacity to show emotional fever. While the link between emotion and consciousness is still debated, this finding removes a key argument for lack of consciousness in fishes. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Stress-induced endocrine response and anxiety: the effects of comfort food in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Daniela; Garcia, Márcia Carvalho; Melo-Thomas, Liana; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Celia

    2014-05-01

    The long-term effects of comfort food in an anxiogenic model of stress have yet to be analyzed. Here, we evaluated behavioral, endocrine and metabolic parameters in rats submitted or not to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), with access to commercial chow alone or to commercial chow and comfort food. Stress did not alter the preference for comfort food but decreased food intake. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, stressed rats were less likely to enter/remain in the open arms, as well as being more likely to enter/remain in the closed arms, than were control rats, both conditions being more pronounced in the rats given access to comfort food. In the open field test, stress decreased the time spent in the centre, independent of diet; neither stress nor diet affected the number of crossing, rearing or grooming episodes. The stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone was attenuated in rats given access to comfort food. Serum concentration of triglycerides were unaffected by stress or diet, although access to comfort food increased total cholesterol and glucose. It is concluded that CUMS has an anorexigenic effect. Chronic stress and comfort food ingestion induced an anxiogenic profile although comfort food attenuated the endocrine stress response. The present data indicate that the combination of stress and access to comfort food, common aspects of modern life, may constitute a link among stress, feeding behavior and anxiety.

  12. Natural selection underlies apparent stress-induced mutagenesis in a bacteriophage infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosef, Ido; Edgar, Rotem; Levy, Asaf; Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem; Munitz, Ariel; Qimron, Udi

    2016-04-18

    The emergence of mutations following growth-limiting conditions underlies bacterial drug resistance, viral escape from the immune system and fundamental evolution-driven events. Intriguingly, whether mutations are induced by growth limitation conditions or are randomly generated during growth and then selected by growth limitation conditions remains an open question(1). Here, we show that bacteriophage T7 undergoes apparent stress-induced mutagenesis when selected for improved recognition of its host's receptor. In our unique experimental set-up, the growth limitation condition is physically and temporally separated from mutagenesis: growth limitation occurs while phage DNA is outside the host, and spontaneous mutations occur during phage DNA replication inside the host. We show that the selected beneficial mutations are not pre-existing and that the initial slow phage growth is enabled by the phage particle's low-efficiency DNA injection into the host. Thus, the phage particle allows phage populations to initially extend their host range without mutagenesis by virtue of residual recognition of the host receptor. Mutations appear during non-selective intracellular replication, and the frequency of mutant phages increases by natural selection acting on free phages, which are not capable of mutagenesis.

  13. Randomized test of an implementation intention-based tool to reduce stress-induced eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Armitage, Christopher J; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer) by producing deleterious changes to diet. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instruction (control). On-line daily reports of stressors and snacking were completed for 7 days. Daily stressors were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in the control condition but not in the experimental condition. Participants highly motivated towards healthy eating consumed a greater number of healthy snacks in the experimental condition on stressful days compared to participants in the experimental condition with low and mean levels of motivation. This tool is an effective, theory driven, intervention that helps to protect against stress-induced high-calorie snack consumption.

  14. Tribbles 3 Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Toyoda, Taro; Didesch, Michelle M.; Lee, Min-Young; Sleeman, Mark W.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Musi, Nicolas; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to insulin resistance in multiple tissues but the role of ER stress in skeletal muscle has not been explored. ER stress has also been reported to increase tribbles 3 (TRB3) expression in multiple cell lines. Here, we report that high fat feeding in mice, and obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans significantly increases TRB3 and ER stress markers in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of TRB3 in C2C12 myotubes and mouse tibialis anterior muscles significantly impairs insulin signaling. Incubation of C2C12 cells and mouse skeletal muscle with ER stressors thapsigargin and tunicamycin increases TRB3 and impairs insulin signaling and glucose uptake, effects reversed in cells overexpressing RNAi for TRB3 and in muscles from TRB3 knockout mice. Furthermore, TRB3 knockout mice are protected from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. These data demonstrate that TRB3 mediates ER stress-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. PMID:23695665

  15. New insights into the mechanisms of water-stress-induced cavitation in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, Hervé; Hölttä, Teemu; Herbette, Stéphane; Delzon, Sylvain; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2009-10-01

    Cavitation resistance is a key parameter to understand tree drought tolerance but little is known about the mechanisms of air entry into xylem conduits. For conifers three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) a rupture of pit margo microfibrils, (2) a displacement of the pit torus from its normal sealing position over the pit aperture, and (3) a rupture of an air-water menisci in a pore of the pit margo. In this article, we report experimental results on three coniferous species suggesting additional mechanisms. First, when xylem segments were injected with a fluid at a pressure sufficient to aspirate pit tori and well above the pressure for cavitation induction we failed to detect the increase in sample conductance that should have been caused by torus displacement from blocking the pit aperture or by membrane rupture. Second, by injecting xylem samples with different surfactant solutions, we found a linear relation between sample vulnerability to cavitation and fluid surface tension. This suggests that cavitation in conifers could also be provoked by the capillary failure of an air-water meniscus in coherence with the prediction of Young-Laplace's equation. Within the bordered pit membrane, the exact position of this capillary seeding is unknown. The possible Achilles' heel could be the seal between tori and pit walls or holes in the torus. The mechanism of water-stress-induced cavitation in conifers could then be relatively similar to the one currently proposed for angiosperms.

  16. Mild salinity stimulates a stress-induced morphogenic response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolla, Gaston; Heimer, Yair M; Barak, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Plant roots exhibit remarkable developmental plasticity in response to local soil conditions. It is shown here that mild salt stress stimulates a stress-induced morphogenic response (SIMR) in Arabidopsis thaliana roots characteristic of several other abiotic stresses: the proliferation of lateral roots (LRs) with a concomitant reduction in LR and primary root length. The LR proliferation component of the salt SIMR is dramatically enhanced by the transfer of seedlings from a low to a high NO3- medium, thereby compensating for the decreased LR length and maintaining overall LR surface area. Increased LR proliferation is specific to salt stress (osmotic stress alone has no stimulatory effect) and is due to the progression of more LR primordia from the pre-emergence to the emergence stage, in salt-stressed plants. In salt-stressed seedlings, greater numbers of LR primordia exhibit expression of a reporter gene driven by the auxin-sensitive DR5 promoter than in unstressed seedlings. Moreover, in the auxin transporter mutant aux1-7, the LR proliferation component of the salt SIMR is completely abrogated. The results suggest that salt stress promotes auxin accumulation in developing primordia thereby preventing their developmental arrest at the pre-emergence stage. Examination of ABA and ethylene mutants revealed that ABA synthesis and a factor involved in the ethylene signalling network also regulate the LR proliferation component of the salt SIMR.

  17. N-acetylcysteine prevents stress-induced anxiety behavior in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocelin, Ricieri; Herrmann, Ana P; Marcon, Matheus; Rambo, Cassiano L; Rohden, Aline; Bevilaqua, Fernanda; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Zanatta, Leila; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Lara, Diogo R; Piato, Angelo L

    2015-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, the pharmacological treatments currently available are limited in efficacy and induce serious side effects. A possible strategy to achieve clinical benefits is drug repurposing, i.e., discovery of novel applications for old drugs, bringing new treatment options to the market and to the patients who need them. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly used mucolytic and paracetamol antidote, has emerged as a promising molecule for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action of this drug is complex, and involves modulation of antioxidant, inflammatory, neurotrophic and glutamate pathways. Here we evaluated the effects of NAC on behavioral parameters relevant to anxiety in zebrafish. NAC did not alter behavioral parameters in the novel tank test, prevented the anxiety-like behaviors induced by an acute stressor (net chasing), and increased the time zebrafish spent in the lit side in the light/dark test. These data may indicate that NAC presents an anti-stress effect, with the potential to prevent stress-induced psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The considerable homology between mammalian and zebrafish genomes invests the current data with translational validity for the further clinical trials needed to substantiate the use of NAC in anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  19. Agmatine attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress induced behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Faldu, Dharmesh S; Dixit, Madhura P; Sakaria, Jay N; Aglawe, Manish M; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2013-11-15

    Chronic stress exposure and resulting dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis develops susceptibility to variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter has been reported to be released in response to various stressful stimuli to maintain the homeostasis. Present study investigated the role of agmatine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice. Exposure of mice to CUMS protocol for 28 days resulted in diminished performance in sucrose preference test, splash test, forced swim test and marked elevation in plasma corticosterone levels. Chronic agmatine (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip, once daily) treatment started on day-15 and continued till the end of the CUMS protocol significantly increased sucrose preference, improved self-care and motivational behavior in the splash test and decreased duration of immobility in the forced swim test. Agmatine treatment also normalized the elevated corticosterone levels and prevented the body weight changes in chronically stressed animals. The pharmacological effect of agmatine was comparable to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (10mg/kg, ip). Results of present study clearly demonstrated the anti-depressant like effect of agmatine in chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depression in mice. Thus the development of drugs based on brain agmatinergic modulation may represent a new potential approach for the treatment of stress related mood disorders like depression. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Stress-induced insomnia treated with kava and valerian: singly and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, David

    2001-06-01

    Kava and valerian are herbal remedies that are claimed to have anxiolytic and sedative properties respectively, without dependence potential or any appreciable side effects. In this pilot study, 24 patients suffering from stress-induced insomnia were treated for 6 weeks with kava (LI-150), 120 mg daily. This was followed by a 2-week 'wash-out' period off treatment, and then, five patients having dropped out, 19 received valerian (LI-156), 600 mg daily, for another 6 weeks. Then there was a further 2-week period off treatment, and a final 6 weeks of treatment of these 19 patients with the two compounds combined (kava + valerian). Stress was measured in three areas: social, personal and life events; insomnia in three areas also: time to fall asleep, hours slept and waking mood. Total stress severity was significantly relieved by both compounds individually (p effects on kava, 10 (53%) on valerian and 10 (53%) on the combination. The 'commonest' effect was vivid dreams with kava + valerian (4 cases (21%)) and with valerian alone (3 cases (16%)), followed by gastric discomfort and dizziness with kava (3 cases each (3 %)). These results are considered to be extremely promising but further studies may be required to determine the relative roles of the two compounds for such indications. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A terrified-sound stress induced proteomic changes in adult male rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Hu, Lili; Wu, Qiuhua; Liu, Liying; Zhao, Lingyu; Zhao, Xiaoge; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2014-04-10

    In this study, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms in the adult rat hippocampus underlying the relationship between a terrified-sound induced psychological stress and spatial learning. Adult male rats were exposed to a terrified-sound stress, and the Morris water maze (MWM) has been used to evaluate changes in spatial learning and memory. The protein expression profile of the hippocampus was examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics analysis. The data from the MWM tests suggested that a terrified-sound stress improved spatial learning. The proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of 52 proteins was down-regulated, while that of 35 proteins were up-regulated, in the hippocampus of the stressed rats. We identified and validated six of the most significant differentially expressed proteins that demonstrated the greatest stress-induced changes. Our study provides the first evidence that a terrified-sound stress improves spatial learning in rats, and that the enhanced spatial learning coincides with changes in protein expression in rat hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of the critical size of initial voids on stress-induced migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    The stress-induced migration phenomenon is one of the problems related to the reliability of metal interconnections in semiconductor devices. This phenomenon causes voids and fractures in interconnections. The basic feature of this phenomenon is vacancy migration to minute initial voids. Expanding initial voids grow into larger voids and fractures. The purpose of this work is to theoretically clarify the effects of residual thermal stress and void surface stress on the behavior of the initial voids which exist immediately after a passivation process. Using a spherical metal sample with a spherical void under external stress, vacancy absorption or emission was investigated between the void surface and the sample surface. The behavior of vacancies and atoms was also investigated in interconnections under residual thermal stress. We show that the void or sample surface becomes a vacancy sink or source, depending on the mutual relationship between the surface stress due to the surface-free energy and the residual thermal stress. We also reveal that the initial voids, which exist immediately after a passivation process, grow into larger voids and fractures when the size of the initial voids exceeds the critical size. If the size of the initial void can be controlled to below the critical size, voids and fractures do not occur

  3. The oxidative stress-inducible cystine/glutamate antiporter, system x (c) (-) : cystine supplier and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Marcus; Sato, Hideyo

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative stress-inducible cystine/glutamate exchange system, system x (c) (-) , transports one molecule of cystine, the oxidized form of cysteine, into cells and thereby releases one molecule of glutamate into the extracellular space. It consists of two protein components, the 4F2 heavy chain, necessary for membrane location of the heterodimer, and the xCT protein, responsible for transport activity. Previously, system x (c) (-) has been regarded to be a mere supplier of cysteine to cells for the synthesis of proteins and the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). In that sense, oxygen, electrophilic agents, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide trigger xCT expression to accommodate with increased oxidative stress by stimulating GSH biosynthesis. However, emerging evidence established that system x (c) (-) may act on its own as a GSH-independent redox system by sustaining a redox cycle over the plasma membrane. Hallmarks of this cycle are cystine uptake, intracellular reduction to cysteine and secretion of the surplus of cysteine into the extracellular space. Consequently, increased levels of extracellular cysteine provide a reducing microenvironment required for proper cell signaling and communication, e.g. as already shown for the mechanism of T cell activation. By contrast, the enhanced release of glutamate in exchange with cystine may trigger neurodegeneration due to glutamate-induced cytotoxic processes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive picture from the early days of system x (c) (-) research up to now.

