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Sample records for stress relief produced

  1. Stress relief of transition zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment

  2. Ultrasonic evaluation of heat treatment for stress relief in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Goncalves Filho, Orlando J.A.; Payao Filho, Joao da C.

    2000-01-01

    Residual stresses in materials arise due to the manufacturing processes. As a consequence, in the nuclear area some components must suffer a stress relief treatment according to strict criteria. Although these treatments are carefully carried on, concern with nuclear safety is constantly growing. This work proposes a nondestructive ultrasonic method to guarantee the efficiency of the heat treatment. It was used a short peened steel plate with tensile and compressive stresses which was submitted to a stress relief treatment. The results show that the proposed ultrasonic method could be used to confirm the efficiency of the stress relief heat treatment. (author)

  3. Residual stress relief in MAG welded joints of dissimilar steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seodek, P.; Brozda, J.; Wang, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the relief of residual stress in welded joints between austenitic and non-alloyed ferritic-pearlitic steels. A series of similar and dissimilar steel joints based on the 18G2A (ferritic-pearlitic) and 1H18N10T (austenitic) steels were produced, some of which were stress relieved by annealing and some by mechanical prestressing. For the as-welded and stress relieved test joints the residual stresses were measured by trepanning. To aid the interpretation of these results, 2D plane stress finite element analysis has been performed to simulate the residual stress relieving methods. Analysis of the results has shown that thermal stress relieving of welded joints between dissimilar steels is not effective and may even increase residual stresses, due to the considerable difference in thermal expansion of the joined steels. It was found that, for the loads imposed, the effectiveness of the mechanical stress relieving of dissimilar steel welded joints was much lower than that of similar steel joints

  4. Mechanical behavior of multipass welded joint during stress relief annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yukio; Fukuda, Keiji; Nakacho, Keiji; Takahashi, Eiji; Sakamoto, Koichi.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation into mechanical behavior of a multipass welded joint of a pressure vessel during stress relief annealing was conducted. The study was performed theoretically and experimentally on idealized research models. In the theoretical analysis, the thermal elastic-plastic creep theory developed by the authors was applied. The behavior of multipass welded joints during the entire thermal cycle, from welding to stress relief annealing, was consistently analyzed by this theory. The results of the analysis show a good, fundamentally coincidence with the experimental findings. The outline of the results and conclusions is as follows. (1) In the case of the material (2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel) furnished in this study, the creep strain rate during stress relief annealing below 575 0 C obeys the strain-hardening creep law using the transient creep and the one above 575 0 C obeys the power creep law using the stational creep. (2) In the transverse residual stress (σsub(x)) distribution after annealing, the location of the largest tensile stress on the top surface is about 15 mm away from the toe of weld, and the largest at the cross section is just below the finishing bead. These features are similar to those of welding residual stresses. But the stress distribution after annealing is smoother than one from welding. (3) The effectiveness of stress relief annealing depends greatly on the annealing temperature. For example, most of residual stresses are relieved at the heating stage with a heating rate of 30 0 C/hr. to 100 0 C/hr. if the annealing temperature is 650 0 C, but if the annealing temperature is 550 0 C, the annealing is not effective even with a longer holding time. (4) In the case of multipass welding residual stresses studied in this paper, the behaviors of high stresses during annealing are approximated by ones during anisothermal relaxation. (auth.)

  5. Vibration stress relief of DH 36 rectangle welded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuqi; Fang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Vibration stress relief (VSR) is widely used in reducing residual stress in welded structures. However, the effectiveness of this method is still instable in some circumstance. In this study, a covert negative treatment phenomenon was investigated, i.e. natural frequency of welded structures decreased after VSR but residual stress in one direction increased. When the alteration of natural frequency after VSR is significant, the residual stresses in both the longitudinal and transversal directions shall decrease. Otherwise, residual stresses may increase on one direction. Thus, sufficient power shall be applied to the welded structures to avoid negative results.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE QUALITY FOR CHOSEN MILLING STRATEGIES WHEN PRODUCING RELIEF SURFACES

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Varga; Jozef Stahovec; Jozef Beno; Marek Vrabeľ

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with design and modeling of the relief surfaces that are produced in milling. Modeled and real surface quality is presented for the chosen fragments of the relief surfaces. Fragmentation of the relief surfaces has been made by the surface sampling. Milling strategies are compared with regard to surface formation. Surface quality was checked with regard to applied cutting conditions.

  7. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K; Mathew, Supriya; Garnett, Stephen T

    2018-02-26

    Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%), 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected temperature

  8. Exploring Heat Stress Relief Measures among the Australian Labour Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin K. Zander

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Australia experiences frequent heat waves and generally high average temperatures throughout the continent with substantial impacts on human health and the economy. People adapt to heat by adopting various relief measures in their daily lives including changing their behaviour. Many labour intensive outdoor industries implement standards for heat stress management for their workforce. However, little is known about how people cope with heat at their workplaces apart from studies targeting some specific industries where labourers are exposed to extreme heat. Here, we analysed responses from 1719 people in the Australian labour force to self-reported heat stress and associated coping mechanisms. Three quarters of respondents experienced heat stress at their workplace with fatigue and headache being the two most frequently stated symptoms. Almost all of those who were affected by heat would hydrate (88%, 67% would cool, and 44% would rest as a strategy for coping with heat. About 10% intended to change their jobs because of heat stress in the workplace. We found differences in heat relief measures across gender, education, health, level of physical intensity of job, and time spent working outside. People working in jobs that were not very demanding physically were more likely to choose cooling down as a relief measure, while those in labour intensive jobs and jobs that required considerable time outside were more likely to rest. This has potential consequences for their productivity and work schedules. Heat affects work in Australia in many types of industry with impact dependent on workforce acclimatisation, yet public awareness and work relief plans are often limited to outdoor and labour intensive industries. Industries and various levels of government in all sectors need to implement standards for heat management specific to climate zones to help people cope better with high temperatures as well as plan strategies in anticipation of projected

  9. Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressures, according to a 2013 survey from the American Psychological Association. Stress can also arise from major life changes, such ... Made Easy NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® National Institutes of Health 9000 Rockville ... Department of Health and Human Services Back to Top

  10. Stress relief of austenitic weldments: microstructural and mechanical property effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Two consumables suitable for welding AISI 316 have been studied. Both contained 3-8% delta-ferrite in the as-welded state but were of different nominal compositions, namely 19Cr-12Ni-3Mo and 17Cr-8Ni-2Mo. The results of a series of uniaxial stress relaxation tests carried out over a range of temperatures from 650 to 850 0 C indicate that it was practicable to achieve acceptable residual stress levels even at the lower end of this temperature range; the inference was, therefore, that the final choice of stress relief treatment will be determined by the metallurgical changes that simultaneously occur. The isothermal transformation kinetics of the delta-ferrite were determined over the temperature range 600-800 0 C for both weld metals and the nature and morphology of the phases formed was studied. Transformation proceeded more rapidly in the 19Cr-12Ni-3Mo deposit than in the 17Cr-8Ni-2Mo deposit. Electron microscopy revealed that in both weld metals the delta-ferrite acted as a focus for a series of complex precipitation reactions involving initially the simultaneous formation of M 23 C 6 and reversion of delta to #betta# followed by precipitation of intermetallic phases chi and σ. Tensile impact and creep properties of aged material have been determined and are discussed in terms of the structural features observed. (author)

  11. Stress relief treatment of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, D. van; Cragnolino, C.

    1994-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 tubing in the primary side of operating steam generators is the subject of this investigation. The objective of the program was to examine the feasibility of heat treatment to alleviate the IGSCC problem. In addition to this, tests were also performed to examine the IGSCC susceptibility of nuclear grade Alloy 600 tubing obtained from various sources. Examination of temperature-time combinations that may hold potential for improved IGSCC resistance of the transition regions of tubes expanded into tube sheet holes was done. The combinations fall in two categories. One is of short duration and relatively high temperature, where induction is the best method of heating because the treatment only lasts from some tens of seconds to a few minutes. The other is carried out in a lower temperature range and lasts for several hours. This latter combination of temperatures and times is considered for the so-called global heat treatment of entire tube sheet. To assess the effect of these treatments, reverse U-bend testing in high purity deaerated water containing an overpressure of hydrogen was employed and several heats of Alloy 600 were compared in tests at 365 degrees C, which is well above actual operating temperatures of steam generators, but provides an accelerated test procedure. Results of furnace heating in the range of 550-610 degrees C indicated improvement in IGSCC resistance, with best performance after a heat treatment at 610 degrees C for nine hours. In addition to stress relief, carbide precipitation can also occur, and their relative contributions to the improvement is discussed

  12. Analysis of residual stress relief mechanisms in post-weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study on weld residual stress relief mechanisms associated with furnace-based uniform post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Both finite element and analytical methods are used to quantitatively examine how plastic deformation and creep relaxation contribute to residual stress relief process at different stages of PWHT process. The key contribution of this work to an improved understanding of furnace based uniform PWHT can be summarized as follows: (1)Plastic deformation induced stress relief during PWHT can be analytically expressed by the change in material elastic deformation capacity (or elastic deformation limit) measured in terms of material yield strength to Young's modulus ratio, which has a rather limited role in overall residual stress relief during furnace based uniform PWHT. (2)The most dominant stress relief mechanism is creep strain induced stress relaxation, as expected. However, a rapid creep strain development accompanied by a rapid residual stress reduction during heating stage before reaching PWHT temperature is shown to contribute to most of the stress relief seen in overall PWHT process, suggesting PWHT hold time can be significantly reduced as far as residual stress relief is concerned. (3)A simple engineering scheme for estimating residual stress reduction is proposed based on this study by relating material type, PWHT temperature, and component wall thickness. - Highlights: • The paper clarified effects of plastic deformation and creep relaxation on weld residual stress relief during uniform PWHT. • Creep strain development is far more important than plastic strain, mostly completed even before hold time starts. • Plastic strain development is insignificant and be analytically described by a material elastic deformation capacity parameter. • An engineering estimation scheme is proposed for determining residual stress reduction resulted from furnace based PWHT

  13. Vibration stress relief treatment in welded samples of ST-3 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Echevarria, J.F.; Estevez, A.; Perez, A.; Aragon, B.

    1996-01-01

    The presented work is aimed to find the optimal vibration frequency and treatment duration for ST-3 steel welded test pieces. In the experiment transversal stresses were not virtually relieved by the application of vibrations at the three natural frecuencies. With regard to the optimal frequency for our system, the firths natural frequency appears to be most effective one, wherewith a maximum 35-70 % longitudinal stress relief was obtained. The influence of the propagation direction (transversal or longitudinal) of vibrations on stress relief in a welded joint was confirmed

  14. Formation of microcracks during stress-relief annealing of a weldment in pressure vessel steel of type A508 C1 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljestrand, L.-G.; Oestberg, G.; Lindhagen, P.

    1978-01-01

    Crack formation in the heat-affected zones of heavy section weldments of type A 508 C1 2 pressure vessel steel during stress-relief annealing has been studied on an actual weldment and on simulated structures. Mechanical testing of the latter showed that stress relaxation of the order of magnitude occuring during stress-relief annealing can produce cracks of the same kind as occasionally found in weldments of pressure vessel steel. The primary cause is believed to be grain boundary sliding, possibly but not necessarily enhanced by impurities. (Auth.)

  15. Workplace Stress Relief (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-31

    The stress of everyday life can lead to all kinds of health problems. It’s particularly a problem at work. In this podcast, Dr. Sara Luckhaupt discusses the health impact of work-related stress.  Created: 7/31/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/31/2014.

  16. Fracture toughness and stress relief response of irradiated Type 347/348 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggag, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    A test program has experimentally determined: (1) The fracture toughness of Type 347/348 stainless steel (SS) specimens with high values of irradiation fluence (2.3 to 4.8 x 10 22 n/cm 2 , E > 1.0 MeV) and experiencing different levels of irradiation creep (0.0, 0.6, 1.1, 1.8%), (2) the effect of thermal stress relief on fracture toughness recovery for the highly irradiated material, and (3) the mechanisms associated with fracture toughness recovery due to thermal stress relief. The postirradiation fracture toughness tests and tensile tests were conducted at 427 0 C

  17. The psychological and physiological stress relief effect of the green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.; Koshimizu, H. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Agriculture

    2007-07-01

    The visual sense influences human psychology and physiology. As such, green gardens in urban environments are touted as being healing gardens that lead to stress relief and improved work efficiency. This paper focused on the visual aspects of such rehabilitation sites. Psychological and physiological experiments were conducted on human response to green roofs in order to quantify the stress relief effect of the green roof scenery. In addition, different green roof designs were tested to determine whether they change the stress relief effect. A 360 degrees panorama photograph of green roofs was shown to 3 male and 3 female students in Meiji University. The experiment was followed by a questionnaire survey based on the semantic differential (SD) method as a psychological evaluation. The SD method is a representative psychological measurement to quantify an image of people for a scene. The changes in heart rate were studied along with blood pressure, and stress degree as a physiological evaluation. The relation between the results of the SD method-based psychological evaluation and the physiological experiment was determined using multiple regression analysis. It was concluded that the stress relief effect can be improved by changing linear scenery to a more curvy one. 15 refs., 4 tabs., 20 figs.

  18. Stress relief to prevent stress corrosion in the transition region of expanded Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-05-01

    The feasibility of preventing primary side roll transition cracking has been investigated, using induction heating to attain stress relief of expanded Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Work on rolled tubing and U-bends has shown that temperatures with which stress relief can be obtained range from 700 to 850 0 C, with lower temperatures in this range requiring longer times at temperature to provide the requisite reduction in residual stresses. No work has yet been done outside this range. Preliminary tests, using induction heating, have been carried out on a mock tube sheet assembly, designed to the dimensions of a typical steam generator, and have identified the type of heating/cooling cycle that would occur in the tube sheet during a stress relief operation. Preliminary results show that the times to reach the higher temperatures in the range observed to give stress relief, of the order of 850 0 C, can be as short as 8 seconds, and less with optimum coil design and power control

  19. Masticatory performance alters stress relief effect of gum chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of gum chewing on the response to psychological stress induced by a calculation task and investigated the relationship between this response and masticatory performance. Nineteen healthy adult volunteers without dental problems undertook the Uchida-Kraepelin (UK) test (30 min of reiterating additions of one-digit numbers). Before and immediately after the test, saliva samples were collected from the sublingual area of the participants. Three min after the UK test, the participants were made to chew flavorless gum for 3 min, and the final saliva samples were collected 10 min after the UK test. The experiment was performed without gum chewing on a different day. Masticatory performance was evaluated using color-changing chewing gum. Salivary CgA levels at immediately and 10 min after the UK test were compared with and without gum chewing condition. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction between gum chewing condition and changes in CgA levels during post 10 min UK test period. A significant correlation was found between changes in CgA levels and masticatory performance in all participants. Our results indicate that gum chewing may relieve stress responses; however, high masticatory performance is required to achieve this effect. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by 'comfort' food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Christiansen, Anne M; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P

    2016-07-01

    A history of eating highly palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30 % sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such 'comfort' foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala-medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological datasets.

  1. Statistical modeling implicates neuroanatomical circuit mediating stress relief by ‘comfort’ food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Christiansen, Anne M.; Wang, Xia; Song, Seongho; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    A history of eating highly-palatable foods reduces physiological and emotional responses to stress. For instance, we have previously shown that limited sucrose intake (4 ml of 30% sucrose twice daily for 14 days) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress. However, the neural mechanisms underlying stress relief by such ‘comfort’ foods are unclear, and could reveal an endogenous brain pathway for stress mitigation. As such, the present work assessed the expression of several proteins related to neuronal activation and/or plasticity in multiple stress- and reward-regulatory brain regions of rats after limited sucrose (vs. water control) intake. These data were then subjected to a series of statistical analyses, including Bayesian modeling, to identify the most likely neurocircuit mediating stress relief by sucrose. The analyses suggest that sucrose reduces HPA activation by dampening an excitatory basolateral amygdala - medial amygdala circuit, while also potentiating an inhibitory bed nucleus of the stria terminalis principle subdivision-mediated circuit, resulting in reduced HPA activation after stress. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that sucrose limits stress responses via plastic changes to the structure and function of stress-regulatory neural circuits. The work also illustrates that advanced statistical methods are useful approaches to identify potentially novel and important underlying relationships in biological data sets. PMID:26246177

  2. The stress response to surgery: release mechanisms and the modifying effect of pain relief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    This short review updates information on the release mechanisms of the systemic response to surgical injury and the modifying effect of pain relief. Initiation of the response is primarily due to afferent nerve impulses combined with release of humoral substances (such as prostaglandins, kinins...... in releasing the classical endocrine catabolic response, while humoral factors are important for the hyperthermic response, changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis immunofunction, and capillary permeability. The modifying effect of pain relief on the surgical stress response is dependent upon the technique...... on the stress response. In summary, pain alleviation itself may not necessarily lead to an important modification of the stress response, and a combined approach with inhibition of the neural and humoral release mechanisms is necessary for a pronounced inhibition or prevention of the response to surgical injury....

  3. Effect of stress relief annealing temperature and atmosphere on the magnetic properties of silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolinelli, Sebastiao C.; Cunha, Marco A. da

    2006-01-01

    Fully processed non-oriented silicon steel samples 0.50 mm thick were sheared and submitted to stress relief annealing under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere to investigate the effect of this treatment on the recovery of magnetic properties. Two different compositions were used, with different Si and Al contents. Temperature was varied in the range of 600-900 deg. C and four atmospheres were used: N 2 and N 2 +10%H 2 combined with dew points of -10 and 15 deg. C. The results showed that annealing atmosphere has very important effect on the magnetic properties and that the beneficial effect of stress relief annealing can be overcome by the detrimental effect of the atmosphere under certain conditions, due to oxidation and nitration

  4. Study of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilized austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel welds (AISI 321) may exhibit a serious form of intercrystalline cracking during service at high temperature. This type of cracking, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to ageing: a fine and abundant intragranular Ti(C,N) precipitation appears near the fusion line and modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. This study aims to better know the accused mechanism and to succeed in estimating the risk of such cracking in welded junctions of 321 stainless steel. To analyse this embrittlement mechanism, and to assess the lifetime of real components, different HAZ are simulated by heat treatments applied to the base material which is submitted to various cold rolling and ageing conditions in order to reproduce the HAZ microstructure. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and ageing on the titanium carbide precipitation, on the mechanical (tensile and creep) behaviour of the resulting material and on its stress relief cracking sensitivity. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the mechanism and that ageing do not favour crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. The role of this precipitation is also discussed. Moreover, a creep damage model is identified by a local approach to fracture. Materials sensitive to stress relief cracking are selected. Then, creep tests are carried out on notched bars in order to quantify the intergranular damage of these different materials; afterwards, these measurements are combined with calculated mechanical fields. Finally, it is shown that the model gives good results to assess crack initiation for a compact tension (CT) specimen during relaxation tests, as well as for a notched tubular specimen tested at 600 deg. C under a steady torque. (author)

  5. Mechanisms of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M.; Allais, L.; Caes, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Pineau, A.

    2003-01-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 321 welds may exhibit a serious form of cracking during service at high temperature. This form of damage, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to aging due to Ti(C,N) precipitation on dislocations which modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. The present study aims to analyse the latter embrittlement mechanism in one specific heat of 321 stainless steel. To this end, different HAZs are simulated using an annealing heat-treatment, followed by various cold rolling and aging conditions. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and aging on Ti(C,N) precipitation, on the mechanical (hardness, tensile and creep) behaviour of the simulated HAZs and on their sensitivity to intergranular crack propagation through stress relaxation tests performed on pre-cracked CT type specimens tested at 600 deg. C. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the involved mechanism but that aging does not promote crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. Therefore, the role of Ti(C,N) precipitation on stress relief cracking mechanisms is discussed. An attempt is made to show that solute drag effects are mainly responsible for this form of intergranular damage, rather than Ti(C,N) precipitation

  6. CRYOGENIC AND STRESS RELIEF THERMAL TREATMENTS IN AN AISI D2 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda da Silva Farina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cryogenic treatments on an AISI D2 cold work tool steel using X-ray diffraction from syncronton radiation are studied. The aim of this work is to verify the effects of: i time at cryogenic temperatures (3, 10 and 30 hours; ii cryogenic temperatures (–80°C and –196°C; iii stress relief heat treatment (130°C before cryogenic treatments; iv effect of double tempering at 520°C for 2 hours each time, after cryogenic treatment at –196°C for 30 hours, with and without previous stress relief. X-ray diffraction experiments were conducted at the line D10B-XPD of the Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron and the experimental results were treated using Rietveld refining, with TOPAS Academic in conjunction with cards from the ICCD-PDF 2006 database for austenite, martensite and carbides M7C3and M2C. Tempered samples were characterized using SEM and SEM-FEG. Volume fraction of retained austenite and carbides, as well as changes in the crystal lattices of martensite and austenite are obtained from the X-ray experiments.

  7. [Relationship between fatigue recovery after late-night shifts and stress relief awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakamu, Takeyasu; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hayakawa, Takehito; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2014-01-01

    stress reduction. In this study, a relationship was recognized between degree of awareness of daily stress relief and fatigue recovery period. In addition, various means of stress relief had different effects, suggesting the need for individualized mental health care.

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  9. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-07-15

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors.

  10. A New Method of Stress Measurement Based upon Elastic Deformation of Core Sample with Stress Relief by Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Tamagawa, T.; Tezuka, K.; Yabe, Y.; Abe, S.; Ishida, A.; Ogasawara, H.

    2017-12-01

    When rock is cored at depth by drilling, anisotropic expansion occurs with the relief of anisotropic rock stresses, resulting in a sinusoidal variation of core diameter with a period of 180 deg. in the core roll angle. The circumferential variation of core diameter is given theoretically as a function of rock stresses. These new findings can lead various ideas to estimate the rock stress from circumferential variation of core diameter measured after the core retrieving. In the simplest case when a single core sample is only available, the difference between the maximum and minimum components of rock stress in a plane perpendicular to the drilled hole can be estimated from the maximum and minimum core diameters (see the detail in, Funato and Ito, IJRMMS, 2017). The advantages of this method include, (i) much easier measurement operation than those in other in-situ or in-lab estimation methods, and (ii) applicability in high stress environment where stress measurements need pressure for packers or pumping system for the hydro-fracturing methods higher than their tolerance levels. We have successfully tested the method at deep seismogenic zones in South African gold mines, and we are going to apply it to boreholes collared at 3 km depth and intersecting a M5.5 rupture plane several hundred meters below the mine workings in the ICDP project of "Drilling into Seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes in deep South African gold mines" (DSeis) (e.g., http://www.icdp-online.org/projects/world/africa/orkney-s-africa/details/). If several core samples with different orientation are available, all of three principal components of 3D rock stress can be estimated. To realize this, we should have several boreholes drilled in different directions in a rock mass where the stress field is considered to be uniform. It is commonly carried out to dill boreholes in different directions from a mine gallery. Even in a deep borehole drilled vertically from the ground surface, the

  11. Residual stress measurement inside a dissimilar metal weld mock-up of the pressurizer safety and relief nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Mansur, Tanius R., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br, E-mail: tanius@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Servico de Integridade Estrutural; Martins, Ketsia S., E-mail: ketshinoda@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Nelo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2015-07-01

    Residual stresses are present in materials or structural component in the absence of external loads or changes in temperatures. The most common causes of residual stresses being present are the manufacturing or assembling processes. All manufacturing processes, such as casting, welding, machining, molding, heat treatment, among others, introduces residual stresses into the manufactured object. The residual stresses effects could be beneficial or detrimental, depending on its distribution related to the component or structure, its load service and if it is compressive or tensile. In this work, the residual strains and stresses inside a mock-up that simulates the safety and relief nozzle of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant pressurizer were studied. The current paper presents a blind hole-drilling method residual stress measurements both at the inner surface of dissimilar metal welds of dissimilar metal weld nozzle mock-up. (author)

  12. Residual stress measurement inside a dissimilar metal weld mock-up of the pressurizer safety and relief nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Silva, Luiz L.; Mansur, Tanius R.; Martins, Ketsia S.

    2015-01-01

    Residual stresses are present in materials or structural component in the absence of external loads or changes in temperatures. The most common causes of residual stresses being present are the manufacturing or assembling processes. All manufacturing processes, such as casting, welding, machining, molding, heat treatment, among others, introduces residual stresses into the manufactured object. The residual stresses effects could be beneficial or detrimental, depending on its distribution related to the component or structure, its load service and if it is compressive or tensile. In this work, the residual strains and stresses inside a mock-up that simulates the safety and relief nozzle of Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant pressurizer were studied. The current paper presents a blind hole-drilling method residual stress measurements both at the inner surface of dissimilar metal welds of dissimilar metal weld nozzle mock-up. (author)

  13. The Effect of Non-Pharmacological Methods of Labor Pain Relief on Mothers’ Perceived Stress: ARandomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojghan Mirghafourvand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Childbirth is the most stressful event for the women both mentally and physically affecting their physiological and psychological indicators during labour. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of non-pharmacological methods of labor pain relief in mothers’ perceived stress conducted in Alavi hospital of Ardabil, 2013.  Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled trial, 320 mothers were allocated into two groups by stratified block randomization . The intervention group (n=158 received continuous support throughout the labour process, positioning and movement, music, aromatherapy, showering andconsumption of a light diet or water.The control group received only a routine care. The perceived stress scale (PSS was employed to collect data in three stages at the beginning of the active phase, before the intervention, six hours after birth and then eight weeks postpartum. The two groupswere compared using General Linear Model with controlling the baseline scores. Results: There were 14 participants loss to follow-up. The mean of perceived stress score in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group at 6 hours [adjusted mean difference: -1.0 (95% confidence interval: -0.01 to -1.9]. However, there was no difference between two groups in terms of perceived stress score at 8 weeks postpartum (p=0.692.  Conclusion: Non-pharmacological methods of labor pain relief are an effective intervention for reducing perceived stress level in mothers during labor and therefore use of this intervention is recommended.

  14. Ketamine Does Not Produce Relief of Neuropathic Pain in Mice Lacking the β-Common Receptor (CD131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartjes, Maarten; Niesters, Marieke; Heij, Lara; Dunne, Ann; Aarts, Leon; Hand, Carla Cerami; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Brines, Michael; Cerami, Anthony; Dahan, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is a debilitating condition associated with traumatic, metabolic, autoimmune and neurological etiologies. Although the triggers for NP are diverse, there are common underlying pathways, including activation of immune cells in the spinal cord and up-regulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Ketamine, a well-known NDMAR antagonist, reduces neuropathic pain in a sustained manner. Recent study has shown that the novel 11-amino acid peptide erythropoietin derivative ARA290 produces a similar, long-lasting relief of NP. Here, we show that both drugs also have similar effects on the expression of mRNA of the NMDAR, as well as that of microglia, astrocytes and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, all-important contributors to the development of NP. Although the effects of ketamine and ARA 290 on NP and its molecular mediators suggest a common mechanism of action, ARA 290 has no affinity for the NMDAR and acts specifically via the innate repair receptor (IRR) involved in tissue protection. We speculated therefore, that the IRR might be critically involved in the action of ketamine on neuropathic pain. To evaluate this, we studied the effects of ketamine and ARA 290 on acute pain, side effects, and allodynia following a spared nerve injury model in mice lacking the β-common receptor (βcR), a structural component of the IRR. Ketamine (50 mg/kg) and ARA 290 (30 µg/kg) produced divergent effects on acute pain: ketamine produced profound antinociception accompanied with psychomotor side effects, but ARA290 did not, in both normal and knock out mice. In contrast, while both drugs were antiallodynic in WT mice, they had no effect on NP in mice lacking the βcR. Together, these results show that an intact IRR is required for the effective treatment of NP with either ketamine or ARA 290, but is not involved in ketamine’s analgesic and side effects. PMID:23936499

  15. Pipe cracking due to thermal stresses produced by valve opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Sarmiento, G.

    1982-01-01

    The thermal stresses produced in a tube whose internal surface is abrupt cooled during a valve opening so that the water volume increases linearly with time are studied. A general solution for these stresses and its stress intensity factors in terms of non-dimensional parameters is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Permanent relief from intermittent cold stress-induced fibromyalgia-like abnormal pain by repeated intrathecal administration of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukae Takehiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic widespread pain, which is often refractory to conventional painkillers. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that antidepressants are effective in treating FM pain. We previously established a mouse model of FM-like pain, induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS. Results In this study, we find that ICS exposure causes a transient increase in plasma corticosterone concentration, but not in anxiety or depression-like behaviors. A single intrathecal injection of an antidepressant, such as milnacipran, amitriptyline, mianserin or paroxetine, had an acute analgesic effect on ICS-induced thermal hyperalgesia at post-stress day 1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, repeated daily antidepressant treatments during post-stress days 1-5 gradually reversed the reduction in thermal pain threshold, and this recovery was maintained for at least 7 days after the final treatment. In addition, relief from mechanical allodynia, induced by ICS exposure, was also observed at day 9 after the cessation of antidepressant treatment. In contrast, the intravenous administration of these antidepressants at conventional doses failed to provide relief. Conclusions These results suggest that the repetitive intrathecal administration of antidepressants permanently cures ICS-induced FM pain in mice.

  17. TEM investigations on the effect of chromium content and of stress relief treatment on precipitation in Alloy 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennour, M.; Chaumun, E.; Crépin, J.; Duhamel, C.; Gaslain, F.; Guerre, C.; Curières, I. de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Slight change of the Cr content does not affect the microstructure of the butt welds. •Stress relief thermal treatment leads to the intergranular precipitation of Cr 23 C 6 . •The Cr 23 C 6 carbides are supposed to improve the SCC resistance of the butt welds. -- Abstract: Nickel-base alloys are widely used in nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Most of them have been found susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in nominal PWR primary water. The time to initiation depends on the material and is longer for weld metals than for Alloy 600. This study will focus on Alloy 82, which is used in Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs). In service, DMWs are either in the as-welded state or have undergone a stress relief treatment. Previous SCC studies showed that the heat treatment reduces significantly the SCC susceptibility of the weld. In this context, this study focuses on the microstructure characterization of the weld in the as-welded state and in the heat-treated state. As chromium content is also a key factor for the SCC susceptibility, welds with low chromium content and medium chromium content were studied. The lower SCC susceptibility of the heat-treated welds was attributed to intergranular Cr 23 C 6 resulting from a combined effect of heat treatment and chromium and carbon contents. These intergranular carbides could explain the better behavior of Alloy 82, compared to other nickel-base alloys

  18. Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

  19. Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu–Cr–Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Dandan, E-mail: dandan.qu@partner.kit.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Zhou, Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhangjianustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Yum, Youngjin [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Aktaa, Jarir [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti–Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu–Cr–Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu–Cr–Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

  20. Improvements in the susceptibility to hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking of 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.; Sato, S.; Shimomura, J.; Aso, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of sulphur content at extremely low level on the susceptibility to hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking in 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels was studied. The reduction of sulphur content and/or the addition of REM (rare earth metal) or Ca in accordance with sulphur content remarkably improve the resistivity against hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking. Micro-structural examination has showed that there exist Mn-REM-S-Al-O complex particles in the REM-added steels. It is concluded that the effect of REM on hydrogen attack and stress-relief cracking is to reduce ''the free sulphur'' in 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels

  1. Residual stress development and relief in high strength aluminium alloys using standard and retrogression thermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, J.S; Tanner, D.A

    2003-01-01

    peer-reviewed Residual stresses develop in the aluminium alloy 7010 when the material is quenched from the solution heat treatment temperature. Residual stress measurements have been made using the X-ray diffraction technique and a longitudinal split sawcut method to determine the magnitude of residual stress that develops in specimens sectioned from large open die forgings as a result of (a) quenching these specimens into water at different temperatures, and (b) cold water quenching from ...

  2. Exercise and Prebiotics Produce Stress Resistance: Converging Impacts on Stress-Protective and Butyrate-Producing Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, A; Rumian, N; Loughridge, A B; Fleshner, M

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbial ecosystem can mediate the negative health impacts of stress on the host. Stressor-induced disruptions in microbial ecology (dysbiosis) can lead to maladaptive health effects, while certain probiotic organisms and their metabolites can protect against these negative impacts. Prebiotic diets and exercise are feasible and cost-effective strategies that can increase stress-protective bacteria and produce resistance against the detrimental behavioral and neurobiological impacts of stress. The goal of this review is to describe research demonstrating that both prebiotic diets and exercise produce adaptations in gut ecology and the brain that arm the organism against inescapable stress-induced learned helplessness. The results of this research support the novel hypothesis that some of the stress-protective effects of prebiotics and exercise are due to increases in stress-protective gut microbial species and their metabolites. In addition, new evidence also suggests that prebiotic diet or exercise interventions are most effective if given early in life (juvenile-adolescence) when both the gut microbial ecosystem and the brain are plastic. Based on our new understanding of the mechanistic convergence of these interventions, it is feasible to propose that in adults, both interventions delivered in combination may elevate their efficacy to promote a stress-resistant phenotype. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress relief of ceramic components in high voltage assemblies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, R.J.

    1979-02-01

    Two types of ceramic packages were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of encapsulating the ceramic components in beta eucryptite filled epoxy. The requirements (no high voltage breakdown, no ceramic cracking, and no encapsulant cracking) were met by the spark gap assembly, but the sprytron assembly had cracking in the encapsulant after thermal cycling. The encapsulation of the ceramic component in beta eucryptite filled epoxy with a stress decoupling material selectively applied in the stress concentrated areas were used to prevent cracking in the sprytron encapsulant. This method is proposed as the standard encapsulation process for high voltage ceramic components

  4. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite, E-mail: wwu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2014-05-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes.

  5. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

    2014-01-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes

  6. Care for the caregiver: Stress relief and burnout among health workers in HIV care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Atukunda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health care facilities in resource-limited settings are faced with numerous challenges including high patient loads and shortage of trained health workers. However, there still remains a dearth of scientific evidence to assess and address issues associated with stress and burnout among health workers providing HIV care. Methods An annual assessment was conducted using a site capacity assessment tool to evaluate the quality of care at 18 HIV health facilities. Questions to determine stress management and HIV care among health workers were graded from 0–5 (lowest to highest score. Data on performance of health facilities were summarized on an excel sheet. Results Majority of the health facilities (67% did not have polices or practices in place to relieve stress faced by staff in providing care for persons with HIV/AIDS.Less than half of the health facilities (44.4% had policies on PEP, confidential HIV testing and counseling as well as referral for care and treatment for staff that are found to be HIV positive. Conclusion Evaluating and addressing issues associated with stress, burnout, as well as providing HIV care services among health workers in HIV settings is imperative for provision of good quality of care.

  7. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain ε{111}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{200}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the ε{111}–cos 2 ψ plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90° ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{200}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks

  8. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain ɛ{111} and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{200} in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the ɛ{111}-cos2 ψ plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90° ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{200}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  9. New process for the relief of mechanically induced stresses in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyeux, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Heat exchangers include very generally a set of tubes assembled in 'U-type' exchangers or in 'pass-through' exchangers. The tubes are introduced in holes drilled in the tube sheet plate, welded at their extremity and expanded to insure the necessary tightness. The steam generators built by FRAMATOME belong to the U-type and include, depending upon the nominal power of the plant, about three or five thousand inconel tubes. This material has been selected for its resistance to corrosion action at high temperatures. But one drawback of inconel is that residual stress lowers considerably this resistance to corrosion; so it is very important to apply manufacturing processes involving a residual stress level as low as possible. A new process, which involves 'kiss' rolling, is described. (author)

  10. Nursing Students' Attitudes and Use of Holistic Therapies for Stress Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, Elizabeth V; Loerzel, Victoria

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore student nurses' openness to using or recommending holistic therapies, the strategies they use to manage stress from school or work, and their perceptions of the impact of holistic therapies on personal health. Qualitative component of a quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. A convenience sample of undergraduate nursing students in a southeastern U.S. university completed baseline surveys, including demographics and three open-ended questions regarding attitudes toward holistic therapies and strategies used for stress management. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken to identify recurring themes in textual data. Students are open to using or recommending holistic therapies but identify lack of knowledge and lack of time as barriers to their practice. Among strategies used by student nurses to manage stress from school or work were physical activity, prayer and meditation, time management, distraction, socialization, artistic pursuits, animal interactions, and other activities. Themes describing holistic therapies' impact on personal health were wholeness, self-empowerment, relaxation/restoration, and alternative/complement to traditional medicine. Findings indicate receptiveness by student nurses to the use of holistic therapies but point to the need for the inclusion of informational as well as experiential education on holistic therapies within nursing curricula.

  11. Fracture properties of hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding in recrystallization and stress-relief anneal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hung, E-mail: hhhsu@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Lungtan Township, Taoyuan County 325, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Tsay, Leu-Wen [Institute of Materials Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-15

    In this work, the stress-relieved (SRA) and recrystallized (RXA) Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens were hydrogen-charged to the target concentration of 300 wppm and then manufactured into X-specimens for fracture toughness test. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens in both SRA and RXA conditions were investigated. At the hydrogen concentration level of 300 wppm, J-integral values for RXA cladding were higher than those for SRA cladding at both 25 Degree-Sign C and 300 Degree-Sign C. The formation of brittle zirconium hydrides had a significant impact on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding in both SRA and RXA states, especially at 25 Degree-Sign C. Among all the tests, SRA cladding tested at 25 Degree-Sign C exhibited a great loss of the fracture toughness. The micrographic and fractographic observations further demonstrated that the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding would be improved by the coarse grains in RXA cladding, but degraded by zirconium hydrides precipitated along the grain boundary.

  12. Stress analyses of pump gears produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinel, Hakan [Celal Bayar Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept. (Turkey); Yilmaz, Burak

    2013-06-01

    In this study, trochoidal type (gerotor) hydraulic pump gears were produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) technique. Several gears with different mechanical properties have been obtained by changing process variables. The tooth contact stresses were calculated analytically under particular operation conditions of the hydraulic pump. The 3D models have been obtained from real gears by using Capability Maturity Model (CMM, 3D scanning) operation and SOLIDWORKS software. Stress analyses were conducted on these 3D models by using ANSYS WORKBENCH software. It was found that the density increases by the increase of sintering duration and mechanical properties were positively affected by the increase of density. Maximum deformation takes place in the region of the outer gear where failure generally occurs with the minimum cross-section area.

