Colell, Esther; Sánchez-Niubò, Albert; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; Delclós, Jordi; Benavides, Fernando G
To explore the prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in a sample of the Spanish working population and to examine its association with certain work-related stress factors. Using data from the 2007 Spanish Household Survey on Alcohol and Drugs (Encuesta Domiciliaria sobre Alcohol y Drogas en España [EDADES]), we analyzed the distribution of the use of hypnotics and sedatives in the previous month in the working population aged 16 to 64 years old (n=13,005). Associations with exposure to certain work-related stress factors (noxious working environment, precariousness, workload, and social support) were examined using logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives among women in the previous month doubled that of men (6.5% and 3.3%, respectively), while use among the oldest age group was twice that of the youngest group in both sexes (10.2% in women and 5.5% in men older than 45 years), and was four times higher among those reporting poor health (18.9% in women and 11% in men). Concerning work-related stress, exposure to moderate (OR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.31-2.92) and high (OR: 1.95; 95%CI: 1.14-3.34) levels of precariousness in men and moderate levels in women (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.03-1.99) was associated with the use of hypnotics and sedatives. The prevalence of the use of hypnotics and sedatives was high in women and in workers older than 45 years. Further research is needed on the relationship between the use of hypnotics and sedatives and workers' health, and on the role that work-related stress factors play in this association. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Gao, Chuansi; Holmér, Ingvar
It is accepted that the earth's climate is changing in an accelerating pace, with already documented implications for human health and the environment. This literature review provides an overview of existing research findings about the effects of heat stress on the working population in relation to climate change. In the light of climate change adaptation, the purpose of the literature review was to explore recent and previous research into the impacts of heat stress on humans in an occupational setting. Heat stress in the workplace has been researched extensively in the past however, in the contemporary context of climate change, information is lacking on its extent and implications. The main factors found to exacerbate heat stress in the current and future workplace are the urban 'heat island effect', physical work, individual differences, and the developing country context where technological fixes are often not applicable. There is also a lack of information on the effects on vulnerable groups such as elderly people and pregnant women. As increasing temperatures reduce work productivity, world economic productivity could be condensed, affecting developing countries in the tropical climate zone disproportionately. Future research is needed taking an interdisciplinary approach, including social, economic, environmental and technical aspects.
Black, Julie K; Balanos, George M; Whittaker Previously Phillips, Anna C
Work stress is a growing problem in Europe. Together, the negative physiological effect of stress on health, and increasing age increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in those aged over 50years. Therefore, identifying older workers who may be at risk of work-related stress, and its physiological effects, is key to promoting their health and wellbeing in the workforce. The present study examined the relationship between perceived psychological resilience and work-related factors (work engagement and presenteeism) and the physiological response to acute psychological stress in older manual workers in the UK. Thirty-one participants, mean (SD) age 54.9 (3.78)years reported perceived levels of resilience, work engagement, and presenteeism using standardized questionnaires. Cardiovascular measurements (heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol were used to assess their physiological response to an acute psychological stress task. Resilience was not associated with work-related factors or reactivity. However, workers with higher work engagement showed lower SBP (p=0.02) and HR (p=0.001) reactivity than those with lower work engagement. Further, those with higher sickness presenteeism also had higher HR reactivity (p=0.03). This suggests a potential pathway by which higher work stress might contribute to the risk of future cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Nilsen, Wendy; Colman, Ian
The objective of this study was to examine the association between child abuse and work stress in adulthood. We used data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Mental Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Canadians. This study included all participants aged 20years or older who reported being employed the past 12months (N=14,581). Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to several work stress-related indicators. Multiple linear and Poisson regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, household income, marital status, occupation group, and any lifetime mental disorder. Child abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of high work stress (IRR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.43) in adulthood. More specifically, child abuse was associated with greater odds of job dissatisfaction (IRR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.31-2.18), job insecurity (IRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.27-1.91), and self-perceived low support (IRR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.22-1.46). It was also associated with high levels of psychological demand (b=0.348; 95% CI: 0.229-0.467) and job strain (b=0.031; 95% CI: 0.019-0.043). Examination of the Karasek's Demand-Control Model using multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that child abuse was significantly associated with high strain (RRR:1.39; 95% CI: 1.14-1.72) and active (RRR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.28-1.90) jobs. These findings suggest the negative influence of child abuse on work experience. Success in preventing child abuse may help reduce work-related stress in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current human and experimental studies are indicating an association between stress and hearing problems; however potential risk factors have not been established. Hearing problems are projected to become among the top ten disabilities according to the WHO in the near future. Therefore a better understanding of the relationships between stress and hearing is warranted. Here we describe the prevalence of two common hearing problems, i.e. hearing complaints and tinnitus, in relation to different work-and health-related stressors. Methods A total of 18,734 individuals were invited to participate in the study, out of which 9,756 (52% enrolled. Results The results demonstrate a clear and mostly linear relationship between higher prevalence of hearing problems (tinnitus or hearing loss or both and different stressors, e.g. occupational, poorer self-rated health, long-term illness, poorer sleep quality, and higher burnout scores. Conclusions The present study unambiguously demonstrates associations between hearing problems and various stressors that have not been previously described for the auditory system. These findings will open new avenues for future investigations.
Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus
Santana López, Sandra; Perdomo Hernández, María del Carmen; Montero Díaz, Rolando
High blood pressure (HBP) is a disease, and as well as a risk factor for other diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity (CVHR) is a predictor for this disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate if CVHR to physical stress predicts HBP in working populations. A four year (2008-2012) cohort study was conducted on two population groups: CVHR (48), and normal cardiovascular reactivity (40) after applying the Sustained Weight test. A survival analysis was used to predict HBP, and the χ(2) test and hazard ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%, were used for the statistical analysis. The CVHR is a predictor of HBP, determined by the Sustained Weight test. The working populations can be stratified according to cardiovascular reactivity in order to introduce preventive health actions on the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of future hypertensives in the workplace. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M
working conditions and subsequent risk of severe medical alcohol-related problems, but the precision of the estimates was low due to low number of cases. The odds ratio was 6.18 (95% confidence interval 1.86, 20.61) for twisted working positions and 6.74 (95% confidence interval 1.67, 27.19). Previous...... unemployment among males was associated with increased risk for high alcohol consumption, with an odds ratio of 5.71 (95% CI 1.39, 15.97) among those who had been unemployed more than once, and 1.67 (95% CI 0.76, 3.64) among those who had been unemployed once during the previous 5 years. Those and other......The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years...
as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt......Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies....... These companies employ highly educated and com-petent people who apply their personal knowledge to generate new knowledge in close relationship with both custom-ers and colleagues. The employees are self-managed and work in networks and decentralised structures around pro-jects. Their working life is described...
Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin; Ötegen, Volkan Recai
TheInternational Labor Organization (ILO) has defined psychosocial factors as"interactions between job satisfaction, business organization andmanagement, environmental and organizational conditions and workers' expertiseand needs".Job stress is harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when there isa mismatch between the needs of the worker and the skills, resources, or needsof a worker who changes the psychological and / or physical behaviors thatdiverge from the nor...
Jun, Deokhoon; Johnston, Venerina; Kim, Jun-Mo; O'Leary, Shaun
In this study, we developed a new Korean translation for the shortened version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and examined its psychometric properties in a Korean working population. To develop a new Korean version of the DASS-21 and test its psychometric properties specific to the Korean working population. The DASS-21 was translated to the Korean language in accordance with scientific guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. A total of 228 general workers from Korea then completed the newly translated version of the DAS S-21 and its psychometric properties were evaluated. Most of the questionnaire items were correctly loaded on the proposed scales of the original questionnaire. Excellent internal consistency and measurement consistency over a one week interval were obtained for all scales (Cronbach's alpha; 0.87, 83, and 83, and ICC (2, 1); 0.84, 0.94, and 0.89 for depression, anxiety and stress scales, respectively). All three scales were negatively associated with the level of life satisfaction (p working population. Organizations investigating the prominent health issue of affective disorders in Korean workers can use this instrument with confidence.
Stress at work in the EC countries. The Life Situation Survey of the Netherlands' Central Bureau of Statistics provides data on the quality of work of large samples of Dutch employees. Since 1977 about 2000 employees periodically were interviewed. Three important stressors at work are included in
Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M
-adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful...
Introduction. Stress and burnout are common among healthcare professionals, including doctors and nurses. Work-related stress rates among the general working population average 18%, while among doctors the rate is reported to be around 28%. Stress in doctors can result in multiple negative consequences. Detecting ...
Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.
Teamworking is a ‘double-edged sword’. On the one hand, teamworking has been recognised as a way of reducing work-related stress work-related stress by enhancing employees’ job autonomy. Conversely, there is a risk that teamworking could increase employee stress levels by enhancing work pressure.
Peterson, Michael; Wilson, John F.
Examines the role of organizational culture in the etiology of workplace stress through the framework of the Culture-Work- Health model. A review of relevant business and health literature indicates that culture is an important component of work stress and may be a key to creating effective organizational stress interventions. (SM)
Padkapayeva, Kathy; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Bielecky, Amber; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Mustard, Cameron; Brisson, Chantal; Smith, Peter
Stress is an important factor affecting the health of working population. While work exposures are determinants of levels of work and life stress, we do not know whether similar or different exposures are related to stress levels for men and women. This study aimed to formally examine male/female differences in the relationships between psychosocial work exposures and work and life stress in a representative sample of Canadian labour market participants. We used data from 2012 cycle of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a representative population-based survey conducted by Statistics Canada. The sample was restricted to employed labour force participants working 15+ hours per week (N = 8328, 48% female). To examine the relationship between work exposures and work and life stress, we conducted path analyses. Psychosocial work exposures included social support, job insecurity, job control, and job strain. Differences between estimates for men and women were explored using multigroup analyses, constraining paths between male and female models to be equivalent and examining the impact on change in model fit. Male/female differences were observed in the relationships between supervisor support and work stress levels as well as between job control, job insecurity, job strain, and life stress levels. Higher levels of supervisor support at work were associated with lower work stress among women, but not among men. Low job control had a direct protective effect on life stress for men but not for women, while high job strain had a direct adverse effect on life stress among women but not among men. Higher job insecurity was more strongly associated with higher life stress among men compared with women. The relationship between work stress and life stress was similar among men and women. The findings of this study suggest that the relationships between psychosocial exposures and work and life stress differ for men and women. Our study also raised important questions
Katz, Vern L
Work, in general, does not increase the risks of pregnancy complications. Work that is stressful, physically, psychologically, or both, has deleterious effects on pregnancy. Stressful work increases the risks of miscarriage, preterm labor, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. The greater the stress, the greater the risks of pregnancy complications. Women with a history of pregnancy complications should be counseled about reducing stressful work before pregnancy. Women with stressful jobs should be followed closely during pregnancy, and if signs of preterm labor or delayed fetal growth develop, then occupational stress should be decreased or eliminated. Some occupations expose pregnant women to teratogens such as organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides. A careful work history should be part of every preconception and early pregnancy visit.
Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; Almeid, Talita; Ortiz, Thais; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz
The occupational stress is associated with dissatisfaction, excessive demand at work and personal factors. Those factors can reduce work performance and can predispose workers to various diseases. Workers' health may be protected if there is encouragement to face challenges, which may lessen the impact on psychological and somatic stress and thus have greater personal and professional satisfaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between occupational stress and work engagement. Participated in this study 457 male and female workers of a metallurgical industry. Subjects answered personal data, and the Job Stress Scale and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were applied. Results showed an association between occupational stress and work engagement (P=0,001). The way the individual deals with his frustrations, or rather the work engagement, is associated with the occupational stress.
Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres
To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....
Duff, P; Sou, J; Chapman, J; Dobrer, S; Braschel, M; Goldenberg, S; Shannon, K
While sex work is often considered the world's oldest profession, there remains a dearth of research on work stress among sex workers (SWs) in occupational health epidemiological literature. A better understanding of the drivers of work stress among SWs is needed to inform sex work policy, workplace models and standards. To examine the factors that influence work stress among SWs in Metro Vancouver. Analyses drew from a longitudinal cohort of SWs, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA) (2010-14). A modified standardized 'work stress' scale, multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to longitudinally examine the factors associated with work stress. In multivariable analysis, poor working conditions were associated with increased work stress and included workplace physical/sexual violence (β = 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06, 0.29), displacement due to police (β = 0.26; 95% CI 0.14, 0.38), working in public spaces (β = 0.73; 95% CI 0.61, 0.84). Older (β = -0.02; 95% CI -0.03, -0.01) and Indigenous SWs experienced lower work stress (β = -0.25; 95% CI -0.43, -0.08), whereas non-injection (β = 0.32; 95% CI 0.14, 0.49) and injection drug users (β = 0.17; 95% CI 0.03, 0.31) had higher work stress. Vancouver-based SWs' work stress was largely shaped by poor work conditions, such as violence, policing, lack of safe workspaces. There is a need to move away from criminalized approaches which shape unsafe work conditions and increase work stress for SWs. Policies that promote SWs' access to the same occupational health, safety and human rights standards as workers in other labour sectors are also needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Carayon, P; Smith, M J; Haims, M C
Recent studies indicate potential links among work organization, job stress, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). In this paper we propose several pathways for a theoretical relationship between job stress and WRMDs. These pathways highlight the physiological, psychological, and behavioral reactions to stress that can affect WRMDs directly and indirectly. One model stipulates that psychosocial work factors (e.g., work pressure, lack of control), which can cause stress, might also influence or be related to ergonomic factors such as force, repetition, and posture that have been identified as risk factors for WRMDs. In order to fully understand the etiology of WRMDs, it is important to examine both physical ergonomic and psychosocial work factors simultaneously. Smith and Carayon-Sainfort (1989) have proposed a model of the work system for stress management that provides a useful framework for conceptualizing the work-related factors that contribute to WRMDs. Practical applications of this research include practitioners taking into account psychosocial work factors and job stress in their efforts to reduce and control WRMDs.
Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Madsen, Henning
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of perceived work-related stress among public sector managers. Design/methodology/approach: A general questionnaire-based survey of managers at all managerial levels in Danish organizations concerning the content of their job...... and the way it is practiced (n=1,500, response rate 72 per cent) are applied. For the purpose of this paper only specific information related to the perception of work stress among public sector managers is analyzed (n=400). Findings: The perception of stress are influenced by factors like gender, managerial...... stress may cause absence from work it may influence production and the health system. If preventive measures can be taken a positive impact on the economy may be the result. Originality/value: Work-related stress has been studied before. But little focus has been given to the public sector and expecially...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulated by rapid modernization and industrialization, there is massive rural–urban migration in China. The migrants are highly susceptible to smoking and mental health problems. This study examined the association between both perceived work stress and perceived life stress with smoking behavior among this group during the period of migration. Methods Participants (n = 1,595 were identified through stratified, multi-stage, systematic sampling. Smoking status separated non-smokers from daily and occasional smokers, and migration history, work stress, and life stress were also measured. Analyses were conducted using the Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Two models were utilized. The first was the full model that comprised sociodemographic and migration-related characteristics, as well as the two stress variables. In addressing potential overlap between life and work stress, the second model eliminated one of the two stress variables as appropriate. Results Overall smoking prevalence was 64.9% (95% CI: 62.4-67.2%. In the regression analysis, under the full model, migrants with high perceived life stress showed a 45% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to low-stress counterparts (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05 – 2.06. Applying the second model, which excluded the life stress variable, migrants with high perceived work stress had a 75% excess likelihood to be current smokers relative to opposites (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.26–2.45. Conclusions Rural–urban migrant workers manifested a high prevalence of both life stress and work stress. While both forms of stress showed associations with current smoking, life stress appeared to outweigh the impact of work stress. Our findings could inform the design of tobacco control programs that would target Chinese rural–urban migrant workers as a special population.
Full Text Available Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind
This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind/body health care for stress
Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.
Loerbroks, Adrian; Ding, Hui; Han, Wei; Wang, Hong; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Yang, Liu; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian
Research addressing links of work stress or family stress with asthma is constrained by (1) inconsistent evidence, (2) failure to consider the combined exposure to work stress and family stress, and (3) its primary focus on Western study populations. We aimed to address these knowledge gaps. We used cross-sectional data collected in 2015 among 7816 women from five professional groups in five Chinese cities. Work stress was measured by the 10-item effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. Family stress was assessed by a psychometrically evaluated instrument comprising five items on, e.g., familial conflicts or domestic workload. Asthma was operationalized by self-reports of a physician diagnosis. Associations were examined by multivariable logistic regression estimating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Both high work stress (i.e., ERI score >1) and high family stress (i.e., score above the median) were associated with asthma (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.22-2.27 and OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.10-1.99, respectively). Women with combined exposure (versus none) had somewhat higher odds of asthma (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.42-3.19) than those with sole exposure to either work stress (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.20-2.96) or family stress (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.03-2.84). Interaction terms were significant for continuous variables (p = 0.046), but not for dichotomized variables (p = 0.199). The present study suggests that both work stress and family stress are positively associated with asthma in women in China. Further, the combined exposure may be associated with a further excess of asthma occurrence. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore potential temporal relationships.
Adequate monitoring is a conditio sine qua non for combating work stress. Monitoring means systematically searching for risk factors and risk groups. Risk groups are employees in jobs with high demands, low control, low support and (or) health problems. Aso young workers and elderly workers, migrant
Social stress is a population hypothesis that is invoked to explain the precipitous declines observed in population levels of such rodent species as Microtus pennsylvanicus. According to this hypothesis, stress is produced by the increase in aggressive contacts between animals in a growing population. Continued contacts produce profound hormonal and behavioral changes in these animals which lead to decreases in reproduction and viability. Several theoretical weaknesses of the hypothesis are raised. First, increases in density may not be positively correlated with the number of contacts. Animals may merely build more runways. Second, even if contacts do increase, they may not necessarily be aggressive in nature. Finally, confined populations which reach excessively high densities and for which contacts between animals must increase, fail to show a precipitous decline in numbers. In addition, a major methodological problem is revealed. Although researchers tend to causally connect social stress and precipitous population declines, most studies are correlational in nature. Of those studies that involve actual manipulations of populations, these manipulations are usually performed on confined populations that fail to exhibit the desired phenomonen. The difficulties associated with manipulating unconfined populations are discussed
.... Elevated levels of job stress have been frequently reported in this population, and epidemiological studies indicate job stress is associated with symptom severity, functional limitations, and lost...
Brown, Mary V
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the interpretation of stress, the appraisal of the stressors, as well as the top stressors experienced by hospice volunteers. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed, using qualitative research methods. Although the results indicated that the hospice volunteers did not perceive their work as stressful, 2 main themes regarding challenging experiences did emerge. Hospice-related issues and personal issues were of concern to the volunteers. In addition, the timing of the stressors revealed that the most stress was felt at the beginning of their volunteer services, which has implications for hospice volunteer coordinators as they support their volunteers in the field.
Full Text Available In adult life, many of the social determinants of health are connected to working life. Yet, our knowledge of the role of work-related factors for the risk of stroke is fairly limited. In contemporary occupational health research, the Demand-Control Model (DCM is frequently used to measure work stress. Previous literature reviews of the association of work stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD do not include stroke as a specific outcome. Results regarding work stress and the risk of CVD are less evident in working women. With the focus on working women, the purpose of the present paper was to review the current research into the DCM in relation to stroke and to scrutinize potential gender differences. A literature search was performed and eight studies from three countries were identified. Based on the reviewed studies, there is some evidence that high psychological demands, low job control, and job strain are associated with increased stroke risk in women as well as in men. Any major reduction in deaths and disability from stroke is likely to come from decreasing social inequalities in health, and reducing work stress has a potential to contribute to a reduced risk of stroke in working populations.
The effect of a smartphone-based coronary heart disease prevention (SBCHDP) programme on awareness and knowledge of CHD, stress, and cardiac-related lifestyle behaviours among the working population in Singapore: a pilot randomised controlled trial.
Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Ying; Nguyen, Hoang D; Poo, Danny Chiang Choon; Wang, Wenru
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent type of cardiac disease among adults worldwide, including those in Singapore. Most of its risk factors, such as smoking, physical inactivity and high blood pressure, are preventable. mHealth has improved in the last decade, showing promising results in chronic disease prevention and health promotion worldwide. Our aim was to develop and examine the effect of a 4-week Smartphone-Based Coronary Heart Disease Prevention (SBCHDP) programme in improving awareness and knowledge of CHD, perceived stress as well as cardiac-related lifestyle behaviours in the working population of Singapore. The smartphone app "Care4Heart" was developed as the main component of the programme. App content was reviewed and validated by a panel of experts, including two cardiologists and two experienced cardiology-trained nurses. A pilot randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty working people were recruited and randomised to either the intervention group (n = 40) or the control group (n = 40). The intervention group underwent a 4-week SBCHDP programme, whereas the control group were offered health promotion websites only. The participants' CHD knowledge, perceived stress and behavioural risk factors were measured at baseline and on the 4th week using the Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire-2, Perceived Stress Scale, and Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System. After the SBCHDP programme, participants in the intervention group had a better awareness of CHD being the second leading cause of death in Singapore (X 2 = 6.486, p = 0.039), a better overall CHD knowledge level (t = 3.171, p = 0.002), and better behaviour concerning blood cholesterol control (X 2 = 4.54, p = 0.033) than participants in the control group. This pilot study partially confirmed the positive effects of the SBCHDP programme in improving awareness and knowledge of CHD among the working population. Due to the small sample size and
Full Text Available Women are traditionally considered to be confined within the four walls of their houses in the developing countries. They are still unable to play an active role in the development of society. They are striving to make their identity as an integral part of the society. Being a member of conservative developing society, women are still facing many hindrances, causing stressful situation for them, which prohibits them to participate actively in the economic development. This paper attempts to explore the critical factors creating stress among Pakistani working women. Based on literature review, the key stressors were identified to be as work life balance, gender discrimination, peers behaviour, lack of promotional opportunities and sexual harassment. These factors were found to be creating physiological, behavioural and psychological problems. The target of this study was the women working in secretarial and administrative positions in Pakistani organisations. Regression analysis was conducted to find out the impact of these stressors on working women. The results revealed that sexual harassment, peers behaviour and lack of promotional opportunities were the most dominant stressors.
Stoeva, Albena Z.; Chiu, Randy K.; Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.
Measures of job and family stress and negative affectivity were completed by 148 (of 400) Hong Kong civil service employees. Persons with high negative affectivity experience more work and family stress. Job stress was associated with extensive interference of work with family, and family stress with extensive interference of family with work.…
Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels
This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four...... Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues...
Psychiatrists have a stressful life. They are reported to encounter work stress and are prone to burnout. Due to the nature of their profession, they experience fluctuating range of powerful emotions in their clinical work. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of burnout and stress reactions among doctors working at a ...
Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis; Head, Jenny
dysregulation. METHODS: Participants were 7007 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study. Phase 3 (1991-1994) served as the baseline, and Phases 5 (1997-1999) and 7 (2002-2004) served as follow-ups. Job strain (high job demands combined with low control) and caregiving (providing care to aged...... caregiving burden (above the sample median weekly hours of providing care) predicted higher AL levels, with the effect strongest in those also reporting job strain (b = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.01-0.71); however, the interaction between job strain and caregiving was not significant (p = .56......OBJECTIVES: Studies investigating health effects of work and family stress usually consider these factors in isolation. The present study investigated prospective interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on allostatic load (AL), a multisystem indicator of physiological...
Bakshi, Sumitra Ganesh; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Kannan, Sadhana; Myatra, Sheila Nainan
Work-related stress is common among medical caregivers and concerns all perioperative care providers. Although anesthesiologists are known to experience stress, there are limited Indian data addressing this issue. This survey was conducted among Indian anesthesiologists to determine their awareness about work stress and views regarding prevention programs. A survey questionnaire was distributed to delegates visiting the exhibits at the national anesthesiology conference in 2011. The questionnaire had ten questions on the work pattern, five on work-related stress, nine on opinion regarding the need and willingness to participate in stress-related programs. There were 1178 responders. Forty-three percent were faculty in medical institutions, 26% were residents and 25% were in free-lance practice. Ninety-one percent of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme. There was a significant correlation between the amount of stress and working for more than 8 h ( P working on weekends ( P = 0.002), and carrying work back home ( P work stress. Eighty-four percent of participants felt the need for stress management programs and 69% expressed their willingness to participate in the same. The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.
Conclusion: In this study HCW resulted to be exposed to occupational stress factors susceptible to reduction. Stress management programs aimed to improve work context factors associated with occupational stress are required to minimize the impact of WRS on workers.
Joëls, M.; Pu, Z.; Wiegert, O.; Oitzl, M.S.; Krugers, H.
The effects of stress on learning and memory are not always clear: both facilitating and impairing influences are described in the literature. Here we propose a unifying theory, which states that stress will only facilitate learning and memory processes: (i) when stress is experienced in the context
Morris, Michael Lane; Messal, Carrie B.; Meriac, John P.
This study investigates the dispositional factors related to work stress. Specifically, previous research has demonstrated a relationship between core self-evaluation (CSE) and general life stress. This article extends past research by examining the relationship between CSE and work stress, and includes goal orientation as a potential mediator of…
Sumitra Ganesh Bakshi
Conclusion: The majority of participants rated their stress as moderate-extreme and was higher in anesthesiologists working long hours, over the weekend and those handling high-risk patients. A majority of participants felt the survey made them think about work-related stress and expressed their willingness to participate in stress management programs.
Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela
Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…
This is often considered stressful for working mothers as they tend to carry a greater domestic burden. This study aimed to explore the levels of and interrelationships between stress, depression and work/home role conflict in a sample of 59 working mothers. Mediating factors such as coping skills and social support were ...
Li, Jian; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bosma, Hans; Angerer, Peter
Individuals in employment experience stress at work, and numerous epidemiological studies have documented its negative health effects, particularly on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although evidence on the various interrelationships between work stress and CVD has been accumulated, those observations have not yet been conceptualized in terms of a life course perspective. Using the chain of risk model, we would like to propose a theoretical model incorporating six steps: (1) work stress increases the risk of incident CVD in healthy workers. (2) Among those whose work ability is not fully and permanently damaged, work stress acts as a determinant of the process of return to work after CVD onset. (3) CVD patients experience higher work stress after return to work. (4) Work stress increases the risk of recurrent CVD in workers with prior CVD. (5) CVD patients who fully lose their work ability transit to disability retirement. (6) Disability retirees due to CVD have an elevated risk of CVD mortality. The life course perspective might facilitate an in-depth understanding of the diverse interrelationships between work stress and CVD, thereby leading to work stress management interventions at each period of the lifespan and three-level prevention of CVD.
CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha
Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective.
Kriener, C; Schwertfeger, A; Deimel, D; Köhler, T
In this quantitative study, data on 746 students of social work were collected regarding their current sense of stress, experience of psychosocial drain as well as their use of specific coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (TICS) were used. The results show that one out of 3 students suffer from a lot of to extreme stress. One-fourth of the students report feeling overworked and socially overburdened. More than half of the students are exposed to psychosocial drain as a consequence of past events in their biography (e. g. death or mental illness of a close relative). Despite these obvious burdens, only one-fourth made use of professional aid or counseling. Students who are primarily using functional coping strategies have a lower sensibility to stress and feel less overworked than students primarily using dysfunctional coping strategies. In the university setting, the theoretically and empirically sound knowledge based on this report can be used profitably: The increasing implementation of seminars on coping with stress at universities itself suggests that learning and utilizing functional coping strategies can contribute to a reduction of stress and strain among students. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
This article aims to highlight the issue of work-related stress within the district nursing workplace. It will acknowledge how the management of work-related stress has previously been discussed within nursing literature and will consider the emerging relationship between staff working conditions, staff wellbeing and quality of patient care. It will reintroduce the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE's) Management Standards approach to tackling work-related stress, which provides management support to reduce environmental work stressors and encourage enabling work environments and a positive workplace culture.
Ramos, Romualdo; Brauchli, Rebecca; Bauer, Georg; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
To understand the relationship between volunteering and health in the overlooked yet highly engaged working population, adopting a contextualizing balance approach. We hypothesize that volunteering may function as a psychosocial resource, contributing to work-life balance and, ultimately, health. A total of 746 Swiss workers participated in an online survey; 35% (N = 264) were additionally volunteers in a nonprofit organization. We assessed volunteering, work-life balance perceptions, paid job demands, and resources and health outcomes. After controlling for job characteristics, volunteering was associated with less work-life conflict, burnout and stress, and better positive mental health. Results further revealed that balance perceptions partly explained the relationship between volunteering and health. Volunteering, albeit energy and time-consuming, may contribute to a greater sense of balance for people in the workforce, which might, in turn, positively influence health.
Dolphin Population Cory D Champagne & Dorian S. Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Dr, Suite 200 San Diego, CA 92106 phone...understanding of how the stress response operates in marine mammals by evaluating markers of stress in a captive dolphin population. It determines...baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluates the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops
Salem, Eman A; Ebrahem, Sabah M
BackgroundWork stress among nurses has increased in recent years due to the demands of clinical nursingObjectives:To investigate psychosocial work stress among nurses using the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model with assessment malondialdehyde (MDA) as an oxidative stress marker and total antioxidants.MethodsThe present study was conducted on 204 registered nurses worked at two tertiary hospitals in Menoufia governorate, Egypt through the period from the 1st of February to the end of July 2016. Two questionnaires were applied including general demographic and occupational histories as well as effort-reward questionnaire. Blood analysis was performed to assess MDA and total antioxidant levels.ResultsERI was prevalent among the study participants (72.5%). ERI was more prevalent among young married nurses who worked more than 10 years. Nurses that worked at ICUs complained more of ERI (43.2%) while nurses that worked at operation rooms complained more of overcommitment (62.5%). MDA levels were significantly positively correlated with E/R ratios (rho = 0.350, P ≤ 0.001)ConclusionsWork stress was prevalent among the studied nurses as revealed by the high ERI and MDA levels. Young married female nurses complained more of work stress. ICUs and operating rooms were the most stressful departments at the studied hospitals. Hence, implementing programs and strategies that eliminate stressful working conditions at hospitals is critical to the reduction and prevention of work stress among nurses.
Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan
Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p teachers perceives the workplace as extremely stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
Li, Hualiang; Liu, Zhiting; Liu, Runzhong; Li, Li; Lin, Aihua
Faced with the challenge of population aging, a prolonged working life is increasingly important in today's society. Maintaining work ability of employees is one of the effective ways to cope with the challenges to sustainability of the workforce presented by population aging. Researchers have shown ongoing interest in exploring the determinants of restricted work ability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of work stress on work ability among power supply workers in Guangdong, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among power supply workers during August 2014 to September 2014. A total of 805 subjects were enrolled in the study. Work stress was assessed by the Job Content Questionnaire and the Effort Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Work ability was assessed by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The structural equation model was applied to test the relationship between different work stress components and work ability simultaneously using the Job Demands-Resources model as a framework. Job resources (measured by job control, reward and social support) were positively and directly associated with work ability (β = 0.70, P work ability was also statistically significant (β = -0.09, P = 0.030). In addition, the findings also supported previous studies in that job demands were correlated with job resources (β = -0.26, P work ability.
Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.
Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The
Gnilka, Philip B.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Dew, Brian J.
The authors examined the relationship of perceived stress, specific types of coping resources, the working alliance, and the supervisory working alliance among 232 counselor supervisees. The working alliance and the supervisory working alliance were negatively related to perceived stress and positively related to multiple coping resources. Two…
Assadi, Seyedeh Negar
Blood lipids disorders are prevalent in the world. Some of their risk factors are modifiable such as mental and physical stress which existed in some places such as work environment.Objective of this study was to determine the effects of psychological and physical stress on the lipid profiles. It was a historical cohort study. The people who were employed as general worker were participated. The study was conducted with flexible interview for getting history, lipid profile examination, and a checklist including occupational and nonoccupational risk factors and using the health issues. According to the type of stress exposures, the study population was divided into 5 groups. Groups were followed for lipid profiles. These groups were exposed to psychological stress, physical stress or both of them; mild psychological stress (group 1), mild physical work without psychological stress (group 2), mild psychological stress and mild physical work (group 3), moderate physical work without psychological stress (group 4), and heavy physical work without psychological stress (group 5). Data were analyzed with SPSS 16. ANOVA, χ, and exact test were calculated with considering P Psychological stress was a risk factor for lipid disorders, and suitable physical activity was protective in this situation.
In a period when the banks are struggling to survive we can realize that stress management becomes a problem. Stress at work can bring real business problems, management and labor productivity can be seriously affected and the level of motivation and conflict between colleagues may weaken professionalism.One of the most important factors in reducing stress levels of employees is helping them maintain a healthy balance-service Life. To effectively manage stress we need to know the causes that ...
Waldstrøm, Christian; Parker, Andrew; Shah, Neha P.
Recent research on stress and burnout has highlighted the collective aspects of stress symptoms, perceived stress, and coping mechanisms. Much of this work, however, is focused on group and team dynamics rather than how network factors shape individuals’ feelings of stress and burnout. We use...
Vrijkotte, T. G.; van Doornen, L. J.; de Geus, E. J.
A high level of work stress has been associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. This study examined the effect of work stress on a cluster of metabolic and hemostatic risk factors. Blood was collected three times, on
Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental ...
Dianne Bautista Solis
Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers
Janevic, Teresa; Kahn, Linda G; Landsbergis, Paul; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam
To evaluate associations between work-related stress, stressful life events, and perceived stress and semen quality. Cross-sectional analysis. Northern California. 193 men from the Child Health and Development Studies evaluated between 2005-2008. None. Measures of stress including job strain, perceived stress, and stressful life events; outcome measures of sperm concentration, percentage of motile sperm, and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. We found an inverse association between perceived stress score and sperm concentration (estimated coefficient b=-0.09×10(3)/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.18, -0.01), motility (b=-0.39; 95% CI=-0.79, 0.01), and morphology (b=-0.14; 95% CI, -0.25, -0.04) in covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses. Men who experienced two or more stressful life events in the past year compared with no stressful events had a lower percentage of motile sperm (b=-8.22; 95% CI, -14.31, -2.13) and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm (b=-1.66; 95% CI, -3.35, 0.03) but a similar sperm concentration. Job strain was not associated with semen parameters. In this first study to examine all three domains of stress, perceived stress and stressful life events but not work-related stress were associated with semen quality. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Subject choice, work overload and work stress influence personal and professional lives of higher education teachers. Though the majority of higher education teachers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are expatriates, yet research on expatriate higher education teachers working in the GCC countries is limited. This paper presents one part of the work life balance survey and focuses on the influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on higher education teachers in ...
Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel
Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 1......, creatinine, glucose levels or resting blood pressure measures. This indicates that work stress is associated altered metabolic profile, increased systemic inflammation, and, in men, poorer liver function, which is a marker of high alcohol consumption.......Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18......–72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood...
Full Text Available In a period when the banks are struggling to survive we can realize that stress management becomes a problem. Stress at work can bring real business problems, management and labor productivity can be seriously affected and the level of motivation and conflict between colleagues may weaken professionalism.One of the most important factors in reducing stress levels of employees is helping them maintain a healthy balance-service Life. To effectively manage stress we need to know the causes that led it, which are symptoms of stress, how to effectively manage time at work and which are the ways to reduce stress level. Long-term stress cause psychological, behavioral, physical effects for the employee and also the banks results would suffer.
José Ricardo Ferreira da Fonseca
Full Text Available The study aimed to identify stress levels, areas and their activities identified as stressful by nurses working in the emergence in Manaus, AM, Brazil. It is an epidemiological, cross-sectional design, with 36 emergency nurses from December 2010 to January 2011. The Bianchi Stress Scale with 57 questions was used. The nurses were at risk for high levels of stress. The most stressful areas were the operation of the unit, conditions of work and personnel administration, and the most stressful activity was the request for equipment review and repair. The difference by Friedman test between the areas was significant (p <0.05, Dunn post-test significant (p <0.05 when compared by peers. The accumulation of management activities with the assistance activities can generate higher levels of stress, it is necessary to invest in improving the work environment and management support to minimize the stress experienced at work.
The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between marital adjustment, stress and depression. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working married women (working married women = 75, non-working married women = 75). Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at ...
Siti Aisyah Binti Panatik
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between work-family conflict (i.e.work-to-family and family-to-work and work-related attitudes (i.e. job satisfaction,affective commitment and turnover intentions among academician in Malaysia.Mediationeffects of stress reactionswhich arebehavioral stress, somatic stress andcognitive stresswere also tested. A survey method using questionnaire was utilizedto obtain the data. A total of 267 respondents were participated, giving the return rateof 20% from the entire ofpopulation. Research data were analyzed using PASW18and AMOS SPSS18.Result indicated that onlywork-to-family conflict wassignificantly related to stress reactions.While, behavioral stress mediates the effectsof work-to-family conflict on job satisfaction, affective commitment and turnoverintentions. Cognitive stress only mediates the effects of work-to-family conflict onaffective commitment. This paper also discusses the implication of this study to theorganization and future research.
Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna
To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This article presents findings from a survey of professional workers in the institutes of technology sector in Ireland regarding work-related stress. The research instrument was based on a work-related stress questionnaire developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive, augmented with a specific subset of questions relevant to the Irish higher education sector. The questionnaire format was modified to enable online delivery. It was distributed to a sample population in 2014 with a response r...
Schramm, E; Berger, M
In general work involves health promoting functions but can also have hazardous impacts on well-being. Due to a massive change in working conditions it has become increasingly more recognized that depressive disorders are highly prevalent at the workplace and that work stress belongs to the most common triggers of depressive disorders, particularly in men. It is relevant to differentiate between subjectively experienced burnout and clinical depression. The best investigated psychosocial work stressors include increased job demands in connection with low control possibilities and lack of gratification, interpersonal conflicts, role stress and social isolation. For the treatment of work-related clinical depression, an additional focus of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) of depression, namely "work-related stress and burnout experience" was conceptualized based on a vulnerability-stress model and the fact that work usually takes place in an interpersonal context. This new problem area focuses on role stress and conflicts at work and the reduction of stressful working conditions. Interpersonal psychotherapy has so far been useful for the treatment of depression due to problems at work; however, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this newly designed problem area.
Hintsa, Taina; Määttänen, I; Hintsanen, M; Swan, H; Toivonen, L; Kontula, K; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L
To examine whether work stress is associated with a symptomatic status of the long QT syndrome (LQTS). The sample comprised 173 KCNQ1, KCNH2, or SCN5A gene mutation carriers (70 symptomatic) and control groups of 203 relatives without the family mutation, and of 1209 population-based young Finns control subjects. Work stress was assessed using the Job Content Questionnaire and Occupational Stress Questionnaire. We found an association between the occurrence of symptoms in the LQTS and high work stress, higher job demands/effort, lower job control, and lower rewards compared with control subjects. We also found that symptomatic LQTS mutation carriers had higher work stress than asymptomatic LQTS mutation carriers. Higher work stress is related to arrhythmic risk in the LQTS. It may be useful to incorporate assessment of work conditions and stress interventions into management of high-risk patients.
Theurel, J; Offret, M; Gorgeon, C; Lepers, R
The purpose of the present study was to characterize the physiological demands of postmen during a work day composed of mail sorting (inside work, IW) and cycling distribution (outside work, OW). Two groups of postal workers were constituted according to the geographical profile of their distribution courses: flat profile (FP; n = 7) vs hilly profile (HP; n = 7). Heart rate (HR) was recorded and energy expenditure (EE) was estimated during both IW and OW. EE was, on average, 1795 +/- 497 Kcal per workday. HR was higher (p route (95 +/- 8 bpm). On average, the workload of postmen could be considered as moderate. Nevertheless, the physiological demand greatly increased during the cycling part of OW, especially with hilly geographical profile. The greater physiological strains during the cycling should be factored into the improvement of work organization and delivery materials (e.g. bicycle) for postal workers.
Schéle, Ingrid A; Hedman, Leif R; Hammarström, Anne
Dental students are often described as stressed. The stress has, among other things, been connected to stressors in their psychosocial environment and inconsistent feedback. The hypothesis of this study was that the psychosocial work environment in dental schools leads to stress and affects the satisfaction of dental students and that tolerance for ambiguity shields students from stress. A web-based survey was sent to the entire Swedish dental student population in clinical training (N=805); the response rate was 40 percent. Structural equation modeling used in the analyses contains four main constructs: psychosocial work environment, tolerance for ambiguity, perceived stress, and student satisfaction (χ(2)=267.437, d.f.=174, penvironment influenced both perceived stress and satisfaction: it accounted for almost all of the explained variance in perceived stress for women, while about half of the variance for the men was explained by tolerance for ambiguity. This study concluded that about 40 percent of the total perceived stress of these female dental students was related to their psychosocial work environment. Tolerance for ambiguity shielded men but not women from stress. An improved psychosocial work environment in dental schools would decrease the stress of both male and female dental students.