  4. Water avoidance stress induces frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 expression: a bladder rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takao, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Jiro; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2012-02-01

    Water avoidance stress is a potent psychological stressor and it is associated with visceral hyperalgesia, which shows degeneration of the urothelial layer mimicking interstitial cystitis. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have been recognized to ameliorate frequency both in clinical and experimental settings. We investigated the voiding pattern and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a rat bladder model of water avoidance stress. After being subjected to water avoidance stress or a sham procedure, rats underwent metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was carried out to examine cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid in bladders of rats. Protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Furthermore, the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, etodolac, were investigated by carrying out cystometrography, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography showed significantly shorter intervals and less volume of voiding in water avoidance stress rats. Significantly higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed significantly higher cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels in water avoidance stress bladders. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed high cyclooxygenase-2 expression exclusively in smooth muscle cells. All water avoidance stress-induced changes were reduced by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor pretreatment. Chronic stress might cause frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 gene upregulation in bladder smooth muscle cells. Further study of cyclooxygenase-2 in the water avoidance stress bladder might provide novel therapeutic modalities for interstitial cystitis. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Analysis of the stress-inducible transcription factor SsNAC23 in sugarcane plants

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    Renata Fava Ditt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stresses such as cold and drought can impair plant yield and induce a highly complex array of responses. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas and is considered a cold-sensitive plant. We previously showed that cold stress induces the expression of several genes in in vitro sugarcane plantlets. Here we characterize one of those genes, SsNAC23, a member of the NAC family of plant-specific transcription factors, which are induced by low temperature and other stresses in several plant species. The expression of SsNAC23 was induced in sugarcane plants exposed to low temperatures (4ºC. With the aim of further understanding the regulatory network in response to stress, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify sugarcane proteins that interact with SsNAC23. Using SsNAC23 as bait, we screened a cDNA expression library of sugarcane plants submitted to 4ºC for 48 h. Several interacting partners were identified, including stress-related proteins, increasing our knowledge on how sugarcane plants respond to cold stress. One of these interacting partners, a thioredoxin h1, offers insights into the regulation of SsNAC23 activity.

  6. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

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    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  7. Genome wide transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress-induced perturbations

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    Hilal eTaymaz-Nikerel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cells respond to environmental and/or genetic perturbations in order to survive and proliferate. Characterization of the changes after various stimuli at different -omics levels is crucial to comprehend the adaptation of cells to changing conditions. Genome wide quantification and analysis of transcript levels, the genes affected by perturbations, extends our understanding of cellular metabolism by pointing out the mechanisms that play role in sensing the stress caused by those perturbations and related signaling pathways, and in this way guides us to achieve endeavors such as rational engineering of cells or interpretation of disease mechanisms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system has been studied in response to different perturbations and corresponding transcriptional profiles were followed either statically or/and dynamically, short- and long- term. This review focuses on response of yeast cells to diverse stress inducing perturbations including nutritional changes, ionic stress, salt stress, oxidative stress, osmotic shock, as well as to genetic interventions such as deletion and over-expression of genes. It is aimed to conclude on common regulatory phenomena that allow yeast to organize its transcriptomic response after any perturbation under different external conditions.

  8. Age-dependent oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in Down's lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zana, Marianna; Szecsenyi, Anita; Czibula, Agnes; Bjelik, Annamaria; Juhasz, Anna; Rimanoczy, Agnes; Szabo, Krisztina; Vetro, Agnes; Szucs, Peter; Varkonyi, Agnes; Pakaski, Magdolna; Boda, Krisztina; Rasko, Istvan; Janka, Zoltan; Kalman, Janos

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the oxidative status of lymphocytes from children (n = 7) and adults (n = 18) with Down's syndrome (DS). The basal oxidative condition, the vulnerability to in vitro hydrogen peroxide exposure, and the repair capacity were measured by means of the damage-specific alkaline comet assay. Significantly and age-independently elevated numbers of single strand breaks and oxidized bases (pyrimidines and purines) were found in the nuclear DNA of the lymphocytes in the DS group in the basal condition. These results may support the role of an increased level of endogenous oxidative stress in DS and are similar to those previously demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease. In the in vitro oxidative stress-induced state, a markedly higher extent of DNA damage was observed in DS children as compared with age- and gender-matched healthy controls, suggesting that young trisomic lymphocytes are more sensitive to oxidative stress than normal ones. However, the repair ability itself was not found to be deteriorated in either DS children or DS adults

  9. Stress induced anisotropy in CoFeMn soft magnetic nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, A. M., E-mail: leary@cmu.edu; Keylin, V.; McHenry, M. E. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Ohodnicki, P. R. [Functional Materials Development Division, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), 626 Cochrans Mill Road, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The use of processing techniques to create magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic materials is a well-known method to control permeability and losses. In nanocomposite materials, field annealing below the Curie temperature results in uniaxial anisotropy energies up to ∼2 kJ/m{sup 3}. Higher anisotropies up to ∼10 kJ/m{sup 3} result after annealing Fe-Si compositions under stress due to residual stress in the amorphous matrix acting on body centered cubic crystals. This work describes near zero magnetostriction Co{sub 80−x−y}Fe{sub x}Mn{sub y}Nb{sub 4}B{sub 14}Si{sub 2} soft magnetic nanocomposites, where x and y < 8 at.% with close packed crystalline grains that show stress induced anisotropies up to ∼50 kJ/m{sup 3} and improved mechanical properties with respect to Fe-Si compositions. Difference patterns measured using transmission X-ray diffraction show evidence of affine strain with respect to the stress axis.

  10. Armet, a UPR-upregulated protein, inhibits cell proliferation and ER stress-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolou, Andria; Shen Yuxian; Liang Yan; Luo Jun; Fang Shengyun

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress that initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR activates both adaptive and apoptotic pathways, which contribute differently to disease pathogenesis. To further understand the functional mechanisms of UPR, we identified 12 commonly UPR-upregulated genes by expression microarray analysis. Here, we describe characterization of Armet/MANF, one of the 12 genes whose function was not clear. We demonstrated that the Armet/MANF protein was upregulated by various forms of ER stress in several cell lines as well as by cerebral ischemia of rat. Armet/MANF was localized in the ER and Golgi and was also a secreted protein. Silencing Armet/MANF by siRNA oligos in HeLa cells rendered cells more susceptible to ER stress-induced death, but surprisingly increased cell proliferation and reduced cell size. Overexpression of Armet/MANF inhibited cell proliferation and improved cell viability under glucose-free conditions and tunicamycin treatment. Based on its inhibitory properties for both proliferation and cell death we have demonstrated, Armet is, thus, a novel secreted mediator of the adaptive pathway of UPR

  11. Micromechanical modeling of stress-induced strain in polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga by directional solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuping; Shi, Tao; Teng, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A micromechanical model of directional solidification Ni–Mn–Ga is developed. • The stress–strain curves in different directions are tested. • The martensite Young’s moduli in different directions are predicted. • The macro reorientation strains in different directions are investigated. - Abstract: Polycrystalline ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–Ga produced by directional solidification possess unique properties. Its compressive stress–strain behaviors in loading–unloading cycle show nonlinear and anisotropic. Based on the self-consistent theory and thermodynamics principle, a micromechanical constitutive model of polycrystalline Ni–Mn–Ga by directional solidification is developed considering the generating mechanism of the macroscopic strain and anisotropy. Then, the stress induced strains at different angles to solidification direction are calculated, and the results agree well with the experimental data. The predictive curves of martensite Young’s modulus and macro reorientation strain in different directions are investigated. It may provide theoretical guidance for the design and use of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy

  12. The RFamide receptor DMSR-1 regulates stress-induced sleep in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Michael J; Beets, Isabel; Lopes, Lindsey E; Churgin, Matthew A; Fang-Yen, Christopher; Nelson, Matthew D; Schoofs, Liliane; Raizen, David M

    2017-01-17

    In response to environments that cause cellular stress, animals engage in sleep behavior that facilitates recovery from the stress. In Caenorhabditis elegans , stress-induced sleep(SIS) is regulated by cytokine activation of the ALA neuron, which releases FLP-13 neuropeptides characterized by an amidated arginine-phenylalanine (RFamide) C-terminus motif. By performing an unbiased genetic screen for mutants that impair the somnogenic effects of FLP-13 neuropeptides, we identified the gene dmsr-1 , which encodes a G-protein coupled receptor similar to an insect RFamide receptor. DMSR-1 is activated by FLP-13 peptides in cell culture, is required for SIS in vivo , is expressed non-synaptically in several wake-promoting neurons, and likely couples to a Gi/o heterotrimeric G-protein. Our data expand our understanding of how a single neuroendocrine cell coordinates an organism-wide behavioral response, and suggest that similar signaling principles may function in other organisms to regulate sleep during sickness.

  13. Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Toward Animal Models of Irritable-Bowel Syndrome and Associated Comorbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Rachel D.; O’Mahony, Siobhain M.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Visceral pain is a global term used to describe pain originating from the internal organs, which is distinct from somatic pain. It is a hallmark of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable-bowel syndrome (IBS). Currently, the treatment strategies targeting visceral pain are unsatisfactory, with development of novel therapeutics hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of visceral pain in both preclinical and clinical studies. Here, we discuss the complex etiology of visceral pain reviewing our current understanding in the context of the role of stress, gender, gut microbiota alterations, and immune functioning. Furthermore, we review the role of glutamate, GABA, and epigenetic mechanisms as possible therapeutic strategies for the treatment of visceral pain for which there is an unmet medical need. Moreover, we discuss the most widely described rodent models used to model visceral pain in the preclinical setting. The theory behind, and application of, animal models is key for both the understanding of underlying mechanisms and design of future therapeutic interventions. Taken together, it is apparent that stress-induced visceral pain and its psychiatric comorbidities, as typified by IBS, has a multifaceted etiology. Moreover, treatment strategies still lag far behind when compared to other pain modalities. The development of novel, effective, and specific therapeutics for the treatment of visceral pain has never been more pertinent. PMID:25762939

  14. Mechanisms of Stress-Induced Visceral Pain: Implications in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B; Moloney, R D; Johnson, A C; Vicario, M

    2016-08-01

    Visceral pain is a term describing pain originating from the internal organs of the body and is a common feature of many disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Stress is implicated in the development and exacerbation of many visceral pain disorders. Recent evidence suggests that stress and the gut microbiota can interact through complementary or opposing factors to influence visceral nociceptive behaviours. The Young Investigator Forum at the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology (ISPNE) annual meeting reported experimental evidence suggesting the gut microbiota can affect the stress response to affect visceral pain. Building upon human imaging data showing abnormalities in the central processing of visceral stimuli in patients with IBS and knowledge that the amygdala plays a pivotal role in facilitating the stress axis, the latest experimental evidence supporting amygdala-mediated mechanisms in stress-induced visceral pain was reviewed. The final part of the session at ISPNE reviewed experimental evidence suggesting that visceral pain in IBS may be a result, at least in part, of afferent nerve sensitisation following increases in epithelial permeability and mucosal immune activation. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  15. An Elongin-Cullin-SOCS Box Complex Regulates Stress-Induced Serotonergic Neuromodulation

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    Xicotencatl Gracida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulatory cells transduce environmental information into long-lasting behavioral responses. However, the mechanisms governing how neuronal cells influence behavioral plasticity are difficult to characterize. Here, we adapted the translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP approach in C. elegans to profile ribosome-associated mRNAs from three major tissues and the neuromodulatory dopaminergic and serotonergic cells. We identified elc-2, an Elongin C ortholog, specifically expressed in stress-sensing amphid neuron dual ciliated sensory ending (ADF serotonergic sensory neurons, and we found that it plays a role in mediating a long-lasting change in serotonin-dependent feeding behavior induced by heat stress. We demonstrate that ELC-2 and the von Hippel-Lindau protein VHL-1, components of an Elongin-Cullin-SOCS box (ECS E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulate this behavior after experiencing stress. Also, heat stress induces a transient redistribution of ELC-2, becoming more nuclearly enriched. Together, our results demonstrate dynamic regulation of an E3 ligase and a role for an ECS complex in neuromodulation and control of lasting behavioral states.