  13. Study of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilized austenitic stainless steel; Etude de la fissuration differee par relaxation d'un acier inoxydable austenitique stabilise au titane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M

    1999-07-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel welds (AISI 321) may exhibit a serious form of intercrystalline cracking during service at high temperature. This type of cracking, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to ageing: a fine and abundant intragranular Ti(C,N) precipitation appears near the fusion line and modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. This study aims to better know the accused mechanism and to succeed in estimating the risk of such cracking in welded junctions of 321 stainless steel. To analyse this embrittlement mechanism, and to assess the lifetime of real components, different HAZ are simulated by heat treatments applied to the base material which is submitted to various cold rolling and ageing conditions in order to reproduce the HAZ microstructure. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and ageing on the titanium carbide precipitation, on the mechanical (tensile and creep) behaviour of the resulting material and on its stress relief cracking sensitivity. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the mechanism and that ageing do not favour crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. The role of this precipitation is also discussed. Moreover, a creep damage model is identified by a local approach to fracture. Materials sensitive to stress relief cracking are selected. Then, creep tests are carried out on notched bars in order to quantify the intergranular damage of these different materials; afterwards, these measurements are combined with calculated mechanical fields. Finally, it is shown that the model gives good results to assess crack initiation for a compact tension (CT) specimen during relaxation tests, as well as for a notched tubular specimen tested at 600 deg. C under a steady torque. (author)

  14. Non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses produced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermally-induced stress distributions in a hollow steel sphere heated by a moving uniform ... models to evaluate temperatures according to the frictional heat generation, ... of these thermal effects include thermal stress, strain and deformation.

  15. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acupuncture - pain relief; Hypnosis - pain relief; Guided imagery - pain relief ... neck, shoulder, knee, or elbow) Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Hypnosis is a focused state of concentration. With self- ...

  16. Brittleness, microcracking and crack propagation in stress-relief annealing of welded low-alloyed NiMoCr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.Y.

    1976-01-01

    It in possible to produce the essentially corresponding microstructural states as well as micro or macro crack formation by simulation welding of the coarse grain zone of welded seams and to analyze the conditions for brittleness and crack formation. The metallurgical procedures in the heat affected zone of a welded joint are described. It could be seen from metallographic polished specimens that the crack formation can persue the triple point theory as well as the carity theory. The heating and relaxing process was analyzed on a model and the latter described by the pure relaxation test, relaxation test according to Murray and time-fracture test. The time-fracture test was mainly applied to investigate a possible decrease in toughness and crack formation because it normally does not work in relaxation tests - contrary to the component - to produce crack formation. In order to determine how long it takes for the first micro cracks to occur at a defined stress in short time-fracture testing, metallographic specimens were prepared as well as notched bar impact beneting tests performed. There is a distinct dependence between lasting expansion in the short time-fracture test, notched bar impact strength and the number of cracks; the notched bar impact strength decreases with increasing microcracking (increasing permanent expansion). One must note here that the microstructure can still carry full load although its toughness value has decreased. The maximum brittleness state of the materials depends on time and temperature. (orig.) [de

  17. The fracture mechanical significance of cracks formed during stress-relief annealing of a submerged arc weldment in pressure vessel steel of type A508 class 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljestrand, L.-G.; Oestberg, G.

    1978-01-01

    In large weldments of type A508 C12 cracks can form in the heat-affected zone during stress-relief annealing. The significance of such cracks with respect to catastrophic fracture is of interest from the point of view of safety, in particular for nuclear pressure vessels. In this investigation the size of reheat cracks, as formed and after fatigue growth, has been compared with the critical size for fast fracture. The latter was assessed by determination of the toughness of the heat-affected zones. The fracture toughness of the heat-affected zones did not differ much from that of the parent material. The presence of microcracks reduced the fracture toughness (of a special type of simulated specimen) at 20 0 C by about 20%. The fracture mechanical evaluation indicates that the cracks formed during stress-relief annealing should not impair the safety of the vessel under normal conditions, except for particular geometries and when the cracks may rapidly link together during fatigue. (author)

  18. Critical shear stress produced by interaction of edge dislocation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    According to the Mott and Nabarro's model, the contribution to the critical shear stress of the material caused by the interaction between edge dislocations and nanoscale cylindrical inhomogeneities with interface stresses is obtained. The influence of the radius and the volume fraction of the inhomogeneity as well as the ...

  19. STRESS RELAXATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED GLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chocholoušek J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a quantitative method of stress relaxation measurement in prismatic glass samples during two different time-temperature regimes using the Sénarmont compensator. Four types of glass (Barium crystal glass, Eutal, Simax, and Container glass were subjected to observation in an assembled measuring device. Results will be used for parameterization of the Tool-Narayanaswamy-Mazurin model and consequently implemented in a finite element method code.

  20. Allelopathic Stress Produced by Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with in vitro effects of allelochemicals present in leaf and fruit leachate of Momordica charantia in vitro on plant growth and metabolism of Lycopersicon esculentum. Momordica was selected as a donor plant and tomato as recipient. Seeds of tomato were shown in pots and after germination different concentrations viz. 25, 50, 75 and 100% of leaf and fruit leachates were applied as treatment. Twenty days old seedlings were harvested for biophysical and biochemical analyses. The root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of the seedlings decreased in dose dependent manner. The reduction in pigment and protein contents and nitrate reductase activity was concentration dependent. Membrane leakage increased as the concentration of leachates increased. Activities of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POX activities significantly enhanced under allelopathic stress. Inhibition of various metabolic activities under allelopathic stress resulted in decreased plant growth and development. The fruit leachate of Momordica was more inhibitory than leaf leachate.

  1. Reliefs the Exposure Stress of Soils Arsenic on Brassica campestris L. Growth and Its Possible Mechanisms by Inoculation of Trichoderma asperellum SM-12F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hong-xiang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The over-accumulation of arsenic(Asin agricultural soils affects crop growth. Subsequently, the accumulated As can pose risk to human health via food-chain. It is urgent to develop technologies to relief the As exposure stress on crop growth and lower the As uptake by crop. In this study, Trichoderma asperellum SM -12F1, capable of As resistance and speciation transformation was used as experimental material. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of inoculation on the growth of Brassica campestris L. in As-contaminated soils. The possible mechanisms of inoculation relieving As exposure stress and lowering As uptake were revealed. The results indicated that the growth of Brassica campestris L. was significantly inhibited in soils spiked with As of 120 mg· kg-1. Inoculation could significantly improve the growth of Brassica campestris L. and significantly decreased the As uptake and bioconcentration factor(BCFof Brassica campestris L. Compared with As-contaminated soils without inoculation, the As contents in the over-and under-ground part of Brassica campestris L. declined by 12.4% and 20.2%, respectively, and the BCF declined by 7.8%. Soil available As contents decreased by 15.7% after inoculation. Methylarsonic acid(MMAand dimethylarsinic acid(DMAwere detected in water extraction of soil and the shoot of Brassica campestris L. tissues, which indicated that inoculation could trigger soil As methylation and decrease soil As availability and toxicity. Furthermore, inoculation could effectively relief the As exposure stress on Brassica campestris L. growth by the response of antioxidant enzymes. The enzymes in Brassica campestris L. such as superoxide dismutase(SODand catalase(CAT, and the contents of glutathione(GSH, ascorbic acid(AsAand malondialdehyde(MDA, capable of reactive oxygen elimination, significantly enhanced during soil As exposure. However, inoculation lessened the activities or contents of SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA

  2. Non-pharmacological interventions during childbirth for pain relief, anxiety, and neuroendocrine stress parameters: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique, Angelita José; Gabrielloni, Maria Cristina; Rodney, Patricia; Barbieri, Márcia

    2018-03-07

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of warm shower hydrotherapy and perineal exercises with a ball on pain, anxiety, and neuroendocrine stress parameters during childbirth. This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 128 women during childbirth, admitted for hospital birth in São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2013 to February 2014. The participants were randomly assigned into one of the following intervention groups: received warm shower hydrotherapy (GA); performed perineal exercises with a ball (GB); and combined intervention group, which received warm shower hydrotherapy and perineal exercises with a ball (GC) (n = 39). Pre-and post-intervention parameters were evaluated using visual analogue scales for pain and anxiety, and salivary samples were collected for the stress hormones analysis. Pain, anxiety, and epinephrine release decreased in the group performing perineal exercises with a ball (GB). β-endorphin levels increased in this group (GB) after the intervention and showed significant difference in capacity to cause this effect (P = .007). However, no significant differences were observed in cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels. Warm showers and perineal exercises could be considered as adjunct therapy for women suffering from pain, anxiety, and stress during childbirth. Clinical Trial Registry RBR-84xprt. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. The Epidemiology of Operation Stress during Continuing Promise 2011: A Humanitarian Response and Disaster Relief Mission aboard a US Navy Hospital Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scouten, William T; Mehalick, Melissa L; Yoder, Elizabeth; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-08-01

    /MH complaints increased as the mission progressed, were more prevalent in certain groups, and appeared to be related to ship's movement. These findings document the pattern of operational stress in a ship-based medical humanitarian mission and confirm unique ship-based stressors. This information may be used by planners of similar missions to develop mitigation strategies for known stressors and by preventive medicine, behavioral health specialists, and mission leaders to develop sensitive surveillance tools to better detect and manage operational stress while on mission. Scouten WT , Mehalick ML , Yoder E , McCoy A , Brannock T , Riddle MS . The epidemiology of operation stress during Continuing Promise 2011: a humanitarian response and disaster relief mission aboard a US Navy hospital ship. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):393-402.

  4. Adaptive force produced by stress-induced regulation of random variation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, Yury P

    2010-08-01

    The Darwinian theory of life evolution is capable of explaining the majority of related phenomena. At the same time, the mechanisms of optimizing traits beneficial to a population as a whole but not directly to an individual remain largely unclear. There are also significant problems with explaining the phenomenon of punctuated equilibrium. From another perspective, multiple mechanisms for the regulation of the rate of genetic mutations according to the environmental stress have been discovered, but their precise functional role is not well understood yet. Here a novel mathematical paradigm called a Kinetic-Force Principle (KFP), which can serve as a general basis for biologically plausible optimization methods, is introduced and its rigorous derivation is provided. Based on this principle, it is shown that, if the rate of random changes in a biological system is proportional, even only roughly, to the amount of environmental stress, a virtual force is created, acting in the direction of stress relief. It is demonstrated that KFP can provide important insights into solving the above problems. Evidence is presented in support of a hypothesis that the nature employs KFP for accelerating adaptation in biological systems. A detailed comparison between KFP and the principle of variation and natural selection is presented and their complementarity is revealed. It is concluded that KFP is not a competing alternative, but a powerful addition to the principle of variation and natural selection. It is also shown KFP can be used in multiple ways for adaptation of individual biological organisms.

  5. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal handling (NH) of male rat pups strongly attenuates stress response and stress-induced persistent muscle hyperalgesia in adults. Because female sex is a well established risk factor for stress-induced chronic muscle pain, we explored whether NH provides resilience to stress-induced hyperalgesia in adult female rats. Rat pups underwent NH, or standard (control) care. Muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold was assessed before and after water avoidance (WA) stress, when they were adults. In contrast to male rats, NH produced only a modest protection against WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia in female rats. Gonadectomy completely abolished NH-induced resilience in male rats but produced only a small increase in this protective effect in female rats. The administration of the antiestrogen drug fulvestrant, in addition to gonadectomy, did not enhance the protective effect of NH in female rats. Finally, knockdown of the androgen receptor by intrathecal antisense treatment attenuated the protective effect of NH in intact male rats. Together, these data indicate that androgens play a key role in NH-induced resilience to WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia. NH induces androgen-dependent resilience to stress-induced muscle pain. Therefore, androgens may contribute to sex differences observed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its enhancement by stress. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relief evolution of the Continental Rift of Southeast Brazil revealed by in situ-produced 10Be concentrations in river-borne sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, André Augusto Rodrigues; Rezende, Eric de Andrade; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; da Silva, Juliana Rodrigues; Garcia, Ricardo Alexandrino

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to quantify the denudation dynamics of the Brazilian passive margin along a segment of the Continental Rift of Southeast Brazil. The denudation rates of 30 basins that drain both horsts of the continental rift, including the mountain ranges of the Serra do Mar (seaside horst); and the Serra da Mantiqueira (continental horst); were derived from 10Be concentrations measured in sand-sized river sediment. The mean denudation rate ranges from 9.2 m Ma-1 on the plateau of the Serra do Mar to 37.1 m Ma-1 along the oceanic escarpment of the Serra do Mar. The seaward-facing scarps of both mountain ranges exhibit mean denudation rates that are approximately 1.5 times those of the inland-facing scarps. The escarpments of the horst nearer to the ocean (Serra do Mar) exhibit higher denudation rates (mean 30.2 m Ma-1) than the escarpments of the continental horst (Serra da Mantiqueira) (mean 16.5 m Ma-1). The parameters that impact these denudation rates include the catchment relief, the slope gradient, the rock and the climate. The incongruent combination of a mountainous landscape and moderate to low 10Be-based denudation rates averaging at ∼20 m Ma-1 suggests a reduction in intraplate tectonic activity beginning in the Middle Quaternary or earlier.

  7. Residual stress in TI6AL4V objects produced by direct metal laser sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zyl, Ian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct Metal Laser Sintering produces 3D objects using a layer-by- layer method in which powder is deposited in thin layers. Laser beam scans over the powder fusing powder particles as well as the previous layer. High-concentration of laser energy input leads to high thermal gradients which induce residual stress within the as- built parts. Ti6Al4V (ELI samples have been manufactured by EOSINT M280 system at prescribed by EOS process-parameters. Residual stresses were measured by XRD method. Microstructure, values and directions of principal stresses inTi6Al4V DMLS samples were analysed.

  8. A sequential approach to control gas for the extraction of multi-gassy coal seams from traditional gas well drainage to mining-induced stress relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Shengli; Cheng, Yuanping; Ren, Ting; Liu, Hongyong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The gas reservoirs characteristics are measured and analyzed. • A sequential approach to control gas of multi-gassy coal seams is proposed. • The design of gas drainage wells has been improved. • The utilization ways of different concentrations of gas production are shown. - Abstract: As coal resources become exhausted in shallow mines, mining operations will inevitably progress from shallow depth to deep and gassy seams due to increased demands for more coal products. However, during the extraction process of deeper and gassier coal seams, new challenges to current gas control methods have emerged, these include the conflict between the coal mine safety and the economic benefits, the difficulties in reservoirs improvement, as well as the imbalance between pre-gas drainage, roadway development and coal mining. To solve these problems, a sequential approach is introduced in this paper. Three fundamental principles are proposed: the mining-induced stress relief effect of the first-mined coalbed should be sufficient to improve the permeability of the others; the coal resource of the first-mined seams must be abundant to guarantee the economic benefits; the arrangement of the vertical wells must fit the underground mining panel. Tunlan coal mine is taken as a typical example to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. The approach of integrating surface coalbed methane (CBM) exploitation with underground gas control technologies brings three major benefits: the improvement of underground coal mining safety, the implementation of CBM extraction, and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This practice could be used as a valuable example for other coal mines having similar geological conditions

  9. Sugar consumption produces effects similar to early life stress exposure on hippocampal markers of neurogenesis and stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi eManiam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse early life experience is a known risk factor for psychiatric disorders. It is also known that stress influences food preference. We were interested in exploring whether the choice of diet following early life stress exerts long-lasting molecular changes in the brain, particularly the hippocampus, a region critically involved in stress regulation and behavioural outcomes. Here, we examined the impact of early life stress induced by limited nesting material (LN and chronic sucrose availability post-weaning on an array of hippocampal genes related to plasticity, neurogenesis, stress and inflammatory responses and mitochondrial biogenesis. To examine mechanisms underlying the impact of LN and sugar intake on hippocampal gene expression, we investigated the role of DNA methylation. As females are more likely to experience adverse life events, we studied female Sprague-Dawley rats. After mating LN was imposed from days 2-9 postpartum. From 3-15 weeks of age, female Control and LN siblings had unlimited to access to either chow and water, or chow, water and 25% sucrose solution. LN markedly reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR and neurogenic differentiation 1 (Neurod1 mRNA, markers involved in stress and hippocampal plasticity respectively, by more than 40%, with a similar effect of sugar intake in control rats. However, no further impact was observed in LN rats consuming sugar. Hippocampal Akt3 mRNA expression was similarly affected by LN and sucrose consumption. Interestingly, DNA methylation across 4 CpG sites of the GR and Neurod1 promoters was similar in LN and control rats. In summary, early life stress and post-weaning sugar intake produced long-term effects on hippocampal GR and Neurod1 expression. Moreover we found no evidence of altered promoter DNA methylation. We demonstrate for the first time that chronic sucrose consumption alone produces similar detrimental effects on the expression of hippocampal genes as LN exposure.

  10. Stress Relief for the Caregiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to handle everything by yourself can lead to burnout, depression and health problems. Talk to others about ... which combine housing and personalized support services. › Skilled nursing (mid- to high-level) facilities, some of which ...

  11. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899-6102 (United States); Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn [Intelligent Systems Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899-8220 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  12. The immobility produced by intermittent swim stress is not mediated by serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, John P; Rabbett, Sarah; Lyckland, Jennifer; Drugan, Robert C

    2008-05-01

    Exposure to uncontrollable stressors such as intermittent swim stress (ISS) produces a behavioral syndrome that resembles behavioral depression including immobility in a Forced Swim Test (FST) and escape learning deficits. The results of previous studies suggest that stress causes a temporary sensitization of the brain serotonin (5-HT) system that is necessary and sufficient for producing behavioral depression. If this hypothesis is true in the ISS paradigm, then enhancing or inhibiting 5-HT transmission during stress should exacerbate or block the development of behavioral depression, respectively. The selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) was administered prior to ISS or confinement; 24 h later the FST was used to detect behavioral immobility. ISS, but not FLX, significantly increased immobility in the FST. The purported 5-HT uptake enhancer tianeptine (TPT) was administered in place of FLX. Again ISS increased immobility in the FST, but TPT had no effect. These results suggested that 5-HT is not a critical mediator of ISS induced behavioral depression. However, some authors have raised concern that TPT does not act directly on 5-HT. Therefore, the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor, para-chlorophenylaline (PCPA) was administered to deplete central 5-HT before stress. PCPA did not alter immobility in the FST. Finally, a sub-chronic regimen of FLX given after ISS, but before the FST, was without effect on reversing the ISS-induced immobility. Taken together, these experiments indicate that ISS produces a significant behavioral depression manifested as increased immobility but offer no support of the hypothesis that 5-HT is a critical mediator of these effects.

  13. Stress relief cracking by relaxation in austenitic stainless steels welded junctions; Fissuration differee par relaxation des jonctions soudes en aciers inoxydables austenitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, L.; Auzoux, Q.; Chabaud-Reytier, M

    2003-07-01

    During service at high temperature (450 to 650 C), austenitic stainless steels are well known to present a risk of cracking near the welded junctions for times under the service life. This intergranular cracking in affected zones has been identified on titanium stabilized steels and is known as relief cracking by relaxation or reheat cracking. In order to control this cracking of welded junctions on titanium stabilized stainless steel AISI 321, a simulation of the affected zone has been realized. The results have been extended to non stabilized steels. (A.L.B.)

  14. Polyamine modification by acrolein exclusively produces 1,5-diazacyclooctanes: a previously unrecognized mechanism for acrolein-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Ayumi; Imamaki, Rie; Kitazume, Shinobu; Hanashima, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Kaneda, Masato; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka; Kurbangalieva, Almira; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2014-07-28

    Acrolein, a toxic unsaturated aldehyde generated as a result of oxidative stress, readily reacts with a variety of nucleophilic biomolecules. Polyamines, which produced acrolein in the presence of amine oxidase, were then found to react with acrolein to produce 1,5-diazacyclooctane, a previously unrecognized but significant downstream product of oxidative stress. Although diazacyclooctane formation effectively neutralized acrolein toxicity, the diazacyclooctane hydrogel produced through a sequential diazacyclooctane polymerization reaction was highly cytotoxic. This study suggests that diazacyclooctane formation is involved in the mechanism underlying acrolein-mediated oxidative stress.

  15. An acoustical study of English word stress produced by Americans and Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byunggon

    2002-05-01

    Acoustical correlates of stress can be divided into duration, intensity, and fundamental frequency. This study examined the acoustical difference in the first two syllables of stressed English words produced by ten American and Korean speakers. The Korean subjects scored very high in TOEFL. They read, at a normal speed, a fable from which the acoustical parameters of eight words were analyzed. In order to make the data comparison meaningful, each parameter was collected at 100 dynamic time points proportional to the total duration of the two syllables. Then, the ratio of the parameter sum of the first rime to that of the second rime was calculated to determine the relative prominence of the syllables. Results showed that the durations of the first two syllables were almost comparable between the Americans and Koreans. However, statistically significant differences showed up in the diphthong pronunciations and in the words with the second syllable stressed. Also, remarkably high r-squared values were found between pairs of the three acoustical parameters, which suggests that either one or a combination of two or more parameters may account for the prominence of a syllable within a word. [Work supported by Korea Science Foundation R01-1999-00229.

  16. High level compressive residual stresses produced in aluminum alloys by laser shock processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Rosas, G.; Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Ocana, J.L; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J.A.; Chi-Moreno, W.; Morales, M.

    2005-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) has been proposed as a competitive alternative technology to classical treatments for improving fatigue and wear resistance of metals. We present a configuration and results for metal surface treatments in underwater laser irradiation at 1064 nm. A convergent lens is used to deliver 1.2 J/cm 2 in a 8 ns laser FWHM pulse produced by 10 Hz Q-switched Nd:YAG, two laser spot diameters were used: 0.8 and 1.5 mm. Results using pulse densities of 2500 pulses/cm 2 in 6061-T6 aluminum samples and 5000 pulses/cm 2 in 2024 aluminum samples are presented. High level of compressive residual stresses are produced -1600 MPa for 6061-T6 Al alloy, and -1400 MPa for 2024 Al alloy. It has been shown that surface residual stress level is higher than that achieved by conventional shot peening and with greater depths. This method can be applied to surface treatment of final metal products

  17. Redox regulation of stress signals: possible roles of dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodoi, Junji; Nakamura, Hajime; Masutani, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12 kDa protein with redox-active dithiol (Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys) in the active site. TRX is induced by a variety of stresses including viral infection and inflammation. The promoter sequences of the TRX gene contain a series of stress-responsive elements including ORE, ARE, XRE, CRE and SP-1. TRX promotes DNA binding of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. TRX interacts with target proteins modulating the activity of those proteins. We have identified TRX binding protein-2 (TBP-2), which was identical to vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1). Potential action of TBP-2/VDUP1 as a redox-sensitive tumor suppressor will be discussed. There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of TRX in the protection against infectious and inflammatory disorders. We will discuss the role of TRX-dependent redox regulation of the host defense mechanism, in particular its relation to the emerging concept of constitutive and/or inducible TRX on special cell types with dendritic and stellate morphology in the immune, endocrine and nervous systems, which we provisionally designate as dendritic stellate TRX producer cells (DST cell types).

  18. Cholesterol-producing transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans lives longer due to newly acquired enhanced stress resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Shim, Yhong-Hee; Chitwood, David J.; Hwang, Soon Baek; Lee, Junho; Paik, Young-Ki

    2005-01-01

    Because Caenorhabditis elegans lacks several components of the de novo sterol biosynthetic pathway, it requires sterol as an essential nutrient. Supplemented cholesterol undergoes extensive enzymatic modification in C. elegans to form other sterols of unknown function. 7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR) catalyzes the reduction of the Δ 7 double bond of sterols and is suspected to be defective in C. elegans, in which the major endogenous sterol is 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC). We microinjected a human DHCR expression vector into C. elegans, which was then incorporated into chromosome by γ-radiation. This transgenic C. elegans was named cholegans, i.e., cholesterol-producing C. elegans, because it was able to convert 7DHC into cholesterol. We investigated the effects of changes in sterol composition on longevity and stress resistance by examining brood size, mean life span, UV resistance, and thermotolerance. Cholegans contained 80% more cholesterol than the wild-type control. The brood size of cholegans was reduced by 40% compared to the wild-type control, although the growth rate was not significantly changed. The mean life span of cholegans was increased up to 131% in sterol-deficient medium as compared to wild-type. The biochemical basis for life span extension of cholegans appears to partly result from its acquired resistance against both UV irradiation and thermal stress

  19. Previous Ketamine Produces an Enduring Blockade of Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Uncontrollable Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzani, Samuel D.; Tilden, Scott; Christianson, John P.; Kubala, Kenneth H.; Bartholomay, Kristi; Sperr, Katherine; Ciancio, Nicholas; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent interest in the antidepressant and anti-stress effects of subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, has identified mechanisms whereby ketamine reverses the effect of stress, but little is known regarding the prophylactic effect ketamine might have on future stressors. Here we investigate the prophylactic effect of ketamine against neurochemical and behavioral changes that follow inescapable, uncontrollable tail shocks (ISs) in Sprague Dawley rats. IS induces increased anxiety, which is dependent on activation of serotonergic (5-HT) dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Ketamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 2 h, 1 week, or 2 weeks before IS prevented the increased extracellular levels of 5-HT in the BLA typically produced by IS. In addition, ketamine administered at these time points blocked the decreased juvenile social investigation produced by IS. Microinjection of ketamine into the prelimbic (PL) region of the medial prefrontal cortex duplicated the effects of systemic ketamine, and, conversely, systemic ketamine effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of the PL. Although IS does not activate DRN-projecting neurons from the PL, IS did so after ketamine, suggesting that the prophylactic effect of ketamine is a result of altered functioning of this projection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The reported data show that systemic ketamine, given up to 2 weeks before a stressor, blunts behavioral and neurochemical effects of the stressor. The study also advances understanding of the mechanisms involved and suggests that ketamine acts at the prelimbic cortex to sensitize neurons that project to and inhibit the DRN. PMID:26740657

  20. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paper relief architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latka, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which

  2. Relief valve testing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROMM, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Reclosing pressure-actuated valves, commonly called relief valves, are designed to relieve system pressure once it reaches the set point of the valve. They generally operate either proportional to the differential between their set pressure and the system pressure (gradual lift) or by rapidly opening fully when the set pressure is reached (pop action). A pop action valve allows the maximum fluid flow through the valve when the set pressure is reached. A gradual lift valve allows fluid flow in proportion to how much the system pressure has exceeded the set pressure of the valve (in the case of pressure relief) or has decreased below the set pressure (vacuum relief). These valves are used to protect systems from over and under pressurization. They are used on boilers, pressure vessels, piping systems and vacuum systems to prevent catastrophic failures of these systems, which can happen if they are under or over pressurized beyond the material tolerances. The construction of these valves ranges from extreme precision of less than a psi tolerance and a very short lifetime to extremely robust construction such as those used on historic railroad steam engines that are designed operate many times a day without changing their set pressure when the engines are operating. Relief valves can be designed to be immune to the effects of back pressure or to be vulnerable to it. Which type of valve to use depends upon the design requirements of the system

  3. Brain functional integration: an epidemiologic study on stress-producing dissociative phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco; Maldonato, Nelson Mauro; Moretto, Enrico; Leone, Elena; De Luca, Vincenzo; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative phenomena are common among psychiatric patients; the presence of these symptoms can worsen the prognosis, increasing the severity of their clinical conditions and exposing them to increased risk of suicidal behavior. Personality disorders as long duration stressful experiences may support the development of dissociative phenomena. In 933 psychiatric outpatients consecutively recruited, presence of dissociative phenomena was identified with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES). Dissociative phenomena were significantly more severe in the group of people with mental disorders and/or personality disorders. All psychopathologic traits detected with the symptom checklist-90-revised had a significant correlation with the total score on the DES. Using total DES score as the dependent variable, a linear regression model was constructed. Mental and personality disorders which were associated with greater severity of dissociative phenomena on analysis of variance were included as predictors; scores from the nine scales of symptom checklist-90-revised, significantly correlated to total DES score, were used as covariates. The model consisted of seven explanatory variables (four factors and three covariates) explaining 82% of variance. The four significant factors were the presence of borderline and narcissistic personality disorder, substance abuse disorders and psychotic disorders. Significant covariates were psychopathologic traits of anger, psychoticism and obsessiveness. This study, confirming Janet’s theory, explains that, mental disorders and psychopathologic experiences of patients can configure the chronic stress condition that produces functional damage to the adaptive executive system. The symptoms of dissociative depersonalization/derealization and dissociative amnesia can be explained, in large part, through their current and previous psychopathologic experiences. PMID:29296086

  4. Intracellular proteins produced by mammalian cells in response to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.; Passini, Cheryl A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the response of mammalian cells to environmental stress is examined by reviewing results of studies where cultured mouse L cells and baby hamster kidney cells were exposed to heat shock and the synthesis of heat-shock proteins and stress-response proteins (including HSP70, HSC70, HSP90, ubiquitin, and GRP70) in stressed and unstressed cells was evaluated using 2D-PAGE. The intracellular roles of the individual stress response proteins are discussed together with the regulation of the stress response system.

  5. Acute exposure to offshore produced water has an effect on stress- and secondary stress responses in three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knag, Anne Christine; Taugbøl, Annette

    2013-09-01

    Pollution is one of today's greatest problems, and the release of contaminants into the environment can cause adverse changes in vitally important biological pathways. In this study, we exposed three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus to produced water (PW), i.e. wastewater from offshore petroleum production. PW contains substances such as alkylphenols (APs) and aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) known to induce toxicant stress and endocrine disruption in a variety of organisms. Following exposure to PW, a standardized confinement treatment was applied as a second stressor (PW-stress), testing how fish already under stress from the pollutant would respond to an additional stressor. The endpoint for analysis was a combination of blood levels of cortisol and glucose, in addition to transcribed levels of a set of genes related to toxicant stress, endocrine disruption and general stress. The findings of this study indicate that low doses of PW do not induce vitellogenin in immature female stickleback, but do cause an upregulation of cytochrome (CYP1A) and UDP-glucuronsyltransferase (UDP-GT), two biomarkers related to toxicant stress. However, when the second stressor was applied, both genes were downregulated, indicating that the confinement exposure had a suppressive effect on the expression of toxicant biomarkers (CYP1A and UDP-GT). Further, two of the stress related genes, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and stress-induced phosphoprotein (STIP), were upregulated in both PW- and PW-stress-treatment, but not in the water control confinement treatment, indicating that PW posed as a larger stress-factor than confinement for these genes. The confinement stressor caused an increased level of glucose in both control and PW-treated fish, indicating hyperglycemia, a commonly reported stress response in fish. © 2013.

  6. Brain functional integration: an epidemiologic study on stress-producing dissociative phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandeo R

    2017-12-01

    , significantly correlated to total DES score, were used as covariates. The model consisted of seven explanatory variables (four factors and three covariates explaining 82% of variance. The four significant factors were the presence of borderline and narcissistic personality disorder, substance abuse disorders and psychotic disorders. Significant covariates were psychopathologic traits of anger, psychoticism and obsessiveness. This study, confirming Janet’s theory, explains that, mental disorders and psychopathologic experiences of patients can configure the chronic stress condition that produces functional damage to the adaptive executive system. The symptoms of dissociative depersonalization/derealization and dissociative amnesia can be explained, in large part, through their current and previous psychopathologic experiences. Keywords: mental disorders, personality disorders, amnesia, depersonalization/derealization 

  7. Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Stress & Relaxation: Rejuvenate Body & Mind; Relieve Stress; best ways to relieve stress; best way to relieve stress; different ways to relieve stress; does smoking relieve stress; does tobacco relieve stress; how can I relieve stress; how can you relieve stress; how do I relieve stress; reduce stress; does smoking reduce stress; how can I reduce stress; how to reduce stress; reduce stress; reduce stress levels; reducing stress; smoking reduce stress; smoking reduces stress; stress reducing techniques; techniques to reduce stress; stress relief; best stress relief; natural stress relief; need stress relief; relief for stress; relief from stress; relief of stress; smoking and stress relief; smoking for stress relief; smoking stress relief; deal with stress; dealing with stress; dealing with anger; dealing with stress; different ways of dealing with stress; help dealing with stress; how to deal with anger; how to deal with stress; how to deal with stress when quitting smoking; stress management; free stress management; how can you manage stress; how do you manage stress; how to manage stress; manage stress; management of stress; management stress; managing stress; strategies for managing stress; coping with stress; cope with stress; copeing with stress; coping and stress; coping skills for stress; coping strategies for stress; coping strategies with stress; coping strategy for stress; coping with stress; coping with stress and anxiety; emotional health; emotional health; emotional health article; emotional health articles; deep relaxation; deep breathing relaxation techniques; deep muscle relaxation; deep relaxation; deep relaxation meditation; deep relaxation technique; deep relaxation techniques; meditation exercises; mindful exercises; mindful meditation exercises; online relaxation exercises; relaxation breathing exercises; relaxation exercise; relaxation exercises; stress relaxation; methods of relaxation for stress; relax stress; relax techniques stress

  8. Novel whole-cell Reporter Assay for Stress-Based Classification of Antibacterial Compounds Produced by Locally Isolated Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Halami, Prakash M.

    2012-01-01

    Reporter bacteria are beneficial for the rapid and sensitive screening of cultures producing peptide antibiotics, which can be an addition or alternative to the established antibiotics. This study was carried out to validate the usability of specific reporter strains for the target mediated identification of antibiotics produced by native Bacillus spp. isolated from different food sources. During preliminary classification, cell wall stress causing Bacillus isolates were screened by using rep...

  9. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  10. Mild Social Stress in Mice Produces Opioid-Mediated Analgesia in Visceral but Not Somatic Pain States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Mark H; Gonzalez-Cano, Rafael; Vincent, Kathleen; Lehmann, Michael; Cobos, Enrique J; Coderre, Terence J; Baeyens, José M; Cervero, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Visceral pain has a greater emotional component than somatic pain. To determine if the stress-induced analgesic response is differentially expressed in visceral versus somatic pain states, we studied the effects of a mild social stressor in either acute visceral or somatic pain states in mice. We show that the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific mouse (stranger) in an adjacent cubicle of a standard transparent observation box produced elevated plasma corticosterone levels compared with mice tested alone, suggesting that the mere presence of a stranger is stressful. We then observed noxious visceral or somatic stimulation-induced nociceptive behavior in mice tested alone or in mildly stressful conditions (ie, beside an unfamiliar stranger). Compared with mice tested alone, the presence of a stranger produced a dramatic opioid-dependent reduction in pain behavior associated with visceral but not somatic pain. This social stress-induced reduction of visceral pain behavior relied on visual but not auditory/olfactory cues. These findings suggest that visceral pain states may provoke heightened responsiveness to mild stressors, an effect that could interfere with testing outcomes during simultaneous behavioral testing of multiple rodents. In mice, mild social stress due to the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific mouse reduces pain behavior associated with noxious visceral but not somatic stimulation, suggesting that stress responsiveness may be enhanced in visceral pain versus somatic pain states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Molecular mechanisms and new strategies to fight stresses in egg-producing birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shatskikh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Commercial egg production is associated with various stresses decreasing productive and reproductive performance of layers. A growing body of evidence indicates that most of stresses in poultry production at the cellular level are associated with oxidative stress due to excess of free radical production or inadequate antioxidant protection. Recently, a concept of the cellular antioxidant defence has been revised with a special attention paid to cell signalling. Indeed, in animals, redox signalling pathways use reactive oxygen species (ROS to transfer signals from different sources to the nucleus to regulate a number of various functions including growth, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The vitagene concept of fighting stresses emerged as a new direction in a nutritional research. Indeed, by improving the adaptive ability of animals to stress it is possible tosubstantially decrease negative consequences of various stresses in poultry and farm animal production. The analysis of recently published data clearly showed that the anti-stress composition developed on the vitagene concept and supplied with drinking water is an effective means in fighting stresses in poultry production.

  12. Simulation of Stress Distribution in a Thick- Walled Bushing Produced by Die-Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarek B.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallographic investigations and a computer simulation of stresses in a gravity die-casting bushing were performed. Simulation of the casting process, solidification of the thick-walled bushing and calculations of the stress was performed using MAGMA5.3 software. The size variability of phases κII affecting the formation of phase stresses σf, depending on the location of the metallographic test area, was identified. The distribution of thermal σt and shrinkage stresses σs, depending on the location of the control point SC in the bushing's volume, was estimated. Probably the nature of these stresses will change slightly even after machining. This can cause variations in operating characteristics (friction coefficient, wear. Due to the strong inhomogeneity of the stress distribution in the bushing's casting, it is necessary to perform further tests of the possibility to conduct thermal treatment guaranteeing homogenization of the internal stresses in the casting, as well as to introduce changes in the bushing' s construction and the casting technology. The paper presents the continuation of the results of research aimed at identifying the causes of defects in the thick-walled bushing, die-casting made of CuAl10Fe5Ni5Cr aluminium bronze.