O'Neill, John W.; Davis, Kelly
Employee stress is a significant issue in the hospitality industry, and it is costly for employers and employees alike. Although addressing and reducing stress is both a noble goal and is capable of resulting in expense reductions for employers, the nature and quantity of hospitality employee stress is not fully understood. The first aim of this study was to identify common work stressors in a sample of 164 managerial and hourly workers employed at 65 different hotels who were each interviewe...
At December 2nd, 2003 the Third International Tripod Symposium: Loss of Control was took place. At the symposium a lecture was held by Dr. F. Vaas of TNO Work and Employment about the role of work stress in the development of accidents. At TNO Work and Employment a management tool was developed to
May 8, 2003 ... One variable that may be stressful and demanding for working women is the conflict between work and home demands. Work/ home conflict has been linked to psychological distress, life dissat- isfaction, poor physical health and heavy alcohol use. Many factors determine whether the occupation of multiple ...
This study explores and describes the experiences, feelings and perceptions of South African caregivers working in various capacities (healthcare, counselling and teaching) in the HIV/AIDS field. A questionnaire investigating stress factors involved in HIV/AIDS-related care, symptoms of occupational stress, and employer ...
DeFrank, Richard S.
Given the growing literature on and documented importance of workplace stress, it is suggested that this topic deserves more than a casual mention in introductory management classes. The current article reviews a comprehensive course dedicated to the phenomenon of stress in the work setting, which addresses issues such as theories, demands and…
This article first illustrates how recent social, economic and educational development in Hong Kong contributes to teacher stress. It then presents data from an international study on teacher stress with respect to working with challenging students, i.e. students with behavioural problems. Teachers were asked to report on the perceived behavioural…
Work-related stress adversely affects personal performance, organizational efficiency and patient care as well as costing the NHS millions of pounds each year. Reducing the effects of work-related stress is a legal duty for all employers. There are a number of resources available to help both employees and employers, such as the Health and Safety Executive stress management standards. Personal life coaching is one approach to reducing work-related stress, which is well established amongst business and management executives as well as some public sector organizations.
Ramlani Lina Sinaulan
Performance is a form of behavior of a person or organization with achievement orientation. The study results are known (a) the school climate affect performance of teachers, b) there is influence of work stress on teacher performance, (c) work motivation effect on teacher performance, d) school climate influence on job motivation of teachers, and (e) work stress effect on work motivation of teachers. Suggestions studies (a) improving teacher performance should the top priority schools in sch...
Stress is a reality and an inevitable part of our lives, especially at work, and to be free from stress or to have a stress ... consequences in the organisation, and how it could be managed both at the organisational and individual .... tolerate mistakes; team leaders may not always be supportive. ❖ Job characteristics; The way a ...
Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.; Andersen, JH
: The findings do not indicate that repetitive work is associated with stress symptoms, but small effects cannot be ruled out. Thus the results question the importance of mental stress mechanisms in the causation of regional pain related to repetitive work. However, the findings should be interpreted...
Full Text Available Introduction: Today, women alongside men to help their family economic cycle. So the quality of work life and job stress affect on behavioral reactions such as job satisfaction, job involvement and job performance. Because more women than men experience job stress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of marriage enrichment training on job stress and quality of work life of working women at Bafg Central Iron Ore Company. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest and control group. The population of this study was all of married female employees who worked at Bafg Central Iron Ore Company (150 persons. From these 150 persons 30 persons were selected by purposeful sampling method. then, they were assignment into 2 groups (experimental and control groups including test and control group. The marriage enrichment training (eight sessions was held on experimental group. The instruments of this research were Health and Safety Executive HSE and Quality of work life QWL. Results: The results showed that marriage enrichment training had significant influence on job stress in experimental group. But, marriage enrichment training did not affect on quality of working life in the experimental group. And so, this was not observed in the control group. Conclusion: since, the job in women is very important, using of this training can reduce job stress the importance of women in the workforce is remarkable use of enrichment education can in women.
Sindi, Shireen; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Solomon, Alina; Hooshmand, Babak; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and late-life cognition in individuals without dementia from the general population. The Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study population (n = 2000) was randomly selected from independent Finnish population-based surveys (baseline mean age 50 years). Participants underwent two re-examinations in late life (mean age 71 and 78 years, respectively). 1511 subjects participated in at least one re-examination (mean total follow-up 25 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands administered in midlife. Multiple cognitive domains were assessed. Analyses were adjusted for several potential confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with poorer performance on global cognition [β-coefficient, -0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.05 to -0.00], and processing speed [β -0.03, CI -0.05 to -0.01]. Results remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Work-related stress was not significantly associated with episodic memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency or manual dexterity. This study shows that global cognition and processing speed may be particularly susceptible to the effects of midlife work-related stress.
Jenull, Brigitte B; Wiedermann, Wolfgang
Work-related stress has been identified as a relevant problem leading to negative effects on health and quality of life. Using data from 844 nurses, latent profile analyses (LPA) were applied to identify distinct patterns of work stress. Several sociodemographic variables, including nurses' working and living conditions, as well as nurses' reactions to workload, were considered to predict respondents' profile membership. LPA revealed three distinct profiles that can be distinguished by a low, moderate, and higher stress level. Being financially secure is positively related to the low stress profile, whereas working in an urban area and having low job satisfaction increases the chance of belonging to the higher stress profile. Our results can be used as a basis to develop interventions to create a healthy nursing home environment by supporting the balance between family and work, providing access to job resources and optimizing recovery opportunities. © The Author(s) 2013.
Janevic, Teresa; Kahn, Linda G.; Landsbergis, Paul; Cirillo, Piera M.; Cohn, Barbara A.; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam
Objective To evaluate associations between work-related stress, stressful life events, and perceived stress and semen quality. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Northern California. Patient(s) 193 men from the Child Health and Development Studies evaluated between 2005–2008. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Measures of stress including job strain, perceived stress, and stressful life events; outcome measures of sperm concentration, percentage of motile sperm, and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. Result(s) We found an inverse association between perceived stress score and sperm concentration (estimated coefficient b = –0.09 × 103/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = –0.18, –0.01), motility (b = –0.39; 95% CI = –0.79, 0.01), and morphology (b = –0.14; 95% CI, –0.25, –0.04) in covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses. Men who experienced two or more stressful life events in the past year compared with no stressful events had a lower percentage of motile sperm (b= –8.22; 95% CI, –14.31, –2.13) and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm (b = –1.66; 95% CI, –3.35, 0.03) but a similar sperm concentration. Job strain was not associated with semen parameters. Conclusion(s) In this first study to examine all three domains of stress, perceived stress and stressful life events but not work-related stress were associated with semen quality. PMID:24856463
Hyer, M. W.; Cooper, D. E.
This paper addresses the computation of thermally induced stresses in layered, fiber-reinforced composite tubes subjected to a circumferential gradient. The paper focuses on using the principle of complementary virtual work, in conjunction with a Ritz approximation to the stress field, to study the influence on the predicted stresses of including temperature-dependent material properties. Results indicate that the computed values of stress are sensitive to the temperature dependence of the matrix-direction compliance and matrix-direction thermal expansion in the plane of the lamina. There is less sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the other material properties.
Hayes, Bronwyn; Douglas, Clint; Bonner, Ann
To examine the relationships among nurse and work characteristics, job satisfaction, stress, burnout and the work environment of haemodialysis nurses. Haemodialysis nursing is characterised by frequent and intense contact with patients in a complex and intense environment. A cross-sectional online survey of 417 haemodialysis nurses that included nurse and work characteristics, the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure, Index of Work Satisfaction, Nursing Stress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Haemodialysis nurses reported an acceptable level of job satisfaction and perceived their work environment positively, although high levels of burnout were found. Nurses who were older and had worked in haemodialysis the longest had higher satisfaction levels, experienced less stress and lower levels of burnout than younger nurses. The in-centre type of haemodialysis unit had greater levels of stress and burnout than home training units. Greater satisfaction with the work environment was strongly correlated with job satisfaction, lower job stress and emotional exhaustion. Haemodialysis nurses experienced high levels of burnout even though their work environment was favourable and they had acceptable levels of job satisfaction. Targeted strategies are required to retain and avoid burnout in younger and less experienced nurses in this highly specialised field of nursing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Devereux, Jason; Hastings, Richard; Noone, Steve
Background: Staff in intellectual disability services can be at risk of stress and burnout at work. Given that staff well-being has implications for the quality of life of the staff themselves and people with intellectual disabilities themselves, this is an important research and practical topic. In this paper, we review work stress theories that…
Maristela Moresco Mezzomo
Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of didactic experience developed in the discipline of Geography, taught for two classes of 3rd year of Integrated on Informatic Technical course of the Technological Federal University of Paraná, Campo Mourão-PR. The experiment regarding the application of an activity, which aimed to bring the theme 'Brazilian Population' to the reality of the students through the study of population data from the middle region in which they reside. The results demonstrate that application of activity after contact with quantitative and qualitative analyzes, the students developed new insights into the subject population and the reality lived with transformation of critical and constructive position of geographical knowledge. RESUMO: O artigo apresenta uma análise sobre uma experiência didática desenvolvida na disciplina de Geografia, ministrada para duas turmas de 3° anos do curso Técnico Integrado em Informática da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campo Mourão-PR. A experiência diz respeito à aplicação de uma atividade, que teve como objetivo aproximar o tema ‘População brasileira’ à realidade dos alunos, por meio do estudo de dados populacionais da mesorregião em que residem. Os resultados da aplicação da atividade demonstram que após o contato com dados quantitativos e análises qualitativas, os alunos desenvolveram novas percepções sobre o tema população e sobre a realidade vivida, com transformação do posicionamento crítico e construtivo do conhecimento geográfico.
Oberlinner, C; Yong, M; Nasterlack, M; Pluto, R-P; Lang, S
Back pain and occupational stress are known risk factors for absenteeism and presenteeism. In addition, the relationship between back pain (BP) and psychosocial stressors has been examined in numerous studies. To examine the prevalence of BP and perceived stress among employees of different occupational status and to investigate their combined impact on work ability. A comprehensive survey combining questionnaire data and medical examination offered in one division of a major chemical company in Germany. Self-rated health and work ability were assessed using the Work Ability Index (WAI). A synergy index was used to assess a potential interaction between both exposures under an additive model. Of 867 voluntary participants, 653 returned complete questionnaires on BP and job stress perception. Although occupational stressors were perceived differently, there was no difference in the prevalence of BP between the occupational groups. Back pain and stress perception are correlated with each other and both are negatively associated with work ability. After adjustment for occupational status, demographic and lifestyle factors, we found a synergy effect of BP and stress perception with a modest to strong impact on declining WAI. Corporate health promotion interventions to reduce the impact of BP and stress perception on work ability should target both physical and psychological dimensions. Such interventions may be initiated in the context of regular (occupational) medical examinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Nübling, Matthias; Vomstein, Martin; Schmidt, Sascha G; Gregersen, Sabine; Dulon, Madeleine; Nienhaus, Albert
Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain.Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database).Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p worked in Home Care (HC), 313 in Geriatric Nursing Homes (GNH), 164 in other professions (e.g. administration).Comparison between HC and GNH showed more favourable values for the first group for the most scales, e.g. lower quantitative and emotional demands and less work-privacy conflict, better possibilities for development etc. Compared to external values from the German COPSOQ database for general hospital care (N = 1.195) and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168), the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the high rating for job insecurity.A supplementary subgroup analysis showed that the degree of negative evaluation of psychosocial factors concerning demands was related to the amount of working hours per week and the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. Methods The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain. Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p Results In total 889 respondents from 36 institutions took part in the study. 412 worked in Home Care (HC, 313 in Geriatric Nursing Homes (GNH, 164 in other professions (e.g. administration. Comparison between HC and GNH showed more favourable values for the first group for the most scales, e.g. lower quantitative and emotional demands and less work-privacy conflict, better possibilities for development etc. Compared to external values from the German COPSOQ database for general hospital care (N = 1.195 and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168, the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the high rating for job insecurity. A supplementary subgroup analysis showed that the degree of
... workplace alcohol use and work engagement among 228 University of Nigeria, Nsukka, workers. The results of the regression analyses showed that job stress significantly predicted workplace alcohol use (â = .17, p < .01). Workplace alcohol use also significantly predicted employee work engagement (â = -.35, p < .001).
Slišković, Ana; Maslić Seršić, Darja
The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to stress at work in university teachers and see if there were differences between men and women as well as between positions. The study was carried out online and included a representative sample of 1,168 teachers employed at universities in Croatia. This included all teaching positions: assistants (50%), assistant professors (18%), associate professors (17%), and full professors (15%). Fifty-seven percent of the sample were women. The participants answered a questionnaire of our own design that measured six groups of stressors: workload, material and technical conditions at work, relationships with colleagues at work, work with students, work organisation, and social recognition and status. Women reported greater stress than men. Assistant professors, associate professors, and full professors reported greater stress related to material and technical conditions of work and work organisation than assistants, who, in turn, found relationships with colleagues a greater stressor. Full professors, reported lower exposure to stress at work than associate professors, assistant professors, and assistants.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The appearance and evolution of some clinical pain conditions may be influenced by stress and other psychosocial factors. Face, head and cervical muscles may increase their activity and tension in the presence of stress, leading to craniocervicomandibular pain in individuals exposed to stress. Objective: To assess the relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervicomandibular pain in nursing professionals under stress at work. Materials and Methods: Forty-three women under stress at work, according to the Job Stress Scale (JSS, were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, pressure pain threshold, measured by algometry, and muscle sensitivity to hand palpation of the masticatory and cervical muscles. Results: A low moderate level of perceived stress was found in 62.79% of the sample, anxiety in 11.63% and depression in 9.30%. The psychosocial scales correlated with each other. No correlation was found between pressure pain threshold and perceived stress, anxiety and depression. The level of pain to hand palpation correlated with the perceived stress scores. Conclusion: Pressure pain threshold was not influenced by the psychosocial factors assessed. Pain intensity to hand palpation, however, was higher as the perception of stress increased.
Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Lang, Stefan; Oberlinner, Christoph
To examine perceived stress across employees with different occupational status, to investigate the impact of stress on work ability and to derive conclusions regarding health promotion activities. A comprehensive survey combining questionnaire and medical examination was offered in one division in BASF Ludwigshafen. Among 867 voluntary participants, 653 returned complete questionnaires. The questions were directed at perception of safety at the workplace, self-rated health status, frequency of stress symptoms, unrealistic job demands, time pressure and maladjustment of work life balance. The outcome of interest was self-estimated health measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). Occupational stressors were perceived differently across occupational status groups. Frontline operators had more health concerns due to workplace conditions, while professional and managerial staff reported higher frequencies of perceived tension, time pressure, and maladjustment of work life balance. After adjustment for occupational status, demographic and lifestyle factors, perceived stress was associated with a modest to strong decline in WAI scores. While perceived occupational stress had an apparent impact on WAI, and WAI has been demonstrated to be predictive of early retirement, more intensive and employee group-specific stress management interventions are being implemented beyond traditional strategies of routine occupational medical surveillance.
Ravalier, J M; Walsh, J
The UK education sector has among the highest level of stress sickness absence of all occupations. However, investigations of psychosocial working conditions which contribute to stress, including behaviour of students and parents, has not been conducted. To investigate the psychosocial working conditions and prevalence of negative parental and student behaviour in a large sample of school teachers and college lecturers based in England. In addition, to assess the influence of working conditions, student behaviour and parental behaviour on perceived stress. A cross-sectional survey of teachers in England. Respondents completed the Management Standards Indicator Tool (MSIT), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4), Student Behaviour Scale and a two-item measure of parental behaviour. Differences in these measures across different teaching roles were assessed using analysis of variance. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the association of MSIT, student and parental behaviour on PSS outcomes. Compared to UK benchmark scoring, psychosocial working conditions were at a poor level, with primary teachers in particular exposed to negative parental behaviours, and secondary teachers to poor student behaviour. Demands were consistently associated with perceived stress outcomes across job roles, although management support and relationships with peers also played a part. Demands faced by teachers in England played an important part in the experience of stress. Interventions to reduce these demands, and the high frequencies of negative pupil and parental behaviours, should be considered.
Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study\\'s aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses\\' occupational stress in Ireland.
Costin Madalina - Adriana
Full Text Available Nowadays, in times of economic crisis, most managers or entrepreneurs have to cope with a lot of new job challenges which can easily transform into stressors. Work related stress is of growing concern because it has significant economic implications for the organization. Even if some stress is a normal part of life, excessive stress can influence one's productivity, health and emotions and it has to be taken under control. When people lose confidence, they refuse to take responsibilities, they get quickly irritated, they are unsatisfied of their job, their performance will be very low and the organization will be in danger. Fortunately, most managers and entrepreneurs know which stress main symptoms are and have the necessary knowledge for managing and reducing it before it can affect employees' daily work. Stress can have an impact both on the organizational welfare and on personal behavior of supervisors or employees, that's why, the ability of managing it can make the difference between job's success or failure. The purpose of this paper is to study Romanian managers and entrepreneurs from Bihor County's perception regarding the stress phenomenon, if they feel that they are affected by stress, if they promote some methods to reduce it and if they consider that stress can influence the organizational performance. As a research method we used an online questionnaire, applied to a number of 75 managers and entrepreneurs that represent the target group of the project "Flexibility and performance through management", project financed by the European Social Fund - "Invest in people". Each participant had to answer a number of 35 questions regarding stress and the results will be presented in this paper. The main conclusion is that, even if job itself is seen as a stressor, there are other important factors that can produce stress such as: family problems, personal problems or social problems.
Nakamura, K; Ohmi, A; Suzuki, S; Konuma, M; Kurihara, T; Tadera, M; Shibata, S
frequency of malignant neoplasms (especially of the stomach) is observed for "Professional & technical workers, managers and officials" and that of suicide for "Craftmen, production process workers and labourers" and that of cerebrovascular diseases (especially cerebral hemorrhage) for "Protective service workers." Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for males, aged 20 to 54, from all causes of death, calculated on the basis of all Japanese males in 1978 is 0.57. SMR for this population from malignant neoplasms is 0.89.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.
Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems in...
de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the
Klink, J.J.L. van der; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schene, A.H.; Dijk, F.J.H. van
In this quantitative meta-analysis is sought to determine the effectiveness of occupational stress-reducing interventions and the populations for which such interventions are most beneficial. 48 experimental studies were included in the analysis. Four intervention types were distinguished:
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ariëns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records.
McCalister, Katherine T; Dolbier, Christyn L; Webster, Judith A; Mallon, Mark W; Steinhardt, Mary A
To test a theoretically and empirically based model linking potential protective resources (hardiness, coworker and supervisor support) to the outcomes of work stress and job satisfaction and replicating the relationship of work stress to job satisfaction while accounting for the potential influence of negative affectivity. A cross-sectional research design using survey data collected from two convenience samples. Two worksites: (1) a high-tech company and (2) a government agency. High-tech employees (N = 310; response rate, 73.8%) and government agency employees (N = 745; response rate, 49.7%). The Dispositional Resilience Scale measured hardiness and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured negative affectivity. Coworker and supervisor support were measured using the Coworker Support Scale and the Supervisor Support Scale, respectively. The Perceived Work Stress Scale measured work stress, and a single item from the Job Satisfaction Scale assessed overall job satisfaction. A multiple-group path analysis examined the proposed model. Similar patterns of association were found for both samples and suggested a more parsimonious model without the path from negative affectivity to job satisfaction. The model supports the protective nature of hardiness and support at work with regard to work stress and job satisfaction. Explanations of relationships depicted in the model, practical implications for reducing work stress and enhancing job satisfaction, limitations and future directions are discussed.
Gluschkoff, K; Elovainio, M; Kinnunen, U; Mullola, S; Hintsanen, M; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Hintsa, T
Both work stress and poor recovery have been shown to contribute to the development of burnout. However, the role of recovery as a mediating mechanism that links work stress to burnout has not been sufficiently addressed in research. To examine recovery as a mediator in the relationship between work stress and burnout among teachers. A cross-sectional study of Finnish primary school teachers, in whom burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and work stress was conceptualized using the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Recovery was measured with the Recovery Experience Questionnaire and the Jenkins Sleep Problems Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses and bootstrap mediation analyses adjusted for age, gender and total working hours were performed. Among the 76 study subjects, high ERI was associated with burnout and its dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy. Poor recovery experiences, in terms of low relaxation during leisure time, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and reduced professional efficacy. Sleep problems, in the form of non-restorative sleep, partially mediated the relationship between ERI and both burnout and exhaustion. Supporting a balance between effort and reward at work may enhance leisure time recovery and improve sleep quality, as well as help to reduce burnout rates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gadomski, Anne; de Long, Rachel; Burdick, Patrick; Jenkins, Paul
Economic stresses are a frequently cited reason for children doing farm work. To explore the relationship between economic indicators and child agricultural work hours between January 2001 and October 2003. This ecologic study design compares trends in aggregate child work hours with national and regional economic indicators. Child work hours were obtained from quarterly surveillance data from a randomized field trial of agricultural task guidelines for children. 2,360 children living or working on 845 farms in central New York participated in the original study. The relationship between child work hours and three economic indicators: national all farm index (AFI) ratio, national fuel index, and regional milk prices was analyzed using times series plots, correlation, and multiple linear regression. The AFI ratio was positively correlated with child work hours (r = 0.49, p = 0.008) but there was no significant correlation between child work hours and fuel or milk prices. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that the relationship between AFI and child work hours is independent of a seasonal effect. Increased child work hours may be associated with periods of higher farm sector productivity, rather than economic stress per se. Findings are limited by the ecologic study design, use of national economic indicators, and the limited number of cycles of child work hours available for time series analysis. Economic conditions may influence decisions about children's farm work.
Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia
Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.
Eziyi Offia Ibem
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify key stress factors among professionals in building construction industry in Nigeria. This is in view of the fact that to date, very little is known about work stress among professionals in building construction industry in this country. The study involved the administration of questionnaire to 107 professionals including architects, builders, civil/structural engineers and quantity surveyors randomly selected from 60 ongoing building projects in Anambra, Ogun and Kaduna States, Nigeria. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and findings show that the principal sources of stress were high volume of work, uncomfortable site office environment, lack of feedback on previous and ongoing building projects, and variations in the scope of work in ongoing building projects. The paper suggests that taking responsibility for work which one has adequate capacity to handle, establishing realistic budgets and time frame for project delivery, provision of spatially adequate, visually and thermally comfortable site offices, adoption of appropriate job design practice and education of professionals on stress management strategies will reduce the incidence of stress among professionals in building industry in Nigeria.
Eziyi Offia Ibem
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify key stress factors among professionals in building construction industry in Nigeria. This is in view of the fact that to date, very little is known about work stress among professionals in building construction industry in this country. The study involved the administration of questionnaire to 107 professionals including architects, builders, civil/structural engineers and quantity surveyors randomly selected from 60 ongoing building projects in Anambra, Ogun and Kaduna States, Nigeria. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and findings show that the principal sources of stress were high volume of work, uncomfortable site office environment, lack of feedback on previous and ongoing building projects, and variations in the scope of work in ongoing building projects. The paper suggests that taking responsibility for work which one has adequate capacity to handle, establishing realistic budgets and time frame for project delivery, provision of spatially adequate, visually and thermally comfortable site offices, adoption of appropriate job design practice and education of professionals on stress management strategies will reduce the incidence of stress among professionals in building industry in Nigeria.
de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.
Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related
Aydin, Bahri; Kaya, Ayça
The aim of this study is to determine the sources of stress for classroom teacher and branch teachers working in private elementary schools and methods that are used by them in order to cope with the stress. In this research, qualitative and quantitative methods have been used jointly. The group consisted of 258 private elementary school teachers…
Mosse, I. B.; Glushkova, I. V.; Aksyutik, T. V.
We studied natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster from radio-contaminated area (Vetka district of Gomel region with 24 Ci/km 2 of 137 Cs and 0.5 Cu/km 2 of 90 Sr) and from Berezynski Natural Reserve as a control area (region of Chernobyl catastrophe). Population samples were caught in 2000-2001 years. Natural insect populations from radio-contaminated areas are more resistant to additional irradiation than control populations. Keeping of natural populations under laboratory or vivarium conditions is a strong stress (limited space, overpopulation, other than in nature temperature and light conditions), which increases mutation process and induces unspecific adaptation. (authors)
The aim of this review was to identify the specific work-related stressors of mainland Chinese nurses and to present the current state of stress research in order to discuss directions for further research. A literature search from January 2000 to June 2007 was conducted among three electronic databases. The specific stressors among Chinese nurses were effort-reward imbalance, the poor image of nursing in the community, and managerial issues. The studies were limited to either descriptive or correlation designs, a variety of stress scales were used to investigate the nurses' work-related stressors, and there were no published studies reporting stress management interventions for Chinese nurses. This review highlights that further stress research targeted to Chinese nurses needs more prospective and longitudinal studies and has to develop a consistent instrument to measure stressors. The priority issue is the initiation of stress management interventions to improve nurses' coping skills, while the long-term goal is to reduce the level of stress or eliminate the stressors through individual, organizational, and societal interventions.
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. This is a critical and not fully uncovered problem. The working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. This study shows that some aspects of knowledge work can have...... a negative impact on daily activities and cause frustration and work-related stress. The study also finds that few primary preventive activities have been initiated. Based on an empirical study, the authors outline the characteristics of the job as knowledge worker and how it is being experienced. The study...... – it can be both exciting and stressful. With regard to causes, it is evident that the strains of knowledge work are often caused by the organization and management of the knowledge worker. Autonomy and individualized responsibility causes both a formal and informal transfer of responsibility...
Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K
The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....
Bogusława Halina Lachowska
Full Text Available Background: The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. Material and Methods: The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress, as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. Results: The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. Conclusions: The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences. Med Pr 2014;65(3:387–398
Lachowska, Bogusława Halina
The objective of the study was to the determine of neuroticism, requirements of the labor market and work-family conflict while exploring consequences of various aspects of job stress in occupationally active parents. The investigations covered 159 females and 154 males from families where both parents are occupationally active and bring up at least one child aged up to 12 years. The following consequences of occupational stress were analyzed: the state of psychological health self-reported by the employees (symptoms of somatic disorders, anxiety and insomnia, functioning disorders, symptoms of depression, global distress), as well as distress experienced at work, employee intention to turnover, and job satisfaction. The importance of neuroticism, work demands, and work-family conflict varies when explaining individual consequences of job stress. Of all the predictors analyzed, neuroticism is significantly correlated with the majority of consequences. Having considered the importance of work-family conflict, the role of work demands in understanding various consequences of job stress is much lower or even statistically insignificant. The construction of complex theoretical models, taking account of a wide range of factors related with the sphere of occupational activity, the role of work-family conflict and individual factors, allow for a better understanding of the determinants of job stress and its consequences.
Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Feeley, Nancy; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Genest, Christine; Robins, Stéphanie; Fréchette, Julie
There is some research on the impact of open-ward unit design on the health of babies and the stress experienced by parents and nurses in neonatal intensive care units. However, few studies have explored the factors associated with nurse stress and work satisfaction among nurses practicing in open-ward neonatal intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to examine what factors are associated with nurse stress and work satisfaction among nurses practicing in an open-ward neonatal intensive care unit. A cross-sectional correlational design was used in this study. Participants were nurses employed in a 34-bed open-ward neonatal intensive care unit in a major university-affiliated hospital in Montréal, Quebec, Canada. A total of 94 nurses were eligible, and 86 completed questionnaires (91% response rate). Descriptive statistics were computed to describe the participants' characteristics. To identify factors associated with nurse stress and work satisfaction, correlational analysis and multiple regression analyses were performed with the Nurse Stress Scale and the Global Work Satisfaction scores as the dependent variables. Different factors predict neonatal intensive care unit nurses' stress and job satisfaction, including support, family-centered care, performance obstacles, work schedule, education, and employment status. In order to provide neonatal intensive care units nurses with a supportive environment, managers can provide direct social support to nurses and influence the culture around teamwork.
Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro
The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.
Pérez Padilla, Javier
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the role of some dimensions related with labor and family context, and examine their influence to the stress level associated with parenthood. Special attention was given to the perceived competence as a parent after controlling different characteristics from both contexts. Several analyses were performed with the information obtained from 74 active-working parents responsible for at least one school-aged child. The results indicated that the work time, the number of children at home and the perception of difficulty about child caring were the most important variables for explaining the parental stress. Furthermore, analysis showed that a positive and optimistic perception of the parental role and child care helped to mitigate the appearance of parental stress
Witt, Whitney P; Litzelman, Kristin; Cheng, Erika R; Wakeel, Fathima; Barker, Emily S
Mounting evidence from clinic and convenience samples suggests that stress is an important predictor of adverse obstetric outcomes. Using a proposed theoretical framework, this review identified and synthesized the population-based literature on the measurement of stress prior to and during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes. Population-based, peer-reviewed empirical articles that examined stress prior to or during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes were identified in the PubMed and PsycInfo databases. Articles were evaluated to determine the domain(s) of stress (environmental, psychological, and/or biological), period(s) of stress (preconception and/or pregnancy), and strength of the association between stress and obstetric outcomes. Thirteen studies were evaluated. The identified studies were all conducted in developed countries. The majority of studies examined stress only during pregnancy (n = 10); three examined stress during both the preconception and pregnancy periods (n = 3). Most studies examined the environmental domain (e.g. life events) only (n = 9), two studies examined the psychological domain only, and two studies examined both. No study incorporated a biological measure of stress. Environmental stressors before and during pregnancy were associated with worse obstetric outcomes, although some conflicting findings exist. Few population-based studies have examined stress before or during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes. Although considerable variation exists in the measurement of stress across studies, environmental stress increased the risk for poor obstetric outcomes. Additional work using a lifecourse approach is needed to fill the existing gaps in the literature and to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which stress impacts obstetric outcomes.
The study investigated the prevalence and correlation of computer-related behavioural variables among students and staff of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The behaviours were information anxiety, computer phobia, obsessive computing, and computer work stress. Validated scales were designed to measure these ...
Full Text Available Working breastfeeding mothers because of multiple and conflicting roles and demands in home and work-place experience high level of stress. Identifying perceived stress of this group of mothers can be helpful in their life promotion. This study aimed to describe the experiences of sixteen Iranian breastfeeding mothers who returned to work and to discover, through in depth, semi-structured interviews their perceived stress. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic-analysis. Two main themes emerged by analyzing data about perceived stress: 1 "Not being a good mother" with subthemes of aFeeling of cruelty toward the child and b Child neglect of maternal care; and 2 "Feeling trapped" with subthemes of a Inflexible expectations and 2 Forgotten identity. Findings of this study emphasize the need to promote awareness of spouses of this group of mothers about the difficult situation which mothers face with and planning to promote their participation especially in care of child. Providing family-friendly policies in work-place is suggested.
Assessing the influence of stress, work and age on coping behaviour patten of selected breast-feeding mothers in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. ... Two major psychological instruments, Breast-Feeding Associated Distress scale (BFDS) and Coping Behaviour Inventory (CBI) designed by the researcher were administered on ...
The study investigated the incidence of work-related stress (WRS) among bankers in the Kumasi Metropolis. A self-constructed structured questionnaire with an internal consistency of r=0.91 (test retest reliability -two week interval) was used to collect data from 155 bankers, comprising 96 men and 59 women, using ...
The study examined work induced stress and its relationship to Organizational Effectiveness and Productivity amongst Nigerian Employees. Employees of Nigerian Television Authority and Nigerian Immigration Services were sampled in this study to observe how workplace has interfered with their inputs and organizational ...
The study assessed the association between work stress factors and employee job performance in a selected manufacturing organisation in Lagos State Nigeria. A total of 350 employees selected through stratified random sampling technique participated in the study. Questionnaire was the main instrument used for data ...
ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between employees' sources of job stress, work engagement and career orientations and how they differ with respect to these variables in terms of socio-demographic contextual factors such as gender, race, employment status and age. A sample of 90 ...
Wei, Meifen; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Du, Yi; Lin, Shu-Ping
The aim of this study was to examine the moderators of (a) general or cross-cultural advisory working alliances and (b) perceived English proficiency on the association between acculturative stress and psychological distress. A total of 143 East Asian international students completed an online survey. Results from a hierarchical regression…
Eek, Frida; Axmon, Anna
The need to combine active employment and parenthood is a reality for many parents today. Knowing more about which work place factors are associated with better or worse health could help employers to form a work environment that provides optimal conditions to maintain or increase health and work engagement in this group. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between different subjective and objective work factors and benefits, and a range of outcome variables such as stress, symptom report, wellbeing, work-related fatigue, work engagement, and work-family conflict among working mothers and fathers with small children. Cross-sectional analyses of associations between work place factors categorised into three different dimensions; flexibility, benefits, and attitude and the outcome measures were performed, including questionnaire responses from 1562 working parents. The results showed that work place factors related to flexibility and, especially among women, attitude to parenthood appear to have the strongest effect on working parents' subjective stress and wellbeing, while benefits appear to have less impact. Except regarding factors related to attitudes at the work place, most associations were similar among men and women. Most likely, different factors are better suited or more important for some individuals than others depending on their total work, as well as family situation and also depending on individual factors such as personality and priorities. A positive attitude towards parenthood and a flexible work situation seem, however, beneficial for the general wellbeing and work engagement among working parents.
Milanovic, S.; Ilic, Z.; Spasojevic-Tisma, V.; Milanovic, S.)
Interactions of factors at work and worker's health have been analyzed through indicators of chronic professional stress. The examinees have been persons working with sealed sources of radiation with various professional risks among which we have stressed exposure to different radiation doses. Health professionals (medical doctors, radiologist, technicians) working in radio diagnostic and radiotherapy of oncology deceases have been examined. It was concluded that examinees among the subgroup 'therapy' has higher values of stress indicators expressed through all examined indicators: work motivation, personal opinion of work load, behavioral dysfunctions (smoking, alcoholism, drug abuse), increase incidence of health dysfunctions and general neuroticism of examinees. Obtained results are values for which statistical significant have not been established, so they have certain theoretical and practical importance in the frame research with descriptive nature [sr
Marcatto, Francesco; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Blas, Lisa; Ferrante, Donatella
The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary validation of an Italian adaptation of the HSE Management Standards Work-Related Stress Indicator Tool (IT), an instrument for assessing work-related stress at the organizational level, originally developed in Britain by the Health and Safety Executive. A scale that assesses the physical work environment has been added to the original version of the IT. 190 employees of the University of Trieste have been enrolled in the study. A confirmatory analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the eight-factors structure of the instrument. Further psychometric analysis showed adequate internal consistency of the IT scales and good criterion validity, as evidenced by the correlations with self-perception of stress, work satisfaction and motivation. In conclusion, the Indicator Tool proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of work-related stress at the organizational level, and it is also compatible with the instructions provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Policy (Circular letter 18/11/2010).
Dietrich, Julia; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
People's personal goals interact with their life situations in many ways. This study examined the appraisals of personal goals during a transition from education to work and their interplay with stress in different domains of life. Finnish young adults (N = 265, 60% female) reported on their goals in the work domain, and related appraisals of…
Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen
Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+ years. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (hazard ratio, HR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.13-1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: (a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or (b) poor health acts as the mediator.
Knezevic, Bojana; Milosevic, Milan; Golubic, Rajna; Belosevic, Ljiljana; Russo, Andrea; Mustajbegovic, Jadranka
to explore the sources and levels of stress at work and work ability among Croatian midwives. midwives are subjected to multiple stressors. Among health-care professionals, psychological distress for a prolonged period of time has negative effects on the worker's health, work ability and quality of patient care. 'Work ability' is a term describing a worker's resources related to physical, mental and social demands at work. As a measure of work ability in midwifery, the Work Ability Index (WAI) is considered to be a very predictive instrument; midwives with a poor WAI score usually leave their current job within five years. university hospitals in Zagreb, Croatia. cross-sectional design survey. 300 health-care workers (105 qualified midwives and 195 paediatric nurses) were invited to complete the questionnaire. The total response rate was 53% (158/300). The sample included 14.7% of all hospital-based midwives in Zagreb hospitals. the Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire (OSAQ) for health-care workers and the WAI questionnaire. over three-quarters of the midwives (46/60, 76.7%) believed that their job was stressful, and considered that insufficient work resources caused the most stress. More than half of the midwives associated an insufficient number of coworkers, unexpected situations, inadequate income, night work, incurable patients and poor organisation at work with a high level of stress. The perceived specific stressors differed between midwives and paediatric nurses in the same hospital. Insufficient work resources and poor organisation at work were more common stressors among midwives than paediatric nurses (pworking in their current workplace compared with paediatric nurses (pwork ability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was not significant. Croatian midwives experienced work-related stress due to: insufficient work resources, insufficient number of coworkers, poor organisation at work, communication
Full Text Available Abstract There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability.
Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward
Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, occupational stress, burnout and work engagement as dimensions of work-related wellbeing in a sample of members of the police force in South Africa. A survey design was used. Stratifed random samples of members of the police force (N = 677 were taken in the North West Province of South Africa. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, Police Stress Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used as measuring instruments. The results provided support for a four-factorial model of work-related wellbeing consisting of the following dimensions: job satisfaction (indicating pleasure vs. displeasure, occupational stress (indicating anxiety vs. comfort, burnout (indicating fatigue vs. vigour, and engagement (indicating enthusiasm vs. depression.
Rath, Hilke M; Steimann, Monika; Ullrich, Anneke; Rotsch, Martin; Zurborn, Karl-Heinz; Koch, Uwe; Kriston, Levente; Bergelt, Corinna
Although the Occupational Stress and Coping Inventory (AVEM) questionnaire is used to assess work behaviour during occupation-related oncological rehabilitation, little is known about its psychometric characteristics in cancer patients. Therefore, we analysed the psychometric properties of the AVEM in this group. The AVEM was administered to 477 cancer patients at the beginning of rehabilitation. The AVEM consists of 11 subscales that categorise patients into one of four types of work behaviour. We obtained data from several subgroups and analysed reliability using Cronbach's α. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the dimensional structure proposed by the authors of the AVEM. In addition, we analysed the AVEM's predictive validity by examining work-related outcomes one year after the end of rehabilitation (N = 336). Similar to a population-based reference sample, half of the patients exhibited work behaviours that might be problematic in stressful working situations. The AVEM proved to be a reliable instrument, and the CFA supported the factor structure of the AVEM. The analyses of predictive validity suggest that work behaviour and mental health characteristics, that involve the tendency to feel overwhelmed and less motivated at work, might lead to an increased level of occupational stress one year post-rehabilitation. The AVEM can be used during rehabilitation to assess the extent to which patients report work behaviours associated with occupational stress and dissatisfaction. Patients who exhibit the tendency to feel overwhelmed and helpless in stressful work situations should be identified early so they can be offered support.
Rowden, Peter; Matthews, Gerald; Watson, Barry; Biggs, Herbert
Previous research has shown the association between stress and crash involvement. The impact of stress on road safety may also be mediated by behaviours including cognitive lapses, errors, and intentional traffic violations. This study aimed to provide a further understanding of the impact that stress from different sources may have upon driving behaviour and road safety. It is asserted that both stress extraneous to the driving environment and stress directly elicited by driving must be considered part of a dynamic system that may have a negative impact on driving behaviours. Two hundred and forty-seven public sector employees from Queensland, Australia, completed self-report measures examining demographics, subjective work-related stress, daily hassles, and aspects of general mental health. Additionally, the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Stress Inventory (DSI) were administered. All participants drove for work purposes regularly, however the study did not specifically focus on full-time professional drivers. Confirmatory factor analysis of the predictor variables revealed three factors: DSI negative affect; DSI risk taking; and extraneous influences (daily hassles, work-related stress, and general mental health). Moderate intercorrelations were found between each of these factors confirming the 'spillover' effect. That is, driver stress is reciprocally related to stress in other domains including work and domestic life. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that the DSI negative affect factor influenced both lapses and errors, whereas the DSI risk-taking factor was the strongest influence on violations. The SEMs also confirmed that daily hassles extraneous to the driving environment may influence DBQ lapses and violations independently. Accordingly, interventions may be developed to increase driver awareness of the dangers of excessive emotional responses to both driving events and daily hassles (e.g. driving fast to 'blow off steam
Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna
Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.
Schrijvers, Carola; Mheen, Dike; Stronks, Karien; Mackenbach, Johan
textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern Netherlands. Data concerned 4521 working men and 2411 working women and included current occupational class (seven classes), working conditions (physical working condi...
O'Neill, John W; Davis, Kelly
Employee stress is a significant issue in the hospitality industry, and it is costly for employers and employees alike. Although addressing and reducing stress is both a noble goal and is capable of resulting in expense reductions for employers, the nature and quantity of hospitality employee stress is not fully understood. The first aim of this study was to identify common work stressors in a sample of 164 managerial and hourly workers employed at 65 different hotels who were each interviewed for eight consecutive days. The two most common stressors were interpersonal tensions at work and overloads (e.g., technology not functioning). The second aim was to determine whether there were differences in the types and frequency of work stressors by job type (i.e., managers v. non-managers), gender, and marital status. Hotel managers reported significantly more stressors than hourly employees. There were no significant differences by gender or marital status. The third aim was to investigate whether the various stressors were linked to hotel employee health and work outcomes. More employee and coworker stressors were linked to more negative physical health symptoms. Also, interpersonal tensions at work were linked to lower job satisfaction and greater turnover intentions.