  16. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain JB-1 reverses restraint stress-induced gut dysmotility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C; Wu, R Y; Wong, A; Stanisz, A M; Yan, R; Min, K K; Pasyk, M; McVey Neufeld, K-A; Karamat, M I; Foster, J A; Bienenstock, J; Forsythe, P; Kunze, W A

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stress affects the gut with dysmotility being a common consequence. Although a variety of microbes or molecules may prevent the dysmotility, none reverse the dysmotility. We have used a 1 hour restraint stress mouse model to test for treatment effects of the neuroactive microbe, L. rhamnosus JB-1 ™ . Motility of fluid-filled ex vivo gut segments in a perfusion organ bath was recorded by video and migrating motor complexes measured using spatiotemporal maps of diameter changes. Stress reduced jejunal and increased colonic propagating contractile cluster velocities and frequencies, while increasing contraction amplitudes for both. Luminal application of 10E8 cfu/mL JB-1 restored motor complex variables to unstressed levels within minutes of application. L. salivarius or Na.acetate had no treatment effects, while Na.butyrate partially reversed stress effects on colonic frequency and amplitude. Na.propionate reversed the stress effects for jejunum and colon except on jejunal amplitude. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a potential for certain beneficial microbes as treatment of stress-induced intestinal dysmotility and that the mechanism for restoration of function occurs within the intestine via a rapid drug-like action on the enteric nervous system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Selye's general adaptation syndrome: stress-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, George

    2017-03-01

    Hans Selye in a note to Nature in 1936 initiated the field of stress research by showing that rats exposed to nocuous stimuli responded by way of a 'general adaptation syndrome' (GAS). One of the main features of the GAS was the 'formation of acute erosions in the digestive tract, particularly in the stomach, small intestine and appendix'. This provided experimental evidence for the view based on clinical data that gastro-duodenal (peptic) ulcers could be caused by stress. This hypothesis was challenged by Marshall and Warren's Nobel Prize (2005)-winning discovery of a causal association between Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers. However, clinical and experimental studies suggest that stress can cause peptic ulceration in the absence of H. pylori Predictably, the etiological pendulum of gastric and duodenal ulceration has swung from 'all stress' to 'all bacteria' followed by a sober realization that both factors play a role, separately as well as together. This raises the question as to whether stress and H. pylori interact, and if so, how? Stress has also been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and related disorders; however, there is no proof yet that stress is the primary etiological trigger for IBD. Central dopamine mechanisms seem to be involved in the stress induction of peptic ulceration, whereas activation of the sympathetic nervous system and central and peripheral corticotrophin-releasing factor appears to mediate stress-induced IBD. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. The fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX® score in subclinical hyperthyroidism

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    Polovina Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX® score is the 10-year estimated risk calculation tool for bone fracture that includes clinical data and hip bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to elucidate the ability of the FRAX® score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and post-menopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism. Methods. The bone mineral density (by DXA, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level, free thyroxine (fT4 level, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb titre, osteocalcin and beta-cross-laps were measured in 27 pre- and post-menopausal women with newly discovered subclinical hyperthyroidism [age 58.85 ± 7.83 years, body mass index (BMI 27.89 ± 3.46 kg/m2, menopause onset in 46.88 ± 10.21 years] and 51 matched euthyroid controls (age 59.69 ± 5.72 years, BMI 27.68 ± 4.66 kg/m2, menopause onset in 48.53 ± 4.58 years. The etiology of subclinical hyperthyroisims was autoimmune thyroid disease or toxic goiter. FRAX® score calculation was performed in both groups. Results. In the group with subclinical hyperthyroidism the main FRAX® score was significantly higher than in the controls (6.50 ± 1.58 vs 4.35 ± 1.56 respectively; p = 0.015. The FRAX® score for hip was also higher in the evaluated group than in the controls (1.33 ± 3.92 vs 0.50 ± 0.46 respectively; p = 0.022. There was no correlations between low TSH and fracture risk (p > 0.05. The ability of the FRAX® score in discriminating between bone fracture positive and negative pre- and postmenopausal female subjects (p < 0.001 is presented by the area under the curve (AUC plotted via ROC analysis. The determined FRAX score cut-off value by this analysis was 6%, with estimated sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 75.9%, respectively. Conclusion. Pre- and postmenopausal women with subclinical hyperthyroidism have higher FRAX® scores and thus

  19. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and the Risk for Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Christina D.; Blum, Manuel R.; da Costa, Bruno R.; Baumgartner, Christine; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P.; Aujesky, Drahomir; Bauer, Douglas C.; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and fractures conflict. Purpose To assess the risk for hip and nonspine fractures associated with subclinical thyroid dysfunction among prospective cohorts. Data Sources Search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1946 to 16 March 2014) and reference lists of retrieved articles without language restriction. Study Selection Two physicians screened and identified prospective cohorts that measured thyroid function and followed participants to assess fracture outcomes. Data Extraction One reviewer extracted data using a standardized protocol, and another verified data. Both reviewers independently assessed methodological quality of the studies. Data Synthesis The 7 population-based cohorts of heterogeneous quality included 50 245 participants with 1966 hip and 3281 nonspine fractures. In random-effects models that included the 5 higher-quality studies, the pooled adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism versus euthyrodism were 1.38 (95% CI, 0.92 to 2.07) for hip fractures and 1.20 (CI, 0.83 to 1.72) for nonspine fractures without statistical heterogeneity (P = 0.82 and 0.52, respectively; I2 = 0%). Pooled estimates for the 7 cohorts were 1.26 (CI, 0.96 to 1.65) for hip fractures and 1.16 (CI, 0.95 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures. When thyroxine recipients were excluded, the HRs for participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism were 2.16 (CI, 0.87 to 5.37) for hip fractures and 1.43 (CI, 0.73 to 2.78) for nonspine fractures. For participants with subclinical hypothyroidism, HRs from higher-quality studies were 1.12 (CI, 0.83 to 1.51) for hip fractures and 1.04 (CI, 0.76 to 1.42) for nonspine fractures (P for heterogeneity = 0.69 and 0.88, respectively; I2 = 0%). Limitations Selective reporting cannot be excluded. Adjustment for potential common confounders varied and was not adequately done across all studies. Conclusion Subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with

  20. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jim L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Methods Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. Serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R. The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Results Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Conclusion Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  1. Subclinical thyroid disorders and cognitive performance among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Flowers, Joanne W; Tudiver, Fred; Wilson, Jim L; Punyasavatsut, Natavut

    2006-04-19

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the growth and function of the central nervous system. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between the status of subclinical thyroid conditions and cognition among adolescents in the United States. Study sample included 1,327 adolescents 13 to 16 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured and subclinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and euthyroid groups were defined. Cognitive performance was assessed using the subscales of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). The age-corrected scaled scores for arithmetic, reading, block design, and digit span were derived from the cognitive assessments. Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 1.7% and subclinical hyperthyroidism was found in 2.3% of the adolescents. Cognitive assessment scores on average tended to be lower in adolescents with subclinical hyperthyroidism and higher in those with subclinical hypothyroidism than the score for the euthyroid group. Adolescents with subclinical hypothyroidism had significantly better scores in block design and reading than the euthyroid subjects even after adjustment for a number of variables including sex, age, and family income level. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with better performance in some areas of cognitive functions while subclinical hyperthyroidism could be a potential risk factor.

  2. Associations of Cigarette Smoking With Subclinical Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Al-Rifai, Mahmoud; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Duncan, Bruce B; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-06-24

    There is a need to identify sensitive biomarkers of early tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of smoking status, burden, time since quitting, and intensity, with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied 14 103 participants without clinical cardiovascular disease in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). We evaluated baseline cross-sectional associations between smoking parameters and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, and coronary artery calcium [CAC]). The cohort included 1844 current smokers, 4121 former smokers, and 8138 never smokers. Mean age was 51.7±8.9 years; 44.8% were male. After multivariable adjustment, compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher levels of hsCRP (β=0.24, 0.19-0.29 mg/L; P media thickness (β=0.03, 0.02-0.04 mm; P 0 (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.30; P media thickness levels and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 and CAC >0 were lower with increasing time since quitting ( P 0 ( P =0.03) after adjusting for duration of smoking. Strong associations were observed between smoking status, burden, and intensity with inflammation (hsCRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, CAC). These markers of early cardiovascular disease injury may be used for the further study and regulation of traditional and novel tobacco products. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. A review on cardiovascular diseases originated from subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Azad Reza

    2012-01-15

    Thyroid hormones play an important role on the cardiovascular systems and thyroid disorder ultimately have a profound adverse effects on myocardium and vascular functions. There are extensive reports on the role of overt thyroid dysfunction which adversely can modify the cardiovascular metabolism but even at the present of some controversial reports, the subclinical thyroid disorders are able also to manipulate cardiovascular system to some extent. The aim of this study is to review the cardiovascular disorders accompanied with subclinical hypothyroidism. It is concluded that adverse effect of thyroid malfunction on myocardium and vascular organs are through the direct role of thyroid hormone and dyslipidemia on heart muscle cells at nuclear level and vascular system, respectively. It seems many cardiovascular disorders initially would not have been occurred in the first place if the thyroid of affected person had functioned properly, therefore thyroid function tests should be one of a prior laboratory examinations in cardiovascular disorders.

  4. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soylu Aliye

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two distinct forms of clinical hyperthyroidism. The first patient had a clinical presentation of severe cholestasis in the absence of congestive failure related to hyperthyroidism. The second case had developed intrahepatic cholestasis in the presence of subclinical hyperthyroidism, and improved with rifampicin treatment. Conclusion Hyperthyroidism should be a consideration in non-specific liver dysfunction.

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism, mood, and cognition in older adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Russell T; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Hennessey, James V; Ryan, Joseph J; Stern, Robert A

    2013-02-01

    To perform a critical review of the literature on the mood and cognitive changes associated with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), with an emphasis on older adults. To evaluate these data against the Consensus Statement on the management of SCH from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association, and The Endocrine Society. A comprehensive literature review. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with an increased risk of mood and cognitive dysfunction, although the strength of this association and the efficacy of replacement hormone therapy require further investigation. It remains unclear whether SCH leads to significant mood and cognitive impairments in most older patients. More research is required to determine the nature and extent of this association and whether thyroid hormone replacement therapy is appropriate and effective in treating SCH-associated neurobehavioral impairments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; de Albuquerque, Marly; Machado, Hélio R; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2010-04-01

    Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological condition and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most important direct epilepsy-related cause of death. Information concerning risk factors for SUDEP is conflicting, but high seizure frequency is a potential risk factor. Additionally, potential pathomechanisms for SUDEP are unknown, but it is very probable that cardiac arrhythmias during and between seizures or transmission of epileptic activity to the heart via the autonomic nervous system potentially play a role. In parallel, several studies have shown a link between hormones and epilepsy. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of thyroid hormones and epilepsy is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, we propose in this paper that SUDEP, at least in some cases, could be related with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α1 modulates kynurenine metabolism and mediates resilience to stress-induced depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agudelo, Leandro Z; Femenía, Teresa; Orhan, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a debilitating condition with a profound impact on quality of life for millions of people worldwide. Physical exercise is used as a treatment strategy for many patients, but the mechanisms that underlie its beneficial effects remain unknown. Here, we describe a mechanism by which...... skeletal muscle PGC-1α1 induced by exercise training changes kynurenine metabolism and protects from stress-induced depression. Activation of the PGC-1α1-PPARα/δ pathway increases skeletal muscle expression of kynurenine aminotransferases, thus enhancing the conversion of kynurenine into kynurenic acid......, a metabolite unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Reducing plasma kynurenine protects the brain from stress-induced changes associated with depression and renders skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1α1 transgenic mice resistant to depression induced by chronic mild stress or direct kynurenine administration...