  13. Experimental evaluation of residual stresses produced by plain dents in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascotto, Jorge [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Altino; Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A dent means a permanent plastic deformation of the circular cross-section of the pipe. Dents are potentially danger for structural integrity of onshore and offshore pipelines, because it causes a local stress and strain concentration. It is also expected that residual stresses are introduced by the non-uniform plastic deformation. A plain dent is a dent which causes a smooth change in the curvature of the pipe wall that contains no wall thickness reductions (such as a gouge or a crack) or other defects or imperfections (such as a weld). This work presents an experimental evaluation of residual stresses intensification due to plain dents introduced through the same indentation process, in samples made of the same steel line pipe, commonly used in the pipeline industry. The residual stresses were measured in the longitudinal and circumferential directions in preselected points by X-ray diffraction technique, before indentation. After the samples have been dented, the residual stresses were measured once more at the same points, for comparison. All samples presented a similar behavior of the residual stresses due to induced plain dents, and the X-ray diffraction technique shows itself as an efficient methodology of stress measurement in pipelines. (author)

  14. Numerical Simulation of Stress-Relief Effects of Protective Layer Extraction / Symulacja numeryczna skutków odprężenia warstwy zabezpieczającej w trakcie jej wybierania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian-Rang, Jia; Zi-Min, Zhang; Chun-An, Tang; Yong-Jun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Field test and laboratory analog model test on the stress-relief effects of protective layer extraction are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, on the basis of full consideration of rock heterogeinity and in combination with gas geology at Pingdingshan Mine 5, a numerical model was estalished with the gas-solid coupling rock failure process analysis system RFPA-Gas to simulate the stress variation law, roof and floor deformation, fracture evolution law, displacement in the protected seam, change in gas permeability and gas migration law during protective layer extraction. The simulation results repoduced stress variations in coal and rock strata, roof and floor deformation and fracture evolution process during protective layer extraction. The movement of rock strata were characterized by upper three zones and lower two zones: caving zone, fracture zone and bending subsidence zone in the vertical direction in the overlying strata; floor deformation and failure zone and elasto-plastic deformation zone in the vertical direction in the underlying strata. It showed that stress relief occurred in the protected seam, which led to vertical and horizontal displacements, significant increase in gas permeability, gas desorption and migration. Hence, the outburst threat in the protected seam was eliminated. Meanwhile, with comprehensive analysis of variaition of stress state, deformation characteristics and fracture distribution in coal seam and with consideration of changes in gas leakage rate, gas pressure and permeability, according to gas leakage rate, the floor strata of the protecive layer were divided into four leakage zones. They corresponded to four zones with different stress states and fracture development: original leakage zone - slow reducing leakage zone - dramatic increasing leakage zone- steady increasing leakage zone. This classification provides a clear direction for gas control in the protective layer. The simulation results are in good agreement

  15. Phenotypic characterisation of Saccharomyces spp. yeast for tolerance to stresses encountered during fermentation of lignocellulosic residues to produce bioethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During industrial fermentation of lignocellulose residues to produce bioethanol, microorganisms are exposed to a number of factors that influence productivity. These include inhibitory compounds produced by the pre-treatment processes required to release constituent carbohydrates from biomass feed-stocks and during fermentation, exposure of the organisms to stressful conditions. In addition, for lignocellulosic bioethanol production, conversion of both pentose and hexose sugars is a pre-requisite for fermentative organisms for efficient and complete conversion. All these factors are important to maximise industrial efficiency, productivity and profit margins in order to make second-generation bioethanol an economically viable alternative to fossil fuels for future transport needs. Results The aim of the current study was to assess Saccharomyces yeasts for their capacity to tolerate osmotic, temperature and ethanol stresses and inhibitors that might typically be released during steam explosion of wheat straw. Phenotypic microarray analysis was used to measure tolerance as a function of growth and metabolic activity. Saccharomyces strains analysed in this study displayed natural variation to each stress condition common in bioethanol fermentations. In addition, many strains displayed tolerance to more than one stress, such as inhibitor tolerance combined with fermentation stresses. Conclusions Our results suggest that this study could identify a potential candidate strain or strains for efficient second generation bioethanol production. Knowledge of the Saccharomyces spp. strains grown in these conditions will aid the development of breeding programmes in order to generate more efficient strains for industrial fermentations. PMID:24670111

  16. Effects of heat stress on bovine preimplantation embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Miki

    2017-08-19

    Summer heat stress decreases the pregnancy rate in cattle and has been thought to be associated with the early embryonic death caused by the elevation of maternal body temperature. In vitro cultures have been widely used for the evaluation of effects of heat stress on oocytes, fertilization, preimplantation, and embryonic development. Susceptibility to heat stress is present in developmental stages from oocytes to cleavage-stage (before embryonic gene activation, EGA) embryos, leading to a consequent decrease in developmental competence. On the other hand, advanced-stage embryos such as morula or blastocysts have acquired thermotolerance. The mechanism for the developmental stage-dependent change in thermotolerance is considered to be the accumulation of antioxidants in embryos in response to heat-inducible production of reactive oxygen species. The supplementation of antioxidants to the culture media has been known to neutralize the detrimental effects of heat stress. Besides, EGA could be involved in acquisition of thermotolerance in later stages of embryos. Morulae or blastocysts can repair heat-induced unfolded proteins or prevent DNA damage occurring in processes such as apoptosis. Therefore, embryo transfer (ET) that can bypass the heat-sensitive stage could be a good solution to improve the pregnancy rate under heat stress. However, frozen-thawed ET could not improve the pregnancy rate as expected. Frozen-thawed blastocysts were more sensitive to heat stress and showed less proliferation upon heat exposure, compared to fresh blastocysts. Therefore, further research is required to improve the reduction in pregnancy rates due to summer heat stress.

  17. Music for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M S; Carr, D B; Lau, J; Alvarez, H

    2006-04-19

    The efficacy of music for the treatment of pain has not been established. To evaluate the effect of music on acute, chronic or cancer pain intensity, pain relief, and analgesic requirements. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and the references in retrieved manuscripts. There was no language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of music on any type of pain in children or adults. We excluded trials that reported results of concurrent non-pharmacological therapies. Data was extracted by two independent review authors. We calculated the mean difference in pain intensity levels, percentage of patients with at least 50% pain relief, and opioid requirements. We converted opioid consumption to morphine equivalents. To explore heterogeneity, studies that evaluated adults, children, acute, chronic, malignant, labor, procedural, or experimental pain were evaluated separately, as well as those studies in which patients chose the type of music. Fifty-one studies involving 1867 subjects exposed to music and 1796 controls met inclusion criteria. In the 31 studies evaluating mean pain intensity there was a considerable variation in the effect of music, indicating statistical heterogeneity ( I(2) = 85.3%). After grouping the studies according to the pain model, this heterogeneity remained, with the exception of the studies that evaluated acute postoperative pain. In this last group, patients exposed to music had pain intensity that was 0.5 units lower on a zero to ten scale than unexposed subjects (95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2). Studies that permitted patients to select the music did not reveal a benefit from music; the decline in pain intensity was 0.2 units, 95% CI (-0.7 to 0.2). Four studies reported the proportion of subjects with at least 50% pain relief; subjects exposed to music had a 70% higher likelihood of having pain relief than unexposed subjects (95% CI: 1.21 to 2.37). NNT = 5 (95% CI: 4 to 13). Three

  18. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  19. Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-10-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments.

  20. Stream mesocosm response sensitivities to simulated ion stress in produced waters from resource extraction activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase the ecological relevance of laboratory exposures intent on determining species sensitivity to ion stress from resource extraction activities we have conducted several stream mesocosm dosing studies that pair single-species and community-level responses in-situ and all...

  1. Effect of heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Dobrá, Jana; Martincová, Olga; Prášil, I.T.; Gubiš, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 182, Sp.Issue (2012), s. 49-58 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Heat stress * Polyamines * Proline Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.922, year: 2012

  2. The response of high and low polyamine producing cell lines to aluminum and calcium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridev Mohapatra; Smita Cherry; Rakesh Minocha; Rajtilak Majumdar; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Stephanie Long; Subhash C. Minocha

    2010-01-01

    The diamine putrescine (Put) has been shown to accumulate in tree leaves in response to high Al and low Ca in the soil, leading to the suggestion that this response may provide a physiological advantage to leaf cells under conditions of Al stress. The increase in Put is reversed by Ca supplementation in the soil. Using two cell lines of poplar (Populus nigra...

  3. Single-source mechanical loading system produces biaxial stresses in cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, J. F.; Stafford, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Single-source mechanical loading system proportions axial-to-hoop tension loads applied to cylindrical specimens. The system consists of hydraulic, pneumatic, and lever arrangements which produce biaxial loading ratios.

  4. Exploring How Weathering Related Stresses and Subcritical Crack Growth May Influence the Size of Sediment Produced From Different Rock Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, M. C.; Hallet, B.; Hancock, G. S.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Keanini, R.

    2016-12-01

    The formation and diminution of rock debris, sediment and soil at and near Earth's surface is driven in large part by in situ, non-transport related, rock cracking. Given the relatively low magnitude stresses that arise in surface and near-surface settings, this production and diminution of granular material is likely strongly influenced and/or driven by subcritical crack growth (Eppes et al., 2016), cracking that occurs under stress loading conditions much lower than a rock's strength as typically measured in the laboratory under rapid loading. Despite a relatively sound understanding of subcritical crack growth through engineering and geophysical studies, its geomorphic and sedimentologic implications have only been minimally explored. Here, based on existing studies, we formulate several hypotheses to predict how weathering-induced stresses combined with the subcritical crack growth properties of rock may influence sediment size distribution. For example, subcritical crack growth velocity (v) can be described by v = CKIn where KI is the mode I (simple opening mode) stress intensity factor, a function of tensile stress at the crack tip and crack length; C is a rock- and environment-dependent constant; and n is material constant, the subcritical crack growth index. Fracture length and spacing in rock is strongly dependent on n, where higher n values result in fewer, more distally spaced cracks (e.g. Olsen, 1993). Thus, coarser sediment might be expected from rocks with higher n values. Weathering-related stresses such as thermal stresses and mineral hydration, however, can disproportionally stress boundaries between minerals with contrasting thermal or chemical properties and orientation, resulting in granular disintegration. Thus, rocks with properties favorable to inducing these stresses might produce sediment whose size is reflective of its constituent grains. We begin to test these hypotheses through a detailed examination of crack and rock characteristics in

  5. Differences of hormones involved in adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing Holstein cows during heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzi Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate hormonal involvement in the adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing dairy cows in a hot environment. Forty Holstein healthy cows with a similar parity were used and assigned into high producing group (average production 41.44 ± 2.25 kg/d and low producing group (average production 29.92 ± 1.02 kg/d with 20 cows in each group. Blood samples were collected from caudal vein to determine the difference of hormones related to adipose metabolism and lactation. The highest, lowest, and average temperature humidity index (THI, recorded as 84.02, 79.35 and 81.89, respectively, indicated that cows were at the state of high heat stress. No significant differences between high and low producing groups were observed in the levels of nonestesterified fatty acid (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB, total cholesterol (TCHO, and insulin (INS (P > 0.05. However, the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB-100, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and estrogen (E2 concentrations in high producing group were significantly higher than those of low producing group (P  0.05, whereas high producing group had a rise in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level compared with low producing group (P < 0.05. These results indicated that, during summer, high and low producing dairy cows have similar levels of lipid catabolism, but high producing dairy cows have advantages in outputting hepatic triglyceride (TG.

  6. Stress Management: Spirituality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Taking the path less traveled by exploring your spirituality can lead to a clearer life purpose, better personal relationships and enhanced stress management skills. By Mayo Clinic Staff Some stress relief ...

  7. An optimal method for producing low-stress fibre optic cables for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Graham; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ekpenyong, Paul; Jenkins, Daniel; Leeson, Kim; Trezise, Shaun; Butterley, Timothy; Gunn, James; Ferreira, Decio; Oliveira, Ligia; Sodre, Laerte

    2017-09-01

    An increasing number of astronomical spectrographs employ optical fibres to collect and deliver light. For integral-field and high multiplex multi-object survey instruments, fibres offer unique flexibility in instrument design by enabling spectrographs to be located remotely from the telescope focal plane where the fibre inputs are deployed. Photon-starved astronomical observations demand optimum efficiency from the fibre system. In addition to intrinsic absorption loss in optical fibres, another loss mechanism, so-called focal ratio degradation (FRD) must be considered. A fundamental cause of FRD is stress, therefore low stress fibre cables that impart minimum FRD are essential. The FMOS fibre instrument for Subaru Telescope employed a highly effective cable solution developed at Durham University. The method has been applied again for the PFS project, this time in collaboration with a company, PPC Broadband Ltd. The process, planetary stranding, is adapted from the manufacture of large fibre-count, large diameter marine telecommunications cables. Fibre bundles describe helical paths through the cable, incorporating additional fibre per unit length. As a consequence fibre stress from tension and bend-induced `race-tracking' is minimised. In this paper stranding principles are explained, covering the fundamentals of stranded cable design. The authors describe the evolution of the stranding production line and the numerous steps in the manufacture of the PFS prototype cable. The results of optical verification tests are presented for each stage of cable production, confirming that the PFS prototype performs exceptionally well. The paper concludes with an outline of future on-telescope test plans.

  8. Short-term regular aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress produced by acute in the adipose microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc D; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-05-01

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2 wk of voluntary running (~6 km/day) for comparison with sedentary controls. Hindlimb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurements of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure) or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microvascular endothelial cells were subjected to high physiological laminar shear stress (20 dyn/cm 2 ) or static condition and treated with ANG II + pharmacological inhibitors. Cells were analyzed for the detection of ROS or collected for Western blot determination of NOX II and SOD. Resistance arteries from exercised mice demonstrated preserved FID after high pressure exposure, whereas FID was impaired in control mouse arteries. Inhibition of ANG II or NOX II restored impaired FID in control mouse arteries. High pressure increased superoxide levels in control mouse arteries but not in exercise mouse arteries, which exhibited greater ability to convert superoxide to H 2 O 2 Arteries from exercised mice exhibited less NOX II protein expression, more SOD isoform expression, and less sensitivity to ANG II. Endothelial cells subjected to laminar shear stress exhibited less NOX II subunit expression. In conclusion, aerobic exercise prevents high pressure-induced vascular dysfunction through an improved redox environment in the adipose microvasculature. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe potential mechanisms contributing to aerobic exercise-conferred protection against high intravascular pressure. Subcutaneous adipose microvessels from exercise mice express less NADPH oxidase (NOX) II and more superoxide

  9. Rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS in response to stress in a live retinal explant system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Lavinia

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to oxidative stress, which is a strong contributory factor to many ocular diseases. In this study, the removal of trophic factors is used as a model system to investigate the effects of stress in the retina. The aims were to determine if both rod and cone photoreceptor cells produce ROS when they are deprived of trophic factor support and to demonstrate if the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzymes are responsible for this ROS production. METHODS: Retinas were explanted from mice aged between postnatal days 8-10 and cultured overnight. The following morning, confocal microscopy combined with various fluorescent probes was used to detect the production of ROS. Each time peanut agglutinin (PNA), a cone photoreceptor marker, was used to facilitate orientation of the retina. Dihydroethidium and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR123) were used to determine which cells produce ROS. Subsequently, western blots of retinal serial sections were used to detect the presence of Noxs in the different retinal layers. The Nox inhibitor apocynin was then tested to determine if it altered the production of ROS within these cells. RESULTS: Live retinal explants, viewed at high magnifications using confocal microscopy, displayed an increase in the fluorescent products of dihydroethidium and DHR123 upon serum removal when compared to controls. DHR123 fluorescence, once oxidized, localized to mitochondria and was found in the same focal plane as the PNA staining. This showed that cones and rods produced ROS when stressed. Retinal serial sectioning established that the photoreceptor layer expressed Nox4, dual oxidase (Duox) 1, and Duox2 at varying levels. Finally, the Nox inhibitor apocynin decreased the burst stimulated by the stress of serum removal. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal microscopy and PNA staining allowed differentiation of cell types within the outermost layers of the retina, demonstrating

  10. Do physiological and pathological stresses produce different changes in heart rate variability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBravi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although physiological (e.g. exercise and pathological (e.g. infection stress affecting the cardiovascular system have both been documented to be associated with a reduction in overall heart rate variability (HRV, it remains unclear if loss of HRV is ubiquitously similar across different domains of variability analysis or if distinct patterns of altered HRV exist depending on the stressor. Using Continuous Individualized Multiorgan Variability Analysis (CIMVATM software, heart rate (HR and four selected measures of variability were measured over time (windowed analysis from two datasets, a set (n=13 of patients who developed systemic infection (i.e. sepsis after bone marrow transplant, and a matched set of healthy subjects undergoing physical exercise under controlled conditions. HR and the four HRV measures showed similar trends in both sepsis and exercise. The comparison through Wilcoxon sign-rank test of the levels of variability at baseline and during the stress (i.e. exercise or after days of sepsis development showed similar changes, except for LF/HF, ratio of power at low and high frequencies (associated with sympathovagal modulation, which was affected by exercise but did not show any change during sepsis. Furthermore, HRV measures during sepsis showed a lower level of correlation with each other, as compared to HRV during exercise. In conclusion, this exploratory study highlights similar responses during both exercise and infection, with differences in terms of correlation and inter-subject fluctuations, whose physiologic significance merits further investigation.

  11. Formation of the Ni3Nb δ-Phase in Stress-Relieved Inconel 625 Produced via Laser Powder-Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Eric A.; Stoudt, Mark R.; Williams, Maureen E.; Katz, Michael B.; Levine, Lyle E.; Phan, Thien Q.; Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas H.; Ng, Daniel S.

    2017-11-01

    The microstructural evolution of laser powder-bed additively manufactured Inconel 625 during a post-build stress-relief anneal of 1 hour at 1143 K (870 °C) is investigated. It is found that this industry-recommended heat treatment promotes the formation of a significant fraction of the orthorhombic D0a Ni3Nb δ-phase. This phase is known to have a deleterious influence on fracture toughness, ductility, and other mechanical properties in conventional, wrought Inconel 625; and is generally considered detrimental to materials' performance in service. The δ-phase platelets are found to precipitate within the inter-dendritic regions of the as-built solidification microstructure. These regions are enriched in solute elements, particularly Nb and Mo, due to the micro-segregation that occurs during solidification. The precipitation of δ-phase at 1073 K (800 °C) is found to require up to 4 hours. This indicates a potential alternative stress-relief processing window that mitigates δ-phase formation in this alloy. Ultimately, a homogenization heat treatment is recommended for additively manufactured Inconel 625 because the increased susceptibility to δ-phase precipitation increases the possibility for significant degradation of materials' properties in service.

  12. Luminal epithelial cells within the mammary gland can produce basal cells upon oncogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, S M; Haricharan, S; Johnston, A N; Toneff, M J; Reddy, J P; Dong, J; Bu, W; Li, Y

    2016-03-17

    In the normal mammary gland, the basal epithelium is known to be bipotent and can generate either basal or luminal cells, whereas the luminal epithelium has not been demonstrated to contribute to the basal compartment in an intact and normally developed mammary gland. It is not clear whether cellular heterogeneity within a breast tumor results from transformation of bipotent basal cells or from transformation and subsequent basal conversion of the more differentiated luminal cells. Here we used a retroviral vector to express an oncogene specifically in a small number of the mammary luminal epithelial cells and tested their potential to produce basal cells during tumorigenesis. This in-vivo lineage-tracing work demonstrates that luminal cells are capable of producing basal cells on activation of either polyoma middle T antigen or ErbB2 signaling. These findings reveal the plasticity of the luminal compartment during tumorigenesis and provide an explanation for cellular heterogeneity within a cancer.

  13. Metabolic stress responses in Drosophila are modulated by brain neurosecretory cells that produce multiple neuropeptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Kahsai

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, neurosecretory cells that release peptide hormones play a prominent role in the regulation of development, growth, metabolism, and reproduction. Several types of peptidergic neurosecretory cells have been identified in the brain of Drosophila with release sites in the corpora cardiaca and anterior aorta. We show here that in adult flies the products of three neuropeptide precursors are colocalized in five pairs of large protocerebral neurosecretory cells in two clusters (designated ipc-1 and ipc-2a: Drosophila tachykinin (DTK, short neuropeptide F (sNPF and ion transport peptide (ITP. These peptides were detected by immunocytochemistry in combination with GFP expression driven by the enhancer trap Gal4 lines c929 and Kurs-6, both of which are expressed in ipc-1 and 2a cells. This mix of colocalized peptides with seemingly unrelated functions is intriguing and prompted us to initiate analysis of the function of the ten neurosecretory cells. We investigated the role of peptide signaling from large ipc-1 and 2a cells in stress responses by monitoring the effect of starvation and desiccation in flies with levels of DTK or sNPF diminished by RNA interference. Using the Gal4-UAS system we targeted the peptide knockdown specifically to ipc-1 and 2a cells with the c929 and Kurs-6 drivers. Flies with reduced DTK or sNPF levels in these cells displayed decreased survival time at desiccation and starvation, as well as increased water loss at desiccation. Our data suggest that homeostasis during metabolic stress requires intact peptide signaling by ipc-1 and 2a neurosecretory cells.

  14. Groundbreaking approach to disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The humanitarian response to Cyclone Nargis, which struck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May, heralds a fundamentally new approach to relief coordination. As a result, a unique survey showed what really happened to the survivors. Sarah Cumberland reports.

  15. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  16. Decongestants: OTC Relief for Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  17. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... at the FDA. Avoid Pollen, Mold and Other Allergy Triggers If your child has seasonal allergies, pay ...

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of oil producing microalgae under thermal and nutritional stress.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo; Keenan, Michael Robert

    2008-09-01

    This short-term, late-start LDRD examined the effects of nutritional deprivation on the energy harvesting complex in microalgae. While the original experimental plan involved a much more detailed study of temperature and nutrition on the antenna system of a variety of TAG producing algae and their concomitant effects on oil production, time and fiscal constraints limited the scope of the study. This work was a joint effort between research teams at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico and California. Preliminary results indicate there is a photosystem response to silica starvation in diatoms that could impact the mechanisms for lipid accumulation.

  19. Mild traumatic brain injury does not produce post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, R J; Liter, J C

    1995-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that patients who sustain mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or post-concussive syndrome develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to their cognitive difficulties, diminished coping skills, or other losses. This study examined 70 patients who had previously been diagnosed as having either PTSD or MTBI. Each patient was asked to provide a highly detailed chronological history of the events which preceded, followed, and occurred during the traumatic event, to indicate whether they were rendered unconscious or had amnesia for the event, and to describe the various symptoms they developed. All (100.0%) of the PTSD patients were able to provide a highly detailed and emotionally charged recollection of the events which occurred within 15 minutes of the traumatic event in comparison to none (0.0%) of the MTBI patients. None of the MTBI patients reported symptoms such as intrusive recollections of the traumatic event, nightmares, hypervigilance, phobic or startle reactions, or became upset when they were asked to describe the traumatic event or were exposed to stimuli associated with it. These data suggest that PTSD and MTBI are two mutually exclusive disorders, and that it is highly unlikely that MTBI patients develop PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, these findings suggest that clinicians should exercise considerable caution in ruling out PTSD prior to making the diagnosis of MTBI.

  20. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; hide

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  1. Stress- and sequence-dependent release into the culture medium of HIV-1 Nef produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macreadie, I G; Castelli, L A; Lucantoni, A; Azad, A A

    1995-09-11

    We have produced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef (a myristylated 206-amino-acid protein) in Saccharomyces cerevisaie and shown that, while Nef is normally found as a predominantly intracellular protein, amounts up to 40 micrograms/ml of Nef are also released into the extracellular medium during stress. By electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE) analysis the extracellular Nef is indistinguishable from intracellular Nef. Conditions of stress that lead to the release of Nef include elevated levels of copper or magnesium ions or growth at elevated temperatures. This release appears to be dependent upon the N-terminal sequences of Nef, including the presence of a myristylation site. Our observations concerning Nef release in yeast suggest new ways in which the behaviour of Nef should be examined in order to gain further insights into the development of AIDS. If the release of Nef is important in the development of AIDS, our work reveals that Nef-associated symptoms may be reduced or delayed by reducing stresses, such as fevers.

  2. Prenatal stress produces anxiety prone female offspring and impaired maternal behaviour in the domestic pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Kenneth M D; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Donald, Ramona D; Robson, Sheena K; Ison, Sarah H; Jarvis, Susan; Brunton, Paula J; Russell, John A; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2014-04-22

    Numerous studies have shown that prenatal stress (PNS) can have profound effects on postnatal well-being. Here, the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was used to investigate PNS effects owing to the direct relevance for farm animal welfare and the developing status of the pig as a large animal model in translational research. Pregnant primiparous sows were exposed, in mid-gestation, to either a social stressor (mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics) or were kept in stable social groups. The ratio of levels of mRNAs for corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptors 1 and 2 in the amygdala, measured for the first time in the pig, was substantially increased in 10-week-old female, but not male, PNS progeny indicating a neurobiological propensity for anxiety-related behaviour. Mature female offspring were observed at parturition in either a behaviourally restrictive crate or open pen. Such PNS sows showed abnormal maternal behaviour in either environment, following the birth of their first piglet. They spent more time lying ventrally, more time standing and showed a higher frequency of posture changes. They were also more reactive towards their piglets, and spent longer visually attending to their piglets compared to controls. Associated with this abnormal maternal care, piglet mortality was increased in the open pen environment, where protection for piglets is reduced. Overall, these data indicate that PNS females have their brain development shifted towards a pro-anxiety phenotype and that PNS can be causally related to subsequent impaired maternal behaviour in adult female offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Circadian rhythm of metabolic changes associated with summer heat stress in high-producing dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab-El-Deen, Mohamed Ahmed M M; Fadel, Moustafa S; Van Soom, Ann; Saleh, Sherif Y; Maes, Dominiek; Leroy, Jo L M R

    2010-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the circadian rhythm of blood metabolic parameters associated with summer heat stress (HS) in dairy cows. Ten healthy lactating Holstein Friesian cows were followed during HS for three successive days at six different time points. Blood was sampled from each cow starting from 07:00 AM: ; at 4-h intervals. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity were recorded, and temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated as well. Respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded for each cow at the time of blood sampling. Concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), total cholesterol (TC) and urea were measured in each blood sample. The THI values were >68 at all times of the day, and the highest values were recorded at 11:00 AM: , 03:00 PM: and 07:00 PM: (80.9, 83.7, and 80.8, respectively). All the cows showed a significantly higher RR and RT coinciding with higher THI values (93 +/- 4 and 39.6 +/- 0.1; 90.2 +/- 3.4, and 40.1 +/- 0.1; 87.6 +/- 4.1, and 39.8 +/- 0.1, respectively, P < 0.05). The concentrations of glucose were the lowest at 11:00 AM: and 03:00 PM: (3.75 +/- 0.1 and 3.44 +/- 0.1 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). Decreased glucose concentrations coincided with increased NEFA concentrations, (0.43 +/- 0.01 and 0.56 +/- 0.02 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05), and were highly negatively correlated (r = -0.50, P < 0.001). The highest urea and TC concentrations were registered at 11:00 AM: (6.11 +/- 0.15 mmol/L and 109.9 +/- 2.2 mg/dl, respectively) whereas the lowest urea and TC values were recorded at 03:00 AM: (4.97 +/- 0.18 mmol/L and 99.5 +/- 1.7 mg/dl, respectively, P < 0.05). The results of the present study indicate that there was a circadian variation in glucose, NEFA, urea, and TC resulting in the most unfavorable metabolic condition during the hottest moment of the day in dairy cattle. Earlier work revealed that HS-metabolic changes are reflected in the follicular fluid. The

  4. Different response to acetic acid stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type and l-ascorbic acid-producing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martani, Francesca; Fossati, Tiziana; Posteri, Riccardo; Signori, Lorenzo; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2013-09-01

    Biotechnological processes are of increasing significance for industrial production of fine and bulk chemicals, including biofuels. Unfortunately, under operative conditions microorganisms meet multiple stresses, such as non-optimal pH, temperature, oxygenation and osmotic stress. Moreover, they have to face inhibitory compounds released during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses, which constitute the preferential substrate for second-generation processes. Inhibitors include furan derivatives, phenolic compounds and weak organic acids, among which acetic acid is one of the most abundant and detrimental for cells. They impair cellular metabolism and growth, reducing the productivity of the process: therefore, the development of robust cell factories with improved production rates and resistance is of crucial importance. Here we show that a yeast strain engineered to endogenously produce vitamin C exhibits an increased tolerance compared to the parental strain when exposed to acetic acid at moderately toxic concentrations, measured as viability on plates. Starting from this evidence, we investigated more deeply: (a) the nature and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); (b) the activation of enzymes that act directly as detoxifiers of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, in parental and engineered strains during acetic acid stress. The data indicate that the engineered strain can better recover from stress by limiting ROS accumulation, independently from SOD activation. The engineered yeast can be proposed as a model for further investigating direct and indirect mechanism(s) by which an antioxidant can rescue cells from organic acid damage; moreover, these studies will possibly provide additional targets for further strain improvements. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Amelioration of radiation induced oxidative stress using water soluble chitosan produced by Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Sonbaty, S.M.; Swailam, H.M.; Noaman, E.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide synthesized by a great number of living organisms and considered as a source of potential bioactive material and has many biological applications which are greatly affected by its solubility in neutral ph. In this study low molecular weight water soluble chitosan was prepared by chemical degradation of chitosan produced by Aspergillus niger using H 2 O 2 . Chitosan chemical structure was detected before and after treatment using FTIR spectrum, and its molecular weight was determined by its viscosity using viscometer. Its antioxidant activity against gamma radiation was evaluated in vivo using rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups; group 1: control, group 2: exposed to acute dose of gamma radiation (6 Gy), group 3: received water soluble chitosan, group 4: received water soluble chitosan then exposed to gamma radiation as group 2. Gamma radiation significantly increased malonaldehyde, decreased glutathione concentration, activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutatione peroxidase, while significantly increase the activity of alanine transferase, aspartate transferase, urea and creatinine concentration. Administration of water soluble chitosan has ameliorated induced changes caused by gamma radiation. It could be concluded that water soluble chitosan by scavenging free radicals directly or indirectly may act as a potent radioprotector against ionizing irradiation.

  6. Acoustic and Perceptual Correlates of Stress in Nonwords Produced by Children with Suspected Developmental Apraxia of Speech and Children with Phonological Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Benjamin; Bjorum, Elissa M.; Windsor, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether accuracy in producing linguistic stress reliably distinguished between five children with suspected developmental apraxia of speech (sDAS) and five children with phonological disorder (PD). No group differences in the production of stress were found; however, listeners judged that nonword repetitions of the children…

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor activation is involved in producing abnormal phenotypes of single-prolonged stress rats: a putative post-traumatic stress disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, K; Harada, K; Kato, K; Hoshino, A; Motohashi, J; Yamaji, T; Morinobu, S; Matsuoka, N; Kato, N

    2007-08-10

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience, and presents with characteristic symptoms, such as intrusive memories, a state of hyperarousal, and avoidance, that endure for years. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD, and increased expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus. In this study, we characterized further neuroendocrinologic, behavioral and electrophysiological alterations in SPS rats. Plasma corticosterone recovered from an initial increase within a week, and gross histological changes and neuronal cell death were not observed in the hippocampus of the SPS rats. Behavioral analyses revealed that the SPS rats presented enhanced acoustic startle and impaired spatial memory that paralleled the deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression. Contextual fear memory was enhanced in the rats 1 week after SPS exposure, whereas LTP in the amygdala was blunted. Interestingly, blockade of GR activation by administering 17-beta-hydroxy-11-beta-/4-/[methyl]-[1-methylethyl]aminophenyl/-17-alpha-[prop-1-ynyl]estra-4-9-diene-3-one (RU40555), a GR antagonist, prior to SPS exposure prevented potentiation of fear conditioning and impairment of LTP in the CA1 region. Altogether, SPS caused a number of behavioral changes similar to those described in PTSD, which marks SPS as a putative PTSD model. The preventive effects of a GR antagonist suggested that GR activation might play a critical role in producing the altered behavior and neuronal function of SPS rats.

  8. Study of the impact of multiple weld repairs and associated stress-relief annealing on mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of large components made of the low-alloy steel 16Mo3; Untersuchung der Auswirkungen von mehrfachen Schweissreparaturen und damit verbundenen Spannungsarmgluehungen an Grossbauteilen aus 16Mo3 auf die Warmfestigkeitseigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giller, Madeleine; Lehmann, Katrin [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany). Energy Sector, Products, Gas Turbines

    2013-07-01

    This paper is related to 16Mo3, a low-alloy steel typical in the manufacture of large welded steel casings of heavy-duty gas turbine engines. The usual practice in manufacturing is to stress relieve these housings after fabrication welding. If, however, weld imperfections are detected by non-destructive testing, weld repairs are performed, followed by additional stress-relief heat treatments. The methods applied were used to detect possible embrittlement by secondary carbide precipitation and to finally draw conclusions on material changes. The critical area of a weld is the heat affected zone. In this area a worsening of the stress condition in connection with a change in carbide precipitation and thus a decrease in creep rupture strength occurs. A concrete alloy composition and heat treatment adapted to the precipitation behavior are important, because they determine the type, amount and distribution of the resulting carbides. (orig.)

  9. Low mercury concentration produces vasoconstriction, decreases nitric oxide bioavailability and increases oxidative stress in rat conductance artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Belem Lemos

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental pollutant that reduces nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increases oxidative stress, having a close link with cardiovascular diseases, as carotid atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and hypertension. One of the main sites affected by oxidative stress, which develops atherosclerosis, is the aorta. Under acute exposure to low mercury concentrations reactive oxygen species (ROS production were only reported for resistance vessels but if low concentrations of mercury also affect conductance arteries it is still unclear. We investigated the acute effects of 6 nM HgCl(2 on endothelial function of aortic rings measuring the reactivity to phenylephrine in rings incubated, or not, with HgCl(2 for 45 min, the protein expression for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and the AT1 receptor. HgCl(2 increased Rmax and pD2 to phenylephrine without changing the vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial damage abolished the increased reactivity to phenylephrine. The increase of Rmax and pD2 produced by L-NAME was smaller in the presence of HgCl(2. Enalapril, losartan, indomethacin, furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, superoxide dismutase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin reverted HgCl(2 effects on the reactivity to phenylephrine, COX-2 protein expression was increased, and AT1 expression reduced. At low concentration, below the reference values, HgCl(2 increased vasoconstrictor activity by reducing NO bioavailability due to increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase activity. Results suggest that this is due to local release of angiotensin II and prostanoid vasoconstrictors. Results also suggest that acute low concentration mercury exposure, occurring time to time could induce vascular injury due to endothelial oxidative stress and contributing to increase peripheral resistance, being a high risk factor for public health.

  10. Alkane-grown Beauveria bassiana produce mycelial pellets displaying peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress, and cell surface alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Paixão, Flávia R S; Ponce, Juan C; Santana, Marianela; Prieto, Eduardo D; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2018-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is able to grow on insect cuticle hydrocarbons, inducing alkane assimilation pathways and concomitantly increasing virulence against insect hosts. In this study, we describe some physiological and molecular processes implicated in growth, nutritional stress response, and cellular alterations found in alkane-grown fungi. The fungal cytology was investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy while the surface topography was examined using atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the expression pattern of several genes associated with oxidative stress, peroxisome biogenesis, and hydrophobicity were analysed by qPCR. We found a novel type of growth in alkane-cultured B. bassiana similar to mycelial pellets described in other alkane-free fungi, which were able to produce viable conidia and to be pathogenic against larvae of the beetles Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. Mycelial pellets were formed by hyphae cumulates with high peroxidase activity, exhibiting peroxisome proliferation and an apparent surface thickening. Alkane-grown conidia appeared to be more hydrophobic and cell surfaces displayed different topography than glucose-grown cells. We also found a significant induction in several genes encoding for peroxins, catalases, superoxide dismutases, and hydrophobins. These results show that both morphological and metabolic changes are triggered in mycelial pellets derived from alkane-grown B. bassiana. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Mental health risks in the local workforce engaged in disaster relief and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao L; Chan, Cecilia L W; Shi, Zhan B; Wang, Bin

    2013-02-01

    To build a sustainable workforce for long-term disaster relief and reconstruction, more effort must be made to promote local relief workers' mental health. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with local relief officials 10 months after the 2008 earthquake in China to investigate the stress and coping experiences in their personal lives as survivors. We conducted thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Traumatic bereavement and grief, housing and financial difficulties, and work-family conflict were the three main sources of stress in the respondents' personal lives. The coping themes were finding meaning and purpose in life through relief work, colleagues' support and understanding, suppression or avoidance of grief, appreciation for life, hardiness, optimism, letting nature take its course, and making up for loss. We suggest that relief work has a double-edged-sword effect on workers' coping abilities. We discuss the implications of this effect for work-life balance measures and trauma and grief counseling services.

  13. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas

  14. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.В. Карускевич

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  15. Pictorial relief for equiluminant images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, A.J.; De Ridder, H.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Pictorial relief depends strongly on “cues” in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer

  16. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  17. Reduced levels of SCD1 accentuate palmitate-induced stress in insulin-producing β-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovsepyan Meri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1 is an ER resident enzyme introducing a double-bond in saturated fatty acids. Global knockout of SCD1 in mouse increases fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity which makes the animal resistant to diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of SCD1 has therefore been proposed as a potential therapy of the metabolic syndrome. Much of the work has focused on insulin target tissue and very little is known about how reduced levels of SCD1 would affect the insulin-producing β-cell, however. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate how reduced levels of SCD1 affect the β-cell. Results Insulin-secreting MIN6 cells with reduced levels of SCD1 were established by siRNA mediated knockdown. When fatty acid oxidation was measured, no difference between cells with reduced levels of SCD1 and mock-transfected cells were found. Also, reducing levels of SCD1 did not affect insulin secretion in response to glucose. To investigate how SCD1 knockdown affected cellular mechanisms, differentially regulated proteins were identified by a proteomic approach. Cells with reduced levels of SCD1 had higher levels of ER chaperones and components of the proteasome. The higher amounts did not protect the β-cell from palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Instead, rise in levels of p-eIF2α and CHOP after palmitate exposure was 2-fold higher in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Accordingly, apoptosis rose to higher levels after exposure to palmitate in cells with reduced levels of SCD1 compared to mock-transfected cells. Conclusions In conclusion, reduced levels of SCD1 augment palmitate-induced ER stress and apoptosis in the β-cell, which is an important caveat when considering targeting this enzyme as a treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200

  20. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including... disabilities; (2) May award other relief as the court considers to be appropriate, including monetary damages...