O'Neill, John W.; Davis, Kelly
Employee stress is a significant issue in the hospitality industry, and it is costly for employers and employees alike. Although addressing and reducing stress is both a noble goal and is capable of resulting in expense reductions for employers, the nature and quantity of hospitality employee stress is not fully understood. The first aim of this study was to identify common work stressors in a sample of 164 managerial and hourly workers employed at 65 different hotels who were each interviewed for eight consecutive days. The two most common stressors were interpersonal tensions at work and overloads (e.g., technology not functioning). The second aim was to determine whether there were differences in the types and frequency of work stressors by job type (i.e., managers v. non-managers), gender, and marital status. Hotel managers reported significantly more stressors than hourly employees. There were no significant differences by gender or marital status. The third aim was to investigate whether the various stressors were linked to hotel employee health and work outcomes. More employee and coworker stressors were linked to more negative physical health symptoms. Also, interpersonal tensions at work were linked to lower job satisfaction and greater turnover intentions. PMID:23794780
Johanna J. van der Colff
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the occupational stress, sense of coherence, coping, burnout and work engagement of registered nurses in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 818 registered nurses. The Nursing Stress Inventory, the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, the COPE, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were administered. The results show that the experience of depletion of emotional resources and feelings of depersonalisation by registered nurses were associated with stress due to job demands and a lack of organisational support, focus on and ventilation of emotions as a coping strategy, and a weak sense of coherence. Work engagement was predicted by a strong sense of coherence and approach-coping strategies.
Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia
To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Introduction: the choice of strategies to cope with stress has differential effects on individual and organizational outcomes (e.g. well-being and performance at work. This study examined to what extent individuals differing in their positive psychological resources (optimism, hope, self-efficacy and resilience implement different strategies to cope with stress in terms of change, acceptance, or withdrawal from a source of stress in an organizational setting. Method: A questionnaire was filled out by 554 employees from different organizations representing a wide range of jobs and positions. Results: Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; χ 2 (7 = 27.64, p < .01, GFI = .99, NFI = .91, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .07 Conclusion: the results indicated that psychological resources (optimism, hope, self-efficacy and resilience were positively related to coping by change and by acceptance and negatively related to withdrawal. The theoretical implications are discussed.
Mozumder, Muhammad Kamruzzaman
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) population encounter more stressful life circumstances compared to general population. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) can be a useful tool for measuring their stress. However, psychometric properties of PSS have never been tested on LGBT population. This cross sectional study employed a two-stage sampling strategy to collect data from 296 LGBT participants from six divisional districts of Bangladesh. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were carried out on PSS 10 along with analysis of reliability and validity. EFA revealed a two-factor structure of PSS for LGBT population explaining 43.55% - 51.45% of total variance. This measurement model was supported by multiple fit indices during CFA. Acceptable Cronbach's alpha indicated internal consistency reliability and high correlations with Self Reporting Questionnaire 20 demonstrated construct validity of PSS 10 for LGBT population. This study provided evidence of satisfactory psychometric properties of Bengali PSS 10 in terms of factor structure, internal consistency and validity among LGBT population.
Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho
The purposes of this study were to compare the working situation of cancer survivors and the general (cancer-free) population and investigate characteristics associated with the increased likelihood of unemployment between the two groups. We selected 1927 cancer survivors from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data less than 65 years of age and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1924 individuals from the general population who closely resembled the cancer survivors. Compared to the general population, cancer survivors were less likely to be engaged in paid work, particularly as permanent workers, and were more likely to work regular hours. Additionally, they tended to do less work that involved lifting or moving heavy objects and uncomfortable postures and were more willing to express their emotions. An increased probability of unemployment among cancer survivors was associated with being over 50 years old, being female, having a lower monthly income, having multiple comorbidities, belonging to a nuclear family, being a National Basic Livelihood Act beneficiary, and having a recent diagnosis. Cancer survivors may want to pursue flexible occupations and improve their working situation. Further, they perceive their workplace more positively compared to the general population. Respecting the cancer survivor's choice to find flexible working conditions that suit their health needs and status, health-care providers involved in managing work-related issues among cancer survivors should be aware of the interaction between work-related concerns and post-cancer disease management.
Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk
[Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=-0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.
May 12, 2006 ... Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population not presenting with trauma: a preliminary study. DL Mkize. Department of Psychiatry, Nelson Mandela Faculty of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Abstract. Objective: Post Traumatic ...
Dereck Sena de Lima
Full Text Available Objective: to understand the influence of music as a therapeutic assistant in reducing work stress of nursing professionals in a basic health unit. Method: it is an exploratory and descriptive research with a quantitative approach, developed with 9 nursing professionals from UBS Integrated Nova Esperança in João Pessoa, Paraíba. Data collection began after approval of the Research Ethics Committee of the Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Paraíba, nº. 0508/16, CAAE: 58741916.6.0000.5188. Results: we identified that 33.3% of nursing professionals presented signs of stress, of the 33.3% who presented stress, 100% demonstrated to be in the resistance phase, 100% of the nursing professionals evaluated the musical strategy in a positive way. Conclusion: the musical strategy received extremely positive evaluations by the participants of the research, about 100% of professionals said that listening to music can reduce work stress.
Cibele Cristina Ortega
Full Text Available This work showed a clear and including vision how the executive secretary coexists with the stress excess in the work without getting sick physically and psychologically. It was presented definitions for terms like stress, emotion and psychosomatic. Moreover, it was emphasized the most common psychosomatic´s diseases in the organization scope, such as, Depression, Syndrome of Panic and Syndrome of Burnot. For more reality and veracity, it was done a research to verify the stress levels of the executive secretaries and how they deal with pressure and requirements from the modern world without acquiring diseases. With the research´s result it was possible identify some points that can help the professional to have a physical and mental life healthful. Also, the company and immediate bosses can contribute for the well-being of their employees. Finally, it was available some suggestions so that the stress excess does not harm the social and professional life of the executive secretary.
In order to assess stress concentration effects and associated strain intensification at notches, Neuber's work on this subject is used frequently. Neuber refers to a particular nonlinear stress-strain relation which, he observed, led to the same deferential equation for the lateral displacements as that found by Chaplygin for the velocity potential of compressible flow. for a linearized adiabatic law. This finding has been examined by studying torsion problems, which Involve warping displacements. Although a deformation law of the type τ(γ) has been assumed, the shear strain components remain 'proportional' to the corresponding stress components for problems of the type considered. It has been found that the governing equations and boundary conditions for φ may be made completely analogous to those for the velocity potential of a corresponding compressible flow in a prismatic cylinder of the same shape as that of the solid bar, provided that the constitutive equation. for the solid and the gas correspond in a defined sense. This embodied Neuber's observation, which was restricted to a particular stress strain law, namely that which corresponded to a linear adiabatic gas relationship. The above finding also assimilates a well-known hydrodynamic analogy, to which it reduces for linearly elastic materials. Corresponding governing equations have further been established for the stress function and these have similarly been related to those for an analogous stream function, defined by reference to the flow density of the corresponding compressible fluid
Lozano, M.; Hamplová, Dana; Le Bourdais, C.
Roč. 34, č. 9 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 1435-9871 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15008S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : stress * employment * non-standard work hours Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.320, year: 2016 http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol34/9/default.htm
Lozano, M.; Hamplová, Dana; Le Bourdais, C.
Roč. 34, č. 9 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 1435-9871 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-15008S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : stress * employment * non-standard work hours Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.320, year: 2016 http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol34/9/ default .htm
Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Grebner, Simone Irmgard; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Elfering, Achim
Social stressors at work (such as conflict or animosities) imply disrespect or a lack of appreciation and thus a threat to self. Stress induced by this offence to self might result, over time, in a change in body weight. The current study investigated the impact of changing working conditions —specifically social stressors, demands, and control at work— on women’s change in weighted Body-Mass-Index over the course of a year. Fifty-seven women in their first year of occupational life participa...
Longacre, Margaret L; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Fang, Carolyn Y
With the growing aging population and reliance on informal caregivers in the United States, many individuals will take on the role of caregiver as an adult. We examined whether informal caregivers experience work interference or a change in work status (i.e., retiring/quitting) due to caregiving. We also explored whether experiencing work interference or a change in work status was associated with greater emotional stress. This secondary analysis is drawn from the Fifth National Survey of Older Americans Act (OAA) program participants, which included 1,793 family caregivers. The present analysis is on caregivers of working age (18-64 years) providing care to another adult, which included 922 caregivers. Ordinal logit models were used to assess associations between experiencing work interference or a change in work status and emotional stress. Study weights were applied for all analyses. At the time of the survey, more than half (52.9%) of caregivers were employed full- or part-time. Among nonworking caregivers (i.e., not working or retired) at the time of the survey, 39.8% responded that they had quit or retired early due to caregiving demands. Among employed caregivers, 52.4% reported that informal caregiving had interfered with their employment. Importantly, those respondents who reported work interference or a change in work status were more likely to report higher levels of emotional stress associated with caregiving demands. These findings suggest the need to further explore work among informal caregivers and associations with emotional stress, as well as consider work-based policy approaches, organizational and/or societal, to support informal caregivers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Phillips, Samantha; Sen, Dil; McNamee, Roseanne
Work-related stress (WRS) is the leading cause of occupational ill-health in the education sector in the UK. Headship is believed to be a stressful role although there is little current research into stress in head teachers. Changes in the education sector since the late 1980s have meant that the findings of many existing studies are outdated. To investigate prevalence and causes of self-reported, WRS in head teachers in West Sussex, UK. A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire in a population of 290 head teachers and principals. The measuring instrument was a short stress evaluation tool (ASSET) plus additional questions derived from previous studies. Stress cases were defined as respondents who felt their work was 'very or extremely stressful'. Prevalence of self-reported, WRS was 43%. Using ASSET scoring, work overload and work-life imbalance were the key stressors. Females were significantly more stressed than males for a number of stressors including overload and control. Although there was some evidence that primary head teachers fared worse than their secondary counterparts, once the confounding effects of gender were included, there were few significant differences. The prevalence of self-reported stress in head teachers in West Sussex is significantly increased compared to recent studies of workers in the UK. The recurring theme in existing studies of workload as a main stressor is confirmed in the findings of this study. Gender and type of school does affect outcome and female head teachers have more reported stressors than their male colleagues.
Full Text Available There are very limited studies examining the relationships between work stress and psychological consequences of the teachers, especially elementary school teachers. Therefore, the primary purpose of conducting this research is to understand the correlation between teachers work stress, and burnout and job satisfaction. It also aims to understand sources and levels of teachers work stress. The findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between teachers work stress and burnout, and between teachers work stress and job satisfaction
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi
This study focused on estimating the relative risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in association with work stress, as indicated by the job-strain model, the effort-reward imbalance model, and the organizational injustice model. A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies were carried out. Studies were eligible if they had published a quantitative estimate of the association between work stress and incident CHD or cardiovascular mortality by January 2006. Fourteen prospective cohort studies were identified. For a total of 83 014 employees, the age- and gender-adjusted relative ratio of CHD for high versus low job strain was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15-1.84], but the ratio decreased to 1.16 (95% CI 0.94-1.43) after adjustment for risk factors and potential mediators. The age- and gender-adjusted risk ratio for a combination of high efforts and low rewards was 1.58 (95% CI 0.84-2.97) for 11 528 employees, and no reduction in the risk ratio was seen after further adjustments. For organizational injustice, the age- and gender-adjusted, and multiple-adjusted relative risks were 1.62 (95% CI 1.24-2.13) and 1.47 (95% CI 1.12-1.95), respectively, for a population of 7246 men and women. There was little standardization in the assessment of work stress within all three stress models, and significant heterogeneity in the effects of stress was observed between studies. Few studies were available for female samples. Observational data suggest an average 50% excess risk for CHD among employees with work stress. Further research is needed to confirm that a reduction in work stress will lead to a reduction in CHD risk.
Faulkner, Monica; Gerstenblatt, Paula; Lee, Ahyoung; Vallejo, Viana; Travis, Dnika
Childcare providers face multiple work-related stressors. Small studies of childcare providers have suggested that providers have high levels of depression compared to the general population. However, unlike other caregiving professions, the research examining childcare providers is sparse, and there is little information to inform practices and…
Phillips, Samantha J; Sen, Dil; McNamee, Roseanne
Work-related stress (WRS) is known to cause ill-health and decreased productivity. Work in the education sector is thought to be particularly stressful. Few studies have considered risk factors for WRS and health in head teachers. To investigate health in head teachers in West Sussex. To determine personal risk factors most likely to predict cases of WRS and of poor health in head teachers. A cross-sectional study, in a population of 290 head teachers and principals of colleges of further education, using a validated questionnaire, 'a short stress evaluation tool' (ASSET) and additional questions derived from earlier studies. Results were compared with the ASSET database 'norm' groups: a general population of workers (GPN) group and a group of managers and professionals (MPN). 'Caseness' was defined as respondents who felt work was 'very or extremely stressful'. Head teachers had poor physical and mental health compared to the GPN group. Psychological well-being, particularly of females and primary head teachers was worse than a comparative group of managers and professionals. Teachingstress in head teachers in West Sussex is high. Female head teachers had worse health outcomes. Our study identified possible personal risk factors predicting WRS and/or poor health in head teachers.
Fishta, Alba; Backé, Eva-Maria
Based on information reported in systematic reviews (SRevs), this study aimed to find out whether psychosocial stress at work leads to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. A systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE (until 2014) used a string based on PICOS components. A manual search was followed. Applying the predefined criteria, two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, selected full texts, and validated their quality. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion between reviewers. Studies of low quality were excluded. Contents of enrolled SRevs were extracted by one reviewer; a second reviewer evaluated their accurateness. The search resulted in 462 records. Six SRevs based on 81 studies (total population: ~1,468,670) fulfilled the inclusion criteria, four of "very good" (++) and two of "good" (+) quality. Excluded records were filed, and reasons for exclusion were documented in all cases. Different stress models were used to measure the work-related stress; the "demand-control model" was most commonly used. The two enrolled meta-analysis confirmed a modest (1.32, 95 % CI 1.09-1.59; Virtanen et al. 2013) to moderate evidence (1.45, 95 % CI 1.15-1.84; Kivimäki et al. 2006), predominantly among men, for the association between psychosocial stress at work and CV outcomes. Due to lacking information, it was not possible to give evidence on the dose-response relationship. Same to a SRev, an overview of SRev is used to summarize literature and identify areas in which research is needed. This overview can be used to: (a) Disseminate an up-to-date information on work-related stress as a risk factors for CV morbidity and mortality to government, health care providers, workers, and other stakeholders; (b) Encourage governments to better regulate the working conditions and consider work-related psychosocial stress as a hazardous factor that leads to CV diseases or mortality; and (c) Analyze gaps in the literature and provide a summary of research
Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea; Morrison, Bobbi; Murphy, Andrea; Barker, James; Ashcroft, Darren M; Phipps, Denham; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J
Among the many stresses faced by pharmacy staff, quality related event (QRE) learning can be among the most significant. In the absence of a supportive organizational culture, the potential for blaming individuals, versus identifying key process flaws, is significant and can be very intimidating to those involved in such discussions and may increase an already stressful work environment. This research develops and tests a model of the relationship between the work stress faced by pharmacists and the extent of QRE learning in community pharmacies. Building upon recent research models that explore job characteristics and safety climate, the model proposes that work stress captured by the effort that the pharmacist invests into job performance, the extent to which the pharmacist is rewarded for such efforts, and the extent of pharmacist work-related commitment to their job, influence pharmacist assessment of the working conditions within their community pharmacy. It is further proposed that working conditions influence the extent of a blame culture and safety focus in the pharmacy, which, in turn, influences organizational learning from QREs. This research formed part of a larger study focused on QRE reporting in community pharmacies. As part of the larger study, a total of 1035 questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacists, pharmacy managers, and pharmacy owners in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan during the fall of 2013 and winter and spring of 2014. Partial least squares (PLS) using SmartPLS was selected to test and further develop the proposed model. An examination of the statistical significance of latent variable paths, convergent validity, construct reliability, discriminant validity, and variance explained was used to assess the overall quality of the model. Of the 1035 questionnaire sent, a total of 432 questionnaires were returned for an initial response rate of approximately 42%. However, for this research, only questionnaires from staff
Boyle, Todd A.; Bishop, Andrea; Morrison, Bobbi; Murphy, Andrea; Barker, James; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Phipps, Denham; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil
Background Among the many stresses faced by pharmacy staff, quality related event (QRE) learning can be among the most significant. In the absence of a supportive organizational culture, the potential for blaming individuals, versus identifying key process flaws, is significant and can be very intimidating to those involved in such discussions and may increase an already stressful work environment. Objective This research develops and tests a model of the relationship between the work stress faced by pharmacists and the extent of QRE learning in community pharmacies. Building upon recent research models that explore job characteristics and safety climate, the model proposes that work stress captured by the effort that the pharmacist invests into job performance, the extent to which the pharmacist is rewarded for such efforts, and the extent of pharmacist work-related commitment to their job, influence pharmacist assessment of the working conditions within their community pharmacy. It is further proposed that working conditions influence the extent of a blame culture and safety focus in the pharmacy, which, in turn, influences organizational learning from QREs. Methods This research formed part of a larger study focused on QRE reporting in community pharmacies. As part of the larger study, a total of 1035 questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacists, pharmacy managers, and pharmacy owners in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan during the fall of 2013 and winter and spring of 2014. Partial least squares (PLS) using SmartPLS was selected to test and further develop the proposed model. An examination of the statistical significance of latent variable paths, convergent validity, construct reliability, discriminant validity, and variance explained was used to assess the overall quality of the model. Results Of the 1035 questionnaire sent, a total of 432 questionnaires were returned for an initial response rate of approximately 42%. However, for this research
Full Text Available Introduction: A nurse who experience burnout feelings will influence their motivation, and quality performance. This situation is probably affecting a decline in work quality towards the caring behaviour demonstrated by nurses to their patiens, particularly for a nurse who are working in the long-stay installation room facing directly to patient's problems. The purpose of this research is to identify the work stress level of nurse towards the nurse's caring behaviour in the long-stay installation room (IRNA in general hospital in Malang. Method: This research used descriptive – correlational, the sampling was Non Probability Purposive Sampling with 93 nurses as the corresponds. The data was analyzed by operating Correlation Pearson, with a significance of p < 0.05. Result: The result found that there was a substantial correlation between the work stress level and the nurse's caring behaviour with p = 0.008 and r = -0.274, and it was a negative correlation. Discussion: It means that when the stress level of nurses will declined, the nurse's caring behavior automatically will beamplified. Conversely, if the stess level of nurses intensively increased, the nurse's caring behaviour become decreased. Thus, this research is needed to be analyzed further in order to asses the quality of caring behaviour by expanding the connected indicator and variable. It is aimed to improve the professionalism and quality of nurses in giving the best service to patients this research need to be continued further in order to asses the quality of nurse's caring behavior by expanding the variable, which is related to internal factors, such as knowledge, perception, emotion, ect and also connected to external factors, such as environment, both physically and non physically like: climate, human being, social economic, culture and ect.
Kimberly J. McClure Brenchley
Full Text Available Psychology students delivered stress and coping workshops to homeless adolescent mothers as part of a college service-learning project. In this vulnerable and underserved population, stress reduction is critical. Service-learning was used as an avenue to enhance student learning and growth while helping meet this need in our community. The psychology students developed deeper learning, professional skills, and social awareness. The adolescent mothers developed stress reduction skills that they were able to successfully implement. Challenges and recommendations for the implementation of similar service-learning projects are discussed.
Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education
Mauss, Daniel; Li, Jian; Angerer, Peter
The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a short questionnaire for work-related stress entitled Work Well index (WWi) and its interaction with different variables of self-reported health. An online survey was conducted in a sample of 1,218 employees (51% female) in four countries of an international insurance company. Internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, convergent validity and criterion validity of the 10-item WWi were analyzed. Good internal consistency reliability of the WWi was obtained (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.85). Confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory model fit of the data (AGFI = 0.92). The WWi was highly correlated to conceptually close constructs such as demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and workplace social capital (p instrument measuring psychosocial stress at work. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Richter, Jutta G; Muth, Thomas; Li, Jian; Brinks, Ralph; Chehab, Gamal; Koch, Tobias; Siegrist, Johannes; Angerer, Peter; Huscher, Dörte; Schneider, Matthias
Psychosocial stress at work not only affects the healthy working population, but also workers with chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate the psychosocial work stress levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional study applied the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire - an internationally established instrument that measures work stress - to patients with SLE and RA who were capable of work and to a group of controls without these diseases. Participants were recruited through rheumatologists in private practices, hospitals, and from self-help groups by personal communication, paper-based flyers, and online advertisements. Because very few studies tested the ERI's applicability in patient groups, with a lack of evidence in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, internal consistency and construct validity of the ERI measure were evaluated. Data came from 270 patients with RA and 247 with SLE, and 178 controls. Patients showed elevated psychosocial stress at work compared to controls. Across the total sample and all groups, satisfactory internal consistencies of the scales effort, reward, and overcommitment were obtained (Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.70), and confirmatory factor analysis replicated the theoretical structure of the ERI model (goodness-of-fit index > 0.80). We found elevated psychosocial stress at work in patients with SLE and RA compared to controls by applying the ERI model. Despite some heterogeneity in the sample, we achieved satisfactory psychometric properties of the ERI questionnaire. Our results suggest that the ERI questionnaire is a psychometrically useful tool to be implemented in epidemiological studies of employed patients with SLE and RA.
Wiegel, Constantin; Sattler, Sebastian; Göritz, Anja S; Diewald, Martin
Working conditions of academic staff have become increasingly complex and occupational exposure has risen. This study investigates whether work-related stress is associated with the use of prescription drugs for cognitive enhancement (CE). The study was designed around three web-based surveys (n1 = 1131; n2 = 936; n3 = 906) to which university teachers at four German universities were asked to respond. It assessed past CE-drug use and the willingness to use CE-drugs as factors influencing future use. Overlap among participants across the surveys allowed for analyses of stability of the results across time. Our study suggests a currently very low prevalence of CE-drug use as well as a low willingness to use such drugs. The results showed a strong association between perceptions of work-related stress and all measures of CE-drug use (when controlling for potential confounding factors). They also showed that past use of CE-drugs increased participants' willingness to use them again in the future, as did lower levels of social support. Two different measures showed that participants' moral qualms against the use of CE-drugs decreased their probability of using them. The results increase our knowledge about the prevalence of CE-drug use and our understanding of what motivates and inhibits the use of CE-drug.
Sari, Dwi Wulan; Fajar, Nur Alam; Sitorus, Rico Januar
Background : Work stress is a psychological problem that influence the quality and work result. There are so many factors in work can be stressor. Some studies found that the biggest stressor is intrinsic factor that derives from work environment. The difference of work factor may cause differential work stress level of the workers. Method : This study used cross sectional design. All of subject of research population as many as 24 workers from WTC area and 32 workers from official area...
Schrijvers, C. T.; van de Mheen, H. D.; Stronks, K.; Mackenbach, J. P.
The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991 among inhabitants of 18 municipalities in the southeastern
C.Th.M. Schrijvers (Carola); H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)
textabstractBACKGROUND: The aim was to study the impact of different categories of working conditions on the association between occupational class and self-reported health in the working population. METHODS: Data were collected through a postal survey conducted in 1991
Lee, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Shieunt-Han; Tsai, Chao-Wen; Lee, Chia-Ying
To determine work stress, and stress-coping strategies, and to analyze their the relationships in order to improve health-promoting lifestyle of nurses in Taiwan. Three hundred eighty-five nurses who had work experience for more than 6 mo, were selected from four district hospitals in Kaohsiung and Ping Tung. We used a stratified cluster random sampling method for the selection. The nurses answered a self-report questionnaire, which was categorized into four sections: personal background data, work stress, stress-coping strategies, and health-promoting lifestyle. The findings indicate work stress and the health promoting lifestyle of nurses are at a higher level, with stress-coping strategies being at a medium level. Work stress and stress-coping strategies were significantly and positively correlated. Professional relationships, managerial role, personal responsibility, and recognition of work stress and the responsibilities of a health-promoting lifestyle were negatively correlated. Managerial role, personal responsibility, and organizational atmosphere of work stress as well as realization, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Recognition of work stress and stress management, items of health-promoting lifestyle, were negatively correlated. Health responsibility, and self-actualization, items of health-promoting lifestyle, as well as stress-coping strategies were negatively correlated. Nutrition, an item of health-promoting lifestyle, and the support stress-coping strategy was negatively correlated. Nurses have greater work pressure and better work stress-coping strategies, but worse health responsibility and realization of a health-promoting lifestyle. We suggest hospitals build good relationships and appropriately increase employment of nurses through a good work atmosphere to achieve nurses' realization of a health-promoting lifestyle.
Ramos Romualdo; Brauchli Rebecca; Bauer Georg; Wehner Theo; Hämmig Oliver
OBJECTIVE To understand the relationship between volunteering and health in the overlooked yet highly engaged working population, adopting a contextualizing balance approach. We hypothesize that volunteering may function as a psychosocial resource, contributing to work-life balance and, ultimately, health. METHODS A total of 746 Swiss workers participated in an online survey; 35% (N = 264) were additionally volunteers in a nonprofit organization. We assessed volunteering, work-life balance...
Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X
Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Yonezawa, T.; Onimura, K.; Itoh, H.; Saito, I.; Takamatsu, H.; Fujitani, T.
In order to grasp the stress corrosion cracking quantitative resistance of Alloys 600 and 690 in PWR primary water, the authors have studied the effect of cold working and applied stress on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of Alloys 600 and 690, in high temperature water. Stress corrosion cracking tests were conducted at 360 degrees C (633K) in a simulated PWR primary water for about 12,000 hours or 24,000 hours. From the test results, it is concluded that the stress corrosion cracking resistance in the cold worked Alloy 600 at the same applied stress level increases with an increase in cold working ratio, and the cold worked Alloys of thermally treated 690 have the excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance. Further, in this paper, the planning of stress corrosion cracking test for weld joints and weld metal of Alloy 600 is described
Gray-Stanley, J. A.; Muramatsu, N.; Heller, T.; Hughes, S.; Johnson, T. P.; Ramirez-Valles, J.
Background: Although work stress can impede the capacity of direct support professionals and contribute to mental health challenges, external (i.e. work social support) and internal resources (i.e. an internal locus of control) have been shown to help DSPs cope more actively. We examined how work stress was associated with depression, with a…
Ramlani Lina Sinaulan
Full Text Available Performance is a form of behavior of a person or organization with achievement orientation. The study results are known (a the school climate affect performance of teachers, b there is influence of work stress on teacher performance, (c work motivation effect on teacher performance, d school climate influence on job motivation of teachers, and (e work stress effect on work motivation of teachers. Suggestions studies (a improving teacher performance should the top priority schools in school management efforts. This condition given that performance of teachers are the main pillars that determine the success of the school in improving quality of students. Therefore, performance of the teacher must always be good and necessary to update the knowledge of teachers on the latest information in education as benchmarks increase teacher performance, (b job motivation of teachers needs to improved, among others, with reward and punishment impartial towards the success achieved by the teacher as well as the violations committed so that it becomes part of an effort to motivate teachers to work.
Abstract. The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress.
Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.
H; Z salak
Introduction: Today, women alongside men to help their family economic cycle. So the quality of work life and job stress affect on behavioral reactions such as job satisfaction, job involvement and job performance. Because more women than men experience job stress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of marriage enrichment training on job stress and quality of work life of working women at Bafg Central Iron Ore Company. Methods: This study was quasi-experimental...
Full Text Available In everyday life, urban residents, especially the younger population, have given up some healthy habits of spending their free time outdoors in urban forests or parks. This study was conducted in order to understand how urban nature might help in reducing psychological stress and improving mental wellbeing. The participants were volunteer students of the Faculty of Forestry in Belgrade (n=47. These students were randomly recruited in the study and control group and self-tested using DASS 21 scale. The Arboretum of the Faculty of Forestry represented a research location and a special healing environment with a high variety of species. The study group stayed at the Arboretum during the study break period, while a control group was inside the Faculty. After the intervention, a slightly greater reduction in stress scale on the total score was recorded in the study group (F1.45 = 3.781; r < .058. This study has shown that urban green areas can have a positive impact on the mental well-being and reveal their role as a great response to the stress from urban population.
Khader, Yousef S; Airan, Dana M; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim
The purposes of this study were to develop a work stress inventory for dental assistants (WSI-DA) in Jordan and examine its psychometric properties and to describe potentially stressful work-related conditions related to the profession of dental assistance in Jordan. A total of 542 dental assistants working in private dental clinics in Jordan participated in this study. The stages of instrument development included selecting an initial item pool, choosing the best items, deciding on the questionnaire format, pretesting the instrument, and determining its reliability and validity. An initial set of 55 items was selected and categorized into nine hypothetical categories. Further testing and using factor analysis ended with a 35-item, nine-scale instrument. The raw score for each scale was calculated by adding the responses for individual items and then transformed to 0-100 scales. The item-level validity, item internal consistency, item discriminant validity, and Cronbach's alpha were assessed. Nine factors had eigenvalues greater than one. The nine factors accounted for 78.7 percent of the total variability in the 35-item questionnaire. All item-scale correlations were greater than the recommended correlation of 0.40. Except patient's suffer scale (Cronbach's alpha = 0.56), all other scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha exceeding the minimum standard of 0.7 and ranging from 0.71 to 0.87. Test-retest reliability showed acceptable reliability in all nine scales and ranged from 0.61 to 0.92. The 35-item, nine-scale WSI-DA demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability when used among dental assistants in Jordan.
Full Text Available Background Like other health professionals, community pharmacists are exposed to stress factors (being efficient, avoiding mistakes and bearing emotional load, but they are also under the pressure of entrepreneurial responsibilities. The main objective was to assess the level of work-related stress in French community pharmacies. The other objectives of the study were to assess the associated comorbidities and causes of work-related stress. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was sent to all French community pharmacies by email. The survey was anonymous and designed to collect the following items: socio-demographic factors, professional status, characteristics of community pharmacy, work-related stress (visual analogic scale—VAS, fatigue (VAS, sleep disturbances (questions, anxiety and depression symptoms (hospital anxiety and depression scale, medical consultation for work-related stress, medication use for work related stress, psychoactive drug-use and causes of work-related stress. Participants were included in the survey if they were pharmacists (owner or assistant or pharmacy technicians working in a community pharmacy at the time of the survey. Exclusion criteria were defined as follows: pharmacy students or other professionals involved in a community pharmacy (e.g. dietician, beautician and lack of professional status information. There was no age limitation. Results After three months of data collection, 1,339 participants answered the survey and 1,272 participants were included in conformity with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and to avoid missing data on the primary endpoint. Work-related stress was detected in 32.8% (417/1,272 of individuals (scores ≥70/100. Men were significantly more affected than women and there was no difference between professional statuses and no relation with the age of the participants. Work-related stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep
Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Lambert, Céline; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Cuny, Damien; Vennat, Brigitte
Background Like other health professionals, community pharmacists are exposed to stress factors (being efficient, avoiding mistakes and bearing emotional load), but they are also under the pressure of entrepreneurial responsibilities. The main objective was to assess the level of work-related stress in French community pharmacies. The other objectives of the study were to assess the associated comorbidities and causes of work-related stress. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was sent to all French community pharmacies by email. The survey was anonymous and designed to collect the following items: socio-demographic factors, professional status, characteristics of community pharmacy, work-related stress (visual analogic scale—VAS), fatigue (VAS), sleep disturbances (questions), anxiety and depression symptoms (hospital anxiety and depression scale), medical consultation for work-related stress, medication use for work related stress, psychoactive drug-use and causes of work-related stress. Participants were included in the survey if they were pharmacists (owner or assistant) or pharmacy technicians working in a community pharmacy at the time of the survey. Exclusion criteria were defined as follows: pharmacy students or other professionals involved in a community pharmacy (e.g. dietician, beautician) and lack of professional status information. There was no age limitation. Results After three months of data collection, 1,339 participants answered the survey and 1,272 participants were included in conformity with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and to avoid missing data on the primary endpoint. Work-related stress was detected in 32.8% (417/1,272) of individuals (scores ≥70/100). Men were significantly more affected than women and there was no difference between professional statuses and no relation with the age of the participants. Work-related stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, medical
Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Lambert, Céline; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Cuny, Damien; Vennat, Brigitte
Like other health professionals, community pharmacists are exposed to stress factors (being efficient, avoiding mistakes and bearing emotional load), but they are also under the pressure of entrepreneurial responsibilities. The main objective was to assess the level of work-related stress in French community pharmacies. The other objectives of the study were to assess the associated comorbidities and causes of work-related stress. This observational cross-sectional study was sent to all French community pharmacies by email. The survey was anonymous and designed to collect the following items: socio-demographic factors, professional status, characteristics of community pharmacy, work-related stress (visual analogic scale-VAS), fatigue (VAS), sleep disturbances (questions), anxiety and depression symptoms (hospital anxiety and depression scale), medical consultation for work-related stress, medication use for work related stress, psychoactive drug-use and causes of work-related stress. Participants were included in the survey if they were pharmacists (owner or assistant) or pharmacy technicians working in a community pharmacy at the time of the survey. Exclusion criteria were defined as follows: pharmacy students or other professionals involved in a community pharmacy (e.g. dietician, beautician) and lack of professional status information. There was no age limitation. After three months of data collection, 1,339 participants answered the survey and 1,272 participants were included in conformity with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and to avoid missing data on the primary endpoint. Work-related stress was detected in 32.8% (417/1,272) of individuals (scores ≥70/100). Men were significantly more affected than women and there was no difference between professional statuses and no relation with the age of the participants. Work-related stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, medical consultations, medication use
Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana
One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual
population underwent a second investigation on sleep studied) a pathological level of sleepiness disturbances by means of an assisted was found...disturbances but the between group narcolepsy (three questions regarding the differences did not result statistically presence of cataplexy, sleep paralysis ...Adaptability to Irregular Rest-Work Rhythms/Status of the Use of Drugs in Sleep -Wakefulness Management [les Differences entre individus concernant les
Arismunandar, Arismunandar; Emmiyati, Nuri
There are very limited studies examining the relationships between work stress and psychological consequences of the teachers, especially elementary school teachers. Therefore, the primary purpose of conducting this research is to understand the correlation between teachers work stress, and burnout and job satisfaction. It also aims to understand sources and levels of teachers work stress. The findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between teachers work stress and burnout,...
Evaluation of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching combined with light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress
Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schoutens, Antonius M. C.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
Background: Chronic work-related stress is quite prevalent in the working population and is in some cases accompanied by long-term sick leave. These stress complaints highly impact employees and are costly due to lost productivity and medical expenses. A new treatment platform with light therapy
Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F; Basu, Anirban; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Harris, Jeffrey R
Poor balance between work and family can be a major stressor for women with young children and have a negative impact on emotional well-being. Family-friendly workplace attributes may reduce stress and depressive symptoms among this population. However, few studies have analyzed the role of specific workplace attributes on mental health outcomes among women with young children because available data are limited. This study examines the impact of workplace attributes on changes in depressive symptoms among working women with young children between 6 and 24 months of age. This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) collected between 1991 and 1993 to examine the effects of work intensity, work schedule (night/day/variable), schedule flexibility, working from home, and work stress on changes in depressive symptoms among a national US sample of 570 women who returned to work within 6 months after childbirth. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D score. Treatment effects were estimated using fixed effects regression models. Working from home and work stress predicted within-individual changes in depressive symptoms between 6 and 24 months postchildbirth. Women who worked from home reported a statistically significant decrease in depression scores over time (β = -1.36, SE = 0.51, p = 0.002). Women who reported a one-unit increase in job concerns experienced, on average, a 2-point increase in depression scores over time (β = 1.73, SE = 0.37, p Work intensity, work schedule, and schedule flexibility were not associated with changes in depressive symptoms. This study is one of the few to use longitudinal data and causal-inference techniques to examine whether specific workplace attributes influence depressive symptoms among women with young children. Reducing stress in the workplace and allowing women to work from home may improve
Vânia Lúcia Pereira de Andrade
Full Text Available Occupational stress and coping strategies have increasingly become the focus of research for their applied feature. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support has helped people deal with stressful situations in the workplace. In order to reach this aim an exploratory mixed method embedded research design was conducted. Study 1, quantitative, described the level of satisfaction with social support and perceived organizational support by employing a scale that summarized factors of the perceived organizational support. Study 2, a qualitative one, sought to describe the stressors in the workplace environment, to whom the workers resorted to, and the kind of perceived social support. The group interview script was based on the dimensions proposed by Folkman e Lazarus (1985 model. Fifty-one volunteer workers participated in the study. Results showed a lack of social support in the workplace: incivility of colleagues and managers, psychological contract breach and conflict of values. Investments in personal development that stimulate urbanity in organizations and a listening space for employees are suggested actions that can benefit affective dimensions of work.
Thomas, Narelle; Clarke, Valerie; Lavery, Judy
Results of a self-report questionnaire indicated that female primary teachers in Australia report moderate levels of global, work, and family stress. Time and workload pressure was the major work stressor, and responsibility for child rearing the major family stressor. Work stress and home stress both impacted on each other. (EV)
Merino Tejedor, Enrique; Carbonero Martín, Miguel Angel; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Morante Benadero, María Eugenia
The aim of this investigation is to verify the factorial validity of the "Scale Irritation" in a sample of 181 teachers of Secondary Education from the center of Spain. At the same time, the investigation tries to verify the validity of construct of the scale correlating the results with the burnout evaluated through the Brief Questionnaire of Burnout adapted for teachers. The results obtained by means of the exploratory factor analysis of the Scale Irritation confirm the presence of two factors, as it appears in other international investigations. The confirmatory analysis verifies the proposal of a model of two factors. The significant correlation obtained among the Irritation Scale and the burnout confirms the validity of construct and verifies that a high irritation is associated significantly to the burnout, as it is foreseen by the theory, which considers both aspects related to the process of stress at work.
Agung Wahyu Handaru
Full Text Available The purpose of this research are: 1 To know and analyze the description for the work environment, work stress, and performance of permanent employees of PT "S", 2 To know and analyze whether there is influence between the work environment on the performance of permanent employees PT "S", 3 To know and to analyze whether there is influence between work stress on performance of permanent employee of PT "S", 4 To know and analyze whether there is influence between work environment and work stress to performance of regular employees of PT "S". This research using descriptive and explanatory analysis. This research is taken 45 regular employees at PT "S", Jakarta. The technique of data collection used survey method by distributing questionnaires, which then processed with program SPSS 22.0. The result shows a significant influence of work environment and work stress on performance.
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare providers being over-worked and under staffed are prone to poor mental health. Unhealthy work place compounds it further. Aims: This study was aimed at to assess the mental health status of a medical university employee with special reference to work place stressors. Settings and design: A cross-sectional study was designed and carried out at a Rural Health University. Materials and Methods: Both the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Holmes-Rahe Scale were used to evaluate 406 participants. Statistical analysis: Multivariate analysis, correlation, and ANOVA by SPSS 11.0. Results: The minimum age of the participant was 19 years and the maximum 64 years, with an average age at 35.09 years. On the GHQ scale 239(58.9% recorded psychiatric morbidity out of which 201(49.5% had moderate and 38(9.3% severe morbidity. Doctors were the highest stressed group (P ≤ 0.04. Prominent work environmental stressors were poor departmental reorganization, lack of cohesiveness in department, difficult superiors and juniors (P ≤ 0.001, Pearson correlation. Stressors associated with work organization and work nature were: noninvolvement in departmental decision making and lack of proper feedback; along with; work load, lack of clarity in job, and a erratic work schedule (P ≤ 0.001 on Pearson correlation. Harassment, favoritism, discrimination, and lack of self-expression (P ≤ 0.003 were other factors responsible for work dissatisfaction. Conclusions: A high stress level was detected in the study population. The principal stressors were work environment related. Poor work culture was found to lead to job dissatisfaction among majority.
Mishra, Badrinarayan; Mehta, Sc; Sinha, Nidhi Dinesh; Shukla, Sushil Kumar; Ahmed, Nadeem; Kawatra, Abhishek
Healthcare providers being over-worked and under staffed are prone to poor mental health. Unhealthy work place compounds it further. This study was aimed at to assess the mental health status of a medical university employee with special reference to work place stressors. A cross-sectional study was designed and carried out at a Rural Health University. Both the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 and Holmes-Rahe Scale were used to evaluate 406 participants. Multivariate analysis, correlation, and ANOVA by SPSS 11.0. The minimum age of the participant was 19 years and the maximum 64 years, with an average age at 35.09 years. On the GHQ scale 239(58.9%) recorded psychiatric morbidity out of which 201(49.5%) had moderate and 38(9.3%) severe morbidity. Doctors were the highest stressed group (P ≤ 0.04). Prominent work environmental stressors were poor departmental reorganization, lack of cohesiveness in department, difficult superiors and juniors (P ≤ 0.001, Pearson correlation). Stressors associated with work organization and work nature were: noninvolvement in departmental decision making and lack of proper feedback; along with; work load, lack of clarity in job, and a erratic work schedule (P ≤ 0.001 on Pearson correlation). Harassment, favoritism, discrimination, and lack of self-expression (P ≤ 0.003) were other factors responsible for work dissatisfaction. A high stress level was detected in the study population. The principal stressors were work environment related. Poor work culture was found to lead to job dissatisfaction among majority.