  8. Effects of Shuyusan on monoamine neurotransmitters expression in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan Zhang; Jianjun Jia; Liping Chen; Zhitao Han; Yulan Zhao; Honghong Zhang; Yazhuo Hu

    2011-01-01

    Shuyusan, a traditional Chinese medicine, was shown to improve depression symptoms and behavioral scores, as well as increase 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptophan levels, in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. However, dopamine, noradrenalin, and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol expressions remained unchanged following Shuyusan treatment. Compared with the model group, the number of 5-HT-positive neurons in layers 4-5 of the frontal cortex, as well as hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions, significantly increased following Shuyusan treatment. These results suggested that Shuyusan improved symptoms in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression with mechanisms that involved 5-HT, 5-HT metabolite, 5-HT precursor expressions.

  9. Stress-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites investigated by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Dunand, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Superelastic NiTi (51.0 at.% Ni) specimens reinforced with 0, 10 and 20 vol.% TiC particles were deformed under uniaxial compression while neutron diffraction spectra were collected. The experiments yielded in-situ measurements of the thermoelastic stress-induced transformation. The evolution of austenite/martensite phase fractions and of elastic strains in the reinforcing TiC particles and the austenite matrix were obtained by Rietveld refinement during the loading cycle as the austenite transforms to martensite (and its subsequent back transformation during unloading). Phase fractions and strains are discussed in terms of load transfer in composites where the matrix undergoes a stress-induced phase transformation. (orig.)

  10. Interaction Between 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met Polymorphisms on HPA Axis Reactivity in Preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Congdon, Eliza; Canli, Turhan; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the interaction between the serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms was associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to stress. A community sample of 144 preschool-aged children was genotyped and exposed to stress-inducing laboratory tasks. Salivary cortisol was obtained at four time points during a standardized laboratory assessment before and after stressors invol...

  11. Hemodynamic changes after levothyroxine treatment in subclinical hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J; Petersen, L; Wiinberg, N

    2002-01-01

    by LT(4) (p treatment in SH results in changes in hemodynamic parameters of potentially beneficial character. SH and overt hypothyroidism should......In hypothyroidism, lack of thyroid hormones results in reduced cardiac function (cardiac output [CO]), and an increase of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). We speculated whether hemodynamic regulation in subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) (defined as mildly elevated thyrotropin [TSH......) and T(3) estimates) LT(4) treatment resulted in 6% reduction in supine MAP (p treatment (p

  12. Pentacam top indices for diagnosing subclinical and definite keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Simultaneous evaluation of BAD_D, 5th order vertical coma aberration, IVA, and ISV, especially when the pattern of the corneal curvature is normal, can detect subclinical keratoconus with high sensitivity and specificity. As for definite keratoconus, each of the BAD_D, mean keratometry, and 3rd order vertical coma aberration indices has a desirable diagnostic validity. However, the aforementioned indices do not negate the importance of widely recognized and acceptable indices like keratometry and central corneal thickness.

  13. Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Animals: Incidence, Economics, and Predisposing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Mukesh Kr.; Thombare, N. N.; Mondal, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the incidence and economics of subclinical form of bovine mastitis in Central Region of India. Daily milk records of 187 animals during three seasons were collected and subjected to analysis. The economic loss due to reduction in yield, clinical expenses, and additional resources used were quantified and aggregated. The losses due to mastitis in monetary terms were estimated to be INR1390 per lactation, among which around 49% was owing to loss of value from mil...

  14. The Clinical Study on 39 Cases of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1986-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61±14.95 μU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92±1.05 μU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).

  15. Intrahepatic cholestasis in subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Aliye; Taskale, Mustafa Gurkan; Ciltas, Aydin; Kalayci, Mustafa; Kumbasar, A Baki

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Non-specific abnormalities in liver function tests might accompany the clinical course of hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can cause the elevation of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Jaundice is rare in overt hyperthyroidism, especially in subclinical hyperthyroidism. On the other hand, the use of anti-thyroid drugs has rarely been associated with toxic hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice. Case presentation Here we present two cases of cholestasis that accompanied two disti...

  16. The Clinical Study on 39 Cases of Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheol Jae; Ahn, Weon Jeon; Lee, Houn Young; Ro, Heung Kyu [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-03-15

    Subclinical hypothyroidism can be defined as an asymptomatic state in which a reduction in thyroid activity has been compensated by an increased TSH output to maintain an euthyroid state. We analysed clinical features, laboratory data, and pathologic findings in 39 cases of subclinical hypothyroidism who were diagnosed at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital from Aug. 1984 to June, 1985. 1) The age distribution was from sixteen to sixty-nine and mean age was 34.8. Peak incidence was in the 4th decade and 3rd, 5th, 6th decade in order. 2) The sex distribution showed female preponderance with a ratio of 18.5 to 1. 3) The major presenting manifestations were nonspecific ones such as fatigue, indigestion, and anorexia. 4) Physical examination revealed diffuse goiter in 47.6%. Major abnormalities were no gross abnormality (30.9%), nodular goiter and facial edema. 5) There was no significant difference of the basal serum T3 and T4 concentrations between subclinical hypothyroidism and normal controls (p>0.05). 6) The basal serum TSH concentration of subclinical hypothyroidism (32.61+-14.95 muU/ml) was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3.92+-1.05 muU/ml) (p<0.005). 7) Microsomal antibody was detected in 80.6% and thyroglobulin antibody was detected in 30%. 8) The pathologic findings in 26 cases revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis in 76.9% (lymphocytic type, 34.6%; oxyphilic type, 26.9%; fibrotic type, 15.4%). The others were adenomatous goiter (15.4%), adenomatous carcinoma (3.8%) and subacute thyroiditis (3.8%).

  17. Electromyographic Findings in Overt Hypothyroidism and Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oğuz Akarsu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism may cause neurologic signs and symptoms as its effects neuromuscular system like many other systems. Subclinical hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid dysfuntion, it may cause neuromuscular signs and symptoms. In this retrospective study, it is aimed to compare neuromuscular symptoms and electromyographic (EMG manifestations between hypothyroid patients and control group with normal thyroid function and without a disease causing polyneuropathy. METHODS: 31 overt hypothyroidic, 139 subclinic hypothyroidic patients and 50 individuals with normal thyroid function, without a disease causing polyneuropathy, as control group whom made EMG for another reason were included to the study. Neuromuscular symptoms, neurological examination and electrophysiological findings was obtained from the patient records. RESULTS: In our study, we observed frequent neuromuscular complaints such as fatigue, morning stiffness, cramp, general pain and paresthesia in favor of both for overt and subclinic hypothyroidism. Carpal Tunnel Syndrom(CTS, was statistically higher in overt hypothyroidism group than control group. CTS was also observed higher in subclinic hypothyroidism group when compared with control group but it didn't reach to statistical significance. We did not detect polyneuropathy in any group. Motor nerve velocity and compound muscle action potential amplitudes were found to be statistically significant difference between hypothyroid ve control group. CONCLUSION: Since motor fibres' and neuromuscular area's being affected in hypothyroidism, which we interpret to happen due to basal metabolism's slowing down, can show a significant recovery after thyroid replacement therapy. We consider that, in further studies, comparison of electrophysiological findings after treatment with the findings of pre -treatment is necessary

  18. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Ullevig

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds.

  19. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Culture and Cooperation of L-carnitine in Reducing Stress Induced Cellular Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsi, Farrukh A.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.; Athmanathan, S.; Boulton, M.; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose was to show that L-carnitine (LC) is capable of reducing non-oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) of the human eye. The RPE cells were cultured from donor eyes, obtained immediately after post-mortem. The interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and non-oxidative (sodium hydroxide and methyl methane sulphonate) stress-inducers was observed by recording the change in the absorption profiles of the interacting molecules after incubation in light for 5 hours and after treatment with LC. The isolated and cultured RPE cells from the human eyes were treated with sodium hydroxide or methyl methane sulphonate and/or LC for 5 hours under light, and the qualitative effect on cell morphology after treatment was analyzed by staining cells with Giemsa and visualization by light microscopy. The cell morphology was also qualitatively analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). L-carnitine and stress-inducers interact with BSA and bring about changes in the spectral profile of the interacted molecules. Light microscopy as well as SEM show that the changes in the cellular morphology, induced by 100 uM concentrations of non-oxidative stress-inducers, are considerably reduced in the presence of 100 uM LC. However, L-carnitine alone does not cause any qualitative damage to the cell morphology during incubation under similar conditions. The results give a preliminary indication that LC has ability to reduce the changes brought about by the non-oxidative stress-inducers in the RPF cells in culture. (author)

  20. Axin1 up-regulated 1 accelerates stress-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis through activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Lin, Junyi; Lin, Zebin; Xue, Aimin; Li, Liliang; Zhao, Ziqin; Liu, Li; Shen, Yiwen; Cong, Bin

    2017-10-15

    Stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases, but how stress induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis remains largely unclear. The present study aims to investigate the effects of Axin1 up-regulated 1 (Axud1), a novel pro-apoptotic protein, on the cardiomyocyte survival and the underlying mechanisms. To this end, a rat model under restraint stress (RS) was established and in vitro stress-induced cardiomyocytes culture was achieved. Our data showed that Axud1 was upregulated in the rat myocardia after exposure to RS. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was decreased, whereas pro-apoptotic Bax and Cleaved caspase-3 (Cc3) were increased in a time-dependent manner. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling was observed to be interestingly activated in heart undergoing RS. In addition, the treatment of norepinephrine (NE) to in vitro cardiomyocytes increased Axud1 level and induced cell apoptosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling was consistently activated. Knockdown of Axud1 using specific siRNA blunted NE-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis and also inactivated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. XAV-939, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, partially reversed the pro-apoptotic effect of NE. In conclusion, Axud1 accelerated stress-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis through activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our data provided novel evidence that therapeutic strategies against Axud1 or Wnt/β-catenin signaling might be promising in relation to RS-induced myocardial injury. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Treadmill exercise alleviates stress-induced impairment of social interaction through 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Kijeong; Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors tyrosine kinase B (trkB), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) have been suggested as the neurobiological risk factors causing depressive disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. We in-vestigated the effect of treadmill exercise on social interaction in relation with BDNF and 5-HT expressions following stress in rats. Stress was induced by applying inescapable 0.2 mA electric foot shock to the rats for 7 days. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks. Social interaction test and western blot for BDNF, TrkB, pCREB, and 5-HT1A in the hippocampus were performed. The results indicate that the spend time with unfamiliar partner was decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise increased the spending time in the stress-induced rats. Expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB were decreased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced expressions of BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB in the stress-induced rats. In addition, 5-HT1A receptor expression was de-creased by stress, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced 5-HT1A expression in the stress-induced rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise alleviated stress-induced social interaction impairment through enhancing hippocampal plasticity and serotonergic function in the hippocampus. These effects of treadmill exercise are achieved through 5-HT1A receptor activation.

  2. Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Strahler, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme - Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity (Dipl.-Psych. Jana Strahler) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are two of the major systems playing a role in the adaptation of organisms to developmental changes that threaten homeostasis. The HPA system involves the secretion of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, into the circulatory system. Numerous studies hav...