  1. Effectiveness of Property Tax Relief in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.; Hwang, C. S.

    This study examines the effects of the 1979 Oregon Property Tax Relief Plan on 1980-81 school district budget decisions by comparing the available tax relief, the school expenditures, and the tax levies in the state for the years 1975-81. The history of direct and indirect property tax relief in Oregon is sketched for the years prior to 1979; the…

  2. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J. Duerst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  3. Adolescent Social Stress Produces an Enduring Activation of the Rat Locus Coeruleus and Alters its Coherence with the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnik, Gerard A; Curtis, Andrè L; Wood, Susan K; Arner, Jay; Valentino, Rita J

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. Because the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress-response system that is implicated in psychopathology, developmental differences in the response of this system to stress may contribute to increased vulnerability. Here LC single unit and network activity were compared between adult and adolescent rats during resident-intruder stress. In some rats, LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coherence was quantified. The initial stress tonically activated LC neurons and induced theta oscillations, while simultaneously decreasing LC auditory-evoked responses in both age groups. Stress increased LC-mPFC coherence within the theta range. With repeated exposures, adolescent LC neuronal and network activity remained elevated even in the absence of the stressor and were unresponsive to stressor presentation. In contrast, LC neurons of adult rats exposed to repeated social stress were relatively inhibited in the absence of the stressor and mounted robust responses upon stressor presentation. LC sensory-evoked responses were selectively blunted in adolescent rats exposed to repeated social stress. Finally, repeated stress decreased LC-mPFC coherence in the high frequency range (beta and gamma) while maintaining strong coherence in the theta range, selectively in adolescents. Together, these results suggest that adaptive mechanisms that promote stress recovery and maintain basal activity of the brain norepinephrine system in the absence of stress are not fully developed or are vulnerable stress-induced impairments in adolescence. The resulting sustained activation of the LC-NE system after repeated social stress may adversely impact cognition and future social behavior of adolescents. PMID:26361057

  4. Protection by polyphenol extract from olive stones against apoptosis produced by oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Castell, Ernesto; Veciana-Galindo, Carmen; Torró-Montell, Luis; Palazón-Bru, Antonio; Sirvent-Segura, Elia; Gil-Guillén, Vicente; Rizo-Baeza, Mercedes

    2016-02-16

    We evaluated the protective activity of an extract from a by-product such as olive stones, through its ability to inhibit H202 induced apoptosis in the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. To such end, 20,000 cells/well were cultivated and differentiation with retinoic acid was initiated. Once the cells were differentiated, apoptosis was induced with and without H2O2 extract. Finally, cDNA extraction was performed, and pro-apoptotic genes Bax and anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 were analyzed. Quantification of the gene expression was performed using the GAPDH gene marker. Cell viability with the extract is 97.6% (SD 5.7) with 10 mg/l and 62.8% (SD 1.2) to 50 mg/l, using 10 mg/l for the biomarker assay. The retinoic acid differentiated SH-S cell line (10 μM) shows a clear apoptosis when treated with H2O2 150 μM, with a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio of 3.75 (SD 0.80) in contrast to the differentiated control cells subjected to H2O2 and with extract, which have the same ratio of 1.02 (SD 0.01-0.03). The olive stone extract shows anti-apoptotic activity in the provoked cell death of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in their normal state, defending them from oxidative stress which produces a significant increase in the apoptotic gene ratio in contrast to anti-apoptotic genes (Bax/Bcl-2).

  5. Psychosocial predator-based animal model of PTSD produces physiological and behavioral sequelae and a traumatic memory four months following stress onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Park, Collin R; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2015-08-01

    We have a well-established animal model of PTSD composed of predator exposure administered in conjunction with social instability that produces PTSD-like behavioral and physiological abnormalities one month after stress initiation. Here, we assessed whether the PTSD-like effects would persist for at least 4months after the initiation of the psychosocial stress regimen. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to either 2 or 3 predator-based fear conditioning sessions. During each session, rats were placed in a chamber for a 3-min period that terminated with a 30-s tone, followed by 1h of immobilization of the rats during cat exposure (Day 1). All rats in the stress groups received a second fear conditioning session 10days later (Day 11). Half of the stress rats received a third fear conditioning session 3weeks later (Day 32). The two cat-exposed groups were also exposed to daily unstable housing conditions for the entire duration of the psychosocial stress regimen. The control group received stable (conventional) housing conditions and an equivalent amount of chamber exposure on Days 1, 11 and 32, without cat exposure. Behavioral testing commenced for all groups on Day 116. The stress groups demonstrated increased anxiety on the elevated plus maze, impaired object recognition memory and robust contextual and cued fear conditioned memory 3months after the last conditioning session. Combined data from the two stress groups revealed lower post-stress corticosterone levels and greater diastolic blood pressure relative to the control group. These findings indicate that predator-based psychosocial stress produces persistent PTSD-like physiological and behavioral abnormalities that may provide insight into the neurobiological and endocrine sequelae in traumatized people with PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress time-dependently influences the acquisition and retrieval of unrelated information by producing a memory of its own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadle, Chelsea E; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2015-01-01

    Stress induces several temporally guided "waves" of psychobiological responses that differentially influence learning and memory. One way to understand how the temporal dynamics of stress influence these cognitive processes is to consider stress, itself, as a learning experience that influences additional learning and memory. Indeed, research has shown that stress results in electrophysiological and biochemical activity that is remarkably similar to the activity observed as a result of learning. In this review, we will present the idea that when a stressful episode immediately precedes or follows learning, such learning is enhanced because the learned information becomes a part of the stress context and is tagged by the emotional memory being formed. In contrast, when a stressful episode is temporally separated from learning or is experienced prior to retrieval, such learning or memory is impaired because the learning or memory is experienced outside the context of the stress episode or subsequent to a saturation of synaptic plasticity, which renders the retrieval of information improbable. The temporal dynamics of emotional memory formation, along with the neurobiological correlates of the stress response, are discussed to support these hypotheses.

  7. Stress time-dependently influences the acquisition and retrieval of unrelated information by producing a memory of its own

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea E Cadle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress induces several temporally-guided waves of psychobiological responses that differentially influence learning and memory. One way to understand how the temporal dynamics of stress influence these cognitive processes is to consider stress, itself, as a learning experience that influences additional learning and memory. Indeed, research has shown that stress results in electrophysiological and biochemical activity that is remarkably similar to the activity observed as a result of learning. In this mini review, we will present the idea that when a stressful episode immediately precedes or follows learning, such learning is enhanced because the learned information becomes a part of the stress context and is tagged by the emotional memory being formed. In contrast, when a stressful episode is temporally separated from learning or is experienced prior to retrieval, such learning or memory is impaired because the learning or memory is experienced outside the context of the stress episode or subsequent to a saturation of synaptic plasticity, which renders the retrieval of information improbable. The temporal dynamics of emotional memory formation, along with the neurobiological correlates of the stress response, are discussed to support these hypotheses.

  8. Stress time-dependently influences the acquisition and retrieval of unrelated information by producing a memory of its own

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadle, Chelsea E.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2015-01-01

    Stress induces several temporally guided “waves” of psychobiological responses that differentially influence learning and memory. One way to understand how the temporal dynamics of stress influence these cognitive processes is to consider stress, itself, as a learning experience that influences additional learning and memory. Indeed, research has shown that stress results in electrophysiological and biochemical activity that is remarkably similar to the activity observed as a result of learning. In this review, we will present the idea that when a stressful episode immediately precedes or follows learning, such learning is enhanced because the learned information becomes a part of the stress context and is tagged by the emotional memory being formed. In contrast, when a stressful episode is temporally separated from learning or is experienced prior to retrieval, such learning or memory is impaired because the learning or memory is experienced outside the context of the stress episode or subsequent to a saturation of synaptic plasticity, which renders the retrieval of information improbable. The temporal dynamics of emotional memory formation, along with the neurobiological correlates of the stress response, are discussed to support these hypotheses. PMID:26175712

  9. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164 at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i 0 mg/kg, ii 25 mg/kg, iii 50 mg/kg, and iv 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (p<0.05 by the increasing supplementation of the dietary GABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of the hens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009 and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to

  10. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y Z; Cheng, J L; Ren, M; Yin, L; Piao, X S

    2015-07-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (pGABA-producer. Shape index, eggshell thickness, strength and weight were increased linearly with increasing GABA-producer supplementation. The level of calcium, phosphorus, glucose, total protein and albumin in serum of the hens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (plevel was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens.

  11. Rotorcraft Use in Disaster Relief and Mass Casualty Incidents - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Disaster Relief and Mass 6. Performing Organization Code C asuallty Incidents- C ase Studies 8._P rfo minOr ani ati nR porNo 7. Author (s) 8...disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape promoting the need for and the use of rotorcraft and heliports in disaster relief. 17...disaster prepaLedness ageicies for use in the integration of local helicopter assets into the disaster planning process; and 3) produce a color video tape

  12. Evaluation of stress patterns produced by implant-retained overdentures and implant-retained fixed partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaro, José Vitor Quinelli; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Vedovatto, Eduardo; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Rezende, Maria Cristina Rosifini Alves; Zavanelli, Adriana Cristina

    2011-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to photoelastically measure the biomechanical behavior of 4 implants retaining different cantilevered bar mandibular overdenture designs and to compare a fixed partial denture (FPD). A photoelastic model of a human edentulous mandible was fabricated, which contained 4 screw-type implants (3.75 × 10 mm) embedded in the parasymphyseal area. An FPD and 3 overdenture designs with the following attachments were evaluated: 3 plastic Hader clips, 1 Hader clip with 2 posterior resilient cap attachments, and 3 ball/O-ring attachments. Vertical occlusal forces of 100 N were applied between the central incisor and unilaterally to the right and left second premolars and second molars. Stresses that developed in the supporting structure were monitored photoelastically and recorded photographically. The results showed that the anterior loading, the overdenture with 3 plastic Hader clips, displayed the largest stress concentration at the medium implant. With premolar loading, the FPD and overdenture with 3 plastic Hader clips displayed the highest stresses to the ipsilateral terminal implant. With molar loading, the overdenture with 3 ball/O-ring attachments displayed the most uniform stress distribution in the posterior edentulous ridge, with less overloading in the terminal implant. It was concluded that vertical forces applied to the bar-clip overdenture and FPD created immediate stress patterns of greater magnitude and concentration on the ipsilateral implants, whereas the ball/O-ring attachments transferred minimal stress to the implants. The increased cantilever in the FPD caused the highest stresses to the terminal implant.

  13. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging

  14. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqshoof Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m-1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  15. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  16. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  17. Remembering reliefs that have disappeared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, N.

    1998-01-01

    Natural radioactivity can give information about age but also about thermal evolution of rocks. The accumulation of decay products in a material can be disturbed by temperature rising. Over a certain temperature called opening temperature the decay products are migrating due to atomic diffusion. The decay reactions used usually are K 40 /Ar 40 , Sm 143 /Nd 144 , C 14 /N 14 and the successive disintegrations of uranium leading to lead. A method known as thermo-chronology studies these isotopic ratios and links them to temperatures. The application of this method to the understanding of the tectonic slab collision between India and Asia is described and some conclusions about the relief are drawn. (A.C.)

  18. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Stress during rat gestation can elicit depression-like physiological and behavioral responses in the offspring. However, human clinical depression is more prevalent among females than males. Accordingly, we examined how repeated variable prenatal stress (PS) alters rat anxiety- and depression...... and measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  19. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending Aδ pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological stress-relieving effects of chewing - Relationship between masticatory function-related factors and stress-relieving effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormick, C.M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Sheridan, C.S.; Nixon, F.; Flynn, J.A.; Mathews, I.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and

  2. Impact of Tax Relief on Public Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikas Egidijus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax reliefs are optional, but a very important element of the taxation system. This element is used for different purposes by a country’s government institutions. Tax reliefs are a form of tax expenditure that helps to reduce budget revenues. Tax reliefs influence individual and corporate financial behaviour and can have positive or negative effects on the economic and social factors. In the last few years, expansion of tax relief has attracted worldwide attention because of the fact that, after the global financial crisis, many countries are still suffering from fiscal deficits, and expansion of tax relief has not contributed to solving this problem. Tax reliefs are presupposed to be a fiscal policy tool of significance in various subsystems of public finances. The main aim of this article is to examine the impact of personal income tax reliefs on Lithuanian public finances. To achieve this aim, statistical information was systemized; Monte Carlo method was used to group data by horizontal rows and logical links analysed, which helped to evaluate the influence of tax reliefs on public finances. In the simulations, the Monte Carlo method helped to simulate random samples, which were then examined by adapting the conclusions of the theory of probability and mathematical statistics methods.

  3. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task

  4. Residual stress, mechanical and microstructure properties of multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN coating produced by R.F Magnetron discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaouina, B., E-mail: b.bouaouina@gmail.com [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Besnard, A. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech—LaBoMaP, 71250 Cluny (France); Abaidia, S.E. [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Haid, F. [CDTA, Plasma discharges Group, Baba hassen, Algers (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Depositing of crystallized molybdenum nitride and chromium nitride multilayer at room temperature. • Correlation between stress measurement and the shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N. • Studied the effect of the bi-layer thickness on the mechanical properties. - Abstract: We have investigated the effect of the period thickness of the multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN deposited on Si substrate produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Mo{sub 2}N presents a face centered cubic structure and CrN an orthorhombic one. The residual stress of the coatings was determined by the measurement of the substrate curvature. The microstructure of the multilayer was investigated from the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (cross section images). The residual stresses resulting from the deposition of the different bi-layer thickness were measured and correlated to the structural properties of the coating as well as the nanoindentation analysis of the coating. The stresses are compressive and tensile for the individual Mo{sub 2}N and CrN layer respectively. The result shows that an increase of the multilayer coatings Mo{sub 2}N/CrN thicknesses induce an increase of the hardness and the elastic modulus, in the other hand the tensile stress increases. The shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N at high angle which means the reduction of the residual stress is in good agreement with the residual stresses measurements.

  5. Effect of heating produced by welding on the microstructure and on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of AA7028 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, A.; Rodenas, M.; Ferrer, C.; Amigo, V.; Salvador, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The microstructural and stress corrosion cracking changes due to welding are studied for the AA7028 aluminium alloy. Special attention is paid to the characterization of what is known as the white zone. The influence of the delay step between quenching and aging in a T73 treatment on the microstructure and on the characteristics of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is also studied. Finally the effect of thermal treatments applied on this zone after the welding is analysed. (Author) 7 refs

  6. Main steam system piping response under safety/relief valve opening events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.O.; Esswein, G.A.; Hwang, H.L.; Nieh, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    The stresses in the main steam branch pipe of a Boiling Water Reactor due to safety/relief valve blowdown has been measured from an in situ piping system test. The test results were compared with analytical results. The predicted stresses using the current state of art analytical methods used for BWR SRV discharge transient piping response loads were found to be conservative when compared to the measured stress values. 3 refs

  7. Ear Acupuncture versus  local anaestethic for pain relief during perineal repair - a randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindberg, Sara

    2007-01-01

    ACUPUNCTURE OR LOCAL ANAESTETICS FOR PAIN RELIEF DURING PERINEAL REPAIR AFTER VAGINAL DELIVERY: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.   By:  Sara Kindberg. Midwife and PhD student, Sønderborg Hospital, Denmark. Objective: To evaluate acupuncture as a new method of pain relief for postpartum perineal...... as photos of the acupuncture points. Perspectives:  Basic midwifery services such as providing sufficient pain relief during perineal repair still need improvement. Clinical practice should be improved continuously and thus produce reliable evidence on different pain relief methods. Website:        http...

  8. N-Hydroxylation of 4-Aminobiphenyl by CYP2E1 Produces Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Chemically Induced Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Sugamori, Kim S.; Tung, Aveline; McPherson, J. Peter; Grant, Denis M.

    2015-01-01

    4-Aminobiphenyl (ABP) is a trace component of cigarette smoke and hair dyes, a suspected human carcinogen and a potent rodent liver carcinogen. Postnatal exposure of mice to ABP results in a higher incidence of liver tumors in males than in females, paralleling the sex difference in human liver cancer incidence. A traditional model of ABP tumorigenesis involves initial CYP1A2-mediated N-hydroxylation, which eventually leads to production of mutagenic ABP-DNA adducts that initiate tumor growth. However, several studies have found no correlation between sex or CYP1A2 function and the DNA-damaging, mutagenic, or tumorigenic effects of ABP. Oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for liver cancer, and it has also been linked to ABP exposure. The goals of this study were to identify novel enzyme(s) that contribute to ABP N-oxidation, and to investigate a potential role for oxidative stress in ABP liver tumorigenicity. Isozyme-selective inhibition experiments using liver microsomes from wild-type and genetically modified mice identified CYP2E1 as a major ABP N-hydroxylating enzyme. The N-hydroxylation of ABP by transiently expressed CYP2E1 produced oxidative stress in cultured mouse hepatoma cells. In vivo postnatal exposure of mice to a tumorigenic dose of ABP also produced oxidative stress in male wild-type mice, but not in male Cyp2e1(−/−) mice or in female mice. However, a stronger NRF2-associated antioxidant response was observed in females. Our results identify CYP2E1 as a novel ABP-N-oxidizing enzyme, and suggest that sex differences in CYP2E1-dependent oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to ABP may contribute to the observed sex difference in tumor incidence. PMID:25601990

  9. Pictorial relief for equiluminant images

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Andrea J.; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J.

    2005-03-01

    Pictorial relief depends strongly on "cues" in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer badly in isoluminant conditions. We have investigated the issue through quantitative measurement of pictorial depth-structure under normal and isoluminant conditions. As stimuli we used monochrome halftone photographs, either as such, or "transposed" to Red/Green or Green/Red hue modulations. We used two distinct methods, one to probe pictorial pose (by way of correspondences settings between pictures of an object in different poses), the other to probe pictorial depth (by way of attitude settings of a gauge figure to a perceptual "fit"). In both experiments the depth reconstructions for Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions were very similar. Moreover, observers performed equally well in Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions. Thus, the general conclusion is that observers did not do markedly worse with the isoluminant Red/Green and Green/Red transposed images. Whereas the transposed images certainly looked weird, they were easily interpreted. Much of the structure of pictorial space was apparently preserved. Thus the notion that spatial representations are not sustained under isoluminant conditions should be applied with caution.

  10. Performance of balanced bellows safety relief valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.S.

    1992-01-01

    By the nature of its design, the set point and lift of a conventional spring loaded safety relief valve are sensitive to back pressure. One way to reduce the adverse effects of the back pressure on the safety relief valve function is to install a balanced bellows in a safety relief valve. The metallic bellows has a rather wide range of manufacturing tolerance which makes the design of the bellows safety relief valve very complicated. The state-of-the-art balanced bellows safety relief valve can only substantially minimize, but cannot totally eliminate the back pressure effects on its set point and relieving capacity. Set point change is a linear function of the back pressure to the set pressure ratio. Depending on the valve design, the set point correction factor can be either greater or smaller than unity. There exists an allowable back pressure and critical back pressure for each safety relief valve. When total back pressure exceeds the R a , the relieving capacity will be reduced mainly resulting from the valve lift being reduced by the back pressure and the capacity reduction factor should be applied in valve sizing. Once the R c is exceeded, the safety relief valve becomes unstable and loses its over pressure protection capability. The capacity reduction factor is a function of system overpressure, but their relationship is non-linear in nature. (orig.)

  11. Effect of drought and combined drought and heat stress on polyamine metabolism in proline-over-producing tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Martincová, Olga; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2013 (2013), s. 7-15 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08013; GA ČR GA206/09/2062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Drought * Heat stress * Polyamines Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.352, year: 2013 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000329007000002

  12. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  13. Effect of antibiotics on cellular stress generated in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel Villegas, Natalia; Baronetti, José; Albesa, Inés; Etcheverría, Analía; Becerra, M Cecilia; Padola, Nora L; Paraje, M Gabriela

    2015-10-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are important food-borne pathogens, with the main virulence factor of this bacterium being its capacity to secrete Shiga toxins (Stxs). Therefore, the use of certain antibiotics for the treatment of this infection, which induces the liberation of Stxs, is controversial. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are also involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of antibiotics on biofilms of STEC and the relationships between cellular stress and the release of Stx. To this end, biofilms of reference and clinical strains were treated with antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin and rifaximin) and the production of oxidants, the antioxidant defense system and toxin release were evaluated. Ciprofloxacin altered the prooxidant-antioxidant balance, with a decrease of oxidant metabolites and an increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, being associated with high-levels of Stx production. Furthermore, inhibition of oxidative stress by exogenous antioxidants was correlated with a reduction in the liberation of Stx, indicating the participation of this phenomenon in the release of this toxin. In contrast, fosfomycin and rifaximin produced less alteration with a minimal production of Stx. Our data show that treatment of biofilm-STEC with these antibiotics induces oxidative stress-mediated release of Stx. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineered strains of Streptococcus macedonicus towards an osmotic stress resistant phenotype retain their ability to produce the bacteriocin macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Rania; Driessche, Gonzalez Van; Boutou, Effrossyni; Kazou, Maria; Alexandraki, Voula; Vorgias, Constantinos E; Devreese, Bart; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

    2015-10-20

    Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 produces the bacteriocin macedocin in milk only under low NaCl concentrations (<1.0%w/v). The thermosensitive plasmid pGh9:ISS1 was employed to generate osmotic stress resistant (osmr) mutants of S. macedonicus. Three osmr mutants showing integration of the vector in unique chromosomal sites were identified and the disrupted loci were characterized. Interestingly, the mutants were able to grow and to produce macedocin at considerably higher concentrations of NaCl compared to the wild-type (up to 4.0%w/v). The production of macedocin under hyperosmotic conditions solely by the osmr mutants was validated by the well diffusion assay and by mass spectrometry analysis. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that the macedocin biosynthetic regulon was transcribed at high salt concentrations only in the mutants. Mutant osmr3, the most robust mutant, was converted in its markerless derivative (osmr3f). Co-culture of S. macedonicus with spores of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in milk demonstrated that only the osmr3f mutant and not the wild-type inhibited the growth of the spores under hyperosmotic conditions (i.e., 2.5%w/v NaCl) due to the production of macedocin. Our study shows how genetic manipulation of a strain towards a stress resistant phenotype could improve bacteriocin production under conditions of the same stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2016-01-01

    Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance.

  16. Analysis of stresses in filament-wound spherical pressure vessels produced by the delta-axisymmetric pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, C.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Spherical pressure vessels may be produced by filament winding the composite material with a delta-axisymmetric pattern. This particular pattern yields a composite with high fiber density and efficient and reproducible structures. The pattern is readily defined mathematically and, thus, eases the analysis problem. (U.S.)

  17. Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis and Relief of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.; Nezhat, Camran R.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2...

  18. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  19. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  20. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  1. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  2. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect

  3. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. De Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation on oxidative stress and protein metabolism markers, and aerobic parameters in triathletes.Methods: A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male triathletes, aged 30.9 ± 1.3 year, height 1.79 ± 0.01 m and body weight 77.45 ± 2.4 kg. Three grams of taurine and 400 ml of chocolate milk (TAUchoc, or a placebo (chocolate milk (CHOC was ingested post exercise for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress marker levels, and 24 h urinary nitrogen, creatinine, and urea excretion were measured before and after 8 weeks of training and supplementation with TAUchoc or CHOC. A maximal incremental running test on a treadmill was performed in order to evaluate aerobic parameters: Vmax, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE.Results: TAUchoc treatment during the 8 weeks resulted in increased taurine plasma levels (PRE 201.32 ± 29.03 μmol/L and POST 234.36 ± 35.51 μmol/L, p = 0.01, decreased malondialdehyde levels (19.4%, p = 0.03 and urinary nitrogen excretion (−33%, p = 0.03, and promoted positive nitrogen balance (p = 0.01. There were no changes in reduced glutathione (TAUchoc PRE 0.72 ± 0.08 mmol/L and POST 0.83 ± 0.08 mmol/L; CHOC PRE 0.69 ± 0.08 mmol/L and POST 0.81 ± 0.06 mmol/L, vitamin E plasma levels (TAUchoc PRE 33.99 ± 2.52 μmol/L and 35.95 ± 2.80 μmol/L and CHOC PRE 31.48 ± 2.12 μmol/L and POST 33.77 ± 3.64 μmol/L, or aerobic parameters, which were obtained in the last phase of the maximal incremental running test (Vmax TAUchoc PRE 13 ± 1.4 km/h and POST 13.22 ± 1.34 km/h; CHOC PRE 13.11 ± 2.34 km/h and POST 13.11 ± 2.72 km/h, the heart rate values were TAUchoc PRE 181.89 ± 24.18 bpm and POST 168.89 ± 46.56 bpm; CHOC PRE 181.56 ± 2.14 bpm and POST 179.78 ± 3.4 bpm, and the RPE were TAUchoc PRE 8.33 ± 2.4 AU and POST 9.1 ± 2.1 AU; CHOC PRE 8.11 ± 4.94 AU and POST 8.78 ± 2.78 AU.Conclusion: Taurine supplementation

  4. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  5. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  6. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  7. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  8. Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodman, William

    2004-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...

  9. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  10. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  11. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  12. The Team Approach to Pain Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... Roberts is seen here with some of the team members, (left to right) Dr. Berger, Jacques Bolle, ...

  13. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  14. Effects of yeast stress and pH on 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD)-producing reactions in model dough systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C G; Sadd, P A

    2005-07-01

    A major precursor of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in leavened cereal products is glycerol, which is formed as a natural by-product of yeast fermentation. However, yeast metabolism is affected by stresses such as low osmotic pressure from, for example, the incorporation of sugar or salt in the dough recipe. Tests with model doughs have shown that glycerol production was proportional to yeast mass and limited by available sugars, but that high levels of yeast inhibited 3-MCPD formation. The yeast fraction responsible for the inhibition of 3-MCPD in model dough was shown to be the soluble cytosol proteins, and the inhibition mechanism could be explained by the known reactions of 3-MCPD and/or its precursors with ammonia/amino acids (from yeast proteins). Added glucose did not increase the production of glycerol by yeast but it did promote the generation of 3-MCPD in cooked doughs. The latter effect was attributed to the removal of 3-MCPD inhibitors such as ammonia and amino acids by their reactions with added glucose (e.g. Maillard). The thermal generation of organic acids from added glucose also reduced the pH of cooked doughs, so the effect of pH and short-chain organic acids on 3-MCPD generation in dough was measured. There was a good correlation between initial dough pH and the level of 3-MCPD generated. The effect was weaker than that predicted by simple kinetic modelling, suggesting that the involvement of H+ and/or the organic acid was catalytic. The results showed that modifications to dough recipes involving the addition of reducing sugars and/or organic acids can have a significant impact on 3-MPCD generation in bakery products.

  15. Application of x-ray residual stress measurement to products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Iwamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    The X-ray residual stress measuring method is the only nondestructive method for measuring residual stress in polycrystalline materials. It is capable of obtaining information not only on macroscopic stress but also microscopic stress. The authors are employing this method for the development of pre-service and in-service inspection methods and for the improvement of various manufacturing techniques. In this paper, the results of measurement of some products as examples of its application are described. The examples introduced concern the following: (1) Selection of optimum conditions in heat treatment and stress-relief treatment. (2) Residual stress produced by mechanical processes such as autofrettage and flow form. (3) Check of manufacturing processes of rotary shaft and welded parts. (4) Estimation of fatigue strength of shot-peened part. (5) Detection of fatigue damage of shot-peened part. (auth.)

  16. Identified peptidergic neurons in the Drosophila brain regulate insulin-producing cells, stress responses and metabolism by coexpressed short neuropeptide F and corazonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Neval; Lushchak, Oleh V; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R

    2012-12-01

    Insulin/IGF-like signaling regulates the development, growth, fecundity, metabolic homeostasis, stress resistance and lifespan in worms, flies and mammals. Eight insulin-like peptides (DILP1-8) are found in Drosophila. Three of these (DILP2, 3 and 5) are produced by a set of median neurosecretory cells (insulin-producing cells, IPCs) in the brain. Activity in the IPCs of adult flies is regulated by glucose and several neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. One of these, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), regulates food intake, growth and Dilp transcript levels in IPCs via the sNPF receptor (sNPFR1) expressed on IPCs. Here we identify a set of brain neurons that utilizes sNPF to activate the IPCs. These sNPF-expressing neurons (dorsal lateral peptidergic neurons, DLPs) also produce the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) and have axon terminations impinging on IPCs. Knockdown of either sNPF or CRZ in DLPs extends survival in flies exposed to starvation and alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Expression of sNPF in DLPs in the sNPF mutant background is sufficient to rescue wild-type metabolism and response to starvation. Since CRZ receptor RNAi in IPCs affects starvation resistance and metabolism, similar to peptide knockdown in DLPs, it is likely that also CRZ targets the IPCs. Knockdown of sNPF, but not CRZ in DLPs decreases transcription of Dilp2 and 5 in the brain, suggesting different mechanisms of action on IPCs of the two co-released peptides. Our findings indicate that sNPF and CRZ co-released from a small set of neurons regulate IPCs, stress resistance and metabolism in adult Drosophila.

  17. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  18. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  19. The role of biological activity of hydrohumate, produced from peat, in formation of adaptive response of rats under influence of chronic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyanna, O. L.; Chorna, V. I.; Stepchenko, L. M.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that humic compounds are the most distributed in nature among the organic matter. It is believed that humic polyphenol preparations, produced from the peat, represent adaptogenes and immunomodulators. But the total mechanism of their adaptogenic action is still completely unclear. In response to extraordinary irritant action, one of the most sensitive to stress and highly reactive systems of organism, endosomal-lysosomal cellular apparatus takes part. It is believed that humic compounds are able to penetrate through plasmatic membrane and by this way to affect on lysosomal proteases function. Among the wide range of lysosomal proteases, cysteine cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) was in interest due to its powerful endopeptidase activity and widespread localization. Purpose. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of humic acids on intracellular proteolysis in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats in adaptive-restorative processes developing in rat organisms as a result of chronic stress action. The experiment was held on Wistar's rats (160-200 g weight) which were divided into 4 groups: 1 - the control group; 2 - the animals which were received the hydrohumate with water (10 mg hydrohumate (0,1% solution) per 1 kg of weight) during 3 weeks; 3 - the group of stressed rats (test "forced swimming" for 2 hours); 4 - the stressed rats which received the hydrohumate. The activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L was determined spectrophotometrically by usage 1% azocasein, denaturated by 3 M urea, as substrate. It was obtained that under hydrohumate influence the activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L in rat blood plasma changed on 20% in comparison with control group that is suggested to be caused by leakage of tissue cathepsins from organs and tissues and kidneys' filtration of these cysteine enzymes in urine. In rat heart tissues it was obtained that cathepsin L activity level was on 26,8% higher in rats which were under stress influence in

  20. Optimal Laser Phototherapy Parameters for Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J; Rubatt, Sarah; Enwemeka, Chukuka S; Huddleston, Wendy E

    2018-03-27

    Studies on laser phototherapy for pain relief have used parameters that vary widely and have reported varying outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal parameter ranges of laser phototherapy for pain relief by analyzing data aggregated from existing primary literature. Original studies were gathered from available sources and were screened to meet the pre-established inclusion criteria. The included articles were then subjected to meta-analysis using Cohen's d statistic for determining treatment effect size. From these studies, ranges of the reported parameters that always resulted into large effect sizes were determined. These optimal ranges were evaluated for their accuracy using leave-one-article-out cross-validation procedure. A total of 96 articles met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis and yielded 232 effect sizes. The average effect size was highly significant: d = +1.36 (confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.04-1.68). Among all the parameters, total energy was found to have the greatest effect on pain relief and had the most prominent optimal ranges of 120-162 and 15.36-20.16 J, which always resulted in large effect sizes. The cross-validation accuracy of the optimal ranges for total energy was 68.57% (95% CI = 53.19-83.97). Fewer and less-prominent optimal ranges were obtained for the energy density and duration parameters. None of the remaining parameters was found to be independently related to pain relief outcomes. The findings of meta-analysis indicate that laser phototherapy is highly effective for pain relief. Based on the analysis of parameters, total energy can be optimized to yield the largest effect on pain relief.

  1. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  2. Finite element method (FEM) model of the mechanical stress on phospholipid membranes from shock waves produced in nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald; Roth, Caleb C.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Beier, Hope; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2015-03-01

    The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nanoporation of phospholipid membranes by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsEP) remains unknown. The passage of a high electric field through a conductive medium creates two primary contributing factors that may induce poration: the electric field interaction at the membrane and the shockwave produced from electrostriction of a polar submersion medium exposed to an electric field. Previous work has focused on the electric field interaction at the cell membrane, through such models as the transport lattice method. Our objective is to model the shock wave cell membrane interaction induced from the density perturbation formed at the rising edge of a high voltage pulse in a polar liquid resulting in a shock wave propagating away from the electrode toward the cell membrane. Utilizing previous data from cell membrane mechanical parameters, and nsEP generated shockwave parameters, an acoustic shock wave model based on the Helmholtz equation for sound pressure was developed and coupled to a cell membrane model with finite-element modeling in COMSOL. The acoustic structure interaction model was developed to illustrate the harmonic membrane displacements and stresses resulting from shockwave and membrane interaction based on Hooke's law. Poration is predicted by utilizing membrane mechanical breakdown parameters including cortical stress limits and hydrostatic pressure gradients.

  3. Melatonin-producing endophytic bacteria from grapevine roots promote the abiotic stress-induced production of endogenous melatonin in their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with plants and constitute an important source of phytohormones and bioactive secondary metabolites for their hosts. To date, most studies of endophytes have focused on the influence of these microorganisms on plant growth and physiology and their role in plant defenses against biotic and abiotic stressors; however, to the best of our knowledge, the ability of endophytes to produce melatonin has not been reported. In the present study, we isolated and identified root-dwelling bacteria from three grapevine varieties and found that, when cultured under laboratory conditions, some of the bacteria strains secreted melatonin and tryptophan-ethyl ester. The endophytic bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SB-9 exhibited the highest level of in vitro melatonin secretion and also produced three intermediates of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway: 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin. After B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 colonization, the plantlets exhibited increased plant growth. Additionally, we found that, in grapevine plantlets exposed to salt or drought stress, colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 increased the upregulation of melatonin synthesis, as well as that of its intermediates, but reduced the upregulation of grapevine tryptophan decaboxylase genes (VvTDCs and a serotonin N-acetyltransferase gene (VvSNAT transcription, when compared to the un-inoculated control. Colonization by B. amyloliquefaciens SB-9 was also able to counteract the adverse effects of salt- and drought-induced stress by reducing the production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2− in roots. Therefore, our findings demonstrate the occurrence of melatonin biosynthesis in endophytic bacteria and provide evidence for a novel form of communication between beneficial endophytes and host plants via melatonin.

  4. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities § 965.508 Individual...

  5. Emergency networking: famine relief in ant colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sendova-Franks, A.B.; Hayward, R.; Wulf, B.; Klimek, T.; James, R.; Planque, R.; Britton, N.F.; Franks, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Resource distribution is fundamental to social organization, but it poses a dilemma. How to facilitate the spread of useful resources but restrict harmful substances? This dilemma reaches a zenith in famine relief. Survival depends on distributing food fast but that could increase vulnerability to

  6. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs...). Because these actions can quickly impede military functions, immediate and decisive action must be taken...

  7. 78 FR 19136 - Emergency Relief Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... issuing this interim final rule in order to comply with the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013... FTA-2013-0004. All electronic submissions must be made to the U.S. Government electronic site at http... operating costs in the event of a catastrophic event, such as a natural disaster, that affects a wide area...

  8. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Joy L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress, sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

  9. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  10. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  11. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  12. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  13. Workplace Stress Relief (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-31

    Workers in manual labor and service industry jobs are at particular risk for heart attacks and strokes. This podcast discusses the importance of health promotion in the workplace.  Created: 7/31/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 7/31/2014.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of spring-loaded pressure relief valves under seismic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dongwei; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Xinhai

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation method of spring-loaded pressure relief valve was established. The dynamic performances of the fluid regions and the stress and strain of the structure regions were calculated at the same time by accurately setting up the contact pairs between the solid parts and the coupling surfaces between the fluid regions and the structure regions. A two way fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of a simplified pressure relief valve model was carried out. The influence of vertical sinusoidal seismic waves on the performance of the pressure relief valve was preliminarily investigated by loading sine waves. Under vertical seismic waves, the pressure relief valve will flutter, and the reseating pressure was affected by the amplitude and frequency of the seismic waves. This simulation method of the pressure relief valve under vertical seismic waves can provide effective means for investigating the seismic performances of the valves, and make up for the shortcomings of the experiment.

  15. Experimental Validation of the LHC Helium Relief System Flow Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Fydrych, J; Riddone, G

    2006-01-01

    In case of simultaneous resistive transitions in a whole sector of magnets in the Large Hadron Collider, the helium would be vented from the cold masses to a dedicated recovery system. During the discharge the cold helium will eventually enter a pipe at room temperature. During the first period of the flow the helium will be heated intensely due to the pipe heat capacity. To study the changes of the helium thermodynamic and flow parameters we have simulated numerically the most critical flow cases. To verify and validate numerical results, a dedicated laboratory test rig representing the helium relief system has been designed and commissioned. Both numerical and experimental results allow us to determine the distributions of the helium parameters along the pipes as well as mechanical strains and stresses.

  16. Metabolic flux rearrangement in the amino acid metabolism reduces ammonia stress in the α1-antitrypsin producing human AGE1.HN cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesnitz, Christian; Niklas, Jens; Rose, Thomas; Sandig, Volker; Heinzle, Elmar

    2012-03-01

    This study focused on metabolic changes in the neuronal human cell line AGE1.HN upon increased ammonia stress. Batch cultivations of α(1)-antitrypsin (A1AT) producing AGE1.HN cells were carried out in media with initial ammonia concentrations ranging from 0mM to 5mM. Growth, A1AT production, metabolite dynamics and finally metabolic fluxes calculated by metabolite balancing were compared. Growth and A1AT production decreased with increasing ammonia concentration. The maximum A1AT concentration decreased from 0.63g/l to 0.51g/l. Central energy metabolism remained relatively unaffected exhibiting only slightly increased glycolytic flux at high initial ammonia concentration in the medium. However, the amino acid metabolism was significantly changed. Fluxes through transaminases involved in amino acid degradation were reduced concurrently with a reduced uptake of amino acids. On the other hand fluxes through transaminases working in the direction of amino acid synthesis, i.e., alanine and phosphoserine, were increased leading to increased storage of excess nitrogen in extracellular alanine and serine. Glutamate dehydrogenase flux was reversed increasingly fixing free ammonia with increasing ammonia concentration. Urea production additionally observed was associated with arginine uptake by the cells and did not increase at high ammonia stress. It was therefore not used as nitrogen sink to remove excess ammonia. The results indicate that the AGE1.HN cell line can adapt to ammonia concentrations usually present during the cultivation process to a large extent by changing metabolism but with slightly reduced A1AT production and growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...