Falco, A; Girardi, D; Marcuzzo, G; De Carlo, A; Bartolucci, G B
In the literature negative affectivity (NA) is considered both a confounding variable as well as a predictive variable for work-related stress. However, a common limitation in this line of research relates to the use of self-report measures for determining NA, perceived stressors and psychophysical strain. To test, using a multi-method study, a theoretical model that correlates NA, perceived interpersonal conflict (with co-workers and supervisors), psychophysical strain and medically certified sickness absences. A multi-method prospective study was carried out on a sample of metalworkers. NA and interpersonal conflict were determined using self-report (Time 1), whereas psychophysical strain was determined by an occupational physician (Time 2). Data on medically certified sickness absences were collected from the company's database (Time 3). There were 326 participants. The results showed an association between NA and conflict with co-workers, as well as between NA and conflict with supervisors. Psychophysical strain could be predicted from NA and conflict with co-workers but not from conflict with supervisors. NA had a significant indirect effect on psychophysical strain through conflict with co-workers. Lastly, psychophysical strain predicted sickness absences from work. NA influenced psychophysical strain in the worker, both directly and indirectly, through perceived conflict with co-workers.
Mershenova, G; Kossybayeva, M; Chancharov, B; Mirzayeva, B; Amangeldiyeva, K
Purpose of the research was to study clinical features of arterial hypertension in the working population in Karaganda. The number of participants (500 patients): base group (250 patients) and control group (250 patients). The criteria for inclusion (age and gender characteristics, diseases/conditions and etc): age from 18 to 63 years; presence of arterial hypertension 1, 2 and 3 grades; possibility to measure the arterial pressure in dynamic; patients, who agreed to participate in the research work (the existence of informed consent). The criteria for an exception: children under 18 years, pregnant, the patient's refusal to participate in the research work. Methods of research - retrospective analysis of patients card in base and control groups at the working population of the city of Karaganda; physical examinations (anthropometrical indicators) in base and control groups. The processing and analysis of materials was conducted by using the average values and their standard errors. Significance of differences of independent sets of were estimated with parametric and nonparametric methods. In the study group compared with control were more common all the risk factors of hypertension, especially hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia in half of the cases in patients with arterial hypertension working age. We believe that the main factors of risk in arterial hypertension are hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia with combination in other factors, affecting mainly on the course and outcome of hypertension. Degrees of hypertension was dependent from age of patients and duration of illness, there was a trend more pronounced degree of hypertension in men than in women. In men with slavic nationality was more pronounced hypertension 1,2 and 3 degree, while in Kazakh nationality men often was observed hypertension 1, 2 degree. The degree of hypertension in the study group depending on the mental and physical labor did not observed. Hypertension 2-3 degrees was observed at
Conley, Sharon; Woosley, Sherry A.
Using a sample of 371 elementary and secondary teachers, this study examined whether three role stresses (role ambiguity, conflict, and overload) are related to two individually and organizationally related values and how teachers moderated stresses. Organizational commitment is affected by role stress. Teaming might increase role ambiguity.…
Full Text Available Cognitive deficits are consistently demonstrated in individuals with schizophrenia. Cognitive training involves structured exercises prescribed and undertaken with the intention of enhancing cognitive abilities such as attention, memory, and problem solving. Thus, cognitive training represents a potentially promising intervention for enhancing cognitive abilities in schizophrenia. However, cognitive training programs are numerous and heterogeneous, hence, the generalizability of training related outcomes can be challenging to assess. This article will provide a brief overview of current literature on cognitive training and explore how knowledge of working memory training in healthy populations can potentially be applied to enhance cognitive functioning of individuals with schizophrenia.
Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Glasscock, David John; Willert, Morten Vejs; Carstensen, Ole; Biering, Karin
Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a stress management intervention (SMI) on lasting return to work (RTW) among patients with work-related stress complaints. Methods Sickness benefit departments from three local municipalities referred patients on sick leave with work-related adjustment disorders or mild depression to the Department of Occupational Medicine, Regional Hospital West Jutland. A 2× randomization procedure allocated patients into one of three groups: intervention (N=58), control A (which received a clinical assessment; N=56), or control B (no assessment; N=49). Treatment comprised individual work-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an optional workplace intervention. The outcome was time until lasting RTW (16 and 44 weeks follow-up) using register data. Results Median number of weeks until lasting RTW was 15, 19, and 32 for the intervention group, control A, and control B respectively. However, for group B, clinical assessment was not part of the inclusion process, which may have introduced selection bias. In the fully-adjusted Cox regression model, the intervention group exhibited significantly faster lasting RTW at 44 weeks; hazard ratio (HR) 1.57 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-2.44] relative to control group A, with a non-significant trend evident at 16 weeks; HR 1.70 (95% CI 0.94-3.10), when controlling for age, gender, occupation, sick leave during previous year, full or partial sick leave, and diagnosis. Unadjusted analyses remained directionally consistent but were reduced to marginal significance. Conclusions There was a tendency towards faster lasting RTW in the intervention group compared to control A, which received clinical assessment, in all analyses. The intervention group returned to work about 4 weeks earlier than control A, which could translate into substantial financial gains.
Malard, Lucile; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle
The aim of the study was to assess the changes in psychosocial work factors in the French working population between 2006 and 2010 and to examine potential differential changes according to age, occupation, public/private sector, work contract and self-employed/employee status. The study sample included 5,600 workers followed up from 2006 to 2010 from the national representative Santé et Itinéraire Professionnel (SIP) survey. Psychosocial work factors included decision latitude, psychological demands, social support, reward, overcommitment, long working hours, predictability, night- and shift work, emotional demands, role conflict, ethical conflict, tensions with the public, job insecurity and work-life imbalance, and were measured using scores. Linear regressions were used to analyse the change in the scores of these factors adjusted for age and initial score. All analyses were stratified by gender. Psychosocial work factors worsened between 2006 and 2010: decision latitude, social support, reward, role conflict and work-life imbalance for both genders, and psychological demands, emotional demands, ethical conflict and tensions with the public for women. Differential changes according to age, occupation, public/private sector, work contract and self-employed/employee status were observed suggesting that some groups may be more likely to be exposed to negative changes especially the younger, low- and high-skilled and public sector workers. Monitoring exposure to psychosocial work factors over time may be crucial, and prevention policies should take into account that deterioration of psychosocial work factors may be sharper among subgroups such as younger, low- and high-skilled and public sector workers.
Full Text Available The nursing profession is characterized by high levels of work stress and serious associated health problems. The aim of the present study was to explore the strategies nurses employ before, during and after work to cope with every day work stress. The literature review indicated that nurses use mechanisms which at the beginning of shift work as preparation mechanisms, during work as stress controllers and after the end of it as an opportunity for nursing staff’s emotional recovery. In terms of effectiveness, the use of stress coping mechanisms not only reduces job burnout but also increases nurses’ job satisfaction and wellbeing. However, evidence show that their duration is short and their effectiveness may be limited. Changes mainly in organizational level are required to create a more positive working environment and advocate for nurses’ good level of health and wellbeing.
Tuckey, Michelle R; Searle, Ben J; Boyd, Carolyn M; Winefield, Anthony H; Winefield, Helen R
The challenge-hindrance framework has proved useful for explaining inconsistencies in relationships between work stressors and important outcomes. By introducing the distinction between threat and hindrance to this framework, we capture the potential for personal harm or loss (threat) associated with stressors, as distinct from the potential to block goal attainment (hindrance) or promote gain (challenge). In Study 1, survey data were collected from 609 retail workers, 220 of whom responded 6 months later. The results supported a 3-factor threat-hindrance-challenge stressor structure and showed that threat stressors are associated with increased psychological distress and emotional exhaustion, and reduced dedication, whereas hindrance stressors undermine dedication but may not be related to distress or exhaustion with threats included in the model. Study 2 utilized a diary study design, with data collected from 207 workers over 3 workdays. Findings revealed that the threat, hindrance, and challenge appraisals of individual workers are statistically distinct, and associated with stressors and well-being as anticipated: threats with role conflict and anxiety, hindrances with organizational constraints and fatigue, and challenges with skill demands and enthusiasm. Overall, moving to a 3-dimensional challenge-hindrance-threat framework for stressors and stress appraisals will support a more accurate picture regarding the nature, processes, and effects of stressors on individuals and organizations, and ensure prevention efforts are not misguided. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Weigl, M; Schneider, A; Hoffmann, F; Angerer, P
Poor hospital work environments affect physicians' work stress. With a focus on hospital pediatricians, we sought to investigate associations between work stress, burnout, and quality of care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in N = 96 pediatricians of a German academic children's hospital (response rate = 73.8 %). All variables were assessed with standardized questionnaires. Multivariate regression analyses were applied to investigate associations after adjusting for potential confounders. Critically high work stress (effort/reward ratio, ERR > 1.0) was reported by N = 25 (28.4 %) participants. Pediatricians in inpatient wards had significantly more work stress than their colleagues in intensive care units and outpatient wards; 10.2 % of surveyed pediatricians reported critically high burnout. Again, inpatient ward staff reported significantly increased emotional exhaustion. After controlling for several confounders, we found that pediatricians with high work stress and emotional exhaustion reported reduced quality of care. Mediation analyses revealed that especially pediatricians' emotional exhaustion partially mediated the effect of work stress on quality of care. Results demonstrate close relationships between increased work stress and burnout as well as diminished quality of care. High work stress environments in pediatric care influence mental health of pediatricians as well as quality of patient care. • The quality of pediatricians' work environment in the hospital is associated with their work stress and burnout. • The consequences of pediatricians' work life for the quality of care need to be addressed in order to inform interventions to improve work life and care quality. • Our study shows associations between increased work stress and burnout with mitigated quality of care. • Beyond indirect effects of work stress through emotional exhaustion on quality of care we also observed direct detrimental effects of pediatricians
Peters, Louise; Cant, Robyn; Sellick, Kenneth; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan; Burney, Sue; Karimi, Leila
Palliative care nurses are at risk of work stress because their role involves exposure to frequent deaths and family grieving. Little is known about their degree of stress or whether they suffer stress or burnout more than nurses in other disciplines. The aim of this paper is to critically examine the current literature concerning stress and burnout in palliative care nurses. Sixteen papers were included in the review. Although work demands were a common cause of stress in the studies reported, there was no strong evidence that palliative care or hospice nurses experienced higher levels of stress than nurses in other disciplines. Common causes of stress were the work environment, role conflict, and issues with patients and their families. Constructive coping styles appeared to help nurses to manage stress. Managers have a key role in providing education and training for palliative care nurses to support their personal development and to help reduce vulnerability to and the impact of stress in the workplace.
Abiodun M. Lawal
Conclusion: Our findings stress that judgement of others’ emotions, accurate use of emotion by nurses and support from management of the hospital are most important in explaining their reactions towards work-related stress.
Full Text Available Mining operations are frequently associated with difficult working conditions and high levels of workplace stress. Workplace stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that oc-cur when the psychological and...
Muhamedagic, Lejla; Muhamedagic, Belma; Halilovic, Emina Alimanovic; Halimic, Jasmina Alajbegovic; Stankovic, Aleksa; Muracevic, Bedrana
Aim To determine relation between near work and myopia progression in student population. Causes of myopia occurrence are not sufficiently explained. Methods This retrospective-prospective, descriptive research included 100 students with verified myopia up to -3 Dsph. Ophthalmological examination and measurement diopter-hours variable (Dh) were done twice, in the period from January 2011 until January 2012. Results A multivariate regression analysis of impact on the difference of distance visual acuity without correction to the right and left eye and difference of automatic computer refractometry in cycloplegia of both eyes indicates that, diopter-hours variable (Dh) had statistically significant impact on increase of distance visual acuity difference (right eye OR: I measurement–Dh 1.489, II measurement–Dh 1.544, prefractometry in cycloplegia (right eye OR: I measurement 1.361, II measurement 1.493, p<0.05; left eye OR: I measurement 0.931, II measurement 1.019, p<0.05) during both measurements. Conclusion Near work cause the increase of myopia. This research opened a perspective for other researches on the impact of near work on myopia. PMID:24944532
Krantz, Gunilla; Lundberg, Ulf
This study aimed to analyse, in a homogeneous population of highly educated men and women, gender differences in self-reported sickness absence as related to paid and unpaid work and combinations of these (double exposure), as well as to perceived work stress and work-home conflict, i.e. conflict between demands from the home and work environment. A total of 743 women and 596 men, full-time working white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population aged 32-58, were assessed by a Swedish total workload instrument. The influence of conditions in paid and unpaid work and combinations of these on self-reported sickness absence was investigated by multivariate regression analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences between men and women. Overtime was associated with lower sickness absence, not only for men but also for women, and a double-exposure situation did not increase the risk of sick leave. Contrary to what is normally seen, conflict between demands did not emerge as a risk factor for sickness absence for women, but for men. Our assumption that sickness absence patterns would be more similar for white-collar men and women than for the general population was not confirmed. However, the women working most hours were also the least sick-listed and assumed less responsibility for household chores. These women were mainly in top-level positions and therefore we conclude that men and women in these high-level positions seem to share household burdens more evenly, but they can also afford to employ someone to assist in the household.
Full Text Available Psychological stress is suggested to accelerate the rate of biological aging. We investigated whether work-related exhaustion, an indicator of prolonged work stress, is associated with accelerated biological aging, as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomeres, that is, the DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends in cells.We used data from a representative sample of the Finnish working-age population, the Health 2000 Study. Our sample consisted of 2911 men and women aged 30-64. Work-related exhaustion was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey. We determined relative leukocyte telomere length using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR -based method.After adjustment for age and sex, individuals with severe exhaustion had leukocyte telomeres on average 0.043 relative units shorter (standard error of the mean 0.016 than those with no exhaustion (p = 0.009. The association between exhaustion and relative telomere length remained significant after additional adjustment for marital and socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and morbidities (adjusted difference 0.044 relative units, standard error of the mean 0.017, p = 0.008.These data suggest that work-related exhaustion is related to the acceleration of the rate of biological aging. This hypothesis awaits confirmation in a prospective study measuring changes in relative telomere length over time.
Ahola, Kirsi; Sirén, Ilari; Kivimäki, Mika; Ripatti, Samuli; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Hovatta, Iiris
Psychological stress is suggested to accelerate the rate of biological aging. We investigated whether work-related exhaustion, an indicator of prolonged work stress, is associated with accelerated biological aging, as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomeres, that is, the DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends in cells. We used data from a representative sample of the Finnish working-age population, the Health 2000 Study. Our sample consisted of 2911 men and women aged 30-64. Work-related exhaustion was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey. We determined relative leukocyte telomere length using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based method. After adjustment for age and sex, individuals with severe exhaustion had leukocyte telomeres on average 0.043 relative units shorter (standard error of the mean 0.016) than those with no exhaustion (p = 0.009). The association between exhaustion and relative telomere length remained significant after additional adjustment for marital and socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and morbidities (adjusted difference 0.044 relative units, standard error of the mean 0.017, p = 0.008). These data suggest that work-related exhaustion is related to the acceleration of the rate of biological aging. This hypothesis awaits confirmation in a prospective study measuring changes in relative telomere length over time.
Gerrit J. Louw
Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine how Moos's hypothesised stress and coping model (1994 fitted a sample of police officers. Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to understand police officers' unique needs and how the frequency and/or intensity of perceived stress could be reduced so that they would be able to cope more effectively with stress. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental survey design, following the quantitative tradition, was used in pursuit of the research objectives. A random sample of 505 participants was extracted from a population of serving male and female police officers reflecting the typical South African ethnic groups. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to establish the adequacy of between the hypothesised Moos model and the sample. Main findings: The hypothesised theoretical framework was disproved. A respecified model and inter-correlations confirm that some officers experience burnout, while, paradoxically, others continue to be unaffected because of the buffering effect of social support, personality factors and other resilience factors not revealed in this study. Practical/managerial implications: The study calls on police management for awareness of the negative health consequences of prolonged stressors. Simultaneously, employee assistance programmes could be directed to problem-solving strategies, perceived self-efficacy and learned resourcefulness to improve control over prolonged negative stress consequences among members. Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework to understand, describe and assess individual well-being in the police work context.
Hauk, Mateusz; Chodkiewicz, Jan
The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency) and the intensity of work-family and family-work conflict. The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP) by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT) by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively) were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction) and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.
Cieslak, Roman; Anderson, Valerie; Bock, Judith; Moore, Bret A; Peterson, Alan L; Benight, Charles C
Our research assessed the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress (STS) among mental health providers working with military patients. We also investigated personal, work-related, and exposure-related correlates of STS. Finally, using meta-analysis, the mean level of STS symptoms in this population was compared with the mean level of these symptoms in other groups. Participants (N = 224) completed measures of indirect exposure to trauma (i.e., diversity, volume, frequency, ratio), appraisal of secondary exposure impact, direct exposure to trauma, STS, and work characteristics. The prevalence of STS was 19.2%. Personal history of trauma, complaints about having too many patients, and more negative appraisals of the impact caused by an indirect exposure to trauma were associated with higher frequency of STS symptoms. A meta-analysis showed that the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and arousal symptoms of STS was similar across various groups of professionals indirectly exposed to trauma (e.g., mental health providers, rescue workers, social workers).
Bogdanov, Mario; Schwabe, Lars
Stress is known to impair working memory performance. This disruptive effect of stress on working memory has been linked to a decrease in the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In the present experiment, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dlPFC can prevent stress-induced working memory impairments. We tested 120 healthy participants in a 2 d, sham-controlled, double-blind between-subjects design. Participants completed a test of their individual baseline working memory capacity on day 1. On day 2, participants were exposed to either a stressor or a control manipulation before they performed a visuospatial and a verbal working memory task. While participants completed the tasks, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied over the right dlPFC. Stress impaired working memory performance in both tasks, albeit to a lesser extent in the verbal compared with the visuospatial working memory task. This stress-induced working memory impairment was prevented by anodal, but not sham or cathodal, stimulation of the dlPFC. Compared with sham or cathodal stimulation, anodal tDCS led to significantly better working memory performance in both tasks after stress. Our findings indicate a causal role of the dlPFC in working memory impairments after acute stress and point to anodal tDCS as a promising tool to reduce cognitive deficits related to working memory in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Working memory deficits are prominent in stress-related mental disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder. Similar working memory impairments have been observed in healthy individuals exposed to acute stress. So far, attempts to prevent such stress-induced working memory deficits focused mainly on pharmacological interventions. Here, we tested the idea that transcranial direct current stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal
Partlak Günüşen, Neslihan; Ustün, Besti; Erdem, Sabri
Burnout is a major problem for nursing. There is a strong relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion. Although studies report a negative correlation between the internal locus of control and emotional exhaustion and work stress, the number of studies available on the subject is limited. This study intends to examine the extent to which the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion is mediated by nurses' internal locus of control. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The study sample consisted of 347 nurses who worked in a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey and who agreed to participate in the study. The Work-Related Strain Inventory was used to evaluate the nurses' work stress level, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to evaluate their emotional exhaustion levels, and the Locus of Control Scale was used to evaluate the internal locus of control. The variables of the study were based on the Neuman Systems Model. Work stress was positively related to internal locus of control (β3 = .21, p 0.1). Internal locus of control was negatively related to emotional exhaustion (β = -.14, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p work stress was mediated, the impact of internal locus of control was limited. It is recommended that different variables be included in future studies so that they can mediate the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion.
Väänänen, Ari; Anttila, Erkko; Turtiainen, Jussi; Varje, Pekka
During the latter part of the 20th century, work stress became an important societal issue and a huge amount of scientific attention went to studying it. This paper examines the process of formulating and defining the concept of work stress in the occupational health sciences and in industrial and organizational psychology from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. The empirical material of the study encompasses 108 scientific articles, books, book chapters, 'state of the art' reviews, book reviews, and written conference presentations. The data are analysed in the frameworks of historical sociology, critical psychology, and the anthropology of knowledge. We argue that work stress as a life-structuring concept gained ground in psychosocial and occupational health sciences (and also in lay understanding) in the 1960s simultaneously with the rise of social reformist movements that called for fundamental changes emphasizing democratic and human-orientated work organizations and socially responsible values. With the passing of time, however, the focus on structural improvement of work life waned and the emphasis shifted towards the apolitical occupational health aspects of work stress. Researchers with a psychological orientation emphasized micro-level characteristics as factors affecting work stress, whereas stress-orientated epidemiologists turned to the study of specific occupational stress models and/or risk factors. The emergence and development of work stress research can be seen as a chain of attempts to define and identify new risks and experiences occurring in work life. The process, driven by a gradual shift from industrial environments towards organizational frameworks characterized by social and psychological dimensions, reflected the overall shift towards modern democratic work life and the information society in which employees' emotions and well-being became an issue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szeto, Andrew C H; Dobson, Keith S
The economic repercussions of mental disorders in the workplace are vast. Research has found that individuals in high-stress jobs tend to have higher prevalence of mental disorders. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationships between work-related stress and mental disorders in a recent representative population-based sample-the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada (CCHS; 2010a; Retrieved from http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V7-eng.pdf). Respondents in the highest level of perceived work stress had higher odds of ever being treated for an emotional or mental-health problem and for being treated in the past 12 months. These high-stress respondents also had higher odds of being diagnosed for mood and anxiety disorders than their nonstressed counterparts. These associations highlight the continued need to examine and promote mental health and well-being in the workplace.
Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M
Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.
Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zhou, Wenhui; Wu, Hui
To investigate the relationship between work in shifts and occupational stress. A total of 5338 employees from 13 companies were investigated by cluster sampling, and occupational stress measuring tools, job content questionnaire, and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire were used to investigate occupational stress factors, stress reaction, and the condition of work in shifts. The employees who worked in shifts accounted for 46.6%. The condition of work in shifts varied significantly across different companies, employees with different individual features (including sex, job title, degree of education, age, working years, smoking, and drinking), and employees with different weekly working times(Pwork in shifts(Pwork in shifts, those who worked in shifts had significantly lower scores of technology utilization, work control level, psychological need, reward, social support, and job satisfaction(PWork in shifts can affect health status, and is associated with occupational stress.
Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Geuenich, Katja
Veterinary studies in Germany are regulated by the Veterinary Certification Act (TAppV). The practical part of the education consists of 1,170 hours, whereby up to 850 hours can be spent on the curative work placement. A curative work placement can result in physical and psychological stress in the sense of a professional overload. It is the aim of this study to find out in what areas and to what extent competence is acquired and psychological stress exists in students during their work placement. Veterinary students (n=142) from all German education institutes participated in a voluntary online-study based on Burnout Screening Scales (BOSS) as well as a questionnaire regarding the acquisition of competence and excessive stress during the work placement (FKÜP). The distribution of values for work placement related stress show that such work placement related stress is generally slightly increased (T=60) and lies above that of occupational stresses within the normal population. Work placement related physical complaints also show a significant slight increase (T=61). A value (T=42) within the normal range was determined for the resource values. Few of the students questioned considered themselves to be excessively stressed in favour of a high subjective acquisition of competences. The largest increase regarding the acquisition of competence was noted for the areas of animal handling/restraint and application and injection techniques. In the sense of a perceived excessive demand regarding practical capabilities the areas of emergency management, surgery and medication dispensation were mentioned. With regard to the load structure and the acquisition of competence by veterinary students during their work placement, more support of the individual and a balancing of teaching/learning goals would be desirable and represents a promising approach. PMID:26958657
Full Text Available Veterinary studies in Germany are regulated by the Veterinary Certification Act (TAppV. The practical part of the education consists of 1,170 hours, whereby up to 850 hours can be spent on the curative work placement. A curative work placement can result in physical and psychological stress in the sense of a professional overload. It is the aim of this study to find out in what areas and to what extent competence is acquired and psychological stress exists in students during their work placement. Veterinary students (n=142 from all German education institutes participated in a voluntary online-study based on Burnout Screening Scales (BOSS as well as a questionnaire regarding the acquisition of competence and excessive stress during the work placement (FKÜP. The distribution of values for work placement related stress show that such work placement related stress is generally slightly increased (T=60 and lies above that of occupational stresses within the normal population. Work placement related physical complaints also show a significant slight increase (T=61. A value (T=42 within the normal range was determined for the resource values. Few of the students questioned considered themselves to be excessively stressed in favour of a high subjective acquisition of competences. The largest increase regarding the acquisition of competence was noted for the areas of animal handling/restraint and application and injection techniques. In the sense of a perceived excessive demand regarding practical capabilities the areas of emergency management, surgery and medication dispensation were mentioned. With regard to the load structure and the acquisition of competence by veterinary students during their work placement, more support of the individual and a balancing of teaching/learning goals would be desirable and represents a promising approach.
Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Geuenich, Katja
Veterinary studies in Germany are regulated by the Veterinary Certification Act (TAppV). The practical part of the education consists of 1,170 hours, whereby up to 850 hours can be spent on the curative work placement. A curative work placement can result in physical and psychological stress in the sense of a professional overload. It is the aim of this study to find out in what areas and to what extent competence is acquired and psychological stress exists in students during their work placement. Veterinary students (n=142) from all German education institutes participated in a voluntary online-study based on Burnout Screening Scales (BOSS) as well as a questionnaire regarding the acquisition of competence and excessive stress during the work placement (FKÜP). The distribution of values for work placement related stress show that such work placement related stress is generally slightly increased (T=60) and lies above that of occupational stresses within the normal population. Work placement related physical complaints also show a significant slight increase (T=61). A value (T=42) within the normal range was determined for the resource values. Few of the students questioned considered themselves to be excessively stressed in favour of a high subjective acquisition of competences. The largest increase regarding the acquisition of competence was noted for the areas of animal handling/restraint and application and injection techniques. In the sense of a perceived excessive demand regarding practical capabilities the areas of emergency management, surgery and medication dispensation were mentioned. With regard to the load structure and the acquisition of competence by veterinary students during their work placement, more support of the individual and a balancing of teaching/learning goals would be desirable and represents a promising approach.
Full Text Available With reference to the Job Demands–Control Model, we empirically examine the effect of auditors’ work stress on audit quality using a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies and their signature auditors from 2009 to 2013. The results show that (1 there is generally no pervasive deterioration in audit quality resulting from auditors’ work stress; (2 there is a significant negative association between work stress and audit quality in the initial audits of new clients; and (3 the perception of work stress depends on auditors’ individual characteristics. Auditors from international audit firms and those in the role of partner respond more strongly to work stress than industry experts. Auditors tend to react more intensively when dealing with state-owned companies. We suggest that audit firms attach more importance to auditors’ work stress and rationalize their allocation of audit resources to ensure high audit quality.
Nelemans, R.; Wiezer, N.; Vaas, F.; Gort, J.; Groeneweg, J.
Work related stress is an important causes of disability and absenteeism. TNO Work and Employment has developed an instrument, called Tripod Sigma, that identifies risks to work stress and provides tools for remedying these risks. The Tripod Sigma model is developed analogous to the Tripod
Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C
Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Miller, Arlene; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung
The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea and to determine whether work-related psychosocial factors mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 200 Korean-Chinese full-time migrant workers was recruited, and 170 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Acculturative stress was assessed by Sandh and Asrabadi's Acculturative Stress Scale. Work-related psychosocial factors were assessed by job demand, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict measures from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-administered or face-to-face surveys were conducted by trained data collectors. Multiple regression and path analysis were used. Roughly 30% of the sample met the criteria for depression. Female workers had significantly higher depression scores than male workers. Acculturative stress and work-related psychosocial factors significantly predicted 26.3% of the variance in depression. A path model revealed the mediating effect of job demand on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Our results indicate that work-related psychosocial factors are salient factors that lead to depression among Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea. The results suggest that occupational health-care professionals should promote the prevention and management of depression in this population and highlight the importance of acculturation context in the development of interventions designed to reduce work-related stress.
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chiou-Jong
To examine the association between work characteristics and the risk of alcohol dependence across different employment types and occupations, including the pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of energy drinks and its association with alcohol dependence. A total of 13,501 men and 8584 women participated in a national survey in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence was defined as ≥2 points in the CAGE questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire recorded drinking behaviors, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks, employment type, occupation and a number of psychosocial work stressors, namely job demands, job control, employment security and workplace justice. Of the total, 9.4% of men and 0.8% of women were CAGE-positive, and 6.0% of men and 0.7% of women regularly consumed alcoholic energy drinks. In male and female regular consumers of alcoholic energy drinks, 38.7 and 23.3%, respectively, were alcohol-dependent. Multivariate regression analyses showed that male employees in manual skilled occupations, with lower workplace justice, having weekly working hours alcohol dependence. Certain occupational groups and workers with adverse psychosocial work characteristics should be targets for prevention of alcohol dependence. Alcoholic energy drink consumption should be taken into consideration while studying alcohol dependence in the work population in Taiwan.
Raja Abdul Ghafoor Khan; Furqan Ahmad Khan; Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan; Mohsin Shakeel
Stress, work-family conflicts and flexible scheduling are three of the most important elements in organizational studies. The focus of current study is to understand the effect of Stress,work family conflicts and flexible scheduling on employee’s performance and also to understand whether flexible scheduling helps in reducing stress and work-family conflicts or not. The back bone of this study is the secondary data comprised of comprehensive literature review. A survey has also been conducted...
Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew Paul
Aims: Ethnicity and culture represent a novel topic in the literature on stress and wellbeing at work because there has not been enough consideration of them in studies of work stress. This paper aims to present a critical review and evaluate recent articles investigating ethnicity in the literature on stress and wellbeing at work to identify limitations of previous research concerning all the aspects related to the cultural dimensions in this research area.\\ud \\ud Methodology: Pubmed, PsycIn...
Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha
Work-related stress has been evaluated as one of the most important health risks in Europe. Prevention of work related stress and interventions to reduce risk factors for stress in the workplace are conducted together by the enterprise and occupational health services. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of Finnish occupational physicians on the stress management with enterprises. From the Finnish Association of Occupational Health Physicians membership list 207 physicians responded to self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The data were analysed using SPSS 17.0. The client enterprises contacted occupational health services frequently about work-related stress. Collaboration between occupational health and enterprises was strongest in companies' own occupational health services and generally with most experienced physicians. Occupational health services and enterprises shared responsibility for managing work-related stress. Professional experience and close contact with organisation management favours successful stress management between occupational health and enterprises.
Quero, Gastón; Gutíerrez, Lucía; Lascano, Ramiro
The genus Lotus includes a group of forage legume species including genotypes of agronomic interest and model species. In this work, an experimental hydroponic growth system allowed the discrimination of growth responses to ionic-osmotic stress in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs...
Giga, Sabir I; Hoel, Helge; Cooper, Cary L
Reviews literature on the prevalence, causes and consequences of violence and stress within the postal sector and presents examples of good practice and relevant sources of information to guide practitioners and researchers.
Van Laethem, Michelle; Beckers, Debby G J; Kompier, Michiel A J; Kecklund, Göran; van den Bossche, Seth N J; Geurts, Sabine A E
In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep quality. A randomly selected sample of Dutch employees received an online survey in 2012 and 2013. Of all invited employees, 877 participated in both waves. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. We found evidence for reversed relations between work-related stress and sleep quality. Specifically, when controlling for perseverative cognition, work-related stress was not directly related to subsequent sleep quality, but low sleep quality was associated with an increase in work-related stress over time. Moreover, negative bidirectional associations over time were found between perseverative cognition and sleep quality, and positive bidirectional associations were found between work-related stress and perseverative cognition. Lastly, a mediation analysis showed that perseverative cognition fully mediated the relationship between work-related stress and sleep quality. The study findings suggest that perseverative cognition could be an important underlying mechanism in the association between work-related stress and sleep quality. The bidirectionality of the studied relationships could be an indication of a vicious cycle, in which work-related stress, perseverative cognition, and sleep quality mutually influence each other over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chassie, Marilyn B.; Bhagat, Rabi S.
Role stress was significantly and negatively related to organizational commitment; overall job satisfaction; satisfaction with pay, work, coworkers, and supervision; and personal-life satisfaction. (Author)
October 20, 42-44. Bowlby , J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). London: Hogarth Press. Bowlby , J. (1973). Attachment and loss...Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. Dolan, N. (1987). The relationship between burnout and job satisfaction in nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing...Nurses under stress (pp. 98-110). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Jacobson, S. F., & McGrath, H. M. (Eds.). (1983). Nurses under stress. New York
Galic, Nika; Baveco, Hans; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Thorbek, Pernille; Bruns, Eric; Brink, Paul J. van den
In agroecosystems, organisms may regularly be exposed to anthropogenic stressors, e.g. pesticides. Species' sensitivity to stress depends on toxicity, life-history, and landscape structure. We developed an individual-based model of an isopod, Asellus aquaticus, to explore how timing of stress events affects population dynamics in a seasonal environment. Furthermore, we tested the relevance of habitat connectivity and spatial distribution of stress for the recovery of a local and total population. The simulation results indicated that population recovery is mainly driven by reproductive periods. Furthermore, high habitat connectivity led to faster recovery both for local and total populations. However, effects of landscape structure disappeared for homogeneously stressed populations, where local survivors increased recovery rate. Finally, local populations recovered faster, implying that assessing recovery in the field needs careful consideration of spatial scale for sampling. We emphasize the need for a coherent definition of recovery for more relevant ecosystem risk assessment and management. - Highlights: ► Non-target arthropod population recovery after short-term stress in agroecosystems. ► Recovery depends on timing of stress events and is governed by reproductive periods. ► Populations recover faster in well connected landscapes. ► Time to recovery depends on spatial distribution of stress. ► Considering appropriate spatial scale very relevant for assessing recovery. - Population recovery after stress is governed by reproduction and movement in the landscape, where recovery speed and potential are affected by spatial distribution of stress.
Yonezawa, T.; Onimura, K.
In order to grasp the stress corrosion cracking resistance of cold worked nickel base alloys in PWR primary water, the effect of cold working on the stress corrosion cracking resistance of alloys 600, X-750 and 690, in high temperature water, have been studied. Stress corrosion cracking tests were conducted at 360 0 C (633K) in a simulated PWR primary water for about 12,000 hours (43.2Ms). From the test results, it is concluded that the stress corrosion cracking resistance in the cold worked Alloy 600 at the same applied stress level increases with an increase in cold working ratio, and the cold worked alloys of thermally treated 690 and X-750 have excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance. (Author)
Yang, Xin-wei; Wang, Zhi-ming; Lan, Ya-jia; Wang, Mian-zhen
To compare the occupational stress and work ability in doctors, police-officers and teachers. Changes in occupational stress work ability were measured with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index (WAI) for 288 doctors, 191 police-officers and 343 teachers, and then comparative and correlation analyses were made. 1. The difference in occupational stress and strain between the groups was statistically significant (P teachers (P teachers (P teachers, while the scores of role overload and physical environment were higher in teachers (P teachers (P teachers were superior to those of police-officers. The score of social support was highest in doctors. The score of rational conduct was highest in teachers (P work ability, occupational stress and strain, and personal resources were significant in teachers (P teachers, different yet relevant measures should be taken to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve their work ability.
Damaske, Sarah; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Smyth, Joshua M
This paper asks whether workers with higher socioeconomic status (SES) experience different levels of stress at work than workers with lower SES and, if so, what might explain these differences. We collected innovative assessments of immediate objective and subjective measures of stress at multiple time points across consecutive days from 122 employed men and women. We find that in comparison to higher SES individuals, those with lower SES reported greater happiness at work, less self-reported stress, and less perceived stress; cortisol, a biological marker of stress, was unrelated to SES. Worker's momentary perceptions of the workplace were predicted by SES, with higher SES individuals more commonly reporting feeling unable to meet work demands, fewer work resources, and less positive work appraisals. In turn, perceptions of the workplace had a generally consistent and robust effect on positive mood, subjective stress, and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adams, Rhys; Nevozhay, Dmitry; van Itallie, Elizabeth; Bennett, Matthew; Balazsi, Gabor
While gene expression is often thought of as a unidirectional determinant of cellular fitness, recent studies have shown how growth retardation due to protein expression can affect gene expression levels in single cells. We developed two yeast strains carrying a drug resistance protein under the control of different synthetic gene constructs, one of which was monostable, while the other was bistable. The gene expression of these cell populations was tuned using a molecular inducer so that their respective means and noises were identical, while their nongenetic memory properties were different. We tested the sensitivity of these two cell population distributions to the antibiotic zeocin. We found that the gene expression distributions of bistable cell populations were sensitive to stressful environments, while the gene expression distribution of monostable cells were nearly unchanged by stress. We conclude that cell populations with high nongenetic memory are more adaptable to their environment. This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health through the NIH Director's New Innovator Award Program, 1-DP2- OD006481-01.
Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Blank, Matthes; Scheuch, Klaus
Abstract Aim This study aimed to detect health- and work-related predictors of poor and good work ability in teachers (TE) and office workers (OW). Method Work ability and its influence factors were analyzed in 100 female TE and 60 female OW aged between 25 and 60 years. The work ability was evaluated with the wo...
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Occupational stress is one of the key factors in reducing staff productivity in organizations with physical and psychological impacts on employees. Nursing and midwifery are among the most stressful professions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational stress and work ability of midwives in Mashhad, Iran in 2011. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 123 midwives employed in the public hospitals and health centres in Mashhad, Iran using two-stage sampling method. Demographic and work-related data were obtained through a self-structured questionnaire. Occupational stress and work ability were measured using Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire (OSAQ and Work Ability Index Questionnaire (WAIQ. The statistical analysis was performed using student’s t-test, One Way ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and linear regression model through SPSS statistical software (version 11.5. Results: The results showed that the mean score of occupational stress and work ability was 149 ± 0.01 and 38.81±0.05, respectively. There was a negative correlation between job-related stress and work ability. Midwives with higher occupational stress experienced poorer work ability (P=0.021, r=-0.061. Conclusion: Sever work stress is associated with reduced work ability. So it is recommended to eliminate or decrease occupational stress and increase work ability among Iranian midwives using preventive measures, although identification of sources of occupational stress seems necessary in order to adopt appropriate stress management strategies.
Suzana Cláudia Silveira Martins
Full Text Available There is currently an intense debate in microbial societies on whether evolution in complex communities is driven by competition or cooperation. Since Darwin, competition for scarce food resources has been considered the main ecological interaction shaping population dynamics and community structure both in vivo and in vitro. However, facilitation may be widespread across several animal and plant species. This could also be true in microbial strains growing under environmental stress. Pure and mixed strains of Serratia marcescens and Candida rugosa were grown in mineral culture media containing phenol. Growth rates were estimated as the angular coefficients computed from linearized growth curves. Fitness index was estimated as the quotient between growth rates computed for lineages grown in isolation and in mixed cultures. The growth rates were significantly higher in associated cultures than in pure cultures and fitness index was greater than 1 for both microbial species showing that the interaction between Serratia marcescens and Candida rugosa yielded more efficient phenol utilization by both lineages. This result corroborates the hypothesis that facilitation between microbial strains can increase their fitness and performance in environmental bioremediation.
Borchini, Rossana; Veronesi, Giovanni; Bonzini, Matteo; Gianfagna, Francesco; Dashi, Oriana; Ferrario, Marco Mario
The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF) and Low Frequency (LF) powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: "prolonged high stress" (PHS), "recent high stress" (RHS) and "stable low stress" (SLS). A 24-h ECG monitoring was later performed during a working day (WD) and a subsequent resting day (RD). Statistically significantly lower ( p working periods. In the subsequent resting periods, HF means showed increases over time in the RHS (beta = +0.41, p working and resting periods. Our study evidences that both prolonged and recent perceived high work stress were associated with a reduction of HF and LF powers during work. In addition, prolonged stress was associated with a lack of recovery during not-working and resting periods.
Vonesch, Nicoletta; D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Melis, Paola; Remoli, Maria Elena; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia; Tomao, Paola
Risks associated with climate change are increasing worldwide and the global effects include altered weather and precipitation patterns, rising temperatures and others; human health can be affected directly and indirectly. This paper is an overview of literature regarding climate changes, their interaction with vector-borne diseases and impact on working population. Articles regarding climate changes as drivers of vector-borne diseases and evidences of occupational cases have been picked up by public databank. Technical documents were also included in the study. Evidences regarding the impact of climate changes on vector-borne diseases in Europe, provided by the analysis of the literature, are presented. Climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases are likely to be emerging due to climate modifications, with impacts on public and occupational health. However, other environmental and anthropogenic drivers such as increasing travelling and trade, deforestation and reforestation, altered land use and urbanization can influence their spread. Further studies are necessary to better understand the phenomenon and implementation of adaptation strategies to protect human health should be accelerated and strengthened.