  3. TRH and TRH receptor system in the basolateral amygdala mediate stress-induced depression-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Juli; Kim, Ji-eun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hannah; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2015-10-01

    Chronic stress is a potent risk factor for depression, but the mechanism by which stress causes depression is not fully understood. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying stress-induced depression, C57BL/6 inbred mice were treated with repeated restraint to induce lasting depressive behavioral changes. Behavioral states of individual animals were evaluated using the forced swim test, which measures psychomotor withdrawals, and the U-field test, which measures sociability. From these behavioral analyses, individual mice that showed depression-like behaviors in both psychomotor withdrawal and sociability tests, and individuals that showed a resiliency to stress-induced depression in both tests were selected. Among the neuropeptides expressed in the amygdala, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was identified as being persistently up-regulated in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in individuals exhibiting severe depressive behaviors in the two behavior tests, but not in individuals displaying a stress resiliency. Activation of TRH receptors by local injection of TRH in the BLA in normal mice produced depressive behaviors, mimicking chronic stress effects, whereas siRNA-mediated suppression of either TRH or TRHR1 in the BLA completely blocked stress-induced depressive symptoms. The TRHR1 agonist, taltirelin, injection in the BLA increased the level of p-ERK, which mimicked the increased p-ERK level in the BLA that was induced by treatment with repeated stress. Stereotaxic injection of U0126, a potent inhibitor of the ERK pathway, within the BLA blocked stress-induced behavioral depression. These results suggest that repeated stress produces lasting depression-like behaviors via the up-regulation of TRH and TRH receptors in the BLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Batten disease gene CLN3 confers resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dan, E-mail: danw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Jing; Wu, Baiyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Bo; Zhu, Weiguo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Luo, Jianyuan, E-mail: jluo@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Medical and Research Technology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore 21201 (United States)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The work reveals a protective properties of CLN3 towards TM-induced apoptosis. • CLN3 regulates expression of the GRP78 and the CHOP in response to the ER stress. • CLN3 plays a specific role in the ERS response. - Abstract: Mutations in CLN3 gene cause juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin within lysosomes. The function of the CLN3 protein remains unclear and is presumed to be related to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate the function of CLN3 in the ER stress signaling pathway, we measured proliferation and apoptosis in cells transfected with normal and mutant CLN3 after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM). We found that overexpression of CLN3 was sufficient in conferring increased resistance to ER stress. Wild-type CLN3 protected cells from TM-induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild-type CLN3 enhanced expression of the ER chaperone protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and reduced expression of the proapoptotic protein CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In contrast, overexpression of mutant CLN3 or siRNA knockdown of CLN3 produced the opposite effect. Together, our data suggest that the lack of CLN3 function in cells leads to a failure of management in the response to ER stress and this may be the key deficit in JNCL that causes neuronal degeneration.

  5. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  6. Adiponectin is protective against oxidative stress induced cytotoxicity in amyloid-beta neurotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ho Chan

    Full Text Available Beta-amyloid (Aβ neurotoxicity is important in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis. Aβ neurotoxicity causes oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial damage resulting in neuronal degeneration and death. Oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial failure are also pathophysiological mechanisms of type 2 diabetes (T(2DM which is characterized by insulin resistance. Interestingly, T(2DM increases risk to develop AD which is associated with reduced neuronal insulin sensitivity (central insulin resistance. We studied the potential protective effect of adiponectin (an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties against Aβ neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y transfected with the Swedish amyloid precursor protein (Sw-APP mutant, which overproduced Aβ with abnormal intracellular Aβ accumulation. Cytotoxicity was measured by assay for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH released upon cell death and lysis. Our results revealed that Sw-APP transfected SH-SY5Y cells expressed both adiponectin receptor 1 and 2, and had increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation compared to control empty-vector transfected SH-SY5Y cells. Importantly, adiponectin at physiological concentration of 10 µg/ml protected Sw-APP transfected SH-SY5Y cells against cytotoxicity under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. This neuroprotective action of adiponectin against Aβ neurotoxicity-induced cytotoxicity under oxidative stress involved 1 AMPK activation mediated via the endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 (adaptor protein with phosphotyrosine binding, pleckstrin homology domains and leucine zipper motif and possibly 2 suppression of NF-κB activation. This raises the possibility of novel therapies for AD such as adiponectin receptor agonists.

  7. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  8. A ghrelin-growth hormone axis drives stress-induced vulnerability to enhanced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R M; Burgos-Robles, A; Liu, E; Correia, S S; Goosens, K A

    2014-12-01

    Hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediate many of the bodily responses to stressors, yet there is no clear relationship between the levels of these hormones and stress-associated mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, other hormones are likely to be involved in this effect of stress. Here we used a rodent model of PTSD in which rats repeatedly exposed to a stressor display heightened fear learning following auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our results show that stress-related increases in circulating ghrelin, a peptide hormone, are necessary and sufficient for stress-associated vulnerability to exacerbated fear learning and these actions of ghrelin occur in the amygdala. Importantly, these actions are also independent of the classic HPA stress axis. Repeated systemic administration of a ghrelin receptor agonist enhanced fear memory but did not increase either corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticosterone. Repeated intraamygdala infusion of a ghrelin receptor agonist produced a similar enhancement of fear memory. Ghrelin receptor antagonism during repeated stress abolished stress-related enhancement of fear memory without blunting stress-induced corticosterone release. We also examined links between ghrelin and growth hormone (GH), a major downstream effector of the ghrelin receptor. GH protein was upregulated in the amygdala following chronic stress, and its release from amygdala neurons was enhanced by ghrelin receptor stimulation. Virus-mediated overexpression of GH in the amygdala was also sufficient to increase fear. Finally, virus-mediated overexpression of a GH receptor antagonist was sufficient to block the fear-enhancing effects of repeated ghrelin receptor stimulation. Thus, ghrelin requires GH in the amygdala to exert fear-enhancing effects. These results suggest that ghrelin mediates a novel branch of the stress response and highlight a previously unrecognized role for ghrelin and

  9. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Al-Abbassi, Reem; Al-Binni, Maysaa

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  10. Acute stress induces selective alterations in cost/benefit decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Naghmeh; Gray, Megan; Viau, Victor; Floresco, Stan B

    2012-09-01

    Acute stress can exert beneficial or detrimental effects on different forms of cognition. In the present study, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, and some of the hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie these effects. Effort-based decision-making was assessed where rats chose between a low effort/reward (1 press=2 pellets) or high effort/reward option (4 pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over 4 blocks of trials (2, 5, 10, and 20 lever presses). Restraint stress for 1 h decreased preference for the more costly reward and induced longer choice latencies. Control experiments revealed that the effects on decision-making were not mediated by general reductions in motivation or preference for larger rewards. In contrast, acute stress did not affect delay-discounting, when rats chose between a small/immediate vs larger/delayed reward. The effects of stress on decision-making were not mimicked by treatment with physiological doses of corticosterone (1-3 mg/kg). Blockade of dopamine receptors with flupenthixol (0.25 mg/kg) before restraint did not attenuate stress-induced effects on effort-related choice, but abolished effects on choice latencies. These data suggest that acute stress interferes somewhat selectively with cost/benefit evaluations concerning effort costs. These effects do not appear to be mediated solely by enhanced glucocorticoid activity, whereas dopaminergic activation may contribute to increased deliberation times induced by stress. These findings may provide insight into impairments in decision-making and anergia associated with stress-related disorders, such as depression.

  11. Investigation of thermoelastic stresses induced at high altitudes on aircraft external fuel tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, Stephanie Lynn Steber

    As composite technology has grown over the past several decades, the use of composite materials in military applications has become more feasible and widely accepted. Although composite materials provide many benefits, including strength optimization and reduced weight, damage and repair of these materials creates an additional challenge, especially when operating in a marine environment, such as on a carrier deck. This is evident within the Navy, as excessive damage often leads to the scrapping of F/A-18 External Fuel Tanks. This damage comes in many forms, the most elusive of which is delamination. Often the delamination found on the tanks is beyond repairable limits and the cause unknown, making it difficult to predict and prevent. The purpose of this investigation was to study the structure of the Navy's 330 gallon External Fuel Tanks and investigate one potential cause of delamination, stresses induced at high altitudes by cold temperatures. A stress analysis was completed using finite element software, and validation of the model was accomplished through testing of a scale model specimen. Due to the difficulties in modeling and predicting delamination, such as unknown presence of voids and understanding failure criteria, delamination was not modeled in Abaqus, rather stresses were observed and characteristics were studied to understand the potential for delamination within the layup. In addition, studies were performed to understand the effect of material properties and layup sequence on the stress distribution within the tank. Alternative design solutions are presented which could reduce the radial stresses within the tank, and recommendations are made for further study to understand the trade-offs between stress, cost, and manufacturability.

  12. Acute Stress Induces Selective Alterations in Cost/Benefit Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Naghmeh; Gray, Megan; Viau, Victor; Floresco, Stan B

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress can exert beneficial or detrimental effects on different forms of cognition. In the present study, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, and some of the hormonal and neurochemical mechanisms that may underlie these effects. Effort-based decision-making was assessed where rats chose between a low effort/reward (1 press=2 pellets) or high effort/reward option (4 pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over 4 blocks of trials (2, 5, 10, and 20 lever presses). Restraint stress for 1 h decreased preference for the more costly reward and induced longer choice latencies. Control experiments revealed that the effects on decision-making were not mediated by general reductions in motivation or preference for larger rewards. In contrast, acute stress did not affect delay-discounting, when rats chose between a small/immediate vs larger/delayed reward. The effects of stress on decision-making were not mimicked by treatment with physiological doses of corticosterone (1–3 mg/kg). Blockade of dopamine receptors with flupenthixol (0.25 mg/kg) before restraint did not attenuate stress-induced effects on effort-related choice, but abolished effects on choice latencies. These data suggest that acute stress interferes somewhat selectively with cost/benefit evaluations concerning effort costs. These effects do not appear to be mediated solely by enhanced glucocorticoid activity, whereas dopaminergic activation may contribute to increased deliberation times induced by stress. These findings may provide insight into impairments in decision-making and anergia associated with stress-related disorders, such as depression. PMID:22569506

  13. Gestational stress induces persistent depressive-like behavior and structural modifications within the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Achikam; Sherer, Morgan; Leuner, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Pregnancy stress enhances vulnerability to PPD and has also been shown to increase depressive-like behavior in postpartum rats. Thus, gestational stress may be an important translational risk factor that can be used to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying PPD. Here we examined the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior during the early/mid and late postpartum periods and evaluated whether this was accompanied by altered structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region that has been linked to PPD. We show that early/mid (PD8) postpartum female rats exhibited more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test as compared to late postpartum females (PD22). However, two weeks of restraint stress during pregnancy increased depressive-like behavior regardless of postpartum timepoint. In addition, dendritic length, branching, and spine density on medium spiny neurons in the NAc shell were diminished in postpartum rats that experienced gestational stress although stress-induced reductions in spine density were evident only in early/mid postpartum females. In the NAc core, structural plasticity was not affected by gestational stress but late postpartum females exhibited lower spine density and reduced dendritic length. Overall, these data not only demonstrate structural changes in the NAc across the postpartum period, they also show that postpartum depressive-like behavior following exposure to gestational stress is associated with compromised structural plasticity in the NAc and thus may provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to PPD. PMID:25359225

  14. FKBP5 polymorphisms influence pre-learning stress-induced alterations of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Dailey, Alison M; Nagle, Hannah E; Fiely, Miranda K; Mosley, Brianne E; Brown, Callie M; Duffy, Tessa J; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2017-03-01

    FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role. In the present study, 112 participants were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test (stress) or control (no stress) conditions immediately prior to learning a list of 42 words. Participant memory was assessed immediately after learning (free recall) and 24 h later (free recall and recognition). Participants provided a saliva sample that enabled the genotyping of three FKBP5 polymorphisms: rs1360780, rs3800373 and rs9296158. Results showed that stress impaired immediate recall in risk allele carriers. More importantly, stress enhanced long-term recall and recognition memory in non-carriers of the risk alleles, effects that were completely absent in risk allele carriers. Follow-up analyses revealed that memory performance was correlated with salivary cortisol levels in non-carriers, but not in carriers. These findings suggest that FKBP5 risk allele carriers may possess a sensitized stress response system, perhaps specifically for stress-induced changes in corticosteroid levels, which might aid our understanding of how SNPs in the FKBP5 gene confer increased risk for stress-related psychological disorders and their related phenotypes. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS)--influence of SIPS on radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Boothman, David A

    2008-03-01

    Replicative senescence is a fundamental feature in normal human diploid cells and results from dysfunctional telomeres at the Hayflick cell division limit. Ionizing radiation (IR) prematurely induces the same phenotypes as replicative senescence prior to the Hayflick limit. This process is known as stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Since the cell cycle is irreversibly arrested in SIPS-induced cells, even if they are stimulated by various growth factors, it is thought that SIPS is a form of cell death, irreversibly eliminating replicating cells. IR-induced-focus formation of DNA repair proteins, a marker of DNA damage, is detected in SIPS as well as replicative senescent cells. Furthermore, both processes persistently induce cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms, indicating DNA damage created by ionizing radiation induces SIPS in normal cells, possibly by the same mechanisms as those occurring in replicative senescence. Interestingly, IR induces SIPS not only in normal cells, but also in tumor cells. Due to the expression of telomerase in tumor cells, telomere-dependent replicative senescence does not occur. However, SIPS is induced under certain conditions after IR exposure. Thus, cell death triggered by IR can be attributed to apoptosis or SIPS in tumor cells. However, metabolic function remains intact in SIPS-induced cancer cells, and recent studies show that senescence eliminate cells undergoing SIPS secrete various kinds of factors outside the cell, changing the microenvironment. Evidence using co-culture systems containing normal senescent stromal cells and epithelial tumor cells show that factors secreted from senescent stroma cells promote the growth of tumor epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, regulation of factors secreted from SIPS-induced stromal cells, as well as tumor cells, may affect radiotherapy.