  18. Mechanical Designs for Relief Valves for Cryogenic Apparatuses and Installations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    There are also pressure relief valves with warm seat available on which the set pressure is based on an adjustment of forces by permanent magnets. Pressure vessel rules allows also the choice for an active triggered pressure relief valve (Cont...

  19. Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Lerner

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS may be inhaled directly into the lung during a "vaping" session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used, and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292 in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that

  20. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Champagnac Jean Daniel; Valla Pierre G.; Herman Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present review paper is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief. Different meanings of the word "relief" as it is commonly used and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily low temperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides) and analyze published evidence for different regions.Our review first shows that relief changes and rates of changes a...

  1. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN 1997) (a) Prices set forth in this contract are exclusive of all taxes and duties from which the United...

  3. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....52 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief... issuance of temporary relief, the Commission will be guided by practice under Rule 65 of the Federal Rules...

  4. Photobiomodulation: Implications for Anesthesia and Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Roberta T; Armati, Patricia J

    2016-12-01

    This review examines the evidence of neural inhibition as a mechanism underlying pain relief and anesthetic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM). PBM for pain relief has also been used for more than 30 years; however, the mechanism of its effectiveness has not been well understood. We review electrophysiological studies in humans and animal models and cell culture studies to examine neural responses to PBM. Evidence shows that PBM can inhibit nerve function in vivo, in situ, ex vivo, and in culture. Animal studies using noxious stimuli indicate nociceptor-specific inhibition with other studies providing direct evidence of local conduction block, leading to inhibited translation of pain centrally. Evidence of PBM-disrupted neuronal physiology affecting axonal flow, cytoskeleton organization, and decreased ATP is also presented. PBM changes are reversible with no side effects or nerve damage. This review provides strong evidence in neuroscience identifying inhibition of neural function as a mechanism for the clinical application of PBM in pain and anesthesia.

  5. Prescription opioid use among addictions treatment patients: nonmedical use for pain relief vs. other forms of nonmedical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy S B; Eisenberg, Anna; Whiteside, Lauren; Price, Amanda; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Ilgen, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    Differences between those who engage in nonmedical prescription opioid use for reasons other than pain relief and those who engage in nonmedical use for reasons related to pain only are not well understood. Adults in a residential treatment program participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey. Participants reported whether they used opioids for reasons other than pain relief (e.g., help sleep, improve mood, or relieve stress). Within those with past-month nonmedical opioid use (n=238), logistic regression tested differences between those who reported use for reasons other than pain relief and those who did not. Nonmedical use of opioids for reasons other than pain relief was more common (66%) than nonmedical use for pain relief only (34%), and those who used for reasons other than pain relief were more likely to report heavy use (43% vs. 11%). Nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief was associated with having a prior overdose (odds ratio [OR]=2.54, 95% CI: 1.36-4.74) and use of heroin (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.89-8.79), barbiturates (OR=6.44, 95% CI: 1.47, 28.11), and other sedatives (OR=5.80, 95% CI: 2.61, 12.87). Individuals who reported nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief had greater depressive symptoms (13.1 vs. 10.5) and greater pain medication expectancies across all three domains (pleasure/social enhancement, pain reduction, negative experience reduction). Among patients in addictions treatment, individuals who report nonmedical use of prescription opioids for reasons other than pain relief represent an important clinical sub-group with greater substance use severity and poorer mental health functioning. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Reward and relief craving tendencies in patients with alcohol use disorders: results from the PREDICT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner-Rist, Angelika; Lémenager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl

    2013-02-01

    Previous research suggests that patients' tendencies toward either reward or relief craving are distinct continuous factorial dimensions of craving for alcohol. According to these tendencies patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) might also be allocated into distinct subgroups. In personalized treatment, patients of such different subgroups might respond differently to various psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions aimed at relapse prevention. To establish that the items of the subscale Temptation to Drink of the Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASE) capture two continuous dimensions of reward and relief craving, and that they allow the identification of respective discrete class factors and subgroups of patients with AUD. Nonlinear confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and latent class factor analysis (LCFA) were performed with data from 426 detoxified patients with AUD. The validity of continuous relief and reward dimensions, discrete class factors, and subtypes with different craving tendencies was established by including past drinking in positive and negative settings, gender, trait anxiety and perceived stress as covariates in the finally accepted CFA and LCFA measurement models. The AASE temptation items formed two continuous relief and reward craving factors. They also associated themselves to two binary class factors, which defined four craving subgroups. Two of them (21% and 29% of patients) were characterized by high levels of either reward or relief craving tendencies. A third subgroup (31%) rated both tendencies in an equal high measure, while a fourth (18%) reported almost no craving tendencies at all. Past drinking in negative and positive settings was significantly associated with relief or reward craving tendencies. Male patients reported reward drinking more frequently than female patients. Trait anxiety was positively related only to the relief craving tendency. Unexpectedly, patients' level of perceived stress was associated

  7. Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    eventually guide vehicles in cooperation with its Operator(s), but in this paper we assume static mission goals, a fixed number of vehicles, and a...is tedious and error prone. Kress-Gazit et al. (2009) instead synthesize an FSA from an LTL specification using a game theory approach (Bloem et al...helping an Operator coordinate a team of vehicles in Disaster Relief. Acknowledgements Thanks to OSD ASD (R&E) for sponsoring this research. The

  8. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  9. Venting of gas deflagrations through relief pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safety locations by means of relief pipes for the discharge of hot combustion products or blast waves (NFPA 68, 2002). The presence of the duct is likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to simply vented vessels posing a problem for the proper design of this venting configuration. The phenomenology of the vented explosion is complicated as the interaction of combustion in the duct with primary combustion in...

  10. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  11. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  12. Quantifying relief on alluvial fans using airborne lidar to reveal patterns of sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a method of quantifying detailed surface relief on alluvial fans from high-resolution topography. Average slope and curvature of the fan are used together to empirically derive an idealized, radially symmetric fan surface, from which we compute residual topography. Maps produced using this technique highlight spatial patterns of fan deposition and avulsion. Regions of high residual topography reveal active and abandoned sediment lobes accumulated from recent depositional events, often with well-defined channels at their apex. Preliminary observations suggest that surface relief is uniform across a collection of fans in a given region and source lithology. Alluvial fans with granitic catchment lithologies in eastern California (n=12), each with varying source catchment size and mean fan slope, all show relief of around 4 meters. A collection of fans from the Carrizo Plain in central California (n=12), with source catchments set within Miocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, show significantly lower relief values around 2 meters. We hypothesize that particle grain size determines this contrasting relief through its control on the thickness of fan-building debris flows. In both settings we find that sediment lobes tend to extend toward the fan toe. This pattern supports a process, observed in analog experiments, of fan deposition dominated by back-filling and overtopping of distributary channels by debris-flows.

  13. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  14. The Comparing of Psychological Status of Active and Inactive Relief Workers in Traffic Accident in Red Cross of Karaj Township in 1391

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Amini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents are major result of death and disability that their victims need relief Relief worker who do this, are at risk of psychological disorder because of Overwhelming accident and rescue work-related stress .It is necessary to be evaluated their psychological status for giving them psychological support. This study was conducted to compare the mental state in active and inactive relief workers in traffic accident in Karaj red cross in1391. Methods: This descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study was done among both of active and inactive relief worker in traffic accident in Karaj red cross. Data collection tool were demographic questionnaire and Standard questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress. Collected data was analysed by SPSS16. Results: Result showed that there is no significant difference between mean of depression, stress and anxiety score in both of them(P>0.05, also there is no significant relationship between psychological status with age, educational level, work backward and marital status but stress and marital status in inactive group was significant(P<0.05. Conclusion: It appears besides traffic accident relief worker, inactive relief worker need more attention and scale up psychological support programs and psychological disorder screening. Also it is proposed to do similar study in larger scale.

  15. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice

  16. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.

    1978-01-18

    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.

  17. Pain relief in labour: tramadol versus pentazocine

    OpenAIRE

    Kavita Chandnani; H. B. Sainee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of 100 mg intramuscular tramadol to 30 mg intramuscular Pentazocine for labour analgesia. Methods: A total of 60 cases with 37-40 weeks pregnancy in labour, without any foetal or maternal complications were selected. Out of them Inj. Tramadol was given to 30 cases while rest of the 30 patients received injection Pentazocine. Results: In Tramadol group pain relief was observed in 80% cases, effect started as early as 7-8 min an...

  18. Targinact--opioid pain relief without constipation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Targinact (Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is a modified-release combination product containing the strong opioid oxycodone plus the opioid antagonist naloxone. It is licensed for "severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics".1 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that "naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut". Advertising for the product claims "better pain relief", "superior GI [gastrointestinal] tolerability" and "improved quality of life" "compared to previous treatment in a clinical practice study (n=7836)". Here we consider whether Targinact offers advantages over using strong opioids plus laxatives where required.

  19. [Body integrity identity disorder, relief after amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M

    2014-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later.

  20. Pain relief by Cyberknife radiosurgery for spinal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunyoung; Chun, Mison

    2012-01-01

    To report pain relief effect in patients with spinal metastases treated with Cyberknife® and to analyze the factors associated with pain relapse after initial pain relief. We retrospectively analyzed patients with spinal metastasis treated with stereotactic body radiosurgery between April 2007 and June 2009. A total of 57 patients with 73 lesions were available for analysis with a median follow-up of 6.8 months (range, 1-30). Pain was assessed by a verbal/visual analogue scale at each visit: from 0 to 10. Pain relief was defined as a decrease of at least three levels of the pain score without an increase in analgesic use. Complete relief was defined as no analgesics or a score 0 or 1. Pain relief was achieved in 88% of the lesions, with complete relief in 51% within 7 days from the start of radiosurgery. The median duration of pain relief was 3.2 months (range, 1-30). Pain reappeared in 16 patients (27%). Spinal cord compression (P = 0.001) and performance status (P = 0.01) were predictive of pain relapse by multivariate Cox analysis. All 6 patients treated with solitary spinal metastasis experienced pain relief; 5 of them were alive without evidence of disease at a median of 16 months (range, 7-30). As previous studies have shown, our study confirms that pain relief with spinal radiosurgery is around 90%. In particular, long-term pain relief and disease control was observed in patients with solitary spinal metastasis.

  1. Analysis of the sintering stresses and shape distortion produced in co-firing of CGO-LSM/CGO bi-layer porous structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo; Schmidt, Cristine Grings

    such as cracks, de-lamination and shape distortion can result as a consequence of sintering mismatch stresses caused by the strain rate difference between layers. This work seeks to understand the underlying mechanisms that occur during the co-firing of porous CGO-LSM/CGO bi-layer laminates, by evaluating...... the sintering mismatch stress and distortion development through modeling and experiments....

  2. Transient stresses al Parkfield, California, produced by the M 7.4 Landers earthquake of June 28, 1992: implications for the time-dependence of fault friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Fletcher

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available he M 7.4 Landers earthquake triggered widespread seismicity in the Western U.S. Because the transient dynamic stresses induced at regional distances by the Landers surface waves are much larger than the expected static stresses, the magnitude and the characteristics of the dynamic stresses may bear upon the earthquake triggering mechanism. The Landers earthquake was recorded on the UPSAR array, a group of 14 triaxial accelerometers located within a 1-square-km region 10 km southwest of the town of Parkfield, California, 412 km northwest of the Landers epicenter. We used a standard geodetic inversion procedure to determine the surface strain and stress tensors as functions of time from the observed dynamic displacements. Peak dynamic strains and stresses at the Earth's surface are about 7 microstrain and 0.035 MPa, respectively, and they have a flat amplitude spectrum between 2 s and 15 s period. These stresses agree well with stresses predicted from a simple rule of thumb based upon the ground velocity spectrum observed at a single station. Peak stresses ranged from about 0.035 MPa at the surface to about 0.12 MPa between 2 and 14 km depth, with the sharp increase of stress away from the surface resulting from the rapid increase of rigidity with depth and from the influence of surface wave mode shapes. Comparison of Landers-induced static and dynamic stresses at the hypocenter of the Big Bear aftershock provides a clear example that faults are stronger on time scales of tens of seconds than on time scales of hours or longer.

  3. Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    .... Reducing this debt to a sustainable level has been a priority of the U.S. government. Since 2003, debt relief negotiations have taken place in a variety of fora and led to the cancellation of a significant amount of Iraq's external debt...

  4. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  5. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-01-01

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT(reg s ign) model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is ∼37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  6. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition

  7. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyars, W. M. [Fermilab

    1999-01-01

    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  8. Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londeree, Ben R.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)

  9. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Kwan, Saskia; Ahmed, Alysha-Karima; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

  10. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan

    2005-01-01

    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  11. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  12. Residual-stress distributions near stainless steel butt weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elligson, W.A.; Shack, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Concern for the integrity of stainless steel butt-weldments in boiling-water-reactor (BWR) piping systems has stimulated study of the conditions that cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the weldments. It is generally agreed that a high stress exceeding the initial yield strength is one of the essential elements for crack initiation. Since design procedures usually ensure that load stresses are below initial yield, the source of the high stresses necessary to produce SCC is thought to be the residual stresses due to welding. To examine the level of residual stresses in the weldments of interest, bulk residual stresses were measured on 100 mm (4-in.) and 254 mm (10-in.) diameter Schedule 80 piping weldments using strain relief techniques. Both laboratory welded specimens and field welded specimens from reactors in service were studied. Axial bulk residual stress distributions were obtained at 45 0 intervals around the circumference. At each azimuthal position, the residual stresses were measured at seven axial positions: on the weld centerline and 13, 20, and 25 mm on either side of the weld centerline on both the inside and outside surfaces

  13. Rheological characterization of asphalt binders used in strain relief asphalt mixtures (SRAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.; Bariani Bernucci, Liedi Legi; Midori Takahashi, Marcia; Castelo-Branco, Verônica T. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of ´interlayers´ that tolerate high tensile and shear strain that exists above cracks in deteriorated pavements is becoming an interesting solution to prevent reflective cracking. Recent advances in polymer technology have led to binders that can be used to produce interlayer mixtures with good mechanical properties. In this study, two polymer-modified asphalt binders were evaluated, both from the production of strain relief asphalt mixtures used as interlayers in the field. ...

  14. Residual stresses in weld-clad reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram, W.

    1975-01-01

    Cladding of low alloy nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel with austenitic stainless steel introduces in heavy section components high residual stresses which may cause microcrack formation in stress relief heat treatment. In this investigation an attempt is made to contribute to the solution of the stress relief cracking problem by determining quantitatively the magnitude and distribution of the residual stresses after cladding and after subsequent stress relief heat treatment. The distribution of residual stresses was determined on the basis of a combined experimental-mathematical procedure. Heavy section plate specimens of low alloy steel as base material were given an austenitic monolayer-cladding using the techniques of strip electrode and plasma hot wire cladding, respectively. A number of plates was stress relief heat treated. Starting from the cladded surface the thickness of the plates was reduced by subsequent removal of layers of material. The elastic strain reaction to the removal of each layer was measured by strain gauges. From the data obtained the biaxial residual stress distribution was computed as a function of thickness using relations which are derived for this particular case. In summary, lower residual stresses are caused by reduced thickness of the components. As the heat input, is decreased at identical base material thickness, the residual stresses are lowered also. The height of the tensile residual stress peak, however, remains approximataly constant. In stress relief annealed condition the residual stresses in the cladding are in tension; in the base material the residual stresses are negligibly small

  15. Sporothrix brasiliensis produces the highest levels of oxidative stress in a murine model among the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Nunes Mario

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared indicators of oxidative stress in the tissue of mice infected with strains from Sporothrix schenckii complex. METHODS: Mice were inoculated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana or Sporothrix albicans. The activity of catalase and glutathione were accessed in the liver and spleen. RESULTS: Animals infected with S. brasiliensis exhibited splenomegaly and significant decrease in catalase activity, and protein and non-protein thiol content compared to animals infected with the other species. CONCLUSIONS: Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibits higher pathogenicity compared to other species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by increasing oxidative stress in animal tissue.

  16. Reward, motivation and emotion of pain and its relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Frank; Navratilova, Edita

    2016-01-01

    The experience of pain depends on interpretation of context and past experience that guide the choice of an immediate behavioral response and influence future decisions of actions to avoid harm. The aversive qualities of pain underlie its physiological role in learning and motivation. In this review, we highlight findings from human and animal investigations that suggest that both pain, and the relief of pain, are complex emotions that are comprised of feelings and their motivational consequences. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. How relief of pain aversiveness occurs is not well understood. Termination of aversive states can directly provide relief as well as reinforce behaviors that result in avoidance of pain. Emerging preclinical data also suggests that relief may elicit a positive hedonic value that results from activation of neural cortical and mesolimbic brain circuits that may also motivate behavior. Brain circuits mediating the reward of pain relief, as well as relief-induced motivation are significantly impacted as pain becomes chronic. In chronic pain states, the negative motivational value of nociception may be increased while the value of the reward of pain relief may decrease. As a consequence, the impact of pain on these ancient, and conserved brain limbic circuits suggest a path forward for discovery of new pain therapies. PMID:28106670

  17. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relief will MMS grant? 203.53 Section 203.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE...-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant? (a) If we approve your application and you meet...

  18. Bas-Relief Modeling from Normal Images with Intuitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhongping; Ma, Weiyin; Sun, Xianfang

    2014-05-01

    Traditional 3D model-based bas-relief modeling methods are often limited to model-dependent and monotonic relief styles. This paper presents a novel method for digital bas-relief modeling with intuitive style control. Given a composite normal image, the problem discussed in this paper involves generating a discontinuity-free depth field with high compression of depth data while preserving or even enhancing fine details. In our framework, several layers of normal images are composed into a single normal image. The original normal image on each layer is usually generated from 3D models or through other techniques as described in this paper. The bas-relief style is controlled by choosing a parameter and setting a targeted height for them. Bas-relief modeling and stylization are achieved simultaneously by solving a sparse linear system. Different from previous work, our method can be used to freely design bas-reliefs in normal image space instead of in object space, which makes it possible to use any popular image editing tools for bas-relief modeling. Experiments with a wide range of 3D models and scenes show that our method can effectively generate digital bas-reliefs.

  19. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.

    2009-01-01

    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on

  20. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3...

  1. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... meetings to which the telecommunications industry and the public are invited on area code relief for a... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING...

  2. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W; Seymour, Ben

    2018-02-27

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty ('associability') signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. © 2018, Zhang et al.

  3. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W

    2018-01-01

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty (‘associability’) signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. PMID:29482716

  4. Visual expression analysis of the responses of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses in conidia of citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuki; Hattori, Takasumi; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2012-03-01

    The citric acid-producing filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger WU-2223L shows cyanide-insensitive respiration catalyzed by alternative oxidase in addition to the cytochrome pathway. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking region of the alternative oxidase gene (aox1) revealed a potential heat shock element (HSE) and a stress response element (STRE). We have previously confirmed aox1 expression in conidia. In this study, to confirm whether the upstream region of aox1 responds to various stresses, we used a visual expression analysis system for single-cell conidia of the A. niger strain AOXEGFP-1. This strain harbored a fusion gene comprising aox1 and egfp, which encodes the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fluorescence intensity of EGFP increased in conidia of A. niger AOXEGFP-1 that were subjected to heat shock at 35-45 °C, oxidative stress by exposure to 5mM paraquat or 1 mM t-butylhydroperoxide, or osmotic stresses by exposure to 0.5 M KCl or 1.0 M mannitol. These results indicate that the putative HSE and STRE in the upstream region of aox1 directly or indirectly respond to heat shock, oxidative, and osmotic stresses. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of reward from pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief. PMID:23496247

  6. Technology and Information Sharing in Disaster Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter; Raju, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA). The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.

  7. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries.

  8. Technology and Information Sharing in Disaster Relief.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikte Bjerge

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS under the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA. The online platform, which has been developing for more than a decade, provides a unique insight into coordination behaviour among disaster management agencies and individual actors. We build our study on the analysis of a complete database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led to increases in user activity. We supplement the data-driven approach with evidence from semi-structured interviews with administrators and key users, as well as a survey among all users specifically designed to capture and assess the elements highlighted by both interviews and data analysis.

  9. Technology for a Social Cause: Formulated Emergency Relief Foods for Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia V. Azanza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study details how ready-to-eat (RTE rice and rice-cornstarch noodle (bihon product formulations of the College of Home Economics (CHE of the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD were used to produce emergency relief foods for the survivors of super typhoon Yolanda (international name: Haiyan in the Philippines. The RTE products were developed using established pasteurization technologies covered with commercial sterility test certifications from the Pilot Food Plant (PFP of UPD-CHE and published food safety considerations for acidified foods. They do not require any cooking or reheating before consumption. They were prescribed with a one-month shelflife at ambient storage temperature (28±2°C during deployment as relief foods. About 5,000 and 3,000 production units of the RTE cooked rice (200 g/pack and bihon (150 g/pack, respectively, were produced at the PFP. Around 300 volunteers composed of faculty, staff, alumni, students, and acquaintances of UPD-CHE’s departments and organizations manned the two-week staggered production, scheduled from late November to the f irst week of December 2013. In cooperation with organizations and private entities, the RTE products were deployed without cost from UPD to the stricken areas of Aklan, Iloilo, and Leyte. Feedback from the recipients of the products was favorable, indicating that the RTE foods are useful as emergency relief ration.

  10. Structural analysis strategies of the pressurized relief and safety valves discharge piping of NPP Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Maria Ines Prates de; Kuramoto, Edson; Suanno, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    The pressurizer relief and safety valve system provides the reactor coolant system overpressure protection and, therefore, it is fundamental for the security of a nuclear plant. This paper discusses the safety valve loop seal strategies adopted by others nuclear power plants over the world in order to attend the recommendations of NUREG-0578 (TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Force Status Report and Short Term Recommendations). The technical option adopted for Angra 1 consists in making specific modifications on the original piping and support configuration of the pressurizer relief and safety valve system. These modifications were proposed in order to reduce the high stress levels induced by the thermal-hydrodynamic loads caused by the discharge of the sub-cooled water during the opening of the relief or the safety valves. Several thermal-hydraulic models were tested to assess the influence of the seal water heating and the simultaneous opening of the valves in order to minimize the thermal hydrodynamic loads effects. The piping structural analysis was performed, using the computer program system KWUROHR, to satisfy the requirements of the appropriate equations of the code ASME Section III, Subsections NB3650 and NC3650. (author)

  11. Effect of shot peening treatment in the behavior of residual stress in duplex stainless steel during medium cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, Peter D.S.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A.; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime of duplex stainless steel parts experiencing cyclic fatigue is directly influenced by the residual stresses present in the ferrite and austenite phases. The motivation for this work was to analyze the behaviour of the residual stresses fields introduced by shot peening treatment in both phases, in the sample surface as in the subsurface layers, in low fatigue cycles, using the X-rays diffraction technique. The results shows that the compressive residual stresses introduced by the shot peening treatment in both phases improved fatigue life of the material. However, the cyclical loads produce partial or total relief in these residual stresses fields. It was verified that the shot peening process induced the formation of microcracks only in the ferrite phase. The largest variations in the total compressive residual stresses fields also occurred in this phase. The samples surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  12. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  13. Assessment of plantar pressure in forefoot relief shoes of different designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Hans-Dieter; Pfander, David; Swoboda, Bernd

    2006-02-01

    After reconstructive forefoot surgery, patients require complete or partial forefoot relief, which can be obtained with a variety of shoe designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two different types of forefoot-relief shoes frequently used after surgery, especially their safety against unintentional forefoot load. Ten healthy volunteers were asked to perform five trials on a treadmill at self-selected speeds. In the first trial, mean peak pressure values in mass-produced shoes and insoles were evaluated and considered as 100%. Two different shoe designs (short heel-short sole, ii: short heel-complete sole) were compared in two trials each with appropriate and inappropriate use (attempting to put weight on the forefoot) gait pattern. Plantar pressure values were obtained using the Pedar cable system (Novel Inc., Munich, Germany). For analysis, pedobarographic pictures were subdivided into midfoot (31% to 60% of the total insole length) and forefoot (61% to 100% of the total insole length). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, and p values less than 0.01 were considered significant. With the short-soled shoe, forefoot and midfoot relief was 100% in both compliant and in noncompliant use. With wearing a complete sole, compliant use led to a significant reduction (p shoe produced mean peak pressure values significantly higher (p shoes under the forefoot, but not under the midfoot. Forefoot-relief shoes are effective in reducing both mean and peak plantar pressures. Shoes with a nonsupported midfoot and forefoot may be safer with inappropriate use than shoes with a complete sole. The kind of forefoot shoe should be carefully chosen to regulate weightbearing after reconstructive forefoot surgery.

  14. Temperature effect on the formation of a relief of diamond-like carbon coatings and its modification by ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubshtein, A.P.; Trakhtenberg, I.Sh.; Yugov, V.A.; Vladimirov, A.B.; Plotnikov, S.A.; Ponosov, Yu.S

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of pulsed arc sputtering of a graphite target the diamond-like coatings (DLC) ∼1.5 μm thick are deposited on a steel R6M5 substrate. The relief of the coatings obtained under various temperature conditions is investigated. Variations of carbon DLC surfaces are followed after their bombardment with accelerated argon or chemically active oxygen ions. Argon ion bombardment is established to be preferred for producing a smoothed-out DLC relief. It is shown that a DLC relief should be taken into account when measuring microhardness. It is recommended that transformation of interatomic bonds in irradiated subsurface layers be taken into consideration if information index of methods applied constitutes several monolayers [ru

  15. Study of relief systems behavior in shipping terminals; Estudo do comportamento de sistemas de alivio em dutos de terminais maritimos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Luis F.G.; Ladeia, Renata C. da Cunha; Ortega Malca, Arturo J. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT); Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In order to reduce operational costs, maritime terminals work with high flows transferring product between ships and in shore tanks. To protect the pipeline from any hydraulic transient, relief systems are commonly installed in strategic positions. During the project stage, computational simulation is widely used as auxiliary tool to determine the kind of valve and the place where the relief system must be installed. The present work points out the importance of the kind of valve chosen and its location along the pipeline, and shows that these factors affect directly the surge pressure produced by the valve closure. Besides, it compares a conventional spring-loaded relief valve behavior to a rupture disc one, making use of commercial program tools and employing a model based on the method of the characteristics. (author)

  16. Proceedings: The Appendix 'K' relief workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The licensing and operation of commercial LWRs were impacted significantly when Appendix 'K' requirements for loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) analyses were implemented in 1974. The Appendix K requirements included both criteria and mandatory assumptions for LOCA analysis. Plants must meet these criteria, using analysis methods that have included very conservative assumptions, such as estimating decay heat energy as 20% greater than the 1971 American Nuclear Society standard. Additional constraints were placed on the application of specific models and correlations. The Appendix K requirements had a significant impact on licensing, analysis, fuel design, reload management, plant operation, and some supporting equipment. The overall impact of Appendix K could be translated into increased costs of millions of dollars per year to utilities. The Appendix 'K' Relief Workshop provided an improved understanding of the trade-offs -- both benefits and efforts required -- inherent in continuing to use existing analysis methods or adopting BE analysis under revised NRC rule. A range of options is available to each utility. The workshop explored options and benefits to the utility industry from LOCA/ECCS rule change. A forum for complete and open discussion of the issues germaine to the question of BE methodology versus existing methodology in view of LOCA/ECCS rule changes was incorporated. Both regulatory and utility perspectives on the implementation of proposed changes were discussed. Existing and planned efforts in developing and implementing BE uncertainty methodologies for plant-licensing application have been included. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  17. Safety relief valve alternate analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.H.; Javid, A.; Khatua, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental test program was started in the United States in 1976 to define and quantify Safety Relief Valve (SRV) phenomena in General Electric Mark I Suppression Chambers. The testing considered several discharged devices and was used to correlate SRV load prediction models. The program was funded by utilities with Mark I containments and has resulted in a detailed SRV load definition as a portion of the Mark I containment program Load Definition Report (LDR). The (USNRC) has reviewed and approved the LDR SRV load definition. In addition, the USNRC has permitted calibration of structural models used for predicting torus response to SRV loads. Model calibration is subject to confirmatory in-plant testing. The SRV methodology given in the LDR requires that transient dynamic pressures be applied to a torus structural model that includes a fluid added mass matrix. Preliminary evaluations of torus response have indicated order of magnitude conservatisms, with respect to test results, which could result in unrealistic containment modifications. In addition, structural response trends observed in full-scale tests between cold pipe, first valve actuation and hot pipe, subsequent valve actuation conditions have not been duplicated using current analysis methods. It was suggested by others that an energy approach using current fluid models be utilized to define loads. An alternate SRV analysis method is defined to correct suppression chamber structural response to a level that permits economical but conservative design. Simple analogs are developed for the purpose of correcting the analytical response obtained from LDR analysis methods. Analogs evaluated considered forced vibration and free vibration structural response. The corrected response correlated well with in-plant test response. The correlation of the analytical model at test conditions permits application of the alternate analysis method at design conditions. (orig./HP)

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northwest Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  20. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  1. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  2. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  3. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  4. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  5. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  6. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  7. Knowledge of and attitude towards pain relief during labour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined women's knowledge of and attitudes to pain relief during labour. Methods ... Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa .... Breathing exercises. 25.

  8. Antiemetic Medicines: OTC Relief for Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  9. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti-seizure medications: Relief from nerve pain Anti-seizure drugs often are used to help control the type of ... by damaged nerves. By Mayo Clinic Staff Anti-seizure medications were originally designed to treat people with ...

  10. Engineering and Design. Design, Construction, and Maintenance of Relief Wells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide guidance and information on the design, construction, and maintenance of pressure relief wells installed for the purpose of relieving subsurface hydrostatic...

  11. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or political subdivision. (b) In a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political... private individuals from exercising their rights to seek temporary or preliminary relief on their own...

  12. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M; Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S

    2009-01-01

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  13. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblond, H; Barille, R; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S; Nunzi, J-M [Laboratoire POMA, Universite d' Angers, CNRS FRE 2988, 2, Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S, E-mail: herve.leblond@univ-angers.f [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-10-28

    We develop a model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymer thin films. The model allows us to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows us to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution, with good agreement with experiments.

  14. Retrospection-Simulation-Revision: Approach to the Analysis of the Composition and Characteristics of Medical Waste at a Disaster Relief Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Lihua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A large amount of medical waste is produced during disaster relief, posing a potential hazard to the habitat and the environment. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and characteristics of medical waste that requires management is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for medical waste management. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the characteristics of the medical waste that is generated at disaster relief sites. This paper discusses the analysis of the composition and characteristics of medical waste at a disaster relief site using the retrospection-simulation-revision method. For this study, we obtained 35 medical relief records of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, May 2008 from a field cabin hospital. We first present a retrospective analysis of the relief medical records, and then, we simulate the medical waste generated in the affected areas. We ultimately determine the composition and characteristics of medical waste in the affected areas using untreated medical waste to revise the composition of the simulated medical waste. The results from 35 cases showed that the medical waste generated from disaster relief consists of the following: plastic (43.2%), biomass (26.3%), synthetic fiber (15.3%), rubber (6.6%), liquid (6.6%), inorganic salts (0.3%) and metals (1.7%). The bulk density of medical relief waste is 249 kg/m3, and the moisture content is 44.75%. The data should be provided to assist the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, disposal and contamination control of medical waste in affected areas. In this paper, we wish to introduce this research method of restoring the medical waste generated in disaster relief to readers and researchers. In addition, we hope more disaster relief agencies will become aware of the significance of medical case recording and storing. This may be very important for the environmental evaluation of medical waste in disaster areas, as

  15. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  16. Evaluation of optical data gained by ARAMIS-measurement of abdominal wall movements for an anisotropic pattern design of stress-adapted hernia meshes produced by embroidery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breier, A.; Bittrich, L.; Hahn, J.; Spickenheuer, A.

    2017-10-01

    For the sustainable repair of abdominal wall hernia the application of hernia meshes is required. One reason for the relapse of hernia after surgery is seen in an inadequate adaption of the mechanical properties of the mesh to the movements of the abdominal wall. Differences in the stiffness of the mesh and the abdominal tissue cause tension, friction and stress resulting in a deficient tissue response and subsequently in a recurrence of a hernia, preferentially in the marginal area of the mesh. Embroidery technology enables a targeted influence on the mechanical properties of the generated textile structure by a directed thread deposition. Textile parameters like stitch density, alignment and angle can be changed easily and locally in the embroidery pattern to generate a space-resolved mesh with mechanical properties adapted to the requirement of the surrounding tissue. To determine those requirements the movements of the abdominal wall and the resulting distortions need to be known. This study was conducted to gain optical data of the abdominal wall movements by non-invasive ARAMIS-measurement on 39 test persons to estimate direction and value of the major strains.

  17. Continous Infusion of Remifentanil Plus Ketamine Compared with Continous Remifentanil for Pain Relief in Labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anooshe Khajehdehi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Pain relief during labour is an important determinant of a women’s birth experience. There are numerous pain relief techniques which can be used either with or without pain medication. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of remifentanil alone and its effect in pain relief while using with ketamine during labour. Methods: After obtaining informed consent and approval of hospital ethics committee, 40 women with gestational age between 38 and 42 weeks gestation in early labour were recruited for this study. They were randomly allocated into two groups: group RK (20 cases received 25 μg remifentanil as a starting dose and continuous infusion of 0.06 μg/kg/min remifentanil plus 0.5 mg/kg/h ketamine for 4 hours via pump and group R (20 cases received 25 μg remifentanil as a starting dose and continous infusion of 0.06 μg/kg/min remifentanil. Results: The baseline of pain scores were similar in both groups (5.75 ± 2.51 vs 7 ± 2.45, p= 0.12 but after 30 minutes to 120 minutes the VAS scores were significantly higher in R group (p< 0.001. The rate of patients who were satisfied (excellent and very good in RK was 80% but in R group was 45% (p = 0.03. Nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in R group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The remifentanil plus ketamine produced better pain relief during labour with continous monitoring than continous remifentanil with no adverse effects for mothers and infants.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus Adapts to Oxidative Stress by Producing H2O2-Resistant Small-Colony Variants via the SOS Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kimberley L.; Strange, Elizabeth; Bamford, Kathleen B.; Armstrong-James, Darius

    2015-01-01

    The development of chronic and recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections is associated with the emergence of slow-growing mutants known as small-colony variants (SCVs), which are highly tolerant of antibiotics and can survive inside host cells. However, the host and bacterial factors which underpin SCV emergence during infection are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of S. aureus to sublethal concentrations of H2O2 leads to a specific, dose-dependent increase in the population frequency of gentamicin-resistant SCVs. Time course analyses revealed that H2O2 exposure caused bacteriostasis in wild-type cells during which time SCVs appeared spontaneously within the S. aureus population. This occurred via a mutagenic DNA repair pathway that included DNA double-strand break repair proteins RexAB, recombinase A, and polymerase V. In addition to triggering SCV emergence by increasing the mutation rate, H2O2 also selected for the SCV phenotype, leading to increased phenotypic stability and further enhancing the size of the SCV subpopulation by reducing the rate of SCV reversion to the wild type. Subsequent analyses revealed that SCVs were significantly more resistant to the toxic effects of H2O2 than wild-type bacteria. With the exception of heme auxotrophs, gentamicin-resistant SCVs displayed greater catalase activity than wild-type bacteria, which contributed to their resistance to H2O2. Taken together, these data reveal a mechanism by which S. aureus adapts to oxidative stress via the production of a subpopulation of H2O2-resistant SCVs with enhanced catalase production. PMID:25690100

  19. 30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) To take cumulative reports and payments relief...

  20. 30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You may obtain accounting and auditing relief under...

  1. 30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204... MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for your property if MMS determines that your property was not eligible for the relief obtained under this subpart because...

  2. Audiovisual distraction for pain relief in paediatric inpatients: A crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, N C A C; Santos, J L F; Linhares, M B M

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a stressful experience that can have a negative impact on child development. The aim of this crossover study was to examine the efficacy of audiovisual distraction for acute pain relief in paediatric inpatients. The sample comprised 40 inpatients (6-11 years) who underwent painful puncture procedures. The participants were randomized into two groups, and all children received the intervention and served as their own controls. Stress and pain-catastrophizing assessments were initially performed using the Child Stress Scale and Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, with the aim of controlling these variables. The pain assessment was performed using a Visual Analog Scale and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised after the painful procedures. Group 1 received audiovisual distraction before and during the puncture procedure, which was performed again without intervention on another day. The procedure was reversed in Group 2. Audiovisual distraction used animated short films. A 2 × 2 × 2 analysis of variance for 2 × 2 crossover study was performed, with a 5% level of statistical significance. The two groups had similar baseline measures of stress and pain catastrophizing. A significant difference was found between periods with and without distraction in both groups, in which scores on both pain scales were lower during distraction compared with no intervention. The sequence of exposure to the distraction intervention in both groups and first versus second painful procedure during which the distraction was performed also significantly influenced the efficacy of the distraction intervention. Audiovisual distraction effectively reduced the intensity of pain perception in paediatric inpatients. The crossover study design provides a better understanding of the power effects of distraction for acute pain management. Audiovisual distraction was a powerful and effective non-pharmacological intervention for pain relief in paediatric inpatients. The effects were

  3. Inventory slack routing application in emergency logistics and relief distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianfeng; Hao, Wei; Lu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Various natural and manmade disasters during last decades have highlighted the need of further improving on governmental preparedness to emergency events, and a relief supplies distribution problem named Inventory Slack Routing Problem (ISRP) has received increasing attentions. In an ISRP, inventory slack is defined as the duration between reliefs arriving time and estimated inventory stock-out time. Hence, a larger inventory slack could grant more responsive time in facing of various factors (e.g., traffic congestion) that may lead to delivery lateness. In this study, the relief distribution problem is formulated as an optimization model that maximize the minimum slack among all dispensing sites. To efficiently solve this problem, we propose a two-stage approach to tackle the vehicle routing and relief allocation sub-problems. By analyzing the inter-relations between these two sub-problems, a new objective function considering both delivery durations and dispensing rates of demand sites is applied in the first stage to design the vehicle routes. A hierarchical routing approach and a sweep approach are also proposed in this stage. Given the vehicle routing plan, the relief allocation could be easily solved in the second stage. Numerical experiment with a comparison of multi-vehicle Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) has demonstrated the need of ISRP and the capability of the proposed solution approaches.