Dudek, Bohdan; Koniarek, Jerzy; Szymczak, Wiesław
The Conservation of Resources Theory by Stevan Hobfoll has grown in popularity, as a new theory of stress, since the 1980s. A general assumption of Hobfoll's theory is that an individual has some resources at his/her disposal which he/she greatly appreciates and is inclined to protect and never loose them. Stress is predicted to occur as a result of circumstances that represent: (1) a threat of resource loss, or (2) an actual loss of the resources required to sustain the individual, and (3) the lack of reasonable gain following resource investments. Hobfoll has developed the Conservation of Resources-Evaluation (COR-E) questionnaire as an instrument derived from his theory to measure the degree of lost and gained resources. The questionnaire has been adapted to Polish conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of COR-E in the diagnosis of work-related stress. In the literature, we have found information on the relationship between COR-E results and depressive mood, anxiety and other stress effects. But it should be remembered that these effects are not caused only by stress. We would like to check whether COR-E results are correlated with the results of the stress at work questionnaire. The study group comprised 157 persons. Each person completed two questionnaires: COR-E (in Polish version) and Subjective Assessment of Work Characteristics. The later has been developed to measure stress at work according to the psychosocial factor approach. There was no relationship between reported gains of resources and work stress, but we found very low correlation between reported lost resources and work stress (r = 0.16; p work stress. However, much higher correlation was observed between the results of a subscale consisting of these items and work stress (r = 0.40; p instrument to measure work stress, but further investigations are needed to cover other occupational groups.
Lindegård, A; Larsman, P; Hadzibajramovic, E; Ahlborg, G
To evaluate the influence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal ache/pain, separately and in combination, at baseline, on self-rated work ability and work performance at two-year follow-up. Survey data were collected with a 2-year interval. Health care workers participating at both waves were included. Inclusion criteria were good self-reported work ability and unchanged self-rated work performance at baseline, resulting in 770 participants; 617 women and 153 men. Musculoskeletal pain was assessed using the question "How often do you experience pain in joints and muscles, including the neck and low back?", perceived stress with a modified version of a single item from the QPS-Nordic questionnaire, work performance by the question "Have your work performance changed during the preceding 12 months?" and work ability by a single item from the work ability index. Associations between baseline data and the two outcomes at follow-up were analysed by means of the log binomial model and expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A combination of frequent musculoskeletal pain and perceived stress constituted the highest risk for reporting decreased work performance (RR 1.7; CI 1.28-2.32) and reduced work ability (RR 1.7; CI 1.27-2.30) at follow-up. Separately, frequent pain, but not stress, was clearly associated with both outcomes. The results imply that proactive workplace interventions in order to maintain high work performance and good work ability should include measures to promote musculoskeletal well-being for the employees and measures, both individual and organizational, to minimize the risk of persistent stress reactions.
Meng, Xian-Hai; He, Ya-Hui; Yu, Shan-Fa; Qi, Xiu-Ying
To investigate general states of the work locus of control and explore the relationship between work locus of control and occupational stress in oil workers. 582 oil workers were investigated by using the General Questionnaire and Occupational Stress Measure Inventory. There were significant differences in WCLS score between two age groups (= 30 years old group and locus of control; values of role ambiguity, working prospect, depression and social support were higher in the group of external locus of control (P locus of control had positive relation with role ambiguity, working prospect, depression, and social support, and negative with interpersonal relationship, promotion, participation, task consistency, challenge, job satisfaction, mental health, self-esteem and coping strategies. In the regression analysis, work locus of control was the major predictive factor of work satisfaction. Work locus of control is associated with many occupational stress factors. The group of extrinsic work locus of control experience more stress in oil workers.
Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Khawar, Talha; Khan, Farooq Hasan; Kiani, Jawad Ghazanfar; Khan, Umber Zaheer; Khan, Hadi Mohammad; Khuwaja, Urooj Bakht; Rahim, Musa
The growing debate regarding long working hours of postgraduate trainees has been receiving considerable attention recently. This greater workload contributes to increasing stress. Our objective was to specifically study the association between long working hours, stress and the greater use of 'maladaptive' coping strategies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on all interns and residents at the Aga Khan University Hospital during February to May, 2005. Level of stress was measured by use of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the use of maladaptive coping mechanisms through Brief Cope-28. 55.1% scored over the threshold for mild stress i.e. GHQ > 3, while more than 46% of the trainees scored over the threshold of more than 4 for morbid stress. Trainees under stress reported more working hours on average as compared to those not under stress, 83.8 and 74.7 hours respectively. At the same time, those working for longer hours were more likely to have used these negative coping mechanisms, which would further contribute to more stress rather than relieving it. Significant levels of stress have been identified. Along with this, those working for longer hours were more likely to have used these negative coping mechanisms. Reduction of working hours is important. Simultaneously, interventions need to be planned at imparting knowledge, awareness and skills to cope with various kinds of stressors encountered by a trainee during his/her training. Additionally, limits need to be devised for the working hours of the trainees.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alawad, Hossam S; Alamri, Ayedh K; Saeed, Abdullah I; Aljuaydi, Khalid A; Alotaibi, Alwaleed S; Alotaibi, Khalid M; Alfaris, Eiad A
Physicians experience several work-related stressors that have been mounting up in recent decades. This study aimed to examine perceived stress and its risk factors and consequences among consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 among physicians who were assigned rank of consultant. The stress level was assessed using perceived stress scale (PSS). A total of 582 consultants participated. The average age was 46.9±7.9 years, 71% were males, 56% were Saudi, 15% were smokers, and 68% slept ≤6 hours per night. The median PSS score was 17 (interquartile range of 14-21), which represented 44% of maximum possible PSS score. The upper tertile of PSS score (represents a high stress level) was significantly associated with being younger, female, and Saudi. The majority (85%) considered job environment to be stressful and ~50% attributed that to a high workload and a noncooperative administration. In the year preceding this study, half of consultants frequently contemplated or even worked toward changing their medical institutes or even moving to work outside Saudi Arabia because of perception of a stressful working environment. Over the previous year, encountering life stressors, considering job environment as stressful and experiencing passive suicidal ideation, were significantly associated with higher levels of stress. In multivariate analysis, the following factors were independently associated with stress: female gender (odds ratio [OR]=2.41, 95% CI 1.58-3.70) and perceived stressful working environment (OR=3.66, 95% CI 1.87-7.17). Consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia experience moderate to high levels of perceived stress that are relatively comparable to physicians worldwide. A significant association was found between stress levels and both female gender and perception of a stressful working environment. Further studies are required to assess physician-based interventions and organization
Cuneo, Charlotte L; Curtis Cooper, Maureen R; Drew, Carolyn S; Naoum-Heffernan, Christine; Sherman, Tricia; Walz, Kathleen; Weinberg, Janice
The Reiki Master Teacher group at a large academic, urban medical center studied the effects of Reiki on work-related stress in Registered Nurse Reiki I class participants. Research suggests that work-related stress is an influential factor in nursing burn out and retention. Reiki, an ancient form of Oriental "energy work" or healing, has been found to decrease stress. The Perceived Stress Scale tool was administered prior to the Reiki I class and after three weeks of practicing self-Reiki. Seventeen participants returned follow-up data. Results indicated that practicing Reiki more often resulted in reduced perceived stress levels. Data from this small pilot study supports educating nurses about Reiki practice to decrease work-related stress.
Stress is a common element in any kind of job and people face it in almost every walk of life. In the banking sector particularly, higher management do not realize the impact of stress on employee performance which ultimately results in critical managerial dilemmas. Work overload & time pressure to complete too much work in short span of time is big source of stress which decrease the performance of employees. The purpose of this research are to analyze the influence of work stress on employe...
Nelemans, R.; Wiezer, N.; Vaas, F.; Gort, J.; Groeneweg, J.
Work related stress is an important causes of disability and absenteeism. TNO Work and Employment has developed an instrument, called Tripod Sigma, that identifies risks to work stress and provides tools for remedying these risks. The Tripod Sigma model is developed analogous to the Tripod philosophy which Shell has initiated to identify and proactively control safety risks. This model is used to measure latent failures in the working environment that can cause human error. The main philosoph...
Well educated knowledge workers are a growing group of the work force. Little research has been conducted on this group regarding possible work-related health symptoms, as well as interventions in order to reduce work-related stress. This thesis describes the current work-related symptoms and potential risk and salutogenic, i.e. protective factors, associated with these symptoms among software and system designers in a high tech company in Sweden. A stress management intervention program was...
Lee, Joyce Yan
In their daily work, psychiatric nurses are subjected to patient-perpetrated verbal and physical aggression. They manage a high level of work stress. As compared to their colleagues working in civil settings, forensic psychiatric nurses may experience different rates of patient aggression and work stress. Such experiences have implications for the mental health and productivity of nursing staff. In inpatient settings, homicide by a patient is a rare event. Representing the most severe f...
Liu, Shujie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
This survey study employed qualitative dominant mixed research to explore the sources of teacher stress in China and the possible reasons for Chinese teachers' turnover intention. The data were collected in Jilin Province of China, and 510 teachers participated in the survey. Quantitatively, 40.4% of the surveyed teachers reported that they…
The burden of HIV on caregivers is especially heavy in South Africa where an estimated 5.5 million people were living with HIV in 2006, and where an estimated one in every three to four patients admitted to some public hospitals is HIV-positive. Occupational stress and burnout merit concern in South Africa as the severity ...
Wiezer, N.M.; Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Oprins, E.
Work-related stress is a large occupational risks in the Netherlands but interventions to reduce this risk are not implemented in organizations. The characteristics of a serious game make it a useful training tool for managers to raise awareness on their role in stimulating work engagement and
Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R
Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jay, Kenneth; Petersen, Mikkel Brandt; Sundstrup, Emil
biopsychosocial intervention strategy on musculoskeletal pain, stress and work disability in lab technicians with a history of musculoskeletal pain at a single worksite in Denmark. METHODS/DESIGN: In this single-blind two-armed parallel-group randomized controlled trial with allocation concealment, participants...... control and may result in extended periods of time spent in static positions.In populations characterized by intense chronic musculoskeletal pain and diagnosed conditions in conjunction with psycho-physiological symptoms such as stress-related pain and soreness and other disabling conditions...... of the following regions: i) upper back i) low back iii) neck, iv) shoulder, v) elbow and/or vi) hand. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1) life-threatening disease and 2) pregnancy. Stress, as measured by Cohen´s perceived stress questionnaire is not an inclusion criteria, thus participants can participate regardless...
Tijs, T.J.W.; Weda, J.; Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Hoogenstraaten, W.
Objectives. After a hard days work, we need to recover from work stress. Two frequently reported activities to relieve stress are television (TV) watching and paced breathing exercises. We investigated the potential of combining these techniques. Method. Two explorativeexperiments were conducted.
Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital
We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…
Work stress has been identified as a common phenomenon in the teaching profession. However, little research has been done to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with work stress among employees in university context in Tanzania and sub-Saharan African countries in general. Using survey design within the quantitative approach, this…
Laethem, M. van; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Kecklund, G.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Geurts, S.A.E.
Objective In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep
The study examines the health implications of workplace stress on career women with respect to their age and educational qualification. Sixty – nine (69) working women from a Women Fellowship of about 86 located at Agbowo, Ibadan were used for the study. Akinboye's Response to Change Test (RTCT) or Work Stress ...
Andersen, Kenneth Jay; Friborg, Maria Kristine; Sjøgaard, Gisela
Musculoskeletal pain and stress-related disorders are leading causes of impaired work ability, sickness absences and disability pensions. However, knowledge about the combined detrimental effect of pain and stress on work ability is lacking. This study investigates the association between pain in...
Over the past three decades, there has been a growing belief in all sectors of employment and in government that the experience of stress at work has undesirable consequences for the health and safety of individuals and for the health of their organizations. Identification of factors responsible for stress and its management at its primary level has long term benefits both for employee and employer. The hotel is generally seen as a sector whose working environment involves many stresses and s...
Meng, Shi-Jiao; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li-Juan; Yan, Yu-Xiang
Objectives The study aimed to develop and validate a model to measure psychosocial factors at work among medical staff in China based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The second aim of the current study was to clarify the association between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health status. Design The cross-sectional study was conducted using clustered sampling method. Setting Xuanwu Hospital, a 3A grade hospital in Beijing. Participants Nine hundred and fourteen medical staff aged over 40 years were sampled. Seven hundred and ninety-seven valid questionnaires were collected and used for further analyses. The sample included 94% of the Han population. Main outcome measures The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaires-25 were used to assess the psychosocial factors at work and suboptimal health status, respectively. CFA was conducted to establish the evaluating method of COPSOQ. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between suboptimal health status and stress-related psychosocial work factors among Chinese medical staff. Results There was a strong correlation among the five dimensions of COPSOQ based on the first-order factor model. Then, we established two second-order factors including negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors to evaluate psychosocial factors at work, and the second-order factor model fit well. The high score in negative (OR (95% CI)=1.47 (1.34 to 1.62), Ppsychosocial work factors increased and decreased the risk of suboptimal health, respectively. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounders and when using different cut-offs of suboptimal health status. Conclusions Among medical staff, the second-order factor model was a suitable method to evaluate the COPSOQ. The negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors might be the risk and protective factors of suboptimal
Non, Amy L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rewak, Marissa A.; Kubzansky, Laura D.
This study examined whether stress at work and at home may be related to dysregulation of inflammation and endothelial function, two important contributors to the development of cardiovascular disease. In order to explore potential biological mechanisms linking stress with cardiovascular health, we investigated cross-sectional associations between stress at work and at home with an inflammation score (n's range from 406–433) and with two endothelial biomarkers (intercellular and vascular adhesion molecules, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1; n's range from 205–235) in a cohort of healthy US male health professionals. No associations were found between stress at work or at home and inflammation. Men with high or medium levels of stress at work had significantly higher levels of sVCAM-1 (13% increase) and marginally higher levels of sICAM-1 (9% increase), relative to those reporting low stress at work, independent of health behaviors. Men with high levels of stress at home had marginally higher levels of both sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 than those with low stress at home. While lack of findings related to inflammation are somewhat surprising, if replicated in future studies, these findings may suggest that endothelial dysfunction is an important biological mechanism linking stress at work with cardiovascular health outcomes in men. PMID:24722508
Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam
Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.
Jaradat, Yousef; Nijem, Khaldoun; Lien, Lars; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen; Bast-Pettersen, Rita
High levels of perceived stressful working conditions have been found to have an adverse effect on physical and mental health. To examine the associations between self-reported stressful working conditions and Psychosomatic Symptoms (PSS), and to investigate possible gender differences. The present cross-sectional study comprises 430 nurses employed in Hebron district, Palestine. Self-reported stressful working conditions were recorded, and a Psychosomatic Symptoms Check list was used to assess prevalence of PSS. Median score on the psychosomatic symptom checklist for the group was 11, (range 1-21). Women reported more symptoms than men, with medians 11.6 and 10.0, respectively (p = .0001). PSS were associated with more self-reported stressful working conditions for both men (p < .0001) and women (p < .0001). The association was strongest among men. PSS were associated with high self-reported stressful working conditions, and this association was strongest among the men.
Li, Jian; Ding, Hui; Han, Wei; Jin, Lei; Kong, Ling-Na; Mao, Kang-Na; Wang, Hong; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Wu, Ying; Yang, Liu; Zhou, Yu; Wang, You-Xin; Wang, Wei; Loerbroks, Adrian; Angerer, Peter
It has been suggested that the relationship between work stress and somatic symptoms (e.g., cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal complaints, general pain, and fatigue) is particularly pronounced in women. As evidence from China is sparse, we used a large sample of Chinese working women to test those potential associations. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 6826 working women in five urban areas in China who were free from major clinical disease. The sample was drawn from five occupations (physicians, nurses, school teachers, bank employees, and industrial workers). The Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 were used to measure work stress and somatic symptoms, respectively. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression was performed to analyze the associations. 52.6% participants reported high work stress in terms of concurrent high effort and low reward. The distribution of severity of somatic symptoms covered the full range from minimal (37.3%) and low (30.6%), to medium (19.7%) and high (12.4%). The adjusted odds ratio of somatic symptoms by high work stress was 2.45 (95% confidence interval=2.24-2.68), and all single psychosocial work factors (effort, reward, and over-commitment) exerted substantial effects on somatic symptoms (odds ratios>2.00). Work stress is strongly associated with somatic symptoms in Chinese working women. Future longitudinal studies and intervention studies are needed to understand and improve women's psychosocial work environment and their psychosomatic health in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Idéen om denne Ph.D. et vokset ud af et ønske om at afdække de faktorer, der ligger til grund for, at personer med høretab oplever stress, som kan resultere i stressrelateret sygefravær fra arbejdspladsen. Målgruppen er erhvervsaktive personer med høretab, som anvender det talte og auditive sprog...
Miron, Cristian; Colosi, Horaţiu Alexandru
The recognition of work stressors and their links to sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and coping strategies is important for enhancing the working conditions of dentists. The aim of our study was to identify and rank work stressors in dentists from Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and to investigate their potential links to sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviours and coping strategies. A questionnaire based on the Work Stress Inventory for Dentists (WSID) was delivered to a cross-sectional sample of 250 dentists working in six neighborhoods across Cluj-Napoca, Romania, as well as at the local Faculty of Dentistry. We collected and analysed information on sociodemographic characteristics, work stressors, health behaviours and coping strategies. Time and scheduling pressure, concerns about the future and pay-related work stressors were found to rank highest among the categories of work stressors investigated. Higher work stress was significantly linked to higher workloads, lower job satisfaction, poorer eating and exercise habits, higher work pain and discomfort, lower perceived health and less sleep. Job satisfaction was the single best predictor variable of work stress scores. The most frequently used coping strategy to deal with work stress was resting and taking breaks. Only one-quarter of respondents used active coping strategies. Our findings suggest that work stress is linked to a number of detrimental attitudes in dentists and that there is room for dentists to make lifestyle improvements. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.
Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko
Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…
Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla; De Bloom, Jessica
The study examined whether three resources, that is, compassion, transformational leadership and work ethic feasibility, buffer against the negative effects of emotional labour on work engagement. Emotional labour is a common job stressor among nurses, but little is known about whether certain personal and work resources buffer against it in relation to work engagement. Revealing buffers of emotional labour would help organizations to design tailored interventions. Cross-sectional online survey conducted in 2014. Participants were 3466 Finnish nurses. Hypotheses were tested via hierarchical moderated regression analyses. Higher emotional labour related to lower engagement. Two interaction effects were found. First, work ethic feasibility buffered against emotional labour: the nurses who perceived work ethic feasibility as high in a situation of high emotional labour, scored higher on engagement compared with those nurses who in this stress situation perceived work ethic feasibility to be low. Second, high compassion was detrimental to engagement in the presence of high emotional labour. Transformational leadership did not act as a buffer but showed a positive relationship with engagement. Work ethic feasibility (being able to work according to high ethical standards) is an important resource in nursing as it protects an employee against the negative effects of emotional labour and as it also directly promotes engagement. However, compassion may not always be beneficial in nursing, especially if co-occurring with high job stress. Transformational leadership has potential to improve engagement in nursing although it may not operate as a stress buffer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Easter, Michele M; Linnan, Laura A; Bentley, Margaret E; DeVellis, Brenda M; Meier, Andrea; Frasier, Pamela Y; Kelsey, Kristine S; Campbell, Marci K
Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple risk-factor reduction trial using participatory action research approaches to address smoking, healthy eating, stress, and physical activity among blue-collar women from 12 manufacturing work sites in rural, eastern North Carolina. Five focus groups were conducted with trained, bilingual facilitators using a vignette-based moderator guide that appeared particularly effective with this population. Results from the focus groups are used to make recommendations for future research with Latinas and for developing effective work-site-based interventions to address issues of stress and health within this population.
Eskildsen, Anita; Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Kristensen, Simon Bang; Andersen, Johan Hviid
Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often present with cognitive impairments as well as sleep disturbances. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in the longitudinal development in cognitive impairments in a group of patients with prolonged work-related stress (N = 60) during a period of 12 months following initial professional care-seeking. Objective cognitive impairments (neuropsychological tests) were measured on two occasions - at initial professional care-seeking and at 12-month follow-up. Questionnaires on perceived stress, sleep disturbances, and cognitive complaints were completed seven times during the 12 months which facilitated multilevel analysis with segregation of within-person (change) and between-person (baseline level) components of the time-varying predictors (perceived stress and sleep disturbances). Change in perceived stress was associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the period of 12 months and to a lesser extent the change in performance on neuropsychological tests of processing speed from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Change in sleep disturbances was also associated with concurrent and subsequent change in self-reported cognitive complaints over the 12 months but not with change on neuropsychological test performance. Although the mechanism behind the improvement in cognitive impairments in patients with work-related stress should be further explored in future studies, the results could suggest that improvement in cognitive impairments is partly mediated by decreasing levels of perceived stress and, to a lesser extent, decreasing levels of sleep disturbances. Lay summary This study examines the role of perceived stress and sleep disturbances in respect to the development of cognitive impairments (e.g. memory and concentration) in a group of patients with work-related stress. We found that change in
Bergomi, Margherita; Modenese, Alberto; Ferretti, Enrica; Ferrari, Angela; Licitra, Giuseppe; Vivoli, Roberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Aggazzotti, Gabriella
Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers. Subjective stress evaluation was performed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Driver Stress Inventory (DSI). To evaluate personality traits, we administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Impulsivity Inventory (IVE). Salivary biomarkers showed no associations with PSS-10 and personality traits. Cortisol levels were positively correlated with fatigue (r = 0.44) at the middle of the work-shift and with aggression (r = 0.51) at the end of a day off. At the end of the work-shift, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with hazard monitoring (r = -0.37) and salivary α-amylase was positively correlated with thrill-seeking (r = 0.36). Neuroticism (β= 0.44) and impulsiveness (β= 0.38) were predictors of perceived stress by multiple regression. An integrated method, considering both objective and subjective indicators, seems adequate to evaluate work-related stress in professional drivers. Personality traits are relevant in determining perception of stress.
Fekete, Christine; Wahrendorf, Morten; Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Siegrist, Johannes
Evidence on the adverse effects of work stress on quality of life (QoL) is largely derived from general populations, while respective information is lacking for people with disabilities. We investigated associations between work stress and QoL and the potentially moderating role of socioeconomic circumstances in employed persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional data from 386 employed men and women with SCI (≥18 work h/week) from the Netherlands, Switzerland, Denmark, and Norway were analyzed. Work stress was assessed with the 'effort-reward imbalance' (ERI) model and the control component of the 'demand/control' model. QoL was operationalized with five WHOQoL BREF items. Socioeconomic circumstances were measured by years of formal education and perception of financial hardship. We applied ordinal and linear regressions to predict QoL and introduced interaction terms to assess a potential moderation of socioeconomic circumstances. Multivariate analyses showed consistent associations between increased ERI and decreased overall QoL (coefficient -1.55, p life satisfaction (health -1.32, p work stress and QoL among persons with SCI.
Chueh, Ke-Hsin; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lu, Luo; Yang, Mei-Sang
The aim of the study was to explore the association between the severity of psychosomatic symptoms and perceived work stress among male police officers in southern Taiwan. By stratified random sampling, a total of 698 male police officers were recruited into this study (the response rate was 73.4%; 512 of 698). A structured self-administered questionnaire on demographic and working characteristics, the severity of psychosomatic symptoms, perceived work stress, and social support was used to collect data anonymously. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that (1) the police officers who perceived high-work stress reported more severe psychosomatic symptoms than those who perceived low-work stress; and (2) perceived social support had a moderating effect on the association between severity of psychosomatic symptoms and perceived work stress. Perceived work stress is an indicator of psychosomatic symptoms in police officers. Strategies for reducing psychosomatic symptoms of police officers include police administrators taking into account the level of work stress as well as more attention being paid to the resources of social support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Ase Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger
, depression, anxiety, and negative affectivity (NA) than did the nonbullied respondents. Witnesses reported more symptoms of anxiety and lower support from supervisor than did the nonbullied employees. Concentrations of cortisol in the saliva were lower at awakening in bullied respondents compared...... with nonbullied respondents. Previous studies have reported lower diurnal concentration of cortisol for people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic fatigue. To our knowledge, this is the first full study on the associations among being subjected to bullying, health outcomes, and physiological...
Tonini, Stefano; Lanfranco, Andrea; Dellabianca, Antonio; Lumelli, Diego; Giorgi, Ines; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Fusi, Camilla; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M
Abstract Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bully...
Lucha Lopez Ana; Vidal Peracho Concepcion; Lucha Lopez Ma Orosia; Salavera Bordas Carlos; Tricas Moreno Jose; Estebanez de Miguel Elena; Bernues Vazquez Luis
Abstract Background The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job...
competencies and code of ethics, make police officers` work specific and demanding, and very often related to possible risks for physical and mental health of police officers. Police work is perceived as a highly stressful occupation; therefore, a strong need is imposed for identifying reliable and valid instruments by means of which it is possible to identify characteristic and profession-related specific sources of stress at work. In this respect, the first objective of this paper was to ex...
Zuchowski, R.; Zietkowski, L.
An experimental verification of failure criterion based on specific strain work was performed. Thin-walled cylindrical specimens were examined by loading with constant force and constant torque moment, assuming different values for particular tests, at the same time keeping stress intensity constant, and by subjecting to thermal cycling. It was found that the critical value of failure did not depend on axial-to-shearing stresses ratio, i.e., on the type of state of stress. Thereby, the validity of the analysed failure criterion in plane stress was confirmed. Besides, a simple description of damage development in plane stress was suggested. (orig./RF)
Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda
Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L.; Kushnir, Mark M.; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.
Background It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Methods Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. Results The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. Conclusions This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing. PMID:24015247
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Rockwood, Alan L; Kushnir, Mark M; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
It is known that long-term psychosocial stress may cause or contribute to different diseases and symptoms and accelerate aging. One of the consequences of prolonged psychosocial stress may be a negative effect on the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S). The aim of this study is to investigate whether levels of DHEA and DHEA-S differ in individuals who report perceived stress at work compared to individuals who report no perceived stress at work. Morning fasting DHEA-S and DHEA levels were measured in serum in a non-stressed group (n = 40) and a stressed group (n = 41). DHEA and DHEA-S levels were compared between the groups using ANCOVA, controlling for age. The mean DHEA-S levels were 23% lower in the subjects who reported stress at work compared to the non-stressed group. Statistical analysis (ANCOVA) showed a significant difference in DHEA-S levels between the groups (p = 0.010). There was no difference in DHEA level between the groups. This study indicates that stressed individual have markedly lower levels of DHEA-S. Given the important and beneficial functions of DHEA and DHEA-S, lower levels of DHEA-S may constitute one link between psychosocial stress, ill health and accelerated ageing.
Holst, Gitte Juel; Paarup, Helene M; Baelum, Jesper
To investigate psychosocial work environment and stress in Danish symphony orchestra musicians. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of psychosocial work factors and stress symptoms among 441 musicians in six Danish symphony orchestras. The response rate was 78% (n = 342). The questions were from COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire). Mean values of 19 COPSOQ-scales were compared by gender and instrument group. The results for the musicians were compared with results for the general Danish work force (COPSOQ database). Female musicians reported higher work demands and higher stress symptoms than their male colleagues. Between instrument groups, 2nd violinists seemed to be of particular risk compared with the other instrumental groups in aspects of work pace, work organization, and content, whereas 1st violinists perceived higher emotional stress compared with 2nd violinists. The musicians' experience of increased work demands as well as deteriorated, work organization and job content, interpersonal relations and leadership, and work-individual interface was significantly associated with increasing stress symptoms. Compared to the general workforce independently of gender, Danish symphony orchestra musicians reported higher emotional demands, lower influence, lower social support, lower sense of community, and lower job satisfaction. However, the musicians reported a higher commitment to the workplace. The findings indicate a more demanding psychosocial work environment exposure among symphony orchestra musicians than among Danish workers in general. Critical results are the relatively high work demands, low influence, and low social support, females being of higher risk than males.
Fanavoll, Rannveig; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Holtermann, Andreas; Mork, Paul Jarle
To prospectively investigate if the risk of chronic neck/shoulder pain is associated with work stress and job control, and to assess if physical exercise modifies these associations. The study population comprised 29 496 vocationally active women and men in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT Study) without chronic pain at baseline in 1984-1986. Chronic neck/shoulder pain was assessed during a follow-up in 1995-1997. A generalized linear model (Poisson regression) was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs). Work stress was dosedependently associated with the risk of neck/shoulder pain (ptrend work as stressful "almost all the time" had multi-adjusted RRs = 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.47) and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.46-2), respectively, referencing those with no stressful work. Work stress interacted with sex (p risk of neck/shoulder pain among the women (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.92-1.19) nor the men (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.95-1.26). Combined analyses showed an inverse dose-dependent association between hours of physical exercise/week and the risk of neck/shoulder pain in the men with no stressful work (ptrend = 0.05) and among the men who perceived their work as "rarely stressful" (ptrend work stress. Work stress is an independent predictor of chronic neck/shoulder pain and the effect is stronger in men than in women. Physical exercise does not substantially reduce the risk among the persons with frequent exposure to work stress. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Garber, Mathew C
Objective. To assess the coping mechanisms used by pharmacy students and their relationship to perceived stress. Methods. Data were gathered utilizing the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) and Brief COPE with the additional coping mechanisms of exercise and use of prescribed medications. Results. A survey that was sent to 368 students had an 81% response rate. Perceived stress was significantly higher than standard populations, but consistent with other pharmacy student populations. The most frequently reported coping mechanisms were the adaptive strategies of active coping, acceptance and planning. Maladaptive strategies of behavioral disengagement, venting and self-blame were significantly associated with higher perceived stress scores and the new addition of an exercise coping mechanism significantly associated with lower perceived stress scores. Use of prescribed medications was not significantly associated with perceived stress levels. Conclusion. Inclusion of exercise as a coping mechanism may be beneficial in similar populations.
Kim, Shin-Ae; Suh, Chunhui; Park, Mi-Hee; Kim, Kunhyung; Lee, Chae-Kwan; Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Tae; Woo, Kuck-Hyun; Kang, Kabsoon; Jung, Hyunjin
To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker's Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan.
Karlson, Björn; Eek, Frida; Hansen, Åse Marie
We examined whether a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low cortisol decline over the day (CDD) are related to self-reported work stress and well-being, and whether there are gender differences in these relationships. Three hundred eighty-three working men and women responded to a survey...... men, a similar comparison showed those with low CDD to have poorer scores on job stress factors and symptom load. We conclude that individuals displaying high CAR or low CDD differ from those not displaying these cortisol profi les in self-report of work stress and well-being, and that gender...... measuring job stress factors, mastery at work, symptoms and well-being. Salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening, after 45 min and at 21:00, from which the variables CAR and CDD were defi ned. A high CAR was associated with lower perceived job control and work mastery, and poorer well-being. Low CDD...
Zeeck, Almut; Orlinsky, David Elliot; Hermann, Sabine; Joos, Andreas; Wirsching, Michael; Weidmann, Werner; Hartmann, Armin
We examined potential predictors of therapists' "Stressful Involvement" (SI) among variables reflecting the psychotherapy process, therapist characteristics, patients' symptom severity or context variables (treatment setting). Ninety-eight sequences from individual psychodynamic treatments conducted by 26 therapists were studied. Data were analyzed using mixed regression models. Between-therapist and within-therapist variance accounted for most of the difference in SI. SI was strongly associated with negative feelings of the therapist about patient and therapy in the time between sessions. Therapists with more 'unassertive' and 'vindictive' interpersonal styles were also more prone to experiencing SI. The strong association of SI with therapist rather than patient characteristics and process ratings indicates the importance of further study of the therapist as a person and participant in psychotherapy.
Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivière, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane
The aim of this study was to determine: 1) if quality of work life (QWL), location of cross-training, stress variables, and various demographic factors in nurses are associated with work ability, and 2) nursing occupational stress, QWL, and various associated factors are related with nurses' work ability. There is limited research examining the obstetrical nursing environment. Given the amount of time and energy people expend at the workplace, it is crucial for employees to be satisfied with their lives at work. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2012 in four hospitals in northeastern Ontario, Canada. A stratified random sample of registered nurses (n= 111) were selected. The majority of participants were female (94.6%) ranging in age from 24 to 64 years (M = 41.9, s.d. = 10.2). For the stress and QWL model, one variable: QWL (home-work support - see Methods for definition) (p= 0.015), cross-trained (see Methods for definition) nurses (p= 0.048), and having more than 4 patients per shift (p= 0.024) significantly contributed to the variance in work ability scores. In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher work ability for nurses who received home-work support were estimated to be 1.32 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.66) times the odds of a higher work ability for nurses who did not receive home-work support. Work ability in the work environment of obstetrical nursing is important. To be high functioning, workplaces should maximize the use of their employees' actual and potential skills.
Fata, Ulfa Husnul
Work stress is the distress ecperienced by nurses in the face of work. Job stress ecperienced by nurses if not addressed it will impact on the poor performance and quality of services provided. The purpose of the study was to provide an oveview of nurses work stress in Dahlia II Ngudi Waluyo Hospital Blitar. The method of this study was descriptive with respondents are all nurses at Dahlia II Ngudi Waluyo Blitar with sample size of 22 respondents. The data collection used questionnaires. The ...
Lin, Pei-Chen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Pan, Shung-Mei; Chen, Yao-Mei; Pan, Chih-Hong; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Wu, Ming-Tsang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether rotating shift work increases occupational stress in nurses. This study measured shift work scheduling and occupational stress by using the Effort-Reward Imbalance model with self-reported questionnaires in a sample of 654 female nurses. Overcommitment risk was higher in nurses who worked rotating shifts than in those who worked day/non-night shifts (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.03-4.66). However, an effort/reward imbalance was not directly associated with work schedules (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.87-4.35). Among nurses working rotation rotating shifts, those who had 2 days off after their most recent night shifts showed an alleviated risk of overcommitment (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.82), but those who had worked for at least one series of 7 consecutive work days per month had an increased risk of effort/reward imbalance (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.69-4.48). Additionally, those who had little or no participation in planning working hours and shift scheduling and worked overtime at least three times per week during the preceding 2 months tended to have high stress. The nurses who worked rotating shifts tended to experience work-related stress, but their stress levels improved if they had at least 2 days off after their most recent night shift and if they were not scheduled to work 7 consecutive days. These empirical data can be used to optimize work schedules for nurses to alleviate work stress.
Expected changes in environmental factors will alter productivity of agroecosystems and influence the distribution of agricultural pests. In addition to the natural factors that cause stress, humans introduce chemical pesticides into the agricultural environment. Weeds persist in...
.... Despite the importance placed on the family as a source of social support, there have been few systematic studies of the relationships between pilot family life, workplace stress, and performance...
Calderwood, Charles; Ackerman, Phillip L
Work stress is an important determinant of employee health and wellness. The occupational health community is recognizing that one contributor to these relationships may be the presence of negative off-job reactivity to work, which we argue involves continued thoughts directed towards work (cognitive reactivity), continued negative mood stemming from work (affective reactivity), and the alteration of post-work behaviours in response to work factors (behavioural reactivity). We explored the relative contributions of daily work stressors, affective traits, and subjective job stress perceptions to negative off-job reactivity. These relationships were evaluated in a study of hospital nurses (n = 75), who completed trait measures and then provided self-assessments of daily work stress and off-job reactions for four work days. The results of several multilevel analyses indicated that a main-effects model best described the data when predicting cognitive, affective, and behavioural reactivity from daily work stressors, affective traits, and subjective job stress perceptions. A series of multilevel dominance analyses revealed that subjective job stress perceptions dominated the prediction of behavioural reactivity, while trait negative affect dominated the prediction of affective reactivity. Theoretical implications and the relative salience of daily and enduring contributors to negative off-job reactivity are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Reinecke, Stefan; Runde, Bernd; Bastians, Frauke; Weiss, Udo; Heuft, Gereon; Bär, Olaf
Police officers frequently face traumatic stressors of different origins and thus bear an increased risk of developing a post-traumatic stress disorder. The most mentally burdening situations range from shootings, death of fellow officers, dealing with dead bodies in general, the effects of shift work, time pressure or discontent with management due to mobbing. Part of the present study examines the quality of stress in police work with the goal of developing a taxonomy of the origins of stress. A stratified sample of 109 police officers participated in the study. They were interviewed about stressful situations in their work life. In the interviews participants generated incidents describing stressful or straining situations. These incidents were used to develop a taxonomy of stressful situations in everyday police work. A further 22 interviews with officers of the federal police were carried out to examine the transferability of the developed taxonomy to other occupational groups. The taxonomy distinguishes between five sources of strain. Strain can arise from (1.) the task itself, (2.) the organization and structure of work, (3.) the temporal conditions and (4.) the social conditions. The fifth category describes the source of strain based on other conditions. The results also show that the taxonomy is transferable to other occupational groups. This taxonomy leads to the systematisation of the differences among the stress phenomena which occur in police work. The results can help in the development of practical prevention, counselling and therapeutic programs.
Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Hemdan
Extensive efforts have been made to maximize the potential of children with disabilities in Oman. The establishment of Al-Wafaa centers of disabilities served as a channel to help families secure a variety of services provided to children with different disabling conditions. The purpose of this study was to explore the burnout of staff working in…
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Workers involved in 'people-work' are expected to engage in a great deal of emotion management as they attempt to convey the appropriate emotions (which they may not genuinely feel) to their clients or customers whilst perhaps suppressing inappropriate ones. Should this emotion management be unsuccessful within some industries, a customer may be…
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Lu, Jinky Leilanie
In the light of global industrialization, much attention has been focused on occupational factors and their influence on the health and welfare of workers. This was a cross sectional study using stratified sampling technique based on industry sizes. The study sampled 24 industries, 6 were small scale industries and 9 each for medium and large scale industries. From the 24 industries, a total of 500 respondents for the questionnaire was taken. For occupational health and safety standards that industries have to comply with, there was low compliance among small-scale industries relative to the medium and large scale industries. Only one industry had an air cleaning device for cleaning contaminated air prior to emission into the external community. Among the 500 respondents, majority were female (88.8%), single (69.6%) and worked in the production or assembly-line station (87.4%). Sickness absenteeism was relative high among the workers in this study accounting for almost 54% among females and 48% among males. Many of the workers also reported of poor performance at work, boredom, tardiness and absenteeism. For association between work factors and personal factors, the following were found to be statistically significant at p=0.05. Boredom was associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotion, disincentives for sick leaves, poor relationship with boss and poor relationships with employers. On the other hand, poor performance was also associated with lack of skills training, lack of promotions, job insecurity, and poor relationship with employers. From the data generated, important issues that must be dealt with in work organizations include the quality of work life, and health and safety issues. Based on these findings, we can conclude that there are still issues on occupational health and safety (OHS) in the target site of export processing zones in the Philippines. There must be an active campaign for OHS in industries that are produce for the global market
Vowels, Anthony; Topp, Robert; Berger, Jill
Job-related stress is an important factor predicting staff satisfaction and position turnover among nursing staff, particularly in the operating room. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived amount of stress elicited by events in the perioperative environment, the frequency of those events, and the impact of those events on the perceived stress of operating room nurses (ORNs) and operating room technologists (ORTs). The Survey on Stress in the OR instrument, which was used to query the subjects, exhibited high internal consistency of all items. The findings indicated that the ORNs and the ORTs exhibited remarkable similarities between stressful events perceived as high and low impact. The two groups agreed that the highest impact stressful event was "pressure to work more quickly." Using the results of this study, OR administrators may be able to redesign the OR environment to minimize the impact of stressful events and thereby improve job satisfaction and minimize nursing staff turnover.
Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.
The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535
Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.
How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back ob...
Sluiter, J. K.; van der Beek, A. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coach drivers' work stress during work and in the course of recovery from work by measurement of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. METHODS: The urinary excretion rate of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol of 10 coach drivers was studied during a long distance trip of
Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Batenburg, R.S.; Kompier, M.A.J:; Taris.T.W.
Traditional machine-paced work shows adverse effects on worker health and learning. It is hardly known whether technological pacing shows the same effects in computer work. Hypotheses on work stress and learning were formulated regarding the effects of technological pacing, in the context of
Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Batenburg, R.S.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.
Traditional machine-paced work shows adverse effects on worker health and learning. It is hardly known whether technological pacing shows the same effects in computer work. Hypotheses on work stress and learning were formulated regarding the effects of technological pacing, in the context of
Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua
Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 2005 and 2009 (n = 12,341) were included in this study. Independent variables included work stress (job satisfaction, perceived safety, and perceived safety of possessions), self-reported perceptions towards academics and influence from parents and peers. Frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness were measured for lifetime, last 30 days and 12 months. The moderating effects of academic aspiration, parental, and peer influence were assessed on the relationship between work stress and alcohol use. Any work stress was positively associated with alcohol use over the past 12 months (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23). Stratified analysis found that peer influence significantly moderated the relationship between work stress and alcohol use over the lifetime and past 12 months. Among adolescents with work stress, odds ratios of alcohol use over the lifetime was 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) for those with low negative peer influence and 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.22) for those with high negative peer influence. Problematic drinking patterns were more apparent among high school students who experienced stress at work. Positive peer influence, however, may buffer the adverse effect of work stress on alcohol use.