  16. Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Influence of SIPS on radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Boothman, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Replicative senescence is a fundamental feature in normal human diploid cells and results from dysfunctional telomeres at the Hayflick cell division limit. Ionizing radiation (IR) prematurely induces the same phenotypes as replicative senescence prior to the Hayflick limit. This process is known as stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Since the cell cycle is irreversibly arrested in SIPS-induced cells, even if they are stimulated by various growth factors, it is thought that SIPS is a form of cell death, irreversibly eliminating replicating cells. IR-induced-focus formation of DNA repair proteins, a marker of DNA damage, is detected in SIPS as well as replicative senescent cells. Furthermore, both processes persistently induce cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms, indicating DNA damage created by ionizing radiation induces SIPS in normal cells, possibly by the same mechanisms as those occurring in replicative senescence. Interestingly, IR induces SIPS not only in normal cells, but also in tumor cells. Due to the expression of telomerase in tumor cells, telomere-dependent replicative senescence does not occur. However, SIPS is induced under certain conditions after IR exposure. Thus, cell death triggered by IR can be attributed to apoptosis or SIPS in tumor cells. However, metabolic function remains intact in SIPS-induced cancer cells, and recent studies show that senescence eliminate cells undergoing SIPS secrete various kinds of factors outside the cell, changing the microenvironment. Evidence using co-culture systems containing normal senescent stromal cells and epithelial tumor cells show that factors secreted from senescent stroma cells promote the growth of tumor epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, regulation of factors secreted from SIPS-induced stromal cells, as well as tumor cells, may affect radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  18. Obesity decreases the oxidant stress induced by tobacco smoke in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaño, Martha; Pérez-Ramos, J; Esquivel, A; Rivera-Rosales, R; González-Avila, G; Becerril, C; Checa, M; Ramos, C

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and emphysema are associated with low-grade systemic inflammation and oxidant stress. Assuming that the oxidant stress induced by emphysema would be decreased by obesity, we analyzed the oxidant/antioxidant state in a rat model combining both diseases simultaneously. Obesity was induced using sucrose, while emphysema by exposure to tobacco smoke. End-points evaluated were: body weight, abdominal fat, plasma dyslipidemia and malondialdehyde (MDA), insulin and glucose AUC, activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); lung MnSOD and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) immunostaining, and expression of αV and β6 integrin subunits. In rats with obesity, the body weight, abdominal fat, plasma triglyceride levels, glucose AUC, insulin levels, GST activity, and αV and β6 integrin expressions were amplified. The rats with emphysema had lower values of body weight, abdominal fat, plasma insulin, triglycerides and glucose AUC but higher values of plasma MDA, GPx activity, and the lung expression of the αV and β6 integrins. The combination of obesity and emphysema compared to either condition alone led to diminished body weight, abdominal fat, plasma insulin MDA levels, GPx and GST activities, and αV and β6 integrin expressions; these parameters were all previously increased by obesity. Immunostaining for MnSOD augmented in all experimental groups, but the staining for 3-NT only increased in rats treated with tobacco alone or combined with sucrose. Results showed that obesity reduces oxidant stress and integrin expression, increasing antioxidant enzyme activities; these changes seem to partly contribute to a protective mechanism of obesity against emphysema development.

  19. Role of residual stresses induced by double peening on fatigue durability of automotive leaf springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuracchio, Bruno Geoffroy; Batista de Lima, Nelson; Schön, Cláudio Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proper choice of peening media is needed for higher fatigue strength in leaf springs. ► Optimum double-peening condition for leaf springs: 0.8 mm shot, followed by 0.3 mm. ► Fatigue life correlates with residual stress levels at the surface (up to 0.02 mm). ► Residual stress profile below 0.02 mm has no measurable effect over fatigue life. ► Failure of the investigated parts is nucleation-controlled. - Abstract: Improvement of fatigue life in parts subjected to cyclic stresses by application of mechanical surface treatment processes is already well known, both in the industry and in the academy. Dealing with automotive springs, the shot peening process becomes an essential step in manufacturing. In the case of leaf springs, however, a systematic investigation of the effect of shot peening on fatigue life is still required. The aim of the present work is to improve the knowledge on the role of shot peening in manufacturing leaf springs for vehicles, through the analysis of residual stresses by X-ray diffraction and fatigue tests on a series of samples that were subject to ten different peening schedules. Among the investigated processes, the usage of 0.8 mm diameter cast steel shot followed by a second peening with 0.3 mm diameter cast steel shot leads to optimal performance, regarding fatigue life. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that this improved performance may be attributed to residual compressive stress maintained until a depth of 0.02 mm below the surface, which directly influences fatigue crack nucleation. Residual stresses induced by shot peening in larger depths have no influence on the sample’s fatigue life

  20. Protective effects of carnosol against oxidative stress induced brain damage by chronic stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Samini, Mohammad; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-05-04

    Oxidative stress through chronic stress destroys the brain function. There are many documents have shown that carnosol may have a therapeutic effect versus free radical induced diseases. The current research focused the protective effect of carnosol against the brain injury induced by the restraint stress. The restraint stress induced by keeping animals in restrainers for 21 consecutive days. Thereafter, the rats were injected carnosol or vehicle for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, all the rats were subjected to his open field test and forced swimming test. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed for measuring their oxidative stress parameters. To measure the modifications in the biochemical aspects after the experiment, the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the whole brain. Our data showed that the animals received chronic stress had a raised immobility time versus the non-stressed animals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, chronic stress diminished the number of crossing in the animals that were subjected to the chronic stress versus the non-stressed rats (p < 0.01). Carnosol ameliorated this alteration versus the non-treated rats (p < 0.05). In the vehicle treated rats that submitted to the stress, the level of MDA levels was significantly increased (P < 0.001), and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased versus the non-stressed animals (P < 0.001). Carnosol treatment reduced the modifications in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). All of these carnosol effects were nearly similar to those observed with fluoxetine. The current research shows that the protective effects of carnosol may be accompanied with enhanced antioxidant defenses and decreased oxidative injury.

  1. Oral administration of γ-aminobutyric acid and γ-oryzanol prevents stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kazuyuki; Kiyotani, Yuka; Uchida, Asako; Nagasaka, Reiko; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kanemoto, Shigeharu; Hori, Masatoshi; Ushio, Hideki

    2011-06-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and is found to associate partly with chronic stress at work in human. Adiponectin circulates in mammal blood mainly as a low molecular weight (LMW) trimer, hexamer, and a high molecular weight (HMW) multimers. Low circulating levels of adiponectin are related to metabolic syndrome. We have then investigated the influence of immobilization stress on plasma adiponectin concentrations in mice. Relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels were markedly reduced by immobilization stress (0.66±0.07 and 0.59±0.06 after 102 h, respectively), significantly different from the control values (p-oryzanol abundantly contained in germinated brown rice have some physiological functions. We further investigated the effect of GABA, γ-oryzanol, GABA plus γ-oryzanol on adiponectin levels in mice subjected to immobilization stress. GABA and γ-oryzanol significantly increased the relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels under immobilization stress (1.10±0.11 and 0.99±0.19 after 102 h, respectively, for GABA; 1.08±0.17 and 1.15±0.17 after 102 h, respectively, for γ-oryzanol). Additionally, the co-administration of GABA and γ-oryzanol also increased both relative LMW and HMW adiponectin levels (1.02±0.07 and 0.99±0.10 after 102 h, respectively) and was effective in an earlier phase from 30 to 54 h. The results indicate that the co-administration of GABA and γ-oryzanol might be effective in preventing stress-induced hypoadiponectinemia in mice and be also a promising tool for improving metabolic syndrome aggravated by chronic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Gemfibrozil pretreatment proved protection against acute restraint stress-induced changes in the male rats' hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Leila; Nejad, Sara Chavoshi; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Zadeh, Sadaf Sarraf; Pour, Marieh Hossein; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ashabi, Ghorbangol; Alamdary, Shabnam Zeighamy; Samami, Elham

    2013-08-21

    Stress predisposes the brain to various neuropathological disorders. Fibrates like gemfibrozil, commonly used for hyperlipidemia, have not yet been examined for their protective/deteriorative potential against restraint stress-induced disturbances. Pretreatment of rats with a range of gemfibrozil concentrations showed significant protection against stress consequences at 90 mg/kg of gemfibrozil, as it resulted in the highest level of antioxidant defense system potentiation among other doses. It also reduced plasma corticosterone compared with the stressed animals. Administration of gemfibrozil (90 mg/kg) before stress induction was able to significantly induce the protein levels of some protective factors including hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone-1 (NQO-1) in the antioxidant nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf-2) pathway, as well as mitochondrial pro-survival proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1). In parallel, the level of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), two proteins involved in apoptotic cell death, and the number of damaged neurons detected in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stained hippocampus sections were suppressed in the presence of gemfibrozil. Herein, although gemfibrozil demonstrated protection against the restraint stress, considering its dose and context-dependent effects reported in the previous studies, as well as its common application in clinic, further investigations are essential to unravel its exact beneficial/deleterious effects in various neuronal contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineering low-cadmium rice through stress-inducible expression of OXS3-family member genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhu; Guo, Weili; Cai, Xingzhe; Li, Ruyu; Ow, David W

    2018-04-21

    Cadmium (Cd) as a carcinogen poses a great threat to food security and public health through plant-derived foods such as rice, the staple for nearly half of the world's population. We have previously reported that overexpression of truncated gene fragments derived from the rice genes OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 could reduce Cd accumulation in transgenic rice. However, we did not test the full length genes due to prior work in Arabidopsis where overexpression of these genes caused seedling lethality. Here, we report on limiting the overexpression of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 through the use of the stress- inducible promoter RD29B. However, despite generating 625 putative transformants, only 7 lines survived as T1 seedlings and only 1 line of each overexpressed OsO3L2 or OsO3L3-produced T2 progeny. The T2 homozygotes from these 2 lines showed the same effect of reducing accumulation of Cd in root and shoot as well as in T3 grain. As importantly, the concentrations of essential metals copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) were unaffected. Analysis of the expression profile suggested that low Cd accumulation may be due to high expression of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 in the root tip region. Cellular localization of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 indicate that they are histone H2A interacting nuclear proteins in vascular cells and especially in the root tip region. It is possible that interaction with histone H2A modifies chromatin to regulate downstream gene expression. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-08-01

    The concept of enhancing structural integrity of mitochondria has emerged as a novel therapeutic option for cardiovascular disease. Flow-induced increase in laminar shear stress is a potent physiological stimulant associated with exercise, which exerts atheroprotective effects in the vasculature. However, the effect of laminar shear stress on mitochondrial remodeling within the vascular endothelium and its related functional consequences remain largely unknown. Using in vitro and in vivo complementary studies, here, we report that aerobic exercise alleviates the release of endothelial microparticles in prehypertensive individuals and that these salutary effects are, in part, mediated by shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Circulating levels of total (CD31(+)/CD42a(-)) and activated (CD62E(+)) microparticles released by endothelial cells were significantly decreased (∼40% for both) after a 6-mo supervised aerobic exercise training program in individuals with prehypertension. In cultured human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress reduced the release of endothelial microparticles, which was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis through a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-dependent mechanism. Resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, treatment showed similar effects. SIRT1 knockdown using small-interfering RNA completely abolished the protective effect of shear stress. Disruption of mitochondrial integrity by either antimycin A or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α small-interfering RNA significantly increased the number of total, and activated, released endothelial microparticles, and shear stress restored these back to basal levels. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of endothelial mitochondrial integrity in preserving endothelial homeostasis. Moreover, prolonged laminar shear stress, which is systemically elevated during aerobic exercise in the vessel wall, mitigates endothelial dysfunction by promoting