  4. The role of hydromorphone and OPRM1 in postoperative pain relief with hydrocodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Mark V; Stauble, M Elaine; Loyd, Gary E; Langman, Loralie; Ramey-Hartung, Bronwyn; Baumgartner, Richard N; Tucker, William W; Jortani, Saeed A

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain management remains a challenge for clinicians due to unpredictable patient responses to opioid therapy. Some of this variability may result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the human opioid mu-1 receptor (OPRM1) that modify receptor binding or signal transduction. The OPRM1 variant with the highest frequency is the A118G SNP. However, previous studies have produced inconsistent results regarding the clinical effects of A118G on opioid response. We hypothesized that measurement of serum opioid concentrations, in addition to determining total opioid consumption, may provide a more precise method of assessing the effects of A118G on analgesic response. The current study evaluated the relationship of analgesia, side effects, total hydrocodone consumption, quantitative serum hydrocodone and hydromorphone concentrations, and A118G SNP in postoperative patients following Cesarean section. 158 women scheduled for Cesarean section were enrolled prospectively in the study. The patients had bupivacaine spinal anesthesia for surgery and received intrathcal morphine with the spinal anesthetic or parenteral morphine for the first 24 hours after surgery. Thereafter, patients received hydrocodone/acetaminophen for postoperative pain control. On postoperative day 3, venous blood samples were obtained for OPRM1 A118G genotyping and serum opioid concentrations. 131 (82.9%) of the subjects were homozygous for the 118A allele of OPRM1 (AA) and 27 (17.1%) carried the G allele (AG/GG). By regression analysis, pain relief was significantly associated with total hydrocodone dose in the AA group (P = 0.01), but not in the AG/GG group (P = 0.554). In contrast, there was no association between pain relief and serum hydrocodone concentration in either group. However, pain relief was significantly associated with serum hydromorphone concentration (a metabolite of hydrocodone) in the AA group (P = 0.004), but not in the AG/GG group (P = 0.724). Conversely, side

  5. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  7. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  8. Bridging the sanitation gap between disaster relief and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ka-Man; Ramirez, Claudia; Liu, Weilong; Kirilova, Darina; Vick, David; Mari, Joe; Smith, Rachel; Lam, Ho-Yin; Ostovari, Afshin; Shibakawa, Akifumi; Liu, Yang; Samant, Sidharth; Osaro, Lucky

    2015-10-01

    By interpreting disasters as opportunities to initiate the fulfilment of development needs, realise the vulnerability of the affected community and environment, and extend the legacy of relief funds and effort, this paper builds upon the concept linking relief, rehabilitation and development (LRRD) in the sanitation sector. It aims to use a composite of case studies to devise a framework for a semi-hypothetical scenario to identify critical components and generic processes for a LRRD action plan. The scenario is based on a latrine wetland sanitation system in a Muslim community. Several sub-frameworks are developed: (i) latrine design; (ii) assessment of human waste treatment; (iii) connective sanitation promotion strategy; and (iv) ecological systems and environmental services for sanitation and development. This scenario illustrates the complex issues involved in LRRD in sanitation work and provides technical notes and references for a legacy plan for disaster relief and development. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  9. Experiences from tsunami relief activity: implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam Manni; Mohan, Yogesh; Roy, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    A tsunami struck the coast of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry on 26 December 2004. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, (JIPMER) in Pondicherry played a vital role in providing medical relief. The experiences from the relief activities revealed areas of deficiency in medical education in regards to disaster preparedness. A qualitative study using focus group discussion was employed to find the lacunae in skills in managing medical relief measures. Many skills were identified; the most important of which was addressing the psychological impact of the tsunami on the victims. Limited coordination and leadership skills were also identified. It is recommended that activity-based learning can be included in the curriculum to improve these skills.

  10. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  11. Effects of preparation relief and flow channels on seating full coverage castings during cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E L; Murray, H V; Holland, G A; Taylor, D F

    1983-06-01

    Machined steel dies were used to study the effects of three die modifications on seating full coverage castings during cementation. The die modifications consisted of occlusal channels, occlusal surface relief, and axial channels. Fourteen specimens having one or more forms of die modification were compared with two control specimens having no die modifications. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the addition of four axial channels to the simulated preparation on the steel die produced a significant reduction in the mean marginal discrepancy during cementation. Occlusal modifications alone failed to produce significant reductions in marginal discrepancies when compared with the control specimens. Occlusal modifications in conjunction with axial channels failed to produce further significant reductions in marginal discrepancies when compared with those reductions observed in specimens having only axial channels.

  12. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This shaded relief image of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the sudden extinction of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth.Most of the peninsula is visible here, along with the island of Cozumel off the east coast. The Yucatan is a plateau composed mostly of limestone and is an area of very low relief with elevations varying by less than a few hundred meters (about 500 feet.) In this computer-enhanced image the topography has been greatly exaggerated to highlight a semicircular trough, the darker green arcing line at the upper left corner of the peninsula. This trough is only about 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) deep and is about 5 km. wide (3 miles), so subtle that if you walked across it you probably would not notice it, and is a surface expression of the crater's outer boundary. Scientists believe the impact, which was centered just off the coast in the Caribbean, altered the subsurface rocks such that the overlying limestone sediments, which formed later and erode very easily, would preferentially erode on the vicinity of the crater rim. This formed the trough as well as numerous sinkholes (called cenotes) which are visible as small circular depressions.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwestern slopes appear bright and southeastern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 1.5 m

  13. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Iturralde Structure, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An 8-kilometer (5-mile) wide crater of possible impact origin is shown in this view of an isolated part of the Bolivian Amazon from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The circular feature at the center-left of the image, known as the Iturralde Structure, is possibly the Earth's most recent 'big' impact event recording collision with a meteor or comet that might have occurred between 11,000 and 30,000 years ago.Although the structure was identified on satellite photographs in the mid-1980s, its location is so remote that it has only been visited by scientific investigators twice, most recently by a team from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in September 2002. Lying in an area of very low relief, the landform is a quasi-circular closed depression only about 20 meters (66 feet) in depth, with sharply defined sub-angular 'rim' materials. It resembles a 'cookie cutter' in that its appearance 'cuts' the heavily vegetated soft-sediments and pampas of this part of Bolivia. The SRTM data have provided investigators with the first topographic map of the site and will allow studies of its three-dimensional structure crucial to determining whether it actually is of impact origin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction. North-facing slopes appear bright and south-facing slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was

  14. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-05-13

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2015 Niewalda et al.

  15. Synapsin Determines Memory Strength after Punishment- and Relief-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: “negative” memories for stimuli preceding them and “positive” memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of “relief.” Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training (“forward conditioning” of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training (“backward conditioning” of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences. PMID:25972175

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of A515 grade 60 carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.L.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of welding method plate thickness, and subsequent stress relief treatment on the stress corrosion cracking propensity of ASTM A515 Grade 60 carbon steel plate exposed to a 5 M NaNO 3 solution at 190 0 F for eight weeks. It was found that all weld coupons receiving no thermal stress relief treatment cracked within eight weeks; all weld coupons given a vibratory stress relief cracked within eight weeks; two of the eight weld coupons stress relieved at 600 0 F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; none of the weld coupons stress relieved at 1100 0 F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; and that cracking was generally more severe in coupons fabricated from 7/8 inch plate by shielded metal arc welding than it was in coupons fabricated by other welding methods. (U.S.)

  17. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1996-01-01

    If it is generally accepted that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, several controlled trials demonstrated this only for lower body surgical procedures with epidural and spinal anesthetics. Important effects on outcome were not shown when postoperative opioids...... were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...... should aim at including physical rehabilitation programs in the pain treatment regimen....

  18. Acupucture as pain relief during delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... to existing pain relief methods. (BIRTH 36:1 March 2009)...

  19. Experimental investigation of processes in primary circuit relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, Z.; Simo, T.; Konecny, A.

    1989-01-01

    The protective condenser (direct contact condenser) is one of the basic components of the primary circuit relief system of WWER power plants. The steam flowing from the surge tank through relief valves into the subcooled water condensates in the protective condenser vessel. Two simple physical models were designed and constructed for investigation of bubbling through (contact condensation). An experimental program was performed with the aim of determining the distribution of temperatures in the axis of the steam jet and its vicinity, determining the velocity field of water into vicinity of steam jets, observing the geometrical shape of jets and their interaction and determining important values for mathematical model. (orig.)

  20. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-10-15

    Both animal and human research have revealed important associations between sighs and relief. Previously we argued to conceive of sighs as resetters which temporarily induce relief. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological relief effect of sighs by instructed deep breaths and spontaneous sighs compared to a control breathing maneuver. Participants completed three blocks of 40 trials during which uncertainty cues were followed by either safety cues followed by a positive picture, or danger cues followed by a negative picture. One block was presented without breathing instructions, two subsequent blocks with breathing instructions. During the presentation of the safety and danger cues, an instruction was given to either 'take a deep breath' or 'postpone the next inhalation for 2 s (breath hold). Continuously, participants rated relief and Frontalis electromyography was recorded. Trait anxiety sensitivity was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Self-reported relief and physiological tension were compared 5s before and after instructed deep breaths and breath holds, and before and after spontaneous deep breaths and breath holds in the respective blocks. Results show that self-reported relief following an instructed deep breath was higher than before. Physiological tension decreased following a spontaneous sigh in high anxiety sensitive persons and following a spontaneous breath hold in low anxiety sensitive persons. These results are the first to show that a deep breath relieves and, in anxiety sensitive persons, reduces physiological tension. These findings support the hypothesis that sighs are psychological and physiological resetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Immediate Pain Relief After an Injection into the Sacroiliac Joint with Anesthetic and Corticosteroid Predict Subsequent Pain Relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Byron J; Huynh, Lisa; Levin, Josh; Rinkaekan, Pranathip; Kordi, Ramin; Kennedy, David J

    2018-02-01

    To determine if immediate pain response following an injection with local anesthetic and corticosteroid predicts subsequent relief. Prospective observational cohort. An institutional review board-approved prospective study from a single academic medical center. Patients with clinical diagnosis of sacroiliac (SIJ) pain and referred for SIJ injection were enrolled; 1 cc of 2% lidocaine and 1 cc of triamcinolone 40 mg/mL were injected into the SIJ. Pain score on 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) during provocation maneuvers was recorded immediately before injection, immediately after injection, and at two and four weeks of follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was also recorded. Various cutoffs were identified to establish positive anesthetic response and successful outcomes at follow-up. These were used to calculated likelihood ratios. Of those with 100% anesthetic response, six of 11 (54.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]+/-29.4%, +LR 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.9) demonstrated 50% or greater pain relief at follow-up, and four of 11 (36.5%, 95% CI+/-28.4%, +LR 3.00, 95% CI = 1.4-5.1) had 100% relief at two to four weeks. Fourteen of 14 (100%, 95% CI+/-21.5%, -LR 0.0, 95% CI = 0.0-2.1) with an initial negative block failed to achieve 100% relief at follow-up. Patients who fail to achieve initial relief after SIJ injection with anesthetic and steroid are very unlikely to achieve significant pain relief at follow-up; negative likelihood ratios (LR) in this study, based on how success is defined, range between 0 and 0.9. Clinically significant positive likelihood ratios of anesthetic response to SIJ injection are more limited and less robust, but are valuable in predicting 50% relief or 100% relief at two to four weeks. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  4. Eksplorasi Pose dalam Pemotretan Model Melalui Kajian Visual Relief Karmawibhangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Latif CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Karmawibhangga Relief panel located at the foot of Borobudur is a relic of the visual artifacts that contains fragments of past life with a very high historical value. 160 Karmawibhangga panels tell the reality of people's lives at the time wrapped with a moral message plight. The relief provides a lot of visual references to be excavated and reconstructed again for the benefit of the creative industries today. This research digged one small part of the masterpieces of the past through photography. Understanding visual artists who create these reliefs will be beauty in the show gestures in building a very interesting story to be re-examined. Visual communication through gestures in relief Karmawibhangga enables new assumptions about body language dialect differences to current conditions. Through model genre photography, it is very useful in connection with the development of local nuanced scientific photography. Efforts to develop the traditions and culture through new media are expected to be creative commodity with a very strong product differentiation. 

  5. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin ... ingredient in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines that help relieve pain and reduce fever. More than 600 over-the- ...

  6. Building relations with women's organisations in relief work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, F

    1997-02-01

    An Oxfam Emergency Team arrived in Ingushetia in the Northern Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union in August 1996 to set up a program of shelter, rehabilitation, and relief in response to the large influx of people displaced by conflicts in the neighboring republics of Chechnya and North Ossetia. The team was also tasked with contacting community organizations such as women's groups and developing a relationship with them through joint relief work. The Chechen population was comprised of mainly women, children, and the elderly. The internally displaced population of 100,000 people is now scattered throughout the republic in collective centers and host families. Small committees of women were formed to help identify the most vulnerable residents and to distribute winter clothing. It was found during the relief work that fledgling women's groups are establishing themselves as vehicles for change, increasingly open to work with and learn from international organizations such as Oxfam. The Chechen branch of the Union of North Caucasian Women and the Ingushetian ALMOS played leading roles in peacemaking, human rights observance, and humanitarian relief.

  7. Topology-optimized broadband surface relief transmission grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob; Ryder, Christian P.; Nielsen, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a design methodology for systematic design of surface relief transmission gratings with optimized diffraction efficiency. The methodology is based on a gradient-based topology optimization formulation along with 2D frequency domain finite element simulations for TE and TM polarized plane...

  8. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary... by Individual Surety United States International Trade Commission Affidavit by Individual Surety 19...

  9. Japanese women's experiences of pharmacological pain relief in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Keiko; Patterson, Jean; Griffiths, Christine R

    2014-06-01

    In Japan, most women manage labour pain without pharmacological interventions. However, New Zealand statistics show a high percentage of epidural use amongst Asian women. Entonox (a gas mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen) and pethidine are also available to women in New Zealand. This article investigates how Japanese women in New Zealand respond to the use of pharmacological pain relief in labour. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) How do Japanese women experience and manage labour pain in New Zealand? (2) How do they feel about the use of pharmacological pain relief? Thirteen Japanese women who had given birth in New Zealand were interviewed individually or in a focus group. The conversations were analysed using thematic analysis. Although in Japan very few women use pain relief, nine women received epidural and/or Entonox out of 11 women who experienced labour pain. The contrast between their Japanese cultural expectations and their birth experiences caused some of the women subsequent personal conflict. Japanese women's cultural perspectives and passive attitudes were demonstrated to influence the decision-making process concerning pain relief. It was concluded that understanding Japanese cultural worldviews and approaches to the role of pain in labour would help maternity providers in their provision of appropriate care for Japanese women. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  11. Pentazocine Pain Relief in Adult Patients With Acute Abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    on pain relief, diagnostic accuracy and treatment decisions in patients with acute ... With level of power at 80% and a 5% significance level, a ... 72 hours` duration and were judged by the attending physician to require surgical consultation. .... Clinically Important Differences Between Pre Injection, Post Injection and Final ...

  12. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant...

  13. Measured Maritime Responses to Disaster Relief Scenarios in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    command center. USS TORTUGA assisted the Japanese Ground Self Defense Force (JGSDF) by moving nearly 100 vehicles and 300 SDF personnel from Hokkaido to...northern Honshu and thus facilitated faster relief. Subsequently, TORTUGA became the flagship for Task Group 776.36, a port clearance group that

  14. A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Mary

    2013-01-01

    School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

  15. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... 66(c) allows the requesting spouse to avoid liability for tax on community income of which the... is added to Sec. 1.66-4(j)(2)(ii) for claims for equitable relief from the Federal income tax... amended as follows: PART 1--INCOME TAXES 0 Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 1 continues to...

  16. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  17. 108 AN ASSESSMENT OF TAX RELIEFS AND ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As advantageous as the payment of taxes to the government is, as a result of its ... Therefore, this study seeks to examine the nature of tax reliefs available to tax ... in the level of economic activity or tax payer's behaviour, then the tax policy ... The implication of this is that any tax payer that receives earned income shall be.

  18. Seismic assessment of the Pickering pressure relief duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobarah, A.

    1995-05-01

    The objectives of the study are to examine the structural response of the Pickering pressure relief duct when subjected to earthquake ground motion and to estimate the seismic withstand capacity of various components of the structural system on the basis of performance criteria consistent with the safety function of the duct. (author). 24 refs., 16 tabs., 31 figs

  19. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Raphael A.; Aranas, Erika B.

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  20. A Surface Relief Meter Based on Trinocular Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, V.G.S.; Sablik, P.W.; Balendonck, J.; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for the relief meter being developed, appears to function well, when used with the artificial images. The described matching criterion leads to high matching percentages, and accurate results. The percentage of mismatches is reduced to practically zero for the tested scenes. Future work

  1. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-minute gridded global relief for both ocean and land areas are available in the ETOPO2v2 (2006) database. ETOPO2v2 replaced ETOPO2 (2001). The historic 2-minute...

  2. Pain Relief in Labor: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: This study showed that 600 mg intramuscular paracetamol provides similar and modest pain relief in labor when compared to 100 mg intramuscular tramadol. It also has fewer maternal adverse effects and favorable neonatal outcome such as tramadol. It is concluded that intramuscular paracetamol is simple, ...

  3. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158 Section 24.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., until all tax is fully paid. (d) Wine vinegar plant bond. The surety will be relieved of liability for...

  4. Residual stresses associated with welds in austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Two exploratory welds have been made with AISI 316 austenitic steel and Armex GT electrodes by the manual metal-arc process, and residual stress measurements made in the as-welded condition and after various periods of stress relief. The results show that substantial stress relief occurs at temperatures of 850 0 and 750 0 C after 1 hr, but is not complete. The stress distributions are compared with those obtained from ferritic welds and the effect of differences in thermal expansion coefficients is examined using finite element analysis. (author)

  5. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  6. Residual Stress Induced by Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present chapter is devoted to the various mechanisms involved in the buildup and relief of residual stress in nitrided and nitrocarburized cases. The work presented is an overview of model studies on iron and iron-based alloys. Subdivision is made between the compound (or white) layer......, developing at the surfce and consisting of iron-based (carbo)nitrides, and the diffusion zone underneath, consisting of iron and alloying element nitrides dispersed in af ferritic matrix. Microstructural features are related directly to the origins of stress buildup and stres relief....

  7. Barriers to spousal contribution to childbirth pain relief in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  8. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  9. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  10. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  11. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Australia is the world's smallest, flattest, and (after Antarctica) driest continent, but at 7.7 million square kilometers (3.0 million square miles) it is also the sixth largest country. Its low average elevation (300 meters, or less than 1000 feet) is caused by its position near the center of a tectonic plate, where there are no volcanic or other geologic forces of the type that raise the topography of other continents. In fact Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity at all - the last eruption took place 1400 years ago at Mt. Gambier. The Australian continent is also one of the oldest land masses, with some of its erosion-exposed bedrock age dated at more than 3 billion years. More than one-fifth of the land area is desert, with more than two-thirds being classified as arid or semi-arid and unsuitable for settlement. The coldest regions are in the highlands and tablelands of Tasmania and the Australian Alps at the southeastern corner of the continent, location of Australia's highest point, Mt. Kosciusko (2228 meters, or 7310 feet.) Prominent features of Australia include the Lake Eyre basin, the darker green region visible in the center-right. At 16 meters (52 feet) below sea level this depression is one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world, covering more than 1.3 million square kilometers (500,000 square miles). The mountain range near the east coast is called the Great Dividing Range, forming a watershed between east and west flowing rivers. Erosion has created deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls in this range where rivers tumble over escarpments on their way to the sea. The crescent shaped uniform green region in the south, just left of center, is the Nullarbor Plain, a low-lying limestone plateau which is so flat that the Trans-Australian Railway runs through it in a straight line for more than 483 kilometers (300 miles). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of

  12. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Doyle's 1912 best-seller 'The Lost World.'Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Location: 0.2 South to 8.7 degrees North latitude, 60 to 67.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM30 and GTOPO30 elevation models Data Resolution: SRTM 30 arcsecond (about 928 meters or 1496 feet) Date Acquired: February 2000 for SRTM

  13. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  14. Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; Meske, Diana; Qu, Chaoling; Morimura, Kozo; Okun, Alec; Arakawa, Naohisa; Ossipov, Michael; Fields, Howard L; Porreca, Frank

    2015-05-06

    Pain is aversive, and its relief elicits reward mediated by dopaminergic signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a part of the mesolimbic reward motivation pathway. How the reward pathway is engaged by pain-relieving treatments is not known. Endogenous opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area encoding pain aversiveness, contributes to pain modulation. We examined whether endogenous ACC opioid neurotransmission is required for relief of pain and subsequent downstream activation of NAc dopamine signaling. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and in vivo microdialysis were used to assess negative reinforcement and NAc dopaminergic transmission. In rats with postsurgical or neuropathic pain, blockade of opioid signaling in the rostral ACC (rACC) inhibited CPP and NAc dopamine release resulting from non-opioid pain-relieving treatments, including peripheral nerve block or spinal clonidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist. Conversely, pharmacological activation of rACC opioid receptors of injured, but not pain-free, animals was sufficient to stimulate dopamine release in the NAc and produce CPP. In neuropathic, but not sham-operated, rats, systemic doses of morphine that did not affect withdrawal thresholds elicited CPP and NAc dopamine release, effects that were prevented by blockade of ACC opioid receptors. The data provide a neural explanation for the preferential effects of opioids on pain affect and demonstrate that engagement of NAc dopaminergic transmission by non-opioid pain-relieving treatments depends on upstream ACC opioid circuits. Endogenous opioid signaling in the ACC appears to be both necessary and sufficient for relief of pain aversiveness. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357264-08$15.00/0.

  15. Multinarasi Relief Yeh Pulu Basis Penciptaan Seni Lukis Kontemporer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Adnyana

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Kajian ini merupakan skema penelitian terapan, yang bertujuan untuk mengungkap konsep multinarasi relief Yeh Pulu, Bedulu, Gianyar, Bali, sebagai basis penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer. Secara metodologis penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua tahapan: penelitian lapangan (kajian atas narasi relief berdasar perspektif ikonologi Panofsky (1971, dan berikutnya penelitian eksperimen terkait penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer berdasar perspektif ‘art practice as a research’ (Sullivan, 2005 yang menunjuk pada tiga tahapan: eksperimen medium, bahasa visual, dan penyusunan konteks yang relevan. Berdasar kajian ikonologi, terutama tahap analisis ikonografi, ditemukan bahwa narasi relief Yeh Pulu bersifat multinarasi, yakni pahatan relief yang memiliki beragam jenis tema cerita, seperti praktik pertanian, berburu, meditasi, pesta, asmara, dan lain-lain. Kemudian konsep multinarasi dalam penciptaan seni lukis kontemporer, menjadi: (a secara medium menggunakan multiteknik dan medium; (b bahasa visual, menghadirkan berbagai adegan secara berulang, terpadu dan bahkan terkesan saling berlawanan; (c konteks yang relevan, dengan memasukan ikon tokok-toko pahlawan dunia pop, seperti superman, superwomen, dan lain-lain. Secara ikonologis, bangunan visual yang mempertemukan adegan multinarasi relief Yeh Pulu dengan narasi kepahlawanan dunia pop, menjadi semakin menguatkan konsep multinarasi dalam membangun pesan kepahlawanan dunia sehari-hari dalam karya seni lukis kontemporer semakin berhasil. Penelitian ini melibatkan: Anak Agung Rai Remawa (pengumpul data, dan  Ni Luh Desi In Diana Sari (fotografi dan layout. This paper serves as an applied research scheme which aims to reveal the concept of multiple narratives of Yeh Pulu Relief, located in Bedulu, Bali, as the basis for the creation of contemporary painting. Methodologically speaking, this study was conducted in two stages: a field research (a field study on the relief narratives based on Panofsky

  16. Effect of shot peening treatment in the behavior of residual stress in duplex stainless steel during medium cycle fatigue; Efeito do tratamento de shot peening no comportamento das tensoes residuais em aco inoxidavel duplex durante fadiga de medio ciclo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Peter D.S.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra, E-mail: mcindra@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    The lifetime of duplex stainless steel parts experiencing cyclic fatigue is directly influenced by the residual stresses present in the ferrite and austenite phases. The motivation for this work was to analyze the behaviour of the residual stresses fields introduced by shot peening treatment in both phases, in the sample surface as in the subsurface layers, in low fatigue cycles, using the X-rays diffraction technique. The results shows that the compressive residual stresses introduced by the shot peening treatment in both phases improved fatigue life of the material. However, the cyclical loads produce partial or total relief in these residual stresses fields. It was verified that the shot peening process induced the formation of microcracks only in the ferrite phase. The largest variations in the total compressive residual stresses fields also occurred in this phase. The samples surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  17. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., February 1973, entitled “Relief from Customs Duty and/or Value Added Tax on United States Government... Office. (b) Specific information should be included in the request for tax relief, such as the number of...

  19. Asthma Patients in US Overuse Quick-Relief Inhalers, Underuse Control Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quick-relief inhalers, underuse control medications Share | Asthma patients in US overuse quick-relief inhalers, underuse control ... and uncontrolled asthma result in poor health outcomes. Patients with well-controlled asthma are at lower risk ...

  20. Integration of real-time mapping technology in disaster relief distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Vehicle routing for disaster relief distribution involves many challenges that distinguish this problem from those in commercial settings, given the time sensitive and resource constrained nature of relief activities. While operations research approa...

  1. Estimating the impact of royalty relief on oil and gas production on marginal state leases in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dismukes, David E.; Burke, Jeffrey M.; Mesyanzhinov, Dmitry V.

    2006-01-01

    An emerging challenge for several energy-producing states will be the development of policies that encourage the continued economic development of maturing oil and gas properties. Production rates naturally decline as wells age. This is particularly true for properties approaching 'marginal' status in many energy-producing states where continued operation under expected economic conditions becomes questionable. Premature shut-in of these wells may entail loss of production, economic output, employment, and state revenues. This paper examines the potential impact of royalty relief on state leases and economic production using Louisiana as a case study. Two production related measures for state leases are estimated: (1) current production position relative to the age of the property and (2) the current costs of production for the given property at a given or anticipated level of output. Those wells/leases that are estimated as having negative profitability (i.e., losses) or operating at break-even levels are candidates for 'marginal' classification. The number of wells and production associated with these marginal leases will then be estimated. The economic impacts of offering royalty relief at the 25% level are considered. Under the royalty relief scenario, a minimal amount of increased revenues is realized by the state and the discount provides only incremental production from marginal wells relative to total state production

  2. Estimation of Erosion Dissection of North-Eastern Caucasus Relief for Recreational Land Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagir V. Ataev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The digital model of the relief (DMR of North-East Caucasus relief was used for an estimation of an erosive partition of territory. The card of usages of erosive forms and density of an erosive partition of a relief was made on basis of GIS-technology. The analysis of these parameters has allowed to estimate the potential of a relief of studied territory for such kinds of touristic and recreational activity, as foot and a cycle tourism

  3. Between History and Myth: The Figure of Ramesses II against Enemies in Reliefs and Texts of the Battle of Kadesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Gerván

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to what has been called “history of sense” (Assmann, 2005, every society has a cultural form that is inherent and it is precisely in here where historical events become meaningful, understandable only through the discourses produced. The reliefs and inscriptions from Battle of Kadesh, during the reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC are a clear example of remembrance and manifestation of these discourses. In this paper, we propose to analyze them as examples of the construction process of the “cultural memory” (Assmann, 2008, taking as categories of analysis the postulates of semiotics of Umberto Eco (1994 [1973]; 2013 [1968] and the image analysis of Martine Joly (2012 [1993]. As a basic premise, we consider the reliefs and inscriptions accompanying them as a narrative total unity, as speeches complete and complement, to be effective.

  4. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  5. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a patient's spinal cord to relieve...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to...

  7. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical current...

  8. 31 CFR 309.12 - Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relief on account of loss, theft or... BILLS § 309.12 Relief on account of loss, theft or destruction, etc. (a) Relief on account of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement of Treasury bills may be given only under the authority of...

  9. 30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The... information on Form MMS-2014 for the calendar year, the same as if it were a monthly report; and (5) Report... section until the date MMS receives it. (d) If you take relief you are not qualified for, you may be...

  10. Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

  11. Pressure relief experiments on a cyclindrical carbon brick tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.; Weise, H.J.; Ennen, P.

    1978-08-01

    Pressure relief experiments have been carried out on a carbon brick tube. The outer diameter of the specimen was 580 mm, the inner diameter 280 mm, the length 800 mm. The experiments were made with helium at the temperature of the environment. The measurements were carried out in the pressure range from 15 upto 39 bar. The pressure loss was measured dependent on the initial pressure and on time at 5 positions uniformly distributed over the thickness of the tube wall and in the pressure vessel. The maximum pressure transients occurred amounted to approximately 60 bar/second. The maximum overpressure with respect to the environment which occurred in the carbon brick during the relief experiments was about 3.3 bar. The measurements distinctly showed the presence and the effects of inhomogeneities in the sample material. No damages or changes in the carbon brick, which could be regarded as a consequence of the experiments, were found. (orig./GSC) [de

  12. Safety and relief valves in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.

    1985-12-01

    Information is presented to: provide an introduction to and descriptions of various types of safety and relief valves in both PWR and BWR plants; describe anticipated operating conditions for these valves; describe the test facilities, procedures, and major results for both types of valves; present an extensive discussion of modeling and analysis of safety and relief valve performance, including the prediction of flow capacity and stability during operation; deal with the analyses related to the prediction of thermal-hydraulic loads on discharge piping and comparison against test data; discuss results of small-scale valve tests and flow visualization studies through transparent valve models; and describe an EPRI study for optimizing a typical PWR over-pressure protection system to enhance the availability and reliability of plant operation and thus reduce operation costs

  13. Diffraction efficiency calculations of polarization diffraction gratings with surface relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, D.; Sharlandjiev, P.; Berberova, N.; Blagoeva, B.; Stoykova, E.; Nedelchev, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the optical response of a stack of two diffraction gratings of equal one-dimensional periodicity. The first one is a surface-relief grating structure; the second, a volume polarization grating. This model is based on our experimental results from polarization holographic recordings in azopolymer films. We used films of commercially available azopolymer (poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylazo) benzenesulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt]), shortly denoted as PAZO. During the recording process, a polarization grating in the volume of the material and a relief grating on the film surface are formed simultaneously. In order to evaluate numerically the optical response of this “hybrid” diffraction structure, we used the rigorous coupled-wave approach (RCWA). It yields stable numerical solutions of Maxwell’s vector equations using the algebraic eigenvalue method.

  14. Tax reliefs in legal entities' capital gains tax

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrijević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Reducing a national corporate tax rate and introducing numerous/ ample tax reliefs may have adverse effects on a country's reputation as it is perceived as being susceptible to unfair tax competition practices and prone to allowing the subsidiaries of foreign companies to enter the national market at any cost (even at the expense of preserving its natural assets). For this reason, it is essential to find the right balance between the need to attract foreign capital (on the one hand) and the p...

  15. Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas: Pain relief with pulsed hysocine butyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliyadan Feroze

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient department, complaining of multiple, raised skin lesions on the forehead and back, associated with intermittent pain, especially on exposure to cold. A diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma (type 2 segmental was made, which was confirmed by skin biopsy. The patient was started on a trial of pulsed Hyoscine Butyl bromide tablets, following which the patient had significant relief from pain associated with the lesions.

  16. A new analgesic method, two-minute sciatic nerve press, for immediate pain relief: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fenglin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current analgesics have drawbacks such as delays in acquisition, lag-times for effect, and side effects. We recently presented a preliminary report of a new analgesic method involving a two-minute sciatic nerve press, which resulted in immediate short-term relief of pain associated with dental and renal diseases. The present study investigated whether this technique was effective for pain associated with other disease types, and whether the relief was effective for up to one hour. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted in four hospitals in Anhui Province, China. Patients with pain were sequentially recruited by participating physicians during clinic visits, and 135 patients aged 15 – 80 years were enrolled. Dental disease patients included those with acute pulpitis and periapical abscesses. Renal disease patients included those with kidney infections and/or stones. Tumor patients included those with nose, breast, stomach and liver cancers, while Emergency Room patients had various pathologies. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a "sciatic nerve press" in which pressure was applied simultaneously to the sciatic nerves at the back of both thighs, or a "placebo press" in which pressure was applied to a parallel region on the front of the thighs. Each fist applied a pressure of 11 – 20 kg for 2 minutes. Patients rated their level of pain before and after the procedure. Results The "sciatic nerve press" produced immediate relief of pain in all patient groups. Emergency patients reported a 43.5% reduction in pain (p th minutes, and the relief decreased 47% by the 60th minutes. Conclusion Two minutes of pressure on both sciatic nerves produced immediate significant short-term conduction analgesia. This technique is a convenient, safe and powerful method for the short-term treatment of clinical pain associated with a diverse range of pathologies. Trial registration Current

  17. Fertility and Symptom Relief following Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Pitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine success of robot-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RALM measured by sustained symptom relief and fertility. Methods. This is a retrospective survey of 426 women who underwent RALM for fibroids, symptom relief, or infertility at three practice sites across the US. We examined rates of symptom recurrence and pregnancy and factors associated with these outcomes. Results. Overall, 70% of women reported being symptom-free, with 62.9% free of symptoms after three years. At >3 years, 66.7% of women who underwent surgery to treat infertility and 80% who were also symptom-free reported achieving pregnancy. Factors independently associated with symptom recurrence included greater time after surgery, preoperative dyspareunia, multiple fibroid surgeries, smoking after surgery, and preexisting diabetes. Factors positively correlated with achieving pregnancy included desiring pregnancy, prior pregnancy, greater time since surgery, and Caucasian race. Factors negatively correlated with pregnancy were advanced age and symptom recurrence. Conclusions. This paper, the first to examine symptom recurrence after RALM, demonstrates both short- and long-term effectiveness in providing symptom relief. Furthermore, RALM may have the potential to improve the chance of conception, even in a population at high risk of subfertility, with greater benefits among those who remain symptom-free. These findings require prospective validation.

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke eJepma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (i the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (ii the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (iii the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.

  19. Prolonged knee pain relief by saphenous block (new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Harshe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain in the knee joint can be from a variety of reasons. It can be either from the joint itself, it can be myofascial or it can be neuropathy, radicular pain. The myofascial component can be in different forms, namely, collateral ligament pain, bursitis, tendinitis, and so on. This responds well to local injections of steroids. Pain from the joint can be because of osteoarthritis (OA, rheumatoid arthritis or any other variety of arthritis. Among these osteoarthritis is the most common and naturally occurring pain. There are several modalities used for managing pain in the knee joint. They include medicines and physiotherapy, intra-articular steroid injection, intra-articular Hyalgan, Synvisc injection, prolotherapy, genicular nerve block, ablation, intra-articular pulsed radio frequency (PRF ablation, acupuncture, injection of platelet-rich plasma in the joint, total knee replacement, high tibial osteotomy, arthroscopy and lavage, and so on. All these modalities have their pros and cons. Literature and experience state that the pain relief provided may last for a few months with these modalities except in surgical interventions in advanced OA. The saphenous nerve is termination of femoral nerve and it is essentially sensory nerve. It supplies the medial compartment and some part of the anterior compartment of the knee joint. This nerve has been blocked near the knee joint by way of infiltration by surgeons and anesthetists, for relief of pain after knee surgery, with varying pain relief of postoperative pain. When we block the saphenous in the mid thigh in the sartorial canal, the fluid tends to block the medial branch of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve also. It is hypothesized that this may give complete medial and anterior knee pain relief and as most of the knee OA patients have medial and anterior knee pain, this may prove useful. Use of ultrasonography helps to locate the nerve better, ensuring perfection. An effort has been made to

  20. Direct Magnetic Relief Recording Using As40S60: Mn-Se Nanocomposite Multilayer Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronski, A; Achimova, E; Paiuk, O; Meshalkin, A; Prisacar, A; Triduh, G; Oleksenko, P; Lytvyn, P

    2017-12-01

    Processes of holographic recording of surface relief structures using As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures as registering media were studied in this paper. Optical properties of As 2 S 3 :Mn, Se layers, and As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures were investigated. Values of optical bandgaps were obtained from Tauc dependencies. Surface relief diffraction gratings were recorded. Direct one-stage formation of surface relief using multilayer nanostructures is considered. For the first time, possibility of direct formation of magnetic relief simultaneous with surface relief formation under optical recording using As 2 S 3 :Mn-Se multilayer nanostructures is shown.

  1. Evaluation of an International Disaster Relief Team After Participation in an ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul

    2016-10-01

    Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).

  2. Mt. Elgon, Africa, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The striking contrast of geologic structures in Africa is shown in this shaded relief image of Mt. Elgon on the left and a section of the Great Rift Valley on the right. Mt. Elgon is a solitary extinct volcano straddling the border between Uganda and Kenya, and at 4,321 meters (14,178 feet) tall is the eighth highest mountain in Africa. It is positioned on the Pre-Cambriam bedrock of the Trans Nzoia Plateau, and is similar to other such volcanoes in East Africa in that it is associated with the formation of the Rift Valley. However one thing that sets Mt. Elgon apart is its age. Although there is no verifiable evidence of its earliest volcanic activity, Mt. Elgon is estimated to be at least 24 million years old, making it the oldest extinct volcano in East Africa. This presents a striking comparison to Mt. Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa at 5,895 meters (19,341 feet), which is just over one million years old. Judging by the diameter of its base, it is a common belief among geological experts that Mt. Elgon was once the highest mountains in Africa, however erosion has played a significant role in reducing the height to its present value. Juxtaposed with this impressive mountain is a section of the Great Rift Valley, a geological fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Erosion has concealed some sections, but in some sections like that shown here, there are sheer cliffs several thousand feet high. The present configuration of the valley, which dates from the mid-Pleistocene epoch, results from a rifting process associated with thermal currents in the Earth's mantle. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height

  3. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific -- North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with streams channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and around the Great Lakes. From northeastern British Columbia, across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and

  4. Analysis of preservice inspection relief requests and recommendations for ASME code changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.F.