Donders, N C G M; van der Gulden, J W J; Furer, J W; Tax, B; Roscam Abbing, E W
(1) To investigate the contribution of job characteristics and personal characteristics to the explanation of health effects among university personnel; (2) to investigate the differences between scientific personnel (SP) and non-scientific personnel (NSP); (3) to investigate whether health effects occurred one after another. The well being at work of employees at a Dutch university (n=2,522) was investigated by means of a questionnaire. A model was constructed in which several job and personal characteristics were set out against health effects. The latter were assumed to occur in phases: decreased "job satisfaction" as an early effect, followed by increased "tension" and "emotional exhaustion", and possibly also by increased "perceived health complaints". The contribution of job and personal characteristics to the explanation of health effects was investigated by means of linear regression analysis, with separate analyses for SP and NSP. Positive job characteristics, especially professional expertise and work variety, contributed to the explanation of "job satisfaction". The major contributors to "tension" and "emotional exhaustion" were negative characteristics, such as work pressure. Besides the negative aspects, the major contributors to the explanation of "perceived health complaints" were sex, age and other health effects. In NSP, social support contributed to the explanation of "tension" and "emotional exhaustion", but not in SP. The explained variance of "job satisfaction" by the positive job characteristics in NSP was much higher than that in SP. To investigate whether health effects occurred one after another, we considered explained variance. Explained variance in "job satisfaction" was much higher than in "perceived health complaints". "Emotional exhaustion" and "tension" were in between. Contrary to expectations, decision latitude and social support played only minor roles. Also, the differences between SP and NSP were smaller than expected. As
Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung
A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…
Croon, E.M.de; Sluiter, J.K.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Broersen, J.P.J.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.
Based on a model that combines existing organizational stress theory and job transition theory, this 2-year longitudinal study examined antecedents and consequences of turnover among Dutch truck drivers. For this purpose, self-reported data on stressful work (job demands and control), psychological
Rai, Manpreet K.; Loschky, Lester C.; Harris, Richard Jackson; Peck, Nicole R.; Cook, Lindsay G.
Although stress is frequently claimed to impede foreign language (FL) reading comprehension, it is usually not explained how. We investigated the effects of stress, working memory (WM) capacity, and inferential complexity on Spanish FL readers' inferential processing during comprehension. Inferences, although necessary for reading comprehension,…
Semmer, Norbert K.; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.; Elfering, Achim; Beehr, Terry A.; Kälin, Wolfgang; Tschan, Franziska
Illegitimate tasks represent a task-level stressor derived from role and justice theories within the framework of “Stress-as–Offense-to-Self” (SOS; Semmer, Jacobshagen, Meier, & Elfering, 2007). Tasks are illegitimate if they violate norms about what an employee can properly be expected to do, because they are perceived as unnecessary or unreasonable; they imply a threat to one's professional identity. We report three studies testing associations between illegitimate tasks and well-being/strain. In two cross-sectional studies, illegitimate tasks predicted low self-esteem, feelings of resentment towards one's organization and burnout, controlling for role conflict, distributive injustice and social stressors in Study 1, and for distributive and procedural/interactional justice in Study 2. In Study 3, illegitimate tasks predicted two strain variables (feelings of resentment towards one's organization and irritability) over a period of two months, controlling for initial values of strain. Results confirm the unique contribution of illegitimate tasks to well-being and strain, beyond the effects of other predictors. Moreover, Study 3 demonstrated that illegitimate tasks predicted strain, rather than being predicted by it. We therefore conclude that illegitimate tasks represent an aspect of job design that deserves more attention, both in research and in decisions about task assignments. PMID:25892839
Although dentistry is considered to be a stressful occupation, few data exist on work stress among dental assistants. In a previous paper, the extent and nature of work stress among this group was described and linked to a behavioural outcome; namely, intentions to change jobs or seek work outside of dentistry. In this paper the psychological outcomes of work stress, in the form of job satisfaction and emotional well-being, are examined. Using data collected by a mail survey, it was revealed that the main sources of dissatisfaction for dental assistants were low incomes, lack of opportunity to develop professionally and lack of recognition. Almost one-in-five had scores on a standard measure of emotional distress, which indicated a cause for concern. Work stress proved to be a significant predictor of job satisfaction, and work stress and job satisfaction emerged as significant predictors of emotional well-being. Social support while at work showed direct and interactive effects on job satisfaction but not emotional well-being. Role ambiguity, under-utilization of skills and low self-esteem emerged as important issues. These results are of interest theoretically and have important implications for the way dental practice and dentistry are organized.
Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Hossam S Alawad,2 Ayedh K Alamri,2 Abdullah I Saeed,2 Khalid A Aljuaydi,2 Alwaleed S Alotaibi,2 Khalid M Alotaibi,2 Eiad A Alfaris3 1Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University Chair for the Development of Medical Education, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Physicians experience several work-related stressors that have been mounting up in recent decades. This study aimed to examine perceived stress and its risk factors and consequences among consultant physicians in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015 among physicians who were assigned rank of consultant. The stress level was assessed using perceived stress scale (PSS.Results: A total of 582 consultants participated. The average age was 46.9±7.9 years, 71% were males, 56% were Saudi, 15% were smokers, and 68% slept ≤6 hours per night. The median PSS score was 17 (interquartile range of 14–21, which represented 44% of maximum possible PSS score. The upper tertile of PSS score (represents a high stress level was significantly associated with being younger, female, and Saudi. The majority (85% considered job environment to be stressful and ~50% attributed that to a high workload and a noncooperative administration. In the year preceding this study, half of consultants frequently contemplated or even worked toward changing their medical institutes or even moving to work outside Saudi Arabia because of perception of a stressful working environment. Over the previous year, encountering life stressors, considering job environment as stressful and experiencing passive suicidal ideation, were significantly associated with higher levels of stress
Full Text Available The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF and Low Frequency (LF powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: “prolonged high stress” (PHS, “recent high stress” (RHS and “stable low stress” (SLS. A 24-h ECG monitoring was later performed during a working day (WD and a subsequent resting day (RD. Statistically significantly lower (p < 0.02 HF and LF means were found in PHS and RHS nurses during the working periods. In the subsequent resting periods, HF means showed increases over time in the RHS (beta = +0.41, p < 0.05, but not in PHS nurses. LF means did not show any substantial increases in the resting periods, in the PHS group with geometric means lower when compared to SLS, in the non-working and resting periods. Our study evidences that both prolonged and recent perceived high work stress were associated with a reduction of HF and LF powers during work. In addition, prolonged stress was associated with a lack of recovery during not-working and resting periods.
Baigi, Amir; Oden, Anders; Almlid-Larsen, Vibeke; Barrenäs, Marie-Louise; Holgers, Kajsa-Mia
To evaluate the influence of noise and stress on the probability of tinnitus in the general population. Questionnaire data were obtained from 12,166 subjects. Each year of age increased the odds ratio of tinnitus by about 3%. Men generally showed a higher risk for tinnitus compared with women. Exposure to noise and stress emerged important for the probability of tinnitus. However, for the transition from mild to severe tinnitus, stress turned out to be especially important. Stress management strategies should be included in hearing conservation programs, especially for individuals with mild tinnitus who report a high stress load.
Lawhon, Tommie M.
The instrument described in this article, "How Do You Help in the Family?," provides a way to recognize the number of tasks performed in home management and a method for expressing feelings about the stress associated with household work. (SK)
Kjellstrom, Tord; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Briggs, David
Increased environmental heat levels as a result of climate change present a major challenge to the health, wellbeing and sustainability of human communities in already hot parts of this planet. This challenge has many facets from direct clinical health effects of daily heat exposure to indirect effects related to poor air quality, poor access to safe drinking water, poor access to nutritious and safe food and inadequate protection from disease vectors and environmental toxic chemicals. The increasing environmental heat is a threat to environmental sustainability. In addition, social conditions can be undermined by the negative effects of increased heat on daily work and life activities and on local cultural practices. The methodology we describe can be used to produce quantitative estimates of the impacts of climate change on work activities in countries and local communities. We show in maps the increasing heat exposures in the shade expressed as the occupational heat stress index Wet Bulb Globe Temperature. Some tropical and sub-tropical areas already experience serious heat stress, and the continuing heating will substantially reduce work capacity and labour productivity in widening parts of the world. Southern parts of Europe and the USA will also be affected. Even the lowest target for climate change (average global temperature change = 1.5 °C at representative concentration pathway (RCP2.6) will increase the loss of daylight work hour output due to heat in many tropical areas from less than 2% now up to more than 6% at the end of the century. A global temperature change of 2.7 °C (at RCP6.0) will double this annual heat impact on work in such areas. Calculations of this type of heat impact at country level show that in the USA, the loss of work capacity in moderate level work in the shade will increase from 0.17% now to more than 1.3% at the end of the century based on the 2.7 °C temperature change. The impact is naturally mainly occurring in the
Kjellstrom, Tord; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Briggs, David
Increased environmental heat levels as a result of climate change present a major challenge to the health, wellbeing and sustainability of human communities in already hot parts of this planet. This challenge has many facets from direct clinical health effects of daily heat exposure to indirect effects related to poor air quality, poor access to safe drinking water, poor access to nutritious and safe food and inadequate protection from disease vectors and environmental toxic chemicals. The increasing environmental heat is a threat to environmental sustainability. In addition, social conditions can be undermined by the negative effects of increased heat on daily work and life activities and on local cultural practices. The methodology we describe can be used to produce quantitative estimates of the impacts of climate change on work activities in countries and local communities. We show in maps the increasing heat exposures in the shade expressed as the occupational heat stress index Wet Bulb Globe Temperature. Some tropical and sub-tropical areas already experience serious heat stress, and the continuing heating will substantially reduce work capacity and labour productivity in widening parts of the world. Southern parts of Europe and the USA will also be affected. Even the lowest target for climate change (average global temperature change = 1.5 °C at representative concentration pathway (RCP2.6) will increase the loss of daylight work hour output due to heat in many tropical areas from less than 2% now up to more than 6% at the end of the century. A global temperature change of 2.7 °C (at RCP6.0) will double this annual heat impact on work in such areas. Calculations of this type of heat impact at country level show that in the USA, the loss of work capacity in moderate level work in the shade will increase from 0.17% now to more than 1.3% at the end of the century based on the 2.7 °C temperature change. The impact is naturally mainly occurring in the southern
Kjellstrom, Tord; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Briggs, David
Increased environmental heat levels as a result of climate change present a major challenge to the health, wellbeing and sustainability of human communities in already hot parts of this planet. This challenge has many facets from direct clinical health effects of daily heat exposure to indirect effects related to poor air quality, poor access to safe drinking water, poor access to nutritious and safe food and inadequate protection from disease vectors and environmental toxic chemicals. The increasing environmental heat is a threat to environmental sustainability. In addition, social conditions can be undermined by the negative effects of increased heat on daily work and life activities and on local cultural practices. The methodology we describe can be used to produce quantitative estimates of the impacts of climate change on work activities in countries and local communities. We show in maps the increasing heat exposures in the shade expressed as the occupational heat stress index Wet Bulb Globe Temperature. Some tropical and sub-tropical areas already experience serious heat stress, and the continuing heating will substantially reduce work capacity and labour productivity in widening parts of the world. Southern parts of Europe and the USA will also be affected. Even the lowest target for climate change (average global temperature change = 1.5 °C at representative concentration pathway (RCP2.6) will increase the loss of daylight work hour output due to heat in many tropical areas from less than 2% now up to more than 6% at the end of the century. A global temperature change of 2.7 °C (at RCP6.0) will double this annual heat impact on work in such areas. Calculations of this type of heat impact at country level show that in the USA, the loss of work capacity in moderate level work in the shade will increase from 0.17% now to more than 1.3% at the end of the century based on the 2.7 °C temperature change. The impact is naturally mainly occurring in the southern
Full Text Available Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities: (1 Character strengths correlate with coping and (2 buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175] filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.
Work-related stress amongst teachers and other occupational groups, is a significant problem in terms of its prevalence and costs. Reduction of work-related stress has been attempted by a variety of intervention programmes. Most published, work-related stress programmes appear to have resulted in minimal stress reduction and this thesis is broadly concerned with the reasons for this apparent lack of success. Responsibility in the workplace for addressing stress usually lies with managers who ...
Zoni, Silvia; Lucchini, Roberto G.
In recent years, various international organizations have raised awareness regarding psychosocial risks and work-related stress. European stakeholders have also taken action on these issues by producing important documents, such as position papers and government regulations, which are reviewed in this article. In particular, 4 European models that have been developed for the assessment and management of work-related stress are considered here. Although important advances have been made in the...
Penteado, Regina Zanella; Silva, Noelle Bernardi da; Montebello, Maria Imaculada de Lima
To assess aspects related to work, stress and quality of life related to voice in soccer coaches (C) and physical trainers (T), comparing the categories. Qualitative and quantitative studies with 13 C and 13 T of teams competing in Phase One of the highest level (Série A ) of the 2012 Campeonato Paulista (São Paulo State Soccer Championship). The questions were open ended and related to complaints, difficulties, and/or problems regarding voice use during work and to the relations between voice, work, stress, and quality of life. Stress at work was analyzed by the Job Stress Scale (JSS) questionnaire. The perception of the impact of the voice on quality of life was evaluated by the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) protocol. The answers to the questions were transcribed and submitted to content analysis, and regarding the questionnaire, descriptive data and analytical statistics were used. Content analysis showed lack of preparation for voice care; voice complaints; and intense vocal use demand under stressful work, in addition to the absence of healthy habits and social/family support. The JSS dimensions showed that the Active Work situation and the high V-RQOL scores are compatible with vocal health without complaints. There were no statistical differences between the categories. Both categories reported complaints/problems linked to professional voice use and stressful workload. However, the perception of vocal impact on the quality of life was positive, and the analysis of stress at work resulted in "good" and favorable conditions. The relationship between voice, work, stress, and quality of life in both the categories require further investigations.
Ponce Díaz, Carlos R.; Bulnes Bedón, Mario Santiago; Aliaga Tovar, Jaime Ramiro; Atalaya Pisco, María Clotilde; Huerta Rosales, Rosa Elena
Objective: To acknowledge the possible presence of the "Burnout" syndrome caused by existential work stress in university professors group of a state university who belong to different career area.To find possible significant differences in the "Burnout" syndrome caused by existential work stress in different career area and according to the variable: sex, marital status, sport practice, health and teaching condition. Design: It is descriptive, comparative, correlational and analytic preforme...
Blomberg, Karin; Isaksson, Ann-Kristin; Allvin, Renée; Bisholt, Birgitta; Ewertsson, Mona; Kullén Engström, Agneta; Ohlsson, Ulla; Sundler Johansson, Annelie; Gustafsson, Margareta
The aim was to investigate occupational stress among newly graduated nurses in relation to the workplace and clinical group supervision. Being a newly graduated nurse is particularly stressful. What remains unclear is whether the workplace and clinical group supervision affect the stress. A cross-sectional comparative study was performed in 2012. Data were collected by means of a numerical scale measuring occupational stress, questions about workplace and clinical group supervision. One hundred and thirteen nurses who had recently graduated from three Swedish universities were included in the study. The stress was high among the newly graduated nurses but it differed significantly between workplaces, surgical departments generating the most stress. Nurses who had received clinical group supervision reported significantly less stress. The stress between workplaces remained significant also when participation in clinical group supervision was taken into account. Newly graduated nurses experience great stress and need support, especially those in surgical departments. Nurses participating in clinical group supervision reported significantly less stress. It is important to develop strategies that help to adapt the work situation so as to give nurses the necessary support. Clinical group supervision should be considered as an option for reducing stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Virtanen, Marianna; Kurvinen, Tiina; Terho, Kirsi; Oksanen, Tuula; Peltonen, Reijo; Vahtera, Jussi; Routamaa, Marianne; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika
To examine the association between work hours, work stress, and collaboration among the ward personnel, and the risk of hospital-associated infection among patients. Cross-sectional data on hospital infections were collected between March and June 2004. These data were linked with ward-level responses to a personnel survey collected during the same time period. Medical records of patients in 60 non-psychiatric bed wards in 6 Finnish hospitals. One thousand ninety-two patients and 1159 staff survey responses. Prevalence surveillance was performed by 4 infection control nurses, using standard criteria. Data on several potential risk factors for infection were collected: sex, age, patient type (surgical vs. other), hospital type (university vs. regional hospital), unit type, number of patients in the ward, exposure to invasive devices, International Classification of Diseases version 10 diagnosis, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and use of corticosteroids. Staff working conditions were measured by survey scales. Ninety-nine cases (9.1%) of hospital-associated infection were found. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted for hospital factors and patient-related risk factors, showed that long work hours among staff were associated with increased risk of infection [odds ratio (OR) 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-7.04]. Other staff-related correlates of infection were high work stress, as indicated by high imbalance between efforts and rewards (OR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.38-4.42), low trust between work unit members (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.27-4.43), injustice in the distribution of work (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.04-3.16), and poor collaboration between ward supervisors (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.38-4.38). Long work hours, high work stress, and poor collaboration among the ward staff are associated with hospital-associated infection among patients.
Zoni, Silvia; Lucchini, Roberto G
In recent years, various international organizations have raised awareness regarding psychosocial risks and work-related stress. European stakeholders have also taken action on these issues by producing important documents, such as position papers and government regulations, which are reviewed in this article. In particular, 4 European models that have been developed for the assessment and management of work-related stress are considered here. Although important advances have been made in the understanding of work-related stress, there are still gaps in the translation of this knowledge into effective practice at the enterprise level. There are additional problems regarding the methodology in the evaluation of work-related stress. The European models described in this article are based on holistic, global and participatory approaches, where the active role of and involvement of workers are always emphasized. The limitations of these models are in the lack of clarity on preventive intervention and, for two of them, the lack of instrument standardization for risk evaluation. The comparison among the European models to approach work-related stress, although with limitations and socio-cultural differences, offers the possibility for the development of a social dialogue that is important in defining the correct and practical methodology for work stress evaluation and prevention.
Full Text Available In recent years, various international organizations have raised awareness regarding psychosocial risks and work-related stress. European stakeholders have also taken action on these issues by producing important documents, such as position papers and government regulations, which are reviewed in this article. In particular, 4 European models that have been developed for the assessment and management of work-related stress are considered here. Although important advances have been made in the understanding of work-related stress, there are still gaps in the translation of this knowledge into effective practice at the enterprise level. There are additional problems regarding the methodology in the evaluation of work-related stress. The European models described in this article are based on holistic, global and participatory approaches, where the active role of and involvement of workers are always emphasized. The limitations of these models are in the lack of clarity on preventive intervention and, for two of them, the lack of instrument standardization for risk evaluation. The comparison among the European models to approach work-related stress, although with limitations and socio-cultural differences, offers the possibility for the development of a social dialogue that is important in defining the correct and practical methodology for work stress evaluation and prevention.
Yeon, Y.M.; Kwun, S.I.
A study was made of the effects of cold working and annealing on the stress corrosion cracking of AISI 304 stainless steel in boiling 42% MgCl 2 solution. When the 60% or 76% of yield stress was applied, the resistance to SCC showed maximum at 30% of cold work. However, when the same load was applied to the annealed specimens after cold working, the resistance to SCC decreased abruptly at 675degC annealing. The fracture mode changed mode change mixed → intergranular → transgranular as the amount of cold work increased. (Author)
had to leave school (47). Self. 9. 15 ~ P< 0,01. Spouse/partner. 11. 16. Marital reconciliation (45). 2. Change in health of family member (44). 21. 16. Sex/marital problems (39). 12. 16. :If The totals for the two groups exceed 100%. because several stress factors coexisted in many of the subjects. marriage and the small ...
Objective: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experience(s). Research suggests that PTSD may be under- diagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem or when not the focus of clinical intervention. There is a dearth of South ...
All living systems are under continuous stress of one kind or the other because of the dynamic nature of the biotic and abiotic environments in which they live. In a way, the essence ... Obviously an integration of approaches would permit a better appreciation of the issues involved and thus provide better definitions for more ...
Alda Alvarez, O.
The increasing presence of abiotic stress factors in ecosystems over the past few decades has become an issue of major concern. The growing awareness of the detrimental effects that processes such as climatic change or chemical contamination can have on ecosystems and the species that inhabit them
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale of Holmes and Rahe was used to assign maternal stress scores established during an Interview conducted within 36 hours of delivery. Only mothers without medical problems who had delivered liveborn Infants were Included. Maternal age, obstetric history, smoking history and ...
Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim
Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011
Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu
The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fang, Ronghua; Li, Xia
Although many studies have assessed the efficacy of yoga in older individuals, minimal research has focused on how nurses use yoga to improve sleep quality and to reduce work stress after work hours. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in Chinese and the Questionnaire on Medical Worker's Stress in Chinese to determine the impact of yoga on the quality of sleep and work stress of staff nurses employed by a general hospital in China. Disturbances in the circadian rhythm interrupt an individual's pattern of sleep. Convenient sampling method. One hundred and twenty nurses were randomised into two groups: a yoga group and a non-yoga group. The yoga group performed yoga more than two times every week for 50-60 minutes each time after work hours. The NG group did not participate in yoga. After six months, self-reported sleep quality and work stress were compared between the two groups, and then we used linear regression to confirm the independent factors related to sleep quality. Nurses in the yoga group had better sleep quality and lower work stress compared with nurses in the non-yoga group. The linear regression model indicated that nursing experience, age and yoga intervention were significantly related to sleep quality. Regular yoga can improve sleep quality and reduce work stress in staff nurses. This study provides evidence that hospital management should pay attention to nurse sleep quality and work stress, thereby taking corresponding measures to reduce work pressure and improve health outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cavanaugh, M A; Boswell, W R; Roehling, M V; Boudreau, J W
This study proposes that self-reported work stress among U.S. managers is differentially related (positively and negatively) to work outcomes depending on the stressors that are being evaluated. Specific hypotheses were derived from this general proposition and tested using a sample of 1,886 U.S. managers and longitudinal data. Regression results indicate that challenge-related self-reported stress is positively related to job satisfaction and negatively related to job search. In contrast, hindrance-related self-reported stress is negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to job search and turnover. Future research directions are discussed.
Ingham, C.J.; Beerthuyzen, M.; Vlieg, J.E.T.V.H.
Within an isogenic microbial population in a homogenous environment, individual bacteria can still exhibit differences in phenotype. Phenotypic heterogeneity can facilitate the survival of subpopulations under stress. As the gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum grows, it acidifies the
Katju, Vaishali; Packard, Lucille B; Keightley, Peter D
The consequences of mutations for population fitness depends on their individual selection coefficients and the effective population size. An earlier study of Caenorhabditis elegans spontaneous mutation accumulation lines evolved for 409 generations at three population sizes found that N e = 1 populations declined significantly in fitness whereas the fitness of larger populations (N e = 5, 50) was indistinguishable from the ancestral control under benign conditions. To test if larger MA populations harbor a load of cryptic deleterious mutations that are obscured under benign laboratory conditions, we measured fitness under osmotic stress via exposure to hypersaline conditions. The fitness of N e = 1 lines exhibited a further decline under osmotic stress compared to benign conditions. However, the fitness of larger populations remained indistinguishable from that of the ancestral control. The average effects of deleterious mutations in N e = 1 lines were estimated to be 22% for productivity and 14% for survivorship, exceeding values previously detected under benign conditions. Our results suggest that fitness decline is due to large effect mutations that are rapidly removed via selection even in small populations, with implications for conservation practices. Genetic stochasticity may not be as potent and immediate a threat to the persistence of small populations as other demographic and environmental stochastic factors. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Carlquist, Magnus; Fernandes, Rita Lencastre; Helmark, Søren
importance for improving microbial cell factory processes. Results: In this work, a dual reporter system was developed and applied to map growth and cell fitness heterogeneities within budding yeast populations during aerobic cultivation in well-mixed bioreactors. The reporter strain, which was based...... on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the ribosomal protein RPL22a promoter, made it possible to distinguish cell growth phases by the level of fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, by exploiting the strong correlation of intracellular GFP level and cell membrane integrity...... it was possible to distinguish subpopulations with high and low cell membrane robustness and hence ability to withstand freeze-thaw stress. A strong inverse correlation between growth and cell membrane robustness was observed, which further supports the hypothesis that cellular resources are limited and need...
Vahle-Hinz, Tim; Bamberg, Eva; Dettmers, Jan; Friedrich, Niklas; Keller, Monika
The present study reports the lagged effects of work stress on work-related rumination, restful sleep, and nocturnal heart rate variability experienced during both workdays and weekends. Fifty employees participated in a diary study. Multilevel and regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between work stress measured at the end of a workday, work-related rumination measured during the evening, and restful sleep measured the following morning. Work stress, measured as the mean of 2 consecutive workdays, was substantially but not significantly related to restful sleep on weekends. Work stress was unrelated to nocturnal heart rate variability. Work-related rumination was related to restful sleep on weekends but not on workdays. Additionally, work-related rumination on weekends was positively related to nocturnal heart rate variability during the night between Saturday and Sunday. No mediation effects of work stress on restful sleep or nocturnal heart rate variability via work-related rumination were confirmed.
Full Text Available Introduction: Since there are few studies on stress experienced by nursing staff in private hospitals, this study aimed to determine the sources of job stress among nurses in private hospitals in southwest of Iran. Method: In a cross-sectional design, nurses in private hospitals in Shiraz were investigated; about 160 nurses were selected by single-stage cluster sampling as the study samples in three selected hospitals. A standard questionnaire on the sources of job stress was used for data collection. The data were analyzed through SPSS, version 21, using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The level of significance was considered as 0.05. Results: Five important causes of stress among nurses were low income, lack of job security, work-home interface, lack of enough time for work, and exposure with unsuitable physical situation. There were significant associations between the source of stress and having persons with chronic disease in family and concurrent education and work (P = 0.021, X2= 426.5 and P = 0.022, X2 = 717.5, respectively. Conclusion: The sources of job stress should be considered for effective working of the hospital. Attention to nurses’ salary and job security reduces job stress.
Giorgi, Gabriele; Mancuso, Serena; Fiz Perez, Francisco Javier; Montani, Francesco; Courcy, Francois; Arcangeli, Giulio
Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed.
Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per
and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions.Return To Work (RTW), defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. RESULTS: The level of sick leave in the stress......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study...... was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...
Dana Maria Staňková
Full Text Available Within the frame of this paper the key theoretical knowledge to the selected topic is described, the presentation of partial results and discussion on the issue of the psychological aspects of managerial work, focusing on stress and its manifestations are submitted. The aim of this research was to identify the most frequent stress symptoms in the physiological, emotional and behavioral field and to define the main factors which cause them in work and private life terms. For the purpose of this research of stress effects on health area a questionnaire technology of our own design was chosen. For a deeper understanding of sources of an increased psychological stress in managerial activities a technique of interviews with the top managers was used. Research investigation has showed the action of stress on the senior managers, particularly increased during the current economic recession. The most significant signs of stress are manifested in physiological area, especially by fatigue, headache, digestion problems and sleep disturbances, as in the emotional area by anxiety, excessive concern and overall irritability. At the same time stress impacts also the behavioral area, where it has a negative impact to the work and family life. In the course of processing this subject, an absolutely obvious need occurred for a deeper processing of this large area of work stress, which will be subsequently dealing with, and whose output will be, the methodology of anti-stress strategy for HR (Human Resources managers and Senior Executives of companies to prevent stress, promote health and quality of living conditions in the workplace.
Mika, Agnieszka; Mazur, Gabriel J.; Hoffman, Ann N.; Talboom, Joshua S.; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Sanabria, Federico; Conrad, Cheryl D.
Chronic stress leads to neurochemical and structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that correspond to deficits in PFC-mediated behaviors. The present study examined the effects of chronic restraint stress on response inhibition (using a response-withholding task, fixed-minimum interval schedule of reinforcement, or FMI), and working memory (using a radial arm water maze, RAWM). Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were first trained on the RAWM and subsequently trained on FMI. Following acquisition of FMI, rats were assigned to a restraint stress (6h/d/28d in wire mesh restrainers) or control condition. Immediately after chronic stress, rats were tested on FMI and subsequently on RAWM. FMI results suggest that chronic stress reduces response inhibition capacity and motivation to initiate the task on selective conditions when food reward was not obtained on the preceding trial. RAWM results suggest that chronic stress produces transient deficits in working memory without altering previously consolidated reference memory. Behavioral measures from FMI failed to correlate with metrics from RAWM except for one in which changes in FMI timing precision negatively correlated with changes in RAWM working memory errors for the controls, a finding that was not observed following chronic stress. Fisher’s r to z transformation revealed no significant differences between control and stress with correlation coefficients. These findings are the first to show that chronic stress impairs both response inhibition and working memory, two behaviors that have never been direct compared within the same animals following chronic stress, using FMI, an appetitive task, and RAWM, a non-appetitive task. PMID:22905921
Kaiseler, Mariana; Queirós, Cristina; Passos, Fernando; Sousa, Pedro
This study investigated the influence of stress appraisal and coping on work engagement levels (Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication) of police recruits. Participants were 387 men, ages 20 to 33 yr. (M = 24.1, SD = 2.4), in their last month of academy training before becoming police officers. Partially in support of predictions, work engagement was associated with Stressor control perceived, but not Stress intensity experienced over a self-selected stressor. Although the three dimensions of work engagement were explained by Stressor control and coping, Absorption was the dimension better explained by these variables. Police recruits reporting higher Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication reported using more Active coping and less Behavioural disengagement. Results showed that stress appraisal and coping are important variables influencing work engagement among police recruits. Findings suggested that future applied interventions fostering work engagement among police recruits should reinforce perceptions of control over a stressor as well as Active coping strategies.
Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F
There is substantial empirical evidence on the benefits of smoking bans; however, the unintended consequences of this anti-smoking measure have received little attention. This paper examines whether workplace smoking bans (WSB's) are associated with higher self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers. A longitudinal representative sample of 3,237 individuals from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 2000 to 2008 is used. Work-related stress is derived from a 12-item job questionnaire. Two categories of WSB's, full and partial, are included in the analysis, with no ban being the reference category. Analysis also controls for individual socio-demographic characteristics, health status, provincial and occupational fixed-effects. We use fixed-effects linear regression to control for individual time-invariant confounders, both measured and unmeasured, which can affect the relationship between WSB's and work-related stress. To examine the heterogeneous effects of WSB's, the analysis is stratified by gender and age. We check the robustness of our results by re-estimating the baseline specification with the addition of different control variables and a separate analysis for non-smokers. Multivariate analysis reveals a positive and statistically significant association between full (β = 0.75, CI = 0.19-1.32) or partial (β = 0.69, CI = 0.12-1.26) WSB's, and the level of self-perceived, work-related stress among smoking workers compared to those with no WSB. We also find that this association varies by gender and age. In particular, WSB's are significantly associated with higher work stress only for males and young adults (aged 18-40). No statistically significant association is found between WSB's and the level of self-perceived work-related stress among non-smoking workers. The results of this study do not imply that WSB's are the main determinant of self-perceived, work-related stress among smokers but provides suggestive evidence that these
Muhonen, Tuija; Torkelson, Eva
In the present study, coping was viewed as both an individualistic and a collective phenomenon, and the investigation assessed how use of collective and individualistic coping strategies was related to sex of respondent and organizational level. These strategies were measured by responses to Swedish versions of the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale and the COPE Inventory. Data were collected by means of an Internet-based questionnaire completed by 950 female (n = 502) and male (n = 448) employees at both the managerial (n = 171) and nonmanagerial (n = 764) levels, working in customer service in a Swedish telecom company. The mean age of the participants was 47 yr. (SD = 9.7). Analysis showed women more often used collective strategies, but so also did both women and men managers. Men did not use problem-focused individualistic coping strategies more often than women. No interactions between sex and organizational level were found. Separate analyses for women and men indicated that coping was more related to organizational level than to sex.
Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.
The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…
Park, Jin-Hyuck; Park, Ji-Hyuk
This study was conducted to investigate the associations among work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), job stress, and job attitude of occupational therapists in South Korea. Self-reporting questionnaires were distributed to 150 occupational therapists. Of the 128 occupational therapists who responded, 110 (85.9%) reported WMSDs affecting at least one body site. The most affected WMSDs site was the low back (26.8%), and the most reported number of body site affected by WMSDs was one (53.9%). As a result, there were significant differences in job stress and job attitude depending on the age, work experience, working hour, presence or absence of WMSDs, and number of site of pain. Factors influencing job attitude included job stress, the presence or absence of WMSDs and duration of pain. The results showed that the occurrence of WMSDs in occupational therapists was associated with increased job stress and negative job attitude.
Full Text Available Background Some studies have shown working memory impairment following stressful situations. Also, researchers have found that working memory performance depends on many different factors such as emotional load of stimuli and gender. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the effects of stress induction on visual working memory (VWM performance among female and male university students. Methods This quasi-experimental research employed a posttest with only control group design (within-group study. A total of 62 university students (32 males and 30 females were randomly selected and allocated to experimental and control groups (mean age of 23.73. Using cold presser test (CPT, stress was induced and then, an n-back task was implemented to evaluate visual working memory function (such as the number of true items, time reactions, and the number of wrong items through emotional and non-emotional pictures. 100 pictures were selected from the international affective picture system (IASP with different valences. Results Results showed that stress impaired different visual working memory functions (P < 0.002 for true scores, P < 0.001 for reaction time, and P < 0.002 for wrong items. Conclusions In general, stress significantly decreases the VWM performances. On the one hand, females were strongly impressed by stress more than males and on the other hand, the VWM performance was better for emotional stimuli than non-emotional stimuli.
Krantz, Gunilla; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf
The aim of this study was to analyse how paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work-child care interactions and perceived work stress are associated with reported symptoms in male and female white-collar employees. A questionnaire was mailed to 1300 men and 1300 women belonging to the white-collar sector, with at least 35 hours of regular employment a week and a participant age of between 32 and 58 years. It contained items relating to total workload (hours spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and childcare), subjective indices for work stress and symptoms. The response rate was 65% (743 women; 595 men). Gender difference in symptom prevalence was tested by analyses of variance. Odds ratios were used to estimate the bivariate associations between work-related variables and symptom prevalence. A multivariate analysis estimated the effect of paid and unpaid work interaction, work-childcare interplay and possible synergy. The frequency and severity of symptoms was higher in women than in men (P work and household duties (OR 2.09; 1.06-4.14), whereas men responded more selectively to long working hours, i.e. >50 h/week (OR 1.61; 1.02-2.54). However, childcare (working long hours. Working life and private circumstances and the interplay between them need to be taken into account to curb stress-related ill health in both men and women.
Persson, Roger; Österberg, Kai; Viborg, Njördur; Jönsson, Peter; Tenenbaum, Artur
To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors. A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life. Compared to participants without any indication of ED, participants classified as having ED on KEDS or s-ED had higher scores on all four SMBQ subscales, lower scores on the UWES-9 subscales vigor and dedication, higher JCQ job demands scores, lower JCQ job support scores, higher degrees of family-to-work interference and stress in private life, and higher BFI neuroticism and openness scores. In addition, participants classified as having ED on KEDS had lower scores on the UWES-9 absorption subscale, the JCQ job control scale, and lower BFI extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness scores, compared to the subgroup not classified as having ED. As expected, we observed an overall pattern of associations between the ED screening inventories KEDS and s-ED and measures of burnout, work engagement, job demands-control-support, stress in private life, family-to-work interference, and personality factors. The results suggest that instruments designed to assess burnout, work engagement, and ED share common ground, despite their conceptual differences.
Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kawakami, Norito
This cross-sectional multilevel study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement of the work environment and work-related stress in a nationally representative sample in Japan. The study was based on a national survey that randomly sampled 1745 worksites and 17,500 nested employees. The survey asked the worksites whether improvements of the work environment were conducted; and it asked the employees to report the number of work-related stresses they experienced. Multilevel multinominal logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. Improvement of the work environment was not significantly associated with any level of work-related stress. Among men, it was significantly and negatively associated with the severe level of work-related stress. The association was not significant among women. Improvements to work environments may be associated with reduced work-related stress among men nationwide in Japan.
Savitsky, Laura; Illingworth, Maria; DuLaney, Megan
This article discusses social work practice areas for civilian social workers who provide services to military service members,veterans, and their families. These practice areas include education, child welfare, domestic violence, mental health, health care, substance abuse, and criminal justice. The authors examine the impact of the contemporary military lifestyle and current military operations on service members and their families in the context of these practice areas, with the goal of compelling civilian social workers to acknowledge their responsibility to competently serve military and veteran clients.
Siegrist, Johannes; Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico
To assess whether an association of psychosocial stress at work with depressive symptoms among older employees is evident in a set of comparable empirical studies from Europe, North America and Asia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariate regression analyses of data from 4 cohort studies with elder workers (2004 and 2006) testing associations of psychosocial stress at work ('effort-reward imbalance'; 'low control') with depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional analyses from 17 countries with 14.236 participants reveal elevated odds ratios of depressive symptoms among people experiencing high work stress compared to those with low or no work stress. Adjusted odds ratios vary from 1.64 (95% CI 1.02-2.63) in Japan to 1.97 (95% CI 1.75-2.23) in Europe and 2.28 (95% CI 1.59-3.28) in the USA. Odds ratios from additional longitudinal analyses (in 13 countries) controlling for baseline depression are smaller, but remain in part significant. Findings indicate that psychosocial stress at work might be a relevant risk factor for depressive symptoms among older employees across countries and continents. This observation may call for global policy efforts to improve quality of work in view of a rapidly aging workforce, in particular in times of economic globalization.
Santana, Angela Maria C; Gomes, Josiane Keila V; De Marchi, Dione; Girondoli, Yassana M; Rosado, Lina E F P de Lima; Rosado, Gilberto Paixão; de Andrade, Isabel Maria
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress, working conditions and the nutritional status of 53 military police officers in a Southeast city of Brazil. In order to evaluate the symptomatology and the stress phase, the Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp for Adults - ISSL was utilized. The assessment of the working conditions was performed by means of socio-demographic questionnaire, direct observation and interviews. The nutritional and health conditions were assessed through anthropometric measures, biochemical tests, blood pressure measurements and cardiovascular disease risk calculator. The sample is of the male gender (92.5%) and aging below 40 years old (73.6%). From these, 35.8% showed stress and 68.4% were in the resistance phase, with 31.6% almost burned out. Through the calculation of Chi-square we could find positive association between the BMI and tiredness (P = 0.0188), between the BMI and irritation (P = 0.0005) and the BMI and the appearance of nervous system problems or emotional problems (P = 0.0304), indicating that these statuses or problems could be related to work. We can conclude then, the stress is present among military police officers. No case of critical stress was found, and the stress phases identified are still susceptible to intervention.
Yasuda, Norihisa; Shingu, Chihiro; Miyagawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Masakazu; Kitano, Takaaki; Noguchi, Takayuki
In recent years, workload for a doctor has been increasing, because hospital managers are trying to improve the efficiency of management. As a result, many doctors are expected to work harder. We studied how anesthesiologists are stressed by their work, especially on working overnight, using the Profile of Mood States(POMS). Thirty six anesthesiologists working in our hospital are studied. We asked them to answer POMS questionnaires three times at 8:00 before overnight work, 8:00 and 17:00 the following day. Mean working time for overnight job is 32 +/- 4.3 hours and mean sleeping time is 3.0 +/- 1.3 hours (mean +/- SD). The Profile of Mood States has six subscores (depression, fatigue, vigor, confusion, tension/anxiety, and anger). After working overnight, fatigue and confusion scores were significantly increased and vigor scores were significantly decreased, compared with the sores at 8.00 before overnight work. We studied anesthesiologist's stress of working overnight, using the Profile of Mood States. As a result, after overnight work, fatigue, confusion and vigor scores were significantly exacerbated. We speculate that the anesthesiologists are building up so much stress when they work overnight as on call.
Vedel, Søren; Nunns, Harry; Košmrlj, Andrej
, we introduce a cell-lineage-based framework that quantifies the population-wide effects of ADS and then verify our results experimentally in E. coli under heat and antibiotic stress. Using an experimentally validated mathematical model, we find that the beneficial effect of ADS increases with stress....... In effect, low-damage subpopulations divide faster and amplify within the population acting like a positive feedback loop whose strength scales with stress. Analysis of protein aggregates shows that the degree of asymmetric inheritance is damage dependent in single cells. Together our results indicate that...