  5. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Psychological stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction: the role of metabolic syndrome and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven; Brnayan, Kayla W; DeVallance, Evan; Skinner, Roy; Lemaster, Kent; Sheets, J Whitney; Pitzer, Christopher R; Asano, Shinichi; Bryner, Randall W; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? How does chronic stress impact cerebrovascular function and does metabolic syndrome accelerate the cerebrovascular adaptations to stress? What role does exercise training have in preventing cerebrovascular changes to stress and metabolic syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Stressful conditions lead to pathological adaptations of the cerebrovasculature via an oxidative nitric oxide pathway, and the presence of metabolic syndrome produces a greater susceptibility to stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction. The results also provide insight into the mechanisms that may contribute to the influence of stress and the role of exercise in preventing the negative actions of stress on cerebrovascular function and structure. Chronic unresolvable stress leads to the development of depression and cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of depression with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but to what extent the MetS concurrent with psychological stress affects cerebrovascular function is unknown. We investigated the differential effect of MetS on cerebrovascular structure/function in rats (16-17 weeks old) following 8 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and whether exercise training could limit any cerebrovascular dysfunction. In healthy lean Zucker rats (LZR), UCMS decreased (28%, P stress and increased production of nitric oxide in the cerebral vessels. In conclusion, UCMS significantly impaired MCA structure and function, but the effects of UCMS were more substantial in OZR vs. LZR. Importantly, aerobic exercise when combined with UCMS prevented the MCA dysfunction through subtle shifts in nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the cerebral microvasculature. © 2018 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  7. Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Gall, Kenneth A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Choudhury, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pikarsky, J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Andruszkiewicz, Leanne (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD)

    2009-09-01

    In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

  8. Sex Differences in Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Viola; Wilmot, Kobina; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Ramadan, Ronnie; Pimple, Pratik; Shah, Amit J; Garcia, Ernest V; Nye, Jonathon; Ward, Laura; Hammadah, Muhammad; Kutner, Michael; Long, Qi; Bremner, J Douglas; Esteves, Fabio; Raggi, Paolo; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2016-08-24

    Emerging data suggest that young women with coronary heart disease (CHD) are disproportionally vulnerable to the adverse cardiovascular effects of psychological stress. We hypothesized that younger, but not older, women with stable CHD are more likely than their male peers to develop mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI). We studied 686 patients (191 women) with stable coronary heart disease (CHD). Patients underwent (99m)Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and with both mental (speech task) and conventional (exercise/pharmacological) stress testing. We compared quantitative (by automated software) and visual parameters of inducible ischemia between women and men and assessed age as an effect modifier. Women had a more-adverse psychosocial profile than men whereas there were few differences in medical history and CHD risk factors. Both quantitative and visual indicators of ischemia with mental stress were disproportionally larger in younger women. For each 10 years of decreasing age, the total reversibility severity score with mental stress was 9.6 incremental points higher (interaction, P<0.001) and the incidence of MSIMI was 82.6% higher (interaction, P=0.004) in women than in men. Incidence of MSIMI in women ≤50 years was almost 4-fold higher than in men of similar age and older patients. These results persisted when adjusting for sociodemographic and medical risk factors, psychosocial factors, and medications. There were no significant sex differences in inducible ischemia with conventional stress. Young women with stable CHD are susceptible to MSIMI, which could play a role in the prognosis of this group. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Seagrass proliferation precedes mortality during hypo-salinity events: a stress-induced morphometric response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Collier

    Full Text Available Halophytes, such as seagrasses, predominantly form habitats in coastal and estuarine areas. These habitats can be seasonally exposed to hypo-salinity events during watershed runoff exposing them to dramatic salinity shifts and osmotic shock. The manifestation of this osmotic shock on seagrass morphology and phenology was tested in three Indo-Pacific seagrass species, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis and Zostera muelleri, to hypo-salinity ranging from 3 to 36 PSU at 3 PSU increments for 10 weeks. All three species had broad salinity tolerance but demonstrated a moderate hypo-salinity stress response--analogous to a stress induced morphometric response (SIMR. Shoot proliferation occurred at salinities <30 PSU, with the largest increases, up to 400% increase in shoot density, occurring at the sub-lethal salinities <15 PSU, with the specific salinity associated with peak shoot density being variable among species. Resources were not diverted away from leaf growth or shoot development to support the new shoot production. However, at sub-lethal salinities where shoots proliferated, flowering was severely reduced for H. ovalis, the only species to flower during this experiment, demonstrating a diversion of resources away from sexual reproduction to support the investment in new shoots. This SIMR response preceded mortality, which occurred at 3 PSU for H. ovalis and 6 PSU for H. uninervis, while complete mortality was not reached for Z. muelleri. This is the first study to identify a SIMR in seagrasses, being detectable due to the fine resolution of salinity treatments tested. The detection of SIMR demonstrates the need for caution in interpreting in-situ changes in shoot density as shoot proliferation could be interpreted as a healthy or positive plant response to environmental conditions, when in fact it could signal pre-mortality stress.

  10. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Batten disease gene CLN3 confers resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dan; Liu, Jing; Wu, Baiyan; Tu, Bo; Zhu, Weiguo; Luo, Jianyuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The work reveals a protective properties of CLN3 towards TM-induced apoptosis. • CLN3 regulates expression of the GRP78 and the CHOP in response to the ER stress. • CLN3 plays a specific role in the ERS response. - Abstract: Mutations in CLN3 gene cause juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin within lysosomes. The function of the CLN3 protein remains unclear and is presumed to be related to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate the function of CLN3 in the ER stress signaling pathway, we measured proliferation and apoptosis in cells transfected with normal and mutant CLN3 after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM). We found that overexpression of CLN3 was sufficient in conferring increased resistance to ER stress. Wild-type CLN3 protected cells from TM-induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild-type CLN3 enhanced expression of the ER chaperone protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and reduced expression of the proapoptotic protein CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In contrast, overexpression of mutant CLN3 or siRNA knockdown of CLN3 produced the opposite effect. Together, our data suggest that the lack of CLN3 function in cells leads to a failure of management in the response to ER stress and this may be the key deficit in JNCL that causes neuronal degeneration

  12. Prediabetes is not a risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Young-Rak; Lee, Seung-Whan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Won, Ki-Bum; Ann, Soe Hee; Kim, Yong-Giun; Kim, Shin-Jae; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Hak; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jaewon; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2017-09-15

    There are limited data regarding the influence of glycemic status on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic individuals. We analyzed 6434 asymptomatic individuals who underwent CCTA. The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. Of study participants, 2197 (34.1%), 3122 (48.5%), and 1115 (17.3%) were categorized as normal, prediabetic and diabetic individuals, respectively. Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically differences in the adjusted odds ratios of prediabetic individuals for significant coronary artery stenosis (0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.22, p=0.888), any plaque (0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, p=0.483), calcified plaque (0.90, 95% CI 0.79-1.01, p=0.080), non-calcified plaque (1.02, 95% CI 0.88-1.17, p=0.803), and mixed plaque (1.00, 95% CI 0.82-1.22, p=0.983). However, adjusted odds ratios for significant coronary artery stenosis (1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.19, pprediabetic individuals were not associated with an increased risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sympathovagal response to orthostatism in overt and in subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goichot, B; Brandenberger, G; Vinzio, S; Perrin, A E; Geny, B; Schlienger, J L; Simon, C

    2004-04-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the physiological variation of R-R intervals, reflecting the sympathovagal balance. In both overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism, a relative increase in sympathetic activity has been demonstrated, mainly due to a decrease in vagal activity. The modifications of HRV during orthostatism in normal subjects resemble those seen in hyperthyroidism. We have studied the response of 19 patients with overt hyperthyroidism and 12 with subclinical hyperthyroidism during orthostatism using HRV and compared the results to those of 32 healthy controls. In the three groups, the R-R intervals decreased in the same proportion after orthostatism. The low frequency power (LF)/[LF + high frequency power (HF)] ratio, which reflects the sympathetic tone, also increased in the same proportion in the three groups. However, the mechanisms of the modulation of the sympathovagal balance during orthostatism were different among the three groups. In controls, the relative increase of sympathetic tone after orthostatism was due principally to a decrease in vagal tone (reflected by decreased power in the HF band), while in overt hyperthyroidism, where the power in the HF band was already minimal in the lying position, there was a clear increase in the LF band power during orthostatism. The results were intermediate in the subclinical hyperthyroidism group, reflecting a continuum of effects of the thyroid hormone excess on the autonomic nervous system. Our study shows that despite an apparent normal cardiovascular adaptation to orthostatism in hyperthyroidism, the modulation of the autonomic nervous system is profoundly modified.

  14. Shear stress induces cell apoptosis via a c-Src-phospholipase D-mTOR signaling pathway in cultured podocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chunfa, E-mail: chunfa.huang@case.edu [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Bruggeman, Leslie A. [Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hydo, Lindsey M. [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Miller, R. Tyler [Louis Stokes Cleveland Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (United States); Rammelkamp Center for Research and Education, MetroHealth System Campus, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    The glomerular capillary wall, composed of endothelial cells, the glomerular basement membrane and the podocytes, is continually subjected to hemodynamic force arising from tractional stress due to blood pressure and shear stress due to blood flow. Exposure of glomeruli to abnormal hemodynamic force such as hyperfiltration is associated with glomerular injury and progressive renal disease, and the conversion of mechanical stimuli to chemical signals in the regulation of the process is poorly understood in podocytes. By examining DNA fragmentation, apoptotic nuclear changes and cytochrome c release, we found that shear stress induced cell apoptosis in cultured podocytes. Meanwhile, podocytes exposed to shear stress also stimulated c-Src phosphorylation, phospholipase D (PLD) activation and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Using the antibodies against c-Src, PLD{sub 1}, and PLD{sub 2} to perform reciprocal co-immunoprecipitations and in vitro PLD activity assay, our data indicated that c-Src interacted with and activated PLD{sub 1} but not PLD{sub 2}. The inhibition of shear stress-induced c-Src phosphorylation by PP{sub 2} (a specific inhibitor of c-Src kinase) resulted in reduced PLD activity. Phosphatidic acid, produced by shear stress-induced PLD activation, stimulated mTOR signaling, and caused podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis.

  15. Evaluation on the Pharmacological Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine SiJunZiTang on Stress-Induced Peptic Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Mei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the effects of SiJunZiTang (SJZT on central neurotransmitters and the inhibition of HCl hypersecretion, along with the role of the vagus nerve. From this, the effects of SJZT and its constituent ingredients on inhibiting stress-induced peptic ulcers will be determined. Methods. Methods used to determine SJZT's effectiveness included (1 measuring the antipeptic ulcer effects of varying combinations of the constituents of SJZT; (2 evaluations of monoamine (MA level in the brain; and (3 measuring the effects of longer-term SJZT treatment. Results. Comparing the control and experimental groups where the rats’ vagus nerves were not cut after taking SJZT orally (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, the volume of enterogastric juice, free HCl and total acidity all reduce dose-dependently. The group administered SJZT at 1000 mg/kg showed significant reductions (P<0.05. For the experimental groups where the vagus nerves were cut, a comparison with the control group suggests that the group receiving SJZT (500 mg/kg orally for 21 days demonstrated a cure rate of 34.53%. Conclusion. The results display a correlation between the therapeutic effects of SJZT on stress-induced peptic ulcers and central neurotransmitter levels. Further to this, SJZT can inhibit the hypersecretion of HCl in the stomach, thus inhibiting stress-induced peptic ulcers.

  16. Evaluation on the Pharmacological Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine SiJunZiTang on Stress-Induced Peptic Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Chien-Ying; Lin, Po-Jung; Hsieh, Chin-Lang; Shih, Hung-Che

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the effects of SiJunZiTang (SJZT) on central neurotransmitters and the inhibition of HCl hypersecretion, along with the role of the vagus nerve. From this, the effects of SJZT and its constituent ingredients on inhibiting stress-induced peptic ulcers will be determined. Methods. Methods used to determine SJZT's effectiveness included (1) measuring the antipeptic ulcer effects of varying combinations of the constituents of SJZT; (2) evaluations of monoamine (MA) level in the brain; and (3) measuring the effects of longer-term SJZT treatment. Results. Comparing the control and experimental groups where the rats' vagus nerves were not cut after taking SJZT orally (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg), the volume of enterogastric juice, free HCl and total acidity all reduce dose-dependently. The group administered SJZT at 1000 mg/kg showed significant reductions (P cure rate of 34.53%. Conclusion. The results display a correlation between the therapeutic effects of SJZT on stress-induced peptic ulcers and central neurotransmitter levels. Further to this, SJZT can inhibit the hypersecretion of HCl in the stomach, thus inhibiting stress-induced peptic ulcers.