    1985-05-01

    NRC regulations require that preservice inspection (PSI) of nuclear plants be performed in accordance with referenced editions and addenda of Division 1 rules of Section XI, ''Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components'', of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code). The regulations permit applicants to request and obtain relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical. Applicant requests for relief from preservice inspection (PSI) requirements were compiled and analyzed. From this data, covering a total of 178 relief requests, common problems with examination requirements were identified. Changes to examination requirements to solve selected problems are proposed. By following later ASME Code requirements, 46 out of the 178 relief requests can be eliminated. Implementing proposed Code changes would eliminate another 25 relief requests, leaving 107 relief requests out of the original 178 relief requests covered by this survey

  5. Safety/relief valve quencher loads: evaluation for BWR Mark II and III containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.M.

    1982-10-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) plants are equipped with safety/relief valves (SRVs) to protect the reactor from overpressurization. Plant operational transients, such as turbine trips, will actuate the SRV. Once the SRV opens, the air column within the partially submerged discharge line is compressed by the high-pressure steam released from the reactor. The compressed air discharged into the suppression pool produces high-pressure bubbles. Oscillatory expansion and contraction of these bubbles create hydrodynamic loads on the containment structures, piping, and equipment inside containment. This report presents the results of the staff's evaluation of SRV loads. The evaluation, however, is limited to the quencher devices used in Mark II and III containments. With respect to Mark I containments, the SRV acceptance criteria are presented in NUREG-0661 issued July 1980. The staff acceptance criteria for SRV loads for Mark II and III containments are presented in this report

  6. Deepwater royalty relief product of 3 1/2 year U.S. political effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.E.; Neff, S.

    1996-01-01

    Against the backdrop of more than 20 years of increasingly stringent environmental regulation, ever-expanding exploration and development moratoria on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), and reductions in producer tax incentives, oil and natural gas exploration companies active in deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico recently won a significant legislative victory. On Nov. 28, 1995, President Clinton signed into law S.395, the Alaska Power Administration Sale Act. Title 3 of S.395 embodies the Outer Continental Shelf Deep Water Royalty Relief Act. This landmark legislation provides substantial incentives for oil and natural gas production in the gulf of Mexico by temporarily eliminating royalties on certain deepwater leases. It is the first direct incentive for oil and gas production enacted at the federal level in many years. This paper reviews the elements used to arrive at this successful legislation including the congressional leadership. It describes debates, cabinet level discussions, and use of parlimentary procedures

  7. Design of the US-CRBRP sodium/water reaction pressure relief system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.B.; Murdock, T.B.; Rodwell, E.; Sane, J.O.

    1976-01-01

    Protection against intermediate sodium system overpressure from the sodium/water reaction associated with large leaks within the CRBRP Steam Generators is provided by the sodium/water reaction pressure relief system (SWRPRS). This system consists of rupture disks connected to the intermediate sodium piping adjacent to the inlet to the superheater and outlet from the evaporator modules. The rupture discs relieve into piping that leads to reaction produce separator tanks, which in turn are vented to a centrifugal separator and flare stack arranged to burn hydrogen gas exhausting into the atmosphere. Analyses have been conducted using the TRANSWRAP Computer Code to predict the system pressures and flow rates during the large leak event. Experimental tests to be conducted in the large leak test rig (LLTR) will be used to confirm the analysis techniques used in the design

  8. Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ju-Hee; Jung, Duk-Young; Park, Jong Bae; Lee, Hae Seong

    2008-06-01

    A new constructive method of fabricating a nanoparticle self-assembly on the patterned surface of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) relief nanostructure was demonstrated. Patterned PDMS templates with close-packed microwells were fabricated by molding against a self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres. Alkanethiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles with an average particle size of 2.5 nm were selectively deposited onto a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer printed on the substrate by the micro-contact printing (μCP) of the prepared PDMS microwell, in which the patterned gold nanoparticles consisted of close-packed hexagons with an average diameter of 370 nm. In addition, two-dimensional colloidal crystals derived from PMMA microspheres with a diameter of 380 nm and a negative surface charge were successfully formed on the hemispherical microwells by electrostatic force using positively charged PAH-coated PDMS as a template to produce multidimensional nanostructures.

  9. The Protective Role of Carbon Monoxide (CO Produced by Heme Oxygenases and Derived from the CO-Releasing Molecule CORM-2 in the Pathogenesis of Stress-Induced Gastric Lesions: Evidence for Non-Involvement of Nitric Oxide (NO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Magierowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO produced by heme oxygenase (HO-1 and HO-2 or released from the CO-donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II dimer (CORM-2 causes vasodilation, with unknown efficacy against stress-induced gastric lesions. We studied whether pretreatment with CORM-2 (0.1–10 mg/kg oral gavage (i.g., RuCl3 (1 mg/kg i.g., zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p., hemin (1–10 mg/kg i.g. and CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. combined with NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 20 mg/kg i.p., 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 mg/kg i.p., indomethacin (5 mg/kg i.p., SC-560 (5 mg/kg i.g., and celecoxib (10 mg/kg i.g. affects gastric lesions following 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS. Gastric blood flow (GBF, the number of gastric lesions and gastric CO and nitric oxide (NO contents, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level and the gastric expression of HO-1, HO-2, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS were determined. CORM-2 (1 mg/kg i.g. and hemin (10 mg/kg i.g. significantly decreased WRS lesions while increasing GBF, however, RuCl3 was ineffective. The impact of CORM-2 was reversed by ZnPP, ODQ, indomethacin, SC-560 and celecoxib, but not by l-NNA. CORM-2 decreased NO and increased HO-1 expression and CO and COHb content, downregulated HIF-1α, as well as WRS-elevated COX-2 and iNOS mRNAs. Gastroprotection by CORM-2 and HO depends upon CO’s hyperemic and anti-inflammatory properties, but is independent of NO.

  10. Creating global comparative analyses of tectonic rifts, monogenetic volcanism and inverted relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    I have been all around the world, and to other planets and have travelled from the present to the Archaean and back to seek out the most significant tectonic rifts, monogenetic volcanoes and examples of inverted relief. I have done this to provide a broad foundation of the comparative analysis for the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault nomination to UNESCO world Heritage. This would have been an impossible task, if not for the cooperation of the scientific community and for Google Earth, Google Maps and academic search engines. In preparing global comparisons of geological features, these quite recently developed tools provide a powerful way to find and describe geological features. The ability to do scientific crowd sourcing, rapidly discussing with colleagues about features, allows large numbers of areas to be checked and the open GIS tools (such as Google Earth) allow a standardised description. Search engines also allow the literature on areas to be checked and compared. I will present a comparative study of rifts of the world, monogenetic volcanic field and inverted relief, integrated to analyse the full geological system represented by the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault. The analysis confirms that the site is an exceptional example of the first steps of continental drift in a mountain rift setting, and that this is necessarily seen through the combined landscape of tectonic, volcanic and geomorphic features. The analysis goes further to deepen the understanding of geological systems and stresses the need for more study on geological heritage using such a global and broad systems approach.

  11. Immediate pain relief by microvascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, N.U.; Ali, M.; Khan, H.M.; Ishaq, M.; Khattak, M.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is a common entity which is managed by neurosurgeons in day to day practice. Up-till now many treatment options have been adopted for it but micro-vascular decompression is much impressive in terms of pain control and recurrence rate in all of them. The objective of study was known the efficacy of micro vascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia by using muscle patch in terms of immediate pain relief. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Neurosurgery Department lady reading hospital, Peshawar from January 2010 to December 2012. All patients who underwent micro vascular decompression for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia were included in the study. Patients were assessed 72 hours after the surgery by borrow neurological institute pain scale (BNIP scale) for pain relief and findings were documented on predesigned proforma. Data was analysed by SPSS-17. Results: Total 52 patients were included in this study. Among these 32 (61.53 percentage) were female and 20 (38.46 percentage) were males having age from 22-76 years (mean 49 years). Right side was involved in 36 (69.23 percentage) and left side in 16 (30.76 percentage) patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 6 months to 16 years (mean 8 years). History of dental extraction and peripheral neurectomy was present in 20 (38 percentage) and 3(5.76 percentage) patients while V3 was most commonly involved branch with 28(57.69 percentage) frequency and combined V2,V3 involvement was 1 (11.53 percentage). Superior cerebellar artery was most common offending vessel in 46(88.46 percentage) while arachnoid adhesions were in 2(3.84 percentage) patients. We assessed patient immediate postoperatively using BNIP pain scale. Conclusion: Micro-vascular decompression is most effective mode of treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in terms of immediate pain relief. (author)

  12. Root cause evaluation of pressurizer relief valve leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.E.; Voll, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pressurizer relief valves at two pressurized water reactor units experienced unacceptable leakage during plant heatup. The leakage was suspected to be caused by excessive pipe loads on the valves. This paper describes how monitoring via hard-wired transducers and a digital data acquisition system was used to quantify the pipe loads on the valves, and assist in determining the root cause of the pipe loads and appropriate corrective actions. The selection of the parameters monitored, how the monitoring was accomplished and interpretation of the results is discussed. The corrective actions implemented based on the monitoring results are also discussed

  13. Optically induced surface relief phenomena in azobenzene polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, NCR; Nikolova, Ludmila; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Azobenzene polymers and oligomers show intriguing surface relief features when irradiated with polarized laser light. We show through atomic force microscopic investigation of side-chain azobenzene polymers after irradiation through an amplitude mask that large peaks or trenches result depending...... on the architecture of the polymer. Extensive mass transport over long distances has been observed, paving the way for easy replication of nanostructures. We also show that it is possible to store microscopic images as topographic features in the polymers just through polarized light irradiation. (C) 1999 American...... Institute of Physics....

  14. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s -1 and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.)

  15. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate Sch. of Eng.

    1998-09-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s{sup -1} and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.) 12 refs.

  16. Does pain relief by CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids predict pain relief after decompression surgery for cervical nerve root compression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Alexander; Dietrich, Tobias J; Farshad, Mazda

    2016-10-01

    The relationship of pain relief from a recently presented CT-guided indirect cervical nerve root injection with local anesthetics and steroids to surgical decompression as a treatment for single-level cervical radiculopathy is not clear. This retrospective study aimed to compare the immediate and 6-week post-injection effects to the short- and long-term outcomes after surgical decompression, specifically in regard to pain relief. Patients (n = 39, age 47 ± 10 years) who had undergone CT-guided indirect injection with local anesthetics and steroids as an initial treatment for single cervical nerve root radiculopathy and who subsequently needed surgical decompression were included retrospectively. Pain levels (VAS scores) were monitored before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after injection (n = 34), as well as 6 weeks (n = 38) and a mean of 25 months (SD ± 12) after surgical decompression (n = 36). Correlation analysis was performed to find potential associations of pain relief after injection and after surgery to investigate the predictive value of post-injection pain relief. There was no correlation between immediate pain relief after injection (-32 ± 27 %) and 6 weeks later (-7 ± 19 %), (r = -0.023, p = 0.900). There was an association by tendency between immediate pain relief after injection and post-surgical pain relief at 6 weeks (-82 ± 27 %), (r = 0.28, p = 0.08). Pain relief at follow-up remained high at -70 ± 21 % and was correlated with the immediate pain amelioration effect of the injection (r = 0.37, p = 0.032). Five out of seven patients who reported no pain relief from injection had a pain relief from surgery in excess of 50 %. The amount of immediate radiculopathic pain relief after indirect cervical nerve root injection is associated with the amount of pain relief achieved at long-term follow-up after surgical decompression of single-level cervical radiculopathy

  17. GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    New York City, Sept. 17—The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from “ground zero,” heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an around-the-clock operation. Police, firefighters, military, officials with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, communications technicians, and a beehive of others work in controlled chaos in this cavernous, convention center-sized hall, lined with computers and adorned with several American flags.After the original command center at 7 World Trade Center collapsed to rubble as an after-effect of the plane strikes, city officials scrambled to recreate it. Alan Leidner, director of New York's citywide geographic information systems (GIS), and who is with the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, knew that maps would be an integral component of the rescue and relief efforts. Maps provide emergency workers and others with accurate and detailed scientific data in the form of visual aids upon which they can make informed decisions.

  18. Putting Qumran, Jesus and his movement into relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Scheffler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After referring briefly to the fantasies regarding the origins of Christianity as elicited by the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 (Dupont-Sommer, Allegro, Thiering, the purpose of the contribution is to put the Jesus movement into relief in the context of first-century Judaism. The identity of the Qumranites is argued to be Essene scribes. The identity, ideology and practices of the latter are compared with those of Jesus of Nazareth and the movement he elicited using the following rubrics: (1 Jesus, the teacher of righteousness and the powers that be; (2 asceticism versus itinerary charismaticism; (3 caring versus lack of caring for the sick, poor and marginalised; (4 elitist priests and scribes versus lower-class peasants; (5 the interpretation of the law; (6 religious and daily practices (baptism, ritual meal, sacrifice, prayer, community of possessions, scribal activity; (7 religious views or ideology (kingdom of God, the new covenant, light and darkness, politics. The result is a picture of Jesus (with his focus on human suffering in sharp relief versus Qumran and facets of the early church.

  19. Humanitarian power : Canadian electrical techies help hurricane relief in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallett, N.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the emergency assistance provided to Honduras by Canada following Hurricane Mitch that struck the country with a ferocity not seen in 200 years, was described. Thousands of Hondurans were killed and three million were left homeless as vast regions of the country were literally washed away. The secondary effects of the storm - famine and disease - set in to claim even more lives. The Canadian Forces' Disaster Response Team (DART) was dispatched to conduct emergency relief operations for up to 40 days in order to bridge the gap until members of the international community arrive to provide long-term help. DART focused on providing medical care, clean drinking water, an engineering capability, and reliable communications. The medical team consisting of a small field hospital with a staff of 45 provided care for up to 500 outpatients and 30 inpatients daily, depending on the severity of injuries. The engineering team of about 40 provided a wide range of services, such as water purification, using a reverse osmosis water purification unit, fresh water distribution and power generation. The communications unit provided contact with headquarters in Honduras, and communicated with bases back in Canada. The operation was a great success, and well received by the Honduran people. This was the first deployment of DART, a team initially conceived after the Canadian Forces participated in relief efforts in Rwanda in 1994 and 1995

  20. Submarine tectonic relief off Enshunada. Enshunadaoki no hendo chikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabuchi, Y; Sasahara, N; Hamamoto, F [Maritime Safety Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, S [10th Resional Maritime Safety Headquarters, Kagoshima (Japan); Kondo, T [Maritime Safety School, Kyoto (Japan)

    1991-08-15

    This paper reports on the results of investigations on the submarine relief structure off the Enshunada (a sea area which is on the south of the Tenryu River mouth and has about 50km east and west and about 100km north and south) using a bathymetric surveying ship equipped with a narrow multibeam echo sounder. The submarine relief structure of this sea area is clarified into the following topographical districts arranged north to south (each extends roughly in the northeast-southwest direction): the Enshu trough and Tenryu submarine canyon upper valley located in the center thereof, ridges represented by No.l and No.2 Tenryu knolls, the ridge and trough zone where minor ridges and troughes appear complicatedly and repeatedly, and the Nankai trough. The paper contains causes of formation of the Tenryu submarine canyon, the Ryuyo submarine canyon which is located in the northwestern slope of No.2 Tenryu knoll and has a distinct shape, oval-shaped domes scattered in the bottom of Nankai trough, etc. and also opinions on landslide topography seen in the ridge and trough zone. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief: changing the face of defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities.

  2. Pain relief in childbirth: changing historical and feminist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, G A

    2015-07-01

    Pain during human childbirth is ubiquitous and severe. Opium and its derivatives constitute the oldest effective method of pain relief and have been used in childbirth for several thousand years, along with numerous folk medicines and remedies. Interference with childbirth pain has always been criticised by doctors and clergy. The 19th century saw the introduction of three much more effective approaches to childbirth pain; diethyl ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide. Access to pain relief was demanded by the first wave of feminist activists as a woman's right. They popularised the use of 'twilight sleep', a combination of morphine and scopolamine, which fell into disrepute as its adverse effects became known. From the 1960s, as epidural analgesia became more popular, a second wave of feminists took the opposite position, calling for a return to non-medicalised, female-controlled, 'natural' childbirth and, in some cases, valorising the importance of the pain experience as empowering for women. However, from the 1990s, a third wave of feminist thought has begun to emerge, revalidating a woman's right to choose a 'technological', pain-free birth, rather than a 'natural' one, and regarding this as a legitimate feminist position.

  3. Analytical modeling of bwr safety relief valve blowdown phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J.G.; Singh, A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical, qualitative understanding of the pool pressures measured during safety relief valve discharge in boiling water reactors equipped with X-quenchers has been developed and compared to experimental data. A pressure trace typically consists of a brief 25-35 Hz. oscillation followed by longer 5-15 Hz. oscillation. In order to explain the pressure response, a discharge line vent clearing model has been coupled with a Rayleigh bubble dynamic model. The local conditions inside the safety relief valve discharge lines and inside of the X-quencher were simulated successfully with RELAP5. The simulation allows one to associate the peak pressure inside the quencher arm with the onset of air discharge into the suppression pool. Using the pressure and thermodynamic quality at quencher exit of RELAP5 calculation as input, a Rayleigh model of pool bubble dynamics has successfully explained both the higher and lower frequency pressure oscillations. The higher frequency oscillations are characteristic of an air bubble emanating from a single row of quencher holes. The lower frequency pressure oscillations are characteristic of a larger air bubble containing all the air expelled from one side of an X-quencher arm

  4. Anthropogenic transformation of the relief of the Aegean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsermegas Irena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the role of human impact in the forming and transformation of the relief of the Aegean Islands. The most significant changes (with a displacement of more than 10 bln m3 of rock material are related to the creation of road infrastructure and the construction of agricultural terraces. In order to create stone buildings, 20 mln m3 of rock material was used; for the purposes of air transport a surface area of nearly 2.5 km2 was levelled; many kilometres of artificial shorelines were created and at least 4.5 mln m3 of material was displaced for the purposes of the construction of artificial reservoirs of a total capacity of more than 25 mln m3. A huge amount of material was removed as a result of mining activities. The indirect impact of economic activities on the relief of the discussed area includes mainly slope, fluvial and coastal processes.

  5. Polymerization contraction stress in dentin adhesives bonded to dentin and enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashimoto, M.; de Gee, A.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In a previous study on of polymerization contraction stress determinations of adhesives bonded to dentin a continuous decline of stress was observed after the adhesives had been light-cured. The decline was ascribed to stress relief caused by diffusion into the adhesive layer of water

  6. A deterministic evaluation of heat stress mitigation and feed cost under climate change within the smallholder dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, L; Heffernan, C; Rymer, C; Panda, N

    2017-05-01

    In the global South, dairying is often promoted as a means of poverty alleviation. Yet, under conditions of climate warming, little is known regarding the ability of small-scale dairy producers to maintain production and/or the robustness of possible adaptation options in meeting the challenges presented, particularly heat stress. The authors created a simple, deterministic model to explore the influence of breed and heat stress relief options on smallholder dairy farmers in Odisha, India. Breeds included indigenous Indian (non-descript), low-grade Jersey crossbreed and high-grade Jersey crossbreed. Relief strategies included providing shade, fanning and bathing. The impact of predicted critical global climate parameters, a 2°C and 4°C temperature rise were explored. A feed price scenario was modelled to illustrate the importance of feed in impact estimation. Feed costs were increased by 10% to 30%. Across the simulations, high-grade Jersey crossbreeds maintained higher milk yields, despite being the most sensitive to the negative effects of temperature. Low-capital relief strategies were the most effective at reducing heat stress impacts on household income. However, as feed costs increased the lower-grade Jersey crossbreed became the most profitable breed. The high-grade Jersey crossbreed was only marginally (4.64%) more profitable than the indigenous breed. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the factors and practical trade-offs that underpin adaptation. The model also highlights the need for hot-climate dairying projects and programmes to consider animal genetic resources alongside environmentally sustainable adaptation measures for greatest poverty impact.

  7. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, Yinfei, E-mail: yyfgoat@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Li, Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui [Xi’an Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710000 (China)

    2015-09-17

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%.

  8. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yinfei; Li, Liang; Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%

  9. Modeling attitude towards drug treament: the role of internal motivation, external pressure, and dramatic relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Bradley T; Longshore, Douglas; Anglin, M Douglas

    2009-04-01

    Motivation for change has historically been viewed as the crucial element affecting responsiveness to drug treatment. Various external pressures, such as legal coercion, may engender motivation in an individual previously resistant to change. Dramatic relief may be the change process that is most salient as individuals internalize such external pressures. Results of structural equation modeling on data from 465 drug users (58.9% male; 21.3% Black, 34.2% Hispanic/Latino, and 35.1% White) entering drug treatment indicated that internal motivation and external pressure significantly and positively predicted dramatic relief and that dramatic relief significantly predicted attitudes towards drug treatment: chi (2) = 142.20, df = 100, p relief is also likely to be high. When dramatic relief is high, attitudes towards drug treatment are likely to be positive. The findings indicate that interventions to get individuals into drug treatment should include processes that promote Dramatic Relief. Implications for addictions health services are discussed.

  10. Intra-articular hip injection: does pain relief correlate with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ajit J.; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Alizadeh, Ahmadreza; Klein, Devon A.

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular injection is being used widely for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the hip. However, its efficacy is not always predictable in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the degree of radiographic severity of OA was predictive of the response to intra-articular injection of local anesthetic with corticosteroid and to determine the relationship between immediate pain relief resulting from the anesthetic and delayed pain relief resulting from corticosteroid administration. This retrospective study included 217 patients (220 injections) with diagnosis of hip OA who underwent a fluoroscopically guided therapeutic hip injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid. Hip radiographs were scored using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale. Immediate and delayed pain relief was documented using a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether age, gender or radiographic severity of OA were independent predictors of pain relief. Degree of agreement between immediate and delayed response was assessed with the kappa coefficient. Immediate pain relief was reported in 68.2% of hips and delayed relief in 71.4% of hips. A high level of agreement was observed between immediate and delayed pain relief (kappa = 0.80, p < 0.001). 94% of patients reporting immediate relief also reported relief 2 weeks later. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that neither gender nor age was related to immediate or delayed pain relief. Only severity of OA (based on radiographic analysis) was observed to be predictive of pain relief. Pain relief following intra-articular hip injection correlated with radiographic severity of OA. This intervention may be of therapeutic and prognostic value in patients awaiting hip arthroplasty. (orig.)

  11. The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom Up Approach to Disaster Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Skarbek, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Can bottom-up relief efforts lead to recovery after disasters? Conventional wisdom and contemporary public policy suggest that major crises require centralized authority to provide disaster relief goods. Using a novel set of comprehensive donation and expenditure data collected from archival records, this paper examines a bottom-up relief effort following one of the most devastating natural disasters of the nineteenth century: the Chicago Fire of 1871. Findings show that while there was no ce...

  12. Lessons from DoD Disaster Relief Efforts in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Orientation & Review,” USARPAC briefing, undated; “USARPAC OSInt Support to Cyclone nargis Relief Efforts in Burma 2008,” USARPAC briefing, undated; phone...all organizations relied, to a large extent, on the staff and national partners they already had 71 “USARPAC OSINT Support to Cyclone Nargis Relief...undated. As of September 8, 2012: http://www.kadena.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-120426-002.pdf “USARPAC OSINT Support to Cyclone Nargis Relief

  13. Double Dividend Taxation Relief: A New View From The Corporate Income Tax Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Lazar

    2010-01-01

    Double taxation of dividends is a matter of great interest in the actual context of globalization and free movement of capital and persons. As the classical system is more and more abandoned, new solutions for the relief of double taxation are put into practice as a mean to reduce the fiscal burden on shareholders. With few exceptions, all these solutions are based on dividend tax relief. The paper aims at providing alternative solutions for double dividend taxation relief by taking some acti...

  14. The pre-positioning of warehouses at regional and local levels for a humanitarian relief organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Saeyeon; Pettit, Stephen John; Harris, Irina; Beresford, Anthony Kenneth Charles

    2015-01-01

    Using pre-positioned warehouses at strategic locations around the world is an approach commonly taken by some humanitarian relief organisations to improve their capacities to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short time frame, and to provide shelter and assistance to disaster victims. Although research into the facility location problem is extensive in both theory and application, such approaches have received little attention from the humanitarian relief perspective. In this ...

  15. Optimization and Simulation Modeling of Disaster Relief Supply Chain: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Keli; Bizimana, Emmanuel; Agu, Deedee D.; Issac, Tana T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent natural and man-made disasters underscore the need of a resilient and agile disaster relief supply chain to mitigate the damages and save people’s lives. Optimization and simulation modeling have become powerful and useful tools to help decision makers tackle problems related to disaster relief supply chain. This paper reviews optimization and simulation models used in the field of disaster relief supply chain. We review the literature of the facility location optimization problems of ...

  16. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Saskia; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience (“liking”) of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward (“wanting”), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief “won” in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality. PMID:26464995

  17. CCF analysis of high redundancy systems safety/relief valve data analysis and reference BWR application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Bjoere, S.; Olsson, Lena

    1992-12-01

    Dependent failure analysis and modeling were developed for high redundancy systems. The study included a comprehensive data analysis of safety and relief valves at the Finnish and Swedish BWR plants, resulting in improved understanding of Common Cause Failure mechanisms in these components. The reference application on the Forsmark 1/2 reactor relief system, constituting of twelve safety/relief lines and two regulating relief lines, covered different safety criteria cases of reactor depressurization and overpressure protection function, and failure to re close sequences. For the quantification of dependencies, the Alpha Factor Model, the Binomial Probability Model and the Common Load Model were compared for applicability in high redundancy systems

  18. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J M; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation - a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  19. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  20. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J. M.; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO. PMID:25806008

  1. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Nichole M.; Farris, Suzan R.; Ray, Jenna N.; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    modulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent findings have demonstrated that mindfulness meditation significantly reduces pain. Given that the “gold standard” for evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions is based on appropriate placebo comparisons, it is imperative that we establish whether there is an effect supporting meditation-related pain relief above and beyond the effects of placebo. Here, we provide novel evidence demonstrating that mindfulness meditation produces greater pain relief and employs distinct neural mechanisms than placebo cream and sham mindfulness meditation. Specifically, mindfulness meditation-induced pain relief activated higher-order brain regions, including the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with decreased pain-related brain activation. These findings demonstrate that mindfulness meditation reduces pain through unique mechanisms and may foster greater acceptance of meditation as an adjunct pain therapy. PMID:26586819

  2. Mindfulness Meditation-Based Pain Relief Employs Different Neural Mechanisms Than Placebo and Sham Mindfulness Meditation-Induced Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, Fadel; Emerson, Nichole M; Farris, Suzan R; Ray, Jenna N; Jung, Youngkyoo; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

    2015-11-18

    significantly reduces pain. Given that the "gold standard" for evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions is based on appropriate placebo comparisons, it is imperative that we establish whether there is an effect supporting meditation-related pain relief above and beyond the effects of placebo. Here, we provide novel evidence demonstrating that mindfulness meditation produces greater pain relief and employs distinct neural mechanisms than placebo cream and sham mindfulness meditation. Specifically, mindfulness meditation-induced pain relief activated higher-order brain regions, including the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices. In contrast, placebo analgesia was associated with decreased pain-related brain activation. These findings demonstrate that mindfulness meditation reduces pain through unique mechanisms and may foster greater acceptance of meditation as an adjunct pain therapy. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3515308-19$15.00/0.

  3. Stress Management: Job Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Job stress can be all-consuming — but it doesn't have to be. Address your triggers, keep perspective and ... stress triggers, it's often helpful to improve time management skills — especially if you tend to feel overwhelmed ...

  4. Lung-Protective Ventilation Strategies for Relief from Ventilator-Associated Lung Injury in Patients Undergoing Craniotomy: A Bicenter Randomized, Parallel, and Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoliang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence indicates that conventional mechanical ventilation often leads to lung inflammatory response and oxidative stress, while lung-protective ventilation (LPV minimizes the risk of ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI. This study evaluated the effects of LPV on relief of pulmonary injury, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress among patients undergoing craniotomy. Sixty patients undergoing craniotomy received either conventional mechanical (12 mL/kg tidal volume [VT] and 0 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]; CV group or protective lung (6 mL/kg VT and 10 cm H2O PEEP; PV group ventilation. Hemodynamic variables, lung function indexes, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were assessed. The PV group exhibited greater dynamic lung compliance and lower respiratory index than the CV group during surgery (P0.05. Patients receiving LPV during craniotomy exhibited low perioperative inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and VALI.

  5. [Safety and efficacy of ketamine for pain relief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesters, Marieke; Dahan, Albert; van Kleef, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous ketamine treatment is frequently used for the management of chronic pain, especially in those patients who do not benefit from other therapies. In this commentary we discuss the efficacy of ketamine for relief of chronic pain and ketamine's safety profile. A review of the literature indicates that only a few studies show that intravenous ketamine has analgesic effects that persist beyond the infusion period, an effect that occurs in about two-thirds of patients. Ketamine has multiple safety issues, ranging from psychotomimetic and schizotypal symptoms, sympathetic stimulation, tachycardia and hypertension, and damage to the liver and the urogenital tract. Damage to the urogenital tract seems to be restricted to individuals who chronically abuse ketamine. We indicate the need for large randomized trials in which ketamine is compared with an 'active' placebo.

  6. Acupuncture as pain relief during delivery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery...... with respect to pain intensity, birth experience, and obstetric outcome. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 607 healthy women in labor at term who received acupuncture, TENS, or traditional analgesics. Primary outcomes were the need for pharmacological and invasive methods, level of pain...... with the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Use of pharmacological and invasive methods was significantly lower in the acupuncture group (acupuncture vs traditional, p acupuncture vs TENS, p = 0.031). Pain scores were comparable. Acupuncture did not influence the duration of labor or the use of oxytocin...

  7. Human milk for neonatal pain relief during ophthalmoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiane Medeiros Ribeiro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmoscopy performed for the early diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is painful for preterm infants, thus necessitating interventions for minimizing pain. The present study aimed to establish the effectiveness of human milk, compared with sucrose, for pain relief in premature infants subjected to ophthalmoscopy for the early diagnosis of ROP. This investigation was a pilot, quasi-experimental study conducted with 14 premature infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a university hospital. Comparison between the groups did not yield a statistically significant difference relative to the crying time, salivary cortisol, or heart rate (HR. Human milk appears to be as effective as sucrose in relieving acute pain associated with ophthalmoscopy. The study’s limitations included its small sample size and lack of randomization. Experimental investigations with greater sample power should be performed to reinforce the evidence found in the present study.

  8. Numerical study of emergency cryogenics gas relief into confined spaces

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The presented work focuses on the risk analysis and the consequences of the unexpected leak to the tunnel of cryogenics gases. Formation of the gas mixture and its propagation along tunnels is an important issue for the safe operation of cryogenic machines, including superconducting accelerators or free electron lasers. As the cryogenics gas the helium and argon will be considered. A minimal numerical model will be presented and discussed. Series of numerical results related to emergency helium relief to the CERN tunnel and related to unexpected leak of the argon to an underground tunnel, will be shown. The numerical results will show temperature distribution, oxygen deficiency and gas cloud propagation in function of intensity of the leak and intensity of the ventilation.

  9. Pain Relief in Nonhuman Primate Models of Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierboom, Michel P M; Breedveld, Elia; Keehnen, Merei; Klomp, Rianne; Bakker, Jaco

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of rheumatoid arthritis are important in the elucidation of etiopathogenic mechanisms of the disease and for the development of promising new therapies. Species specificity of new biological compounds and their mode of action preclude safety and efficacy testing in rodent models of disease. Nonhuman primates (NHP) can fill this niche and provide the only relevant model. Over the last two decades models of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were developed in the rhesus monkey and the common marmoset. However, NHP are higher-order animals and complex sentient beings. So especially in models where pain is an intricate part of the disease, analgesia needs to be addressed because of ethical considerations. In our model, a morphine-based pain relief was used that does not interfere with the normal development of disease allowing us to evaluate important mechanistic aspects of the arthritis.

  10. Nasal Filters For Relief From Atopic Dermatitis Caused by Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal filter is a simple device consisting of a net mounted in a frame made to fit inside the nostrils. These filters thus are not visible from outside. If a person uses the nasal filters the .u particulate material from the air that the person breathes gets removed and in case the person is allergic to an inhalant antigen, he stops having the allergic symptoms. We tried nasal filters on two females patients aged 32 and 7 years respectively, having topics dermatitis the age of I year, caused by an inhalant (indicated by seasonal aggravations, and spontaneous recovery during brief visits to other towns. Unrig a follow-up of 2 1/2 and 2 years respectively, both the patients experienced almost 80-90% relief from the dermatitis and required only animal treatment.

  11. Gain-Based Relief for Invasion of Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirko Harder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many common law jurisdictions, some or all instances of invasion of privacy constitute a privacy-specific wrong either at common law (including equity or under statute. A remedy invariably available for such a wrong is compensation for loss. However, the plaintiff may instead seek to claim the profit the defendant has made from the invasion. This article examines when a plaintiff is, and should be, entitled to claim that profit, provided that invasion of privacy is actionable as such. After a brief overview of the relevant law in major common law jurisdictions, the article investigates how invasion of privacy fits into a general concept of what is called ‘restitution for wrongs’. It will be argued that the right to privacy is a right against the whole world and as such forms a proper basis of awarding gain-based relief for the unauthorised use of that right.

  12. Occupational accidents among ambulance drivers in the emergency relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Elisabete; do Carmo Cruz Robazzi, Maria Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the occurrence of occupational accidents (OA) among ambulance drivers in Emergency Relief (ER), with a view to disclosing the types of events and their causes. A quantitative-qualitative study was carried out through the interview of 22 workers in a city in São Paulo, Brazil. The subjects were male, between 36 and 40 years old (40.9%), married (81.82%), with uncompleted primary education (40.9%), individual (90.9%) and family (54.55%) income between two and four Brazilian minimum wages, not performing any other paid occupation (45.45%). The majority of the OA were typical, due to an excess of exercises and vigorous and repeated movements (42.11%) and aggression through body strength and other means (26.33%). The OA occurs mainly because drivers carry out tasks that do not suit their professional formation.

  13. Pemanfaatan Frekuensi Untuk Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penanganan kejadian yang terkait dengan Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR di Indonesia yang merupakan negara yang rawan terhadap bencana dan permasalahan sosial membutuhkan komunikasi yang intensif. Penelitian ini mengkaji mengenai kondisi pemanfaatan frekuensi PPDR di Indonesia dan strategi pengembangan ke depannya dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem komunikasi pada instansi PPDR di Indonesia tidak mendukung interoperabilitas dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang terkoordinasi. Selain itu, pita frekuensi yang digunakan merupakan pita sempit yang tidak mendukung aplikasi video dan data kecepatan tinggi yang dibutuhkan dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang lebih efektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam perencanaan alokasi frekuensi ke depannya, pemerintah perlu mengintegrasikan pita lebar ke dalam perencanaan sistem Government Radio Network (GRN.

  14. The roles of special proresolving mediators in pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan-Yu; Jia, Ming-Rui; Sun, Tao

    2018-02-08

    The resolution of acute inflammation, once thought to be a passive process, is now recognized as an active one. The productions of endogenous special proresolving mediators (SPMs) are involved in this process. SPMs, including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are endogenous lipid mediators generated from ω-6 arachidonic acid or ω-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids during the resolution phase of acute inflammation. They have potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving actions in various inflammatory disorders. Due to the potent proresolving and anti-inflammatory effects, SPMs are also used for pain relief. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which SPMs act on their respective G-protein-coupled receptors in immune cells and nerve cells to normalize pain via regulating inflammatory mediators, transient receptor potential ion channels, and central sensitization. SPMs may offer novel therapeutic approaches for preventing and treating pain conditions associated with inflammation.

  15. The Americans with Disabilities Act: prescription for tax relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E D; Judice, A K; Hazelwood, A C

    1996-01-01

    As employers, healthcare organizations must comply with Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990-Employment Discrimination by Private Entities-which covers virtually all aspects of employment and prohibits employers from discriminating against otherwise qualified job applicants and workers who have disabilities or who become disabled. Further, healthcare organizations must comply with the provisions of Title III of the act-Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial Facilities-which requires places of public accommodations and commercial facilities to be designed, constructed, and altered in compliance with the accessibility standards of the act. While compliance with the ADA can be costly, four specific sections of the Internal Revenue Code offer tax relief to organizations that meet the guidelines of Titles I and III.