Wästberg, Birgitta A; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona
The study aimed to investigate (a) if women's perceptions of their work environment changed during a 16-week rehabilitation period and at a 12-month follow-up; (b) whether such changes were related to outcomes in terms of return to work, well-being and valued occupations. Eighty-four gainfully employed women on sick-leave due to stress-related disorders responded to instruments assessing perceptions of the work environment, well-being (self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health) and perceived occupational value. Data about return to work were collected from registers. Non-parametric statistics were used. The increase in the women's ratings of their work environment was non-significant between baseline and completed rehabilitation but was statistically significant between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. No relationships were found between changes in perceptions of the work environment and outcomes after the rehabilitation. At the follow-up, however, there were associations between perceived work environment changes in a positive direction and return to work; improved self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived occupational value and self-rated health; and reduced stress. It seems important to consider the work environment in rehabilitation for stress-related problems, and a follow-up appears warranted to detect changes and associations not visible immediately after rehabilitation. Work environment Perceptions of the work environment seem important for return to work, although other factors are likely to contribute as well. Perceptions of the work environment are associated with several aspects of well-being. When developing rehabilitation interventions a focus on the clients' perceptions of their work environment seems vital.
Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord; Bennett, Charmian; Dear, Keith
The rapid rise in extreme heat events in Australia recently is already taking a health toll. Climate change scenarios predict increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events in the future, and population health may be significantly compromised for people who cannot reduce their heat exposure. Exposure to extreme heat presents a health hazard to all who are physically active, particularly outdoor workers and indoor workers with minimal access to cooling systems while working. At air temperatures close to (or beyond) the core body temperature of 37°C, body cooling via sweating is essential, and this mechanism is hampered by high air humidity. Heat exposure among elite athletes and the military has been investigated, whereas the impacts on workers remain largely unexplored, particularly in relation to future climate change. Workers span all age groups and diverse levels of fitness and health status, including people with higher than "normal" sensitivity to heat. In a hotter world, workers are likely to experience more heat stress and find it increasingly difficult to maintain productivity. Modeling of future climate change in Australia shows a substantial increase in the number of very hot days (>35°C) across the country. In this article, the authors characterize the health risks associated with heat exposure on working people and discuss future exposure risks as temperatures rise. Progress toward developing occupational health and safety guidelines for heat in Australia are summarized.
Tonini, Stefano; Lanfranco, Andrea; Dellabianca, Antonio; Lumelli, Diego; Giorgi, Ines; Mazzacane, Fulvio; Fusi, Camilla; Scafa, Fabrizio; Candura, Stefano M
The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49) for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV). After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service), the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder). Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females) suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65%) of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors) than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work.
Kristin K. Sznajder
Conclusions: Many women working in China's export factories report symptoms of urogenital infection. Occupational stress may be linked to an increased risk for urogenital infection. Focused efforts are needed to improve accessibility to reproductive health services for women working in China's export production factories.
Vrijkotte, T. G.; van Doornen, L. J.; de Geus, E. J.
Work stress has repeatedly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This study tested whether this relationship could be explained by exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to work or impaired recovery in leisure time. Vagal tone was assessed as a possible determinant of
Gerstenblatt, Paula; Faulkner, Monica; Lee, Ahyoung; Doan, Linh Thy; Travis, Dnika
Family child care providers contend with a number of work stressors related to the dual roles of operating a small business and providing child care in their home. Research has documented many sources of work related stress for family child care providers; however, research examining family child care providers' experiences outside of the…
Social workers experience tremendous work-related stress--particularly among those providing direct services in healthcare settings. A review of related literature summarized several critical challenges faced by social workers who work with highly difficult clients in these settings, including (a) clients who engage in manipulative high-risk…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The attention of international agencies and scientific community on bullying and work-related stress is increasing. This study describes the gender differences found in victims of bullying and work-related stress in an Italian case series and analyzes the critical issues in the diagnostic workup. Methods Between 2001 and 2009 we examined 345 outpatients (148 males, 197 females; mean age: 41 ± 10.49 for suspected psychopathological work-related problems. Diagnosis of bullying was established using international criteria (ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Results After interdisciplinary diagnostic evaluation (Occupational Medicine Unit, Psychology and Psychiatry Service, the diagnosis of bullying was formulated in 35 subjects, 12 males and 23 females (2 cases of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and 33 of Adjustment Disorder. Fifty-four (20 males, 34 females suffered from work-related anxiety, while work-unrelated Adjustment Disorder and other psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 7 and 112 subjects, respectively. Women between 34 and 45 years showed a high prevalence (65% of "mobbing syndrome" or other work-related stress disorders. Conclusions At work, women are more subject to harassment (for personal aspects related to emotional and relational factors than men. The knowledge of the phenomenon is an essential requisite to contrast bullying; prevention can be carried out only through effective information and training of workers and employers, who have the legal obligation to preserve the integrity of the mental and physical status of their employees during work.
Niks, I.M.W.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Jonge, J. de; Houtman, I.L.D.
Effective interventions to prevent work stress and to improve health, well-being, and performance of employees are of the utmost importance. This quasi-experimental intervention study presents a specific method for diagnosis of psychosocial risk factors at work and subsequent development and
Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; Lenders, H J Rob; Foppen, Ruud P B; Hendriks, A Jan
Several studies have related breeding success and survival of sea eagles to toxic or non-toxic stress separately. In the present investigation, we analysed single and combined impacts of both toxic and disturbance stress on populations of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), using an analytical single-species model. Chemical and eco(toxico)logical data reported from laboratory and field studies were used to parameterise and validate the model. The model was applied to assess the impact of ∑PCB, DDE and disturbance stress on the white-tailed eagle population in The Netherlands. Disturbance stress was incorporated through a 1.6% reduction in survival and a 10-50% reduction in reproduction. ∑PCB contamination from 1950 up to 1987 was found to be too high to allow the return of white-tailed eagle as a breeding species in that period. ∑PCB and population trends simulated for 2006-2050 suggest that future population growth is still reduced. Disturbance stress resulted in a reduced population development. The combination of both toxic and disturbance stress varied from a slower population development to a catastrophical reduction in population size, where the main cause was attributed to the reduction in reproduction of 50%. Application of the model was restricted by the current lack of quantitative dose-response relationships between non-toxic stress and survival and reproduction. Nevertheless, the model provides a first step towards integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple stressors on white-tailed eagle populations.
Adlaf, E M; Smart, R G; Walsh, G W
Using data derived from a representative survey of 869 Ontario adults, we examined the association between work disabilities and substance use, i.e., drinking, alcohol problems, sleeping pills, and tranquilizers. Overall, we found a significant association between substance use and disability. For alcohol problems, we found that those with moderate limitations reported the greatest number of problems, holding constant age, gender, income, and frequency of drinking. For the use of sleeping pills and especially tranquilizers, we found a strong positive relationship to limitation status. A number of significant interactions involving tranquilizer use showed that two groups, females with total limitations and those aged over 40 years with sensory disabilities, reported exceptionally high rates of tranquilizer use.
Abu al Rub, R
Nurses are under a great deal of distress related to a variety of work stressors. Work related stress jeopardizes the mental and physical well being of nurses, as well as the quality of care provided for clients. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 holds employers responsible for the mental and physical well being of their employees. However, the regulations are not always straightforward concerning compensation claims for mental disabilities due to work stress. Recovery of claims is possible if standards (i.e., personal injury, causal relationship between injury and employment) are met. Requirements for recovery of physical/mental and mental/physical claims are agreed on by most states, whereas mental/mental claims are controversial among states and courts. Nurses can monitor and influence legislation to create requirements to encourage employers to develop preventive approaches to reducing work induced stress.
Nagasaka, Akihiko; Yoshino, Kenji; Takano, Ken-ichi
There is a possibility that physical and mental stress appears under hot environmental condition for the cause of wearing protection suits on reactor maintenance work. It is important to reduce heat stress rapidly and effectively. This paper mentioned following about the results of static state and simulation work done by testees with or without protection suits under 25 kinds of temperatures and wind velocities in a artificial climate chamber. (1) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and subjective symptoms without protection suits. (2) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures without protection suits. (3) investigation of the parts of body affecting subjective symptoms. (4) the correlation between ambient temperatures or wind velocities and skin temperatures at working with protection suits. (5) working out countermeasures of recovery from heat stress with the index of skin temperatures and subjective symptoms. (author)
Backé, Eva-Maria; Seidler, Andreas; Latza, Ute; Rossnagel, Karin; Schumann, Barbara
A systematic review was carried out to assess evidence for the association between different models of stress at work, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A literature search was conducted using five databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PSYNDEX and PsycINFO). Inclusion criteria for studies were the following: self-reported stress for individual workplaces, prospective study design and incident disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, high blood pressure). Evaluation, according to the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, was done by two readers. In case of disagreement, a third reader was involved. Twenty-six publications were included, describing 40 analyses out of 20 cohorts. The risk estimates for work stress were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease in 13 out of the 20 cohorts. Associations were significant for 7 out of 13 cohorts applying the demand-control model, all three cohorts using the effort-reward model and 3 out of 6 cohorts investigating other models. Most significant results came from analyses considering only men. Results for the association between job stress and cardiovascular diseases in women were not clear. Associations were weaker in participants above the age of 55. In accordance with other systematic reviews, this review stresses the importance of psychosocial factors at work in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases. Besides individual measures to manage stress and to cope with demanding work situations, organisational changes at the workplace need to be considered to find options to reduce occupational risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.
José Roberto Alves da Costa
levels of nurses working with mentally ill psychiatric hospital patients. This quantitative study was conducted in seven psychiatric hospitals in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, and was carried out with the use of the following instruments: Socio-demographic descriptive information of the sample and an inventory to identify the stress symptoms of the nurses. The sample size was 48, of which 42 (93% were female. The results of the sample showed that 62% felt no stress, 31% were at the endurance level and 7% at the exhaustion level. No statistically significant relationship was found between the hours of work performed and the symptoms of stress. Therefore, the present study showed no occurrence of stress in these nurses.
the number of those who worked overtime for additional payment. In general, more males tended to work overtime for additional payment than females. Half (52%) of the respondents considered that they had reached a balance between professional and private life, 37% reported lack of time for private life, 4......According to the research carried out by the Sociological Group "Rating" in December 2016, 60% of the respondents were employed, 40% - unemployed. Among the unemployed, one-third (32%) – pensioners, 27% – housekeeping and childcare, 13% – students, 21% – unemployed and looking for work, 6......% - unemployed and not looking for work. When analyzing their working conditions, the majority of the employed respondents mentioned, on the one hand, an absence of vibration, noise, air pollution, minor physical effort, and on the other, comfortable lighting and temperature. Along with that, almost half...
Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C
The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Geaney, F.; Fitzgerald, S.; Harrington, J.M.; Kelly, C.; Greiner, B.A.; Perry, I.J.
Objective To examine if employees with higher nutrition knowledge have better diet quality and lower prevalence of hypertension. Method Cross-sectional baseline data were obtained from the complex workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Participants included 828 randomly selected employees (18–64 years) recruited from four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Ireland, 2013. A validated questionnaire assessed nutrition knowledge. Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) measured diet quality from which a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) score was constructed. Standardised digital blood pressure monitors measured hypertension. Results Nutrition knowledge was positively associated with diet quality after adjustment for age, gender, health status, lifestyle and socio-demographic characteristics. The odds of having a high DASH score (better diet quality) were 6 times higher in the highest nutrition knowledge group compared to the lowest group (OR = 5.8, 95% CI 3.5 to 9.6). Employees in the highest nutrition knowledge group were 60% less likely to be hypertensive compared to the lowest group (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.87). However, multivariate analyses were not consistent with a mediation effect of the DASH score on the association between nutrition knowledge and blood pressure. Conclusion Higher nutrition knowledge is associated with better diet quality and lower blood pressure but the inter-relationships between these variables are complex. PMID:26844058
Vioulac, Christel; Aubree, Colette; Massy, Ziad A; Untas, Aurélie
To explore the concepts of empathy and stress in nurses working in haemodialysis units in France and their possible interactions. Nurses' work in haemodialysis is rather complex. It requires technical expertise, because of the peculiarity of the treatment, and emotional skills, to care for patients throughout a long-lasting therapy. Empathy is considered as a key in the concept of caring, which allows nurses to give appropriate answers to their patients' needs. In addition, nurses' work environment can generate stress. A qualitative descriptive design. Nurses (N = 23) working in haemodialysis units were interviewed in three different sites in 2014. The analysis of nurses' speech emphasized a predominance of the cognitive attributes of empathy: understanding, communication, adjusted response (43%), and a special feature of the relationship due to the chronicity of the care (23%). The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The main stressors highlighted were time management (14%), emergencies (12%) and technical nature of the task (8%). Nurses' experience in haemodialysis seemed to be a modulating factor regarding empathy and stress. The results showed the special features of nurses' work in haemodialysis and the need for further studies to investigate these concepts. The influence of stress on empathy needs to be explored more precisely, especially regarding nurses' experience and its impact on patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tsang, Seng-Su; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Wang, Shih-Fong; Tai, Hsin-Ling
The nursing workplace imposes significantly more stress on its employees than other workplace settings. Organizational resources, both physical and psychological, have been recognized in prior studies as important alleviators of nursing workplace stress. Whereas physical resources are less difficult to manipulate because of their tangibility, psychological resources, particularly psychological support from colleagues, are typically not deployed to greatest effect. This article investigated the alleviation of nursing work stress using resources already extant in coworker social networks. Researchers conducted a survey in a dialysis department at a medical center located in Taipei City, Taiwan. This survey measured nurse work stress, satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and social network structures. Researchers employed UCINET to analyze the network structure data, which were in dyadic matrix format to estimate nurse network centralities and used partial least squares analysis to estimate research construct path coefficients and test extrapolated hypotheses. The level of OCB induced by nurse social ties was satisfactory and did not only directly increased work satisfaction but also alleviated work stress, which indirectly boosted work satisfaction. Findings suggest that managers may be able to use social network analysis to identify persons appropriate to conduct the distribution of organizational resources. Choosing those with multiple social connections can help distribute resources effectively and induce higher OCB levels within the organization. In addition, staff with strong friendship network connections may provide appropriate psychological resources (support) to coworkers. If those with high friendship network centrality receive proper counseling training, they should be in a good position to provide assistance when needed.
Peter, R; Siegrist, J; Stork, J; Mann, H; Labrot, B
The association between psychosocial work stress and cigarette smoking is analyzed in a socioeconomically and professionally homogeneous group of 163 middle managers (40-55 years; 48.4 +/- 4.5) in a large industrial company. Psychosocial stress is defined in terms of an imbalance between effort spent and reward obtained at work. The relative risk of regular smoking is 4.34 (odds ratio after controlling for age; 95% CI 1.50-12.54) in those middle managers who suffer from a marked imbalance between effort and reward, compared to those who are free from this type of psychosocial stress at work. This effect persists in the older age group although the proportion of smokers decreases with age. Within the group of regular smokers, every second middle manager suffering from a marked imbalance between effort and reward is a heavy smoker (greater than or equal to 20 cigarettes/day) whereas in the group experiencing less stress at work, only 28% heavy smokers are found. However, due to small numbers this difference is not statistically significant. In conclusion, the data reported in this study demonstrate an association between psychosocial stress at work in terms of high effort and low reward and the risk of regular smoking. This association is not confounded by age, socio-economic status or type of occupation.
Abdul Said Ambotang
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to observe how far preschool teachers endure stress in carrying out their job which is influenced by the work climate including the management of classroom. This research is carried out by choosing a group of 55 preschool teachers as respondents in the district of Keningau Sabah. Data is analyzed using descriptive method (mean, inferential (T-test Statistic, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Result showed that there were high positive relationships between the work climate with stress level among the teachers. (r = 0.807, p<0.01 and classroom management with level of stress (r = 0.770, p< 0.01. It is hoped that with the information obtained by this research will assist the Malaysian Ministry of Education in planning and designing a suitable programme to overcome the stress problem faced by teachers especially preschool teachers towards improving the teaching profession quality in the near future.
Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone; Leitner, Monika; Hirschmüller, Anja; Kubosch, Eva Johanna; Baur, Heiner
In surgery, cognitive stress symptoms, including problems in concentrating, deciding, memorising, and reflecting are risks to patient safety. Recent evidence points to social stressors as antecedents of cognitive stress symptoms in surgery personnel. The current study tests whether cognitive stress symptoms are positively associated with emotional abuse, emotional- and task-related demands and resources in surgery work. Forty-eight surgery nurses from two hospitals filled out the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire in its German version. Task-related and emotional demands were positively related to cognitive stress symptoms. In a stepwise, multiple, linear regression of cognitive stress symptoms on task-related and emotional demands, emotional abuse and emotional demands were unique predictors (p < .05). Efforts to increase patient safety should address emotional abuse, emotional demands, and, therefore, communication and cooperation team climate in surgery personnel.
An analysis of three health surveys in the Dutch working population is described, aimed at the identification of Dutch trades and professions with relative high and low prevalence rates of back pain. The sample was representative of the working population in the Netherlands and consisted of 5840 men
de Zwart, B. C.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.; Kilbom, A.
This study analysed the association between gender and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints, among the general working population and in various occupational groups. The hypothesis was tested whether the higher risk for women in the general working population for these complaints could partly
Saunders, Nerida; Downham, Russell; Turman, Bulent; Kropotov, Juri; Clark, Richard; Yumash, Rustam; Szatmary, Arielle
This pilot study investigated the feasibility of treating people suffering from both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and poor working memory by employing a combination of computerized working memory training and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). After treatment, all four participants showed clinically significant improvements on a range of cognitive and emotional performance measures. Moreover, these improvements were accompanied by theoretically significant neurophysiological changes between pre- and post-treatment electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Specifically, the P3a component of participants' event related potentials (ERP) in response to novelty stimuli, characteristically abnormal in this clinical population, shifted significantly toward database norms. So, participants' initially slow alpha peak frequency (APF), theorized to underlie impaired cognitive processing abilities, also increased in both frequency and amplitude as a result of treatment. On the basis of these promising results, more extensive controlled studies are warranted.
Akintola, Olagoke; Hlengwa, Wellington Mthokozisi; Dageid, Wenche
To conduct a quantitative investigation of stress and the relationship with burnout among AIDS care volunteers. Volunteer caregivers experience stress that could lead to burnout. Yet, very few studies quantify stress and its relationship with burnout among AIDS care volunteers. This study uses a cross-sectional, exploratory survey design. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 126 volunteer caregivers working in 13 semi-rural communities (townships) in Durban, South Africa in April 2009. All participants were women, Christian and with low levels of education. A 22-item instrument was drawn from Pearlin et al.'s role overload and role captivity scales, Van Dyk's stress factor scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Most of the volunteers had moderate-to-high levels of stress. 'Role/work overload' 'lack of support' and 'overwhelming nature of the disease' explained most of the variance in stress. Volunteers' age and number of patients in their care were predictors of stress. Caring for only AIDS patients, lack of support, stress emanating from perceived stigma and lack of training; and the overwhelming nature of AIDS were predictors of burnout. High levels of stress could negatively impact volunteers' health and well-being and on-the-job performance. Policy makers must develop and fund home-based care models that take into account the stressors associated with AIDS care, by reducing the work load, providing ongoing psychosocial support and recruiting nurses to assist volunteers. The small non-probability sample used in this study highlights the need to treat the findings with caution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
I. M. Spivak
Full Text Available Stressful situations in the work of a pediatric medical facility's call center are associated with patients' violation of social communication norms and aggressive behavior, as well as the operator's professional/maternal conflict. The following psychological resources facilitate better stress resistance of operators: self-confidence, mature and rational attitude, personal activity, inner satisfaction, optimism, emotional breadth and emotional colleague support.
Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo
Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction.
Mathis, Roland; Ackermann, Martin
Most bacteria live in ever-changing environments where periods of stress are common. One fundamental question is whether individual bacterial cells have an increased tolerance to stress if they recently have been exposed to lower levels of the same stressor. To address this question, we worked with the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus and asked whether exposure to a moderate concentration of sodium chloride would affect survival during later exposure to a higher concentration. We found that the effects measured at the population level depended in a surprising and complex way on the time interval between the two exposure events: The effect of the first exposure on survival of the second exposure was positive for some time intervals but negative for others. We hypothesized that the complex pattern of history dependence at the population level was a consequence of the responses of individual cells to sodium chloride that we observed: (i) exposure to moderate concentrations of sodium chloride caused delays in cell division and led to cell-cycle synchronization, and (ii) whether a bacterium would survive subsequent exposure to higher concentrations was dependent on the cell-cycle state. Using computational modeling, we demonstrated that indeed the combination of these two effects could explain the complex patterns of history dependence observed at the population level. Our insight into how the behavior of single cells scales up to processes at the population level provides a perspective on how organisms operate in dynamic environments with fluctuating stress exposure. PMID:26960998
Methner, Mark; Eisenberg, Judith
A heat stress evaluation was conducted among employees engaged in strenuous work in an extremely hot outdoor environment. Environmental conditions that contribute to heat stress along with various physiological indicators of heat strain were monitored on a task-basis for nine employees daily across 4 workdays. Employees performed moderate to heavy tasks in elevated environmental conditions for longer periods of time than recommended by various heat stress exposure limits. Seven of nine employees showed evidence of excessive heat strain according to criteria yet all employees were able to self-regulate task duration and intensity to avoid heat-related illness.
Uzun, Özge; Sevinç, Sibel
To determine the relationship between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress of nurses working at Kilis State Hospital. As foreigners live in and visit Turkey for various reasons, it is essential to provide culturally appropriate healthcare. Descriptive and cross-sectional design. This study was implemented at the State Hospital in Kilis on the southeast border of Turkey, between June-July 2014. The study sample consisted of 120 nurses. Data collection tools included a questionnaire about the socio-demographic and professional characteristics of participants, the Chen and Starosta's Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. The average score for nurse cultural sensitivity was 84·32 (SD, 11·40) and the average score for perceived stress was 27·97 (SD, 7·32), corresponding to a medium level. We identified negative correlation between cultural sensitivity and perceived stress. Nurses working at Kilis State Hospital have a medium level of cultural sensitivity and perceived stress, and cultural sensitivity tended to be affected by perceived stress. This study suggests that training programmes for cultural sensitivity and stress management should be available for nurses. Furthermore, patient care plans should be adapted to consider different cultural backgrounds of patients. These findings should be considered when designing nurses' education and continuing education programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Otto, A Ross; Raio, Candace M; Chiang, Alice; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Daw, Nathaniel D
Accounts of decision-making have long posited the operation of separate, competing valuation systems in the control of choice behavior. Recent theoretical and experimental advances suggest that this classic distinction between habitual and goal-directed (or more generally, automatic and controlled) choice may arise from two computational strategies for reinforcement learning, called model-free and model-based learning. Popular neurocomputational accounts of reward processing emphasize the involvement of the dopaminergic system in model-free learning and prefrontal, central executive-dependent control systems in model-based choice. Here we hypothesized that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response--believed to have detrimental effects on prefrontal cortex function--should selectively attenuate model-based contributions to behavior. To test this, we paired an acute stressor with a sequential decision-making task that affords distinguishing the relative contributions of the two learning strategies. We assessed baseline working-memory (WM) capacity and used salivary cortisol levels to measure HPA axis stress response. We found that stress response attenuates the contribution of model-based, but not model-free, contributions to behavior. Moreover, stress-induced behavioral changes were modulated by individual WM capacity, such that low-WM-capacity individuals were more susceptible to detrimental stress effects than high-WM-capacity individuals. These results enrich existing accounts of the interplay between acute stress, working memory, and prefrontal function and suggest that executive function may be protective against the deleterious effects of acute stress.
Madeira, Carolina; Madeira, Diana; Vinagre, Catarina; Diniz, Mário
Current concerns about climate change emphasize the need for an accurate monitoring of physiological conditions in wild populations. Therefore, the aims of this work were to a) assess the response of the octocoral Veretillum cynomorium to thermal variation in natural populations during low tide, by quantifying several biochemical indicators of thermal and oxidative stress and b) evaluate the effect of seasonality in the results and the adequacy of the use of biochemical indicators of stress in field monitoring studies in octocorals. Sampling took place during spring (April) and summer (June). Heat shock protein (Hsp70) and ubiquitin (Ub) content, enzyme activities - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed in rachis and peduncle tissues separately. The results showed significant seasonal fluctuations in the set of biomarkers tested. Differences were detected between spring and summer, with significant decreases in biomarker levels from April to June being a major observed trend. These results suggest that V. cynomorium is thermo-tolerant during summer low tide conditions. Seasonal variation seems to reflect a metabolic suppression strategy and/or may also be related to seasonal changes in food availability and reproductive status. Differences in activity between tissue types were also found significant for GST, LPO and Ub. Biomarker levels were correlated with total protein concentration, but not with wet body weight of the specimens. This study suggests that season influences the expression of biomarkers and must be taken into consideration in the preliminary stages of sampling design for climate change biomonitoring studies. In addition, the results suggest that this octocoral species is likely to survive in future challenging thermal conditions.
Kath, Lisa M; Stichler, Jaynelle F; Ehrhart, Mark G; Sievers, Andree
Nurse managers have important but stressful jobs. Clinical or bedside nurse predictors of stress have been studied more frequently, but less has been done on work environment predictors for those in this first-line leadership role. Understanding the relative importance of those work environment predictors could be used to help identify the most fruitful areas for intervention, potentially improving recruitment and retention for nurse managers. Using Role Stress Theory and the Job Demands-Resources Theory, a model was tested examining the relative importance of five potential predictors of nurse manager stress (i.e., stressors). The work environment stressors included role ambiguity, role overload, role conflict, organizational constraints, and interpersonal conflict. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey study was conducted with a convenience sample of 36 hospitals in the Southwestern United States. All nurse managers working in these 36 hospitals were invited to participate. Of the 636 nurse managers invited, 480 responded, for a response rate of 75.5%. Questionnaires were distributed during nursing leadership meetings and were returned in person (in sealed envelopes) or by mail. Because work environment stressors were correlated, dominance analysis was conducted to examine which stressors were the most important predictors of nurse manager stress. Role overload was the most important predictor of stress, with an average of 13% increase in variance explained. The second- and third-most important predictors were organizational constraints and role conflict, with an average of 7% and 6% increase in variance explained, respectively. Because other research has shown deleterious effects of nurse manager stress, organizational leaders are encouraged to help nurse managers reduce their actual and/or perceived role overload and organizational constraints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beck, Bolette Daniels; Hansen, Åse Marie; Gold, Christian
Long-term stress-related sick leave constitutes a serious health threat and an economic burden on both the single worker and the society. Effective interventions for the rehabilitation and facilitation of return to work are needed. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a psychotherapy intervention including relaxation, music listening, and imagery, on biopsychosocial measures of work-related stress. Twenty Danish workers on sick leave were randomized to music therapy versus wait-list control. Data collection was carried out at an occupational health ward in the period 2008-2010. Changes in salivary cortisol, testosterone, and melatonin were explored, and self-reported data on psychological stress symptoms (perceived stress, mood disturbance, sleep quality, physical distress symptoms, work readiness, well-being, anxiety, depression, immediate stress) were collected. Data regarding sick leave situation and job return were collected from participants throughout the study. Significant beneficial effects of GIM compared to wait-list after nine weeks with large effect sizes were found in well-being, mood disturbance, and physical distress, and in cortisol concentrations with a medium effect size. A comparison between early and late intervention as related to the onset of sick leave showed faster job return and significantly improved perceived stress, well-being, mood disturbance, depression, anxiety, and physical distress symptoms in favor of early intervention. In the whole sample, 83% of the participants had returned to work at nine weeks' follow-up. The results indicate that GIM is a promising treatment for work-related chronic stress, and further studies are recommended. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Douglas, Clint
Haemodialysis nurses form long term relationships with patients in a technologically complex work environment. Previous studies have highlighted that haemodialysis nurses face stressors related to the nature of their work and also their work environments leading to reported high levels of burnout. Using Kanters (1997) Structural Empowerment Theory as a guiding framework, the aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to satisfaction with the work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and burnout in haemodialysis nurses. Using a sequential mixed-methods design, the first phase involved an on-line survey comprising demographic and work characteristics, Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM), Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS), Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The second phase involved conducting eight semi-structured interviews with data thematically analyzed. From the 417 nurses surveyed the majority were female (90.9 %), aged over 41 years of age (74.3 %), and 47.4 % had worked in haemodialysis for more than 10 years. Overall the work environment was perceived positively and there was a moderate level of job satisfaction. However levels of stress and emotional exhaustion (burnout) were high. Two themes, ability to care and feeling successful as a nurse, provided clarity to the level of job satisfaction found in phase 1. While two further themes, patients as quasi-family and intense working teams, explained why working as a haemodialysis nurse was both satisfying and stressful. Nurse managers can use these results to identify issues being experienced by haemodialysis nurses working in the unit they are supervising.
Matić, Marijana; Jovanović, Jovana; Jovanović, Jovica; Macivanin, Nada
The aim of this research was to quantify the presence of occupational stressors and to analyze their effects on temporary and permanent working ability of workers with arterial hypertension. The research included 817 workers. The study group consisted of 504 workers with arterial hypertension without other diseases or disorders, whereas the control group was composed of 313 healthy workers. The study group showed a significantly higher level of total occupational stress index as well as of the stress index related to high job demands, conflicts at work place, underload and time limit (pworking inability determined a statistically significantly higher level of lost workdays per a worker in the study group compared to the controls (pwork place (pwork place. The results show that occupational stress is a significant factor in the development of arterial hypertension and reduction of work ability of exposed workers.
Chakraborti, Amrita; Ray, Prasenjit; Sanyal, Debasish; Thakurta, Rajarshi Guha; Bhattacharayya, Amit K; Mallick, Asim Kumar; Das, Ranjan; Ali, Syed Naiyer
The occurrence of stress and stress related anxiety and depression in medical personnel are being increasingly reported in literature. The perceived stress scale (PSS) is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the perception of stress. It is needed to assess perceived stress in our population using appropriately translated version of PSS. The objectives of study were to prepare a Bengali version of PSS-10 and to establish its psychometric properties in the study population. The study was conducted in a teaching hospital among medical students and interns (N=37). The translated Bengali version and the original English version of PSS-10 were separately handed over to the individual subjects. The scores were compared across different subgroups and psychometric properties of the translated version were assessed using SPSS 16. Internal consistency of PSS English (α=0.79) and Bengali (α=0.80) was satisfactory. Intra-rater reliability was adequate (κ>0.5) for most of the items, but showed an inadequate value (κPSS in Bengali was derived that showed good internal consistency (α=0.699). This new version needs to be validated in a larger study population. Perceived stress score using PSS-10 was considerably high in our study population, although there was no significant difference between the subgroups (male/female, intern/student).
Lunau, Thorsten; Wahrendorf, Morten; Dragano, Nico; Siegrist, Johannes
Maintaining health and work ability among older employees is a primary target of national labour and social policies (NLSP) in Europe. Depression makes a significant contribution to early retirement, and chronic work-related stress is associated with elevated risks of depression. We test this latter association among older employees and explore to what extent indicators of distinct NLSP modify the association between work stress and depressive symptoms. We choose six indicators, classified in three categories: (1) investment in active labour market policies, (2) employment protection, (3) level of distributive justice. We use data from three longitudinal ageing studies (SHARE, HRS, ELSA) including 5650 men and women in 13 countries. Information on work stress (effort-reward imbalance, low work control) and depressive symptoms (CES-D, EURO-D) was obtained. Six NLSP indicators were selected from OECD databases. Associations of work stress (2004) with depressive symptoms (2006) and their modification by policy indicators were analysed using logistic multilevel models. Risk of depressive symptoms at follow-up is higher among those experiencing effort-reward imbalance (OR: 1.55 95% CI 1.27-1.89) and low control (OR: 1.46 95% CI 1.19-1.79) at work. Interaction terms indicate a modifying effect of a majority of protective NLSP indicators on the strength of associations of effort - reward imbalance with depressive symptoms. Work stress is associated with elevated risk of prospective depressive symptoms among older employees from 13 European countries. Protective labour and social policies modify the strength of these associations. If further supported findings may have important policy implications.
Bellingrath, Silja; Weigl, Tobias; Kudielka, Brigitte M
Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic work stress or unfavourable psychosocial work conditions are prospectively associated with different adverse health outcomes. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between work-related chronic stress as well as exhaustion and a cumulative measure of physiological wear-and-tear called allostastic load (AL). AL could be a possible biological pathway for how chronic work stress and exhaustion lead to health impairments in the long run. As the teaching profession has been proposed to be a potentially high stressful occupation, chronic work stress (effort-reward-imbalance) and exhaustion were assessed in 104 female school teachers. AL was first analyzed according to McEwen's classical model comprised of ten parameters including cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), waist/hip-ratio (WHR), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol/HDL-ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Additionally it was extended to include tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, D-dimer, percent-body-fat, triglycerides, and glucose levels. A substantial proportion of our sample was highly exhausted whereas relatively few teachers showed high effort-reward-imbalance. AL scores were significantly higher in women high on effort-reward-imbalance or suffering from exhaustion. Although all teachers had been in a good health status, chronic work stress as well as exhaustion appears to be associated with changes in a multi-system summary indicator of physiological risk.
Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten
Objectives Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. Methods We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies (‘Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’ and the ‘English Longitudinal Study of Ageing’; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) ‘protective’ policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) ‘integrative’ policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Results Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced ‘integrative’ policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Conclusions Our results point to
Lunau, Thorsten; Siegrist, Johannes; Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten
Several studies report socioeconomic differences in work stress, where people in lower socioeconomic positions (SEP) are more likely to experience this burden. In the current study, we analyse associations between education and work stress in a large sample of workers from 16 European countries. In addition we explore whether distinct national labour market policies are related to smaller inequalities in work stress according to educational attainment. We use data collected in 2010/11 in two comparative studies ('Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' and the 'English Longitudinal Study of Ageing'; N = 13695), with samples of men and women aged 50 to 64 from 16 European countries. We measure highest educational degree according to the international standard classification of education (ISCED) and assess work stress in terms of the demand-control and the effort-reward imbalance model. National labour market policies are measured on the basis of policy indicators which are divided into (1) 'protective' policies offering financial compensation to those excluded from the labour market (e.g. replacement rate), and (2) 'integrative' policies supporting disadvantaged individuals on the labour market (e.g. investments into active labour market policies or possibilities for further qualification in later life). In addition to country-specific analyses, we estimate multilevel models and test for interactions between the indicators of national policies and individual education. Main findings demonstrate consistent associations between lower education and higher levels of work stress in all countries. The strength of this association, however, varies across countries and is comparatively small in countries offering pronounced 'integrative' policies, in terms of high investments into measures of an active labor market policy and high participation rates in lifelong learning activities. Our results point to different types of policies that may help to reduce
Zhou, Mei; Wege, Natalia; Gu, Huakang; Shang, Li; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes
To explore the separate and combined effects of work and family stress on menstrual disorders and fibrocystic changes in Chinese working women. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of 1,642 female railway workers. The Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire and Family Stress Scale were used to measure work stress and family stress, respectively; the menstrual and breast conditions were evaluated by gynecologic interview and a medical examination. Multivariate log-binomial regression was performed to analyze the associations. Menstrual disorders were found in 59.3% of female workers, and 54.8% had fibrocystic changes. The risk of menstrual disorders was significantly elevated with respect to work and family stress. The highest risk was found in the group with combined exposure to both work and family stress (RR with 95% CI 1.33 (1.18-1.49)). No significant association between stress and fibrocystic changes was observed. Menstrual disorders were associated with stress from work and family life, but not fibrocystic changes, in working women. Tailored intervention measures reducing the burden of stressful psychosocial work and family environment are needed to improve women's reproductive well-being.
Dimitroglou, Eva; Zafiropoulou, Maria; Messini-Nikolaki, Niki; Doudounakis, Stavros; Tsilimigaki, Smaragdi; Piperakis, Stylianos M
The effects of chronic psychogenic stress on the expression of DNA damage and cellular response to the damage were investigated. Using the comet assay, basal DNA damage was found to be similar in lymphocytes of both affected and non-affected populations (n = 30 in both groups). The induction of DNA damage in lymphocytes by external factors (H2O2 and gamma-irradiation), was also investigated. In these studies, cells were treated with 50, 100 and 150 microM H2O2 for 5 minutes or with 0.8, 2.5 and 4.2 Gy gamma-rays. A significant difference was found between the chronically stressed and the control populations, indicating the enhanced sensitivity of the former population. Cells were also held for 2 hours after the treatment, allowing time for the cells to deal with the induced DNA damage. Based on the level of residual DNA strand breaks, cells from the stressed population had more breaks than the controls. Gender does not alter these findings. In conclusion, our data indicate that cells from the stressed population were more sensitive to the induction of DNA damage and had higher level of residual damage. Therefore, stress conditions may cause the affected individuals to be susceptible to environmental mutagenic agents.
von dem Knesebeck Olaf
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Methods Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI and the demand-control model (job strain. The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57 and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61. Conclusion Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.
Klein, Jens; Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Blum, Karl; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf
Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57) and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61). Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.
Lucha Lopez Ana
Full Text Available Abstract Background The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job satisfaction in Saragossa University Services and Administration Staff (SAS and detect the main factors which could contribute to too much stress, because job stress has emerged as a major psychosocial influence on mental health, associated with burnout. Methods 24 people from the Services and Administration Staff in the University of Saragossa participated in the study. The research was carried out during the implementation of a module on Stress Management organised by the University of Saragossa and commissioned to the Unit for Research in Physical Therapy (University School of Health Sciences from that University. This research is an exploratory research to improve the stress management program. A personal interview was carried out and additionally, participants were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Scale of Satisfaction at Work of Warr, Cook & Wall. Results However using small sample this is worth to state that participants present most of them low burnout levels in the burnout scale. Only in one person high exhaustion level was reflected, even though other seven showed mean levels; in the professional self-esteem section, most of them showed high self-esteem, with two cases of low self-esteem and five with mean level. With regard to satisfaction people participating in the study show mean levels in intrinsic as much as in extrinsic factors and general satisfaction. Conclusions Services and Administration Staff from the University of
Tricas Moreno, Jose Miguel; Salavera Bordas, Carlos; Lucha Lopez, Ma Orosia; Vidal Peracho, Concepcion; Lucha Lopez, Ana Carmen; Estebanez de Miguel, Elena; Bernues Vazquez, Luis
The notion of stress in connection with the work environment became an important topic during the 1970's, when the first studies on the subject were published and the term of work stress was first coined. In 1974, Freudenberger proposed the term burnout to refer to the condition of physical and emotional exhaustion, as well as the associated negative attitudes, resulting from the intense interaction in working with people. The aim of our study is to examine burnout and job satisfaction in Saragossa University Services and Administration Staff (SAS) and detect the main factors which could contribute to too much stress, because job stress has emerged as a major psychosocial influence on mental health, associated with burnout. 24 people from the Services and Administration Staff in the University of Saragossa participated in the study. The research was carried out during the implementation of a module on Stress Management organised by the University of Saragossa and commissioned to the Unit for Research in Physical Therapy (University School of Health Sciences) from that University. This research is an exploratory research to improve the stress management program. A personal interview was carried out and additionally, participants were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Scale of Satisfaction at Work of Warr, Cook & Wall. However using small sample this is worth to state that participants present most of them low burnout levels in the burnout scale. Only in one person high exhaustion level was reflected, even though other seven showed mean levels; in the professional self-esteem section, most of them showed high self-esteem, with two cases of low self-esteem and five with mean level.With regard to satisfaction people participating in the study show mean levels in intrinsic as much as in extrinsic factors and general satisfaction. Services and Administration Staff from the University of Saragossa shows low burnout levels linked with high professional self
Axén, Iben; Follin, Gabriella
This study examined the feasibility of using an intervention of Medical Yoga in the workplace and investigated its effects on perceived stress and work ability. This was a quasi-experimental pilot study comparing a group who received Medical Yoga (intervention group, N=17), with a group waiting to receive Medical Yoga (control group, N=15). Medical Yoga in nine weekly sessions led by a certified instructor, as well as an instruction film to be followed at home twice weekly. Feasibility was assessed through recruitment, eligibility, willingness to participate, response to questionnaires and adherence to the intervention plan. Stress was measured with the Perceived Stress Scale, work ability with the Work Ability Index. Convincing unit managers to let their employees participate in this intervention was difficult. Eligibility was perfect, but only 40% of workers were willing to participate. The subjects adhered to a great extent to the intervention and answered the questionnaires satisfactorily. Reaching target individuals requires careful attention to informing participants. The intervention showed no significant effects on stress and work ability, though the two measures correlated significantly over time. Factors limiting feasibility of this workplace intervention were identified. Work place interventions may need to be sanctioned at a higher managerial level. The optimal time, length and availability of the workplace intervention should be explored further. Knowledge from this study could be used as a foundation when planning a larger scale study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dahl, Berit Misund
Government programs and the Norwegian Directorate of Health give public health nurses in Norway an explicit role in population-based health promotion and disease-prevention work. The aim of this paper is to explore Norwegian public health nurses' experiences with population-based work. A phenomenological hermeneutic approach was adopted, involving face-to-face interviews with a purposeful sample of 23 public health nurses from urban and rural districts in two counties in Norway. Three themes were identified: the predominance of work at the individual level, a lack of resources, and adherence to administrative directives. The interviews revealed that the public health nurses were mostly occupied with individual problem-solving activities. Population-based work was hardly prioritized, mostly because of a lack of resources and a lack of recognition of the population-based role of public health nurses. The study indicates contradictions between the public health nursing practice related to population-based work and the direction outlined by the government and the public health nursing curriculum, which may mean that the public health nursing role is not sufficiently clarified. The implementation of practice models and administrative directives and resources, as well as an explicit emphasis on population health in public health nursing education, can contribute to increased population-based interventions. Greater knowledge of and emphasis on population-based work in public health nursing are needed.