  17. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Blüher, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-04-25

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in visceral fat via the ER stress pathway. We find that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates both chemical and physiological ER stress-induced inflammatory and acute phase response in adipocytes, leading to lower circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Using promoter assays, as well as molecular and pharmacological experiments, we show that the transcription factor GATA3 is responsible for the ER stress-induced TRIP-Br2 expression in visceral fat. Taken together, our study identifies molecular regulators of inflammatory response in visceral fat that-given that these pathways are conserved in humans-might serve as potential therapeutic targets in obesity.

  18. Stress-induced cytokinin synthesis increases drought tolerance through the coordinated regulation of carbon and nitrogen assimilation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Maria; Peleg, Zvi; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Tumimbang, Ellen B; Delatorre, Carla A; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The effects of water deficit on carbon and nitrogen metabolism were investigated in flag leaves of wild-type and transgenic rice (Oryza sativa japonica 'Kitaake') plants expressing ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASE (IPT; encoding the enzyme that mediates the rate-limiting step in cytokinin synthesis) under the control of P(SARK), a maturation- and stress-induced promoter. While the wild-type plants displayed inhibition of photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation during water stress, neither carbon nor nitrogen assimilation was affected by stress in the transgenic P(SARK)::IPT plants. In the transgenic plants, photosynthesis was maintained at control levels during stress and the flag leaf showed increased sucrose (Suc) phosphate synthase activity and reduced Suc synthase and invertase activities, leading to increased Suc contents. The sustained carbon assimilation in the transgenic P(SARK)::IPT plants was well correlated with enhanced nitrate content, higher nitrate reductase activity, and sustained ammonium contents, indicating that the stress-induced cytokinin synthesis in the transgenic plants played a role in maintaining nitrate acquisition. Protein contents decreased and free amino acids increased in wild-type plants during stress, while protein content was preserved in the transgenic plants. Our results indicate that the stress-induced cytokinin synthesis in the transgenic plants promoted sink strengthening through a cytokinin-dependent coordinated regulation of carbon and nitrogen metabolism that facilitates an enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to water deficit.

  19. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  20. SIRT1 sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus X protein to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Koh, Sang Seok; Malilas, Waraporn; Moon, Jeong; Cho, Il-Rae; Jhun, Byung Hak; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up-regulation of SIRT1 protein and activity sensitizes Hep3B-HBX cells to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. ► Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for oxidation-induced apoptosis. ► Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 attenuate JNK phosphorylation. ► Inhibition of SIRT1 activity restores resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis through JNK activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that SIRT1 deacetylase inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBX), by destabilization of β-catenin. Here, we report another role for SIRT1 in HBX-mediated resistance to oxidative stress. Ectopic expression and enhanced activity of SIRT1 sensitize Hep3B cells stably expressing HBX to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for sensitization of oxidation-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, ectopic expression of SIRT1 and treatment with resveratrol (a SIRT1 activator) attenuated JNK phosphorylation, which is a prerequisite for resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 activity with nicotinamide inhibited the effect of resveratrol on JNK phosphorylation, leading to restoration of resistance to oxidation-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that up-regulation of SIRT1 under oxidative stress may be a therapeutic strategy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma cells related to HBV through inhibition of JNK activation.

  1. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase aggregation inhibitor peptide: A potential therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Masanori; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Semi, Yuko; Higashida, Shusaku; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-11-13

    The glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has multiple functions, including mediating oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. This process is associated with disulfide-bonded GAPDH aggregation. Some reports suggest a link between GAPDH and the pathogenesis of several oxidative stress-related diseases. However, the pathological significance of GAPDH aggregation in disease pathogenesis remains unclear due to the lack of an effective GAPDH aggregation inhibitor. In this study, we identified a GAPDH aggregation inhibitor (GAI) peptide and evaluated its biological profile. The decapeptide GAI specifically inhibited GAPDH aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the GAI peptide did not affect GAPDH glycolytic activity or cell viability. The GAI peptide also exerted a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. This peptide could potentially serve as a tool to investigate GAPDH aggregation-related neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders and as a possible therapy for diseases associated with oxidative stress-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-traumatic and stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle: MR imaging findings in 17 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente, R. de la; Boutin, R.D.; Theodorou, D.J.; Hooper, A.; Resnick, D.; Schweitzer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To describe the MR imaging findings in patients with osteolysis of the distal clavicle and to compare the MR imaging appearance of clavicular osteolysis following acute injury with that related to chronic stress. Design and patients. MR imaging examinations were reviewed in 17 patients (14 men, 3 women; ages 16-55 years) with the diagnosis of post-traumatic or stress-induced osteolysis of the clavicle. A history of a single direct injury was present in seven patients and a history of weight-lifting, participation in sports, or repetitive microtrauma was present in 10 patients. Results. MR imaging showed edema in the distal clavicle in 17 patients and, of these, eight also had edema in the acromion. The edema was most evident in STIR and fat-suppressed T2-weighted pulse sequences. Other findings about the acromioclavicular (AC) joint were prominence of the joint capsule in 14, joint fluid in eight, cortical irregularity in 12, and bone fragmentation in six patients. No differences in the MR imaging features of post-traumatic and stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle were observed. Conclusion. Post-traumatic and stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle have similar appearances on MR imaging, the most common and conspicuous MR imaging feature being increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle. (orig.)

  3. Post-traumatic and stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle: MR imaging findings in 17 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente, R. de la [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Servicio de Radioloxia, CXH Cristal Pinor, Ourense (Spain); Boutin, R.D. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Theodorou, D.J.; Hooper, A.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Schweitzer, M. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Objective. To describe the MR imaging findings in patients with osteolysis of the distal clavicle and to compare the MR imaging appearance of clavicular osteolysis following acute injury with that related to chronic stress. Design and patients. MR imaging examinations were reviewed in 17 patients (14 men, 3 women; ages 16-55 years) with the diagnosis of post-traumatic or stress-induced osteolysis of the clavicle. A history of a single direct injury was present in seven patients and a history of weight-lifting, participation in sports, or repetitive microtrauma was present in 10 patients. Results. MR imaging showed edema in the distal clavicle in 17 patients and, of these, eight also had edema in the acromion. The edema was most evident in STIR and fat-suppressed T2-weighted pulse sequences. Other findings about the acromioclavicular (AC) joint were prominence of the joint capsule in 14, joint fluid in eight, cortical irregularity in 12, and bone fragmentation in six patients. No differences in the MR imaging features of post-traumatic and stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle were observed. Conclusion. Post-traumatic and stress-induced osteolysis of the distal clavicle have similar appearances on MR imaging, the most common and conspicuous MR imaging feature being increased T2 signal intensity in the distal clavicle. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs.

  4. Mechanisms of stress-induced cellular HSP72 release: implications for exercise-induced increases in extracellular HSP72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    The heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins with critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting the cell from stressful conditions. While the critical intracellular roles of heat shock proteins are undisputed, evidence suggests that the cell possess the necessary machinery to actively secrete specific heat shock proteins in response to cellular stress. In this review, we firstly discuss the evidence that physical exercise induces the release of heat shock protein 72 from specific tissues in humans. Importantly, it appears as though this release is the result of an active secretory process, as opposed to non-specific processes such as cell lysis. Next we discuss recent in vitro evidence that has identified a mechanistic basis for the observation that cellular stress induces the release of a specific subset of heat shock proteins. Importantly, while the classical protein secretory pathway does not seem to be involved in the stress-induced release of HSP72, we discuss the evidence that lipid-rafts and exosomes are important mediators of the stress-induced release of HSP72.

  5. Apelin-APJ system is responsible for stress-induced increase in atrial natriuretic peptide expression in rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgut-Uysal, Vecihe Nimet; Acar, Nuray; Birsen, Ilknur; Ozcan, Filiz; Ozbey, Ozlem; Soylu, Hakan; Avci, Sema; Tepekoy, Filiz; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Yucel, Gultekin; Ustunel, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    The cardiovascular system is a primary target of stress and stress is the most important etiologic factor in cardiovascular diseases. Stressors increase expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and apelin in cardiac tissue. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced apelin has an effect on the expression of ANP in the right atrium of rat heart. The rats were divided into the control, stress and F13A+stress groups. In the stress and F13A+stress groups, the rats were subjected to water immersion and restraint stress (WIRS) for 6h. In the F13A+stress group, apelin receptor antagonist F13A, was injected intravenously immediately before application of WIRS. The plasma samples were obtained for the measurement of corticosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide. The atrial samples were used for immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. F13A administration prevented the rise of plasma corticosterone and ANP levels induced by WIRS. While WIRS application increased the expressions of apelin, HIF-1α and ANP in atrial tissue, while F13A prevented the stress-induced increase in the expression of HIF-1α and ANP. Stress-induced apelin induces ANP expression in atrial tissue and may play a role in cardiovascular homeostasis by increasing ANP expression under WIRS conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The diagnostic effects of s-TSH and TRH stimulating test on subclinical thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shujun; Wang Wenliang; Lu Shuyan; Zheng Linong; Hu Changjun; Fang Xiaozheng; Zheng Huian; Ma Meizhen

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the diagnostic effects of supersensitive TSH on diagnosing subclinical thyroid function with only once s-TSH detection and with TRH stimulating tests. TRH stimulating tests have been undertaken for 90 patients with different thyroid disease and 58 normal subjects. Diagnostic basal levels of s-TSH test in control group, subclinical hyperthyroidism group and subclinical hypothyroidism group were 2.20 +- 1.85 mIU/L, 0.54 +- 0.3 mIU/L and 9.08 +- 6.3 mIU/L, respectively, the levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism group were significantly higher than that of normal subjects group (P s -TSH>30 mIU/L. Dynamic observing of TRH stimulating tests have more effect than that of only once s-TSH detection in diagnosing subclinical thyroid function

  7. Oxidative Stress Induced by Polymyxin E Is Involved in Rapid Killing of Paenibacillus polymyxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the colistin has been thought to kill bacteria through membrane lysis. Here, we present an alternative mechanism that colistin induces rapid Paenibacillus polymyxa death through reactive oxygen species production. This significantly augments our understanding of the mechanism of colistin action, which is critical knowledge toward the yield development of colistin in the future.

  8. Measures of total stress-induced blood pressure responses are associated with vascular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Pietro; Seccia, Teresa; Vulpis, Vito; Schirosi, Gabriella; Serio, Gabriella; Battista, Loredana; Pirrelli, Anna

    2005-09-01

    The role of cardiovascular reactivity to study hypertension, and the assessment methods, are still controversial. We aimed to verify the association of hypertension and vascular damage with several measures of cardiovascular response. We studied 40 patients with normal-high (132 +/- 1/87 +/- 1 mm Hg) blood pressure (Group 1) and 80 untreated hypertensive subjects. Postischemic forearm vascular resistance (mFVR) served to differentiate hypertensive subjects (142 +/- 2/92 +/- 1 mm Hg v 143 +/- 2/94 +/- 2 mm Hg, P = NS) with a lower (Group 2) and higher (Group 3) hemodynamic index of vascular damage (4.8 +/- .05 v 6.3 +/- .09, P blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow, and vascular resistance. Reactivity measures included: a) change from baseline, b) residualized score, c) cumulative change from baseline and residualized score, and d) total reactivity as area-under-the-curve (AUC), including changes occurring during baseline and recovery phases. The AUC of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mFVR progressively increased in the groups (P AUC of SBP, DBP, and forearm blood flow and resistance demonstrated the highest (P AUC of SBP (beta = 0.634) and forearm blood flow (beta = -0.337) were predictive (P blood pressure stress response, as AUC, including baseline and recovery phases, was significantly better associated with hypertension and vascular damage than the other reactivity measures studied.

  9. Subclinical laminitis and its association with pO2 and faecal alterations: Isikli, Ayd