  16. Bilateral CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy for cancer pain relief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegul, I.; Erhan, E.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for treating unilateral cancer pain, however, bilateral cordotomy can be required on some occasions. We evaluated the effectiveness and complications of bilateral cordotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-four patients who suffered from unilateral cancer pain underwent CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy. The procedure was repeated in 22 patients, and nine patients had bilateral cordotomy. Effectiveness and complications were recorded after each procedure. RESULTS: Of nine patents (three women and six men) having bilateral percutaneous cordotomy in our study, four patients had mirror pain after the first procedure. In the remaining five patients the contralateral pain was due to new pain sites. The pain scores before and after the first procedure were 9.3 (range 7-10) and 1.2 (range 0-3), respectively. After the first procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was achieved in all patients. The duration between the two procedures ranged from 7-243 days (mean 59.8 days). The pain scores before and after the second procedure were 8.4 (range 5-10) and 1.6 (range 0-4), respectively. After the second procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was reported in all patients. There were no complications in four patients. One patient developed transient motor deficit after the first procedure. Other complications (nausea/vomiting, headache, ipsilateral neck pain, postcordotomy dysesthesia) were mild and transient. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for the treatment of severe unilateral cancer pain syndromes. The procedure can be repeated on the other side at least 1 week later. These results show that the success on the second side appears to be similar to the first side with low complication rate for both procedures

  17. The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain pleasant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C.; Snyder, Gregory D.; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that “it could be worse” can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the “relative relief context,” moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a “hedonic flip,” such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This “hedonic flip” was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. “Pleasant pain” also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced “hedonic flip” of pain. PMID:23352758

  18. Bilateral CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy for cancer pain relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegul, I. E-mail: iyegul@med.ege.edu.tr; Erhan, E. E-mail: elvanerhan@yahoo.com

    2003-11-01

    AIM: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for treating unilateral cancer pain, however, bilateral cordotomy can be required on some occasions. We evaluated the effectiveness and complications of bilateral cordotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-four patients who suffered from unilateral cancer pain underwent CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy. The procedure was repeated in 22 patients, and nine patients had bilateral cordotomy. Effectiveness and complications were recorded after each procedure. RESULTS: Of nine patents (three women and six men) having bilateral percutaneous cordotomy in our study, four patients had mirror pain after the first procedure. In the remaining five patients the contralateral pain was due to new pain sites. The pain scores before and after the first procedure were 9.3 (range 7-10) and 1.2 (range 0-3), respectively. After the first procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was achieved in all patients. The duration between the two procedures ranged from 7-243 days (mean 59.8 days). The pain scores before and after the second procedure were 8.4 (range 5-10) and 1.6 (range 0-4), respectively. After the second procedure complete or satisfactory pain relief was reported in all patients. There were no complications in four patients. One patient developed transient motor deficit after the first procedure. Other complications (nausea/vomiting, headache, ipsilateral neck pain, postcordotomy dysesthesia) were mild and transient. CONCLUSION: CT-guided percutaneous cordotomy is a useful procedure for the treatment of severe unilateral cancer pain syndromes. The procedure can be repeated on the other side at least 1 week later. These results show that the success on the second side appears to be similar to the first side with low complication rate for both procedures.

  19. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health

  20. Effect of stress relief parameters on the mechanical properties of pressure vessel steels and weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Post weld heat treatments of thick-section A533B steel for nuclear pressure vessels are discussed with reference to the ASME code. The discussion is in the form of a lecture and summarized by noting that the ASME code, in particular Section III, Division 1, imposes a post weld heat treatment requirement on pressure vessels fabricated from low alloy high strength steels. The Code permits a holding temperature range, the high side of which could result in poorer toughness properties. Long times in excess of 100 hours and/or high temperatures, 649 0 C can result in an increase in the NDT and a decrease in the upper shelf energy

  1. In vitro assessment of relief to oxidative stress by different fractions of Boerhavia procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Rubab, Kaniz; Rehman, Azizur; Riaz, Tauheeda; Shahzadi, Tayyaba; Khalid, Muniba; Ajaib, Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Methanolic extract of Boerhavia procumbens Bank ex Roxb. was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol sequentially after dissolving in distilled water. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol soluble fraction. The antioxidant activity of all these fractions and the remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods such as: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, total antioxidant activity and ferric thiocyanate assay. Total phenolics were also determined. Some fractions showed noteworthy antioxidant activity. The results of the antioxidant activity revealed that the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the highest value of percent inhibition of DPPH (82.54 ± 0.62) at the concentration of 125 μ g/ml. The IC(50) of this fraction was 37.11± 0.23 μg/ml, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which have IC(50) of 12.1 ± 0.92 μ/mL. It also showed the highest FRAP value (251.08 ± 1.46 μg of trolox equivalents) as well as the highest value of lipid peroxidation inhibition (57.21 ± 52%), the highest total antioxidant activity (0.549 ± 0.08) and also the highest total phenolic contents (77.1 ± 0.6) as compared to the studied fractions. Phytochemical screening showed high percentage of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in this fraction.

  2. The Activities of UN Specialized Agencies in the Area of Disaster Relief of Population and Territories against Disasters in the beginning of the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Vladimirovich Kuvshinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the structure and main directions of the activities of UN specialized agencies as well as other international organizations and entities such as ICDO aimed at the organization of the measures for disaster relief and civil defence. The urgency of the article is in the fact that it is for the first time in Russian academic literature devoted to this topic with the specific examples of conducting of such measures. The main conclusions of the article stresses that the specialized U.N. agencies and other international and national entities have already demonstrated the urgent nature and efficiency of providing disaster relief to affected countries and population in the beginning of the XXI century but they should upgrade their potential in that regard in the coming years.

  3. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  4. Iodine-induced stress corrosion cracking of fixed deflection stressed slotted rings of Zircaloy fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejnoha, R.; Wood, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Zircaloy fuel cladding by fission products is thought to be an important mechanism influencing power ramping defects of water-reactor fuels. We have used the fixed-deflection stressed slotted-ring technique to demonstrate cracking. The results show both the sensitivity and limitations of the stressed slotted-ring method in determining the responses of tubing to stress corrosion cracking. They are interpreted in terms of stress relaxation behavior, both on a microscopic scale for hydrogen-induced stress-relief and on a macroscopic scale for stress-time characteristics. Analysis also takes account of nonuniform plastic deformation during loading and residual stress buildup on unloading. 27 refs

  5. Effects of pressure angle and tip relief on the life of speed increasing gearbox: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Sankar; Kumaresan, Manivarma; Muthusamy, Nataraj

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines failure of helical gear in speed increasing gearbox used in the wind turbine generator (WTG). In addition, an attempt has been made to get suitable gear micro-geometry such as pressure angle and tip relief to minimize the gear failure in the wind turbines. As the gear trains in the wind turbine gearbox is prearranged with higher speed ratio and the gearboxes experience shock load due to atmospheric turbulence, gust wind speed, non-synchronization of pitching, frequent grid drops and failure of braking, the gear failure occurs either in the intermediate or high speed stage pinion. KISS soft gear calculation software was used to determine the gear specifications and analysis is carried out in ANSYS software version.11.0 for the existing and the proposed gear to evaluate the performance of bending stress tooth deflection and stiffness. The main objective of this research study is to propose suitable gear micro-geometry that is tip relief and pressure angle blend for increasing tooth strength of the helical gear used in the wind turbine for trouble free operation.

  6. An audit of aspects of informed consent and pain relief in general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were asked what they knew or had been informed about their diagnosis, operation and complications of surgery. On pain relief, patients were asked about their experiences on the first post-operative day and what relief they had from analgesics. Twenty four did not know the diagnosis and 36 were not told what ...

  7. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....5870 Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a peripheral nerve... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain...

  8. 30 CFR 203.3 - Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES General Provisions § 203.3 Do I have to pay a fee to request royalty relief? When you submit an application or ask for a preview assessment...

  9. 19 CFR 210.69 - Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.69 Section 210.69 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.69 Approval of...

  10. 19 CFR 210.70 - Forfeiture or return of complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relief bond. 210.70 Section 210.70 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.70... and the Commission will be guided by practice under Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure...

  11. 78 FR 8691 - Notice of Availability of Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...-competitive basis, subject to the priorities set forth below. The Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013..., reconstruct, or replace equipment and facilities of a public transportation system operating in the United... affects public transportation systems. The Emergency Relief Program allows FTA to make grants for eligible...

  12. knowledge, attitude and use of pain relief in labour among women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-01

    Jul 1, 2014 ... Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice of pain relief methods during labour among ... all of which could adversely affect uterine blood flow. Pain relief in ... knowledge was low among women who did not use any form of ... Niven et al found that memories of labour pains can evoke intense ...

  13. An Engineered Resupply System for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    relevant and timely relief. Conduct Supply refers to the procurement, warehousing, and managing of relief supplies. Conduct Deployment and Distribution ...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. AN ENGINEERED...Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  14. Counterfactually Mediated Emotions: A Developmental Study of Regret and Relief in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M.; Cassotti, M.; Borst, G.; Simon, G.; Pineau, A.; Houde, O.; Moutier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Regret and relief are related to counterfactual thinking and rely on comparison processes between what has been and what might have been. In this article, we study the development of regret and relief from late childhood to adulthood (11.2-20.2 years), and we examine how these two emotions affect individuals' willingness to retrospectively…

  15. A neurogenetic dissociation between punishment-, reward- and relief-learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ayse Yarali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available What is particularly worth remembering about a traumatic experience is what brought it about, and what made it cease. For example, fruit flies avoid an odour which during training had preceded electric shock punishment; on the other hand, if the odour had followed shock during training, it is later on approached as a signal for the relieving end of shock. We provide a neurogenetic analysis of such relief learning. Blocking, using UAS-shibirets1, the output from a particular set of dopaminergic neurons defined by the TH-Gal4 driver partially impaired punishment learning, but left relief learning intact. Thus, with respect to these particular neurons, relief learning differs from punishment learning. Targeting another set of dopaminergic/ serotonergic neurons defined by the DDC-Gal4 driver on the other hand affected neither punishment nor relief learning. As for the octopaminergic system, the tbhM18 mutation, compromising octopamine biosynthesis, partially impaired sugar-reward learning, but not relief learning. Thus, with respect to this particular mutation, relief learning and reward learning are dissociated. Finally, blocking output from the set of octopaminergic/ tyraminergic neurons defined by the TDC2-Gal4 driver affected neither reward, nor relief learning. We conclude that regarding the used genetic tools, relief learning is neurogenetically dissociated from both punishment and reward learning.

  16. Paracetamol for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weil, K.; Hooper, L.; Afzal, Z.; Esposito, M.; Worthington, H.V.; van Wijk, A.J.; Coulthard, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol has been commonly used for the relief of postoperative pain following oral surgery. In this review we investigated the optimal dose of paracetamol and the optimal time for drug administration to provide pain relief, taking into account the side effects of different doses of

  17. The Unintended Consequences of Property Tax Relief: New York's STAR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Tae Ho; Duncombe, William; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yinger, John

    2014-01-01

    New York's School Tax Relief Program, STAR, provides state-funded property tax relief for homeowners. Like a matching grant, STAR changes the price of education, thereby altering the incentives of voters and school officials and leading to unintended consequences. Using data for New York State school districts before and after STAR was…

  18. Oscillatory neural representations in the sensory thalamus predict neuropathic pain relief by deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongzhi; Green, Alexander L; Hyam, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, James; Aziz, Tipu Z; Wang, Shouyan

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the function of sensory thalamic neural activity is essential for developing and improving interventions for neuropathic pain. However, there is a lack of investigation of the relationship between sensory thalamic oscillations and pain relief in patients with neuropathic pain. This study aims to identify the oscillatory neural characteristics correlated with pain relief induced by deep brain stimulation (DBS), and develop a quantitative model to predict pain relief by integrating characteristic measures of the neural oscillations. Measures of sensory thalamic local field potentials (LFPs) in thirteen patients with neuropathic pain were screened in three dimensional feature space according to the rhythm, balancing, and coupling neural behaviours, and correlated with pain relief. An integrated approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple regression analysis is proposed to integrate the multiple measures and provide a predictive model. This study reveals distinct thalamic rhythms of theta, alpha, high beta and high gamma oscillations correlating with pain relief. The balancing and coupling measures between these neural oscillations were also significantly correlated with pain relief. The study enriches the series research on the function of thalamic neural oscillations in neuropathic pain and relief, and provides a quantitative approach for predicting pain relief by DBS using thalamic neural oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on the visualization of the fine relief of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Niemann, G.; Klose, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of visualizing the fine relief of the colon was examined by studying human intestinal segments removed post mortem. The visualization depends, among other things, on the extent of expansion of the colon wall. The visualization of the fine relief structure becomes progressively poorer, the greater the extension of the wall. This might indicate that fold formation of the mucosa through a state of contraction of the tunica mucosa is done of the responsible factors for the visualization of the fine relief structures. The article discusses, apart from this factor, the course of the vessels as an anatomical basic pattern determining the manifestation of the fine relief structure; for this purpose, the course of the vessels in the intestine of the dog was visualized by intra-arterial contrast medium injection and then compared with the human fine relief. (orig.) [de

  20. Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou; Howell, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... for structural integrity. The paper presents the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrumented Dolosse. Static stresses and wave generated stresses were studied as well as model and scale effects. A preliminary design diagram for Dolosse is presented as well....

  1. Improving pain relief for children in Thailand | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This can include negative physical, psychological, and social consequences for both the young patients and their families. ... Pain management guidelines in Thai hospitals help to prevent and treat pain in children. ... Le stress vous tenaille ?

  2. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design with updated test stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2018-03-01

    Underground refuge alternatives require an air source to supply breathable air to the occupants. This requires pressure relief valves to prevent unsafe pressures from building up within the refuge alternative. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) mandates that pressure relief valves prevent pressure from exceeding 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure when a fan or compressor is used for the air supply. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tested a variety of pressure relief valves using an instrumented test fixture consisting of data acquisition equipment, a centrifugal blower, ductwork and various sensors to determine if the subject pressure relief valves meet the MSHA requirement. Relief pressures and flow characteristics, including opening pressure and flow rate, were measured for five different pressure relief valves under a variety of conditions. The subject pressure relief valves included two off-the-shelf modified check valves, two check valves used in MSHA-approved built-in-place refuge alternatives, and a commercially available valve that was designed for a steel refuge alternative and is currently being used in some built-in-place refuge alternatives. The test results showed relief pressures ranging from 0.20 to 1.53 kPa (0.03 to 0.22 psi) and flow rates up to 19.3 m 3 /min (683 scfm). As tested, some of the pressure relief valves did not meet the 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi) relief specification.

  3. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowswell, Therese; Bedwell, Carol; Lavender, Tina; Neilson, James P

    2009-04-15

    Transcutaneous nerve stimulation (TENS) has been proposed as a means of reducing pain in labour. The TENS unit emits low-voltage electrical impulses which vary in frequency and intensity. During labour, TENS electrodes are generally placed on the lower back, although TENS may be used to stimulate acupuncture points or other parts of the body. The physiological mechanisms whereby TENS relieves pain are uncertain. The TENS unit is frequently operated by women, which may increase sense of control in labour. To assess the effects of TENS on pain in labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (November 2008). Randomised controlled trials comparing women receiving TENS for pain relief in labour versus routine care, alternative pharmacological methods of pain relief, or placebo devices. We included all types of TENS machines. Two review authors assessed for inclusion all trials identified by the search strategy, carried out data extraction and assessed risk of bias. We have recorded reasons for excluding studies. The search identified 25 studies; we excluded six and included 19 studies including 1671 women. Fifteen examined TENS applied to the back, two to acupuncture points and two to the cranium. Overall, there was little difference in pain ratings between TENS and control groups, although women receiving TENS to acupuncture points were less likely to report severe pain (risk ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.55). The majority of women using TENS said they would be willing to use it again in a future labour. Where TENS was used as an adjunct to epidural analgesia there was no evidence that it reduced pain. There was no consistent evidence that TENS had any impact on interventions and outcomes in labour. There was little information on outcomes for mothers and babies. No adverse events were reported. There is only limited evidence that TENS reduces pain in labour and it does not seem to have any impact (either positive or

  4. An Analysis of 19 International Case Studies of Stress Prevention Through Work Reorganization Using the Demand/Control Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasek, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Nineteen international case studies of workplace stress prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case…

  5. Residual stress measurement in socket welded joints by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Makoto; Ishiwata, Masayuki; Minakawa, Noriaki; Funahashi, Satoru.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements of lattice spacings provide the spatial map of residual stress near welds in ferritic steel socket joints. The high tensile stress greater than 200 MPa was found in the fusion and heat-affected zones in the hoop direction. However, the highest tensile stress in the axial direction at the weld root was about 110 MPa relatively lower than the expected value from the fatigue test results. The balancing compressive stress was found near the surface of the socket weld fusion zone. Heat treatment at 625degC for 2 hours was sufficient for the relief of residual stress in socket welds. (author)

  6. Tectonics, climate and mountain building in the forearc of southern Peru recorded in the 10Be chronology of low-relief surface abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Audin, L.; Finkel, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Regional low-relief surfaces have long been recognized as key features to understanding the response of landscapes to surface uplift. The canonical models of low-relief surface formation involve an extended period of tectonic quiescence during which, the fluvial systems bevel the landscape to a uniform elevation. This quiescent period is punctuated by a period(s) of surface uplift, which causes fluvial incision thereby abandoning the low-relief landscape. Over time, as rivers continue to incise in response to changes in sediment supply, river discharge, and base level fall, pieces of the relict low-relief landscape are left as abandoned remnants stranded above active channels. By determining the age of abandoned surfaces, previous workers have identified the onset of a change in the tectonic or climatic setting. One key assumption of this model is that the low-relief surfaces are truly abandoned with no current processes further acting on the surface. To improve our understanding of the underlying assumptions and problems of low-relief surface formation, we have used detailed mapping and absolute dating with cosmogenic 10Be to investigate surfaces in the hyperarid forearc region of southern Peru between ~14° and 18°S. Within this region, marine terraces and strath terraces reflect Plio-Pleistocene surface uplift, and together with the hyperarid climate, ongoing surface uplift provides a perfect natural laboratory to examine the processes affecting low-relief surface abandonment and preservation. With our new chronology we address: 1) the space and time correlations of surfaces, 2) incision rates of streams in response to base-level fall, and 3) surface erosion rates. Multiple surfaces have yielded 10Be surface abandonment ages that span >2 Ma - ~35 ka. While most of the surfaces we have dated are considerably less than 1 Ma, we have located two surfaces which are likely older than 2 Ma and constrain regional erosion rates to be chronology of Pleistocene surface

  7. Multiple sites and actions of gabapentin-induced relief of ongoing experimental neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Qu, Chaoling; Navratilova, Edita; Oyarzo, Janice; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Dickenson, Anthony H; Porreca, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Gabapentin (GBP) is a first-line therapy for neuropathic pain, but its mechanisms and sites of action remain uncertain. We investigated GBP-induced modulation of neuropathic pain following spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in rats. Intravenous or intrathecal GBP reversed evoked mechanical hypersensitivity and produced conditioned place preference (CPP) and dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) selectively in SNL rats. Spinal GBP also significantly inhibited dorsal horn wide-dynamic-range neuronal responses to a range of evoked stimuli in SNL rats. By contrast, GBP microinjected bilaterally into the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), produced CPP, and elicited NAc DA release selectively in SNL rats but did not reverse tactile allodynia and had marginal effects on wide-dynamic-range neuronal activity. Moreover, blockade of endogenous opioid signaling in the rACC prevented intravenous GBP-induced CPP and NAc DA release but failed to block its inhibition of tactile allodynia. Gabapentin, therefore, can potentially act to produce its pain relieving effects by (a) inhibition of injury-induced spinal neuronal excitability, evoked hypersensitivity, and ongoing pain and (b) selective supraspinal modulation of affective qualities of pain, without alteration of reflexive behaviors. Consistent with previous findings of pain relief from nonopioid analgesics, GBP requires engagement of rACC endogenous opioid circuits and downstream activation of mesolimbic reward circuits reflected in learned pain-motivated behaviors. These findings support the partial separation of sensory and affective dimensions of pain in this experimental model and suggest that modulation of affective-motivational qualities of pain may be the preferential mechanism of GBP's analgesic effects in patients.

  8. Leakage characterization of a piloted power operated relief valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekoye, L.I.; Hess, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    In Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), power operated relief valves (PORVs) are used to provide overpressure protection of the Pressurizer. The valves are fail closed globe valves which means that power is required to open the valves and, on loss of power, the valves close. There are two ways to operate the PORVs. The more common way is to directly couple the disc to an actuator via a disc-stem assembly. The type of design is not the object of this paper. The other and less common way of operating a PORV is by piloting the main valve such that the opening or closing of a pilot valve opens and closes the main valve. This is the design of interest. In most plants, the PORVs are installed with a water loop seal while in some plants no water loop seals are used. It is generally accepted that loop seal installation minimizes valve seat leakage. In non-loop seal installation, the valve seat is exposed to steam which increases the potential for seat leakage. This paper describes the results of some tests performed with nitrogen and steam to characterize the leakage potential of a pilot operated PORV. The test results were compared with seat leakage tests of check valves to provide insight on the leakage testing of pilot operated valves and check valves. The paper also compares the test data with leakage estimates using the ASME/ANSI OM Code guidance on valve leakage

  9. Music therapy in relief of pain in oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Franco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the perception of oncology patients with chronic pain as to the effects of music in alleviating pain, to identify if there are changes in the vital signs of these patients before and after the musicotherapy session, and to identify whether the intensity of pain is diminished after the music session as per an analogic scale of pain. Methods: This level II, descriptive-exploratory and cross-sectional study used a quantitative and qualitative approach. The sample consisted of ten oncology patients with chronic pain. Rresults: There was a reduction in vital signs and in intensity of pain in ten patients of the sample; after the music sessions, the patients reported a sensation of relief of pain, relaxation, and a belief in the power of music as a supplementary therapy. Cconclusions: Music showed an influence in reducing vital signs and pain intensity, and the patients perceived a reduction of pain and anxiety, and began to believe in music as a form of therapy.

  10. Earthquake-relief APWR (Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Hidekazu; Oshibe, Toshihiro; Yamaura, Yoshihisa; Kokubo, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    The anti-seismic design conditions for nuclear power stations are extremely severe in Japan. Therefore, various measures, including the increase in building wall thickness and in the number of equipment supports, need to be implemented to satisfy the necessary anti-seismic design. This is one of the causes of the increase in the construction cost of power stations. Meanwhile, a seismic isolation system, which mitigates an input earthquake motion, has been attracting attention in the general construction industry since the Great Hansin Earthquake in 1995. An increasing number of buildings employing such a system have been constructed. The system is being more popular and socially accepted. At the same time, the anti-seismic nuclear power stations have already been operated in France and South Africa. Various reviews and researches are promoted in Japan to adopt the seismic isolation system in nuclear power stations. The building and equipment designs when the seismic isolation system is applied to APWR are reviewed based on the experience in Japan and overseas. Specifically, reviews were conducted on the following items and their technical and economical feasibility has been well confirmed: Earthquake-relief equipment properties. Building design. Equipment design. The reliability and economy on the building and equipment designs shall further be enhanced in order to maximize the advantages of seismic isolation system in the future. (author)

  11. CFD analysis of gas explosions vented through relief pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, G; Di Benedetto, A; Salzano, E; Russo, G

    2006-09-21

    Vent devices for gas and dust explosions are often ducted to safe locations by means of relief pipes. However, the presence of the duct increases the severity of explosion if compared to simply vented vessels (i.e. compared to cases where no duct is present). Besides, the identification of the key phenomena controlling the violence of explosion has not yet been gained. Multidimensional models coupling, mass, momentum and energy conservation equations can be valuable tools for the analysis of such complex explosion phenomena. In this work, gas explosions vented through ducts have been modelled by a two-dimensional (2D) axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approach in which the laminar, flamelet and distributed combustion models have been implemented. Numerical test have been carried out by varying ignition position, duct diameter and length. Results have evidenced that the severity of ducted explosions is mainly driven by the vigorous secondary explosion occurring in the duct (burn-up) rather than by the duct flow resistance or acoustic enhancement. Moreover, it has been found out that the burn-up affects explosion severity due to the reduction of venting rate rather than to the burning rate enhancement through turbulization.

  12. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  13. Boundary element analysis of active mountain building and stress heterogeneity proximal to the 2015 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T. B.; Meade, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayas are the tallest mountains on Earth with ten peaks exceeding 8000 meters, including Mt. Everest. The geometrically complex fault system at the Himalayan Range Front produces both great relief and great earthquakes, like the recent Mw=7.8 Nepal rupture. Here, we develop geometrically accurate elastic boundary element models of the fault system at the Himalayan Range Front including the Main Central Thrust, South Tibetan Detachment, Main Frontal Thrust, Main Boundary Thrust, the basal detachment, and surface topography. Using these models, we constrain the tectonic driving forces and frictional fault strength required to explain Quaternary fault slip rate estimates. These models provide a characterization of the heterogeneity of internal stress in the region surrounding the 2015 Nepal earthquake.

  14. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ein-Soon; Seo, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Sun-Hee; Jang, Ji-Eun; Jung, Yu-Min; Kim, Min-Ji; Yeon, Ji-Yun

    2016-06-03

    Massage and aromatherapy massage are used to relieve cancer-related symptoms. A number of claims have been made for these treatments including reduction of pain, anxiety, depression, and stress. Other studies have not shown these benefits. To evaluate the effects of massage with or without aromatherapy on pain and other symptoms associated with cancer. We searched the following databases and trials registries up to August 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), PubMed Cancer Subset, SADCCT, and the World Health Organization (WHO) ICTRP. We also searched clinical trial registries for ongoing studies. Randomised controlled studies (RCTs) reporting the effects of aromatherapy or massage therapy, or both, in people with cancer of any age. We applied no language restrictions. Comparators were massage (using carrier oil only) versus no massage, massage with aromatherapy (using carrier oil plus essential oils) versus no massage, and massage with aromatherapy (using carrier oil plus essential oils) versus massage without aromatherapy (using carrier oil only). At least two review authors selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data relating to pain and other symptoms associated with cancer, using standardised forms. We assessed the evidence using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) and created two 'Summary of findings' tables. We included 19 studies (21 reports) of very low quality evidence with a total of 1274 participants. We included 14 studies (16 reports) in a qualitative synthesis and five studies in a quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). Thirteen studies (14 reports, 596 participants) compared massage with no massage. Six studies (seven reports, 561 participants) compared aromatherapy massage with no massage. Two studies (117 participants) compared massage with aromatherapy and massage without

  15. Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress basics Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the demands of life. ... some people's alarm systems rarely shut off. Stress management gives you a range of tools to reset ...

  16. Manage Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manage Stress Print This Topic En español Manage Stress Browse Sections The Basics Overview Signs and Health ... and Health Effects What are the signs of stress? When people are under stress, they may feel: ...

  17. Stress Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress incontinence Overview Urinary incontinence is the unintentional loss of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such ... coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related ...

  18. Labour analgesia with intrathecal fentanyl decreases maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, M; Pygon, B; Bernett, C; Ramanathan, S

    1997-06-01

    Lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA) decreases maternal stress as measured by maternal circulating plasma catecholamine concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) provides effective labour analgesia but its effect on maternal epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations is not known. This study assesses whether ITF reduces maternal stress in the same manner as conventional LEA. Twenty-four healthy women in active labour received either 25 micrograms ITF (n = 12) or epidural lidocaine 1.5% (n = 12) for analgesia. Venous blood samples were collected before anaesthesia and at five minute intervals for 30 min following anaesthesia for the measurement of plasma Epi and NE by high performance liquid chromatography. Maternal blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), visual analog scores (VAS) to pain and pruritus were recorded at the same time. Both ITF and LEA decreased pain VAS scores, maternal BP, and plasma Epi concentrations with only minimal effects on plasma NE concentrations. Intrathecal fentanyl (ITF) and LEA reduced plasma epi to a similar extent, with ITF reducing the levels slightly faster than LEA. Intrathecal fentanyl(ITF) and LEA reduced plasma Epi concentrations by 52% and 51%, respectively (P value < 0.01). We conclude that ITF is as effective as LEA in producing pain relief in the labouring patient. Intrathecal Fentanyl (ITF) is also capable of reducing maternal plasma epinephrine concentration, thus avoiding the possibly deleterious side effects of excess amounts of this catecholamine during labour.

  19. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappini, M.; Meloni, A.; Boschi, E.; Faggioni, O.; Beverini, N.; Carmisciano, C.; Marson, I.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the regional at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Calling's Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR) between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aero magnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible

  20. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

  1. Evaluating acute pain intensity relief: challenges when using an 11-point numerical rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauny, Jean-Marc; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Marquis, Martin; Daoust, Raoul

    2016-02-01

    Percentage of pain intensity difference (PercentPID) is a recognized way of evaluating pain relief with an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) but is not without flaws. A new metric, the slope of relative pain intensity difference (SlopePID), which consists in dividing PercentPID by the time between 2 pain measurements, is proposed. This study aims to validate SlopePID with 3 measures of subjective pain relief: a 5-category relief scale (not, a little, moderate, very, complete), a 2-category relief question ("I'm relieved," "I'm not relieved"), and a single-item question, "Wanting other medication to treat pain?" (Yes/No). This prospective cohort study included 361 patients in the emergency department who had an initial acute pain NRS > 3 and a pain intensity assessment within 90 minutes after analgesic administration. Mean age was 50.2 years (SD = 19.3) and 59% were women. Area under the curves of receiver operating characteristic curves analyses revealed similar discriminative power for PercentPID (0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-0.88) and SlopePID (0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86). Considering the "very" category from the 5-category relief scale as a substantial relief, the average cutoff for substantial relief was a decrease of 64% (95% CI, 59-69) for PercentPID and of 49% per hour (95% CI, 44-54) for SlopePID. However, when a cutoff criterion of 50% was used as a measure of pain relief for an individual patient, PercentPID underestimated pain-relieved patients by 12.1% (P pain intensity at baseline was an odd number compared with an even number (32.9% vs 45.0%, respectively). SlopePID should be used instead of PercentPID as a metric to evaluate acute pain relief on a 0 to 10 NRS.

  2. Hypnosis and Local Anesthesia for Dental Pain Relief-Alternative or Adjunct Therapy?-A Randomized, Clinical-Experimental Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Wolf, Dominik; Callaway, Angelika; Below, Dagna; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Willershausen, Brita; Daubländer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical crossover trial was designed to compare hypnosis and local anesthesia for experimental dental pain relief. Pain thresholds of the dental pulp were determined. A targeted standardized pain stimulus was applied and rated on the Visual Analogue Scale (0-10). The pain threshold was lower under hypnosis (58.3 ± 17.3, p local anesthesia. The pain stimulus was scored higher under hypnosis (3.9 ± 3.8) than with local anesthesia (0.0, p Local anesthesia was superior to hypnosis and is a safe and effective method for pain relief in dentistry. Hypnosis seems to produce similar effects observed under sedation. It can be used in addition to local anesthesia and in individual cases as an alternative for pain control in dentistry.

  3. 76 FR 6819 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ...' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties... or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil and gas marginal properties... September 13, 2004 (69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal onshore or...

  4. 30 CFR 204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for accounting and auditing relief? 204.207 Section 204.207 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.207 Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a) If there is not a State concerned for your marginal property, only MMS will decide...

  5. 77 FR 71448 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties... types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal onshore or Outer Continental Shelf lease production... auditing requirements. States make an annual determination of whether or not to allow relief. Two options...

  6. 75 FR 1654 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties... participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil and gas marginal properties located within the... the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), to provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for...

  7. Effects of fatigue-induced changes in microstructure and stress on domain structure and magnetic properties of Fe-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Tang, F.; Biner, S. B.; Jiles, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    A study of the effects of microstructural changes on domain structure and magnetic properties as a result of fatigue has been made on Fe-C alloys subjected to either cold work, stress-relief annealing, or heat treatment that produced a ferritic/pearlitic structure. The magnetic properties varied with stress cycling depending on the initial condition of the samples. Variations in coercivity in the initial stage of fatigue were closely related to the changes in dislocation structure. In the intermediate stage of fatigue the observed refinement of domain structures was related to the development of dislocation cell structures and formation of slip bands. In the final stage of fatigue the remanence and maximum permeability decreased dramatically, and this rate of decrease was dependent on the crack propagation rate. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Improving low-relief coastal LiDAR DEMs with hydro-conditioning of fine-scale and artificial drainages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Richard Allen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology and spatial analysis of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs have advanced the accuracy and diversity of applications for coastal hazards and natural resources management. This article presents a concise synthesis of LiDAR analysis for coastal flooding and management applications in low-relief coastal plains and a case study demonstration of a new, efficient drainage mapping algorithm. The impetus for these LiDAR applications follows historic flooding from Hurricane Floyd in 1999, after which the State of North Carolina and the Federal Emergency Management Agency undertook extensive LiDAR data acquisition and technological developments for high-resolution floodplain mapping. An efficient algorithm is outlined for hydro-conditioning bare earth LiDAR DEMs using available US Geological Survey National Hydrography Dataset canal and ditch vectors. The methodology is illustrated in Moyock, North Carolina, for refinement of hydro-conditioning by combines pre-existing bare earth DEMs with spatial analysis of LiDAR point clouds in segmented and buffered ditch and canal networks. The methodology produces improved maps of fine-scale drainage, reduced omission of areal flood inundation, and subwatershed delineations that typify heavily ditched and canalled drainage areas. These preliminary results illustrate the capability of the technique to improve the representation of ditches in DEMs as well as subsequent flow and inundation modeling that could spur further research on low-relief coastal LiDAR applications.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF MODERN CRUSTAL MOVEMENTS AND THE RECENTLY ACTIVATED PRECAMBRIAN STRUCTURAL PLAN ON THE RELIEF OF THE LAKE LADOGA REGION (THE SOUTHEASTERN BALTIC SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Agibalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of modern crustal movements and the recently activated Precambrian structural plan on the relief of theLakeLadogaregion. It presents the results of comprehensive studies, including processing of the regional geological and geomorphological data by the modern methods, as the major novelty of our work. The solutions of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest the current subhorizontal NW compression in the study area. Based on the computer simulation by the Roxar software, we have identified areas wherein new fractures are most likely to occur, determined the dominant directions of such fractures, and revealed the areas of intense vertical movements in the given stress state. The input database included a digital model of the relief and the spatial patterns of ancient faults represented by large-size inhomogeneities influencing the stress field. Strain values were estimated from the horizontal displacements recorded by the International GPS Service for Geodynamics (IGS and the GPS networks in theRepublicofKareliaand the southeastern regions ofFinland. Using the LESSA software, we have estima­ted the relief orientation characteristics: the density of lineaments, and elongation lines, which are indicative of the changes in the dominant directions of the strike of the lineaments (‘hatches’ in the study area. By interpreting the satellite images and the topographic maps (scale 1:20000, we reveal a number of geological structures, such as gra­nite-gneiss domes and large-size faults, which are directly reflected in the relief. The study results give grounds to establish an indirect relationship between the relief and the modern field of deformation: the areas with high strain values correspond to the areas with steep slopes. The computer simulation data show a NE-trending linear zone with the increased amplitudes of vertical movements. This zone occupies the region along the NW shoreLakeLadoga. In the block

  10. Elevation-relief ratio, hypsometric integral, and geomorphic area-altitude analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R. J.; Wilson, S. E.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical proof establishes identity of hypsometric integral and elevation-relief ratio, two quantitative topographic descriptors developed independently of one another for entirely different purposes. Operationally, values of both measures are in excellent agreement for arbitrarily bounded topographic samples, as well as for low-order fluvial watersheds. By using a point-sampling technique rather than planimetry, elevation-relief ratio (defined as mean elevation minus minimum elevation divided by relief) is calculated manually in about a third of the time required for the hypsometric integral.

  11. Non-destructive Assessment of Relief Marking Parameters of Heat Shrinkable Installation Parts for Aviation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratov Aleksandr P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains a new method of relief marking of heat-shrinkable tubing and sleeves made of polymer materials with “shape memory effect.” Method of instrument evaluation of relief marking stereometry of installation parts for aviation equipment, made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethyleneterephthalate and polystyrene was developed and the results were explained. Parameters of pin-point relief marking and compliance of point forms to the Braille font standard were determined with the use of the non-destructive method based on the color of interference pattern with precision of 0.02 mm.

  12. Examples, clarifications, and guidance on preparing requests for relief from pump and valve inservice testing requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, C.B.; Hartley, R.S.

    1996-02-01

    In this report, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory reviewers discuss related to requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers code requirements for inservice testing (IST) of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants. This report compiles information and examples that may be useful to licensees in developing relief requests submitted to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their consideration and provides insights and recommendations on related IST issues. The report also gives specific guidance on relief requests acceptable and not acceptable to the NRC and advises licensees in the use of this information for application at their facilities

  13. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years. New rock age dating techniques indicate that substantial erosion has probably occurred over that time period and that the landforms are not nearly that old, but landscape evolution certainly occurs much slower here (at least now) than is typical across Earth's surface. Regardless of their antiquity, the Davenport Ranges exhibit a striking landform pattern as shown in this display of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Quartzites and other erosion resistant strata form ridges within anticlinal (arched up) and synclinal (arched down) ovals and zigzags. These structures, if not the landforms, likely date back at least hundreds of millions of years, to a time when tectonic forces were active. Maximum local relief is only about 60 meters (about 200 feet), which is enough to contrast greatly with the extremely low relief surrounding terrain. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (image top to bottom) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  14. Animal-Assisted Stress Reduction Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Julie M.; Mueller, Megan Kiely

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of increasingly popular animal-assisted stress relief programs at higher education institutions across the United States. Although research on animal-assisted programs is increasing, there is still a lack of information documenting implementation of these programs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to…

  15. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Mats G

    2002-01-01

    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation.

  16. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  17. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to... SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.129 Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event is...

  18. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinak, M. Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

  19. Pharmacological interventions for pain relief during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Aoife B; Harrison, Jayne E; Worthington, Helen V; Teague, Annabel

    2017-11-28

    Pain is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. It increases in proportion to the amount of force applied to the teeth, and the type of orthodontic appliance used can affect the intensity of the pain. Pain during orthodontic treatment has been shown to be the most common reason for people wanting to discontinue treatment, and has been ranked as the worst aspect of treatment. Although pharmacological methods of pain relief have been investigated, there remains some uncertainty among orthodontists about which painkillers are most suitable and whether pre-emptive analgesia is beneficial. We conducted this Cochrane Review to assess and summarize the international evidence relating to the effectiveness of analgesics for preventing this unwanted side effect associated with orthodontic treatment. The objectives of this review are to determine:- the effectiveness of drug interventions for pain relief during orthodontic treatment; and- whether there is a difference in the analgesic effect provided by different types, forms and doses of analgesia taken during orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 19 June 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL;the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 7), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 19 June 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 19 June 2017) and CINAHL EBSCO (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1937 to 19 June 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched on the 19 June 2017 for ongoing studies. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) relating to pain control during orthodontic treatment. Pain could be measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS), numerical

  20. An influence of ion and sputtered atom flows inhomogeneity on time evolution of the target surface relief in glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, G G; Kristya, V I

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of ion and sputtered atom transport in the vicinity of the target with a periodical surface relief in glow discharge in pure gas is developed. Under the assumption that the relief amplitude is small, analytical expressions for their flows are found by the perturbation method and an equation describing the relief amplitude time evolution is derived. It is shown that intensity of sputtering exceeds intensity of sputtered material re-deposition at the relief tops, and relief smoothing always takes place in the process of homogeneous target treatment in glow discharge in pure gas