Sheriff, Michael J
Ecologists, evolutionary biologists and biomedical researchers are investing great effort in understanding the impact maternal stress may have on offspring phenotypes. Bian et al. advance this field by providing evidence that density-induced maternal stress programs offspring phenotypes, resulting in direct consequences on their fitness and population dynamics, but doing so in a context-dependent manner. They suggest that intrinsic state alterations induced by maternal stress may be one ecological factor generating delayed density-dependent effects. This research highlights the connection between maternal stress and population dynamics, and the importance of understanding the adaptive potential of such effects in a context-dependent manner. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.
Huang, Lin; Raats, Dina; Sela, Hanan; Klymiuk, Valentina; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel; Feng, Lihua; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion
The genetic bottlenecks associated with plant domestication and subsequent selection in man-made agroecosystems have limited the genetic diversity of modern crops and increased their vulnerability to environmental stresses. Wild emmer wheat, the tetraploid progenitor of domesticated wheat, distributed along a wide range of ecogeographical conditions in the Fertile Crescent, has valuable "left behind" adaptive diversity to multiple diseases and environmental stresses. The biotic and abiotic stress responses are conferred by series of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex resistance pathways. The study of genetic diversity, genomic organization, expression profiles, protein structure and function of biotic and abiotic stress-resistance genes, and QTLs could shed light on the evolutionary history and adaptation mechanisms of wild emmer populations for their natural habitats. The continuous evolution and adaptation of wild emmer to the changing environment provide novel solutions that can contribute to safeguarding food for the rapidly growing human population.
Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kalebić Maglica, Barbara; Krapić, Nada
Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2 = 0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO = -0.30; ßcRCWO = -0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β = 0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β = -0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549
Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study...... treatment group dropped from 52% to 16% during the first four months of follow-up and remained stable. In the control group, the reduction in sick leave was significantly smaller, ranging from 48% at baseline to 27% after four months and 24% after one year. No statistically significant difference between...... was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...
Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per
treatment group dropped from 52% to 16% during the first four months of follow-up and remained stable. In the control group, the reduction in sick leave was significantly smaller, ranging from 48% at baseline to 27% after four months and 24% after one year. No statistically significant difference between......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study...... was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...
Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao
It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cross-sectional survey. Heilongjiang Province, China. The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Li, Li; Hu, Hongyan; Zhou, Hao; He, Changzhi; Fan, Lihua; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Heng; Sun, Tao
Objective It is well documented that both work stress and work motivation are key determinants of job satisfaction. The aim of this study was to examine levels of work stress and motivation and their contribution to job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province, China. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Heilongjiang Province, China. Participants The participants were 930 community health workers from six cities in Heilongjiang Province. Primary and secondary outcome measures Multistage sampling procedures were used to measure socioeconomic and demographic status, work stress, work motivation and job satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of job satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in some subscales of work stress and work motivation by some of the socioeconomic characteristics. Levels of overall stress perception and scores on all five work stress subscales were higher in dissatisfied workers relative to satisfied workers. However, levels of overall motivation perception and scores on the career development, responsibility and recognition motivation subscales were higher in satisfied respondents relative to dissatisfied respondents. The main determinants of job satisfaction were occupation; age; title; income; the career development, and wages and benefits subscales of work stress; and the recognition, responsibility and financial subscales of work motivation. Conclusions The findings indicated considerable room for improvement in job satisfaction among community health workers in Heilongjiang Province in China. Healthcare managers and policymakers should take both work stress and motivation into consideration, as two subscales of work stress and one subscale of work motivation negatively influenced job satisfaction and two subscales of work motivation positively influenced job satisfaction. PMID:24902730
Holmgren, Kristina; Löve, Jesper; Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Hensing, Gunnel
To analyze if organizational climate and work commitment, demand and control, job strain, social support, and physical demands at work are associated with remain in work (RIW), that is, work attendance without sick leave over 15 days per year. This Swedish cross-sectional study was based on 4013 workers (aged 19 to 64 years), randomly selected from a general population. Data were collected (2008) through postal questionnaire and registers. Fair organizational climate, the combination of fair organizational climate and fair work commitment, high control, and low physical demands were associated with RIW for women and men. This study adds to the rather scarce research findings on factors that promote RIW by identifying work organizational factors and physical prerequisites as being important. Preventive work to create a healthy work environment could be directed at improving organizational climate and reducing physical demands.
Salilih, Selamawit Zewdu; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions to work demands unmatched to nurses' knowledge, skills, or abilities; these challenges exceed their ability to cope, resulting in burnout, turnover, and low quality patient care. An institution-based cross-sectional study of 343 nurses was conducted in public hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2012. Data were collected by pretested and self-administered questionnaires using a nursing stress scale. One hundred twenty-one (37.8%) (95% confidence interval: 34.3 to 39.1) nurses reported experiencing occupational stress. Significant associations were found between nurses' stress and gender, work shift, illness, marital status, and worksite or unit. Prevalence of work-related stress was higher than expected and opportunities exist for stake holders to design stress reduction and management programs for nurses. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh
Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.
DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P
Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P workplace interventions.
Edwards, Mark S; Moore, Philippa; Champion, James C; Edwards, Elizabeth J
Attentional Control Theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situation stress combine to reduce performance efficiency on tasks requiring rapid shifts in attention. Recent evidence has also suggested that working memory capacity (WMC) might moderate this relationship. We controlled for methodological difficulties in the existing literature to investigate the relationships between trait anxiety, situational stress, and WMC on attentional shifting. Seventy undergraduate students participated in the study. Trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through a pressured counting task, and WMC was based on performance on the Automated Operation Span Task (AOSPAN). The shifting task involved a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm as the primary task and an oddball tone-discrimination task as the secondary task. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (accuracy) and processing efficiency (accuracy divided by response time) on the secondary task. There was no effect of anxiety, stress, or WMC in predicting performance effectiveness; however, a significant three-way interaction on processing efficiency was observed. At higher WMC, anxiety and situational stress were not associated with processing efficiency. Conversely, at lower WMC, higher trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency but only for those who reported higher situational stress; for those who reported lower situational stress higher trait anxiety predicted facilitated efficiency. Results are interpreted with respect to ACT and directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational stress among rehabilitation staffs in Tehran’s training hospitals . Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 169 staff members selected from a total of 300 rehabilitation staffs working in Tehran’s training hospitals, recruited by random cluster sampling. Two questionnaires were used: The emotional intelligence questionnaire designed by Petrides and Furnham and HSE occupational stress questionnaire. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression tests. Results: An inverse significant relationship existed between occupational stress and emotional intelligence (P<0.001, r=-0.33. There are, also, significant relationships between subscales of emotional intelligence including self-awareness (P=0.031, r=-0.18, social skills (P<0.001, r=-0.302, empathy (P=0.006, r=-0.238 and occupational stress. The results of multiple regressions indicated that the two subscales of ‘understanding other’s emotions’ and ‘social skills’ can be used for predicting occupational stress. Discussion: This study confirmed the relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational stress. Promotion of emotional intelligence through implementing training courses may lower rehabilitation staffs occupational stress or prevent it.
Gourley, Lauren; Wind, Carina; Henninger, Erin M; Chinitz, Susan
This study examined the relationship between sensory processing difficulties, parental stress, and behavioral problems in a clinical sample of young children with developmental and behavioral difficulties. We hypothesized that a high rate of sensory processing difficulties would be found, that there would be a high rate of comorbidity between sensory processing difficulties and behavioral problems, and that children's sensory processing difficulties and parental stress would be highly correlated. Parents of 59 children ages two to five who attended an out-patient clinic in a low income, urban community completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Parental Stress Inventory-Short Form and the Short Sensory Profile. Children in this clinical population showed a high prevalence (55.9%) of sensory processing difficulties, a significantly higher rate than previously reported. Sensory processing deficits were correlated with behavioral difficulties and parental stress levels-suggesting that as sensory processing difficulties increase, so do behavioral difficulties and parental stress. Parents of children with sensory processing deficits had significantly higher levels of parental stress than parents of children without sensory deficits. Parenting stress levels were also clinically elevated for the cohort of children in which sensory processing difficulties and behavioral concerns co-existed. These findings suggest that treatment outcomes might improve and parental stress could be reduced if mental health clinicians were trained to identify and address sensory problems. This could result in more children being screened and treated for sensory processing difficulties and an eventual reduction in the rates of parental stress.
Jastifer, James R; Jaykel, Matthew
In ankle fractures, the result of a gravity stress radiographic examination is clinically used to determine if a patient may need surgical intervention. The purpose of this study is to report the results of a gravity stress examination in the normal patient population. Fifty study participants were prospectively enrolled and complete ankle radiographs were obtained, including a nonweightbearing gravity stress examination. The mean medial clear space in the gravity stress view was 3.6 mm. This compared to a mean medial clear space of 3.3 mm, and 3.1 mm in the anteroposterior and mortise views. These values were statistically significantly different from the gravity stress view ( P = .006 and P stress radiographs ( P = .22). No participant had medial clear space widening with gravity stress to more than 5.2 mm or an increase in their widening by more than 0.2 mm. In conclusion, this study helps guide surgeons by providing normative radiographic data for a gravity stress examination and supports the notion that measureable medial clear space widening or talar tilt on gravity stress examination represents an unstable injury. Level II: Prospective.
Yang, Tianan; Zhu, Mingjing; Xie, Xiyao
The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of presenteeism, taking health and individual factors into account. A quantitative analysis applying structural equation modelling analysis was conducted on the basis of secondary data from the Health and Retirement Survey (2008 wave), which measured presenteeism and its determinants. Stress-related factors at work (β =-0.35, pwork (β =0.22, pwork and presenteeism (Sobel z=-6.61; paging working population.
Chen, Sung-Wei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Chen, Shih-Tse; Tsai, Ming-Chen
Work stress, as defined by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, has been found to predict risks for depression, anxiety, and substance addictions, but little research is available on work stress and Internet addiction. The aims of this study are to assess whether the DCS and ERI models predict subsequent risks of Internet addiction, and to examine whether these associations might be mediated by depression and anxiety. A longitudinal study was conducted in a sample (N=2,550) of 21-55 year old information technology engineers without Internet addiction. Data collection included questionnaires covering work stress, demographic factors, psychosocial factors, substance addictions, Internet-related factors, depression and anxiety at wave 1, and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) at wave 2. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the associations between work stress and IAT; path analysis was adopted to evaluate potentially mediating roles of depression and anxiety. After 6.2 months of follow-up, 14.0% of subjects became problematic Internet users (IAT 40-69) and 4.1% pathological Internet users (IAT 70-100). Job strain was associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction (odds ratio [OR] of having a higher IAT outcome vs. a lower outcome was 1.53); high work social support reduced the risk of Internet addiction (OR=0.62). High ER ratio (OR=1.61) and high overcommitment (OR=1.68) were associated with increased risks of Internet addiction. Work stress defined by the DCS and ERI models predicted subsequent risks of Internet addiction.
Houtman, I.; Jettinghof, K.; Cedillo, L.
Work-related stress is of growing concern in developing countries due to important developments in the modern world; two of the most significant being globalisation and the changing nature of work. Although the emphasis of this booklet is on developing countries, the problem of workrelated stress is
Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana
Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important occupational health risk in both formal
Evaluation of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching combined with light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress.
Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schoutens, Antonius M C; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K
Chronic work-related stress is quite prevalent in the working population and is in some cases accompanied by long-term sick leave. These stress complaints highly impact employees and are costly due to lost productivity and medical expenses. A new treatment platform with light therapy plus Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields (PEMF) in combination with coaching was used to assess whether more positive effects on return to work, stress, work-related fatigue, and quality of life could be induced compared to coaching alone. A placebo-controlled trial was executed after inclusion of 96 workers, aged 18-65 with work-related chronic stress complaints and who were on sick leave (either part-time or full-time). Participants were divided into three arms at random. Group 1 (n = 28) received the treatment and coaching (Intervention group), group 2 (n = 28) received the treatment with the device turned off and coaching (Placebo group) and group 3 (n = 28) received coaching only (Control group). The data were collected at baseline, and after 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome was % return to work, and secondary outcomes were work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion and need for recovery after work), stress (distress and hair cortisol), and quality of life (SF-36 dimensions: vitality, emotional role limitation, and social functioning). Eighty-four workers completed all measurements, 28 in each group. All groups improved significantly over time in the level of return to work, as well as on all secondary outcomes. No statistical differences between the three groups were found either on the primary outcome or on any of the secondary outcomes. Light therapy with Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields PEMF therapy has no additional effect on return to work, stress, fatigue, and quality of live compared to coaching alone. NTR4794 , registration date: 18-sep-2014.
Evaluation of a randomized controlled trial on the effect on return to work with coaching combined with light therapy and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy for workers with work-related chronic stress
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is quite prevalent in the working population and is in some cases accompanied by long-term sick leave. These stress complaints highly impact employees and are costly due to lost productivity and medical expenses. A new treatment platform with light therapy plus Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields (PEMF in combination with coaching was used to assess whether more positive effects on return to work, stress, work-related fatigue, and quality of life could be induced compared to coaching alone. Methods A placebo-controlled trial was executed after inclusion of 96 workers, aged 18–65 with work-related chronic stress complaints and who were on sick leave (either part-time or full-time. Participants were divided into three arms at random. Group 1 (n = 28 received the treatment and coaching (Intervention group, group 2 (n = 28 received the treatment with the device turned off and coaching (Placebo group and group 3 (n = 28 received coaching only (Control group. The data were collected at baseline, and after 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome was % return to work, and secondary outcomes were work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion and need for recovery after work, stress (distress and hair cortisol, and quality of life (SF-36 dimensions: vitality, emotional role limitation, and social functioning. Results Eighty-four workers completed all measurements, 28 in each group. All groups improved significantly over time in the level of return to work, as well as on all secondary outcomes. No statistical differences between the three groups were found either on the primary outcome or on any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusions Light therapy with Pulsed Electro Magnetic Fields PEMF therapy has no additional effect on return to work, stress, fatigue, and quality of live compared to coaching alone. Trial registration NTR4794 , registration date: 18-sep-2014
Beck, Bolette Daniels; Hansen, Åse Marie; Gold, Christian
BACKGROUND: Long-term stress-related sick leave constitutes a serious health threat and an economic burden on both the single worker and the society. Effective interventions for the rehabilitation and facilitation of return to work are needed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine...... the effects of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM), a psychotherapy intervention including relaxation, music listening, and imagery, on biopsychosocial measures of work-related stress. METHODS: Twenty Danish workers on sick leave were randomized to music therapy versus wait-list control. Data collection......-being, anxiety, depression, immediate stress) were collected. Data regarding sick leave situation and job return were collected from participants throughout the study. RESULTS: Significant beneficial effects of GIM compared to wait-list after nine weeks with large effect sizes were found in well-being, mood...
Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Perminiene, Milda; Lorini, Chiara; Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Fiz-Perez, Javier; Di Fabio, Annamaria; Mucci, Nicola
For a number of years now, banks have been going through enormous changes in organization and structure. New technology and new ways of structuring the operation have left their mark on the working conditions and daily lives of employees. Deregulation of labor markets, emerging technologies and new types of jobs have significantly reshaping working lives by continuous changes on employment and working conditions. Such a scenario has a relevant impact not only on companies' organization but also on working population's health. The banking sector is particularly well-deserved of a specific and thorough analysis, in view of the recent increase in psycho-social disorders of employees. This may be related to the major organizational changes affecting this sector and, in particular, to the restructuring processes resulting from the global economic crisis. Our aim is to assess the scale of the phenomenon and how far it relates specifically to the processes of bank organization. With this in mind, through a review of the literature, we selected the main studies dealing with work-related stress in banking, so that we could reach a better understanding of the phenomenon as it relates specifically to this set of workers. The search took place on the MEDLINE® database; in total 20 articles were chosen. There was uniform agreement among the studies that stress in the banking workplace is now at critical levels, and that it can have deleterious psychological effects on workers, and on their physical health, and that organizations, too, are affected. Most studies showed that mental health problems had increased in the banking sector, and that they were stress-related. Examples began with anxiety and depression, carried on through maladaptive behaviors, and ended in job burnout. The reviewed studies' limitations were then discussed, and possible ways forward considered.
Full Text Available For a number of years now, banks have been going through enormous changes in organization and structure. New technology and new ways of structuring the operation have left their mark on the working conditions and daily lives of employees. Deregulation of labor markets, emerging technologies and new types of jobs have significantly reshaping working lives by continuous changes on employment and working conditions. Such a scenario has a relevant impact not only on companies' organization but also on working population's health. The banking sector is particularly well-deserved of a specific and thorough analysis, in view of the recent increase in psycho-social disorders of employees. This may be related to the major organizational changes affecting this sector and, in particular, to the restructuring processes resulting from the global economic crisis. Our aim is to assess the scale of the phenomenon and how far it relates specifically to the processes of bank organization. With this in mind, through a review of the literature, we selected the main studies dealing with work-related stress in banking, so that we could reach a better understanding of the phenomenon as it relates specifically to this set of workers. The search took place on the MEDLINE® database; in total 20 articles were chosen. There was uniform agreement among the studies that stress in the banking workplace is now at critical levels, and that it can have deleterious psychological effects on workers, and on their physical health, and that organizations, too, are affected. Most studies showed that mental health problems had increased in the banking sector, and that they were stress-related. Examples began with anxiety and depression, carried on through maladaptive behaviors, and ended in job burnout. The reviewed studies' limitations were then discussed, and possible ways forward considered.
Full Text Available Sewing production is traditionally well developed in Bulgaria. With the development of production and technical progress, new health problems for workers appear. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of work conditions as a factor in the occurrence of stress in sewing industry workers. Subject of the study are 70 persons, employed in small and medium enterprises. Conclusions are made and recommendations given for improvement of the work conditions and psycho-climate.
Scott E. Wilks
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...
Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua
Background Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Methods Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 200...
Brattig, Birte; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert; Peters, Claudia
Physiotherapists are exposed to diverse occupational demands. Until now, little has been known about the interaction between occupational stress and the job satisfaction of physiotherapists. This paper aims to examine their work-related stress and job satisfaction. It will analyse accidents at work and occupational diseases of physiotherapists along with work-related physical and psychosocial stress and job satisfaction. We analysed routine data of the German Institute for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) on accidents at work and occurring en route to/from work as well as occupational diseases of physiotherapists. Work-related stress and job satisfaction were examined in a cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to be completed by subjects themselves. Between 2007 and 2011, 1,229 cases of occupational disease were reported to the BGW. The majority of reports involved skin diseases (73%). Stumbles and falls were the most frequent causes of accidents at work (42.9%). Eighty-five physiotherapists all over Germany took part in the survey. They experience high quantitative demands at work. The main physical demands consist of a torso posture between 45° and 90° and high hand activity. Of the 85 subjects, 51% suffer from complaints of the musculoskeletal system in the neck and thoracic spine area and 24% have skin diseases. Most physiotherapists (88%) are satisfied with their work overall. This is aided by a high degree of influence on their work and breaks, by practical application of skills and expert knowledge, high regard for their profession, varied work and a good atmosphere at work. Reservations tend to be about statutory regulations and the social benefits provided by the German healthcare system. Overall, despite high demands and stress relating to the adequacy of resources, the majority of physiotherapists surveyed seem to be satisfied with their job. The main focus of action to promote the
Park, Jeongkyu; Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Park, Jueun
A large and growing population of elderly Koreans with chronic conditions necessitates an increase in long-term care. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of occupational stress, work-centrality, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on intent to leave among long-term care workers in Korea. We tested the hypothesized structural equation model predicting the intention to quit among long-term care workers in Korea. Survey data were collected from 532 long-term care workers in Seoul, Korea. Results showed that occupational stress was positively associated with intention to leave the job. The study also identified several possible mediators (self-efficacy, work-centrality, job satisfaction) in the relationship between stress and intent to quit. Evidence-based stress management interventions are suggested to help the workers better cope with stressors. Mentoring programs should also be considered for new workers.
Nakajima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Takayuki; Shetty, Vivek; Yamaguchi, Masaki
To develop objective assessments of work fatigue, we investigated the patterns of changes in salivary cortisol levels in emergency care providers working extended work shifts. Fourteen subjects, comprising seven physicians and seven physician assistants, provided unstimulated saliva samples at regular intervals over the course of a 24-h work shift and over their subsequent free day. There was a significant time effect, with early morning cortisol levels being significantly attenuated following the work shift. Native diurnal variations varied by gender, with the female subjects manifesting greater cortisol levels. Physicians also had higher cortisol profiles even though their wake-rest cycles were similar to those of the physician assistants. Our results suggest that temporal changes, as well as diurnal similarities, in the salivary cortisol patterns can reflect work-related stress and recovery. In particular, early morning cortisol levels may manifest individual reactivity to work stressors as well as sleep deprivation.
Full Text Available Purpose: According to the Job Demands-Resources (JDR model, engagement and job satisfaction may be produce by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e. role stress and job resources (i.e. self-efficacy. This study examines the role of role stress and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction in a sample of Spanish workers. Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised a sample of 435 Spanish workers. A cross sectional study was used to examine the relationship between role stress, work engagement and job satisfaction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaires. Findings and Originality/value: Hierarchical multiple regression models have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by role stress and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction can be predicted by motivational process and job demands. Research limitations/implications: The cross-sectional design cannot evidence of causal relationships. This study relies on self-reports, which might increase the risk of common method variance. Practical implications: On a practical level, the JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied employees. Originality/value: The JDR model could be useful in designing strategies for which engaged employees may be advantageous to improving the quality of services, while at the same time increasing employees’ job satisfaction and well-being.
Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio
The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.
Maria Cecilia Pires da Rocha
Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE. This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old. The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL. In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses’ stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses’ day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.
Gager, Constance T.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Demaris, Alfred
Children's time use--and specifically the time they spend on household chores--is an important arena for understanding social change. However, few studies accurately depict the multiple factors influencing children's household labor, including parent's and children's available time and parent's levels of work/family stress. We address these gaps…
Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…
The respondents indicated that active games and sports, outdoor activities including fishing, hunting, camping and hiking, were the leisure activities engaged in for coping with work-related stress. These, they agreed impacted positively on them, although their leisure activity participation was restricted to weekends because ...
Ruwaard, Jeroen; Lange, Alfred; Bouwman, Manon; Broeksteeg, Janneke; Schrieken, Bart
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 7-week standardized cognitive behavioural treatment of work-related stress conducted via e-mail. A total of 342 people applied for treatment in reaction to a newspaper article. Initial screening reduced the sample to a heterogeneous (sub)clinical
The study investigated the relationship among work-induced stress, job performance, psychological well-being and productivity of workers in banking industry in Nigeria. The study adopted survey research design. A Total number of 250 respondents were selected from old and new generation Banks using proportionate ...
Wierda-Boer, H.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Vermulst, A.A.
Today many parents have multiple roles. This study examined how personality, domain-specific stress, and work-family interference are interrelated. Questionnaire data of 276 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings demonstrated that job
Eskildsen, Anita; Andersen, Lars Peter; Pedersen, Anders Degn; Andersen, Johan Hviid
Patients on sick leave due to work-related stress often present with cognitive impairments. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to examine the long-term consequences of prolonged work-related stress in terms of cognitive functioning one year after initial professional care seeking. We tested a group of patients with work-related stress with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at two occasions, one year apart. At both time points, we compared the performance of patients with healthy controls matched pairwise on sex, age and length of education. This paper presents the results from the one-year follow-up. When adjusting for practice effects, patients improved on measures of prospective memory and processing speed. However, patients continued to perform worse than controls on all tests, though only half of the comparisons reached statistical significance. The effect sizes of the differences between the two groups at one-year follow-up were small to medium. In conclusion, former patients with prolonged work-related stress improved, but they continued to perform worse than controls after one year. In the acute phase, the largest impairments were related to executive function and mental speed but at follow-up memory impairments also became apparent.
Wood, Sara LaRose
This study examined the relationship between secondary traumatic stress (STS), vicarious trauma (VT), and the supervisory working alliance (SWA) with the faculty supervisor among counselor trainees (N = 86). The primary purpose of this study was to determine if the SWA and demographic influence STS and VT. Two correlations were conducted to assess…
Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina
Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…
Francisco José FERNÁNDEZ GALINDO
Full Text Available Currently, disorders derived from work-related and psychosocial stress are increasingly important. Here the influence of professional activities on personal and family life and on the psyche is analysed by means of three films filmed in different periods: the North American The Arrangement (1969, the Spanish The Green Pastures (1979 and the Canadian The Age of Ignorance (2007.
Newsome, Sandy; Waldo, Michael; Gruszka, Clare
This study examined the effects a 6-week mindfulness group had on 31 college students who were intending to enter helping professions (e.g., nursing, social work, counseling, psychology, and teaching). Group activities included meditation, yoga, a body scan exercise, and qi gong. The group members completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the…
Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Heloma, Antero; Khanna, Gulshan L; Chandras, Kan V; Karch, Robert C
Growth of older population in United States (US) raises concerns for evaluation of health indices that could sustain their workability. This study aimed to characterize the association of health practices used by older working population and measures of quality and duration of their work. Forty (40) non-treatment seeking healthy working individuals residing within United States within 22 - 75 years of age were included in this study. Data were collected from the Customized Employee Biographical Questionnaire (EBQ) and Occupational Health Surveillance Questionnaire (OHRQ) by age groups as 22 - 31, 32 - 41, 42 - 51, 52 - 61 and 62+ and statistically analyzed. Length of working (LOW) showed close association with the duration of physical exercise (DPE) at adjusted R 2 = 0.295 and type of work (TOW) at adjusted R 2 = 0.598; and Education in the 62+ (oldest) age group. However such relationship was not observed in the 52 - 61 years age group even when DPE and Education were not significantly different from the 62+ group. In the 42 - 51 age group, significant correlation of LOW with DPE and TOW was found. Duration of physical activity could be an important factor associated with the duration of work in the oldest group. Type of work could be significant modifier in determining the length of working in older age-groups. Predecessor elderly groups might need to incorporate some of the measures that were significant in the oldest group, to improve their expectations to work longer. Larger studies could identify and capture various other measures that could be important both for the regional and national US perspective.
Bowden, Gillian Elaine; Smith, Joanna Christina Elizabeth; Parker, Pamela Anne; Boxall, Matthew James Christian
This study sought to investigate frontline mental health professionals' perceptions of work stress and the rewards and demands associated with their work. Locally known as 'linkworkers', and from a variety of professional backgrounds, these staff worked mainly in general practice settings. Individual interviews were conducted with nine linkworkers, and the interview transcripts were analysed thematically. The main themes identified were the following: demands, coping, individual resilience, ownership and creativity, boundaries, secure base and service philosophy and ethos. Themes, categories and sub categories were presented and discussed with seven of the linkworkers in two focus groups. Focus group transcripts were analysed, and additional themes of recognizing limitations, disillusionment and the dilemma of setting boundaries were identified. These themes overlapped with those previously identified but were associated with service changes over time. The themes of ownership and creativity and service philosophy and ethos are significant, not only in relation to their impact on individual linkworkers but also in terms of their relevance for establishing and maintaining morale, engagement and a reflective culture within a service. The relevance of this work to accessible and newly developing mental health services is considered. Supporting and listening to staff and allowing time for informal contact are valued by staff and enable the provision of empathic, compassionate services. Without space for reflection, staff groups may be vulnerable to the development and effects of unhelpful organizational defences, which reduce the effectiveness, quality and efficiency of caring services and increase perceived workplace stress. Services which foster staff engagement, ownership and creativity and employ "bottom up" approaches to service development are valued by staff and appear to increase staff morale and capacity to cope adaptively to change. Copyright © 2014 John
Vente, W.de; Kamphuis, J.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Blonk, R.W.B.
Work-related stress is widespread and can lead to long-term absenteeism and work disability. Cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated effectiveness in treating psychopathology but has only rarely been tested in clinical samples with work-related stress. A randomized controlled trial was
Full Text Available Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N=104; Mage=27.7 years, SD=11.2, range 18–70. Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses.
Tanışman, Beyhan; Cevizci, Sibel; Çelik, Merve; Sevim, Sezgin
This study aims to investigate the general mental health situation, work-related stress and risk factors of health management trainees. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Health Management Musters students (N=96) in Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Health Sciences Institute, May-June 2014. A total of 58 students who voluntarily participated in the study were reached (60.42%). Participants completed a 22-question sociodemographic survey form and a 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20.0. The average age of participants was 36.4±6.2 (Min:24-Max:62) years. Thirty five of the participants were female (60.3%), 23 were male (39.7%). The number of people using cigarettes and alcohol were 23 (39.7%) and 9 (15.8%) respectively. In our study group according to GHQ scale 32 people (55.2%) were in the group at risk of depression. Eighty-six percent of participants reported experiencing work stress. The most frequently reported sources of stress were superiors (56.8%), work itself (41.3%), and work colleagues (25.8%). There was no significant difference between those at risk of depression and those not at risk in terms of gender, marital status, educational level, age, work-related factors (daily work, computer use, duration of sitting at desk), sleep duration, presence of chronic disease, substance use (cigarettes, alcohol), regular exercise, regular meals, fast-food consumption, sufficient family time and vacations (p>0.05). Our study results indicated that majority of participants reported experiencing work stress with more than half at high risk of developing depression. The most reported risk factors were superiors, the work itself and colleagues in the present study. Psychosocial risk factors at work environment should be investigated in terms of psychological, sociological and ergonomics in more detail to reduce the risk of health management trainees experiencing work stress and
Pranjić, Nurka; Males-Bilić, Ljiljana; Beganlić, Azijada; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
To assess the frequency of reported mobbing and the association among mobbing, working environment factors, stress, health outcome, personality type, and work ability index in a sample of physicians in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We conducted a questionnaire survey using a validated self-reported questionnaire among 511 physicians in national health sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The questions covered five major categories of mobbing behavior. Characteristics of the work, perceived work environment and its effects, stress, health, and satisfaction with work and life were assessed by the standardized abridged form of Occupational Stress Questionnaire (OSQ). A standardized questionnaire Work Ability Index (WAI) was used to determine the relation between mobbing and work ability. Of 511 surveyed physicians, 387 (76%) physicians self-reported mobbing behavior in the working environment and 136 (26%) was exposed to persistent mobbing. More than a half of the physicians experienced threats to their professional status and almost a half felt isolated. Logistic regression analysis showed that lack of motivation, loss of self-esteem, loss of confidence, fatigue, and depressiveness were significantly associated with lack of support from colleagues. Intention to leave work was associated with lack of support from colleagues (OR 2.3, 95% CI, 1.065-3.535; t =4.296, P =0.003) and lack of support from superiors (OR 1.526, 95% CI, 0.976-2.076; t =5.753; P =0.001). Isolation or exclusion and threats to professional status were predictors for mental health symptoms. Persistent mobbing experience was a significant predictor for sick leave. Exposure to persistent threat to professional status and isolation or exclusion as forms of mobbing are associated with mental health disturbances and lack of self-esteem and confidence. Setting up a system of support for physicians exposed to mobbing may have important benefits.
Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Sangeetha, G; Ahmed, Nurnahar; Chaturvedi, S K
High stress perception by nurses caring for psychiatric patients can lead to somatic symptoms which impact on their job satisfaction perception. To assess and correlate the level of somatic symptoms, perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction among the subjects. The authors used a descriptive correlation design to invite 150 nurses of both genders working for more than one year with psychiatric patients. The Scale for Assessment of Somatic Symptoms (Chaturvedi et al., 1987) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for stress and job satisfaction perception were used to collect data. The nurses (128) reported mainly pain related (4.87±2.97) somatic symptoms. Somatic symptoms positively correlated (r=0.302) with stress perception and negatively correlated (r=-0.231) with perceived job satisfaction, while perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction were negatively correlated (r=-0.460, p=0.000). The results indicate a need for stress management interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim was to study the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR on stress indices, health complaints and fatigue of operators working fast-rotating extended shifts. Working conditions, job content, job control, social support, health complaints and fatigue were followed in 220 operators, 110 exposed to EMR and 110 control operators, matched by age and sex. The EMR was measured and time-weighted average (TWA was calculated. The excretion rates of stress hormones cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the extended shifts in 36 operators, working at different levels of exposure and 24-hour exposure was calculated. The exposed group pointed more problems with the working conditions, including EMR, noise, currents and risk of accidents, more health complaints and higher level of fatigue. The most common health complaints were mental and physical exhaustion after work, pains in the chest, musculoskeletal complaints, headache, and apathy. High level EMR exposure (TWAmean = 3.10 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 137.00 μW/cm2 significantly increased the 24-hour excretion of cortisol and noradrenaline, whereas the increase of adrenaline excretion did not reach significance, as well as hormone excretion rates under low level exposure (TWAmean = 1.89 μW/cm2, TWAmax = 5.24 μW/cm2. In conclusion, higher number of health complaints, higher stress hormone excretion rates and fatigue were found in operators under EMR.
Kinzl, Johann F; Traweger, Christian; Trefalt, Ernestine; Riccabona, Ulla; Lederer, Wolfgang
To evaluate stressors and coping strategies for stress in a sample of anesthesiologists working at a university hospital. Cross-sectional study via survey instrument. University department of anesthesiology and critical care at a 1305-bed hospital. 135 anesthesia specialists and specialist trainees of anesthesia. A total of 135 self-reporting questionnaires used to assess sociodemographic data, workload, task demands, stress-coping strategies, physical health, emotional well-being, and working conditions, were distributed. Of these, 89 questionnaires were completed and returned, for a response rate of 65.9%: 33 (37.1%) female anesthesiologists and 56 (62.9%) male anesthesiologists. The burden of task-related stressors and of communication possibilities was assessed differently by male and female anesthesiologists. Female anesthesiologists more frequently reported higher concentration demands (P = 0.013) and limited possibilities to control work (P = 0.009) than did their male colleagues. Work at intensive care units (P = 0.001) was particularly demanding and burdensome for female anesthesiologists. Combined evaluation of various stress-coping strategies did not show significant differences between the genders. Generally, anesthesiologists had more confidence in their own personal capabilities and resources and in their social-particularly family-support outside the workplace, than in their social support from colleagues and superiors. Task-related stressors and communication possibilities differed between male and female anesthesiologists in our institution. Female anesthesiologists felt that they had less control over their work.
Hensel, Jennifer M; Ruiz, Carlos; Finney, Caitlin; Dewa, Carolyn S
Revisions to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) clarify that secondary exposure can lead to the development of impairing symptoms requiring treatment. Historically known as secondary traumatic stress (STS), this reaction occurs through repeatedly hearing the details of traumatic events experienced by others. Professionals who work therapeutically with trauma victims may be at particular risk for this exposure. This meta-analysis of 38 published studies examines 17 risk factors for STS among professionals indirectly exposed to trauma through their therapeutic work with trauma victims. Small significant effect sizes were found for trauma caseload volume (r = .16), caseload frequency (r = .12), caseload ratio (r = .19), and having a personal trauma history (r = .19). Small negative effect sizes were found for work support (r = -.17) and social support (r = -.26). Demographic variables appear to be less implicated although more work is needed that examines the role of gender in the context of particular personal traumas. Caseload frequency and personal trauma effect sizes were moderated by year of publication. Future work should examine the measurement of STS and associated impairment, understudied risk factors, and effective interventions. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Dollard, M F; McTernan, W
Work stress is widely thought to be a significant problem in the health and community services sector. We reviewed evidence from a range of different data sources that confirms this belief. High levels of psychosocial risk factors, psychological health problems and workers compensation claims for stress are found in the sector. We propose a multilevel theoretical model of work stress to account for the results. Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) refers to a climate for psychological health and safety. It reflects the balance of concern by management about psychological health v. productivity. By extending the health erosion and motivational paths of the Job Demands-Resources model we propose that PSC within work organisations predicts work conditions and in turn psychological health and engagement. Over and above this, however, we expect that the external environment of the sector particularly government policies, driven by economic rationalist ideology, is increasing work pressure and exhaustion. These conditions are likely to lead to a reduced quality of service, errors and mistakes.
Full Text Available Burnout has been defined as loss of enthusiasm for work, feelings of cynicism, and a low sense of personal accomplishment. Work environment and working conditions exposes the individual to numerous factors of stress. Stress-related diseases are defined as burnout. The increased workload, the repeated reorganizations in the hospital with iterative downsizing suggestions and budget cuts, without any perspective of career progression, with a social culture of bureaucracy and blame, resulting both in subtracting direct care time with patients and in the fear by healthcare professionals from the burden of their responsibility, are the backgrounds on which more and more frequent cases of burnout may develop. We need to establish homogenous standards all over the national territory on workload and about the procedures that have to be implemented for the prevention of burnout in our wards.
Muhammad Umair Javaid
Full Text Available Psychosocial risks are considered as a burning issue in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on health of petrochemical industry workers of Malaysia. In lieu to job demands-resources theory, significant positive associations were found between quantitative demands, work-family conflict, and job insecurity with stress, while a significant negative association of role clarity as a resource factor with stress was detected. We also found that quantitative demands were significantly associated with the mean arterial pressure (MAP. Multistage sampling procedure was used to collect study sample. Structural Equation Modeling was used to identify relationship between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Finally, the empirically tested psychosocial work environment model will further help in providing a better risk assessment in different industries and enterprises.
Loi, Michela; Bellò, Benedetta; Mattana, Veronica
The paper describes a case study of work related stress assessment in a public administration, based on an objective methodology (Romano, 2009). The Ispes1 forms (2010) have been used to perform the assessment. They have been filled during some focus group in which 45 workers have been involved, divided into 7 homogeneous groups relying on their department, back-office vs front-office typology of work and the office collocation. According to the Grounded Theory perspective, through the content analysis three further risk factors arose, comparing to the Ispesl forms, such as: (a) the quality of communication, (b) the relationship among and with leaders and colleagues, (c) the presence of discriminatory behaviours. Hence, on the basis of the results, mostly for a deeper analysis of work related stress assessment in a public administration, we suggest to consider these further risk factors.
Full Text Available The workload represents a factor which acts burdensome on human organism and, depending on its level affects well-being, or leads to disease or injury. As a result, there is a distortion in optimal working relationship in the system man – machine – environment, which may be reflected in the reduction of productivity and efficiency throughout the system. The contribution deals with the issue of the effects of stress and psychological overload at work, which affects significantly the performance of employees. The article describes the basic legislation regarding the workload in conditions of the Slovak Republic, it describes the types of loads, different causes, manifestations and consequences of load. According to theoretical knowledge about stress and loads, the questionnaire method was applied for assessment of mental workload in terms of working conditions level in the unnamed service organization.
Full Text Available The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress. Of the 1200 nurses randomly selected to participate in the study, 895 agreed to complete six questionnaires over 3 weeks. Data was analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Findings revealed that personal stress is a better predictor of burnout and general health than job satisfaction, which is better predicted by work stress. The findings of this study could inform potential solutions to reduce the impact of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health. Coping strategies and staffing strategies need to be evaluated within developing contexts such as South Africa to as certain their effectiveness.
Hoffman, Amy J; Scott, Linda D
This study examined the variation in role stress and career satisfaction among hospital-based registered nurses (RNs) by shift length. Many hospitals have reorganized care delivery into 12-hour work shifts to improve RN recruitment, retention, and cost effectiveness. Yet little is known about the effects of 12-hour shifts on RN role stress and career satisfaction. As an unprecedented RN shortage approaches, factors that contribute to satisfying and healthy practice environments must be identified. This study used a descriptive cross-sectional research design. Five hundred RNs were randomly selected to receive a mailed questionnaire packet. Initial findings indicate RNs working 12-hour shifts were younger, less experienced, and more stressed than colleagues working 8-hour shifts. When differences in nursing experience were controlled, similar RN stress levels were found. Although overall career satisfaction was comparable between groups, significant differences were found in the areas of salary and professional status. Pay, autonomy, and professional status were the most important determinants of career satisfaction for all RN participants. These findings suggest that RNs may experience greater professional fulfillment when strategies are implemented that promote autonomous practice environments, provide financial incentives, and recognize professional status. Proactive decision-making may avert RN disillusionment and avoid other negative consequences that impact quality of care.
de Freitas-Swerts, Fabiana Cristina Taubert; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz
to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain. quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: